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1

A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand

Zhi-Ying Zhao; Zhi-Xin Yin; Xiao-Peng Xu; Shao-Ping Weng; Xia-Yu Rao; Zong-Xian Dai; Yong-Wen Luo; Gan Yang; Zong-Sheng Li; Hao-Ji Guan; Se-Dong Li; Siu-Ming Chan; Xiao-Qiang Yu; Jian-Guo He

2009-01-01

2

The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties  

SciTech Connect

The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-{delta}E-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-{delta}E virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-{delta}E virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm.

Lee, Changhee [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Yoo, Dongwan [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

2006-11-10

3

Discovery of drugs that possess activity against feline leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gammaretrovirus that is a significant cause of neoplastic-related disorders affecting cats worldwide. Treatment options for FeLV are limited, associated with serious side effects, and can be cost-prohibitive. The development of drugs used to treat a related retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has been rapid, leading to the approval of five drug classes. Although structural differences affect the susceptibility of gammaretroviruses to anti-HIV drugs, the similarities in mechanism of replication suggest that some anti-HIV-1 drugs may also inhibit FeLV. This study demonstrates the anti-FeLV activity of four drugs approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) at non-toxic concentrations. Of these, tenofovir and raltegravir are anti-HIV-1 drugs, while decitabine and gemcitabine are approved to treat myelodysplastic syndromes and pancreatic cancer, respectively, but also have anti-HIV-1 activity in cell culture. Our results indicate that these drugs may be useful for FeLV treatment and should be investigated for mechanism of action and suitability for veterinary use. PMID:22258856

Greggs, Willie M; Clouser, Christine L; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

2012-04-01

4

Vernet Syndrome by Varicella-Zoster Virus  

PubMed Central

Vernet syndrome involves the IX, X, and XI cranial nerves and is most often attributable to malignancy, aneurysm or skull base fracture. Although there have been several reports on Vernet's syndrome caused by fracture and inflammation, cases related to varicella-zoster virus are rare and have not yet been reported in South Korea. A 32-year-old man, who complained of left ear pain, hoarse voice and swallowing difficulty for 5 days, presented at the emergency room. He showed vesicular skin lesions on the left auricle. On neurologic examination, his uvula was deviated to the right side, and weakness was detected in his left shoulder. Left vocal cord palsy was noted on laryngoscopy. Antibody levels to varicella-zoster virus were elevated in the serum. Electrodiagnostic studies showed findings compatible with left spinal accessory neuropathy. Based on these findings, he was diagnosed with Vernet syndrome, involving left cranial nerves, attributable to varicella-zoster virus. PMID:23869347

Jo, Yil Ryun; Chung, Chin Wook; Lee, Jung Soo

2013-01-01

5

Avian and human influenza a virus strains possess different intracellular nucleoprotein oligomerization efficiency.  

PubMed

We have previously shown (Prokudina-Kantorovich EN and Semenova NP, Virology 223, 51-56, 1996) that the nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A virus forms in infected cells oligomers which in the presence of SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) as reducing agent are stable at room temperature (RT) and dissociate at 100 degrees C. Here we report that the efficiency of intracellular NP oligomerization depends on the host origin of influenza A virus strain. Thus, in the cells infected with avian influenza A virus strains the viral NP was almost completely oligomerized and only traces of monomeric NP were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in unboiled samples. However, in the cells infected with human influenza A virus strains, besides oligomeric NP also a significant amount of non-oligomerized monomeric NP was detected in unboiled samples. In purified virions of avian and human strains the same difference in NP monomers/oligomers ratio was detected as in the infected cells. A reassortant having all internal protein genes from a human strain and the glycoprotein genes from an avian strain revealed the same intracellular pattern of NP monomers/oligomers ratio as its parental human virus. These findings suggest that the type of NP oligomerization is controlled by the NP gene. The possible connection between the accumulation of protease-sensitive monomeric NP in cells infected with a human influenza strain and the parallel accumulation of cleaved NP in these cells is discussed. PMID:11885926

Prokudina, E N; Semenova, N P; Rudneva, I A; Chumakov, V M; Yamnikova, S S

2001-01-01

6

Novel rod-shaped viruses isolated from garlic, Allium sativum, possessing a unique genome organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rod-shaped flexuous viruses were partially purified from garlic plants (Allium sativum) showing typical mosaic symptoms. The genome was shown to be composed of RNA with a poly(A) tail of an estimated size of 10 kb as shown by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. We constructed cDNA libraries and screened four inde- pendent clones, which were designated GV-A, GV-B, GV-C and GV-D,

Shin-ichiro Sumi; Tadamitsu Tsuneyoshi; Hiroaki Furutani

1993-01-01

7

High prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To determine the type of herpes simplex virus in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus.METHODS:Herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were examined by polymerase chain reaction in intraocular specimens from 16 patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Anti–herpes simplex virus type 1 and anti–herpes simplex virus type

Norihiko Itoh; Nozomi Matsumura; Akiko Ogi; Tadayuki Nishide; Yumi Imai; Hikaru Kanai; Shigeaki Ohno

2000-01-01

8

Frozen Commodity Shrimp: Potential Avenue for Introduction of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Yellow Head Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1992, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) have caused mortalities in cultured shrimp throughout Asia. By 1995, WSSV was detected in Texas and South Carolina, and the virus has also been recently reported in Central and South America (Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador). The importation of live infected shrimp is the principal

S. V. Durand; K. F. J. Tang; D. V. Lightner

2000-01-01

9

Shrimp Taura syndrome virus: genomic characterization and similarity with members of the genus Cricket paralysis-like viruses.  

PubMed

The single-stranded genomic RNA of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is 10205 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3' poly(A) tail, and contains two large open reading frames (ORFs) that are separated by an intergenic region of 207 nucleotides. The ORFs are flanked by a 377 nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 226 nucleotide 3' UTR followed by a poly(A) tail. The predicted amino acid sequence of ORF1 revealed sequence motifs characteristic of a helicase, a protease and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, similar to the non-structural proteins of several plant and animal RNA viruses. In addition, a short amino acid sequence located in the N-terminal region of ORF1 presented a significant similarity with a baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domain of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins from double-stranded DNA viruses and from animals. The presence of this BIR-like sequence is the first reported in a single-stranded RNA virus, but its function is unknown. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of three TSV capsid proteins (55, 40 and 24 kDa) were mapped in ORF2, which is not in the same reading frame as ORF1 and possesses an AUG codon upstream of the structural genes. However, the intergenic region shows nucleotide sequence similarity with those of the genus Cricket paralysis-like viruses, suggesting a similar non-AUG-mediated translation mechanism. The structure of the TSV genome [5' UTR-non-structural proteins-intergenic UTR-structural proteins-3' UTR-poly(A) tail] is similar to those of small insect-infecting RNA viruses, which were recently regrouped into a new virus genus, Cricket paralysis-like viruses. PMID:11907342

Mari, Jocelyne; Poulos, Bonnie T; Lightner, Donald V; Bonami, Jean-Robert

2002-04-01

10

Aminoterminal Amphipathic ?-Helix AH1 of Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 4B Possesses a Dual Role in RNA Replication and Virus Production  

PubMed Central

Nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a key organizer of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex formation. In concert with other nonstructural proteins, it induces a specific membrane rearrangement, designated as membranous web, which serves as a scaffold for the HCV replicase. The N-terminal part of NS4B comprises a predicted and a structurally resolved amphipathic ?-helix, designated as AH1 and AH2, respectively. Here, we report a detailed structure-function analysis of NS4B AH1. Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance structural analyses revealed that AH1 folds into an amphipathic ?-helix extending from NS4B amino acid 4 to 32, with positively charged residues flanking the helix. These residues are conserved among hepaciviruses. Mutagenesis and selection of pseudorevertants revealed an important role of these residues in RNA replication by affecting the biogenesis of double-membrane vesicles making up the membranous web. Moreover, alanine substitution of conserved acidic residues on the hydrophilic side of the helix reduced infectivity without significantly affecting RNA replication, indicating that AH1 is also involved in virus production. Selective membrane permeabilization and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of a functional replicon harboring an epitope tag between NS4B AH1 and AH2 revealed a dual membrane topology of the N-terminal part of NS4B during HCV RNA replication. Luminal translocation was unaffected by the mutations introduced into AH1, but was abrogated by mutations introduced into AH2. In conclusion, our study reports the three-dimensional structure of AH1 from HCV NS4B, and highlights the importance of positively charged amino acid residues flanking this amphipathic ?-helix in membranous web formation and RNA replication. In addition, we demonstrate that AH1 possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production, potentially governed by different topologies of the N-terminal part of NS4B. PMID:25392992

Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Montserret, Roland; Paul, David; Castillo, Rosa; Meister, Simon; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Moradpour, Darius

2014-01-01

11

APOSTROPHES Possessives  

E-print Network

's mother was worried. The mother of the children... Joint possession My aunt and uncle's house (Same thingAPOSTROPHES Possessives · Singular add 's · Plural ending in -s add ' · Plural nouns not ending theory's influence has been enormous. The influence of his theory... My mother-in-law's recipe

deYoung, Brad

12

Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus  

PubMed Central

During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

2014-01-01

13

Feline Urological Syndrome: is a virus responsible for the disease?  

E-print Network

FELINE UROLOGICAL SYNDRDNE: IS A VIRUS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DISEASE' ? A Thesis by Cynthia Louise Swenson Subni ted to the Graduate College of Texas ASH University in par tiel r equir ements for the deqree of HA TER OF SCIENCE December 1884... Iiajor Subject: Veterinary Nicrobioloqy FELINE UROLOGICAL SYNDROME: IS A VIRUS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DISEASE? A Thesis by CYNTHIA LOUISE SWANSON Approved as to style and content by: / (C Dr. S aaart McConnell (Chairman of Comittee) r, . John...

Swansn, Cynthia Louise

2012-06-07

14

New York 1 and Sin Nombre Viruses Are Serotypically Distinct Viruses Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

New York 1 virus (NY-1) and Sin Nombre virus (SN) are associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). NY-1 and SN are derived from unique mammalian hosts and geographic locations but have similar G1 and G2 surface proteins (93 and 97% identical, respectively). Focus reduction neutralization assays were used to define the serotypic relationship between NY-1 and SN. Sera from NY-1-positive

IRINA GAVRILOVSKAYA; RACHEL LAMONICA; MARY-ELLEN FAY; BRIAN HJELLE; CONNIE SCHMALJOHN; ROBERT SHAW; ERICH R. MACKOW

15

White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern  

PubMed Central

Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies. PMID:20181325

Sanchez-Paz, Arturo

2010-01-01

16

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome associated with Monongahela virus, Pennsylvania.  

PubMed Central

The first two recognized cases of rapidly fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Pennsylvania occurred within an 8-month period in 1997. Illness in the two patients was confirmed by immunohistochemical techniques on autopsy material. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of tissue from one patient and environmentally associated Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) identified the Monongahela virus variant. Physicians should be vigilant for such Monongahela virus-associated cases in the eastern United States and Canada, particularly in the Appalachian region. PMID:11076720

Rhodes, L. V.; Huang, C.; Sanchez, A. J.; Nichol, S. T.; Zaki, S. R.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Humphreys, J. G.; Freeman, J. J.; Knecht, K. R.

2000-01-01

17

Tolerance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of Macrobrachium idella, M. lamerrae and M. rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by immersion challenge, oral route and intramuscular injection. Their susceptibility to WSSV was compared with that of Penaeus indicus and P. monodon. The WSSV caused 43.3% and 53.3% mortality in M. lamerrae and M. idella, respectively, by immersion method and 53.3% and

A. S Sahul Hameed; M. Xavier Charles; M Anilkumar

2000-01-01

18

Sudden infant death syndrome and Ljungan virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ljungan virus (LV) has recently been associated with perinatal death in its natural rodent reservoir and also with developmental\\u000a disorders of reproduction in laboratory mice. A strong epidemiological association has been found between small rodent abundance\\u000a in Sweden and the incidence of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) in humans. LV antigen has been detected in half of the IUFD\\u000a cases tested.

Bo Niklasson; Petra Råsten Almqvist; Birger Hörnfeldt; William Klitz

2009-01-01

19

White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

2014-09-01

20

Molecular epidemiological investigation of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and Taura syndrome virus in Penaeus Vannamei cultured in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) are two important shrimp\\u000a viruses in cultured shrimp in America. These two viruses were transmitted to China at the beginning of the 21st century. In this study, 214 shrimp samples of Penaeus vannamei were collected from seven different areas of China and tested by PCR for IHHNV

Cong Zhang; Jun-fa Yuan; Zheng-li Shi

2007-01-01

21

Andes Virus and First Case Report of Bermejo Virus Causing Fatal Pulmonary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Two suspected hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases from Bolivia were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ELISA)-ANDES was performed using N-Andes recombinant antigen serology in May and July 2000. Clot RNAs from the two patients were subjected to reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. We describe two characterized cases of HPS. One was caused by infection with Bermejo virus and the other with Andes Nort viral lineage, both previously obtained from Oligoryzomys species. This is the first report of molecular identification of a human hantavirus associated with Bermejo virus. PMID:11971782

Della Valle, Marcelo Gonzalez; Alai, Maria Garcia; Cortada, Pedro; Villagra, Mario; Gianella, Alberto

2002-01-01

22

A plant extract of Ribes nigrum folium possesses anti-influenza virus activity in vitro and in vivo by preventing virus entry to host cells.  

PubMed

Infections with influenza A viruses (IAV) are still amongst the major causes of highly contagious severe respiratory diseases not only bearing a devastating effect to human health, but also significantly impact the economy. Besides vaccination that represents the best option to protect from IAV infections, only two classes of anti-influenza drugs, inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and the neuraminidase, often causing resistant IAV variants have been approved. That is why the need for effective and amply available antivirals against IAV is of high priority. Here we introduce LADANIA067 from the leaves of the wild black currant (Ribes nigrum folium) as a potent compound against IAV infections in vitro and in vivo. LADANIA067 treatment resulted in a reduction of progeny virus titers in cell cultures infected with prototype avian and human influenza virus strains of different subtypes. At the effective dose of 100 µg/ml the extract did not exhibit apparent harming effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation. Further, viruses showed no tendency to develop resistance to LADANIA067 when compared to amantadine that resulted in the generation of resistant variants after only a few passages. On a molecular basis the protective effect of LADANIA067 appears to be mainly due to interference with virus internalisation. In the mouse infection model LADANIA067 treatment reduces progeny virus titers in the lung upon intranasal application. In conclusion, an extract from the leaves of the wild black currant might be a promising source for the development of new antiviral compounds to fight IAV infections. PMID:23717460

Ehrhardt, Christina; Dudek, Sabine Eva; Holzberg, Magdalena; Urban, Sabine; Hrincius, Eike Roman; Haasbach, Emanuel; Seyer, Roman; Lapuse, Julia; Planz, Oliver; Ludwig, Stephan

2013-01-01

23

A Plant Extract of Ribes nigrum folium Possesses Anti-Influenza Virus Activity In Vitro and In Vivo by Preventing Virus Entry to Host Cells  

PubMed Central

Infections with influenza A viruses (IAV) are still amongst the major causes of highly contagious severe respiratory diseases not only bearing a devastating effect to human health, but also significantly impact the economy. Besides vaccination that represents the best option to protect from IAV infections, only two classes of anti-influenza drugs, inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and the neuraminidase, often causing resistant IAV variants have been approved. That is why the need for effective and amply available antivirals against IAV is of high priority. Here we introduce LADANIA067 from the leaves of the wild black currant (Ribes nigrum folium) as a potent compound against IAV infections in vitro and in vivo. LADANIA067 treatment resulted in a reduction of progeny virus titers in cell cultures infected with prototype avian and human influenza virus strains of different subtypes. At the effective dose of 100 µg/ml the extract did not exhibit apparent harming effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation. Further, viruses showed no tendency to develop resistance to LADANIA067 when compared to amantadine that resulted in the generation of resistant variants after only a few passages. On a molecular basis the protective effect of LADANIA067 appears to be mainly due to interference with virus internalisation. In the mouse infection model LADANIA067 treatment reduces progeny virus titers in the lung upon intranasal application. In conclusion, an extract from the leaves of the wild black currant might be a promising source for the development of new antiviral compounds to fight IAV infections. PMID:23717460

Ehrhardt, Christina; Dudek, Sabine Eva; Holzberg, Magdalena; Urban, Sabine; Hrincius, Eike Roman; Haasbach, Emanuel; Seyer, Roman; Lapuse, Julia; Planz, Oliver; Ludwig, Stephan

2013-01-01

24

Guillain-Barre syndrome presenting with sensory disturbance following a herpes virus infection: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We present a case of an unusual clinical manifestation of Guillain-Barre syndrome following a pre-existing herpes virus infection. Although there have been several reports describing the co-existence of herpes virus infection and Guillain-Barre syndrome, we undertook a more in-depth study of the cross-reactivity between herpes viruses and recommend a follow-up study based on serology tests. Case presentation A 39-year-old healthy Caucasian man with Guillain-Barre syndrome presented to our facility initially with sensory disturbance, followed by an atypical descending pattern of clinical progression. On physical examination, our patient showed hot and cold temperature sensory disturbance under the T4 vertebrae level, symmetrically diminished muscle power mainly to his lower limbs, blurred vision, a loss of taste and paresis and diminished reflexes of his lower limbs. Serology test results for common viruses on hospital admission were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M, and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and negative for varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At one month after hospital admission his test results were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G, varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M and negative for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At his six month follow-up, tests were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G and negative for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. Conclusions The clinical manifestation of Guillain-Barre syndrome in our patient followed a combined herpes virus infection. The cross-reactivity between these human herpes viruses may have a pathogenic as well as evolutionary significance. Our patient showed seroconversion at an early stage of Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M to immunoglobulin G antibodies, suggesting that Epstein-Barr virus might have been the cause of this syndrome. Even if this case is not the first of its kind to be reported, it may contribute to a better understanding of the disease and the cross-reaction mechanisms of herpes virus infections. This case report may have a broader clinical impact across more than one area of medicine, suggesting that cooperation between different specialties is always in the patient's best interest. PMID:22136568

2011-01-01

25

Herpes simplex virus specific antibody determined by immunoblotting in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with the Guillain-Barr? syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The Guillain-Barré syndrome is often preceded by a herpes virus infection. Herpes simplex virus, however, has rarely been observed as the causative agent. A patient is described with a herpes simplex virus infection followed by a Guillain-Barré syndrome. Immunoblotting was used to detect herpes simplex virus-specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Images PMID:2545828

Bernsen, H J; Van Loon, A M; Poels, R F; Verhagen, W I; Frenken, C W

1989-01-01

26

Viruses associated with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) of fish in south-east Asia  

E-print Network

Viruses associated with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) of fish in south-east Asia GN with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in the past decade. The heterogeneous nature of these isolates, together. birnavirus / réovirus / rhabdovirus lAsie / SUE l poisson INTRODUCTION Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and JC virus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 93 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients autopsied between 1983 and 1986, 27 had evidence of viral encephalitis of which 3 had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), confirmed by electron microscopy. Using in situ hybridization with biotinylated JC virus probes, paraffin sections from the brains of these 27 patients were examined. JC virus was found only in those patients

C. A. Wiley; M. Grafe; C. Kennedy; J. A. Nelson

1988-01-01

28

Can we find a solution to the human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immune deficiency syndrome controversy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time of re-evaluation of the role of human immunodeficiency viruses in the pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome has now come, now that methods are available for the direct detection of human immunodeficiency viruses and for the detection of cellular anti-human immunodeficiency virus immune reactions. It has been shown that human immunodeficiency virus infections are common among anti-human immunodeficiency

A. Hässig; L. Wen-Xi; K. Stampfli

1996-01-01

29

No association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus with prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background The involvement of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is disputed as its reported prevalence ranges from 0% to 25% in PC cases and from 0% to more than 80% in CFS cases. To evaluate the risk of XMRV infection during blood transfusion in Japan, we screened three populations--healthy donors (n = 500), patients with PC (n = 67), and patients with CFS (n = 100)--for antibodies against XMRV proteins in freshly collected blood samples. We also examined blood samples of viral antibody-positive patients with PC and all (both antibody-positive and antibody-negative) patients with CFS for XMRV DNA. Results Antibody screening by immunoblot analysis showed that a fraction of the cases (1.6-3.0%) possessed anti-Gag antibodies regardless of their gender or disease condition. Most of these antibodies were highly specific to XMRV Gag capsid protein, but none of the individuals in the three tested populations retained strong antibody responses to multiple XMRV proteins. In the viral antibody-positive PC patients, we occasionally detected XMRV genes in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells but failed to isolate an infectious or full-length XMRV. Further, all CFS patients tested negative for XMRV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Our data show no solid evidence of XMRV infection in any of the three populations tested, implying that there is no association between the onset of PC or CFS and XMRV infection in Japan. However, the lack of adequate human specimens as a positive control in Ab screening and the limited sample size do not allow us to draw a firm conclusion. PMID:21414229

2011-01-01

30

Dual infections of feeder pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus followed by porcine respiratory coronavirus or swine influenza virus: a clinical and virological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual infections of pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) followed by a second common respiratory virus, either porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) or swine influenza virus (SIV), were studied. The aim was to determine if dual infections, as compared to single virus infections, result in enhanced clinical manifestations. It was also examined if PRRSV replication affects replication of

Kristien Van Reeth; Hans Nauwynck; Maurice Pensaert

1996-01-01

31

Characterization of a virus associated with head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLE) in marine angelfish  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZATION OF A VIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAD AND LATERAL LINE EROSION SYNDROME (HLLE) IN MARINE ANGELFISH A Thesis by PATRICIA WILCOX VARNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major subject: Veterinary Microbiology CHARACTERIZATION OF A VIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAD AND LATERAL LINE EROSION SYNDROME (HLLE) IN MARINE ANGELFISH A Thesis by PATRICIA WILCOX VARNER...

Varner, Patricia Wilcox

2012-06-07

32

New York 1 and Sin Nombre Viruses Are Serotypically Distinct Viruses Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

New York 1 virus (NY-1) and Sin Nombre virus (SN) are associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). NY-1 and SN are derived from unique mammalian hosts and geographic locations but have similar G1 and G2 surface proteins (93 and 97% identical, respectively). Focus reduction neutralization assays were used to define the serotypic relationship between NY-1 and SN. Sera from NY-1-positive Peromyscus leucopus neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of ?1/3,200 and ?1/400, respectively (n = 12). Conversely, SN-specific rodent sera neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of <1/400 and 1/6,400, respectively (n = 13). Acute-phase serum from a New York HPS patient neutralized NY-1 (1/640) but not SN (<1/20), while sera from HPS patients from the southwestern United States had 4- to >16-fold-lower neutralizing titers to NY-1 than to SN. Reference sera to Hantaan, Seoul, and Prospect Hill viruses also failed to neutralize NY-1. These results indicate that SN and NY-1 define unique hantavirus serotypes and implicate the presence of additional HPS-associated hantavirus serotypes in the Americas. PMID:9854075

Gavrilovskaya, Irina; LaMonica, Rachel; Fay, Mary-Ellen; Hjelle, Brian; Schmaljohn, Connie; Shaw, Robert; Mackow, Erich R.

1999-01-01

33

A phage-displayed peptide can inhibit infection by white spot syndrome virus of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot disease, caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), results in devastating losses to the shrimp farming industry around the world, and no effective treatments have been found. Control focuses on exclusion of the virus from culture ponds but, once introduced, spread is often rapid and uncontrollable. The purpose of this study was to select a phage-displayed peptide that

Guohua Yi; Juan Qian; Zhiming Wang; Yipeng Qi

2003-01-01

34

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks Collected from Humans, South Korea, 2013  

PubMed Central

We investigated the infection rate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) among ticks collected from humans during May–October 2013 in South Korea. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors. PMID:25061851

Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Ryou, Jungsang; Yang, Sung-Chan; Park, Sun-Whan; Roh, Jong Yeol; Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Chan

2014-01-01

35

No association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus with prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The involvement of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome\\u000a (CFS) is disputed as its reported prevalence ranges from 0% to 25% in PC cases and from 0% to more than 80% in CFS cases.\\u000a To evaluate the risk of XMRV infection during blood transfusion in Japan, we screened three populations--healthy donors (n

Rika A Furuta; Takayuki Miyazawa; Takeki Sugiyama; Hirohiko Kuratsune; Yasuhiro Ikeda; Eiji Sato; Naoko Misawa; Yasuhito Nakatomi; Ryuta Sakuma; Kazuta Yasui; Kouzi Yamaguti; Fumiya Hirayama

2011-01-01

36

A novel genotype H9N2 influenza virus possessing human H5N1 internal genomes has been circulating in poultry in eastern China since 1998.  

PubMed

Many novel reassortant influenza viruses of the H9N2 genotype have emerged in aquatic birds in southern China since their initial isolation in this region in 1994. However, the genesis and evolution of H9N2 viruses in poultry in eastern China have not been investigated systematically. In the current study, H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from poultry in eastern China during the past 10 years were characterized genetically and antigenically. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these H9N2 viruses have undergone extensive reassortment to generate multiple novel genotypes, including four genotypes (J, F, K, and L) that have never been recognized before. The major H9N2 influenza viruses represented by A/Chicken/Beijing/1/1994 (Ck/BJ/1/94)-like viruses circulating in poultry in eastern China before 1998 have been gradually replaced by A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (Ck/SH/F/98)-like viruses, which have a genotype different from that of viruses isolated in southern China. The similarity of the internal genes of these H9N2 viruses to those of the H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from 2001 onwards suggests that the Ck/SH/F/98-like virus may have been the donor of internal genes of human and poultry H5N1 influenza viruses circulating in Eurasia. Experimental studies showed that some of these H9N2 viruses could be efficiently transmitted by the respiratory tract in chicken flocks. Our study provides new insight into the genesis and evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses and supports the notion that some of these viruses may have been the donors of internal genes found in H5N1 viruses. PMID:19553328

Zhang, Pinghu; Tang, Yinghua; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Hongqi; Peng, Daxin; Gao, Song; Wu, Yantao; Zhang, Luyong; Lu, Shan; Liu, Xiufan

2009-09-01

37

Quantitative assay for measuring the Taura syndrome virus and yellow head virus load in shrimp by real-time RT-PCR using SYBR Green chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the two RNA viruses infecting penaeid shrimp (Penaeus sp.) that have caused major economic losses to shrimp aquaculture. A rapid and highly sensitive detection and quantification method for TSV and YHV was developed using the GeneAmp® 5700 Sequence Detection System and SYBR Green chemistry. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

Arun K. Dhar; Michelle M. Roux; Kurt R. Klimpel

2002-01-01

38

Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in mid-gestation sows and fetuses.  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate whether porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus was able to cross the placenta and infect midgestation fetuses following intranasal inoculation of sows and whether PRRS virus directly infected fetuses following in utero inoculation. In experiment 1, eight sows between 45 and 50 days of gestation were intranasally inoculated with PRRS virus (ATCC VR-2332), and four control sows were inoculated with uninfected cell culture lysate. Virus inoculated sows were viremic on postinoculation (PI) days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, shed virus in their feces and nasal secretions, and became leukopenic. Sixty-nine of 71 fetuses from principal sows euthanized on PI day 7, 14 or 21 were alive at necropsy and no virus was isolated from any of the fetuses. Two principal sows that farrowed 65 and 67 days PI delivered 25 live piglets and three stillborn fetuses. The PRRS virus was isolated from two live piglets in one litter. In experiment 2, laparotomies were performed on five sows between 40 and 45 days of gestation and fetuses were inoculated in utero with either PRRS virus alone, PRRS virus plus a swine serum containing PRRS antibodies, or uninfected cell culture lysate. Three sows were euthanized on PI day 4 and two sows on PI day 11. Viral replication occurred in fetuses inoculated with virus alone and was enhanced in fetuses inoculated with virus plus antibody. No virus was isolated from control fetuses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8269364

Christianson, W T; Choi, C S; Collins, J E; Molitor, T W; Morrison, R B; Joo, H S

1993-01-01

39

The Work Of Possession(s)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are delighted to introduce these papers under the rubric of ‘The Work of Possessions’, which names a fault line where two tectonic plates of twenty-first-century thought collide. Identifying two major meanings for the word possession in the English language—on the one hand an owned, held or otherwise controlled item, and on the other hand the overcoming of a person

Paul Christopher Johnson; Mary Keller

2006-01-01

40

Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome--case report, French Polynesia, December 2013.  

PubMed

Zika fever, considered as an emerging disease of arboviral origin, because of its expanding geographic area, is known as a benign infection usually presenting as an influenza-like illness with cutaneous rash. So far, Zika virus infection has never led to hospitalisation. We describe the first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) occurring immediately after a Zika virus infection, during the current Zika and type 1 and 3 dengue fever co-epidemics in French Polynesia. PMID:24626205

Oehler, E; Watrin, L; Larre, P; Leparc-Goffart, I; Lastere, S; Valour, F; Baudouin, L; Mallet, Hp; Musso, D; Ghawche, F

2014-01-01

41

XMRV and related viruses not confirmed in blood of healthy donors or chronic fatigue syndrome patients  

Cancer.gov

A study supported by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services could not validate or confirm previous research findings that suggested the presence of one of several viruses in blood samples of people living with chronic fatigue syndrome. The new study also could not find the viruses in blood samples of healthy donors who were previously known to not have XMRV. The new findings suggest earlier results may have resulted from laboratory error, either contamination or false positive test results.

42

Complete Genome Sequence of European Genotype Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain LNEU12 in Northern China  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of a European genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated from swine in northern China in 2012. Genome alignment revealed that the virus (LNEU12) strain shares 90.1% nucleotide identity with the European prototype Lelystad virus. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of LNEU12. PMID:25301644

Gao, Shenyang; Zhou, Tiezhong; Liu, Xiaogang; Lu, He; Feng, Fangzhou

2014-01-01

43

Stability of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus in the presence of fomites commonly found on farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was determined in or on 16 fomites (3 solid, 6 porous, and 7 liquid). Samples for virus isolation were obtained on day-0 through day 11, assayed in cell cultures, and stained with fluorescent antibody conjugate. The virus was recovered only on day-0 samples of alfalfa, wood shavings, straw, plastic, boot

Eugene C. Pirtle; George W. Beran

44

Chimeric influenza-virus-like particles containing the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 protein and the influenza virus HA and M1 proteins.  

PubMed

Both porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and swine influenza are acute, highly contagious swine diseases. These diseases pose severe threats for the swine industry and cause heavy economic losses worldwide. In this study, we have developed a chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and H3N2 influenza virus and investigated its immunogenicity in mice. The HA and M1 proteins from the H3N2 influenza virus and the PRRSV GP5 protein fused to the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the NA protein were both incorporated into the chimeric VLPs. Analysis of the immune responses showed that the chimeric VLPs elicited serum antibodies specific for both PRRSV GP5 and the H3N2 HA protein, and they stimulated cellular immune responses compared to the responses to equivalent amounts of inactivated viruses. Taken together, the results suggested that the chimeric VLP vaccine represents a potential strategy for the development of a safe and effective vaccine to control PRRSV and H3N2 influenza virus. PMID:25064513

Xue, Chunyi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Qiliang; Miao, Zhongwei; Liu, Kang; Shen, Huifang; Lv, Lishan; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiaochun; Cao, Yongchang

2014-11-01

45

A phage-displayed peptide can inhibit infection by white spot syndrome virus of shrimp.  

PubMed

White spot disease, caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), results in devastating losses to the shrimp farming industry around the world, and no effective treatments have been found. Control focuses on exclusion of the virus from culture ponds but, once introduced, spread is often rapid and uncontrollable. The purpose of this study was to select a phage-displayed peptide that might be able to prevent WSSV infection. A 10-mer phage display peptide library (titre 7.2 x 10(7)) was constructed and screened against immobilized WSSV. Selected peptides were assessed for specificity and efficiency of inhibition of virus infection. Of four peptides that specifically bound to WSSV one, designated 2E6, had a high specificity and blocked virus infection, with the possible critical motif for virus inhibition being VAVNNSY. The results suggest that peptide 2E6 has potential for exploitation as an antiviral peptide drug. PMID:12917476

Yi, Guohua; Qian, Juan; Wang, Zhiming; Qi, Yipeng

2003-09-01

46

Possessive Pronouns Possessive Pronouns [vivumishi vimilikishi  

E-print Network

. [His/her name is Don.] 4. Jina lako ni nani mama/mwalimu? [What is your name, mom/teacher?] #12;[singular] Wingi[plural] ­AKO[your] ­ENU[your(pl.)] Mifano: Kalamuyako [Yourpen] Kalamuyenu [Your(pl.) pen] Kalamuzako [Yourpens] Kalamuzenu [Your(pl.) pens] C). Third Person Possessive Umoja[singular] Wingi

47

Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome: Virological and Immunopathological Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a disorder characterized by a benign. generalized histio- cytic proliferation. with marked hemophagocytosis asso- ciated with systemic viral infections. We have studied the virological and immunopathological events occurring in two children experiencing Epstein-Barr VAHS. Neither of the patients had an underlying immunodeficiency and both recovered from their disease and are completely well one year

John L. Sullivan; Bruce A. Woda; Henry G. Herrod; Gerald Koh; Fred P. RiVara; Carel Mulder

1985-01-01

48

The efficacy of recombinant vaccines against white spot syndrome virus in Procambarus clarkii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of oral, mock-, and immersion vaccination was investigated against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in crayfish. The most exposed WSSV envelope proteins VP19 and VP28 were used in different compositions and with different modes of applications. In experiment 1 crayfish were fed recombinant protein coated food pellets for 25 days, in experiment 2 the purified proteins were directly

Rajeev Kumar Jha; Zi Rong Xu; Jian Shen; Shi Juan Bai; Jian Yu Sun; Wei Fen Li

2006-01-01

49

Sjögren's syndrome, hepatitis C virus and B-Cell lymphoproliferation. Common immunopathogenic mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a triple tropism: hepatotropism, lymphotropism and sialotropism. Patients with HCV chronic infec- tion present some extrahepatic manifestations that may mimic the cli- nical, immunologic and histological manifestations of primary Sjögrens syndrome (SS). HCV patients with sicca symptomatology and positi- ve autoantibodies could be misdiagnosed as «primary» SS. Neverthe- less, there are several clinical and

M. Ramos-Casals; M. García-Carrasco

50

Lipid of white-spot syndrome virus originating from host-cell nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generates its envelope in the nucleoplasm is based on electron microscopy observations; however, as yet there is no direct evidence for this. In the present study, the lipids of WSSV and the nuclei of its host, the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, were extracted and the neutral lipid and phospholipid contents were analysed by high-performance

Qing Zhou; Hui Li; Yi-Peng Qi; Feng Yang

2008-01-01

51

Association of Non-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-Defining Cancers With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were among the earliest recognized manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Excluding these two tumors, the overall risk of all other cancers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is similar to that of the general population. However, varying levels of evidence link several additional neoplasms to HIV infection. The evidence is strongest for

Charles S. Rabkin

52

A Case of Ramsay Hunt-Like Syndrome Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

PubMed Central

We report an immunocompetent patient with recurrent auricular and facial vesicles associated with painful paresthesias and facial paralysis, consistent with Ramsay Hunt syndrome [1], due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. Clinical and laboratory-proven acyclovir resistance developed during therapy. Immunologic assays revealed normal reactivity to HSV-2. PMID:15844081

Diaz, George A.; Rakita, Robert M.; Koelle, David M.

2005-01-01

53

Carbamazepine Hypersensitivity Syndrome Triggered by a Human Herpes Virus Reactivation in a Genetically Predisposed Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe hypersensitivity syndrome, triggered by carbamazepine in the presence of a concomitant active human herpes virus (HHV) 6 and 7 infection is described. To further understand the molecular mechanism of this adverse reaction, analyses of the genetic variants of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and of the epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX1), previously associated with carbamazepine hypersensitivity, were performed.

Lorenzo Calligaris; Gabriele Stocco; Sara De Iudicibus; Sara Marino; Giuliana Decorti; Egidio Barbi; Marco Carrozzi; Federico Marchetti; Fiora Bartoli; Alessandro Ventura

2009-01-01

54

Serologic and immunologic responses in chronic fatigue syndrome with emphasis on the Epstein-Barr virus.  

PubMed

Although patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) can be diagnosed by clinical criteria, the lack of specific laboratory criteria delays or prevents the diagnosis and contributes to the quasi-disease status of the syndrome. A resurgence of interest in the syndrome has followed reports suggesting that CFS may be associated with chronic active infection due to the Epstein-Barr virus. Analysis of reports to date shows that the mean titers of antibodies to viral capsid antigen and to early antigen are greater for patients with CFS than for healthy individuals; this is particularly evident in cases for which serial samples were tested. However, these differences do not prove the cause of CFS. Cell-mediated immune responses in patients with CFS vary from study to study, and the number and function of natural killer cells in those patients are the most variable factors. Rates of isolation of virus from saliva do not differ, but in one comparison study with a large number of subjects, more lymphocytes that contained virus were isolated from patients than from controls. Other viruses, such as the Coxsackie B virus, have been implicated as causes of CFS in studies from Great Britain. The use of a working definition of CFS and standardized tests to address abnormalities revealed by laboratory tests among homogeneous populations should allow determination of useful tests for the diagnosis of CFS and studies of its mechanisms. PMID:1850541

Jones, J F

1991-01-01

55

Lesson 45: Possessive Pronouns  

E-print Network

mama/mwalimu? [What is your name, mom/teacher?] Jina langu ni Joan. [My name is Joan.] #12;B possessive pronouns in Swahili: First person possessive (e.g. my, our) Second person possessive (e.g. your[Summary] 1stPersonSingular: ANGU[My] 1stPersonPlural: ETU[Our] 2ndPersonSingular: AKO[Your] 2nd

56

Arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

Virus-host interaction is important for virus infection. White spot syndrome virus VP14 contains transmembrane and signal peptides domain, which is considered to be important for virus infection. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP14 with host cell. A new shrimp protein (arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvAK) is selected and its localization in shrimp cells is also confirmed. Cellular localization of LvAK protein in shrimp hemocytes showed that LvAK was primarily located at the periphery of hemocytes and was scarcely detectable in the nucleus. Tissue distribution indicated that arginine kinase gene was spread commonly in the tissues and was highly present in shrimp muscle tissue. The expression of LvAK mRNA in muscle was significantly up-regulated after WSSV stimulation. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that LvAK interacted with VP14 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Injection of LvAK protein enhanced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These results showed that LvAK is involved in WSSV infection. Future research on this topic will help to reveal the molecular mechanism of WSSV infection. PMID:24486504

Ma, Fang-fang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guang-kuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

2014-04-10

57

The role of quail bronchitis virus as a possible precipitating factor in "air sac syndrome" of chickens  

E-print Network

THE ROLE OF QUAIL BRONCHITIS VIRUS AS A POSSIBLE PRECIPITATING FACTOR IN "AIR SAC SYNDROME" OF CHICKENS A Thesis By JERRY BOB PAYNE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partfal fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1965 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology THE ROLE OF QUAIL BRONCHITIS VIRUS AS A POSSIBLE PRECIPITATING FACTOR IN "AIR SAC SYNDROME" OF CHICKENS A Thesis By JERRY BOB PAYNE Approved as to style and dontent...

Payne, Jerry Bob

2012-06-07

58

Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with autochthonous infection by hepatitis E virus subgenotype 3c.  

PubMed

In this report, we present a case of a 50-year-old immunocompetent man with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) associated with an autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. The patient presented with tetraparesis and elevated liver enzymes. HEV infection was confirmed serologically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from blood and stool. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a novel HEV genotype 3 isolate closely related to other subgenotype 3c isolates from pig livers purchased in Germany. This indicates an autochthonous, potentially food-related hepatitis E and is, to our knowledge, the first report about a neurological syndrome associated with an HEV subgenotype 3c infection. PMID:23512540

Scharn, N; Ganzenmueller, T; Wenzel, J J; Dengler, R; Heim, A; Wegner, F

2014-02-01

59

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, South Korea, 2013  

PubMed Central

During 2013, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome was diagnosed in 35 persons in South Korea. Environmental temperature probably affected the monthly and regional distribution of case-patients within the country. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates from Korea were closely related to isolates from China and Japan. PMID:25341085

Park, Sun-Whan; Han, Myung-Guk; Yun, Seok-Min; Park, Chan; Lee, Won-Ja

2014-01-01

60

No Evidence for XMRV Nucleic Acids, Infectious Virus or Anti-XMRV Antibodies in Canadian Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gammaretroviruses xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) and MLV have been reported to be more prevalent in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients than in healthy controls. Here, we report the complex analysis of whole blood and plasma samples from 58 CFS patients and 57 controls from Canada for the presence of

Imke Steffen; D. Lorne Tyrrell; Eleanor Stein; Leilani Montalvo; Tzong-Hae Lee; Yanchen Zhou; Kai Lu; William M. Switzer; Shaohua Tang; Hongwei Jia; Darren Hockman; Deanna M. Santer; Michael Logan; Amir Landi; John Law; Michael Houghton; Graham Simmons

2011-01-01

61

Identification of an envelope protein (VP39) gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was purified from the tissues of experimentally infected crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) with high yield. Based on SDS-PAGE of purified WSSV and mass spectrometry analysis, a protein with the molecular mass of 39?kDa was identified to match an open reading frame (ORF), WSV339, of WSSV genome. This ORF was 849?bp in length, encoding a 283 amino

Y.-B. Zhu; H.-Y. Li; F. Yang

2006-01-01

62

Transcriptional profile of shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes with DNA microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  In an attempt to obtain the transcriptional profile of shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes, DNA microarray analysis\\u000a was performed using amplified DNA fragments of the WSSV genome that covered most of the presumptive open reading frames (ORFs).\\u000a Total RNAs were extracted from WSSV-infected crayfish (Cambarus clarkii) and reverse transcribed into cDNA and labeled with 32P-dATP. The DNA microarray

Y. Lan; X. Xu; F. Yang; X. Zhang

2006-01-01

63

Effect of VP28 DNA vaccine on white spot syndrome virus in Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the shrimp\\u000a farming industry. Considering the global environmental, the economic and sociological importance of shrimp farming, and the\\u000a constraints of high intensity cultivation, development of novel control measures against the outbreak of WSSV become inevitable.\\u000a In this study, we have explored the protective efficacy

Xiang Li; Qing-hui Liu; Lin Hou; Jie Huang

2010-01-01

64

The human immunodeficiency virus and nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome: a female case presentation.  

PubMed

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) generally is associated with tampon use among menstruating women. Descriptions from the early 1980's detailed this sudden, multisystem, frequently fatal disease. The bacterial agent, Staphylococcus aureus produced exotoxins, which were quickly identified as the cause of TSS as well as a host of other systemic, bacterial infections. While S. aureus has become one of the more common bacterial pathogens in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), staphylococcal toxin-related disorders rarely have been reported in individuals infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or individuals diagnosed with AIDS. To date all published cases of TSS attendant with HIV involved homosexual, hemophiliac, or drug injecting male patients. This report describes a woman infected with HIV and diagnosed with the classic array of symptoms found in toxic-shock syndrome, and provides information specific to women and their experience with HIV infection. PMID:8139806

Woods, S L; Jackson, B

1994-01-01

65

Peptide nanofiber hydrogel adjuvanted live virus vaccine enhances cross-protective immunity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is prevalent in swine farms worldwide and is a major source of economic loss and animal suffering. Rapid genetic variation of PRRSV makes it difficult for current vaccines to confer protection against newly emerging strains. We recently demonstrated that a novel peptide nanofiber hydrogel (H9e) could act as a potent adjuvant for killed H1N1 vaccines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate H9e as an adjuvant for PRRSV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines. Pigs were vaccinated with Ingelvac PRRSV MLV with or without H9e adjuvant before being challenged with the VR-2332 (parental vaccine strain) or MN184A (genetically diverse strain) PRRSV. Pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had higher levels of circulating vaccine virus. More importantly, pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had improved protection against challenge by both PRRSV strains, as demonstrated by reduced challenge-induced viremia compared with pigs vaccinated with MLV alone. Pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had lower frequency of T-regulatory cells and IL-10 production but higher frequency of Th/memory cells and IFN-? secretion than that in pigs vaccinated with MLV alone. Taken together, our studies suggest that the peptide nanofiber hydrogel H9e, when combined with the PRRSV MLV vaccine, can enhance vaccine efficacy against two different PRRSV strains by modulating both host humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:23933333

Li, Xiangdong; Galliher-Beckley, Amy; Huang, Hongzhou; Sun, Xiuzhi; Shi, Jishu

2013-01-01

66

A multicenter blinded analysis indicates no association between chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis and either xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus or polytropic murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

The disabling disorder known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been linked in two independent studies to infection with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV). Although the associations were not confirmed in subsequent studies by other investigators, patients continue to question the consensus of the scientific community in rejecting the validity of the association. Here we report blinded analysis of peripheral blood from a rigorously characterized, geographically diverse population of 147 patients with CFS/ME and 146 healthy subjects by the investigators describing the original association. This analysis reveals no evidence of either XMRV or pMLV infection. IMPORTANCE Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis has an estimated prevalence of 42/10,000 in the United States, with annual direct medical costs of $7 billion. Here, the original investigators who found XMRV and pMLV (polytropic murine leukemia virus) in blood of subjects with this disorder report that this association is not confirmed in a blinded analysis of samples from rigorously characterized subjects. The increasing frequency with which molecular methods are used for pathogen discovery poses new challenges to public health and support of science. It is imperative that strategies be developed to rapidly and coherently address discoveries so that they can be carried forward for translation to clinical medicine or abandoned to focus resource investment more productively. Our study provides a paradigm for pathogen dediscovery that may be helpful to others working in this field. PMID:22991430

Alter, Harvey J; Mikovits, Judy A; Switzer, William M; Ruscetti, Francis W; Lo, Shyh-Ching; Klimas, Nancy; Komaroff, Anthony L; Montoya, Jose G; Bateman, Lucinda; Levine, Susan; Peterson, Daniel; Levin, Bruce; Hanson, Maureen R; Genfi, Afia; Bhat, Meera; Zheng, HaoQiang; Wang, Richard; Li, Bingjie; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lee, Li Ling; Sameroff, Stephen; Heneine, Walid; Coffin, John; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W Ian

2012-01-01

67

Absence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in Italian patients affected by chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, or rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been recently linked to chronic fatigue syndrome in a US cohort in whom the virus was demonstrated in 67% patients vs 3.7% healthy controls. Albeit this finding was not substantiated by subsequent reports and eventually considered a laboratory contamination, the matter is still the object of intense debate and scrutiny in various cohorts of patients. In this work we examined well-clinically characterized Italian patients affected by chronic fatigue syndrome, and also fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis, two chronic illnesses of basically unknown etiology which show quite a few symptoms in common with chronic fatigue syndrome. Although we used recently updated procedures and controls, the XMRV was not found in 65 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome diagnosis, 55 with fibromyalgia, 25 with rheumatoid arthritis, nor in 25 healthy controls. These results add to the ever-growing number of surveys reporting the absence of XMRV in chronic fatigue syndrome patients and suggest that the virus is also absent in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22697086

Maggi, F; Bazzichi, L; Sernissi, F; Mazzetti, P; Lanini, L; Scarpellini, P; Consensi, A; Giacomelli, C; Macera, L; Vatteroni, M L; Bombardieri, S; Pistello, M

2012-01-01

68

Serologic and PCR testing of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome in the United States shows no association with xenotropic or polytropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009, a newly discovered human retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus (XMRV), was reported by\\u000a Lombardi et al. in 67% of persons from the US with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) by PCR detection of gag sequences. Although six subsequent studies have been negative for XMRV, CFS was defined more broadly using only the CDC or\\u000a Oxford criteria and

Brent C Satterfield; Rebecca A Garcia; Hongwei Jia; Shaohua Tang; HaoQiang Zheng; William M Switzer

2011-01-01

69

Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Associated with Mumps Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder that is characterized by involuntary eye movements and myoclonus. OMS exhibits various etiologies, including paraneoplastic, parainfectious, toxic-metabolic, and idiopathic causes. The exact immunopathogenesis and pathophysiology of OMS are uncertain. Case Report We report the case of a 19-year-old male who developed opsoclonus and myoclonus several days after a flu-like illness. Serological tests revealed acute mumps infection. The findings of cerebrospinal fluid examinations and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. During the early phase of the illness, he suffered from opsoclonus and myoclonus that was so severe as to cause acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis. After therapies including intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient gradually improved and had fully recovered 2 months later. Conclusions This is the first report of OMS associated with mumps infection in Korea. Mumps infection should be considered in patients with OMS. PMID:25045383

Kang, Bong-Hui

2014-01-01

70

Hijacking of host calreticulin is required for the white spot syndrome virus replication cycle.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope of purified WSSV virions. CRT was also found to be of high importance for proper oligomerization of the viral structural proteins VP26 and VP28, and when CRT glycosylation was blocked with tunicamycin, a significant decrease in both viral replication and assembly was detected. Together, these findings suggest that CRT confers several advantages to WSSV, from the initial steps of WSSV infection to the assembly of virions. Therefore, CRT is required as a "vital factor" and is hijacked by WSSV for its replication cycle. Importance: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and the cause of a serious disease in a wide range of crustaceans that often leads to high mortality rates. We have previously shown that the protein calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell, is important in the host response to the virus. In this report, we show that the virus uses this host protein to enter the cell and to make the host produce new viral structural proteins. Through its interaction with two viral proteins, the virus "hijacks" host calreticulin and uses it for its own needs. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between a large DNA virus and the host protein CRT and may help in understanding the viral infection process in general. PMID:24807724

Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Guo, Enen; Tharntada, Sirinit; Lo, Chu-Fang; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

2014-07-01

71

RNAi-based inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in transgenic pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating viral disease causing heavy losses to the swine industry worldwide. Many studies have shown that transient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or adenovirus-mediated RNA interfere (RNAi) could potentially inhibit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication in vivo and in vitro. Here, we applied RNAi to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed PRRSV-specific siRNA derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). First, we evaluated siRNA expression in the founding and F1 generation pigs and confirmed stable transmission. Then, we detected the expression of IFN-? and protein kinase R (PKR) and found no difference among TG, non-transgenic (NTG), and wild-type pigs. Lastly, the F1 generation pigs, including TG and NTG piglets, were challenged with 3×10?·? TCID?? of JXA1, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). Our results showed that the in vivo siRNA expression substantially reduced the serum HP-PRRSV titers and increased survival time by 3 days when TG pigs were compared with the NTG controls. These data suggested that RNAi-based genetic modification might be used to breed viral-resistant livestock with stable siRNA expression with no complications of siRNA toxicity. PMID:24333125

Li, Li; Li, Qiuyan; Bao, Yonghua; Li, Jinxiu; Chen, Zhisheng; Yu, Xiuling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

2014-02-10

72

Identification of radically different variants of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Eastern Europe: towards a common ancestor for European and American viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined 22 partial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 sequences, representing pathogenic field strains mainly from Poland and Lithuania, and two currently available European-type live PRRSV vaccines. Also, the complete ORF7 of two Lithuanian and two Polish strains was sequenced. We found that Polish, and in particular Lithuanian, PRRSV sequences were exceptionally different from the European prototype,

T. Stadejek; A. Stankevicius; T. Storgaard; M. B. Oleksiewicz; S. Bela; T. W. Drew; Z. Pejsak

73

The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

2014-06-01

74

Rapid detection of shrimp white spot syndrome virus by real time, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41 ± 0.17 min at 39 °C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics. PMID:25121957

Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

2014-01-01

75

Dental and research transmission of acquired immune deficiency syndrome? Or, is there any evidence that human immunodeficiency virus is sufficient to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unpublished report of three laboratory workers exposed to concentrated human immunodeficiency virus cultures and one anomalous case of putative dental transmission to six patients represent the only evidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome developing in the absence of immunologic cofactors such as exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, drugs, malnutrition, and alloantigens. A review of the Centers for Disease Control

R. S. Root-Bernstein

1996-01-01

76

Cryptoporus volvatus Extract Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important arterivirus that can cause significant losses in swine industry. At present, there are no adequate control strategies against PRRSV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment regimens that have efficacious antiviral activity to compensate for vaccines. Cryptoporus volvatus commonly serves as an anti-infective agent in Tradational Chinese Medicines. In this report, we exploited whether the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus had the potential to inhibit PRRSV infection. Our results showed that the extract significantly inhibited PRRSV infection by repressing virus entry, viral RNA expression, and possibly viral protein synthesis, cell-to-cell spread, and releasing of virus particles. However, it did not block PRRSV binding to cells. Further studies confirmed that the extract directly inhibited PRRSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, thus interfering with PRRSV RNA and protein synthesis. More importantly, the extract efficiently inhibited highly pathologic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection in vivo, reduced virus load in serum, and increased the survival rate of pigs inoculated with HP-PRRSV strain. Collectively, our findings imply that the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapies. PMID:23704937

Gao, Li; Zhang, Weiwei; Sun, Yipeng; Yang, Qian; Ren, Jie; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Hexiang; Feng, Wen-hai

2013-01-01

77

Cryptoporus volvatus extract inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important arterivirus that can cause significant losses in swine industry. At present, there are no adequate control strategies against PRRSV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment regimens that have efficacious antiviral activity to compensate for vaccines. Cryptoporus volvatus commonly serves as an anti-infective agent in Tradational Chinese Medicines. In this report, we exploited whether the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus had the potential to inhibit PRRSV infection. Our results showed that the extract significantly inhibited PRRSV infection by repressing virus entry, viral RNA expression, and possibly viral protein synthesis, cell-to-cell spread, and releasing of virus particles. However, it did not block PRRSV binding to cells. Further studies confirmed that the extract directly inhibited PRRSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, thus interfering with PRRSV RNA and protein synthesis. More importantly, the extract efficiently inhibited highly pathologic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection in vivo, reduced virus load in serum, and increased the survival rate of pigs inoculated with HP-PRRSV strain. Collectively, our findings imply that the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapies. PMID:23704937

Gao, Li; Zhang, Weiwei; Sun, Yipeng; Yang, Qian; Ren, Jie; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Hexiang; Feng, Wen-Hai

2013-01-01

78

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater. PMID:24658782

Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

2014-09-01

79

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: current status and strategies to a universal vaccine.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of PRRS, the most significant infectious disease currently affecting swine industry worldwide. In the United States alone, the economic losses caused by PRRS amount to more than 560 million US dollars every year. Due to immune evasion strategies and the antigenic heterogeneity of the virus, current commercial PRRSV vaccines (killed-virus and modified-live vaccines) are of unsatisfactory efficacy, especially against heterologous infection. Continuous efforts have been devoted to develop better PRRSV vaccines. Experimental PRRSV vaccines, including live attenuated vaccines, recombinant vectors expressing PRRSV viral proteins, DNA vaccines and plant-made subunit vaccines, have been developed. However, the genetic and antigenic heterogeneity of the virus limits the value of almost all of the PRRSV vaccines tested. Developing a universal vaccine that can provide broad protection against circulating PRRSV strains has become a major challenge for current vaccine development. This paper reviews current status of PRRSV vaccine development and discusses strategies to develop a universal PRRSV vaccine. PMID:23343057

Hu, J; Zhang, C

2014-04-01

80

Enhanced replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in a homogeneous subpopulation of MA104 cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two different cell populations, high- (MARC-145) and low-permissive cell clones (L-1) to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus, were derived from MA-104 cell line (parent cell: P) by cell cloning. Maximum virus yields in MARC-145, P, and L-1 cell clones were 108.5, 103.5, and 102.5 tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50)\\/0.1 ml, respectively. The MARC-145 cell clone supported

H. S. Kim; J. Kwang; I. J. Yoon; H. S. Joo; M. L. Frey

1993-01-01

81

Prostaglandin E2, a Seminal Constituent, Facilitates the Replication of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Virus in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated virus is thought to be transmitted effectively through semen during sexual activities from male to male or from male to female. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is one of the immunosuppressive compounds present in high concentrations in human semen. We, therefore, investigated direct effects of PGE2 and other PGs on AIDS-associated virus infection and replication in vitro.

Sachiko Kuno; Ryuji Ueno; Osamu Hayaishi; Hideki Nakashima; Shinji Harada; Naoki Yamamoto

1986-01-01

82

The possessive states disorder: The diagnosis of demonic possession  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the validity of viewing demonic possession as a phenomenon distinct from any other form of pathology. It does so by briefly examining the historical relationship of demon possession and other forms of illness; reviewing some of the psychological research into the phenomena of possession; and then presenting a description of possession derived from a study of fourteen

T. Craig Isaacs

1987-01-01

83

Prevalence of white spot syndrome virus infection detected by one-step and nested PCR in selected tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon ) hatcheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome (WSS) is considered as a great threat to commercial farming of the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The causal agent of WSS is a DNA virus called white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The prevalence of this dreadful virus infection\\u000a has been studied in five randomly selected hatcheries located in the Cox’s Bazar district of Bangladesh. Both one-step and

Farhana Ayub

2008-01-01

84

Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in recognition of beta-integrin.  

PubMed

The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that beta-integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of beta-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed that envelope proteins VP26, VP31, VP37, VP90 and nucleocapsid protein VP136 interacted with LvInt. RGD-, YGL- and LDV-related peptide functioned as motifs of WSSV proteins binding with beta-integrin. The beta-integrin ligand of RGDT had better blocking effect compared with that of YGL- and LDV-related peptides. In vivo assay indicated that RGD-, LDV- and YGL-related peptides could partially block WSSV infection. These data collectively indicate that multiple proteins were involved in recognition of beta-integrin. Identification of proteins in WSSV that are associated with beta-integrin will assist development of new agents for effective control of the white spot syndrome. PMID:24845502

Zhang, Jing-Yan; Liu, Qing-Hui; Huang, Jie

2014-06-01

85

Antibody levels for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and rubella in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Significantly higher proportions of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) were positive for antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) compared with control groups of commercial blood donors. In contrast, no differences were found in the incidence of individuals positive for antibodies to rubella in these groups of subjects. Of those positive for antibodies to CMV and HSV in each group, the mean antibody levels were significantly higher in AIDS-LAS patients compared with the controls. The entire distribution of antibody concentrations to CMV and HSV in AIDS patients was shifted upward, so that significantly more patients showed high values and significantly fewer showed low values, indicating hyperactive humoral immune responses to these viruses. In sharp contrast, the AIDS patients with antibody levels for rubella showed the same distribution of antibody levels as did two groups of controls. No correlation was found between concentrations of CMV and HSV antibodies in individual AIDS-LAS patients. PMID:3009534

Halbert, S P; Kiefer, D J; Friedman-Kien, A E; Poiesz, B

1986-01-01

86

Transcriptome Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp. PMID:23991181

Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui

2013-01-01

87

Baculovirus-mediated promoter assay and transcriptional analysis of white spot syndrome virus orf427 gene  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important pathogen of the penaeid shrimp with high mortalities. In previous reports, Orf427 of WSSV is characterized as one of the three major latency-associated genes of WSSV. Here, we were interested to analyze the promoter of orf427 and its expression during viral pathogenesis. Results in situ hybridization revealed that orf427 was transcribed in all the infected tissues during viral lytic infection and the translational product can be detected from the infected shrimp. A time-course RT-PCR analysis indicated that transcriptional products of orf427 could only be detected after 6 h post virus inoculation. Furthermore, a baculovirus-mediated promoter analysis indicated that the promoter of orf427 failed to express the EGFP reporter gene in both insect SF9 cells and primary shrimp cells. Conclusion Our data suggested that latency-related orf427 might not play an important role in activating virus replication from latent phase due to its late transcription during the lytic infection. PMID:16115322

Lu, Liqun; Wang, Hai; Manopo, Ivanus; Yu, Li; Kwang, Jimmy

2005-01-01

88

Purification of white spot syndrome virus by iodixanol density gradient centrifugation.  

PubMed

Up to now, only a few brief procedures for purifying white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) have been described. They were mainly based on sucrose, NaBr and CsCl density gradient centrifugation. This work describes for the first time the purification of WSSV through iodixanol density gradients, using virus isolated from infected tissues and haemolymph of Penaeus vannamei (Boone). The purification from tissues included a concentration step by centrifugation (2.5 h at 60,000 g) onto a 50% iodixanol cushion and a purification step by centrifugation (3 h at 80,000 g) through a discontinuous iodixanol gradient (phosphate-buffered saline, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). The purification from infected haemolymph enclosed a dialysis step with a membrane of 1,000 kDa (18 h) and a purification step through the earlier iodixanol gradient. The gradients were collected in fractions and analysed. The number of particles, infectivity titre (in vivo), total protein and viral protein content were evaluated. The purification from infected tissues gave WSSV suspensions with a very high infectivity and an acceptable purity, while virus purified from haemolymph had a high infectivity and a very high purity. Additionally, it was observed that WSSV has an unusually low buoyant density and that it is very sensitive to high external pressures. PMID:23384051

Dantas-Lima, J J; Corteel, M; Cornelissen, M; Bossier, P; Sorgeloos, P; Nauwynck, H J

2013-10-01

89

A Bayesian Phylogeographical Analysis of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV).  

PubMed

Understanding viral transmission is an important factor for the effective prevention one of the most devastating swine diseases, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. Focusing on molecular epidemiology of type 1 PRRSV, this study analysed a large ORF5 dataset collected worldwide from 1991 to 2012 using a coalescent-based Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. The results suggested that the virus diversified into unique subpopulations in Russia & Belarus and Italy approximately 100 years ago. Previously unreported consecutive diffusions of the virus were identified, which showed that some countries, such as Spain and Germany, acted as distribution sources to some extent. This study also provided statistical evidence for the existence of an ORF5-based phylogeographical structure of type 1 PRRSV, in which the virus tended to cluster by geographical locations more tightly than expected by chance. In contrast to this tight geographical structure, the evolution of the ORF5 gene, based on mapping of non-synonymous/synonymous substitutions, was best described by a non-homogeneous process that could be implicated as a mechanism for viral immune evasion. PMID:23336975

Nguyen, V G; Kim, H K; Moon, H J; Park, S J; Chung, H C; Choi, M K; Park, B K

2014-12-01

90

Cellular localization of human immunodeficiency virus infection within the brains of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients.  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) is a prominent feature of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many of these patients have a subacute encephalitis consistent with a viral infection of the CNS. We studied the brains of 12 AIDS patients using in situ hybridization to identify human immunodeficiency virus [HIV, referred to by others as human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV), AIDS-associated retrovirus (ARV)] nucleic acid sequences and immunocytochemistry to identify viral and cellular proteins. Nine patients had significant HIV infection in the CNS. In all examined brains, the white matter was more severely involved than the grey matter. In most cases the infection was restricted to capillary endothelial cells, mononuclear inflammatory cells, and giant cells. In a single case with severe CNS involvement, a low-level infection was seen in some astrocytes and neurons. These results suggest that CNS dysfunction is due to indirect effects rather than neuronal or glial infection. Images PMID:3018755

Wiley, C A; Schrier, R D; Nelson, J A; Lampert, P W; Oldstone, M B

1986-01-01

91

Characterization of a virus obtained from snakeheads Ophicephalus striatus with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in the Philippines.  

PubMed

This is the first report of the isolation and characterization of a fish virus from the Philippines. The virus was isolated using snakehead spleen cells (SHS) from severely lesioned epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS)-affected snakehead Ophicephalus striatus from Laguna de Bay, in January 1991. The virus induced cytopathic effects (CPE) in SHS cells yielding a titer of 3.02 x 10(6) TCID50 ml(-1) at 25 degrees C within 2 to 3 d. Other susceptible cell lines included bluegill fry (BF-2), catfish spleen (CFS) and channel catfish ovary (CCO) cells. Replication in chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214) was minimal while Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cells (EPC) and rainbow trout gonad cells (RTG-2) were refractory. Temperatures of 15 to 25 degrees C were optimum for virus replication but the virus did not replicate at 37 degrees C. The virus can be stored at -10 and 8 degrees C for 30 and 10 d, respectively, without significant loss of infectivity. Viral replication was logarithmic with a 2 h lag phase; viral assembly in the host cells occurred in 4 h and release of virus occurred 8 h after viral infection. A 1-log difference in TCID50 titer between the cell-free virus and the total virus was noted. Freezing and thawing the virus caused a half-log drop in titer. Viral exposure to chloroform or heating to 56 degrees C for 30 min inactivated the virus. Exposure to pH 3 medium for 30 min resulted in a more than 100-fold loss of viral infectivity. The 5-iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) did not affect virus replication, indicating a RNA genome. Neutralization tests using the Philippine virus, the ulcerative disease rhabdovirus (UDRV) and the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) polyvalent antisera showed slight cross-reaction between the Philippine virus antiserum and UDRV but established no serological relationship with SHRV and IHN virus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of SHS cells infected with the virus showed virus particles with typical bullet morphology and an estimated size of 65 x 175 nm. The Philippine virus was therefore a rhabdovirus, but the present study did not establish its role in the epizootiology of EUS. PMID:11206734

Lio-Po, G D; Traxler, G S; Albright, L J; Leaño, E M

2000-12-21

92

Risks and prevention of severe RS virus infection among children with immunodeficiency and Down's syndrome.  

PubMed

By the age of two years, almost all infants are infected with the Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). One of the main causes of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis and pneumonia at this age is RSV infection. In addition to well-known risks for severe RSV disease, such as prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and congenital heart disease, immunodeficiencies, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome or neuromuscular diseases have also been identified as risks. While the medical needs for RSV prevention in these risk groups are high, clinical evidence to support this is limited. Palivizumab was recently approved in Japan for prophylaxis in children with immunodeficiency or Down's syndrome. A clinical guidance protocol for the prevention of RSV infection using Palivizumab in these risk groups is provided here on the basis of a review of the available literature and on expert opinion. Thus, the present article reviews the published literature related to RSV infections in infants and children with immunodeficiencies or Down's syndrome in order to outline the risks, pathology and physiology of severe RSV disease in these patient groups. The purpose of this article is to facilitate understanding of the medical scientific bases for the clinical guidance. PMID:24929631

Mori, Masaaki; Morio, Tomohiro; Ito, Shuichi; Morimoto, Akira; Ota, Setsuo; Mizuta, Koichi; Iwata, Tsutomu; Hara, Toshiro; Saji, Tsutomu

2014-08-01

93

Modelling long-term human immunodeficiency virus dynamic models with application to acquired immune deficiency syndrome clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical modelling of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dynamics has played an important role in acquired immune deficiency syndrome research. Deterministic dynamic models have been developed to study the viral dynamic process for understanding the pathogenesis of HIV type 1 infection and antiviral treatment strategies. We propose a new multistage estimation procedure which uses data, HIV viral load and CD4+ T-cell

Jianwei Chen

2010-01-01

94

Mothers of children with Down syndrome have higher herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) antibody levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibody response to herpes simplex virus (HSV) was studied in 53 mothers of children with Down syndrome (Ds) and compared with that in 154 controls, using sera sampled during pregnancy or at delivery. Conventional analysis of HSV complement fixing antibodies showed the same frequency of positivity for the two groups (70%). When the levels of IgG antibodies to an

Göran Annerén; J. S. Gronowitz; C. F. R. Källander; Vivi-Anne Sundqvist

1986-01-01

95

Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

2011-01-01

96

Profiling of cellular proteins in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus virions by proteomics analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped virus, bearing severe economic consequences to the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies on enveloped viruses have shown that many incorporated cellular proteins associated with the virion's membranes that might play important roles in viral infectivity. In this study, we sought to proteomically profile the cellular proteins incorporated into or associated with the virions of a highly virulent PRRSV strain GDBY1, and to provide foundation for further investigations on the roles of incorporated/associated cellular proteins on PRRSV's infectivity. Results In our experiment, sixty one cellular proteins were identified in highly purified PRRSV virions by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric approaches. The identified cellular proteins could be grouped into eight functional categories including cytoskeletal proteins, chaperones, macromolecular biosynthesis proteins, metabolism-associated proteins, calcium-dependent membrane-binding proteins and other functional proteins. Among the identified proteins, four have not yet been reported in other studied envelope viruses, namely, guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase, peroxiredoxin 1 and galectin-1 protein. The presence of five selected cellular proteins (i.e., ?-actin, Tubulin, Annexin A2, heat shock protein Hsp27, and calcium binding proteins S100) in the highly purified PRRSV virions was validated by Western blot and immunogold labeling assays. Conclusions Taken together, the present study has demonstrated the incorporation of cellular proteins in PRRSV virions, which provides valuable information for the further investigations for the effects of individual cellular proteins on the viral replication, assembly, and pathogenesis. PMID:20849641

2010-01-01

97

Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation.  

PubMed Central

AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about 40% of American cases, it has been hypothesized that this virus causes AIDS by killing T cells. Consequently, the virus was termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and antibody to HIV became part of the definition of AIDS. The hypothesis that HIV causes AIDS is examined in terms of Koch's postulates and epidemiological, biochemical, genetic, and evolutionary conditions of viral pathology. HIV does not fulfill Koch's postulates: (i) free virus is not detectable in most cases of AIDS; (ii) virus can only be isolated by reactivating virus in vitro from a few latently infected lymphocytes among millions of uninfected ones; (iii) pure HIV does not cause AIDS upon experimental infection of chimpanzees or accidental infection of healthy humans. Further, HIV violates classical conditions of viral pathology. (i) Epidemiological surveys indicate that the annual incidence of AIDS among antibody-positive persons varies from nearly 0 to over 10%, depending critically on nonviral risk factors. (ii) HIV is expressed in less than or equal to 1 of every 10(4) T cells it supposedly kills in AIDS, whereas about 5% of all T cells are regenerated during the 2 days it takes the virus to infect a cell. (iii) If HIV were the cause of AIDS, it would be the first virus to cause a disease only after the onset of antiviral immunity, as detected by a positive "AIDS test." (iv) AIDS follows the onset of antiviral immunity only after long and unpredictable asymptomatic intervals averaging 8 years, although HIV replicates within 1 to 2 days and induces immunity within 1 to 2 months. (v) HIV supposedly causes AIDS by killing T cells, although retroviruses can only replicate in viable cells. In fact, infected T cells grown in culture continue to divide. (vi) HIV is isogenic with all other retroviruses and does not express a late, AIDS-specific gene. (vii) If HIV were to cause AIDS, it would have a paradoxical, country-specific pathology, causing over 90% Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi sarcoma in the U.S. but over 90% slim disease, fever, and diarrhea in Africa.(viii) It is highly improbable that within the last few years two viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) that are only 40% sequence-related would have evolved that could both cause the newly defined syndrome AIDS. Also, viruses are improbable that kill their only natural host with efficiencies of 50-100%, as is claimed for HIVs. It is concluded that HIV is not sufficient for AIDS and that it may not even be necessary for AIDS because its activity is just as low in symptomatic carriers as in asymptomatic carriers. The correlation between antibody to HIV and AIDS does not prove causation, because otherwise indistinguishable diseases are now set apart only on the basis of this antibody. I propose that AIDS is not a contagious syndrome caused by one conventional virus or microbe. No such virus or microbe would require almost a decade to cause primary disease, nor could it cause the diverse collection of AIDS diseases. Neither would its host range be as selective as that of AIDS, nor could it survive if it were as inefficiently transmitted as AIDS. Since AIDS is defined by new combinations of conventional diseases, it may be caused by new combinations of conventional pathogens, including acute viral or microbial infections and chronic drug use and malnutrition. The long and unpredictable intervals between infection with HIV and AIDS would then reflect the thresholds for these pathogenic factors to cause AIDS diseases, instead of an unlikely mechanism of HIV pathogenesis. PMID:2644642

Duesberg, P H

1989-01-01

98

Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus.  

SciTech Connect

The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His{sub 6} tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapor diffusion against mother liquor containing 2 M sodium acetate, 100 mM MES pH 6.3, 25 mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7 d and diffracted to 2.2 Angstroms; they belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98 Angstroms and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labeled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3 Angstroms.

Liu,Y.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

2006-01-01

99

White spot syndrome virus strains of different virulence induce distinct immune response in Cherax quadricarinatus.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified three white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains (WSSV-CN01, WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03) with significant differences in virulence. Among them, WSSV-CN01 caused significant higher and earlier mortality in redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, thus was determined as high-virulent, while WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03 were moderate-virulent and low-virulent. By investigating the total number of the circulating haemocytes and the activity of immune relative enzymes, we demonstrated that the different virulent WSSV strains induced distinct immune response in the host. Notably, a dramatic reduction of circulating haemocytes was observed in the crayfish infected with WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 but not WSSV-CN03. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 might be responsible for the decrease of circulating haemocytes. PMID:24795080

Gao, Meiling; Li, Fang; Xu, Limei; Zhu, Xiaoming

2014-07-01

100

Protection of Penaeus monodon against White Spot Syndrome Virus by Oral Vaccination  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the shrimp farming industry. No adequate treatments against this virus are available. It is generally accepted that invertebrates such as shrimp do not have an adaptive immune response system such as that present in vertebrates. As it has been demonstrated that shrimp surviving a WSSV infection have higher survival rates upon subsequent rechallenge, we investigated the potential of oral vaccination of shrimp with subunit vaccines consisting of WSSV virion envelope proteins. Penaeus monodon shrimp were fed food pellets coated with inactivated bacteria overexpressing two WSSV envelope proteins, VP19 and VP28. Vaccination with VP28 showed a significant lower cumulative mortality compared to vaccination with bacteria expressing the empty vectors after challenge via immersion (relative survival, 61%), while vaccination with VP19 provided no protection. To determine the onset and duration of protection, challenges were subsequently performed 3, 7, and 21 days after vaccination. A significantly higher survival was observed both 3 and 7 days postvaccination (relative survival, 64% and 77%, respectively), but the protection was reduced 21 days after the vaccination (relative survival, 29%). This suggests that contrary to current assumptions that invertebrates do not have a true adaptive immune system, a specific immune response and protection can be induced in P. monodon. These experiments open up new ways to benefit the WSSV-hampered shrimp farming industry. PMID:14747570

Witteveldt, Jeroen; Cifuentes, Carolina C.; Vlak, Just M.; van Hulten, Mariëlle C. W.

2004-01-01

101

Overlapping Guillain-Barr? syndrome and Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis associated with Epstein Barr virus  

PubMed Central

A flaccid tetraparesis in Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is presumed to be a sign of overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In addition, BBE and Fisher syndrome, which are clinically similar and are both associated with the presence of the immunoglobulin G anti-GQ1b antibody, represent a specific autoimmune disease with a wide spectrum of symptoms that include ophthalmoplegia and ataxia. A 2-year-old boy presented with rapidly progressive ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, hyporeflexia, weakness of the lower extremities, and, subsequently, disturbance of consciousness. He experienced bronchitis with watery diarrhea and had laboratory evidence of recent infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). He was diagnosed as having overlapping GBS and BBE associated with EBV and received treatment with a combination of immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone, as well as acyclovir, and had recovered completely after 3 months. In addition, he has not experienced any relapse over the past year. We suggest that combinations of symptoms and signs of central lesions (disturbance of consciousness) and peripheral lesions (ophthalmoplegia, facial weakness, limb weakness, and areflexia) are supportive of a diagnosis of overlapping GBS and BBE and can be helpful in achieving an early diagnosis, as well as for the administration of appropriate treatments. PMID:25379047

2014-01-01

102

Suppression of the Interferon and NF-?B Responses by Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, multiorgan dysfunction, and a high fatality rate between 12 and 30%. It is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel Phlebovirus in family Bunyaviridae. Although the viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown, hemopoietic cells appear to be targeted by the virus. In this study we report that human monocytes were susceptible to SFTSV, which replicated efficiently, as shown by an immunofluorescence assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. We examined host responses in the infected cells and found that antiviral interferon (IFN) and IFN-inducible proteins were induced upon infection. However, our data also indicated that downregulation of key molecules such as mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) or weakened activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and NF-?B responses may contribute to a restricted innate immunity against the infection. NSs, the nonstructural protein encoded by the S segment, suppressed the beta interferon (IFN-?) and NF-?B promoter activities, although NF-?B activation appears to facilitate SFTSV replication in human monocytes. NSs was found to be associated with TBK1 and may inhibit the activation of downstream IRF and NF-?B signaling through this interaction. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the nucleoprotein (N), also encoded by the S segment, exhibited a suppressive effect on the activation of IFN-? and NF-?B signaling as well. Infected monocytes, mainly intact and free of apoptosis, may likely be implicated in persistent viral infection, spreading the virus to the circulation and causing primary viremia. Our findings provide the first evidence in dissecting the host responses in monocytes and understanding viral pathogenesis in humans infected with a novel deadly Bunyavirus. PMID:22623799

Qu, Bingqian; Qi, Xian; Wu, Xiaodong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J.; Xu, Wayne; Tang, Fenyang; Li, Zhifeng; Wu, Bing; Powell, Kira; Wegner, Marta; Li, Dexin

2012-01-01

103

Gene-expression profiling of White spot syndrome virus in vivo.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus, type species of the genus Whispovirus in the family Nimaviridae, is a large, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus that infects crustaceans. The genome of the completely sequenced isolate WSSV-TH encodes 184 putative open reading frames (ORFs), the functions of which are largely unknown. To study the transcription of these ORFs, a DNA microarray was constructed, containing probes corresponding to nearly all putative WSSV-TH ORFs. Transcripts of 79 % of these ORFs could be detected in the gills of WSSV-infected shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Clustering of the transcription profiles of the individual genes during infection showed two major classes of genes: the first class reached maximal expression at 20 h post-infection (p.i.) (putative early) and the other class at 2 days p.i. (putative late). Nearly all major and minor structural virion-protein genes clustered in the latter group. These data provide evidence that, similar to other large, dsDNA viruses, the WSSV genes at large are expressed in a coordinated and cascaded fashion. Furthermore, the transcriptomes of the WSSV isolates WSSV-TH and TH-96-II, which have differential virulence, were compared at 2 days p.i. The TH-96-II genome encodes 10 ORFs that are not present in WSSV-TH, of which at least seven were expressed in P. monodon as well as in crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus), suggesting a functional but not essential role for these genes during infection. Expression levels of most other ORFs shared by both isolates were similar. Evaluation of transcription profiles by using a genome-wide approach provides a better understanding of WSSV transcription regulation and a new tool to study WSSV gene function. PMID:15958687

Marks, Hendrik; Vorst, Oscar; van Houwelingen, Adèle M M L; van Hulten, Mariëlle C W; Vlak, Just M

2005-07-01

104

Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Fetal Susceptibility to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing). The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although ?? T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection. PMID:25275491

Ladinig, Andrea; Foxcroft, George; Ashley, Carolyn; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

2014-01-01

105

Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.  

PubMed

This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome. PMID:7258407

Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

1981-01-01

106

The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome\\u000a virus (PRRSV). Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune\\u000a responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In all groups, the sample to positive (S\\/P) ratio of IDEXX ELISA

Hyunil Kim; Hye Kwon Kim; Jung Ho Jung; Yoo Jung Choi; Jiho Kim; Chang Gyu Um; Su Bin Hyun; Sungho Shin; Byeongchun Lee; Goo Jang; Bo Kyu Kang; Hyoung Joon Moon; Dae Sub Song

2011-01-01

107

Asociación entre anticuerpos contra el virus del síndrome disgenésico y respiratorio porcino y anticuerpos contra otros patógenos Association between antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and other pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate a possible association between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and other viral and bacterial pathogenic agents found in swine, a serological model was followed. For this study, 3600, 4 to 6 month-old fi nishers were bled and tested for antibodies against various infectious agents. The specifi c antibodies against PRRSV, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV),

Fernando Diosdado Vargas; Dolores González-Vega; Luis Pedro Moles-Cervantes; Antonio Morilla González

108

Cell-mediated immunity to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigens in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Interleukin1 and interleukin-2 modify in vitro responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were obtained from five patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), six homosexual males with lymphadenopathy, and five normal heterosexual controls. Modulation of virus-specific immunity was assayedin vitro by measuring the lymphocyte blastogenic response and the production of lymphokine (leukocyte inhibition factor; LIF) by PBL stimulated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens

J. F. Sheridan; L. Aurelian; A. D. Donnenberg; T. C. Quinn

1984-01-01

109

Localization and Fine Mapping of Antigenic Sites on the Nucleocapsid Protein N of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus with Monoclonal Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the antigenic structure of the nucleocapsid protein N of the Lelystad virus isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and to identify antigenic differences between this prototype European isolate and other North American isolates. To do this, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the N protein

J. J. M. Meulenberg; A. P. van Nieuwstadt; A. van Essen-Zandbergen; J. N. A. Bos-de Ruijter; J. P. M. Langeveld; R. H. Meloen

1998-01-01

110

Assessment of the Roles of Copepod Apocyclops royi and Bivalve Mollusk Meretrix lusoria in White Spot Syndrome Virus Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we investigate the roles of copepods and bivalve mollusks in the transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which\\u000a is the causative pathogen of an acute, contagious disease that causes severe mortalities in cultured shrimp. Copepods are\\u000a common components in seawater ponds and are often eaten as live food by shrimp post-larvae. WSSV has been detected in these\\u000a animals,

Yun-Shiang Chang; Tsan-Chi Chen; Wang-Jing Liu; Jiang-Shiou Hwang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Chu-Fang Lo

111

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope and core proteins in CNS tissues of patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency, cellular tropism and relation to pathology of productive infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in human central nervous system (CNS) were studied. Serial sections of formolfixed and paraffin-embedded CNS tissues from 70 patients (69 with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, AIDS) were immunolabeled with monoclonal antibodies against HIV antigens (Ags) p17, p24, and gp41. Additional and double (immuno)stains were used

H. Budka

1990-01-01

112

Oral Administration of Bacterially Expressed VP28dsRNA to Protect Penaeus monodon from White Spot Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the possibility of protecting Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection via interference RNA technology by oral administration of bacterially\\u000a expressed WSSV VP28dsRNA. Shrimp were given dsRNA orally via two methods. In the first method, pellet feed was coated with\\u000a inactivated bacteria containing overexpressed dsRNA of the WSSV VP28 gene, and in the second method, pellet

M. Sarathi; Martin C. Simon; C. Venkatesan; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2008-01-01

113

White Spot Syndrome Virus Annexes a Shrimp STAT To Enhance Expression of the Immediate-Early Gene ie1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 30 August 2006\\/Accepted 12 October 2006 Although the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway is part of the antiviral response in arthropods such as Drosophila, here we show that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) uses a shrimp STAT as a transcription factor to enhance viral gene expression in host cells. In a series of deletion

Wang-Jing Liu; Yun-Shiang Chang; Andrew H.-J. Wang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Chu-Fang Lo

2007-01-01

114

Three Novel Genes of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type III: Immune Reactivity of Their Products with Sera from Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human T-lymphotropic virus type III or lymphoadenopathy associated virus (HTLV-III\\/LAV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In addition to the conventional retroviral genes involved in virus replication, namely, gag, pol, and env genes, DNA sequence analysis of HTLV-III genome predicted two additional open reading frames termed by us short open reading frame (sor) and 3' open reading

Suresh K. Arya; Robert C. Gallo

1986-01-01

115

Detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus by reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification coupled with vertical flow visualization.  

PubMed

A virus known as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was recently identified as the etiological agent of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in China. Reliable laboratory detection and identification of this virus are likely to become clinically and epidemiologically desirable. We developed a nearly instrument-free, simple molecular method which incorporates reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification (RT-CPA) coupled with a vertical flow (VF) visualization strip for rapid detection of SFTSV. The RT-CPA-VF assay targets a conserved region of the M segment of the SFTSV genome and has a limit of detection of 100 copies per reaction, with no cross-reaction with other vector-borne bunyaviruses and bacterial pathogens. The performance of the RT-CPA-VF assay was determined with 175 human plasma specimens collected from 89 clinically suspected SFTS patients and 86 healthy donors. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 94.1% and 100.0%, respectively, compared with a combination of virus culture and real-time RT-PCR. The entire procedure, from specimen processing to result reporting, can be completed within 2 h. The simplicity and nearly instrument-free platform of the RT-CPA-VF assay make it practical for point-of-care testing. PMID:22993179

Cui, Lunbiao; Ge, Yiyue; Qi, Xian; Xu, Gaolian; Li, Haijing; Zhao, Kangchen; Wu, Bin; Shi, Zhiyang; Guo, Xiling; Hu, Lin; You, Qimin; Zhang, Li-Hong; Freiberg, Alexander N; Yu, Xuejie; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Minghao; Tang, Yi-Wei

2012-12-01

116

A Lethal Disease Model for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters Infected with Sin Nombre Virus  

PubMed Central

Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model. PMID:24198421

Brocato, Rebecca L.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Bell, Todd M.; Wells, Jay B.; Queen, Laurie A.

2014-01-01

117

Evidence of long distance airborne transport of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae  

PubMed Central

The ability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to be transported over long distances via the airborne route was evaluated. A source population of 300 grow-finish pigs was experimentally inoculated with PRRSV MN-184 and M. hyopneumoniae 232 and over a 50-day period, air samples were collected at designated distances from the source herd using a liquid cyclonic collector. Samples were tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA and M. hyopneumoniae DNA by PCR and if positive, further characterized. Of the 306 samples collected, 4 (1.3%) were positive for PRRSV RNA and 6 (1.9%) were positive for M. hyopneumoniae DNA. The PRRSV-positive samples were recovered 4.7 km to the northwest (NW) of the source population. Four of the M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were obtained at the NW sampling point; 2 samples at approximately 2.3 km and the other 2 samples approximately 4.7 km from the source population. Of the remaining 2 samples, one sample was obtained at the southeast sampling point and the other at the southwest sampling point, with both locations being approximately 4.7 km from the source. The four PRRSV-positive samples contained infectious virus and were ? 98.8% homologous to the MN-184 isolate used to inoculate the source population. All 6 of the M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were 99.9% homologous to M. hyopneumoniae 232. These results support the hypothesis that long distance airborne transport of these important swine pathogens can occur. PMID:19379664

Dee, Scott; Otake, Satoshi; Oliveira, Simone; Deen, John

2009-01-01

118

Age-dependent resistance to Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in swine  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged, economically devastating infection in pigs, and immune resistance to infection appears variable. Since the porcine adaptive immune system is not fully competent at birth, we hypothesized that age influences the dynamics of PRRSV infection. Thus, young piglets, growing 16-20-week-old finisher pigs, and mature third parity sows were infected with virulent or attenuated PRRSV, and the dynamics of viral infection, disease, and immune response were monitored over time. Results Virulent PRRSV infection and disease were markedly more severe and prolonged in young piglets than in finishers or sows. Attenuated PRRSV in piglets also produced a prolonged viremia that was delayed and reduced in magnitude, and in finishers and sows, about half the animals showed no viremia. Despite marked differences in infection, antibody responses were observed in all animals irrespective of age, with older pigs tending to seroconvert sooner and achieve higher antibody levels than 3-week-old animals. Interferon ? (IFN ?) secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells were more abundant in sows but not specifically increased by PRRSV infection in any age group, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in blood were not correlated with PRRSV infection status. Conclusion These findings show that animal age, perhaps due to increased innate immune resistance, strongly influences the outcome of acute PRRSV infection, whereas an antibody response is triggered at a low threshold of infection that is independent of age. Prolonged infection was not due to IL-10-mediated immunosuppression, and PRRSV did not elicit a specific IFN ? response, especially in non-adult animals. Equivalent antibody responses were elicited in response to virulent and attenuated viruses, indicating that the antigenic mass necessary for an immune response is produced at a low level of infection, and is not predicted by viremic status. Thus, viral replication was occurring in lung or lymphoid tissues even though viremia was not always observed. PMID:19860914

Klinge, Kelly L; Vaughn, Eric M; Roof, Michael B; Bautista, Elida M; Murtaugh, Michael P

2009-01-01

119

TAT-mediated oral subunit vaccine against white spot syndrome virus in crayfish.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus is a highly pathogenic virus that infects crayfish and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of its major envelope proteins, and plays a crucial role in viral infection. Cell-penetrating peptides are short peptides that facilitate cellular uptake of various molecular cargoes, and one well known example is TAT peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein. In this study, recombinant plasmids were constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) to express TAT-VP28, VP28, TAT-VP28-EGFP and VP28-EGFP fusion proteins. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry methods were used to confirm that TAT fusion proteins can translocate from the intestine to the hemolymph of the crayfish Cambarus clarkii. After immunization, activities of phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase were analyzed, and it was found that rTAT-VP28 produced the most pronounced increase in both C. clarkii were vaccinated by oral administration of rTAT-VP28 and rVP28 for 7 and 14 days, and rTAT-VP28 resulted in the highest relative percent survival (RPS) (63.3% at 7 days, and 67.8% at 14 days), compared with rVP28 (44.4% at 7 days, and 53.6% at 14 days) following challenge with WSSV after the last day of feeding. This study reports the use of TAT-derived peptide as an oral delivery method of a subunit vaccine against WSSV in C. clarkii. PMID:22306106

Zhang, Yi; Ning, Jian-Fang; Qu, Xing-qin; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Jin-Ping

2012-04-01

120

Penaeus monodon Thioredoxin Restores the DNA Binding Activity of Oxidized White Spot Syndrome Virus IE1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: In this study we identified viral gene targets of the important redox regulator thioredoxin (Trx), and explored in depth how Trx interacts with the immediate early gene #1 (IE1) of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Results: In a pull-down assay, we found that recombinant Trx bound to IE1 under oxidizing conditions, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that Trx bound to WSSV IE1 when the transfected cells were subjected to oxidative stress. A pull-down assay with Trx mutants showed that no IE1 binding occurred when cysteine 62 was replaced by serine. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that the DNA binding activity of WSSV IE1 was downregulated under oxidative conditions, and that Penaeus monodon Trx (PmTrx) restored the DNA binding activity of the inactivated, oxidized WSSV IE1. Another EMSA experiment showed that IE1's Cys-X-X-Cys motif and cysteine residue 55 were necessary for DNA binding. Measurement of the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in WSSV-infected shrimp showed that oxidative stress was significantly increased at 48?h postinfection. The biological significance of Trx was also demonstrated in a double-strand RNA Trx knockdown experiment where suppression of shrimp Trx led to significant decreases in mortality and viral copy numbers. Innovation and Conclusion: WSSV's pathogenicity is enhanced by the virus' use of host Trx to rescue the DNA binding activity of WSSV IE1 under oxidizing conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 914–926. PMID:22332765

Huang, Jiun-Yan; Liu, Wang-Jing; Wang, Han-Ching; Lee, Der-Yen; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Wang, Hao-Ching; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Kang, Shih-Ting; Chen, I-Tung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung

2012-01-01

121

Influence of isolate pathogenicity on the aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the role of isolate pathogenicity in the aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and to determine whether PRRSV could be detected in air samples. To assess transmission, we exposed naïve recipient pigs to aerosols from pigs inoculated with PRRSV MN-30100, an isolate of low pathogenicity, or MN-184, a highly pathogenic isolate. Blood samples and nasal-swab samples were collected from the inoculated pigs during the exposure period and tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA by quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the amount of RNA was expressed as the median tissue culture dose per milliliter (TCID50/mL). The recipient pigs were clinically evaluated for 14 d after exposure and tested on days 7 and 14 by qualitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To prove the presence of PRRSV in aerosols, air samples were collected from each recipient-pig chamber by means of an air sampler. The PRRSV RNA concentrations were significantly higher (P = 0.01) in the blood samples from the pigs infected with PRRSV MN-184 than in the blood samples from those infected with PRRSV MN-30100; however, the concentrations in the nasal-swab samples were not significantly different (P = 0.26). Recipient pigs exposed to aerosols from pigs infected with PRRSV MN-184 became infected, whereas those exposed to aerosols from pigs infected with PRRSV MN-30100 did not; the difference in transmission rate was significant at P = 0.04. We detected PRRSV MN-184 RNA but not PRRSV MN-30100 RNA in air samples by PCR. Under the conditions of this study, PRRSV isolate pathogenicity may influence aerosol transmission of the virus. PMID:17193878

Cho, Jenny G.; Deen, John; Dee, Scott A.

2007-01-01

122

Epstein-Barr virus and the lacrimal gland pathology of Sj?gren's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland (LG) immunopathology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) consists of a proliferation of B and CD4 lymphocytes surrounding epithelial structures (Pepose JS, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:1599-1605). Based on the detection of EBV genomes in a greater percentage of SS than normal LG biopsies, we previously postulated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a risk factor for LG lymphoproliferation in SS (Pflugfelder SC, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:976-984). The purpose of this study was to determine the cellular site(s) of infection, virus type, and antigen expression of EBV infecting normal and SS LGs. EBV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in intraductal epithelia in 13-33% of lobules in 21% of normal LGs and in cells in areas of B lymphoproliferation as well as the majority of epithelia in 86% of SS LGs. EBV genomic sequences were amplified from 36% of normal and 88% of SS LG biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. Only type 1 EBV sequences were amplified in SS LGs; in contrast EBV nuclear antigen 2-deleted but not type 1 sequences were amplified in normal LGs. Immunohistochemistry with EBV-specific monoclonal antibodies was performed on normal and SS LGs. No EBV antigens were detected in normal LGs. In contrast, latent antigens (latent membrane protein, EBV nuclear antigen 2) were detected in lymphocytes in areas of B lymphoproliferation, and early and late lytic cycle antigens were observed in epithelia in SS LGs. These studies suggest that EBV may play a role in the LG B lymphoproliferation and epithelial pathologic changes observed in SS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8391219

Pflugfelder, S. C.; Crouse, C. A.; Monroy, D.; Yen, M.; Rowe, M.; Atherton, S. S.

1993-01-01

123

Metabolic Syndrome Predicts All-Cause Mortality in Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Abstract We examined the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual defining criteria on all-cause mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. We used data from 567 HIV-infected participants of the Nutrition for Healthy Living study with study visits between 9/1/2000 and 1/31/2004 and determined mortality through 12/31/2006. MS was defined using modified National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Cox proportional hazards for all-cause mortality were estimated for baseline MS status and for its individual defining criteria. There were 83 deaths with median follow-up of 63 months. Baseline characteristics associated with increased risk of mortality were: older age in years (univariate hazard ratio [HR] 1.04, p<0.01), current smoking (HR 1.99, p=0.02), current heroin use (HR 1.97, p=0.02), living in poverty (HR 2.0, p<0.01), higher mean HIV viral load (HR 1.81, p<0.01), and having a BMI <18 (HR 5.84, p<0.01). For MS and its criteria, only low HDL was associated with increased risk of mortality on univariate analysis (HR 1.84, p=0.01). However, metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 2.31, p=0.02) and high triglycerides (adjusted HR 3.97, p<0.01) were significantly associated with mortality beyond 36 months follow-up. MS, low HDL, and high triglycerides are associated with an increased risk of mortality in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:23651103

Wanke, Christine A.; Ruthazer, Robin; Bica, Ioana; Isaac, Rita; Knox, Tamsin A.

2013-01-01

124

Characterization of the microRNAome in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infected Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), a member of the arterivirus family, is the causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). PRRS is characterized by late term abortions and respiratory disease, particularly in young pigs. Small regulatory RNAs termed microRNA (miRNA) are associated with gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs are known to play many diverse and complex roles in viral infections. To discover the impact of PRRSV infections on the cellular miRNAome, Illumina deep sequencing was used to construct small RNA expression profiles from in vitro cultured PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). A total of forty cellular miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed within the first 48 hours post infection (hpi). The expression of six miRNAs, miR-30a-3p, miR-132, miR-27b*, miR-29b, miR-146a and miR-9-2, were altered at more than one time point. Target gene identification suggests that these miRNAs are involved in regulating immune signaling pathways, cytokine, and transcription factor production. The most highly repressed miRNA at 24 hpi was miR-147. A miR-147 mimic was utilized to maintain miR-147 levels in PRRSV-infected PAMs. PRRSV replication was negatively impacted by high levels of miR-147. Whether down-regulation of miR-147 is directly induced by PRRSV or if it is part of the cellular response and PRRSV indirectly benefits remains to be determined. No evidence could be found of PRRSV-encoded miRNAs. Overall, the present study has revealed that a large and diverse group of miRNAs are expressed in swine alveolar macrophages and that the expression of a subset of these miRNAs is altered in PRRSV infected macrophages. PMID:24339989

A. Hicks, Julie; Yoo, Dongwan; Liu, Hsiao-Ching

2013-01-01

125

Inhibition of HSP90 attenuates porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus production in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection leads to substantial economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. However, no effective countermeasures exist to combat this virus infection so far. The most common antiviral strategy relies on directly inhibiting viral proteins. However, this strategy invariably leads to the emergence of drug resistance due to the error-prone nature of viral ploymerase. Targeting cellular proteins required for viral infection for developing new generation of antivirals is gaining concern. Recently, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) was found to be an important host factor for the replication of multiple viruses and the inhibition of HSP90 showed significant antiviral effects. It is thought that the inhibition of HSP90 could be a promising broad-range antiviral approach. However, the effects of HSP90 inhibition on PRRSV infection have not been evaluated. In the current research, we tried to inhibit HSP90 and test whether the inhibition affect PRRSV infection. Methods We inhibit the function of HSP90 with two inhibitors, geldanamycin (GA) and 17- allylamono-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), and down-regulated the expression of endogenous HSP90 with specific small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Cell viability was measured with alamarBlue. The protein level of viral N was determined by western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Besides, IFA was employed to examine the level of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The viral RNA copy number and the level of IFN-? mRNA were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results Our results indicated that both HSP90 inhibitors showed strong anti-PRRSV activity. They could reduce viral production by preventing the viral RNA synthesis. These inhibitory effects were not due to the activation of innate interferon response. In addition, we observed that individual knockdown targeting HSP90? or HSP90? did not show dramatic inhibitory effect. Combined knockdown of these two isoforms was required to reduce viral infection. Conclusions Our results shed light on the possibility of developing potential therapeutics targeting HSP90 against PRRSV infection. PMID:24490822

2014-01-01

126

Lack of evidence for a role of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and/or chronic fatigue syndrome.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in 2006, one of the most controversial topics is whether it contributes to the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The debate began with the failure to detect XMRV in clinical PCa samples. Concerns about the potential health risk of XMRV exposure were reinforced by a study demonstrating the presence of XMRV in patients with CFS. However, serious concerns on whether XMRV plays a role in the development of PCa and/or CFS have been raised. However, inconsistent reports linking XMRV with PCa and/or CFS have led to conflicting views about the potential of XMRV as a human pathogen. Several recent studies suggest that contamination could account for the positive correlations between XMRV and PCa and/or CFS to date. At present, evidence does not indicate that XMRV plays any role in the pathogenesis of PCa or CFS. PMID:22531412

Hong, Ping; Li, Jinming

2012-07-01

127

White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. PMID:24111694

Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

2013-12-01

128

Foamy Virus Vector-mediated Gene Correction of a Mouse Model of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia and immunodeficiency. Hematopoietic cell transplantation can cure the disease and gene therapy is being tested as an alternative treatment option. In this study, we assessed the use of foamy virus (FV) vectors as a gene transfer system for WAS, using a Was knockout (KO) mouse model. Preliminary experiments using FV vectors expressing the green fluorescent protein under the transcriptional control of the endogenous WAS promoter or a ubiquitously acting chromatin opening element allowed us to define transduction conditions resulting in high (>40%) and long-term in-vivo marking of blood cells after transplantation. In following experiments, Was KO mice were treated with FV vectors containing the human WAS complementary DNA (cDNA). Transplanted animals expressed the WAS protein (WASp) in T and B lymphocytes, as well as platelets and showed restoration of both T-cell receptor-mediated responses and B-cell migration. We also observed recovery of platelet adhesion and podosome formation in dendritic cells (DCs) of treated mice. These data demonstrate that FV vectors can be effective for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-directed gene correction of WAS. PMID:22215016

Uchiyama, Toru; Adriani, Marsilio; Jagadeesh, G Jayashree; Paine, Adam; Candotti, Fabio

2012-01-01

129

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti-white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

130

BAX inhibitor-1 silencing suppresses white spot syndrome virus replication in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.  

PubMed

BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1) was originally described as an anti-apoptotic protein in both animal and plant cells. BI-1 overexpression suppresses ER stress-induced apoptosis in animal cells. Inhibition of BI-1 activity could induce the cell death in mammals and plants. However, the function of BI-1 in crustacean immunity was unclear. In this paper, the full-length cDNA of a BI-1 protein in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (PcBI-1) was cloned and its expression profiles in normal and infected crayfish were analyzed. The results showed that PcBI-1 was expressed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines of the crayfish and was upregulated after challenged with Vibrio anguillarum and with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To determine the function of PcBI-1 in the innate immunity of the crayfish, the RNA interference against PcBI-1 was performed and the results indicated the hemocyte programmed cell death rate was increased significantly and WSSV replication was declined after PcBI-1 knocked down. Altogether, PcBI-1 plays an anti-apoptotic role, wherein high PcBI-1 expression suppresses programmed cell death, which is beneficial for WSSW replication in crayfish. PMID:23583724

Du, Zhi-Qiang; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Weng, Yu-Ding; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2013-07-01

131

Evidence for cell apoptosis suppressing white spot syndrome virus replication in Procambarus clarkii at high temperature.  

PubMed

In shrimp, higher water temperatures (~32°C) can suppress the ability of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) to replicate and cause mortality, but the mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate whether cell apoptosis might be involved, a Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end label (TUNEL) method was used to assess levels of chromosomal DNA fragmentation in hepatopancreas and gill cells of Procambarus clarkii crayfish infected with WSSV and maintained at either 32 ± 1°C or 24 ± 1°C. Based on relative cell numbers with yellow-green colored TUNEL-positive nuclei, the apoptotic index was elevated in WSSV-infected crayfish maintained at 32°C. In gill tissue sections examined by transmission electron microscope, cells with nuclei displaying apoptotic bodies or marginated, condensed and fragmented chromatin without concurrent cell cytoplasm damage were also more prevalent. Flow cytometry sorting of annexin-stained cells showed apoptosis to be most prevalent in granular haemocytes, and assays for caspase-3 activity showed it to be most elevated in hepatopancreas tissue. Despite these indicators of cell apoptosis but consistent with WSSV replication being restricted at elevated temperatures, no increases in transcription of the viral anti-apoptosis genes ORF390 and ORF222 were detected by RT-PCR in shrimp maintained at 32°C, possibly due to the elevated levels of cellular apoptosis. PMID:23209074

Wu, Xiao-Guo; Xiong, Hai-Tao; Wang, Yi-Zhen; Du, Hua-Hua

2012-12-01

132

Susceptibility of the Australian freshwater crayfish Cherax destructor albidus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

Cherax destructor occurs naturally and/or is farmed in all Australian mainland states and territories and is of major cultural, economical and conservation significance. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility of the commercially important subspecies C. destructor albidus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a hazard to crustaceans and currently considered to be exotic to Australia. In challenge tests by intramuscular injection, C. destructor albidus displayed a similar level of susceptibility to white spot disease (WSD) as Penaeus monodon (i.e. 100% mortality in 3 d). In one oral challenge test where C. destructor albidus was subjected to significant temperature stress, over 50% died of severe WSD within 14 d post challenge. All dead and moribund crayfish displayed histopathological lesions typical for WSD and gave positive results for WSSV in DNA dot blot hybridization tests. Survivors to 30 d (n = 3) showed no lesions and gave negative dot blot test results. In a second oral challenge test without temperature stress, mortality was delayed but reached 75% by 30 d. However, no typical WSD lesions were observed in the dead, dying or surviving crayfish and dot blot test results were negative. The results suggested that C. destructor albidus would be less susceptible than P. monodon to WSSV exposure via natural routes of infection in farms and in the wild. This information may be useful for disease import risk analysis for WSSV. PMID:15264714

Edgerton, Brett F

2004-06-11

133

Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome -- After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus  

PubMed Central

Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg) was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg) prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route. PMID:24217424

Ogg, Monica; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Hooper, Jay W.

2013-01-01

134

Emotional distress, coping, and adjustment in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

Fifty-seven ambulatory, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients at various stages of disease progression and 17 HIV seronegative controls were examined in a cross-sectional study with self-administered measures of emotional distress, coping, and adjustment to illness. All infected and control subjects were homosexual or bisexual and free of acute medical illness. The findings indicated that both uninfected and infected subjects had enhanced emotional distress in a variety of domains. However, while somatic and cognitive-ruminative complaints were greater in symptomatic subjects relative to controls, depression and anxiety were not. Professed coping strategies were heterogeneous and not particularly related to HIV diagnostic status, with the exception of planful problem solving which was decreased for acquired immune deficiency syndrome subjects. Disruption in several aspects of daily life adjustment was markedly increased in symptomatic subjects. The findings suggest that both HIV seropositive status and perceived risk for infection produce a sustained level of generalized psychological distress. Even in the absence of current medical illness, patients with advanced disease progression are concerned primarily with anticipated medical implications and cognitive effectiveness. PMID:7745382

Krikorian, R; Kay, J; Liang, W M

1995-05-01

135

White spot syndrome virus VP12 interacts with adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus VP12 contains cell attachment motif RGD which is considered to be critical for host cell binding. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP12 with host cells. A new shrimp protein (adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvANT) is selected by far-western overlay assay. Tissue distribution of adenine nucleotide translocase mRNA showed that it was commonly spread in all the tissues detected. Cellular localization of LvANT in shrimp hemocytes showed that it was primarily located in the cytoplasm of hemocytes and colocalized with mitochondria. ELISA and far-western blot assay confirmed that VP12 interacted with LvANT. In vivo neutralization assay showed that anti-LvANT antibody can significantly reduce the mortality of shrimp challenged by WSSV at 48h post-treatment. Our results collectively showed that VP12 is involved in host cell binding via interaction with adenine nucleotide translocase. PMID:24607653

Ma, Fang-fang; Chou, Zhi-guang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guangkuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

2014-05-01

136

Mapping codon usage of the translation initiation region in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus genome  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respitatory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently emerged pathogen and severely affects swine populations worldwide. The replication of PRRSV is tightly controlled by viral gene expression and the codon usage of translation initiation region within each gene could potentially regulate the translation rate. Therefore, a better understanding of the codon usage pattern of the initiation translation region would shed light on the regulation of PRRSV gene expression. Results In this study, the codon usage in the translation initiation region and in the whole coding sequence was compared in PRRSV ORF1a and ORFs2-7. To investigate the potential role of codon usage in affecting the translation initiation rate, we established a codon usage model for PRRSV translation initiation region. We observed that some non-preferential codons are preferentially used in the translation initiation region in particular ORFs. Although some positions vary with codons, they intend to use codons with negative CUB. Furthermore, our model of codon usage showed that the conserved pattern of CUB is not directly consensus with the conserved sequence, but shaped under the translation selection. Conclusions The non-variation pattern with negative CUB in the PRRSV translation initiation region scanned by ribosomes is considered the rate-limiting step in the translation process. PMID:22014033

2011-01-01

137

[Possessed! Some historical, psychiatric and curent moments of demonic possession].  

PubMed

Being possessed by demons or evil spirits is one of the oldest ways of explaining bodily and mental disorders. The article briefly mentions some contributions from other disciplines, but considers in particular psychiatry's and medicine's approach throughout history. During the middle ages of Europe possession (and witchcraft) was considered just one out of several causes of mental illness. Astrological theories prevailed, in addition to the humoral theories of medicine. In addition distinctions were made between eccentricity, madness and religious visions and revelations. A large number of the alleged witches and possessed persons who were burned probably had visible mental disturbances. Today's psychiatry does not refer symptoms of possession to any specific category, but usually classifies this as some kind of psychotic disturbance of thought. Exorcism of evil spirits by Jesus Christ is described often in the Gospels. Possession was the only "available" concept for a bundle of neuro-psychiatric disorders: dissociative states, psychoses and epilepsy. To day, the terminology and "diagnostic" principles have been taken over by fundamentalistic groups, who practise exorcism on persons with (probably) minor mental problems and symptoms. The author criticises this activity. PMID:9019873

Høyersten, J G

1996-12-10

138

Quantitative assay for measuring the Taura syndrome virus and yellow head virus load in shrimp by real-time RT-PCR using SYBR Green chemistry.  

PubMed

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the two RNA viruses infecting penaeid shrimp (Penaeus sp.) that have caused major economic losses to shrimp aquaculture. A rapid and highly sensitive detection and quantification method for TSV and YHV was developed using the GeneAmp 5700 Sequence Detection System and SYBR Green chemistry. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) mixture contained a fluorescent dye, SYBR Green, which exhibits fluorescence enhancement upon binding to double strand cDNA. The enhancement of fluorescence was found to be proportional to the initial concentration of the template cDNA. A linear relationship was observed between input plasmid DNA and cycle threshold (C(T)) values for 10(6) down to a single copy of both viruses. To control for the variation in sample processing and in reverse transcription reaction among samples, shrimp beta-actin and elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) genes were amplified in parallel with the viral cDNA. The sensitivity and the efficiency of amplification of EF-1alpha was greater than beta-actin when compared to TSV and YHV amplification efficiency suggesting that EF-1alpha is a better internal control for the RT-PCR detection of TSV and YHV. In addition, sample to sample variation in EF-1alpha C(T) value was lower than the variation in beta-actin C(T) value of the corresponding samples. The specificity of TSV, YHV, EF-1alpha and beta-actin amplifications was confirmed by analyzing the dissociation curves of the target amplicon. The C(T) values of TSV and YHV samples were normalized against EF-1alpha C(T) values for determining the absolute copy number from the standard curve of the corresponding virus. The method described here is highly robust and is amenable to high throughput assays making it a useful tool for diagnostic, epidemiological and genetic studies in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:12020794

Dhar, Arun K; Roux, Michelle M; Klimpel, Kurt R

2002-06-01

139

Polarisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex II Host Genotype with Pathogenesis of European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of European Brown Hare Syndrome virus (EBHSV) in Denmark and possible relation between disease pathogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) host genotype. Liver samples were examined from 170 brown hares (hunted, found sick or dead), collected between 2004 and 2009. Macroscopical and histopathological findings consistent with EBHS were detected in 24 (14.1%) hares; 35 (20.6%) had liver lesions not typical of the syndrome, 50 (29.4%) had lesions in other tissues and 61 (35.9%) had no lesions. Sixty five (38.2%) of 170 samples were found to be EBHSV-positive (RT-PCR, VP60 gene). In order to investigate associations between viral pathogenesis and host genotype, variation within the exon 2 DQA gene of MHC was assessed. DQA exon 2 analysis revealed the occurrence of seven different alleles in Denmark. Consistent with other populations examined so far in Europe, observed heterozygosity of DQA (Ho?=?0.1180) was lower than expected (He?=?0.5835). The overall variation for both nucleotide and amino acid differences (2.9% and 14.9%, respectively) were lower in Denmark than those assessed in other European countries (8.3% and 16.9%, respectively). Within the peptide binding region codons the number of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) was much higher than synonymous substitutions (dS), which would be expected for MHC alleles under balancing selection. Allele frequencies did not significantly differ between EBHSV-positive and -negative hares. However, allele Leeu-DQA*30 was detected in significantly higher (P?=?0.000006) frequency among the positive hares found dead with severe histopathological lesions than among those found sick or apparently healthy. In contrast, the latter group was characterized by a higher frequency of the allele Leeu-DQA*14 as well as the proportion of heterozygous individuals (P?=?0.000006 and P?=?0.027). These data reveal a polarisation between EBHSV pathogenesis and MHC class II genotype within the European brown hare in Denmark. PMID:24069299

Iacovakis, Christos; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A.; Touloudi, Antonia; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Valiakos, George; Giannoulis, Themis; Stamatis, Costas; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Kantere, Maria; Asferg, Tommy; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Salomonsen, Charlotte M.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Birtsas, Periklis; Petrovska, Liljana; Hannant, Duncan; Billinis, Charalambos

2013-01-01

140

Association between hepatitis B virus infection and metabolic syndrome: a retrospective cohort study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) and hepatitis B (HBV) infection are two major public health problems in China. There are few studies about their association, and the results of these studies are contradictory. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the association between MS and HBV in a Shanghai community-based cohort. Methods Nine hundred seventy-six Shanghai residents were recruited from the Putuo community. 480 HBV infections were in exposed group and 496 non-infections in unexposed group. All metabolic-related parameters and hepatitis B serology were tested with routine biochemical or immunological methods. “Exposed” was defined by HBV infection represented by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and without anti-virus treatment. “Unexposed” were subjects who didn’t infect with HBV (Represented by HBsAg) and no MS when they entered the cohort. MS was defined based on the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and related 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between HBV infection and MS over a 20-year follow-up period. Results Of 976 subjects recruited, 480 had latent HBV infection (exposed subjects). After adjusting for age, the crude HR was 2.46 (95% CI: 1.77, 3.41). After adjusting for potential risk factors of MS (age, gender, smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet), the HR was 2.27 (95% CI: 1.52, 3.38). Conclusions This 20-year follow-up retrospective cohort study in Shanghai showed a positive association between HBV infection and MS. PMID:24885963

2014-01-01

141

Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Japanese encephalitis virus infection in China.  

PubMed

Abstract Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is preceded by an infection in about two-thirds of patients. However, the infectious organism is often not identified. GBS secondary to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection has been reported only in India. Herein, we report a case of GBS preceded by JEV infection in China. A 23-year-old male had generalized weakness, numbness in the extremities, and bilateral facial nerve paralysis. One week prior, he had a high fever with headache, and several days later, he developed facial diplegia and sensory disturbances. Physical examination revealed facial diplegia and a weak gag reflex, quadriparesis more pronounced distally, generalized hyporeflexia, and no Babinski sign. JEV IgM and hepatitis B surface antibody (HbsAb) tests were positive. Other tests for hepatitis B infection were negative. Nerve electrophysiology suggested an acute demyelinating sensorimotor polyradiculoneuropathy. His cerebrospinal fluid was clear, the leukocyte count was 5 × 10(6)/L (normal range: 0-5 × 10(6)/L), protein 0.62?g/L (normal range: 0.15-0.45?g/L), and JEV IgM was weakly positive. He was diagnosed with GBS associated with a recent JEV infection. Intravenous (IV) immunoglobulins combined with IV methylprednisone was administered for 5 days, and at the 3-month follow-up, a complete neurological recovery was noted. GBS may be associated with JEV infection. GBS exhibits a good response to intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange and has a good prognosis making prompt diagnosis important. PMID:25140441

Xiang, Jing-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Huang, Jie; Zhao, Yu-Wu

2014-10-01

142

Evolutionary Trajectory of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Genome Shrinkage during Spread in Asia  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the sole member of the novel Nimaviridae family, and the source of major economic problems in shrimp aquaculture. WSSV appears to have rapidly spread worldwide after the first reported outbreak in the early 1990s. Genomic deletions of various sizes occur at two loci in the WSSV genome, the ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 variable regions, and these have been used as molecular markers to study patterns of viral spread over space and time. We describe the dynamics underlying the process of WSSV genome shrinkage using empirical data and a simple mathematical model. Methodology/Principal Findings We genotyped new WSSV isolates from five Asian countries, and analyzed this information together with published data. Genome size appears to stabilize over time, and deletion size in the ORF23/24 variable region was significantly related to the time of the first WSSV outbreak in a particular country. Parameter estimates derived from fitting a simple mathematical model of genome shrinkage to the data support a geometric progression (k<1) of the genomic deletions, with k?=?0.371±0.150. Conclusions/Significance The data suggest that the rate of genome shrinkage decreases over time before attenuating. Bioassay data provided support for a link between genome size and WSSV fitness in an aquaculture setting. Differences in genomic deletions between geographic WSSV isolates suggest that WSSV spread did not follow a smooth pattern of geographic radiation, suggesting spread of WSSV over long distances by commercial activities. We discuss two hypotheses for genome shrinkage, an adaptive and a neutral one. We argue in favor of the adaptive hypothesis, given that there is support for a link between WSSV genome size and fitness. PMID:20976239

Hemerik, Lia; Vlak, Just M.

2010-01-01

143

Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:24780624

Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

2014-10-01

144

virus  

E-print Network

The nucleotide sequences of the L gene and 5 ? trailer region of Ebola virus strain Mayinga (subtype Zaire) have been determined, thus completing the sequence of the Ebola virus genome. The putative transcription start signal of the L gene was identical to the determined 5 ? terminus of the L mRNA (5 ? GAGGAAGAUUAA) and showed a high degree of similarity to the corresponding regions of other Ebola virus genes. The 3 ? end of the L mRNA terminated with 5 ? AUUAUAAAAAA, a sequence which is distinct from the proposed transcription termination signals of other genes. The 5 ? trailer sequence of the Ebola virus genomic RNA consisted of 676 nt and revealed a selfcomplementary sequence at the extreme end which may play an important role in virus replication. The L gene contained a single ORF encoding a polypeptide of 2212 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed identities of about 73 and 44 % to the L proteins of Ebola virus strain Maleo (subtype Sudan) and Marburg virus, respectively. Sequence comparison studies of the Ebola virus L proteins with several corresponding proteins of other non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, including Marburg viruses, confirmed a close relationship between filoviruses and members of the Paramyxovirinae. The presence of several conserved linear domains commonly found within L proteins of other members of the order Mononegavirales identified this protein as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Ebola virus.

Viktor E. Volchkov; Valentina A. Volchkova; R A. Chepurnov; Vladimir M. Blinov; Olga Dolnik; Sergej V. Netesov; Heinz Feldmann

145

Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in hepatitis C virus associated rheumatological manifestations and Sj?gren's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the diagnostic reliability of anti?CCP antibodies (anti?CCP?Ab) in distinguishing hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated rheumatological manifestations and Sjögren's syndrome from rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 147 HCV infected patients (HCV RNA positive) were compared with 64 patients with definite rheumatoid arthritis in a retrospective study. Anti?CCP?Ab were detected using the Immunoscan ELISA kit (second generation) and rheumatoid factor (RF) by the FIDIS™ Rheuma kit. Results Among the 147 HCV infected patients (77 women; mean (SD) age 58 (16) years), 77 (52%) had a mixed cryoglobulin (MC), 38 (26%) an MC associated systemic vasculitis, 35 (24%) arthralgia/arthritis, and seven (5%) definite Sjögren's syndrome. HCV infected patients with arthralgia were more often RF positive than those without arthralgia (54% v 27%; p?=?0.003), but less often than patients with rheumatoid arthritis (54% v 81%; p?=?0.009). Anti?CCP?Ab were detected in only two HCV infected patients with arthralgia (5.7%), in none without arthralgia or with Sjögren's syndrome, and in 78% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With a specificity of 93.5% and a positive predictive value of 96% for rheumatoid arthritis, anti?CCP?Ab were the most specific biological marker. Conclusions Anti?CCP antibodies are very rarely found in HCV infected patients with rheumatological manifestations or Sjögren's syndrome. They are reliable serological markers to distinguish these from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:16474032

Sene, D; Ghillani-Dalbin, P; Limal, N; Thibault, V; van Boekel, T; Piette, J-C; Cacoub, P

2006-01-01

146

Cytomegalovirus but not human T lymphotropic virus type III\\/lymphadenopathy associated virus detected by in situ hybridisation in retinal lesions in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paraffin sections of retinal tissue from five patients who died from the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and retinopathy were examined by in situ hybridisation experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) labelled with sulphur-35 of lentivirus, human T lymphotropic virus type III\\/lymphadenopathy associated virus (HTLV-III\\/LAV), and cytomegalovirus. HTLV-III\\/LAV ribonucleic acid (RNA) was not detected in any of the tissue sections. Cytomegalovirus

P G Kennedy; D A Newsome; J Hess; O Narayan; D L Suresch; W R Green; R C Gallo; B F Polk

1986-01-01

147

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virus developed infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. PRRSV / genome organisation / structural protein / infectious cDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

Detection of white spot syndrome virus from stomach tissue homogenate of the kuruma shrimp ( Penaeus japonicus) by reverse passive latex agglutination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) assay was developed for detecting the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which was formally named as penaeid rod-shaped DNA virus (PRDV) in Japan, from stomach tissue homogenate of the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus). Using high-density latex particles and specific polyclonal antibody, WSSV was detectable after 4h incubation. The hemolymph, the stomach, and the gills

Takekazu Okumura; Fumiko Nagai; Shuta Yamamoto; Keisuke Yamano; Norihisa Oseko; Kiyoshi lnouye; Hiroshi Oomura; Haruji Sawada

2004-01-01

149

Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs with a combined inoculum of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine\\u000a reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiated the replication and distribution of PCV2 virus, when compared\\u000a with pigs inoculated with PCV2 alone. The replication and distribution of PRRSV in dually infected pigs was not enhanced,\\u000a when compared to pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone.

G. M. Allan; F. McNeilly; J. Ellis; S. Krakowka; B. Meehan; I. McNair; I. Walker; S. Kennedy

2000-01-01

150

Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus throughout a coordinated sequence of events during cold weather  

PubMed Central

Using a field-based model, mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was assessed throughout a coordinated sequence of events that replicated common farm worker behavior during cold weather (< 0°C). The model involved fomites (boots and containers), vehicle sanitation, transport, and the movement of personnel. A field strain of PRRSV was inoculated into carriers consisting of snow and water, and carriers were adhered to the undercarriage of a vehicle. The vehicle was driven approximately 50 km to a commercial truck washing facility where the driver's boots contacted the carriers during washing, introducing the virus to the vehicle interior. The vehicle was then driven 50 km to a simulated farm site, and the driver's boots mechanically spread virus into the farm anteroom. Types of containers frequently employed in swine farms (styrofoam semen cooler, metal toolbox, plastic lunch pail, and cardboard animal health product shipping parcel) contacted drippings from footwear on the anteroom floor. The truck wash floor, vehicle cab floor mats, boot soles, anteroom floor, and the ventral surface of containers were sampled to track the virus throughout the model. Ten replicates were conducted, along with sham-inoculated controls. At multiple sampling points PRRSV nucleic acid was detected in 8 of 10 replicates. In each of the 8 PCR-positive replicates, infectious PRRSV was detected on the surfaces of containers by virus isolation or swine bioassay. All sham-inoculated controls were negative. These results indicate that mechanical transmission of PRRSV can occur during coordinated sequence of events in cold weather. PMID:12418778

Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Rossow, Kurt; Wiese, Carrie; Otake, Satoshi; Joo, Han Soo; Pijoan, Carlos

2002-01-01

151

Besieged by devils--thoughts on possession and possession states.  

PubMed

Aspects of possession are reviewed in historical, cultural and clinical contexts. Consideration is given to differential diagnosis and management. It is suggested that a multi-disciplinary approach is required for a condition that stands at the boundaries of psychiatry. Two quotations from Elizabethan playwrights are relevant to the theme of this paper: 'Beware you do not conjure up a spirit you cannot lay' Ben Johnson, The New Inn (Act III, Scene ii) 'Farewell the tranquil mind: farewell content.' Shakespeare, Othello (Act III, Scene iii). PMID:1513223

Prins, H

1992-07-01

152

Porcine Fc?RIIb Mediates Enhancement of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus infection caused by the uptake of virus-antibody complexes by Fc?Rs is a significant obstacle to the development of effective vaccines to control certain human and animal viral diseases. The activation Fc?Rs, including Fc?RI and Fc?RIIa have been shown to mediate ADE infection of virus. In the present paper, we showed that pocine Fc?RIIb, an inhibitory

Songlin Qiao; Zhizheng Jiang; Xiaohui Tian; Rui Wang; Guangxu Xing; Bo Wan; Dengke Bao; Yonghui Liu; Huifang Hao; Junqing Guo; Gaiping Zhang

2011-01-01

153

Xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus-related sequences are not detected in the majority of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.  

PubMed

XMRV and polytropic MLV-related virus have been controversially associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Subsequent reports failed to detect XMRV and MLV-related virus in CFS patients, and the previous results have been interpreted as a massive laboratory contamination by mouse DNA sequences. Among 12 sequential CFS patients, two were positive for XMRV/MLV sequences. In contrast, 40 selected control subjects were negative. CSF patients and controls were negative for mitochondrial mouse-specific DNA sequences. These findings do not confirm the high frequency of MLV-related viruses infection in CFS patients, but also contrast the widespread laboratory contamination previously suggested. PMID:22842604

Paolucci, Stefania; Piralla, Antonio; Zanello, Cinzia; Minoli, Lorenzo; Baldanti, Fausto

2012-07-01

154

Analysis of variable genomic loci in white spot syndrome virus to predict its origins in Procambarus clarkii crayfish farmed in China.  

PubMed

Variable genomic loci were examined in 4 white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates (08HB, 09HB, 08JS and 09JS) from Procambarus clarkii crayfish collected from Jiangsu and Hubei Provinces in China in 2008 and 2009. In ORF75, sequence variation detected in the 4 isolates, as well as in isolates sequenced previously, suggested that WSSV might have segregated into 2 lineages since first emerging as a serious pathogen of farmed shrimp in East Asia in the early-mid 1990s, with one lineage remaining in East Asia and the other separating to South Asia. In ORF23/24, deletions of 9.31, 10.97, or 11.09 kb were evident compared to a reference isolate from Taiwan (WSSV-TW), and, in ORF14/15, deletions of 5.14 or 5.95 kb were evident compared to a reference isolate from Thailand with the largest genome size (TH-96-II). With respect to these genome characteristics, the crayfish isolates 08HB, 09HB and 08JS were similar to WSSV-TW and the isolate 09JS was similar to a reference isolate from China (WSSV-CN). In addition to these loci, sequence variation was evident in ORF94 and ORF125 that might be useful for differentiating isolates and in epidemiological tracing of WSSV spread in crayfish farmed in China. However, as all 4 crayfish isolates possessed a Homologous Region 9 sequence identical to isolate WSSV-TW and another Thailand isolate (WSSV-TH), and as their transposase sequence was identical to isolates WSSV-CN and WSSV-TH, these 2 loci were not useful in predicting their origins. PMID:22013750

Zeng, Wei; Zeng, Yong; Fei, Rong-Mei; Zeng, Ling-Bing; Wei, Kai-Jin

2011-09-01

155

Serologic and PCR testing of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome in the United States shows no association with xenotropic or polytropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses  

PubMed Central

In 2009, a newly discovered human retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus (XMRV), was reported by Lombardi et al. in 67% of persons from the US with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) by PCR detection of gag sequences. Although six subsequent studies have been negative for XMRV, CFS was defined more broadly using only the CDC or Oxford criteria and samples from the US were limited in geographic diversity, both potentially reducing the chances of identifying XMRV positive CFS cases. A seventh study recently found polytropic MuLV sequences, but not XMRV, in a high proportion of persons with CFS. Here we tested blood specimens from 45 CFS cases and 42 persons without CFS from over 20 states in the United States for both XMRV and MuLV. The CFS patients all had a minimum of 6 months of post-exertional malaise and a high degree of disability, the same key symptoms described in the Lombardi et al. study. Using highly sensitive and generic DNA and RNA PCR tests, and a new Western blot assay employing purified whole XMRV as antigen, we found no evidence of XMRV or MuLV in all 45 CFS cases and in the 42 persons without CFS. Our findings, together with previous negative reports, do not suggest an association of XMRV or MuLV in the majority of CFS cases. PMID:21342521

2011-01-01

156

Development of a Colloidal Gold Kit for the Diagnosis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

It is critical to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection. Here, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) to detect SFTSV infection is described. The ICA uses gold nanoparticles coated with recombinant SFTSV for the simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SFTSV. The ICA was developed and evaluated by using positive sera samples of SFTSV infection (n = 245) collected from the CDC of China. The reference laboratory diagnosis of SFTSV infection was based on the “gold standard”. The results demonstrated that the positive coincidence rate and negative coincidence rate were determined to be 98.4% and 100% for IgM and 96.7% and 98.6% for IgG, respectively. The kit showed good selectivity for detection of SFTSV-specific IgG and IgM with no interference from positive sera samples of Japanese encephalitis virus infection, Dengue virus infection, Hantavirus infection, HIV infection, HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody, Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody, or RF. Based on these results, the ICS test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for SFTSV infections. PMID:24826381

Wang, Xianguo; Zhang, Quanfu; Hao, Fen; Gao, Xunian; Wu, Wei; Liang, Minyao; Liao, Zhihua; Xu, Weiwen; Li, Dexin; Wang, Shiwen

2014-01-01

157

Immune response to ORF5a protein immunization is not protective against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped RNA virus responsible for PRRS in swine, a disease with globally significant animal welfare and economic concerns. There is no specific treatment and variably effective immune protection. Molecular mechanisms responsible for virulence, pathogenesis and protective immune response remain poorly understood. These factors limit progress toward development of effective measures for prevention and treatment of PRRS. A novel PRRSV ORF5a protein, encoded in an open reading frame (ORF) that overlaps the major envelope glycoprotein GP5 ORF, was recently identified. Because ORF5a is highly conserved in diverse PRRSV isolates, is a structural protein in the virion, and elicits a specific antibody response in infected pigs, we investigated its potential role in immune protection against PRRSV infection. Pigs immunized with ORF5a protein had robust serologic responses. However, the antibodies did not neutralize virus, and immunity did not protect against challenge infection. We conclude from these findings that the ORF5a antibody response is neither neutralizing nor protective. PMID:23578707

Robinson, Sally R; Figueiredo, Marina C; Abrahante, Juan E; Murtaugh, Michael P

2013-06-28

158

Development of a colloidal gold kit for the diagnosis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

It is critical to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection. Here, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) to detect SFTSV infection is described. The ICA uses gold nanoparticles coated with recombinant SFTSV for the simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SFTSV. The ICA was developed and evaluated by using positive sera samples of SFTSV infection (n = 245) collected from the CDC of China. The reference laboratory diagnosis of SFTSV infection was based on the "gold standard". The results demonstrated that the positive coincidence rate and negative coincidence rate were determined to be 98.4% and 100% for IgM and 96.7% and 98.6% for IgG, respectively. The kit showed good selectivity for detection of SFTSV-specific IgG and IgM with no interference from positive sera samples of Japanese encephalitis virus infection, Dengue virus infection, Hantavirus infection, HIV infection, HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody, Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody, or RF. Based on these results, the ICS test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for SFTSV infections. PMID:24826381

Wang, Xianguo; Zhang, Quanfu; Hao, Fen; Gao, Xunian; Wu, Wei; Liang, Minyao; Liao, Zhihua; Luo, Shuhong; Xu, Weiwen; Li, Dexin; Wang, Shiwen

2014-01-01

159

The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods  

PubMed Central

Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P) ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN) titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p < 0.05). VN titer was significantly different in the 106 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI)-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p < 0.05). Consequently, the inactivated vaccines tested in this study provided weak memory responses with sequential challenge without any obvious active immune responses in the vaccinated pigs. Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia. PMID:21703032

2011-01-01

160

Virus Research 120 (2006) 146155 Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus  

E-print Network

, Galveston, TX 77555, USA f Autoimmune Technologies, LLC, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA Received 20 July 2005 of SARS-CoV and murine hepatitis virus (MHV) were identified. Peptides analogous to regions of the N; Peptide inhibitor; Murine hepatitis virus; Six-helix bundle; Anti-viral 1. Introduction Severe acute

Wimley, William C.

161

An entero?like virus associated with the runting syndrome in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small round unenveloped virus, 31 nm in diameter, and with no obvious surface structure, was identified during the first week of life in the gut contents of broiler chickens which later developed runting. This virus grew in the cytoplasm of the villous epithelial cells of the small intestine, with a predilection for the mid small intestine. Broilers orally infected

M. S. McNulty; G. M. Allan; T. J. Connor; J. B. McFerran; R. M. McCracken

1984-01-01

162

A novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vector system that stably expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein as a separate transcription unit  

PubMed Central

Here we report the rescue of a recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene as a separate transcription unit. A copy of the transcription regulatory sequence for ORF6 (TRS6) was inserted between the N protein and 3?-UTR to drive the transcription of the EGFP gene and yield a general purpose expression vector. Successful recovery of PRRSV was obtained using an RNA polymerase II promoter to drive transcription of the full-length virus genome, which was assembled in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The recombinant virus showed growth replication characteristics similar to those of the wild-type virus in the infected cells. In addition, the recombinant virus stably expressed EGFP for at least 10 passages. EGFP expression was detected at approximately 10 h post infection by live-cell imaging to follow the virus spread in real time and the infection of neighbouring cells occurred predominantly through cell-to-cell-contact. Finally, the recombinant virus generated was found to be an excellent tool for neutralising antibodies and antiviral compound screening. The newly established reverse genetics system for PRRSV could be a useful tool not only to monitor virus spread and screen for neutralising antibodies and antiviral compounds, but also for fundamental research on the biology of the virus. PMID:24176053

2013-01-01

163

Evaluation of alternative strategies to MERV 16-based air filtration systems for reduction of the risk of airborne spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a re-emerging disease of pigs and a growing threat to the global swine industry. For sustainable disease control it is critical to prevent the airborne spread of the etiologic agent, PRRS virus, between pig populations. The application of MERV 16-based air filtration systems to swine facilities in an effort to reduce this risk

Scott Dee; Andrea Pitkin; John Deen

2009-01-01

164

Horizontal transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) between red claw crayfish ( Cherax quadricarinatus) and the giant tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus was introduced into Thailand in the 1990s and is generally cultured in rice fields in many parts of the country including those where penaeid shrimp are farmed. As yet, there have been no reports of disease outbreaks in red claw caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the most serious penaeid-shrimp viral pathogen. Due

Chumporn Soowannayan; Mongkhol Phanthura

2011-01-01

165

Avian influenza virus, Streptococcus suis serotype 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and beyond: molecular epidemiology, ecology and the situation in China  

PubMed Central

The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and the subsequent identification of its animal origin study have heightened the world's awareness of animal-borne or zoonotic pathogens. In addition to SARS, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, and the lower pathogenicity H9N2 AIV have expanded their host ranges to infect human beings and other mammalian species as well as birds. Even the ‘well-known’ reservoir animals for influenza virus, migratory birds, became victims of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Not only the viruses, but bacteria can also expand their host range: a new disease, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, caused by human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection, has been observed in China with 52 human fatalities in two separate outbreaks (1998 and 2005, respectively). Additionally, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection has increased worldwide with severe disease. Several outbreaks and sporadic isolations of this pathogen in China have made it an important target for disease control. A new highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been isolated in both China and Vietnam recently; although PRRSV is not a zoonotic human pathogen, its severe outbreaks have implications for food safety. All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China. PMID:19687041

Ma, Ying; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Di; Gao, George F.

2009-01-01

166

Arabidopsis-derived shrimp viral-binding protein, PmRab7 can protect white spot syndrome virus infection in shrimp.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus is currently the leading cause of production losses in the shrimp industry. Penaeus monodon Rab7 protein has been recognized as a viral-binding protein with an efficient protective effect against white spot syndrome infection. Plant-derived recombinant PmRab7 might serve as an alternative source for in-feed vaccination, considering the remarkable abilities of plant expression systems. PmRab7 was introduced into the Arabidopsis thaliana T87 genome. Arabidopsis-derived recombinant PmRab7 showed high binding activity against white spot syndrome virus and a viral envelope, VP28. The growth profile of Arabidopsis suspension culture expressing PmRab7 (ECR21# 35) resembled that of its counterpart. PmRab7 expression in ECR21# 35 reached its maximum level at 5 mg g(-1) dry weight in 12 days, which was higher than those previously reported in Escherichia coli and in Pichia. Co-injection of white spot syndrome virus and Arabidopsis crude extract containing PmRab7 in Litopenaeus vannamei showed an 87% increase in shrimp survival rate at 5 day after injection. In this study, we propose an alternative PmRab7 source with higher production yield, and cheaper culture media costs, that might serve the industry's need for an in-feed supplement against white spot syndrome infection. PMID:22659272

Thagun, Chonprakun; Srisala, Jiraporn; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Narangajavana, Jarunya; Sojikul, Punchapat

2012-09-15

167

Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size?=?520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24204661

Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

2013-01-01

168

Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus throughout a coordinated sequence of events during warm weather  

PubMed Central

Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) throughout a coordinated sequence of events that replicated common farm worker behavior during warm weather (10°C to 16°C) was assessed using a field-based model. The model involved fomites (boots and containers), vehicle sanitation, transport, and personnel movement. In a previous study, the model successfully demonstrated mechanical transmission of PRRSV in 8 out of 10 replicates during cold weather. A field strain of PRRSV was inoculated into carriers consisting of soil samples, which were adhered to the undercarriage of a vehicle. The vehicle was driven approximately 50 km to a commercial truck washing facility where the driver's boots contacted the carriers during washing, introducing the virus to the vehicle interior. The vehicle was then driven 50 km to a simulated farm site, and the driver's boots mechanically spread virus into the farm anteroom. Types of containers frequently employed in swine farms contacted drippings from the footwear on the anteroom floor. The truck wash floor, vehicle cab floor mats, boot soles, anteroom floor, and the ventral surface of containers were sampled to track the virus throughout the model. Ten replicates were conducted, along with sham-inoculated controls, and control replicates. In 2 replicates, infectious PRRSV was detected on the anteroom floor and in 1 replicate, infectious PRRSV was detected on the surface of the container by swine bioassay. All sham-inoculated controls and protocol controls were negative. These results indicate that mechanical transmission of PRRSV throughout a coordinated sequence of events in warm weather can occur, but in contrast to data from studies conducted during cold weather, it appears to be a relatively infrequent event. PMID:12528824

Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Rossow, Kurt; Weise, Carrie; Eliason, Roger; Otake, Satoshi; Joo, Han Soo; Pijoan, Carlos

2003-01-01

169

The Evolutionary History and Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukocytopenia Syndrome Virus (FTLSV) in China  

PubMed Central

Background In 2007, a novel bunyavirus was found in Henan Province, China and named fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia syndrome virus (FTLSV); since then, FTLSV has been found in ticks and animals in many Chinese provinces. Human-to-human transmission has been documented, indicating that FTLSV should be considered a potential public health threat. Determining the historical spread of FTLSV could help curtail its spread and prevent future movement of this virus. Method/Principal Findings To examine the pattern of FTLSV evolution and the origin of outbreak strains, as well to examine the rate of evolution, the genome of 12 FTLSV strains were sequenced and a phylogenetic and Bayesian phylogeographic analysis of all available FTLSV sequences in China were performed. Analysis based on the FTLSV L segment suggests that the virus likely originated somewhere in Huaiyangshan circa 1790 (95% highest probability density interval: 1756–1817) and began spreading around 1806 (95% highest probability density interval: 1773–1834). Analysis also indicates that when FTLSV arrived in Jiangsu province from Huaiyangshan, Jiangsu Province became another source for the spread of the disease. Bayesian factor test analysis identified three major transmission routes: Huaiyangshan to Jiangsu, Jiangsu to Liaoning, and Jiangsu to Shandong. The speed of FTLSV movement has increased in recent decades, likely facilitated by modern human activity and ecosystem changes. In addition, evidence of RNA segment reassortment was found in FTLSV; purifying selection appears to have been the dominant force in the evolution of this virus. Conclusion Results presented in the manuscript suggest that the Huaiyangshan area is likely be the origin of FTLSV in China and identified probable viral migration routes. These results provide new insights into the origin and spread of FTLSV in China, and provide a foundation for future virological surveillance and control. PMID:25329580

Wu, Weili; Wang, Haifeng; Su, Jia; Tang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qi

2014-01-01

170

In Vitro Virucidal and Virustatic Properties of the Crude Extract of Cynodon dactylon against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.  

PubMed

The in vitro virustatic and virucidal tests of the crude extract of Cynodon dactylon against infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a cause of major devastating pig disease, were described. Crude extract of C. dactylon was prepared for cytotoxicity on tissue-culture cells that were used to measure virustatic and virucidal activities against PRRSV. Crude extract of C. dactylon at 0.78?mg/mL showed no cytotoxicity on the cell line, and at that concentration significantly inhibited replication of PRRSV as early as 24 hours post infection (hpi). C. dactylon also inactivated PRRSV as determined by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) compared to the control experiments. In summary, the present study may be among the earliest studies to describe virustatic and virucidal activities of C. dactylon crude extract against PRRSV in vitro. Extracts of C. dactylon may be useful for PRRSV control and prevention on pig farms. PMID:24744959

Pringproa, Kidsadagon; Khonghiran, Oapkun; Kunanoppadol, Suchaya; Potha, Teerapong; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

2014-01-01

171

In Vitro Virucidal and Virustatic Properties of the Crude Extract of Cynodon dactylon against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

The in vitro virustatic and virucidal tests of the crude extract of Cynodon dactylon against infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a cause of major devastating pig disease, were described. Crude extract of C. dactylon was prepared for cytotoxicity on tissue-culture cells that were used to measure virustatic and virucidal activities against PRRSV. Crude extract of C. dactylon at 0.78?mg/mL showed no cytotoxicity on the cell line, and at that concentration significantly inhibited replication of PRRSV as early as 24 hours post infection (hpi). C. dactylon also inactivated PRRSV as determined by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) compared to the control experiments. In summary, the present study may be among the earliest studies to describe virustatic and virucidal activities of C. dactylon crude extract against PRRSV in vitro. Extracts of C. dactylon may be useful for PRRSV control and prevention on pig farms. PMID:24744959

Khonghiran, Oapkun; Kunanoppadol, Suchaya; Potha, Teerapong; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

2014-01-01

172

A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus.

You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A. [Nebraska Center for Virology, E249A Beadle, Lincoln (United States); Hiscox, Julian A. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.a.hiscox@leeds.ac.uk

2008-08-15

173

The DNA virus white spot syndrome virus uses an internal ribosome entry site for translation of the highly expressed nonstructural protein ICP35.  

PubMed

Although shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus (?300 kbp), it expresses many polycistronic mRNAs that are likely to use internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements for translation. A polycistronic mRNA encodes the gene of the highly expressed nonstructural protein ICP35, and here we use a dual-luciferase assay to demonstrate that this protein is translated cap independently by an IRES element located in the 5' untranslated region of icp35. A deletion analysis of this region showed that IRES activity was due to stem-loops VII and VIII. A promoterless assay, a reverse transcription-PCR together with quantitative real-time PCR analysis, and a stable stem-loop insertion upstream of the Renilla luciferase open reading frame were used, respectively, to rule out the possibility that cryptic promoter activity, abnormal splicing, or read-through was contributing to the IRES activity. In addition, a Northern blot analysis was used to confirm that only a single bicistronic mRNA was expressed. The importance of ICP35 to viral replication was demonstrated in a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) interference knockdown experiment in which the mortality of the icp35 dsRNA group was significantly reduced. Tunicamycin was used to show that the ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is required for icp35 IRES activity. We also found that the intercalating drug quinacrine significantly inhibited icp35 IRES activity in vitro and reduced the mortality rate and viral copy number in WSSV-challenged shrimp. Lastly, in Sf9 insect cells, we found that knockdown of the gene for the Spodoptera frugiperda 40S ribosomal protein RPS10 decreased icp35 IRES-regulated firefly luciferase activity but had no effect on cap-dependent translation. PMID:24089551

Kang, Shih-Ting; Wang, Han-Ching; Yang, Yi-Ting; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

2013-12-01

174

Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate 'vaccines', WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally intubated with the aforementioned vaccine candidates, and protein expression in the gut of immunised shrimps was profiled. The alterations in protein profiles in shrimps infected orally with live-WSSV were also examined. Seventeen of the identified proteins in the vaccine and WSSV-intubated shrimps varied significantly compared to those in the control shrimps. These proteins, classified under exoskeletal, cytoskeletal, immune-related, intracellular organelle part, intracellular calcium-binding or energy metabolism, are thought to directly or indirectly affect shrimp's immunity. The changes in the expression levels of crustacyanin, serine proteases, myosin light chain, and ER protein 57 observed in orally vaccinated shrimp may probably be linked to immunoprotective responses. On the other hand, altered expression of proteins linked to exoskeleton, calcium regulation and energy metabolism in WSSV-intubated shrimps is likely to symbolise disturbances in calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism. PMID:24782450

Kulkarni, Amod D; Kiron, Viswanath; Rombout, Jan H W M; Brinchmann, Monica F; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu S; Singh, Bright I S

2014-07-01

175

Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp  

SciTech Connect

Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter.

Liu Wangjing [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang Yunshiang [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wang Chunghsiung [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kou, Guang-Hsiung [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lo Chufang [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: gracelow@ntu.edu.tw

2005-04-10

176

Development of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus replicon vector for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine  

PubMed Central

Purpose Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important global animal disease. To control FMD virus (FMDV) outbreaks, a lot of different novel approaches have been attempted. In this study, we proposed a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as a replicon vector to express FMDV structural protein. Materials and Methods PRRSV infectious clone (PRRSVK418DM) was used to develop an expression vector through the reverse genetic manipulation of PRRSV; FMDVP12A3C gene of serotype O was synthesized and used for an antigen. MARC-145 cells (African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line) were used for electroporation mediated transfection. The transfection or the expression of P12A3C and N protein of PRRSV was analyzed by either replicon containing PRRSV alone or by co-infection of helper PRRSV. Results We constructed PRRSVK418DM replicon vector containing FMDVP12A3C, and genome sequences were confirmed by subsequent sequence analysis. In vitro expression of P12A3C and PRRSV N protein was confirmed by immunofluorescence antibody assay using antibodies specific for PRRSV N protein (anti-PRRSV N MAb), FMDV-VP1 (anti-VP1 MAb). Conclusion The results indicate that PRRSV replicon vector can be a promising novel vector system to control FMDV and useful for vaccine development in the future. PMID:24427767

Jeeva, Subbiah; Lee, Jung-Ah; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo

2014-01-01

177

Detection of shrimp Taura syndrome virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification using a designed portable multi-channel turbidimeter.  

PubMed

In this study, a portable turbidimetric end-point detection method was devised and tested for the detection of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) using spectroscopic measurement of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) by-product: magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg(2)P(2)O(7)). The device incorporated a heating block that maintained an optimal temperature of 63°C for the duration of the RT-LAMP reaction. Turbidity of the RT-LAMP by-product was measured when light from a light-emitting diode (LED) passed through the tube to reach a light dependent resistance (LDR) detector. Results revealed that turbidity measurement of the RT-LAMP reactions using this device provided the same detection sensitivity as the agarose gel electrophoresis detection of RT-LAMP and nested RT-PCR (IQ2000™) products. Cross reactions with other shrimp viruses were not found, indicating that the RT-LAMP-turbidity measurement was highly specific to TSV. The combination of 10 min for rapid RNA preparation with 30 min for RT-LAMP amplification followed by turbidity measurement resulted in a total assay time of less than 1h compared to 4-8h for the nested RT-PCR method. RT-LAMP plus turbidity measurement constitutes a platform for the development of more rapid and user-friendly detection of TSV in the field. PMID:21619895

Sappat, Assawapong; Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Puthawibool, Teeranart; Lomas, Tanom; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

2011-08-01

178

Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in oral fluid from naturally infected pigs in a breeding herd  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the anatomic localization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in naturally infected pigs and to determine whether oral fluid could be used to detect the virus in infected animals. Two sows, seven 2-month-old grower pigs, and 70 6-month-old gilts were included in this study. PRRSV in sera and oral fluid were identified by nested reverse transcription PCR (nRT-PCR) while lung, tonsil, and tissue associated with oral cavity were subjected to nRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In sows, PRRSV was identified in oral fluid and tonsils. PRRSV was also detected in oral fluid, tonsils, salivary glands, oral mucosa, and lungs of all seven grower pigs. However, viremia was observed in only two grower pigs. Double staining revealed that PRRSV was distributed in macrophages within and adjacent to the tonsillar crypt epithelium. In gilts, the North American type PRRSV field strain was detected 3 to 8 weeks after introducing these animals onto the farm. These results confirm previous findings that PRRSV primarily replicates in tonsils and is then shed into oral fluid. Therefore, oral fluid sampling may be effective for the surveillance of PRRSV in breeding herds. PMID:24690609

Trang, Nguyen Thi; Yamamoto, Tsukasa; Matsuda, Mari; Okumura, Naoko; Giang, Nguyen Thi Huong; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

2014-01-01

179

A simple and rapid immunochromatographic strip test for detecting antibody to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is rapidly gaining worldwide importance as one of the most economically significant diseases of swine. The antibody of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is detected currently by the combined use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, serum neutralization test, immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. These methods are time-consuming and require specialized equipment operated by trained technicians. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simple strip assay (based on a chromatographic and immunogold system) for specific detection of PRRSV antibody in swine sera. This "immunochromatographic strip" test uses Escherichia coli-expressed viral recombinant membrane protein antigen in combination with recombinant nucleocapsid protein as capture protein for detecting antibodies against PRRSV. In this study, the performance of this assay was evaluated with sera from both clinical samples and experimentally infected piglets. Detection by immunochromatographic strip test was compared with detection by a standard, available commercially, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The immunochromatographic test strip detected antibodies in sera known to contain antibodies to PRRSV in 95.7% sensitivity of samples from pigs infected experimentally and 98.6% sensitivity of clinical serum samples. For sera that did not contain antibodies to PRRSV, the specificity was 97.8% and 98.2% for clinical and experimental serum samples, respectively. PMID:18619681

Cui, Shangjin; Zhou, Shenghua; Chen, Changmu; Qi, Ting; Zhang, Chaofan; Oh, JinSik

2008-09-01

180

Novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by an alternative ORF5 present in all arteriviruses  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus that emerged in the late 1980s in both Europe and North America as the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), now the most important disease of swine worldwide. Despite extensive characterization of PRRSV proteins by direct analysis and comparison with other arteriviruses, determinants of virulence, pathogenesis and protective immune recognition remain poorly understood. Thus, we hypothesized that additional ORFs are present in the PRRSV genome that may contribute to its biological properties, and so we screened highly purified virions of strain VR2332, the prototype type 2 PRRSV, for evidence of novel polypeptides. A 51 aa polypeptide was discovered that is encoded by an alternative ORF of the subgenomic mRNA encoding the major envelope glycoprotein, GP5, and which is incorporated into virions. The protein, referred to as ORF5a protein, is expressed in infected cells, and pigs infected with PRRSV express anti-ORF5a protein antibodies. A similar ORF is present as an alternative reading frame in all PRRSV subgenomic RNA5 genes and in all other arteriviruses, suggesting that this ORF5a protein plays a significant role in arterivirology. Its discovery also provides a new potential target for immunological and pharmacological intervention in PRRS. PMID:21307222

Johnson, Craig R.; Griggs, Theodor F.; Gnanandarajah, Josephine

2011-01-01

181

Association between the genetic similarity of the open reading frame 5 sequence of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the similarity in clinical signs of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Ontario swine herds.  

PubMed

A study of Ontario swine farms positive for Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) tested the association between genetic similarity of the virus and similarity of clinical signs reported by the herd owner. Herds were included if a positive result of polymerase chain reaction for PRRSV at the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, was found between September 2004 and August 2007. Nucleotide-sequence similarity and clinical similarity, as determined from a telephone survey, were calculated for all pairs of herds. The Mantel test indicated that clinical similarity and sequence similarity were weakly correlated for most clinical signs. The generalized additive model indicated that virus homology with 2 vaccine viruses affected the association between sequence similarity and clinical similarity. When the data for herds with vaccine-like virus were removed from the dataset there was a significant association between virus similarity and similarity of the reported presence of abortion, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and sow/boar mortality. Ownership similarity was also found to be associated with virus similarity and with similarity of the reported presence of sows being off-feed, nursery respiratory disease, nursery mortality, finisher respiratory disease, and finisher mortality. These results indicate that clinical signs of PRRS are associated with PRRSV genotype and that herd ownership is associated with both of these. PMID:25355993

Rosendal, Thomas; Dewey, Cate; Friendship, Robert; Wootton, Sarah; Young, Beth; Poljak, Zvonimir

2014-10-01

182

Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

SciTech Connect

Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-alpha treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells is dependent on TGF-beta but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-alpha treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.

Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Mwangi, Waithaka [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Hernandez, Jesus, E-mail: jhdez@ciad.m [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2009-05-10

183

Guidelines for national human immunodeficiency virus case surveillance, including monitoring for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  

PubMed

CDC recommends that all states and territories conduct case surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as an extension of current acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance activities. The expansion of national surveillance to include both HIV infection and AIDS cases is a necessary response to the impact of advances in antiretroviral therapy, the implementation of new HIV treatment guidelines, and the increased need for epidemiologic data regarding persons at all stages of HIV disease. Expanded surveillance will provide additional data about HIV-infected populations to enhance local, state, and federal efforts to prevent HIV transmission, improve allocation of resources for treatment services, and assist in evaluating the impact of public health interventions. CDC will provide technical assistance to all state and territorial health departments to continue or establish HIV and AIDS case surveillance systems and to evaluate the performance of their surveillance programs. This report includes a revised case definition for HIV infection in adults and children, recommended program practices, and performance and security standards for conducting HIV/AIDS surveillance by local, state, and territorial health departments. The revised surveillance case definition and associated recommendations become effective January 1, 2000. PMID:10632297

1999-12-10

184

TRANCE AND POSSESSION LIKE SYMPTOMS IN A CASE OF CNS LESION: A CASE REPORT  

PubMed Central

Trance and possession symptoms along with religious and mystic experiences are commonly seen in Indian patients. Though, commonly conceptualized under the rubric of dissociative disorders, possession like symptoms can be present in variety of clinical conditions. Trance and possession syndrome results from a variety of central nervous system involvement. We report here such a case with lesion in the basal ganglia and fronto-patietal lobes. Pathophysiology and cultural connotation of the symptoms is discussed. PMID:21206884

Basu, Soumya; Gupta, Subhash C.; Akthar, Sayeed

2002-01-01

185

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Potentiation of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Induced Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental model that demonstrates a mycoplasma species acting to potentiate a viral pneumonia was developed. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic, lymphohistiocytic bronchopneumonia in pigs, was found to potentiate the severity and the duration of a virus-induced pneumonia in pigs. Pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to, simultaneously with, or 10 days after inoculation with porcine

EILEEN L. THACKER; PATRICK G. HALBUR; RICHARD F. ROSS; ROONGROJE THANAWONGNUWECH; BRAD J. THACKER

186

Lupus anticoagulant in Nigerian patients living with human immunodeficiency virus\\/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Lupus anticoagulants (LACs) are frequently found in patients with human immuno- deficiency virus (HIV). This study was designed to examine the prevalence of LACs and its significance in HIV-infected Nigerian patients. Methods: LACs were assayed, and complete blood count and direct Coombs' test (DCT) were performed for 155 participants. Patients with other conditions known to be associated

Muhammad Alhaji Ndakotsu; Lateef Salawu; Muheez Alani Durosinmi

187

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Correlation but not Causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseas es. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in

Peter H. Duesberg

1989-01-01

188

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Correlation but not Causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about

Peter H. Duesberg

1989-01-01

189

A Simple PCR Procedure to Detect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) of Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricious)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-stop, single tube and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique with simple procedure was developed for simultaneous detection and grading the level of white spot syndrome infection in penaeid shrimp, Penaeus monodon. In this PCR procedure, three sense primers and one antisense primer with uniform annealing temperature of 55 °C were used. These primers amplify three PCR products (500,

A. S. Sahul Hameed; V. Parameswaran; S. Syed Musthaq; R. Sudhakaran; G. Balasubramanian; K. Yoganandhan

2005-01-01

190

50 CFR 648.125 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...possession limit when carrying passengers for hire or when carrying more than five crew members for a party boat, or more than three crew members for a charter boat. This possession limit may be adjusted pursuant to the procedures in §...

2010-10-01

191

50 CFR 648.105 - Possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...possession limit when carrying passengers for hire or when carrying more than five crew members for a party boat, or more than three crew members for a charter boat. This possession limit may be adjusted pursuant to the procedures in §...

2010-10-01

192

50 CFR 648.105 - Possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...possession limit when carrying passengers for hire or when carrying more than five crew members for a party boat, or more than three crew members for a charter boat. This possession limit may be adjusted pursuant to the procedures in §...

2011-10-01

193

Metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who do not have obesity or type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The individual components of metabolic syndrome may be independent predictors of mortality in patients with liver disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related components in hepatitis C virus–infected patients who are not obese and do not have type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 125 patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Anthropometric data were measured according to standardized procedures. Bioimpedance analysis was performed on all patients. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 21.6% of patients. Of the subjects with metabolic syndrome, 59.3% had hypertension, 77.8% had insulin resistance, 85.2% were overweight, 48.1% had a high waist circumference, 85.2% had an increased body fat percentage, and 92.3% had an elevated waist:hip ratio. In the bivariate analysis, female sex (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.09–6.25), elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (?GT) (OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.04–7.29), elevated fasting glucose (OR 8.05; 95% CI: 3.17-21.32), low HDL cholesterol (OR 2.80; 95% CI: 1.07–7.16), hypertriglyceridemia (OR 7.91; 95% CI: 2.88–22.71), elevated waist circumference (OR 10.33; 95% CI: 3.72–30.67), overweight (OR 11.33; 95% CI: 3.97–41.07), and increased body fat percentage (OR 8.34; 95% CI: 2.94–30.08) were independent determinants of metabolic syndrome. Using the final multivariate regression model, similar results were observed for abdominal fat (OR 9.98; 95% CI: 2.63–44.41) and total body fat percentage (OR 8.73; 95% CI: 2.33–42.34). However, metabolic syndrome risk was also high for those with blood glucose ?5.55 mmol/L or HDL cholesterol <0.9 mmol/L (OR 16.69; 95% CI: 4.64–76.35; OR 7.23; 95% CI: 1.86–32.63, respectively). CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among hepatitis C virus–infected patients without type 2 diabetes or obesity. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with hypertension, insulin resistance, increased abdominal fat, and overweight. PMID:22473401

Oliveira, Lucivalda Pereira Magalhães; de Jesus, Rosangela P.; Boulhosa, Ramona SSB; Mendes, Carlos Mauricio C.; Lyra, Andre Castro; Lyra, Luiz Guilherme C.

2012-01-01

194

Interleukin-21 Overexpression Dominates T Cell Response to Epstein-Barr Virus in a Fatal Case of X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Type 1  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine whose actions are closely related to B cell differentiation into plasma cells as well as to CD8+ cytolytic T cell effector and memory generation, influencing the T lymphocyte response to different viruses. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 (XLP-1) is a primary immunodeficiency syndrome that is characterized by a high susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. We observed in a pediatric patient with XLP-1 that IL-21 was expressed in nearly all peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, IL-21 could not be found in the lymph nodes, suggesting massive mobilization of activated cells toward the infection's target organs, where IL-21-producing cells were detected, resulting in large areas of tissue damage. PMID:23467775

Ortega, Consuelo; Estevez, Orlando A.; Fernandez, Silvia; Aguado, Rocio; Rumbao, Jose M.; Gonzalez, Teresa; Perez-Navero, Juan L.

2013-01-01

195

THE ECONOMIC BURDEN OF ILLNESS FOR HOUSEHOLDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A REVIEW OF STUDIES FOCUSING ON MALARIA, TUBERCULOSIS, AND HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS\\/ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ill-health contributes to impoverishment, a process brought into sharper focus by the impact of the human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS) epidemic. This paper reviews studies that have measured the economic costs and consequences of illness for households, focusing on malaria, tuberculosis (TB), and HIV\\/AIDS. It finds that in resource-poor settings illness imposed high and regressive cost burdens on patients

STEVEN RUSSELL

196

Putative cis-Acting Stem-Loops in the 5' Untranslated Region of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Can Substitute for Their Mouse Hepatitis Virus Counterparts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consensus covariation-based secondary structural models for the 5! 140 nucleotides of the 5! untranslated regions (5! UTRs) from mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SCoV) were developed and predicted three major helical stem-loop structures, designated stem-loop 1 (SL1), SL2, and SL4. The SCoV 5! UTR was predicted to contain a fourth stem-loop, named SL3, in which

Hyojeung Kang; Min Feng; Megan E. Schroeder; David P. Giedroc; Julian L. Leibowitz

2006-01-01

197

A syntenin-like protein with postsynaptic density protein (PDZ) domains produced by black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in response to white spot syndrome virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the isolation and characterization of products from a subtractive cDNA library from the haemolymph of Penaeus monodon experimentally infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). One cDNA derived from up-regulated mRNA was identified. A homology search indicated similarity to the putative protein syntenin (TE8). The nearly complete nucleotide sequence of TE8 was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA

Phuwadol Bangrak; Potchanapond Graidist; Wilaiwan Chotigeat; Kidchakan Supamattaya; Amornrat Phongdara

2002-01-01

198

Analysis of the VP19 and VP28 genes of white spot syndrome virus in Korea and comparison with strains from other countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of our DNA analysis showed that there was 100% homology of the VP28 and VP19 genes of white spot syndrome virus\\u000a (WSSV) among the samples collected from different shrimp farms in Korea. Comparing with an earlier isolated Korean strain,\\u000a Korea01, the genes nucleotide sequences had only a single base difference which was observed in both VP19 and VP28.

Jung-Eun Park; Hyun-Jin Shin

2009-01-01

199

Aromatic Amino Acids in the Juxtamembrane Domain of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Are Important for Receptor-Dependent Virus Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike glycoprotein (S) is a class I viral fusion protein that binds to its receptor glycoprotein, human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), and mediates virus entry and cell-cell fusion. The juxtamembrane domain (JMD) of S is an aromatic amino acid-rich region proximal to the transmembrane domain that is highly conserved in all coronaviruses.

Megan W. Howard; Emily A. Travanty; Scott A. Jeffers; M. K. Smith; Sonia T. Wennier; Larissa B. Thackray; Kathryn V. Holmes

2008-01-01

200

Characterization of a Neutralization-Escape Variant of SHIV KU-1, a Virus That Causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Pig-Tailed Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-4) containing thetat, rev, vpu,andenvgenes of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in a genetic background of SIVmac239 was used to develop an animal model in which a primate lentivirus expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein caused acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in macaques. An SHIV-infected pig-tailed macaque that died from AIDS at 24 weeks postinoculation experienced two

Shanil V. Narayan; Sampa Mukherjee; Fenglan Jia; Zhuang Li; Chunyang Wang; Larry Foresman; Coleen McCormick-Davis; Edward B. Stephens; Sanjay V. Joag; Opendra Narayan

1999-01-01

201

Reconstructing the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Hong Kong by using data from HIV positive tests and diagnoses of acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS) epidemic in Hong Kong has been under surveillance in the form of voluntary reporting since 1984. However, there has been little discussion or research on the reconstruction of the HIV incidence curve. This paper is the first to use a modified back-projection method to estimate the incidence of HIV in Hong Kong

P. H. Chau; Paul S. F. Yip; Jisheng S. Cui

2003-01-01

202

Toxicological Safety Evaluation of DNA Plasmid Vaccines against HIV1, Ebola, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or West Nile Virus Is Similar Despite Differing Plasmid Backbones or Gene-Inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vaccine Research Center has developed a number of vaccine candidates for different diseases\\/infectious agents (HIV- 1, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus, West Nile virus, and Ebola virus, plus a plasmid cytokine adjuvant—IL-2\\/Ig) based on a DNA plasmid vaccine platform. To support the clinical de- velopment of each of these vaccine candidates, preclinical studies were performed to screen for potential

Rebecca L. Sheets; Judith Stein; T. Scott Manetz; Charla Andrews; Robert Bailer; John Rathmann; Phillip L. Gomezjj

2006-01-01

203

Epstein-Barr virus-associated pneumonia and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in a lung transplant recipient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 25-year-old lung and liver transplant recipient who developed respiratory failure. High levels of\\u000a Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome copies were detectable in respiratory tract specimens, while the search for various other\\u000a viral, bacterial or fungal pathogens remained empty. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was excluded. Due to the\\u000a rapid progression of respiratory insufficiency, a re-transplantation of the

Andi Krumbholz; Tim Sandhaus; Angela Göhlert; Albert Heim; Roland Zell; Renate Egerer; Martin Breuer; Eberhard Straube; Peter Wutzler; Andreas Sauerbrei

2010-01-01

204

Role of metabolic syndrome components in human immunodeficiency virus-associated stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors, including elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), atherogenic dyslipidemia\\u000a (elevated triglycerides [TRG]), abdominal obesity (increased body mass index [BMI]), glucose intolerance (elevated glucose\\u000a [GLU]), and prothrombotic\\/inflammatory state (increases in uric acid [UA]), that are associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular\\u000a disease. We studied if an association existed between MetS components and human

Beau M. Ances; Archana Bhatt; Florin Vaida; Debralee Rosario; Terry Alexander; Jennifer Marquie-Beck; Ronald J. Ellis; Scott Letendre; Igor Grant; J. Allen McCutchan

2009-01-01

205

Hemophagocytic Syndrome: An Unusual Manifestation of Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 18 year-old heterosexual man was hospitalized because of fever, chills, a sore throat, and a dry cough for 8 days. He had\\u000a had sexual intercourse with a new partner within the 4 months prior to admission. At admission, the patient presented a clinical\\u000a picture compatible with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). The presence of hemophagocytosis was subsequently determined pathologically\\u000a from bone

Te-Li Chen; Wing-Wai Wong; Tzeon-Jye Chiou

2003-01-01

206

Isolation and characterization of a Chinese strain of Tembusu virus from Hy-Line Brown layers with acute egg-drop syndrome in Fujian, China.  

PubMed

Tembusu virus (TMUV) has been a causative agent of an acute egg-drop syndrome found in Chinese duck populations since at least 2010. In this paper, we report the characterization of a TMUV-like flavivirus (named CJD05) isolated from naturally infected egg-laying fowl. The virus was identified and then isolated from hens suffering from severe egg drop and fever in Fujian Province, China. The virus replicated well in MDEF and CEF cells, and its cytopathogenic effect (CPE) was apparent. Hemagglutinating activity (HA) was negative for this virus using erythrocytes from both chickens and pigeons. Viral particles were enveloped and approximately 45 nm in diameter, as observed by electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length nucleotide sequence of CJD05 indicated that this virus is closely related to the duck-origin TMUV, belonging to Ntaya group of flavivirus. Most importantly, pathogenicity studies showed that CJD05 is highly virulent in 1-day-old chicks, 1-day-old Muscovy ducks, egg-laying chickens and shelducks. Our research highlights the increase in epidemic disease caused by avian TMUV, and subsequent outbreaks are becoming more complicated to treat. The pathogenic mechanisms of the virus are still not fully understood, further research is needed. PMID:24297489

Chen, Shilong; Wang, Shao; Li, Zhaolong; Lin, Fengqiang; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Xiaoli; Wang, Jingxiang; Chen, Shaoying; Huang, Meiqing; Zheng, Min

2014-05-01

207

Enzyme immuno assay for the detection of virus specific IgG and IgM antibody in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.  

PubMed

Consecutive serum samples collected from 235 patients with Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), between two days and two years after onset of disease, have been analysed for the presence of IgG and IgM type of antibodies specific for Hanta-viruses. The sera were screened in parallel by a newly developed indirect Immuno Enzyme Assay (EIA) in parallel with Indirect Immunofluorescent Antibody Assay (IFA). In both tests the Hantaan virus strain 76-118 was used as the antigen. The EIA was much more sensitive than the IFA test for the detection of IgM type antibodies. With the indirect EIA IgM type antibodies against Hantaan virus 76-118 have been detected in HFRS patient's sera from the second day of illness indicating the usefulness of this test for the early serological diagnosis of this disease. PMID:2898929

Ivanov, A P; Tkachenko, E A; Petrov, V A; Pashkov, A J; Dzagurova, T K; Vladimirova, T P; Voronkova, G M; van der Groen, G

1988-01-01

208

Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control) L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10?5) against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes) were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:23469011

Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Peng, Min; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaohan

2013-01-01

209

Confirmation of Choclo Virus as the Cause of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and high serum antibody prevalence in Panama  

PubMed Central

Choclo virus (CHOV) was described in sigmodontine rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, and humans during an outbreak of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in 1999 to 2000 in western Panama. Although HCPS is rare, hantavirus-specific serum antibody prevalence among the general population is high suggesting that CHOV may cause many mild or asymptomatic infections. The goals of this study were to confirm the role of CHOV in HCPS and in the frequently detected serum antibody and to established the phylogenetic relationship with other New World hantaviruses. CHOV was cultured to facilitate the sequencing of the small (S) and medium (M) segments and to perform CHOV-specific serum neutralization antibody assays. Sequences of the S and M segments found a close relationship to other Oligoryzomys-borne hantaviruses in the Americas, highly conserved terminal nucleotides, and no evidence for recombination events. The maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses of complete M segment nucleotide sequences indicate a close relationship to Maporal and Laguna Negra viruses, found at the base of the South American clade. In a focus neutralization assay acute and convalescent sera from 6 Panamanian HCPS patients neutralized CHOV in dilutions from 1:200 to 1:6400. In a sample of antibody-positive adults without a history of HCPS, 9 of 10 sera neutralized CHOV in dilutions ranging from 1:100 to 1:6400. Although cross-neutralization with other sympatric hantaviruses not yet associated with human disease is possible, CHOV appears to be the causal agent for most of the mild or asymptomatic hantavirus infections, as well as HCPS, in Panama. PMID:20648614

Nelson, Randin; Cañate, Raul; Pascale, Juan Miguel; Dragoo, Jerry W.; Armien, Blas; Armien, Anibal G.; Koster, Frederick

2010-01-01

210

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 B antigenic region is not a neutralizing antigenic region.  

PubMed

In 2006, highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) caused great economic losses emerged in China and continues to be a threat for the pig industry. B antigenic region (AR) ((37)SHL/FQLIYNL(45)) of GP5 was considered to be a major linear neutralizing AR in PRRSV classical strains. However, peptide-purified antibodies against this AR did not neutralize PRRSV in a recent report. Compared with classical PRRSV, one amino acid mutation (L/F(39)? I(39)) was found in B AR of HP-PRRSV. To study the ability of B AR of HP-PRRSV to induce neutralizing antibody (NA) in vitro and in vivo, rabbit antisera against B AR with and without the mutation and pig hyperimmune sera with high titer of NAs against HP-PRRSV were prepared. Immunofluorescence assays (IFA) showed that the two rabbit antisera both had reactivity to classical PRRSV CH-1a and HP-PRRSV HuN4 with no observable difference in IFA titer. However, antisera did not have neutralizing activity against classical PRRSV CH-1a and HP-PRRSV HuN4. No correlation was observed between the levels of anti-B AR peptide antibodies and NAs in pig hyperimmune sera that were detected by indirect ELISA and virus neutralization, respectively. B AR peptide-specific serum antibodies had no neutralizing activity and, GST-B fusion protein could not inhibit neutralization of NAs in pig hyperimmune sera. Based on these findings, we conclude that B AR of HP-PRRSV is not a neutralizing AR of HP-PRRSV GP5. PMID:22771210

Leng, Chao-Liang; An, Tong-Qing; Chen, Jia-Zeng; Gong, Da-Qing; Peng, Jin-Mei; Yang, Yong-Qian; Wu, Jiang; Guo, Juan-Juan; Li, Deng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Meng, Zhen-Xiang; Wu, Yu-Quan; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Tong, Guang-Zhi

2012-10-12

211

Structure of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Complex with Suramin Reveals Therapeutic Potential  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV). Lack of vaccines and inadequate therapeutic treatments have made the spread of the virus a global concern. Viral nucleocapsid protein (N) is essential for its transcription and replication. Here, we present the crystal structures of N from SFTSV and its homologs from Buenaventura (BUE) and Granada (GRA) viruses. The structures reveal that phleboviral N folds into a compact core domain and an extended N-terminal arm that mediates oligomerization, such as tetramer, pentamer, and hexamer of N assemblies. Structural superimposition indicates that phleboviral N adopts a conserved architecture and uses a similar RNA encapsidation strategy as that of RVFV-N. The RNA binding cavity runs along the inner edge of the ring-like assembly. A triple mutant of SFTSV-N, R64D/K67D/K74D, almost lost its ability to bind RNA in vitro, is deficient in its ability to transcribe and replicate. Structural studies of the mutant reveal that both alterations in quaternary assembly and the charge distribution contribute to the loss of RNA binding. In the screening of inhibitors Suramin was identified to bind phleboviral N specifically. The complex crystal structure of SFTSV-N with Suramin was refined to a 2.30-Å resolution. Suramin was found sitting in the putative RNA binding cavity of SFTSV-N. The inhibitory effect of Suramin on SFTSV replication was confirmed in Vero cells. Therefore, a common Suramin-based therapeutic approach targeting SFTSV-N and its homologs could be developed for containing phleboviral outbreaks. PMID:23576501

Jiao, Lianying; Ouyang, Songying; Liang, Mifang; Niu, Fengfeng; Shaw, Neil; Wu, Wei; Ding, Wei; Jin, Cong; Peng, Yao; Zhu, Yanping; Zhang, Fushun; Wang, Tao; Li, Chuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Luan, Chi-Hao; Li, Dexin

2013-01-01

212

Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Sahul Hameed, A.S. [OIE Expert, OIE Reference Laboratory for WTD, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509 (India); Kwang, Jimmy, E-mail: kwang@tll.org.s [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

2009-09-01

213

Structure of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein in complex with suramin reveals therapeutic potential.  

PubMed

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV). Lack of vaccines and inadequate therapeutic treatments have made the spread of the virus a global concern. Viral nucleocapsid protein (N) is essential for its transcription and replication. Here, we present the crystal structures of N from SFTSV and its homologs from Buenaventura (BUE) and Granada (GRA) viruses. The structures reveal that phleboviral N folds into a compact core domain and an extended N-terminal arm that mediates oligomerization, such as tetramer, pentamer, and hexamer of N assemblies. Structural superimposition indicates that phleboviral N adopts a conserved architecture and uses a similar RNA encapsidation strategy as that of RVFV-N. The RNA binding cavity runs along the inner edge of the ring-like assembly. A triple mutant of SFTSV-N, R64D/K67D/K74D, almost lost its ability to bind RNA in vitro, is deficient in its ability to transcribe and replicate. Structural studies of the mutant reveal that both alterations in quaternary assembly and the charge distribution contribute to the loss of RNA binding. In the screening of inhibitors Suramin was identified to bind phleboviral N specifically. The complex crystal structure of SFTSV-N with Suramin was refined to a 2.30-Å resolution. Suramin was found sitting in the putative RNA binding cavity of SFTSV-N. The inhibitory effect of Suramin on SFTSV replication was confirmed in Vero cells. Therefore, a common Suramin-based therapeutic approach targeting SFTSV-N and its homologs could be developed for containing phleboviral outbreaks. PMID:23576501

Jiao, Lianying; Ouyang, Songying; Liang, Mifang; Niu, Fengfeng; Shaw, Neil; Wu, Wei; Ding, Wei; Jin, Cong; Peng, Yao; Zhu, Yanping; Zhang, Fushun; Wang, Tao; Li, Chuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Luan, Chi-Hao; Li, Dexin; Liu, Zhi-Jie

2013-06-01

214

Increasing Expression of MicroRNA 181 Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication and Has Implications for Controlling Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the swine industry. Emerging evidence indicates that the host microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in host-pathogen interactions. However, whether host miRNAs can target PRRSV and be used to inhibit PRRSV infection has not been reported. Recently, microRNA 181 (miR-181) has been identified as a positive regulator of immune response, and here we report that miR-181 can directly impair PRRSV infection. Our results showed that delivered miR-181 mimics can strongly inhibit PRRSV replication in vitro through specifically binding to a highly (over 96%) conserved region in the downstream of open reading frame 4 (ORF4) of the viral genomic RNA. The inhibition of PRRSV replication was specific and dose dependent. In PRRSV-infected Marc-145 cells, the viral mRNAs could compete with miR-181-targeted sequence in luciferase vector to interact with miR-181 and result in less inhibition of luciferase activity, further demonstrating the specific interactions between miR-181 and PRRSV RNAs. As expected, miR-181 and other potential PRRSV-targeting miRNAs (such as miR-206) are expressed much more abundantly in minimally permissive cells or tissues than in highly permissive cells or tissues. Importantly, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain-infected pigs treated with miR-181 mimics showed substantially decreased viral loads in blood and relief from PRRSV-induced fever compared to negative-control (NC)-treated controls. These results indicate the important role of host miRNAs in modulating PRRSV infection and viral pathogenesis and also support the idea that host miRNAs could be useful for RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated antiviral therapeutic strategies. PMID:23152505

Guo, Xue-kun; Zhang, Qiong; Gao, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Xin-xin

2013-01-01

215

Cardiomyopathy Syndrome of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Is Caused by a Double-Stranded RNA Virus of the Totiviridae Family?  

PubMed Central

Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is a disease of yet unknown etiology characterized by a necrotizing myocarditis involving the atrium and the spongious part of the heart ventricle. Here, we report the identification of a double-stranded RNA virus likely belonging to the family Totiviridae as the causative agent of the disease. The proposed name of the virus is piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV). On the basis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequence, PMCV grouped with Giardia lamblia virus and infectious myonecrosis virus of penaeid shrimp. The genome size of PMCV is 6,688 bp, with three open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 likely encodes the major capsid protein, while ORF2 encodes the RdRp, possibly expressed as a fusion protein with the ORF1 product. ORF3 seems to be translated as a separate protein not described for any previous members of the family Totiviridae. Following experimental challenge with cell culture-grown virus, histopathological changes are observed in heart tissue by 6 weeks postchallenge (p.c.), with peak severity by 9 weeks p.c. Viral genome levels detected by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR peak earlier at 6 to 7 weeks p.c. The virus genome is detected by in situ hybridization in degenerate cardiomyocytes from clinical cases of CMS. Virus genome levels in the hearts from clinical field cases correlate well with the severity of histopathological changes in heart tissue. The identification of the causative agent for CMS is important for improved disease surveillance and disease control and will serve as a basis for vaccine development against the disease. PMID:21411528

Haugland, ?yvind; Mikalsen, Aase B.; Nilsen, Pal; Lindmo, Karine; Thu, Beate J.; Eliassen, Trygve M.; Roos, Norbert; Rode, Marit; Evensen, ?ystein

2011-01-01

216

Shrimp Taura syndrome virus detection by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows rapid amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions using four sets of specially designed primers that recognize six distinct target sequences with high specificity and sensitivity. In this report, a 60-min reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) method for amplification of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) cDNA using biotin-labeled primer was combined with a chromatographic lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for rapid and simple visual detection of TSV-specific amplicons. The LFD process involved a 5-min post RT-LAMP step for specific hybridization of cDNA with an FITC-labeled DNA probe that confirmed the presence of specific, biotin-labeled TSV amplicons. The resulting DNA duplexes could be visualized trapped at the LFD strip test line within 5min of sample exposure. Using the combined RT-LAMP and LFD system, the total assay interval was approximately 70min, excluding RNA extraction time. Detection sensitivity was comparable to other commonly used methods for nested RT-PCR detection of TSV. In addition to reduced assay time when compared to electrophoresis, combination of RT-LAMP with LFD confirms amplicon identity by hybridization and eliminates the need to handle carcinogenic ethidium bromide. PMID:18662723

Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Arunrut, Narong; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Flegel, T W

2008-11-01

217

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome stability maintained over six passages through three different penaeid shrimp species.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology. PMID:25144114

Sindhupriya, M; Saravanan, P; Otta, S K; Amarnath, C Bala; Arulraj, R; Bhuvaneswari, T; Praveena, P Ezhil; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

2014-08-21

218

A Novel Compound from the Mushroom Cryptoporus volvatus Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a serious contagious disease in the swine industry. At present, there are no effective control strategies against PRRSV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment regimens that have efficacious antiviral activity to compensate for vaccines. The anti-infective effect of Cryptoporus volvatus has previously been demonstrated in Tradational Chinese Medicine. In this report, we expected to identify a new anti-PRRSV agent in the aqueous extract of C. volvatus, by employing a combination of modern chromatographic purification techniques and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Our results showed that C. volvatus extracts from every separation step differed in their inhibitory potency on PRRSV. One anti-PRRSV component designated as CM-H-L-5 was isolated from water-soluble fraction of C. volvatus. The inhibition induced by CM-H-L-5 occurred in a dose-dependent manner. CM-H-L-5 appeared to be a low-molecular-weight polyol fragment with amide groups and carboxylic acid groups. Collectively, our findings imply that CM-H-L-5 from the aqueous extract of C. volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapy. PMID:24260198

Ma, Zengqiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Mengjuan; Wang, Hexiang; Feng, Wen-hai; Ng, Tzi Bun

2013-01-01

219

Antigenic and immunogenic properties of truncated VP28 protein of white spot syndrome virus in Procambarus clarkii.  

PubMed

Previous studies identify VP28 envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) as its main antigenic protein. Although implicated in viral infectivity, its functional role remains unclear. In the current study, we described the production of polyclonal antibodies to recombinant truncated VP28 proteins including deleted N-terminal (rVP28?N), C-terminal (rVP28?C) and middle (rVP28?M). In antigenicity assays, antibodies developed from VP28 truncations lacking the N-terminal or middle regions showed significantly lowered neutralization of WSSV in crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. Further immunogenicity analysis showed reduced relative percent survival (RPS) in crayfish vaccinating with these truncations before challenge with WSSV. These results indicated that N-terminal (residues 1-27) and middle region (residues 35-95) were essential to maintain the neutralizing linear epitopes of VP28 and responsible in eliciting immune response. Thus, it is most likely that these regions are exposed on VP28, and will be useful for rational design of effective vaccines targeting VP28 of WSSV. PMID:23178263

Du, Hua-Hua; Hou, Chong-Lin; Wu, Xiao-Guo; Xie, Rong-hui; Wang, Yi-Zhen

2013-01-01

220

Grade 4 febrile neutropenia and Fournier's Syndrome associated with triple therapy for hepatitis C virus: A case report  

PubMed Central

The use of triple therapy for hepatitis C not only increases the rate of sustained virological responses compared with the use of only interferon and ribavirin (RBV) but also leads to an increased number of side effects. The subject of this study was a 53-year-old male who was cirrhotic with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 A and was a previous null non-responder. We initially attempted retreatment with boceprevir (BOC), Peg-interferon and RBV, and a decrease in viral load was observed in the 8th week. In week 12, he presented with disorientation, flapping, fever, tachypnea, arterial hypotension and tachycardia. He also exhibited leucopenia with neutropenia. Cefepime and filgrastim were initiated, and treatment for hepatitis C was suspended. A myelogram revealed hypoplasia, cytotoxicity and maturational retardation. After 48 h, he developed bilateral inguinal erythema that evolved throughout the perineal area to the root of the thighs, with exulcerations and an outflow of seropurulent secretions. Because we hypothesized that he was suffering from Fournier’s Syndrome, treatment was replaced with the antibiotics imipenem, linezolid and clindamycin. After this new treatment paradigm was initiated, his lesions regressed without requiring surgical debridement. Triple therapy requires knowledge regarding the management of adverse effects and drug interactions; it also requires an understanding of the importance of respecting the guidelines for the withdrawal of treatment. In this case report, we observed an adverse event that had not been previously reported in the literature with the use of BOC. PMID:25018856

Oliveira, Kelly Cristhian Lima; Cardoso, Emili de Oliveira Bortolon; de Souza, Suzana Carla Pereira; Machado, Flavia Souza; Zangirolami, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Moreira, Alecsandro; Silva, Giovanni Faria; de Oliveira, Cassio Vieira

2014-01-01

221

Interactome Profile of the Host Cellular Proteins and the Nonstructural Protein 2 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

The nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) is considered to be one of crucial viral proteins in the replication and pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In the present study, the host cellular proteins that interact with the NSP2 of PRRSV were immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody from the MARC-145 cells infected by a recombinant PRRSV with 3xMyc tag insertion in its NSP2-coding region, and then 285 cellular proteins interacting with NSP2 were identified by LC-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology and enriched KEGG Pathway bioinformatics analyses indicated that the identified proteins could be assigned to different subcellular locations and functional classes. Functional analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with infectious disease, translation, immune system, nervous system and signal transduction. Two interested cellular proteins–BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6) and apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) which may involve in transporting of NSP2 to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or PRRSV-driven apoptosis were validated by Western blot. The interactome data between PRRSV NSP2 and cellular proteins contribute to the understanding of the roles of NSP2 in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV, and also provide novel cellular target proteins for elucidating the associated molecular mechanisms of the interaction of host cellular proteins with viral proteins in regulating the viral replication. PMID:24901321

Zhang, Han; Li, Yan; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yu, Kangzhen; Yang, Hanchun

2014-01-01

222

Detection of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Brains of Cattle with a Neurological Syndrome: Pathological and Molecular Studies  

PubMed Central

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was investigated in the central nervous system (CNS) of cattle with neurological syndrome. A total of 269 CNS samples were submitted to nested-PCR (BLV env gene gp51), and the viral genotypes were identified. The nested-PCR was positive in 4.8% (13/269) CNS samples, with 2.7% (2/74) presenting at histological examination lesions of nonpurulent meningoencephalitis (NPME), whereas 5.6% (11/195) not presenting NPME (P > 0.05). No samples presented lymphosarcoma. The PCR products (437?bp) were sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis by neighbor-joining and maximum composite likelihood methods, and genotypes 1, 5, and 6 were detected, corroborating other South American studies. The genotype 6 barely described in Brazil and Argentina was more frequently detected in this study. The identity matrices showed maximum similarity (100%) among some samples of this study and one from Argentina (FJ808582), recovered from GenBank. There was no association among the genotypes and NPME lesions. PMID:23710448

D'Angelino, Rubens Henrique Ramos; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Harakava, Ricardo; Gregori, Fabio

2013-01-01

223

Purifying selection in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein influences variation in envelope glycoprotein 5 glycosylation.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein is encoded in an alternate open reading frame upstream of the major envelope glycoprotein (GP5) in subgenomic mRNA5. Bioinformatic analysis of 3466 type 2 PRRSV sequences showed that the two proteins have co-evolved through a fine balance of purifying codon usage to maintain a conserved RQ-rich motif in ORF5a protein, while eliciting a variable N-linked glycosylation motif in the alternative GP5 reading frame. Conservation of the ORF5a protein RQ-motif also explains an anomalous uracil desert in GP5 hypervariable glycosylation region. The N-terminus of the mature GP5 protein was confirmed to start with amino acid 32, the hypervariable region of the ectodomain. Since GP5 glycosylation variability is assumed to result from immunological selection against neutralizing antibodies, these findings show that an alternative possibility unrelated to immunological selection not only exists, but provides a foundation for investigating previously unsuspected aspects of PRRSV biology. Understanding functional consequences of subtle nucleotide sequence modifications in the region responsible for critical function in ORF5a protein and GP5 glycosylation is essential for rational design of new vaccines against PRRS. PMID:24084290

Robinson, Sally R; Abrahante, Juan E; Johnson, Craig R; Murtaugh, Michael P

2013-12-01

224

Characterisation of novel linear antigen epitopes on North American-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus M protein.  

PubMed

The M protein, encoded by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF6 gene, is considered to be one of the most conserved PRRSV proteins. In recent decades, highly specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have been exploited to provide reliable diagnoses for many diseases. In this study, two different Mab clones targeting the linear epitopes on the PRRSV M protein were generated and characterized. Both Mabs showed binding activity against the native PRRSV virion and recombinant M protein when analyzed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot. The targeted epitope of each Mab was mapped by serial truncation of the M protein to generate overlapping fragments. Fine epitope mapping was then performed using a panel of expressed polypeptides. The polypeptide sequences of the two epitopes recognized by Mabs 1C8 and 3F7 were (3)SSLD(6) and (155)VLGGRKAVK(163), respectively, with the former being a newly identified epitope on the M protein. In both cases, these two epitopes were finely mapped for the first time. Alignments of Mab epitope sequences revealed that the two epitopes on the M protein were highly conserved between the North American-type strains. These Mabs, along with their mapped epitopes, are useful for the development of diagnostic and research tools, including immunofluorescence, ELISA and Western blot. PMID:25037720

Wang, Qian; Chen, Jiazeng; Peng, Jinmei; An, Tongqing; Leng, Chaoliang; Sun, Yan; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Tian, Zhijun; Yang, Hanchun

2014-11-01

225

Immune modulations and protection by translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in Fenneropenaeus indicus harboring white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

Fenneropenaeus indicus translationally controlled tumor protein (Fi-TCTP) was cloned and expressed using pET 100a-D-TOPO in prokaryotic expression system and it exhibited putative antioxidant activity as assessed in vitro by enhanced growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The protective efficacy of recombinant Fi-TCTP (rFi-TCTP) was evaluated in F. indicus by intramuscular and oral administration. Intramuscular injection of rFi-TCTP to shrimps, on subsequent white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection exhibited 42% relative percent survival. To understand the mechanism of protection, immunological parameters such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), phenoloxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed in early (24h) and late (60h) stages of infection. rFi-TCTP pretreatment significantly lowers the WSSV induced ROS generation and respiratory burst during early and late stages of infection. Further, WSSV induced apoptotic changes such as reduced haemocyte count, loss in MMP and DNA fragmentation were significantly reduced during early and late stage of infection upon rFi-TCTP administration. Hence, the immunomodulatory studies suggest that protective effect of rFi-TCTP in treated shrimps, might be due to the reduction in ROS and apoptosis, following decreased mitochondrial damage together with reduced phenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst. PMID:24837973

Rajesh, S; Kamalakannan, V; Narayanan, R B

2014-07-01

226

Elimination of shrimp endogenous peroxidase background in immunodot blot assays to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

False positive results were obtained in immunodot blot assays to detect white spot syndrome virus when horseradish peroxidase-conjugated sheep anti-mouse immunoglobin (Ig) serum was used as a secondary antibody with 3-3'-diaminobenzine tetrahydrochloride dihydrate as the detection substrate. The cause was considered to be a reaction of shrimp endogenous peroxidase (POD) with the substrate. In experiments designed to inhibit POD activity, 9 different reagents were used at different concentrations and for different treatment times. EDTA, sodium azide, HEPES-Na, NaHSO3, H2O2 and phenylthiourea (PTU) were able to inhibit POD activity by 44, 60, 64, 67, 79, and 90%, respectively. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride did not inhibit POD, and neither periodic acid nor H2O2 in methanol were appropriate due to the formation of flocculant precipitates when added to shrimp extracts. It was concluded that of the treatments tested, 10 mM PTU for 2 h yielded optimal inhibition and that such pretreatment of samples eliminates false positive results in immunodot blot assays. PMID:12691198

Zhan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Zhou, Li; Fukuda, Hideo

2003-02-27

227

Participation of both Host and Virus Factors in Induction of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in F344 Rats Infected with SARS Coronavirus?  

PubMed Central

To understand the pathogenesis and develop an animal model of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the Frankfurt 1 SARS-CoV isolate was passaged serially in young F344 rats. Young rats were susceptible to SARS-CoV but cleared the virus rapidly within 3 to 5 days of intranasal inoculation. After 10 serial passages, replication and virulence of SARS-CoV were increased in the respiratory tract of young rats without clinical signs. By contrast, adult rats infected with the passaged virus showed respiratory symptoms and severe pathological lesions in the lung. Levels of inflammatory cytokines in sera and lung tissues were significantly higher in adult F344 rats than in young rats. During in vivo passage of SARS-CoV, a single amino acid substitution was introduced within the binding domain of the viral spike protein recognizing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is known as a SARS-CoV receptor. The rat-passaged virus more efficiently infected CHO cells expressing rat ACE2 than did the original isolate. These results strongly indicate that host and virus factors such as advanced age and virus adaptation are critical for the development of SARS in rats. PMID:17151094

Nagata, Noriyo; Iwata, Naoko; Hasegawa, Hideki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Yokoyama, Masaru; Harashima, Ayako; Sato, Yuko; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Sata, Tetsutaro

2007-01-01

228

Profiling of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus-resistant shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridisation.  

PubMed

In order to find immune-relevant factors responsible for virus resistance and response to the virus infection, the suppression subtractive hybridisation method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes and their expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistant and susceptible Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Two forward subtractive libraries (at 0 and 48h time point) and two reverse subtractive libraries (at 0 and 48h time point) were constructed, and more than 1200 clones were sequenced, of which 40 differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes encode proteins corresponding to a wide range of functions, including defence-related proteins, enzymes, transcription factors, apoptotic-related proteins, intracellular components potentially related to signaling cascades, metabolic proteins, and cytoskeletal protein. Five genes (laccase, carboxypeptidase B, H(+)-transporting ATP synthase, Acyl-ConA-binding protein (ACBP), and cortical granule protein with LDL-receptor) are found for the first time in shrimp and their expressions were up-regulated in the virus-resistant shrimp. Among the 40 genes, 30 showed up-regulation in the virus-resistant shrimp comparing with susceptible shrimp, while 10 genes showed down-regulation. Haemocyanin was the most abundant gene in our forward subtractive libraries. In addition, chathepsin L, ecdysteroid regulated protein, zinc proteinase, lectin, sterol carrier protein-X, lysozyme, cortical granule protein with LDL-receptor, leucine-rich repeat LGI family, fatty acid binding protein, and preamylase all showed up-regulation in the resistant shrimp. Furthermore, a number of genes encoding apoptotic-related proteins and antioxidant enzymes were expressed at a higher level in the virus-resistant shrimp. The high expression of the immune-relevant genes in response to the virus infection provides a new insight for further study in the shrimp innate immunity. PMID:17158065

Zhao, Zhi-Ying; Yin, Zhi-Xin; Weng, Shao-Ping; Guan, Hao-Ji; Li, Se-Dong; Xing, Ke; Chan, Siu-Ming; He, Jian-Guo

2007-05-01

229

50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Possession...person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass, in, or harvested from the...operator of a fishing vessel issued a black sea bass moratorium permit, or is...

2011-10-01

230

50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Possession...person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass, in, or harvested from the...operator of a fishing vessel issued a black sea bass moratorium permit, or is...

2010-10-01

231

Attitudes toward material possessions among Chinese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to quantify how children in urban China perceive someone described as owning many or few expensive toys. It aims to measure the types of possessions and personal characteristics they attributed to such individuals. This is an extension of previous research on perceived links between possessions and personal characteristics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 268 Chinese

Kara Chan; Fan Hu

2008-01-01

232

Possession and Morality in Early Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the moment children say "mine!" by two years of age, objects of possession change progressively from being experienced as primarily unalienable property (i.e., something that is absolute or nonnegotiable), to being alienable (i.e., something that is negotiable in reciprocal exchanges). As possession begins to be experienced as alienable, the…

Rochat, Philippe

2011-01-01

233

MRN-100, an Iron-based Compound, Possesses Anti-HIV Activity In Vitro*  

PubMed Central

We examined the in vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity of MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and tervalent ferrates. MRN-100 action against HIV-1 (SF strain) was tested in primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) by analyzing p24 antigen production and percent survival of MNC infected with HIV. MRN-100 at a concentration of 10% (v/v) inhibited HIV-1 replication in 11 out of 14 samples (79%). The percentage of suppression of p24 antigen was ?12.3 to 100% at 10 days post-treatment. MRN-100 also exhibited a significant protective effect in the survival of HIV-1-infected MNC. MNC survival post-treatment was dose dependent, 70.4% ± 8.4, 83.6% ± 10.7 and 90% ± 11.4, at concentrations 2.5, 5 and 10% (v/v), respectively, as compared with 53% ± 4 for HIV-1-infected MNC without treatment. The effect was detected as early as 4 days and continued up to 11 days. Treatment with MRN-100 caused no significant change in proliferative response of MNC alone or cocultured with different mitogens: PHA and Con-A (activators of T cell function) and PWM (activator of CD4+ T cell-dependent B cells). We concluded that MRN-100 possesses anti-HIV activity in vitro and without an increase in lymphocyte proliferation, MRN-100 may be a useful agent for treating patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:18955328

Shaheen, Magda

2010-01-01

234

Evaluation of the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig meat and experimental transmission following oral exposure  

PubMed Central

Abstract A study was performed to evaluate the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pig meat collected at slaughterhouses and its potential transmission to pigs via pig meat. A total of 1039 blood samples were collected from pigs upon their arrival at the abattoir. The following day, meat samples (n = 1027) were collected from the carcasses of these same pigs. Samples originated from 2 Canadian slaughterhouses, 1 situated in the province of Quebec and the other situated in the province of Manitoba. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to PRRSV and both serum and meat samples were also tested for PRRSV nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seropositivity to PRRSV for all serum samples was 74.3%. Furthermore 45 (4.3%) of the total serum samples and 19 (1.9%) of the 1027 meat samples were positive for PRRSV by PCR. Sequence analysis of open reading frame (ORF) 5 performed on 15 of the 19 PRRSV strains identified in pig meat indicated that 9 were field strains and 6 were vaccine-like (98% to 99.7% nucleotide homology with the Ingelvac RespPRRS/Repro vaccine). One of these 6 strains presented an intermediate 2-6-2 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) cut pattern and the others showed the characteristic 2-5-2 RFLP pattern of the vaccine strain. All strains sequenced were determined to be North American strains. In only 1 of the 19 PRRSV-positive meat samples could PRRSV be isolated. To test the potential infectivity of meat samples containing residual PRRSV, 11 of the PCR-positive meat samples (weighing 1.05 to 1.8 kg) were each used in feeding experiments of 2 PRRSV antibody-negative specific pathogen-free pigs of 9 wk of age. Samples were cut into several pieces and fed to each pair of pigs on 2 consecutive days. Each pig pair was housed in a separate cubicle and serum samples were collected at –7, 0, 7, 14, and 20 to 21 days post exposure. Seven pig pairs were found to be infected by PRRSV following ingestion of meat samples, including meat samples containing vaccine-like virus, as judged by the demonstration of PRRSV antibodies and/or PRRSV nucleic acid in the serum. In summary, the present study indicated that low residual quantities of PRRSV may be found in a small percentage of pig meat collected at slaugtherhouses. Furthermore, when this meat was fed raw to pigs in the experimental setting designed, pigs could be infected by PRRSV. PMID:15581220

2004-01-01

235

Correlation among genetic, Euclidean, temporal, and herd ownership distances of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in Quebec, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease that has a major economic impact for the swine industry. Its control is mostly directed towards preventing its spread which requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of the virus between herds. The objectives of this study were to describe the genetic diversity and to assess the correlation among genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership to better understand pathways of transmission. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted on sites located in a high density area of swine production in Quebec. Geographical coordinates (longitude/latitude), date of submission and ownership were obtained for each site. ORF5 sequencing was attempted on PRRSV positive sites. Proportion of pairwise combinations of strains having ?98% genetic homology were analysed according to Euclidean distances and ownership. Correlations between genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership were assessed using Mantel tests on continuous and binary matrices. Sensitivity of the correlations between genetic and Euclidean as well as temporal distances was evaluated for different Euclidean and temporal distance thresholds. An ORF5 sequence was identified for 132 of the 176 (75%) PRRSV positive sites; 122 were wild-type strains. The mean (min-max) genetic, Euclidean and temporal pairwise distances were 11.6% (0–18.7), 15.0?km (0.04-45.7) and 218?days (0–852), respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between genetic and ownership, genetic and Euclidean and between genetic and temporal binary distances. The relationship between genetic and ownership suggests either common sources of animals or semen, employees, technical services or vehicles, whereas that between genetic and Euclidean binary distances is compatible with area spread of the virus. The latter correlation was observed only up to 5?km. Conclusions This study suggests that transmission of PRRSV is likely to occur between sites belonging to the same owner or through area spread within a 5?km distance. Both should be considered in the perspective of prevention. PMID:22676411

2012-01-01

236

Evaluation of 4 intervention strategies to prevent the mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Four intervention strategies were tested for their ability to prevent the mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): the use of disposable plastic boots to prevent contamination of personal footwear, the use of boot baths to disinfect PRRSV-contaminated plastic boots, the use of plastic slatted (Polygrate) flooring in the anteroom to prevent PRRSV contamination of incoming personal footwear, and the use of bag-in-a-box shipping methods to prevent PRRSV contamination of the contents of a container destined for a swine farm. Ten PRRSV-positive replicates and 10 PRRSV-negative (sham-inoculated) replicates were used for each strategy. Swabs were collected from selected sites and tested by TaqMan polymerase chain reaction for PRRSV RNA and by swine bioassay to confirm the presence of infectious PRRSV. Results indicated that the use of disposable boots, bleach boot baths or bag-in-a-box shipping methods was highly efficacious in preventing mechanical transmission of PRRSV. In contrast, the use of Polygrate flooring in the anteroom did not prevent contamination of personal footwear. The numbers of PRRSV-positive samples from the Polygrate surface and the soles of incoming footwear placed directly on the Polygrate surface were not significantly different (P = 0.24) from those of footwear that directly contacted the floor of the contaminated anteroom. Although these results are promising, this study should be considered a pilot project and the intervention strategies not considered biosecurity protocols. The model used may or may not represent field conditions. Therefore, the information should be used to develop larger experimental studies, with sufficient statistical power, in combination with field-based epidemiologic studies to better assess the role of mechanical transmission of PRRSV under field conditions. PMID:14979431

2004-01-01

237

Susceptibility of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii to different doses of high and low virulence strains of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

As some literature on the susceptibility of different life stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is conflicting, the pathogenesis, infectivity and pathogenicity of 2 WSSV strains (Thai-1 and Viet) were investigated here in juveniles using conditions standardized for Penaeus vannamei. As with P. vannamei, juvenile M. rosenbergii (2 to 5 g) injected with a low dose of WSSV-Thai-1 or a high dose of WSSV-Viet developed comparable clinical pathology and numbers of infected cells within 1 to 2 d post-infection. In contrast, a low dose of WSSV-Viet capable of causing mortality in P. vannamei resulted in no detectable infection in M. rosenbergii. Mean prawn infectious dose 50% endpoints (PID?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii were in the order of 100-fold higher for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.3 ± 0.4 PID?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (103.2 ± 0.2 PID?? ml?¹), with each of these being about 20-fold and 400-fold lower, respectively, than found previously in P. vannamei. The median lethal dose (LD?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii was also far higher (~1000-fold) for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.4 ± 0.4 LD?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (102.3 ± 0.3 LD?? ml?¹). Based on these data, it is clear that juvenile M. rosenbergii are susceptible to WSSV infection, disease and mortality. In comparison to P. vannamei, however, juvenile M. rosenbergii appear more capable of resisting infection and disease, particularly in the case of a WSSV strain with lower apparent virulence. PMID:22968789

Corteel, Mathias; Dantas-Lima, João J; Tuan, Vo Van; Thuong, Khuong Van; Wille, Mathieu; Alday-Sanz, Victoria; Pensaert, Maurice B; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Nauwynck, Hans J

2012-09-12

238

Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Rescue of the Cognitive Defects in a Mouse Model for Angelman Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Angelman syndrome (AS), a genetic disorder occurring in approximately one in every 15,000 births, is characterized by severe mental retardation, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. The gene responsible for AS was discovered to be UBE3A and encodes for E6-AP, an ubiquitin ligase. A unique feature of this gene is that it undergoes maternal imprinting in a neuron-specific manner. In the majority of AS cases, there is a mutation or deletion in the maternally inherited UBE3A gene, although other cases are the result of uniparental disomy or mismethylation of the maternal gene. While most human disorders characterized by severe mental retardation involve abnormalities in brain structure, no gross anatomical changes are associated with AS. However, we have determined that abnormal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) regulation is seen in the maternal UBE3A deletion AS mouse model and is responsible for the major phenotypes. Specifically, there is an increased ?CaMKII phosphorylation at the autophosphorylation sites Thr286 and Thr305/306, resulting in an overall decrease in CaMKII activity. CaMKII is not produced until after birth, indicating that the deficits associated with AS are not the result of developmental abnormalities. The present studies are focused on exploring the potential to rescue the learning and memory deficits in the adult AS mouse model through the use of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to increase neuronal UBE3A expression. These studies show that increasing the levels of E6-AP in the brain using an exogenous vector can improve the cognitive deficits associated with AS. Specifically, the associative learning deficit was ameliorated in the treated AS mice compared to the control AS mice, indicating that therapeutic intervention may be possible in older AS patients. PMID:22174738

Daily, Jennifer L.; Nash, Kevin; Jinwal, Umesh; Golde, Todd; Rogers, Justin; Peters, Melinda M.; Burdine, Rebecca D.; Dickey, Chad; Banko, Jessica L.; Weeber, Edwin J.

2011-01-01

239

Adeno-associated virus-mediated rescue of the cognitive defects in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome.  

PubMed

Angelman syndrome (AS), a genetic disorder occurring in approximately one in every 15,000 births, is characterized by severe mental retardation, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. The gene responsible for AS was discovered to be UBE3A and encodes for E6-AP, an ubiquitin ligase. A unique feature of this gene is that it undergoes maternal imprinting in a neuron-specific manner. In the majority of AS cases, there is a mutation or deletion in the maternally inherited UBE3A gene, although other cases are the result of uniparental disomy or mismethylation of the maternal gene. While most human disorders characterized by severe mental retardation involve abnormalities in brain structure, no gross anatomical changes are associated with AS. However, we have determined that abnormal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) regulation is seen in the maternal UBE3A deletion AS mouse model and is responsible for the major phenotypes. Specifically, there is an increased ?CaMKII phosphorylation at the autophosphorylation sites Thr(286) and Thr(305/306), resulting in an overall decrease in CaMKII activity. CaMKII is not produced until after birth, indicating that the deficits associated with AS are not the result of developmental abnormalities. The present studies are focused on exploring the potential to rescue the learning and memory deficits in the adult AS mouse model through the use of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to increase neuronal UBE3A expression. These studies show that increasing the levels of E6-AP in the brain using an exogenous vector can improve the cognitive deficits associated with AS. Specifically, the associative learning deficit was ameliorated in the treated AS mice compared to the control AS mice, indicating that therapeutic intervention may be possible in older AS patients. PMID:22174738

Daily, Jennifer L; Nash, Kevin; Jinwal, Umesh; Golde, Todd; Rogers, Justin; Peters, Melinda M; Burdine, Rebecca D; Dickey, Chad; Banko, Jessica L; Weeber, Edwin J

2011-01-01

240

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge among high school students in K?r?kkale province of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess the existing level of knowledge of high school children about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the sources of their information. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two high schools in Kirikkale, Turkey and data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample. Results: Four hundred and seventy three participants; 230 males and 243 females were analyzed. Their ages ranged from 15 to 19 years with a mean age of 16.81 ± 1.27. 92.2% of the students claimed to have heard about HIV/AIDS prior to the study with slightly more females than males. Although with some misconceptions, majority of the participants knew that HIV is not transmitted by sharing meals, casual contact, and sleeping in the same room and using the same bathroom. 93.4% identi?ed HIV/AIDS as a life-threatening disease and 27% believe that there is a cure for AIDS. 64% and 22.8% respectively believed that the people can protect themselves by using condoms and by avoiding sexual contact. Internet was preponderantly claimed as the most important source of information about HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that the students have a fairly high knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This is not without some misconceptions about the prognosis of the disease. Internet was the major source of HIV/AIDS information. PMID:23633840

Ayl?kc?, Bahad?r Ugur; Bamise, Cornelius Tokunbo; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa; Turkal, Mustafa; Colak, Hakan

2013-01-01

241

The impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus genetic heterogeneity on molecular assay performances.  

PubMed

The remarkable economic losses due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) have stated the control and eradication of this disease is one of the main issues of swine modern farming. The limited cross-protection of vaccine-induced immunity compelled the adoption of strict biosecurity measures that must be associated with the prompt diagnosis of infection. In our study four RT-PCR methods, a RT-PCR, a SYBR Green I and two hydrolysis probes, were compared to evaluate their respective benefits and disadvantages. One hundred and seventy samples originating from 50 farms located in northern Italy were tested with all assays and performances were evaluated using a Bayesian approach to deal with the absence of a Gold Standard. Sequencing the complete of ORF7, the segment targeted by all methods, allowed a gain of insight into the genetic variability of Italian strains and to investigate the role of mismatches on assay sensitivity. Our study evidenced that methods based only on primers-genome interaction better tolerate PRRSV genetic variability, demonstrating a greater sensitivity (Se): SYBR Green I (Se=98.4%) and RT-PCR (Se=99%) outperform both in-house (Se=71.4%) and commercial (Se=91.7%) probe-based methods. On the other hand, probe-based assays allowed an easier genotyping of PRRSV strains and implementation of the internal control system (IC). Phylogenetic analysis allowed demonstration of a presence of two clades circulating continuously in northern Italy since 1996, when their probable ancestors were collected. PMID:24642238

Drigo, Michele; Franzo, Giovanni; Gigli, Alessandra; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Gracieux, Patrice; Ceglie, Letizia

2014-06-01

242

Nsp9 and Nsp10 contribute to the fatal virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus emerging in China.  

PubMed

Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV), has resulted in large economic loss to the swine industry since its outbreak in 2006. However, to date, the region(s) within the viral genome that are related to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV remain unknown. In the present study, we generated a series of full-length infectious cDNA clones with swapped coding regions between the highly pathogenic RvJXwn and low pathogenic RvHB-1/3.9. Next, the in vitro and in vivo replication and pathogenicity for piglets of the rescued chimeric viruses were systematically analyzed and compared with their backbone viruses. First, we swapped the regions including the 5'UTR+ORF1a, ORF1b, and structural proteins (SPs)-coding region between the two viruses and demonstrated that the nonstructural protein-coding region, ORF1b, is directly related to the fatal virulence and increased replication efficiency of HP-PRRSV both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we substituted the nonstructural protein (Nsp) 9-, Nsp10-, Nsp11- and Nsp12-coding regions separately; or Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together; or Nsp9-, Nsp10- and Nsp11-coding regions simultaneously between the two viruses. Our results indicated that the HP-PRRSV Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together are closely related to the replication efficiency in vitro and in vivo and are related to the increased pathogenicity and fatal virulence for piglets. Our findings suggest that Nsp9 and Nsp10 together contribute to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV emerging in China, helping to elucidate the pathogenesis of this virus. PMID:24992286

Li, Yan; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jialong; Ge, Xinna; Zhou, Rong; Zheng, Huaguo; Geng, Gang; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

2014-07-01

243

Subself theory and reincarnation/possession.  

PubMed

A subself model of the mind is used to account for multiple personality, possession, the spirit controls of mediums, reincarnation, and the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenics, with suggestions for empirical research. PMID:15739836

Lester, David

2004-12-01

244

50 CFR 648.25 - Possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Possession restrictions. (a) Atlantic mackerel. During a...

2010-10-01

245

Concise and Broadly Applicable Method for Determining the Genomic Sequences of North-American-Type Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses in Various Clusters  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We developed a concise and broadly applicable method for accurate genomic sequencing of North American genotype (NA-type) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) that overcomes high genetic variability of the viruses. The method, designated “combination of consensus oligonucleotide reverse transcription and multiple displacement amplification” (CORT-MDA), involves reverse-transcription of viral RNA followed by shotgun sequencing after amplification using only 11 degenerate oligonucleotide primers; these primers were designed against consensus regions within the open reading frames of the 124 NA-type PRRSV strains with reported full-length genomic sequences. Sequencing of the 192 shotgun clones generated per virus showed 80% to 94% coverage on the reported PRRSV genomic sequence, such that only 2 or 3 unread regions had to be resequenced after PCR amplification using custom primers. Direct sequencing of RT-PCR products confirmed absolute consistency between sequences determined by the CORT-MDA method and those from RT-PCR. These results suggest that our method is applicable to diverse NA-type viruses. PMID:24920486

MOROZUMI, Takeya; ISEKI, Hiroshi; TOKI, Daisuke; TAKAGI, Michihiro; TSUNEMITSU, Hiroshi; UENISHI, Hirohide

2014-01-01

246

Evidence for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) broodstock, in the southeast coast of India.  

PubMed

A survey on the presence of the viruses of two economically significant diseases, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild-collected Penaeus monodon broodstock, was conducted during different seasons of the year in two major coastal areas of southeast India. The broodstock were collected along the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during summer, premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for three consecutive years. A total of 7905 samples were collected and subjected to MBV screening, and 6709 samples that were screened as MBV negative were diagnosed for WSSV. MBV was detected using rapid malachite green staining and WSSV by nested polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence data of the viruses were analysed using the EpiCalc 2000 program at 95% confidence interval. Samples collected from the Andhra Pradesh coast displayed a slightly higher prevalence of WSSV and MBV infection than those collected from Tamil Nadu, although this difference was not statistically significant (P > 005). In addition, it was found that the prevalence of both WSSV and MBV infections fluctuated according to season. Data on prevalence of these viruses in broodstock would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management along the southeast coast of India. PMID:22924635

Remany, M C; Daly, C; Nagaraj, S; Panda, A K; Jaideep, K; Samraj, Y C T

2012-11-01

247

White Spot Syndrome Virus Open Reading Frame 222 Encodes a Viral E3 Ligase and Mediates Degradation of a Host Tumor Suppressor via Ubiquitination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) RING-H2-type protein, WSSV222, which is involved in ubiquitination. WSSV222 exhibits RING-H2-dependent E3 ligase activity in vitro in the presence of the specific conjugating enzyme UbcH6. Mutations in the RING-H2 domain abolished WSSV222-dependent ubiquitination, revealing the importance of this domain in WSSV222 function. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down analyses revealed that WSSV222 interacts

Fang He; Beau J. Fenner; Andrew K. Godwin; Jimmy Kwang

2006-01-01

248

Social comparison of material possessions among adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' engagement in social comparison of material possessions using qualitative inquiries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 64 Chinese adolescents aged 13-17 were face-to-face interviewed. They were asked whether they engaged in social comparison of possessions with direct and vicarious role models such as media celebrities. Characteristics of role models and

Kara Chan

2008-01-01

249

27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.  

...2014-04-01 false Possession of used liquor bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 ...BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used...

2014-04-01

250

27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Possession of used liquor bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 ...BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used...

2013-04-01

251

A Small-Molecule Oxocarbazate Inhibitor of Human Cathepsin L Blocks Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Ebola Pseudotype Virus Infection into Human Embryonic Kidney 293T cells  

PubMed Central

A tetrahydroquinoline oxocarbazate (PubChem CID 23631927) was tested as an inhibitor of human cathepsin L (EC 3.4.22.15) and as an entry blocker of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and Ebola pseudotype virus. In the cathepsin L inhibition assay, the oxocarbazate caused a time-dependent 17-fold drop in IC50 from 6.9 nM (no preincubation) to 0.4 nM (4-h preincubation). Slowly reversible inhibition was demonstrated in a dilution assay. A transient kinetic analysis using a single-step competitive inhibition model provided rate constants of kon = 153,000 M?1s?1 and koff = 4.40 × 10?5 s?1 (Ki = 0.29 nM). The compound also displayed cathepsin L/B selectivity of >700-fold and was nontoxic to human aortic endothelial cells at 100 ?M. The oxocarbazate and a related thiocarbazate (PubChem CID 16725315) were tested in a SARS coronavirus (CoV) and Ebola virus-pseudotype infection assay with the oxocarbazate but not the thiocarbazate, demonstrating activity in blocking both SARS-CoV (IC50 = 273 ± 49 nM) and Ebola virus (IC50 = 193 ± 39 nM) entry into human embryonic kidney 293T cells. To trace the intracellular action of the inhibitors with intracellular cathepsin L, the activity-based probe biotin-Lys-C5 alkyl linker-Tyr-Leu-epoxide (DCG-04) was used to label the active site of cysteine proteases in 293T lysates. The reduction in active cathepsin L in inhibitor-treated cells correlated well with the observed potency of inhibitors observed in the virus pseudotype infection assay. Overall, the oxocarbazate CID 23631927 was a subnanomolar, slow-binding, reversible inhibitor of human cathepsin L that blocked SARS-CoV and Ebola pseudotype virus entry in human cells. PMID:20466822

Shah, Parag P.; Wang, Tianhua; Kaletsky, Rachel L.; Myers, Michael C.; Purvis, Jeremy E.; Jing, Huiyan; Huryn, Donna M.; Greenbaum, Doron C.; Smith, Amos B.; Bates, Paul

2010-01-01

252

SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2 UBC9 mediates viral immediate-early protein SUMOylation in crayfish to facilitate reproduction of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Successful viruses have evolved superior strategies to escape host defenses or exploit host biological pathways. Most of the viral immediate-early (ie) genes are essential for viral infection and depend solely on host proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the modification of viral IE proteins by the crayfish small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and investigated the role of SUMOylation during the viral life cycle. SUMO and SUMO ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9) involved in SUMOylation were identified in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Both SUMO and UBC9 were upregulated in crayfish challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Replication of WSSV genes increased in crayfish injected with recombinant SUMO or UBC9, but injection of mutant SUMO or UBC9 protein had no effect. Subsequently, we analyzed the mechanism by which crayfish SUMOylation facilitates WSSV replication. Crayfish UBC9 bound to all three WSSV IE proteins tested, and one of these IE proteins (WSV051) was covalently modified by SUMO in vitro. The expression of viral ie genes was affected and that of late genes was significantly inhibited in UBC9-silenced or SUMO-silenced crayfish, and the inhibition effect was rescued by injection of recombinant SUMO or UBC9. The results of this study demonstrate that viral IE proteins can be modified by crayfish SUMOylation, prompt the expression of viral genes, and ultimately benefit WSSV replication. Understanding of the mechanisms by which viruses exploit host components will greatly improve our knowledge of the virus-host "arms race" and contribute to the development of novel methods against virulent viruses. PMID:23097446

Chen, An-Jing; Gao, Lu; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2013-01-01

253

A small-molecule oxocarbazate inhibitor of human cathepsin L blocks severe acute respiratory syndrome and ebola pseudotype virus infection into human embryonic kidney 293T cells.  

PubMed

A tetrahydroquinoline oxocarbazate (PubChem CID 23631927) was tested as an inhibitor of human cathepsin L (EC 3.4.22.15) and as an entry blocker of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and Ebola pseudotype virus. In the cathepsin L inhibition assay, the oxocarbazate caused a time-dependent 17-fold drop in IC(50) from 6.9 nM (no preincubation) to 0.4 nM (4-h preincubation). Slowly reversible inhibition was demonstrated in a dilution assay. A transient kinetic analysis using a single-step competitive inhibition model provided rate constants of k(on) = 153,000 M(-1)s(-1) and k(off) = 4.40 x 10(-5) s(-1) (K(i) = 0.29 nM). The compound also displayed cathepsin L/B selectivity of >700-fold and was nontoxic to human aortic endothelial cells at 100 muM. The oxocarbazate and a related thiocarbazate (PubChem CID 16725315) were tested in a SARS coronavirus (CoV) and Ebola virus-pseudotype infection assay with the oxocarbazate but not the thiocarbazate, demonstrating activity in blocking both SARS-CoV (IC(50) = 273 +/- 49 nM) and Ebola virus (IC(50) = 193 +/- 39 nM) entry into human embryonic kidney 293T cells. To trace the intracellular action of the inhibitors with intracellular cathepsin L, the activity-based probe biotin-Lys-C5 alkyl linker-Tyr-Leu-epoxide (DCG-04) was used to label the active site of cysteine proteases in 293T lysates. The reduction in active cathepsin L in inhibitor-treated cells correlated well with the observed potency of inhibitors observed in the virus pseudotype infection assay. Overall, the oxocarbazate CID 23631927 was a subnanomolar, slow-binding, reversible inhibitor of human cathepsin L that blocked SARS-CoV and Ebola pseudotype virus entry in human cells. PMID:20466822

Shah, Parag P; Wang, Tianhua; Kaletsky, Rachel L; Myers, Michael C; Purvis, Jeremy E; Jing, Huiyan; Huryn, Donna M; Greenbaum, Doron C; Smith, Amos B; Bates, Paul; Diamond, Scott L

2010-08-01

254

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in GB pig herds: farm characteristics associated with heterogeneity in seroprevalence  

PubMed Central

Background The between- and within-herd variability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibodies were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 103 British pig herds conducted 2003–2004. Fifty pigs from each farm were tested for anti-PRRSV antibodies using ELISA. A binomial logistic model was used to investigate management risks for farms with and without pigs with PRRSV antibodies and multilevel statistical models were used to investigate variability in pigs' log ELISA IRPC (relative index × 100) in positive herds. Results Thirty-five herds (34.0%) were seronegative, 41 (39.8%) were seropositive and 27 (26.2%) were vaccinated. Herds were more likely to be seronegative if they had < 250 sows (OR 3.86 (95% CI 1.46, 10.19)) and if the nearest pig herd was ? 2 miles away (OR 3.42 (95% CI 1.29, 9.12)). The mean log IRPC in seropositive herds was 3.02 (range, 0.83 – 5.58). Sixteen seropositive herds had only seropositive adult pigs. In these herds, pigs had -0.06 (95% CI -0.10, -0.01) lower log IRPC for every mile increase in distance to the nearest pig unit, and -0.56 (95% CI -1.02, -0.10) lower log IRPC when quarantine facilities were present. For 25 herds with seropositive young stock and adults, lower log IRPC were associated with isolating purchased stock for ? 6 days (coefficient -0.46, 95% CI -0.81, -0.11), requesting ? 48 hours 'pig-free time' from humans (coefficient -0.44, 95% CI -0.79, -0.10) and purchasing gilts (coefficient -0.61, 95% CI -0.92, -0.29). Conclusion These patterns are consistent with PRRSV failing to persist indefinitely on some infected farms, with fadeout more likely in smaller herds with little/no reintroduction of infectious stock. Persistence of infection may be associated with large herds in pig-dense regions with repeated reintroduction. PMID:19040719

Evans, Charlotte M; Medley, Graham F; Green, Laura E

2008-01-01

255

Mannan oligosaccharide modulates gene expression profile in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

This study characterized gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells from control- or mannan oligosaccharide (MOS)-fed pigs with or without porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) at d 7 postinfection (PI). Weaned pigs (3 wk old) fed 0 or 0.2% MOS (Bio-Mos) diets were intranasally inoculated with PRRSV or a sterile medium at 5 wk of age. Total RNA (3 pigs/treatment) was extracted from cells. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Array consisting of 23,937 probe sets representing 20,201 genes. Microarray data were analyzed in R using packages from the Bioconductor project. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model equivalent to a 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA using the limma package. Dietary MOS and PRRSV changed the expression of thousands of probe sets in PBMC and BALF cells (P < 0.05). The MOS × PRRSV interaction altered the expression of more nonimmune probe sets in PBMC (977 up, 1,128 down) than in BALF cells (117 up, 78 down). The MOS × PRRSV interaction (P < 0.05) for immune probe sets in PBMC affected genes encoding key inflammatory mediators. In uninfected pigs, gene expression of IL-1?, IL-6, myeloid differentiation factor 88, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II, and dead box polypeptide 58 increased in PBMC of MOS-fed pigs (P < 0.05). This suggests that MOS enhances disease resistance in pigs and supports the fact that MOS induced a rapid increase in leukocytes at d 3 and 7 PI. Within infected pigs, however, MOS reduced the expression of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, MIP-1?, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and TLR4 genes in PBMC (P < 0.05). This finding may explain why fever was ameliorated in infected pigs fed MOS by d 7 PI. The expression of IL-1?, IL-6, MIP-1?, MCP-1, and TLR4 genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR. In BALF cells of infected pigs, MOS reduced the gene expression of TLR4, MHCII, and molecules associated with the complement system, but increased the gene expression of MHCI. In short, MOS regulated the expression of nonimmune and immune genes in pig leukocytes, perhaps providing benefits by enhancing the immune responses of the pigs to an infection, while preventing overstimulation of the immune system. PMID:21622880

Che, T M; Johnson, R W; Kelley, K W; Van Alstine, W G; Dawson, K A; Moran, C A; Pettigrew, J E

2011-10-01

256

Epilepsy, hysteria, and "possession". A historical essay.  

PubMed

A historical essay is presented relating concepts of epilepsy, hysteria, and "possession." The designation "hysteroepilepsy" is placed into the context of combined phenomena in individual subject instances. An association of psychotic states resembling a schizoprenic disorder is indicated as occurring in certain epileptic patients, especially some complex partial seizures (i.e., temporal lobe-psychomotor type). Phenomena of possession may appear within any of these entities. Differential diagnosis now is aided greatly by ulilization of monitoring with combined split screen television viewing and recording of the patient's behavior and the concomitant electroencephalogram. Treatment is directed both medically and toward alleviation of contributing and precipitating psychological and sociological factors. PMID:349116

Glaser, G H

1978-04-01

257

Phylogeny-Directed Search for Murine Leukemia Virus-Like Retroviruses in Vertebrate Genomes and in Patients Suffering from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) like retroviruses (MLLVs) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs)) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect “stealth” infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered. PMID:22315600

Blomberg, Jonas; Sheikholvaezin, Ali; Elfaitouri, Amal; Blomberg, Fredrik; Sjosten, Anna; Mattson Ulfstedt, Johan; Pipkorn, Rudiger; Kallander, Clas; Ohrmalm, Christina; Sperber, Goran

2011-01-01

258

50 CFR 648.164 - Possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...possession limit. The owner, operator, and crew of a charter or party boat issued a bluefish commercial permit are...carrying passengers for hire and when the crew size does not exceed five for a party boat and three for a charter boat....

2010-10-01

259

Possession Versus Position: Strategic Evaluation in AFL  

PubMed Central

In sports like Australian Rules football and soccer, teams must battle to achieve possession of the ball in sufficient space to make optimal use of it. Ultimately the teams need to score, and to do that the ball must be brought into the area in front of goal - the place where the defence usually concentrates on shutting down space and opportunity time. Coaches would like to quantify the trade-offs between contested play in good positions and uncontested play in less promising positions, in order to inform their decision-making about where to put their players, and when to gamble on sending the ball to a contest rather than simply maintain possession. To evaluate football strategies, Champion Data has collected the on-ground locations of all 350,000 possessions and stoppages in the past two seasons of AFL (2004, 2005). By following each chain of play through to the next score, we can now reliably estimate the scoreboard “equity ”of possessing the ball at any location, and measure the effect of having sufficient time to dispose of it effectively. As expected, winning the ball under physical pressure (through a “hard ball get”) is far more difficult to convert into a score than winning it via a mark. We also analyse some equity gradients to show how getting the ball 20 metres closer to goal is much more important in certain areas of the ground than in others. We conclude by looking at the choices faced by players in possession wanting to maximise their likelihood of success. Key Points Equity analysis provides a way of estimating the net value of actions on the sporting field. Combined with spatial data analysis, the relative merits of gaining position or maintaining possession can be judged. The advantage of having time and space to use the ball is measured in terms of scoreboard value, and is found to vary with field position. Each sport has identifiable areas of the field with high equity gradients, meaning that it is most important to gain territory there. PMID:24357947

O'Shaughnessy, Darren M.

2006-01-01

260

An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-? secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system. PMID:24711701

Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

2014-01-01

261

Molecular Evolution Analysis and Geographic Investigation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Like Virus in Palm Civets at an Animal Market and on Farms‡  

PubMed Central

Massive numbers of palm civets were culled to remove sources for the reemergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangdong Province, China, in January 2004, following SARS coronavirus detection in market animals. The virus was identified in all 91 palm civets and 15 raccoon dogs of animal market origin sampled prior to culling, but not in 1,107 palm civets later sampled at 25 farms, spread over 12 provinces, which were claimed to be the source of traded animals. Twenty-seven novel signature variation residues (SNVs) were identified on the spike gene and were analyzed for their phylogenetic relationships, based on 17 sequences obtained from animals in our study and from other published studies. Analysis indicated that the virus in palm civets at the live-animal market had evolved to infect humans. The evolutionary starting point was a prototype group consisting of three viral sequences of animal origin. Initially, seven SNV sites caused six amino acid changes, at positions 147, 228, 240, 479, 821, and 1080 of the spike protein, to generate low-pathogenicity viruses. One of these was linked to the first SARS patient in the 2003-2004 period. A further 14 SNVs caused 11 amino acid residue changes, at positions 360, 462, 472, 480, 487, 609, 613, 665, 743, 765, and 1163. The resulting high-pathogenicity groups were responsible for infections during the so-called early-phase epidemic of 2003. Finally, the remaining six SNVs caused four amino acid changes, at positions 227, 244, 344, and 778, which resulted in the group of viruses responsible for the global epidemic. PMID:16140765

Kan, Biao; Wang, Ming; Jing, Huaiqi; Xu, Huifang; Jiang, Xiugao; Yan, Meiying; Liang, Weili; Zheng, Han; Wan, Kanglin; Liu, Qiyong; Cui, Buyun; Xu, Yanmei; Zhang, Enmin; Wang, Hongxia; Ye, Jingrong; Li, Guichang; Li, Machao; Cui, Zhigang; Qi, Xiaobao; Chen, Kai; Du, Lin; Gao, Kai; Zhao, Yu-teng; Zou, Xiao-zhong; Feng, Yue-Ju; Gao, Yu-Fan; Hai, Rong; Yu, Dongzhen; Guan, Yi; Xu, Jianguo

2005-01-01

262

Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus: a potential model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) prototype strain of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/LAV was transmitted to juvenile chimpanzees with no prior immunostimulation by (i) intravenous injection of autologous cells infected in vitro, (ii) intravenous injection of cell-free virus, and (iii) transfusion from a previously infected chimpanzee. All five animals that received more than one 50% tissue culture infective dose were persistently infected with LAV or chimpanzee-passaged LAV for up to 18 months. During this time they developed no illnesses, but they exhibited various degrees of inguinal and axillary lymphadenopathy and significant reductions in rates of weight gain. Detailed blood chemistry and hematologic evaluations revealed no consistent abnormalities, with the exception of immunoglobulin G (IgG) hypergammaglobulinemia, which became apparent in one animal 6 months postinfection and continued at more than 1 year postinfection. Transient depressions followed by increases in the numbers of T4 cells to levels greater than normal were observed in all animals after virus inoculation. However, the number of LAV-infected peripheral blood cells decreased with time after infection. Results of enzyme immunoassays showed that all infected animals seroconverted to IgG anti-LAV within 1 month postinfection and that antibody titers remained high throughout the period of observation. In contrast, only three of the five LAV-infected chimpanzees had detectable IgM antibody responses, and these preceded IgG-specific serum antibodies by 1 to 2 weeks. Virus morphologically and serologically identical to LAV was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of all infected animals at all times tested and from bone marrow cells taken from one animal 8 months after infection. One chimpanzee that was exposed to LAV only by sharing a cage with an infected chimpanzee developed lymphadenopathy and an IgM response to LAV, both of which were transient; however, no persistent IgG antibody response to LAV developed, and no virus was recovered from peripheral blood cells during a year of follow-up. Thus, LAV readily infected chimpanzees following intravenous inoculation and persisted for extended periods despite the presence of high titers of antiviral antibodies. However, the virus was not easily transmitted from infected to uninfected chimpanzees during daily cage contact. PMID:3005641

Fultz, P N; McClure, H M; Swenson, R B; McGrath, C R; Brodie, A; Getchell, J P; Jensen, F C; Anderson, D C; Broderson, J R; Francis, D P

1986-01-01

263

Characterization of a neutralization-escape variant of SHIVKU-1, a virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome in pig-tailed macaques.  

PubMed

A chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-4) containing the tat, rev, vpu, and env genes of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in a genetic background of SIVmac239 was used to develop an animal model in which a primate lentivirus expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein caused acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in macaques. An SHIV-infected pig-tailed macaque that died from AIDS at 24 weeks postinoculation experienced two waves of viremia: one extending from weeks 2-8 and the second extending from week 18 until death. Virus (SHIVKU-1) isolated during the first wave was neutralized by antibodies appearing at the end of the first viremic phase, but the virus (SHIVKU-1b) isolated during the second viremic phase was not neutralized by these antibodies. Inoculation of SHIVKU-1b into 4 pig-tailed macaques resulted in severe CD4(+) T cell loss by 2 weeks postinoculation, and all 4 macaques died from AIDS at 23-34 weeks postinoculation. Because this virus had a neutralization-resistant phenotype, we sequenced the env gene and compared these sequences with those of the env gene of SHIVKU-1 and parental SHIV-4. With reference to SHIV-4, SHIVKU-1b had 18 and 6 consensus amino acid substitutions in the gp120 and gp41 regions of Env, respectively. These compared with 10 and 3 amino acid substitutions in the gp120 and gp41 regions of SHIVKU-1. Our data suggested that SHIVKU-1 and SHIVKU-1b probably evolved from a common ancestor but that SHIVKU-1b did not evolve from SHIVKU-1. A chimeric virus, SHIVKU-1bMC17, constructed with the consensus env from the SHIVKU-1b on a background of SHIV-4, confirmed that amino acid substitutions in Env were responsible for the neutralization-resistant phenotype. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that neutralizing antibodies induced by SHIVKU-1 in pig-tailed macaque resulted in the selection of a neutralization-resistant virus that was responsible for the second wave of viremia. PMID:10087226

Narayan, S V; Mukherjee, S; Jia, F; Li, Z; Wang, C; Foresman, L; McCormick-Davis, C; Stephens, E B; Joag, S V; Narayan, O

1999-03-30

264

Pig immune response to general stimulus and to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection: a meta-analysis approach  

PubMed Central

Background The availability of gene expression data that corresponds to pig immune response challenges provides compelling material for the understanding of the host immune system. Meta-analysis offers the opportunity to confirm and expand our knowledge by combining and studying at one time a vast set of independent studies creating large datasets with increased statistical power. In this study, we performed two meta-analyses of porcine transcriptomic data: i) scrutinized the global immune response to different challenges, and ii) determined the specific response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection. To gain an in-depth knowledge of the pig response to PRRSV infection, we used an original approach comparing and eliminating the common genes from both meta-analyses in order to identify genes and pathways specifically involved in the PRRSV immune response. The software Pointillist was used to cope with the highly disparate data, circumventing the biases generated by the specific responses linked to single studies. Next, we used the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software to survey the canonical pathways, biological functions and transcription factors found to be significantly involved in the pig immune response. We used 779 chips corresponding to 29 datasets for the pig global immune response and 279 chips obtained from 6 datasets for the pig response to PRRSV infection, respectively. Results The pig global immune response analysis showed interconnected canonical pathways involved in the regulation of translation and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Biological functions revealed in this meta-analysis were centred around translation regulation, which included protein synthesis, RNA-post transcriptional gene expression and cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondria dysfunctions, associated with stress signalling, were highly regulated. Transcription factors such as MYCN, MYC and NFE2L2 were found in this analysis to be potentially involved in the regulation of the immune response. The host specific response to PRRSV infection engendered the activation of well-defined canonical pathways in response to pathogen challenge such as TREM1, toll-like receptor and hyper-cytokinemia/ hyper-chemokinemia signalling. Furthermore, this analysis brought forth the central role of the crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune response and the regulation of anti-inflammatory response. The most significant transcription factor potentially involved in this analysis was HMGB1, which is required for the innate recognition of viral nucleic acids. Other transcription factors like interferon regulatory factors IRF1, IRF3, IRF5 and IRF8 were also involved in the pig specific response to PRRSV infection. Conclusions This work reveals key genes, canonical pathways and biological functions involved in the pig global immune response to diverse challenges, including PRRSV infection. The powerful statistical approach led us to consolidate previous findings as well as to gain new insights into the pig immune response either to common stimuli or specifically to PRRSV infection. PMID:23552196

2013-01-01

265

Dietary plant extracts improve immune responses and growth efficiency of pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 3 different plant extracts on growth performance and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 64 weaned pigs (7.8 ± 0.3 kg BW), free of PRRSV, were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by initial BW. Sex and ancestry were equalized across treatments. The first factor was with or without PRRSV challenge (intranasal dose; 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose). The second factor was represented by 4 diets: a nursery basal diet (CON), 10 mg/kg capsicum oleoresin (CAP), garlic botanical (GAR), or turmeric oleoresin (TUR). Pigs were housed in disease containment chambers for 28 d [14 d before and after the inoculation (d 0)]. Blood was collected on d 0, 7, and 14 to measure the total and differential white blood cells (WBC), and serum was collected to measure viral load by quantitative PCR, PRRSV antibody titer, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), IL-1?, C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin (Hp) by ELISA. In the unchallenged group, all piglets were PRRSV negative during the overall period postinoculation. All data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. The PRRSV challenge decreased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F from d 0 to 14. Feeding TUR improved G:F of the PRRSV-infected pigs from d 0 to 14. The numbers of WBC and neutrophils were decreased (P < 0.05) by PRRSV on d 7 but increased (P < 0.05) by PRRSV on d 14, indicating the PRRSV-infected pigs undergo a stage of weak immune responses. Feeding GAR increased (P < 0.05) B cells and CD8+ T cells of PRRSV-infected pigs compared with the CON. Furthermore, the PRRSV challenge increased (P < 0.05) serum viral load, TNF-?, and IL-1? on d 7 and serum viral load, CRP, and Hp on d 14, but feeding plant extracts to PRRSV-infected pigs reversed (P < 0.05) this increase. Infection with PRRSV increased (P < 0.05) rectal temperature of pigs on d 7, 9, and 11, but PRRSV-infected pigs fed plant extracts had lower rectal temperature (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the CON, indicating feeding plant extracts delayed the fever caused by PRRSV infection. In conclusion, results indicate that supplementation with plant extracts reduces the adverse effects of PRRSV by improving the immune responses of pigs, and the 3 plant extracts tested here show different effects. Supplementation with TUR improved feed efficiency of pigs challenged with PRRSV. PMID:24126276

Liu, Y; Che, T M; Song, M; Lee, J J; Almeida, J A S; Bravo, D; Van Alstine, W G; Pettigrew, J E

2013-12-01

266

Pathogenesis and antigenic characterization of a new East European subtype 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is divided into a European and North American genotype. East European PRRSV isolates have been found to be of the European genotype, but form different subtypes. In the present study, PRRSV was isolated from a Belarusian farm with reproductive and respiratory failure and designated "Lena". Analyses revealed that Lena is a new East European subtype 3 PRRSV isolate. The main purpose of this investigation was to study the pathogenesis and antigenic characteristics of PRRSV (Lena). Results Obvious clinical and virological differences were observed between the animals inoculated with a recent European subtype 1 PRRSV isolate (Belgium A) and animals inoculated with PRRSV (Lena). Three out of six pigs inoculated with PRRSV (Belgium A) had anorexia and low fever at 3, 4 and 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). High fever, anorexia and depression were prominent signs in most pigs inoculated with PRRSV (Lena) between 2 and 28 dpi. Four pigs out of ten died during the experiment. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from lungs of one animal that died, and Streptococcus suis was isolated from lungs of one animal that was euthanized. The difference in viral titres in sera from PRRSV (Belgium A) and PRRSV (Lena)-infected pigs was statistically significant (p < 0.05) at 7, 10, 14 and 21 dpi. The highest viral titres in sera ranged from 104.8 to 106.1 TCID50/ml for PRRSV (Lena) whereas they ranged from 103.1 to 104.8 TCID50/ml for PRRSV (Belgium A). The replication of PRRSV (Lena) was further studied in depth. Viral titres ranged from 102.5 TCID50/100 mg to 105.6 TCID50/100 mg in nasal secretions between 3 and 14 dpi and from 102.8 TCID50/100 mg to 104.6 TCID50/100 mg in tonsillar scrapings between 3 and 21 dpi. High viral titres were detected in lungs (102.3-107.7 TCID50/g tissue), tonsils (102.0-106.2 TCID50/g tissue) and inguinal lymph nodes (102.2-106.6 TCID50/g tissue) until 35, 28 and 35 dpi, respectively. To examine the antigenic heterogeneity between the East European subtype 3 isolate Lena, the European subtype 1 strain Lelystad and the North American strain US5, sets of monospecific polyclonal antisera were tested in immunoperoxidase monolayer assays (IPMAs) with homologous and heterologous viral antigens. Heterologous antibody titres were significantly lower than homologous titres (p = 0.01-0.03) for antisera against PRRSV (Lena) at all sampling time points. For antisera against PRRSV (Lelystad) and PRRSV (US5), heterologous antibody titres were significantly lower than homologous titres at 14 and 21 dpi (p = 0.01-0.03) and at 10 and 14 dpi (p = 0.04), respectively. Conclusions Lena is a highly pathogenic East European subtype 3 PRRSV, which differs from European subtype 1 Lelystad and North American US5 strains at both the genetic and antigenic level. PMID:20525333

2010-01-01

267

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, or virus reactivation with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient with HIV?  

PubMed

We report a case of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) in a patient with HIV receiving antitoxoplasmic drugs (adiazine and pyrimethamine) and levetiracetam along with highly active antiretroviral therapy (tenofovir-emtricitabine, darunavir and ritonavir). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was reactivated in the 7 weeks before the development of DRESS but was successfully treated with ganciclovir and corticosteroids. DRESS flare was concomitant with another CMV reactivation after the withdrawal of ganciclovir. This case report is an example of DRESS that may be considered real DRESS or virus reactivation with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (VRESS) as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. The case confirms that herpesvirus reactivation precedes DRESS or VRESS, and suggests the need to monitor herpesvirus infection in patients at risk for the infection or after the initiation of culprit drugs. PMID:24773172

Almudimeegh, A; Rioux, C; Ferrand, H; Crickx, B; Yazdanpanah, Y; Descamps, V

2014-10-01

268

A new method for quantifying white spot syndrome virus: Experimental challenge dose using TaqMan real-time PCR assay.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. The susceptibility of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was assessed by means of serial dilutions of a solution containing WSSV. A TaqMan real-time PCR was used to quantify the WSSV challenge dose in P. clarkii. The results showed that WSSV copies could be detected at concentrations from 1.365×10(4) to 1.129×10(9) copies/?l. The viral infectivity (LD(50)), measured as the mortality of infected crayfish, indicated 60% mortality in the 10(5) dilution group (1.524×10(5) copies/?l). TaqMan real-time PCR represents a novel standard method, based on the by quantitation of WSSV copies, for determining the appropriate concentration of WSSV for use in infection experiments. PMID:22664183

Zhu, Fei; Quan, Haizhi

2012-09-01

269

Validation of a Commercial Insulated Isothermal PCR-based POCKIT Test for Rapid and Easy Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61–95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31–98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei. PMID:24625894

Tsai, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Tang-Nelson, Kathy; Lightner, Donald; Ou, Bor-Rung; Hour, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Yen, Cheng-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu

2014-01-01

270

Possession in Humans: Exploratory Study of Its Meaning and Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the nature of possession and ownership in a developmental and cross-cultural context. Of particular importance to all ages and cultural groups were the two dimensions of effectance and control of possessions and positive affect for possessions. (Author)

Furby, Lita

1978-01-01

271

50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20.38 Wildlife...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird...

2011-10-01

272

50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20.38 Wildlife...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird...

2012-10-01

273

27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Possession of refilled liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202...TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of...

2012-04-01

274

27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Possession of used liquor bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203...TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of...

2012-04-01

275

27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Possession of refilled liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202...TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of...

2010-04-01

276

27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Possession of used liquor bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203...TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of...

2010-04-01

277

27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Possession of used liquor bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203...TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of...

2011-04-01

278

27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.  

...2014-04-01 false Possession of refilled liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202...BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or...

2014-04-01

279

27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Possession of refilled liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202...TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of...

2011-04-01

280

27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Possession of refilled liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202...BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or...

2013-04-01

281

Role of the spike glycoprotein of human Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in virus entry and syncytia formation.  

PubMed

Little is known about the biology of the emerging human group c betacoronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Because coronavirus spike glycoproteins (S) mediate virus entry, affect viral host range, and elicit neutralizing antibodies, analyzing the functions of MERS-CoV S protein is a high research priority. MERS-CoV S on lentivirus pseudovirions mediated entry into a variety of cell types including embryo cells from New World Eptesicus fuscus bats. Surprisingly, a polyclonal antibody to the S protein of MHV, a group a murine betacoronavirus, cross-reacted in immunoblots with the S2 domain of group c MERS-CoV spike protein. MERS pseudovirions released from 293T cells contained only uncleaved S, and pseudovirus entry was blocked by lysosomotropic reagents NH4Cl and bafilomycin and inhibitors of cathepsin L. However, when MERS pseudovirions with uncleaved S protein were adsorbed at 4°C to Vero E6 cells, brief trypsin treatment at neutral pH triggered virus entry at the plasma membrane and syncytia formation. When 293T cells producing MERS pseudotypes co-expressed serine proteases TMPRSS-2 or -4, large syncytia formed at neutral pH, and the pseudovirions produced were non-infectious and deficient in S protein. These experiments show that if S protein on MERS pseudovirions is uncleaved, then viruses enter by endocytosis in a cathepsin L-dependent manner, but if MERS-CoV S is cleaved, either during virus maturation by serine proteases or on pseudovirions by trypsin in extracellular fluids, then viruses enter at the plasma membrane at neutral pH and cause massive syncytia formation even in cells that express little or no MERS-CoV receptor. Thus, whether MERS-CoV enters cells within endosomes or at the plasma membrane depends upon the host cell type and tissue, and is determined by the location of host proteases that cleave the viral spike glycoprotein and activate membrane fusion. PMID:24098509

Qian, Zhaohui; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V

2013-01-01

282

Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays.  

PubMed

Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose phosphate broth (2.95 gl?¹), 20% FBS, N-phenylthiourea (0.2 mM), 0.06 ?g ml?¹ chloramphenicol, 100 ?g ml?¹ streptomycin and 100 IU ml?¹ penicillin and hemolymph drawn from shrimp grown under a bio-secured recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this medium the hemocytes remained viable up to 8 days. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay revealed its incorporation in 22 ± 7% of cells at 24h. Susceptibility of the cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay using a monoclonal antibody against 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. A convenient method for determining virus titer as MTT(50)/ml was standardized employing the primary hemocyte culture. Expression of viral genes and cellular immune genes were also investigated. The cell culture could be demonstrated for determining toxicity of a management chemical (benzalkonium chloride) by determining its IC(50). The primary hemocyte culture could serve as a model for WSSV titration and viral and cellular immune related gene expression and also for investigations on cytotoxicity of aquaculture drugs and chemicals. PMID:20807537

Jose, Seena; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

2010-11-01

283

Rapid and sensitive detection of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a vertical flow visualization strip.  

PubMed

Reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was combined with a vertical flow (VF) nucleic acid detection strip to develop a universal assay for the detection of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The loop primers were labeled separately with biotin and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in this assay. Using optimized parameters, the whole reaction could be completed in <50min in a completely enclosed environment. The detection limit of this assay was found to be 1pg RNA, 30 tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50) virus, or 230 copies of recombinant plasmid DNA, which is relatively higher than that of RT-LAMP analyzed by agarose gel, RT-LAMP visualized by calcein, and the conventional RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No false-positive results were obtained in the specificity assay. The efficiency of the RT-LAMP method was tested by analyzing 43 clinical samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by RT-PCR analysis, with the respective positive rates of 32.56% and 27.91%. This result confirmed that the method described is a rapid, accurate, and sensitive method for universal type II PRRSV detection. Also, this method can be used for the rapid detection of type II PRRSV during the early phase of an outbreak, especially for rapid veterinary diagnosis on the spot and in rural areas. PMID:25241142

Gou, Hongchao; Deng, Jieru; Pei, Jingjing; Wang, Jiaying; Liu, Wenjun; Zhao, Mingqiu; Chen, Jinding

2014-12-01

284

Sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri target the envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus and protect against viral infection in shrimp haemocytes.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at evaluating an underlying mechanism of the antiviral activity of the sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Primary culture of haemocytes from Penaeus monodon was performed and inoculated with WSSV, after which the cytopathic effect (CPE), cell viability and viral load were determined. Haemocytes treated with WSSV-SG pre-mix showed decreased CPE, viral load and cell mortality from the viral infection. Solid-phase virus-binding assays revealed that SG bound to WSSV in a dose-related manner. Far Western blotting analysis indicated that SG bound to VP 26 and VP 28 proteins of WSSV. In contrast to the native SG, desulfated SG did not reduce CPE and cell mortality, and showed low binding activity with WSSV. The current study suggests that SG from Gracilaria fisheri elicits its anti-WSSV activity by binding to viral proteins that are important for the process of viral attachment to the host cells. It is anticipated that the sulfate groups of SG are important for viral binding. PMID:24509436

Rudtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

2014-05-01

285

Immune Responses in Pigs Induced by Recombinant DNA Vaccine Co-Expressing Swine IL-18 and Membrane Protein of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

In this study, two DNA vaccines, which express the membrane (M) protein of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) (pEGFP-M) and co-express both M and swine IL-18 (pEGFP-IL18-M), were constructed and their abilities to induce humoral and cellular responses in piglets were comparatively evaluated. Experimental results showed that both recombinant DNA vaccines could not elicit neutralizing antibodies in the immunized piglets. However, both DNA vaccines elicited Th1-biased cellular immune responses. Notably, pigs immunized with the plasmid pEGFP-IL18-M developed significantly higher levels of IFN-? and IL-2 production response and stronger specific T-lymphocyte proliferation response than the pigs inoculated with the plasmids pEGFP-M and pEGFP-IL18 (P < 0.05). These results illustrated that co-expression of M and IL-18 proteins could significantly improve the potency of DNA vaccination on the activation of vaccine-induced virus-specific cell-mediated immune responses in pigs, which may be used as a strategy to develop a new generation of vaccines against highly pathogenic PRRSV. PMID:22754326

Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaoli; Mu, Lianzhi; Ding, Zhuang

2012-01-01

286

Identification of differentially expressed proteins in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with virulent/attenuated strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is still a serious threat to the swine industry. However, the pathogenic mechanism of HP-PRRSV remains unclear. We infected host porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) with the virulent HuN4 strain and the attenuated HuN4-F112 strain and then utilized fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen for intracellular proteins that were differentially expressed in host cells infected with the two strains. There were 153 proteins with significant different expression (P<0.01) observed, 42 of which were subjected to mass spectrometry, and 24 proteins were identified. PAM cells infected with the virulent strain showed upregulated expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), and proteasome subunit alpha type 6 (PSMA6), which were downregulated in cells infected with the attenuated strain. The upregulation of PKM2 provides sufficient energy for viral replication, and the upregulation of HSPB1 inhibits host cell apoptosis and therefore facilitates mass replication of the virulent strain, while the upregulation of PSMA6 facilitates the evasion of immune surveillance by the virus. Studying on those molecules mentioned above may be able to help us to understand some unrevealed details of HP-PRRSV infection, and then help us to decrease its threat to the swine industry in the future. PMID:24465692

Zhou, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Zhou, Tao; Cheng, Qun; Yu, Ling-Xue; Wang, Ya-Xin; Yang, Shen; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu; Gao, Fei; Yu, Hai; Li, Guo-Xin; Tong, Guang-Zhi

2014-01-01

287

Identification of two auto-cleavage products of nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected cells: nsp1 function as interferon antagonist  

SciTech Connect

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 is predicted to be auto-cleaved from the replicase polyprotein into nsp1alpha and nsp1beta subunits. In infected cells, we detected the actual existence of nsp1alpha and nsp1beta. Cleavage sites between nsp1alpha/nsp1beta and nsp1beta/nsp2 were identified by protein microsequencing analysis. Time course study showed that nsp1alpha and nsp1beta mainly localize into the cell nucleus after 10 h post infection. Further analysis revealed that both proteins dramatically inhibited IFN-beta expression. The nsp1beta was observed to significantly inhibit expression from an interferon-stimulated response element promoter after Sendai virus infection or interferon treatment. It was further determined to inhibit nuclear translocation of STAT1 in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that nsp1beta has ability to inhibit both interferon synthesis and signaling, while nsp1alpha alone strongly inhibits interferon synthesis. These findings provide important insights into mechanisms of nsp1 in PRRSV pathogenesis and its impact in vaccine development.

Chen, Z.; Lawson, S.; Sun, Z.; Zhou, X. [Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Guan, X. [Department of Pharmaceutical Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Christopher-Hennings, J.; Nelson, E.A. [Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Fang, Y., E-mail: ying.fang@sdstate.ed [Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Department of Biology/Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

2010-03-01

288

Comparison of Host Immune Responses to Homologous and Heterologous Type II Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Challenge in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Pigs  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a high-consequence animal disease with current vaccines providing limited protection from infection due to the high degree of genetic variation of field PRRS virus. Therefore, understanding host immune responses elicited by different PRRSV strains will facilitate the development of more effective vaccines. Using IngelVac modified live PRRSV vaccine (MLV), its parental strain VR-2332, and the heterologous KS-06-72109 strain (a Kansas isolate of PRRSV), we compared immune responses induced by vaccination and/or PRRSV infection. Our results showed that MLV can provide complete protection from homologous virus (VR-2332) and partial protection from heterologous (KS-06) challenge. The protection was associated with the levels of PRRSV neutralizing antibodies at the time of challenge, with vaccinated pigs having higher titers to VR-2332 compared to KS-06 strain. Challenge strain did not alter the cytokine expression profiles in the serum of vaccinated pigs or subpopulations of T cells. However, higher frequencies of IFN-?-secreting PBMCs were generated from pigs challenged with heterologous PRRSV in a recall response when PBMCs were re-stimulated with PRRSV. Thus, this study indicates that serum neutralizing antibody titers are associated with PRRSV vaccination-induced protection against homologous and heterologous challenge. PMID:24719862

Li, X.; Galliher-Beckley, A.; Pappan, L.; Trible, B.; Kerrigan, M.; Beck, A.; Hesse, R.; Blecha, F.; Nietfeld, J. C.; Rowland, R. R.; Shi, J.

2014-01-01

289

The relative abundance of deer mice with antibody to Sin Nombre virus corresponds to the occurrence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in nearby humans.  

PubMed

Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the principal cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the United States and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are its principal rodent host, and thus the natural cycle of the virus is related to the occurrence of HPS. Prevalence of rodent infection appears to be associated with fluctuations in deer mouse populations and, indirectly, with timing and amount of precipitation, a complex of biologic events. Given that rodent population abundances fluctuate, often acutely, it is not unreasonable to assume a direct correlation between the numbers of infected rodents and the number of human infections, unless confounding factors are involved. During a 13-year longitudinal study at a site in southwestern Colorado, we accumulated data regarding deer mice and antibody to SNV and therefore had the opportunity to compare dynamics of deer mouse populations, seroprevalence of antibody to SNV in the rodents, and numbers of HPS cases in Durango and in the State of Colorado as a whole. If abundances of deer mouse populations are directly correlated with occurrence of HPS, it is reasonable to assume that low densities of deer mice and low prevalences of antibody to SNV would lead to fewer human cases than would high densities and high prevalences. Our results substantiate such an assumption and suggest that the risk of acquisition of HPS is likely related to both high numbers of infected deer mice and human activities, rather than being strictly related to prevalence of SNV in the host rodent. PMID:20954865

Calisher, Charles H; Mills, James N; Root, Jon Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B; Beaty, Barry J

2011-05-01

290

Inhibition of replication of the etiologic agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (human T-lymphotropic retrovirus/lymphadenopathy-associated virus) by avarol and avarone.  

PubMed

Avarol and avarone are two antimitotic and antimutagenic agents that preferentially inhibit proliferation of T-cell leukemia lines in vitro. This report shows that these compounds have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the replication of the etiologic agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), human T-lymphotropic retrovirus (HTLV-III)/lymphadenopathy-associated virus, in human H9 cells in vitro. Both compounds show a significant cytoprotective effect on HTLV-IIIB-infected H9 cells at concentrations as low as 0.1 microgram/ml (0.3 microM). Both avarone and avarol block in a dose-dependent manner the expression of the p24 and p17 gag proteins of HTLV-III in H9 cells after virus infection and block viral replication, as judged by approximately 80% inhibition of reverse transcriptase activity. These results strongly suggest that these compounds may prove to be useful in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. PMID:2435942

Sarin, P S; Sun, D; Thornton, A; Müller, W E

1987-04-01

291

Molecular characterization of transcriptome-wide interactions between highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine alveolar macrophages in vivo.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects mainly the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Previous studies have analyzed the global gene expression profiles of lung tissue in vivo and PAMs in vitro following infection with PRRSV, however, transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PAMs in vivo has not yet been established. In this study, we employed Affymetrix microarrays to investigate the gene expression patterns of PAMs isolated from Tongcheng piglets (a Chinese indigenous breed) after infection with HP-PRRSV. During the infection, Tongcheng piglets exhibited typical clinical signs, e.g. fever, asthma, coughing, anorexia, lethargy and convulsion, but displayed mild regional lung damage at 5 and 7 dpi. Microarray analysis revealed that HP-PRRSV infection has affected PAMs in expression of the important genes involved in cytoskeleton and exocytosis organization, protein degradation and folding, intracellular calcium and zinc homeostasis. Several potential antiviral strategies might be employed in PAMs, including upregulating IFN-induced genes and increasing intracellular zinc ion concentration. And inhibition of the complement system likely attenuated the lung damage during HP-PRRSV infection. Transcriptomic analysis of PAMs in vivo could lead to a better understanding of the HP-PRRSV-host interaction, and to the identification of novel antiviral therapies and genetic components of swine tolerance/susceptibility to HP-PRRS. PMID:21850204

Zhou, Ping; Zhai, Shanli; Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Ping; Jiang, Tengfei; Hu, Xueying; Jiang, Yunbo; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qingde; Xu, Xuewen; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Bang

2011-01-01

292

Review article Lelystad virus and the porcine epidemic abortion  

E-print Network

Review article Lelystad virus and the porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome G abortion and respiratory syndrome and porcine reproduc- tive and respiratory syndrome. The virus is a small pigs. Clinical signs of an infection with Le- lystad virus are characterized by late term abortions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Boosting In Planta Production of Antigens Derived from the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Subsequent Evaluation of Their Immunogenicity  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of swine, caused by an arterivirus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV). This virus infects pigs worldwide and causes huge economic losses. Due to genetic drift, current vaccines are losing their power. Adaptable vaccines could provide a solution to this problem. This study aims at producing in planta a set of antigens derived from the PRRSV glycoproteins (GPs) to be included in a subunit vaccine. We selected the GP3, GP4 and GP5 and optimized these for production in an Arabidopsis seed platform by removing transmembrane domains (Tm) and/or adding stabilizing protein domains, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and immunoglobulin (IgG) ‘Fragment crystallizable’ (Fc) chains. Accumulation of the GPs with and without Tm was low, reaching no more than 0.10% of total soluble protein (TSP) in homozygous seed. However, addition of stabilizing domains boosted accumulation up to a maximum of 2.74% of TSP when GFP was used, and albeit less effectively, also the Fc chains of the porcine IgG3 and murine IgG2a increased antigen accumulation, to 0.96% and 1.81% of TSP respectively, while the murine IgG3 Fc chain did not. Antigens with Tm were less susceptible to these manipulations to increase yield. All antigens were produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and accordingly, they carried high-mannose N-glycans. The immunogenicity of several of those antigens was assessed and we show that vaccination with purified antigens did elicit the production of antibodies with virus neutralizing activity in mice but not in pigs. PMID:24614617

Piron, Robin; De Koker, Stefaan; De Paepe, Annelies; Goossens, Julie; Grooten, Johan; Nauwynck, Hans; Depicker, Ann

2014-01-01

294

The Pathogenesis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in Alpha/Beta Interferon Knockout Mice: Insights into the Pathologic Mechanisms of a New Viral Hemorrhagic Fever  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a newly discovered Phlebovirus causing an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia, with reported case fatality rates up to 30%. Despite the high case fatality rate and large number of persons at risk of infection, the pathobiology of the disease is unknown, and no effective animal model has been available for investigating its pathogenesis. We have studied mice and hamsters as potential small-animal models of SFTSV infection following subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, or intracerebral inoculation. Animal tissues were processed for viral load determination, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopic studies. We found that immunocompetent adult mice and hamsters did not become ill after SFTSV infection. However, alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR?/?) mice were highly susceptible to SFTSV infection, and all mice died within 3 to 4 days after subcutaneous inoculation of 106 focus-forming units of SFTSV. Histologic examination of tissues of IFNAR?/? mice infected with SFTSV showed no detectable lesions. In contrast, by immunohistochemistry virus antigen was found in liver, intestine, kidney, spleen, lymphoid tissue, and brain, but not in the lungs. Mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were the most heavily infected tissues. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of virus in these tissues. Confocal microscopy showed that SFTSV colocalized with reticular cells but did not colocalize with dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, or endothelium. Our results indicate that SFTSV multiplied in all organs except for lungs and that mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were the most heavily infected tissues. The major target cells of SFTSV appear to be reticular cells in lymphoid tissues of intestine and spleen. PMID:24257618

Liu, Yan; Wu, Bin; Paessler, Slobodan; Walker, David H.

2014-01-01

295

The pathogenesis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in alpha/beta interferon knockout mice: insights into the pathologic mechanisms of a new viral hemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a newly discovered Phlebovirus causing an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia, with reported case fatality rates up to 30%. Despite the high case fatality rate and large number of persons at risk of infection, the pathobiology of the disease is unknown, and no effective animal model has been available for investigating its pathogenesis. We have studied mice and hamsters as potential small-animal models of SFTSV infection following subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, or intracerebral inoculation. Animal tissues were processed for viral load determination, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopic studies. We found that immunocompetent adult mice and hamsters did not become ill after SFTSV infection. However, alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mice were highly susceptible to SFTSV infection, and all mice died within 3 to 4 days after subcutaneous inoculation of 10(6) focus-forming units of SFTSV. Histologic examination of tissues of IFNAR(-/-) mice infected with SFTSV showed no detectable lesions. In contrast, by immunohistochemistry virus antigen was found in liver, intestine, kidney, spleen, lymphoid tissue, and brain, but not in the lungs. Mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were the most heavily infected tissues. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of virus in these tissues. Confocal microscopy showed that SFTSV colocalized with reticular cells but did not colocalize with dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, or endothelium. Our results indicate that SFTSV multiplied in all organs except for lungs and that mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were the most heavily infected tissues. The major target cells of SFTSV appear to be reticular cells in lymphoid tissues of intestine and spleen. PMID:24257618

Liu, Yan; Wu, Bin; Paessler, Slobodan; Walker, David H; Tesh, Robert B; Yu, Xue-jie

2014-02-01

296

Adjuvanted poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine elicits cross-protective immune response in pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is an economically devastating disease, causing daily losses of approximately $3 million to the US pork industry. Current vaccines have failed to completely prevent PRRS outbreaks. Recently, we have shown that poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated PRRSV vaccine (NP-KAg) induces a cross-protective immune response in pigs. To further improve its cross-protective efficacy, the NP-KAg vaccine formulation was slightly modified, and pigs were coadministered the vaccine twice intranasally with a potent adjuvant: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate. In vaccinated virulent heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs, the immune correlates in the blood were as follows: 1) enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody response with enhanced avidity of both immunoglobulin (Ig)-G and IgA isotypes, associated with augmented virus-neutralizing antibody titers; 2) comparable and increased levels of virus-specific IgG? and IgG? antibody subtypes and production of high levels of both T-helper (Th)-1 and Th2 cytokines, indicative of a balanced Th1-Th2 response; 3) suppressed immunosuppressive cytokine response; 4) increased frequency of interferon-?(+) lymphocyte subsets and expanded population of antigen-presenting cells; and most importantly 5) complete clearance of detectable replicating challenged heterologous PRRSV and close to threefold reduction in viral ribonucleic acid load detected in the blood. In conclusion, intranasal delivery of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation to growing pigs elicited a broadly cross-protective immune response, showing the potential of this innovative vaccination strategy to prevent PRRS outbreaks in pigs. A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible. PMID:24493925

Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Wu, Yun; Lee, Ly James; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

2014-01-01

297

Risk Assessment of the Introduction of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus via Boar Semen into Switzerland as an Example of a PRRSV-Free Country.  

PubMed

Switzerland is currently porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) free, but semen imports from PRRSV-infected European countries are increasing. As the virus can be transmitted via semen, for example, when a free boar stud becomes infected, and the risk of its import in terms of PRRSV introduction is unknown, the annual probability to accidentally import the virus into Switzerland was estimated in a risk assessment. A quantitative stochastic model was set up with data comprised by import figures of 2010, interviews with boar stud owners and expert opinion. It resulted in an annual median number of 0.18 imported ejaculates (= imported semen doses from one collection from one donor) from PRRSV-infected boars. Hence, one infected ejaculate would be imported every 6 years and infect a mean of 10 sows. These results suggest that under current circumstances, there is a substantial risk of PRRSV introduction into Switzerland via imported boar semen and that measures to enhance safety of imports should be taken. The time from infection of a previously negative boar stud to its detection had the highest impact on the number of imported 'positive' ejaculates. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on PRRSV monitoring protocols in boar studs. Results indicated that a substantial increase in safety could only be achieved with much tighter sampling protocols than currently performed. Generally, the model could easily be customized for other applications like other countries or regions or even sow farms that want to estimate their risk when purchasing semen from a particular boar stud. PMID:23356485

Nathues, C; Zimmerli, U; Hauser, R; Nathues, H; Grosse Beilage, E; Schüpbach-Regula, G

2014-12-01

298

Crystal Structures of Major Envelope Proteins VP26 and VP28 from White Spot Syndrome Virus Shed Light on Their Evolutionary Relationship  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen known to infect various crustaceans. It has bacilliform morphology with a tail-like appendage at one end. The envelope consists of four major proteins. Envelope structural proteins play a crucial role in viral infection and are believed to be the first molecules to interact with the host. Here, we report the localization and crystal structure of major envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 from WSSV at resolutions of 2.2 and 2.0 {angstrom}, respectively. These two proteins alone account for approximately 60% of the envelope, and their structures represent the first two structural envelope proteins of WSSV. Structural comparisons among VP26, VP28, and other viral proteins reveal an evolutionary relationship between WSSV envelope proteins and structural proteins from other viruses. Both proteins adopt {beta}-barrel architecture with a protruding N-terminal region. We have investigated the localization of VP26 and VP28 using immunoelectron microscopy. This study suggests that VP26 and VP28 are located on the outer surface of the virus and are observed as a surface protrusion in the WSSV envelope, and this is the first convincing observation for VP26. Based on our studies combined with the literature, we speculate that the predicted N-terminal transmembrane region of VP26 and VP28 may anchor on the viral envelope membrane, making the core {beta}-barrel protrude outside the envelope, possibly to interact with the host receptor or to fuse with the host cell membrane for effective transfer of the viral infection. Furthermore, it is tempting to extend this host interaction mode to other structural viral proteins of similar structures. Our finding has the potential to extend further toward drug and vaccine development against WSSV.

Tang,X.; Wu, J.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

2007-01-01

299

Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

2012-01-01

300

Male homosexuality and spirit possession in Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper examines the relationship between male homosexuality and the Afro-Brazilian possession cults in Belém do Parà. After a discussion of the literature follows a description of the cults' beliefs, rites and social organization. Male sex roles are then discussed and the two categories, bicha and man, analyzed. It is noted that there is no term which is equivalent to the western category of "homosexual" in this taxonomic system. After putting forward folk explanations for the presence of many bichas in the cults, an analysis is put forward of the social rewards available to bichas within these cults, and the structural relationship between homosexuality and these regions in terms of their congruent marginality vis-à-vis "normal society." PMID:4093598

Fry, P

1985-01-01

301

Tumorigenic DNA viruses  

SciTech Connect

The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

Klein, G.

1989-01-01

302

The human oncogenic viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

1986-01-01

303

Direct Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) typing on peripheral blood mononuclear cells: no association between EBV type 2 infection or superinfection and the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature, a correlation has been suggested between the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) type 2 infection. To further investigate a possible role for EBV type 2 infection in the development of AIDS-NHL, we developed a sensitive and type-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and analyzed EBV types directly

Debbie van Baarle; Egbert Hovenkamp; M. J. Kersten; Michel R. Klein; Frank Miedema; Oers van M. H. J

1999-01-01

304

Effect of high water temperature (33 °C) on the clinical and virological outcome of experimental infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most lethal pathogen of cultured shrimp. Previous studies done with undefined WSSV titers showed that high water temperature (32–33 °C) reduced\\/delayed mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp. This study evaluated the effect of high water temperature on the clinical and virological outcome of a WSSV infection under standardized conditions. Groups of specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei were

M. M. Rahman; C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla; M. Corteel; J. J. Dantas-Lima; M. Wille; V. Alday Sanz; M. B. Pensaert; P. Sorgeloos; H. J. Nauwynck

2006-01-01

305

“Some of the things I understand but not all of it”. A group of deaf adolescents’ sources of knowledge and concerns regarding the adequacy of their level of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS) pandemic in South Africa and the world, adolescents need to be acutely aware of the risks and consequences of HIV\\/AIDS. However, information campaigns may not always convey that information to adolescents successfully, especially deaf adolescents who may not have access to auditory information and may have limited access to

Victor de Andrade; Bontle Baloyi

2011-01-01

306

Potent in vitro Activity of the Albumin Fusion Type 1 Interferons (Albumin-Interferon-Alpha and Albumin-Interferon-Beta) against RNA Viral Agents of Bioterrorism and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The type 1 interferons (INF-? and INF-?) are potent antiviral agents. Albumin-INF-? and albumin-INF-? are novel recombinant proteins consisting of IFN-? or IFN-? genetically fused to human albumin. Methods: The in vitro antiviral activity of albumin-IFN-? was evaluated against representative bioterrorism viral agents and the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus. Antiviral activity was assessed using inhibition of cytopathic effect

G. Mani Subramanian; Paul A. Moore; Brian B. Gowen; Aaron L. Olsen; Dale L. Barnard; Jason Paragas; Robert J. Hogan; Robert W. Sidwell

2008-01-01

307

From Labeling Possessions to Possessing Labels: Ridicule and Socialization among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores ridicule as a mechanism through which adolescents exchange information about consumption norms and values. The author finds that adolescents use ridicule to ostracize, haze, or admonish peers who violate consumption norms. Targets and observers learn stereotypes about avoidance groups, consumption norms of aspirational groups, the use of possessions to communicate social linkages and achieve acceptance goals, and

2006-01-01

308

The socioeconomic impact of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome in India and its relevance to eye care  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is aptly called the modern day ?plague? and has the potential to decimate people in the productive age group. On the other hand, the increasing life expectancy in developing countries spirals age-related blindness. One therefore reduces economic productivity while the other increases economic dependency. Both lead to increased expenditure of households though in different proportions. Human immunodeficiency virus and blindness are both associated with discrimination, stigma and long-term consequences. They impact the socioeconomic fabric of the affected individuals, communities and countries. The loss in productivity and the cost of support to the affected individuals are seen in both. Each is a potent problem on its own but together they spell disaster in geometric proportions rather than a simple additive effect. Strategies need to be evolved to provide solace and improve the quality of life of an HIV-positive blind individual. PMID:18711268

2008-01-01

309

Temporal association of cellular immune responses with the initial control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Virologic and immunologic studies were performed on five patients presenting with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) precursors specific for cells expressing antigens of HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Env were detected at or within 3 weeks of presentation in four of the five patients and were detected in all five patients by 3 to 6 months after presentation. The one patient with an absent initial CTL response had prolonged symptoms, persistent viremia, and low CD4+ T-cell count. Neutralizing antibody activity was absent at the time of presentation in all five patients. These findings suggest that cellular immunity is involved in the initial control of virus replication in primary HIV-1 infection and indicate a role for CTL in protective immunity to HIV-1 in vivo. PMID:8207839

Koup, R A; Safrit, J T; Cao, Y; Andrews, C A; McLeod, G; Borkowsky, W; Farthing, C; Ho, D D

1994-01-01

310

Raltegravir Is a Potent Inhibitor of XMRV, a Virus Implicated in Prostate Cancer and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundXenotropic murine leukemia-related retrovirus (XMRV) is a recently discovered retrovirus that has been linked to human prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Both diseases affect a large fraction of the world population, with prostate cancer affecting one in six men, and CFS affecting an estimated 0.4 to 1% of the population.Principal FindingsForty-five compounds, including twenty-eight drugs approved for use

Ila R. Singh; John E. Gorzynski; Daria Drobysheva; Leda Bassit; Raymond F. Schinazi

2010-01-01

311

Kinetics of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) humoral immune response in swine serum and oral fluids collected from individual boars  

PubMed Central

Background The object of this study was to describe and contrast the kinetics of the humoral response in serum and oral fluid specimens during acute porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. The study involved three trials of 24 boars each. Boars were intramuscularly inoculated with a commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (Trial 1), a Type 1 PRRSV field isolated (Trial 2), or a Type 2 PRRSV field isolate (Trial 3). Oral fluid samples were collected from individual boars on day post inoculation (DPI) -7 and 0 to 21. Serum samples were collected from all boars on DPI ?7, 0, 7, 14, 21 and from 4 randomly selected boars on DPI 3, 5, 10, and 17. Thereafter, serum and oral fluid were assayed for PRRSV antibody using antibody isotype-specific ELISAs (IgM, IgA, IgG) adapted to serum or oral fluid. Results Statistically significant differences in viral replication and antibody responses were observed among the three trials in both serum and oral fluid specimens. PRRSV serum IgM, IgA, and IgG were first detected in samples collected on DPI 7, 10, and 10, respectively. Oral fluid IgM, IgA, and IgG were detected in samples collected between DPI 3 to 10, 7 to 10, and 8 to 14, respectively. Conclusions This study enhanced our knowledge of the PRRSV humoral immune response and provided a broader foundation for the development and application of oral fluid antibody-based diagnostics. PMID:23537175

2013-01-01

312

Evaluation of the efficacy of a new modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine (Fostera PRRS) against heterologous PRRSV challenge.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate a new modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine (Fostera PRRS, Zoetis, Florham, NJ, USA) that was based on a virulent US PRRSV isolate (P129) attenuated using CD163-expressing cell lines. Sixty-four PRRSV-seronegative 3-week-old pigs were randomly divided into the following four groups: vaccinated challenged (group 1), vaccinated unchallenged (group 2), unvaccinated challenged (group 3), and unvaccinated unchallenged (group 4). The pigs in groups 1 and 2 were immunized with a 2.0 mL dose of modified live PRRSV vaccine at 21 days of age, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. At 56 days of age (0 days post-challenge), the pigs in groups 1 and 3 were inoculated intranasally with 3 mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/mL of PRRSV (SNUVR090851 strain, fourth passage in MARC-145 cells). Vaccinated challenged pigs exhibited significantly lower (P<0.05) respiratory scores, viremia, macroscopic and microscopic lung lesion scores, and PRRSV-antigen with interstitial pneumonia than unvaccinated challenged pigs. The induction of PRRSV-specific IFN-?-SCs by the new modified live PRRSV vaccine produced a protective immune response, leading to the reduction of PRRSV viremia. Although the new modified live PRRSV vaccine is not effective against heterologous PRRSV challenge, the new modified live PRRSV vaccine was able to reduce the levels of viremia and nasal shedding, and severity of PRRSV-induced lesions after challenging virus under experimental conditions. PMID:24970363

Park, Changhoon; Seo, Hwi Won; Han, Kiwon; Kang, Ikjae; Chae, Chanhee

2014-08-27

313

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection spreads by cell-to-cell transfer in cultured MARC-145 cells, is dependent on an intact cytoskeleton, and is suppressed by drug-targeting of cell permissiveness to virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, causing widespread chronic infections which are largely uncontrolled by currently available vaccines or other antiviral measures. Cultured monkey kidney (MARC-145) cells provide an important tool for the study of PRRSV replication. For the present study, flow cytometric and fluorescence antibody (FA) analyses of PRRSV infection of cultured MARC-145 cells were carried out in experiments designed to clarify viral dynamics and the mechanism of viral spread. The roles of viral permissiveness and the cytoskeleton in PRRSV infection and transmission were examined in conjunction with antiviral and cytotoxic drugs. Results Flow cytometric and FA analyses of PRRSV antigen expression revealed distinct primary and secondary phases of MARC-145 cell infection. PRRSV antigen was randomly expressed in a few percent of cells during the primary phase of infection (up to about 20–22 h p.i.), but the logarithmic infection phase (days 2–3 p.i.), was characterized by secondary spread to clusters of infected cells. The formation of secondary clusters of PRRSV-infected cells preceded the development of CPE in MARC-145 cells, and both primary and secondary PRRSV infection were inhibited by colchicine and cytochalasin D, demonstrating a critical role of the cytoskeleton in viral permissiveness as well as cell-to-cell transmission from a subpopulation of cells permissive for free virus to secondary targets. Cellular expression of actin also appeared to correlate with PRRSV resistance, suggesting a second role of the actin cytoskeleton as a potential barrier to cell-to-cell transmission. PRRSV infection and cell-to-cell transmission were efficiently suppressed by interferon-? (IFN-?), as well as the more-potent experimental antiviral agent AK-2. Conclusion The results demonstrate two distinct mechanisms of PRRSV infection: primary infection of a relatively small subpopulation of innately PRRSV-permissive cells, and secondary cell-to-cell transmission to contiguous cells which appear non-permissive to free virus. The results also indicate that an intact cytoskeleton is critical for PRRSV infection, and that viral permissiveness is a highly efficient drug target to control PRRSV infection. The data from this experimental system have important implications for the mechanisms of PRRSV persistence and pathology, as well as for a better understanding of arterivirus regulation. PMID:17081295

Cafruny, William A; Duman, Richard G; Wong, Grace HW; Said, Suleman; Ward-Demo, Pam; Rowland, Raymond RR; Nelson, Eric A

2006-01-01

314

Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts  

SciTech Connect

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 ({omega} - 2, where {omega} is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 ({omega} - 1), and M162 ({omega} + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide-anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

Du, Yijun [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States) [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan (China); Pattnaik, Asit K. [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (United States)] [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (United States); Song, Cheng [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States) [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China)

2012-03-01

315

Construction and immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Background The European (EU) genotype of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (Genotype-I PRRSV) has recently emerged in China. The coexistence of Genotype-I and -II PRRSV strains could cause seriously affect PRRSV diagnosis and management. Current vaccines are not able to protect against PRRSV infection completely and have inherent drawbacks. Thus, genetically engineered vaccines, including DNA vaccine and live vector engineered vaccines, have been developed. This study aimed to determine the enhanced immune responses of mice inoculated with a DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of a Genotype-I PRRSV. Results To evaluate the immunogenicity of GP3 and GP5 proteins from European-type PRRSV, three DNA vaccines, pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5, pVAX1-EU-ORF3 and pVAX1-EU-ORF5, were constructed, which were based on a Genotype-I LV strain (GenBank ID: M96262). BALB/c mice were immunized with the DNA vaccines; delivered in the form of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles. To increase the efficiency of the vaccine, Quil A (Quillaja) was used as an adjuvant. GP3 and GP5-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN gamma) from the immunized mice sera, and other immune parameters, were examined, including T-cell proliferation responses and subgroups of spleen T-lymphocytes. The results showed that ORF3 and ORF5 proteins of Genotype-I PRRSV induced GP3 and GP5-specific antibodies that could neutralize the virus. The levels of Cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN–? of the experimental groups were significantly higher than those of control groups after booster vaccination (P?virus could stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes in mice in the experimental group. Conclusions Using Quil A as adjuvant, Genotype-I PRRSV GP3 and GP5 proteins produced good immunogenicity and reactivity. More importantly, better PRRSV-specific neutralizing antibody titers and cell-mediated immune responses were observed in mice immunized with the DNA vaccine co-expressing GP3 and GP5 proteins than in mice immunized with a DNA vaccine expressing either protein singly. The results of this study demonstrated that co-immunization with GP3 and GP5 produced a better immune response in mice. PMID:24916952

2014-01-01

316

Development and validation of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain assay for universal detection of the White Spot Syndrome Virus in marine crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Background The White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), the sole member of the family Whispoviridae, is the etiological agent that causes severe mortality events in wild and farmed shrimp globally. Given its adverse effects, the WSSV has been included in the list of notifiable diseases of the Office of International Epizootic (OIE) since 1997. To date there are no known therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus, and a surveillance program in brood-stock and larvae, based on appropriate diagnostic tests, has been strongly recommended. However, some currently used procedures intended for diagnosis of WSSV may be particularly susceptible to generate spurious results harmfully impacting the shrimp farming industry. Methods In this study, a sensitive one-step SYBR green-based real-time PCR (qPCR) for the detection and quantitation of WSSV was developed. The method was tested against several WSSV infected crustacean species and on samples that were previously diagnosed as being positive for WSSV from different geographical locations. Results A universal primer set for targeting the WSSV VP28 gene was designed. This method demonstrated its specificity and sensitivity for detection of WSSV, with detection limits of 12 copies per sample, comparable with the results obtained by other protocols. Furthermore, the primers designed in the present study were shown to exclusively amplify the targeted WSSV VP28 fragment, and successfully detected the virus in different samples regardless of their geographical origin. In addition, the presence of WSSV in several species of crustaceans, including both naturally and experimentally infected, were successfully detected by this method. Conclusion The designed qPCR assay here is highly specific and displayed high sensitivity. Furthermore, this assay is universal as it allows the detection of WSSV from different geographic locations and in several crustacean species that may serve as potential vectors. Clearly, in many low-income import-dependent nations, where the growth of shrimp farming industries has been impressive, there is a demand for cost-effective diagnostic tools. This study may become an alternative molecular tool for a less expensive, rapid and efficient detection of WSSV. PMID:23758658

2013-01-01

317

Changes in the incidence and predictors of wasting syndrome related to human immunodeficiency virus infection, 1987-1999.  

PubMed

The authors examined the impact of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the diagnosis of wasting syndrome in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Study time was divided into the periods 1988-1990, 1991-1993, 1994-1995, and 1996-1999 to correspond to different treatment eras. The proportion of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnoses in which wasting was present increased from 5% in 1988-1990 to 7.1% in 1991-1993, 7.7% in 1994-1995, and 18.9% in 1996-1999. The incidence of wasting per 1,000 person-years increased from 7.5 in 1988-1990 to 14.4 in 1991-1993 and 22.1 in 1994-1995; it decreased to 13.4 in 1996-1999. Fewer patients with wasting had low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and reported oral thrush in 1996-1999 than in any other period. Analysis of change in body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) after wasting showed a faster return to prewasting levels in 1994-1995 and 1996-1999 than in earlier periods. Case-control analysis showed that wasting prior to 1996 was weakly associated with fatigue (p = 0.10), low hemoglobin (p = 0.11), and CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count (p = 0.04). During 1996-1999, wasting was weakly associated with diarrhea (p = 0.05) and potent ART (p = 0.097). Predictors of wasting have changed with potent ART. Further research is needed to determine whether lipodystrophy may be misdiagnosed as wasting syndrome. PMID:12142255

Smit, Ellen; Skolasky, Richard L; Dobs, Adrian S; Calhoun, Bridget C; Visscher, Barbara R; Palella, Frank J; Jacobson, Lisa P

2002-08-01

318

50 CFR 648.128 - Scup possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...possession limit when carrying passengers for hire or when carrying more than five crew members for a party boat, or more than three crew members for a charter boat. This possession limit may be adjusted pursuant to the procedures in §...

2011-10-01

319

50 CFR 20.39 - Termination of possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.39 Termination...requirements of this part, the possession of birds taken by any hunter shall be deemed to have ceased when such birds have been delivered by him to...

2011-10-01

320

50 CFR 20.39 - Termination of possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.39 Termination...requirements of this part, the possession of birds taken by any hunter shall be deemed to have ceased when such birds have been delivered by him to...

2010-10-01

321

50 CFR 20.39 - Termination of possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.39 Termination...requirements of this part, the possession of birds taken by any hunter shall be deemed to have ceased when such birds have been delivered by him to...

2012-10-01

322

31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.  

...2014-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

2014-07-01

323

PmVRP15, a Novel Viral Responsive Protein from the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon, Promoted White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, PmVRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed 9410–fold up-regulated level at 48 h post WSSV injection. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PmVRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. The full-length cDNA of PmVRP15 transcript was obtained and showed no significant similarity to any known gene in the GenBank database. The predicted open reading frame of PmVRP15 encodes for a deduced 137 amino acid protein containing a putative transmembrane helix. Immunofluorescent localization of the PmVRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Double-stranded RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of PmVRP15 in P. monodon significantly decreased WSSV propagation compared to the control shrimps (injected with GFP dsRNA). The significant decrease in cumulative mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp following PmVRP15 knockdown was observed. These results suggest that PmVRP15 is likely to be a nuclear membrane protein and that it acts as a part of WSSV propagation pathway. PMID:24637711

Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Jaree, Phattarunda; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2014-01-01

324

Comparison of white spot syndrome virus PCR-detection methods that use electrophoresis or antibody-mediated lateral flow chromatographic strips to visualize PCR amplicons.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) PCR-detection methods that used electrophoresis or lateral flow chromatographic strips (LFCS) were to compare and visualize PCR amplicons. Real-time PCR was used to prepare a stock template solution containing 2.85 x 10 (6) copies WSSV/microl from WSSV-infected shrimp. Serial stock dilutions were used as templates for PCR amplification of a WSSV-specific DNA fragment that was detected either in ethidium bromide stained agarose electrophoresis gels or on a chromatographic strip where it interacted with antibody to markers labeled on hybridization complex. PCR amplification employed both 1-step PCR and semi-nested PCR methods. By using 1-step PCR, the LFCS method (100 copies) gave 10 times higher sensitivity than gel electrophoresis (10(3) copies). A combination of a semi-nested PCR with LFCS gave a comparable sensitivity to those with commercial kits for nested PCR (20 copies). In addition, LFCS confirmed amplicon identity, avoided handling of carcinogenic ethidium bromide and could be completed in approximately 20-30 min post-PCR compared with 1h for gel electrophoresis. The costs for the two methods were comparable. In conclusion, semi-nested PCR followed by LFCS is a safe and rapid alternative method for detection of WSSV that provides sensitivity similar to that obtained by standard nested PCR methods. PMID:18760309

Srisala, Jiraporn; Tacon, Philip; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

2008-11-01

325

Evaluation of alternative strategies to MERV 16-based air filtration systems for reduction of the risk of airborne spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a re-emerging disease of pigs and a growing threat to the global swine industry. For sustainable disease control it is critical to prevent the airborne spread of the etiologic agent, PRRS virus, between pig populations. The application of MERV 16-based air filtration systems to swine facilities in an effort to reduce this risk has been proposed; however, due to the cost and air flow restrictions of such systems the need for alternative strategies has arisen. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate 3 groups of alternative biosecurity strategies for reducing the risk of the airborne spread of PRRSV. Strategies evaluated included mechanical filters, antimicrobial filters and a disinfectant-EVAP (evaporative cooling) system. Results from this study indicate that while alternatives to MERV 16-based biosecurity protocols for protecting farms from the airborne spread of PRRSV are available, further information on their efficacy in the field is needed before conclusions can be drawn. PMID:19345522

Dee, Scott; Pitkin, Andrea; Deen, John

2009-07-01

326

Generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to study structure-function of envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus from shrimp  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP28 is one of the most important envelope proteins of WSSV. In this study, a recombinant antibody library, as single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format, displayed on phage was constructed using mRNA from spleen cells of mice immunized with full-length VP28 expressed in Escherichia coli. After several rounds of panning, six scFv antibodies specifically binding to the epitopes in the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions of VP28, respectively, were isolated from the library. Using these scFv antibodies as tools, the epitopes in VP28 were located on the envelope of the virion by immuno-electron microscopy. Neutralization assay with these antibodies in vitro suggested that these epitopes may not be the attachment site of WSSV to host cell receptor. This study provides a new way to investigate the structure and function of the envelope proteins of WSSV.

Wang Yuzhen [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Road 19A, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang Xiaohua; Yuan Li [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Xu Tao; Rao Yu; Li Jia [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Road 19A, Beijing 100039 (China); Dai Heping [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)], E-mail: hpdai@ihb.ac.cn

2008-08-08

327

Immunostimulatory activity of sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri and development of resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.  

PubMed

Sulfated galactans (SG) were isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri). Chemical analysis revealed SG contains sulfate (12.7%) and total carbohydrate (42.2%) with an estimated molecular mass of 100 kDa. Structure analysis by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that SG is a complex structure with a linear backbone of alternating 3-linked ?-D-galactopyranose and 4-linked 3,6-anhydrogalactose units with partial 6-O-methylate-?-D-galactopyranose and with sulfation occurring on C4 of D-galactopyranose and C6 of L-galactopyranose units. SG treatment enhanced immune parameters including total haemocytes, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anions and superoxide dismutase in shrimp Penaeus monodon. Shrimp fed with Artemia salina enriched with SG (100 and 200 ?g ml(-1)) and inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) showed a significantly lower mortality rate and lower viral VP 28 amplification and expression than control. The results suggest that SG from G. fisheri exhibits immune stimulatory and antiviral activities that could protect P. monodon from WSSV infection. PMID:24161778

Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Rudtanatip, Tawut; Praiboon, Jantana

2014-01-01

328

Identification of a Novel Nonstructural Protein, VP9, from White Spot Syndrome Virus: Its Structure Reveals a Ferredoxin Fold with Specific Metal Binding Sites  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a major mRNA species. The structure of full-length VP9 was determined by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is the first structure to be reported for WSSV proteins. The crystal structure of VP9 revealed a ferredoxin fold with divalent metal ion binding sites. Cadmium sulfate was found to be essential for crystallization. The Cd2+ ions were bound between the monomer interfaces of the homodimer. Various divalent metal ions have been titrated against VP9, and their interactions were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. The titration data indicated that VP9 binds with both Zn2+ and Cd2+. VP9 adopts a similar fold as the DNA binding domain of the papillomavirus E2 protein. Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells.

Liu,Y.; Wu, J.; Song, J.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

2006-01-01

329

Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zamb?zia Province, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and anti-stigma interventions in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Qualitative data gathering methods, including indepth key-informant interviews, community interviews and consensus group sessions, were utilized. Delphi methods and the strategic options development analysis technique were used to synthesize qualitative data. Key findings are that stigma enacted by the general public might be declining in tandem with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique, but there is likely excessive residual fear of HIV disease and community attitudes that sustain high levels of perceived stigma. HIV-positive women accessing maternal and child health services appear to shoulder a disproportionate burden of stigma. Unintentional biases among healthcare providers are currently the critical frontier of stigmatization, but there are few interventions designed to address them. Culturally sensitive psychotherapies are needed to address psychological distress associated with internalized stigma and these interventions should complement current supports for voluntary counseling and testing. While advantageous for defining stakeholder priorities for stigma reduction efforts, confirmatory quantitative studies of these consensus positions are needed before the launch of specific interventions. PMID:24527744

Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E.

2014-01-01

330

Effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.): mortality and viral replication.  

PubMed

Multiple infections are commonly found in practical shrimp culture and may cause more serious consequences than infections by one pathogen only. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.), mortality, WSSV replication in vivo and host immune response. In the WSSV single-infection group (WSSV load, 2 × 10(2)  copies ?L(-1) ), mean cumulative mortality was 29.2%. In the V. anguillarum single-infection group, cumulative mortality was 12.5% when shrimp were challenged by 10(5)  CFU mL(-1)  of bacteria. In the co- and super-infection groups, 37.5% and 50% cumulative mortalities, respectively, were observed at a lower bacterial concentration of 10(3)  CFU mL(-1) , suggesting that shrimp with multiple infections died earlier and more frequently than singly infected shrimp. WSSV load after injection was tracked over time by TaqMan quantitative PCR. WSSV load increased more rapidly in the multiple-infection groups than in the single-infection group. Additionally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding prophenoloxidase 1 and 2, which are closely involved in innate immunity in shrimp, was down-regulated more extensively in multiple-infection groups than in single-infection groups, as indicated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. PMID:24127689

Jang, I K; Qiao, G; Kim, S-K

2014-10-01

331

Development and preliminary application of an immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in swine.  

PubMed

A "strip test" to detect porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was established using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2D7 conjugated with colloidal gold. Two MAbs binding to protein N at different epitopes, 2D7 and 1G7 were obtained. In the test, samples of PRRSV bound to colloidal gold-conjugated MAb 2D7. The complex was then captured by MAb 1G7 at the test line (T) on the nitrocellulose membrane, presenting a purple band. If the sample did not contain PRRSV or if the quantity of PRRSV was less than that required for the kit, only the control line (C), in which goat anti-mouse antibody was added as the capture antibody, was present. Results from the sensitivity test of the kit demonstrated that the lowest detected quantity of PRRSV is 2.9 × 10(3)TCID(50)/ml. In clinical trials, the specificity and the sensitivity of this kit are 98.1% and 88.4%, respectively, compared with RT-PCR. Furthermore, this kit was found to be efficient in three areas of China and appears to have better results in practical applications than in empirical studies. In summary, this kit has not only high rates of specificity and sensitivity but also has the beneficial features such as efficiency, convenience and speed. PMID:21663767

Li, Xue-song; Fu, Fang; Lang, Yue-kun; Li, Hai-zhong; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xin; Tian, Hua-bin; Zhou, Yan-jun; Tong, Guang-zhi; Li, Xi

2011-09-01

332

Regulation of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus by Litopenaeus vannamei kruppel-like factor (LvKLF).  

PubMed

Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to a subclass of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins, and act as important regulators with diverse roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Our previous research showed that PmKLF from Penaeus monodon is crucial for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, yet the mechanisms by which PmKLF influences WSSV infection remain unclear. This study cloned KLF from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvKLF), which had 93% similarity with PmKLF. LvKLF formed a dimer via the C-terminal zinc-finger motif. Knockdown of LvKLF expression by dsRNA injection in WSSV-challenged shrimps was found to significantly inhibit the transcription of two important immediate-early (IE) genes, IE1 and WSSV304, and also reduced WSSV copy numbers. Moreover, reporter assays revealed that the promoter activities of these two WSSV IE genes were substantially enhanced by LvKLF. Mutations introduced in the promoter sequences of IE1 and WSSV304 were shown to abolish LvKLF activation of promoter activities; and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that LvKLF binds to putative KLF-response elements (KRE) in the promoters. Taken together, these results indicate that LvKLF transcriptional regulation of key IE genes is critical to WSSV replication. PMID:24881625

Huang, Ping-Han; Lu, Shao-Chia; Yang, Shu-Han; Cai, Pei-Si; Lo, Chu-Fang; Chang, Li-Kwan

2014-10-01

333

Genomic variation in macrophage-cultured European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Olot/91 revealed using ultra-deep next generation sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of major economic impact worldwide. The etiologic agent of this disease is the PRRS virus (PRRSV). Increasing evidence suggest that microevolution within a coexisting quasispecies population can give rise to high sequence heterogeneity in PRRSV. Findings We developed a pipeline based on the ultra-deep next generation sequencing approach to first construct the complete genome of a European PRRSV, strain Olot/9, cultured on macrophages and then capture the rare variants representative of the mixed quasispecies population. Olot/91 differs from the reference Lelystad strain by about 5% and a total of 88 variants, with frequencies as low as 1%, were detected in the mixed population. These variants included 16 non-synonymous variants concentrated in the genes encoding structural and nonstructural proteins; including Glycoprotein 2a and 5. Conclusion Using an ultra-deep sequencing methodology, the complete genome of Olot/91 was constructed without any prior knowledge of the sequence. Rare variants that constitute minor fractions of the heterogeneous PRRSV population could successfully be detected to allow further exploration of microevolutionary events. PMID:24588855

2014-01-01

334

The economic burden of illness for households in developing countries: a review of studies focusing on malaria, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

Ill-health contributes to impoverishment, a process brought into sharper focus by the impact of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. This paper reviews studies that have measured the economic costs and consequences of illness for households, focusing on malaria, tuberculosis (TB), and HIV/AIDS. It finds that in resource-poor settings illness imposed high and regressive cost burdens on patients and their families. Direct and indirect costs of illness for malaria were less than 10% of the household income, but still significant when combined with the costs of other illnesses. The costs of TB and HIV/AIDS were catastrophic for households (more than 10% of the income). Health service weaknesses in many countries, including low coverage, user charges, and poor quality of care, contributed to high costs. Poor households in developing countries with a member with TB or HIV/AIDS struggled to cope, highlighting the urgent need for a substantial increase in health sector investment to expand access to preventive and curative health services. Government and non-governmental interventions should also be broadened to encompass measures that reduce the substantial indirect costs associated with diseases such as malaria, TB, and HIV/AIDS. PMID:15331831

Russell, Steven

2004-08-01

335

In Vitro Evaluation of the Antiviral Activity of the Synthetic Epigallocatechin Gallate Analog-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Palmitate against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) palmitate was synthesized and its anti-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) activity was studied. Specifically, EGCG palmitate was evaluated for its ability to inhibit PRRSV infection in MARC-145 cells when administered as pre-, post-, or co-treatment. EGCG and ribavirin were used as controls. The results showed that a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of EGCG, EGCG palmitate, and ribavirin was achieved at 2,359.71, 431.42, and 94.06 ?M, respectively. All three drugs inhibited PRRSV in a dose-dependent manner regardless of the treatment protocol. EGCG palmitate exhibited higher cytotoxicity than EGCG, but lower cytotoxicity than ribavirin. EGCG palmitate anti-PRRSV activity was significantly higher than that of EGCG and ribavirin, both as pre-treatment and post-treatment. Under the former conditions and a tissue culture infectious dose of 10 and 100, the selectivity index (SI) of EGCG palmitate in the inhibition of PRRSV was 3.8 and 2.9 times higher than that of ribavirin when administered as a pre-treatment, while the SI of EGCG palmitate in the inhibition of PRRSV was 3.0 and 1.9 times higher than ribavirin when administered as a post-treatment. Therefore, EGCG palmitate is potentially effective as an anti-PRRSV agent and thus of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24566281

Zhao, Chunjian; Liu, Shuaihua; Li, Chunying; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang

2014-01-01

336

Cloning and characterization of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain in Fenneropenaeus chinensis and its essential role in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of cytoplasmic dynein in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, the full-length cDNA of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain (FcDYNCI) was cloned in Fenneropenaeus chinensis, which consists of 2582 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 660 amino acids. Sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment displayed that FcDYNCI was a member of cytoplasmic dynein 1 family. The FcDYNCI mRNA was most highly expressed in hemocytes, which was significantly up-regulated post WSSV infection. At 12 h post infection (hpi), confocal microscopic observation showed that WSSV could be co-localized with cytoplasmic dynein in hemocytes. After silencing by specific FcDYNCI dsRNA, the FcDYNCI mRNA level and the protein amount of FcDYNCI in hemocytes both exhibited a significant reduction, and the expression levels of three WSSV genes ie1, wsv477 and vp28 all exhibited the greatest decreases at 24 hpi. These results suggested that cytoplasmic dynein was involved in WSSV infection. PMID:24925758

Feng, Jixing; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin

2014-08-01

337

Taura syndrome virus IRES initiates translation by binding its tRNA-mRNA-like structural element in the ribosomal decoding center.  

PubMed

In cap-dependent translation initiation, the open reading frame (ORF) of mRNA is established by the placement of the AUG start codon and initiator tRNA in the ribosomal peptidyl (P) site. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) promote translation of mRNAs in a cap-independent manner. We report two structures of the ribosome-bound Taura syndrome virus (TSV) IRES belonging to the family of Dicistroviridae intergenic IRESs. Intersubunit rotational states differ in these structures, suggesting that ribosome dynamics play a role in IRES translocation. Pseudoknot I of the IRES occupies the ribosomal decoding center at the aminoacyl (A) site in a manner resembling that of the tRNA anticodon-mRNA codon. The structures reveal that the TSV IRES initiates translation by a previously unseen mechanism, which is conceptually distinct from initiator tRNA-dependent mechanisms. Specifically, the ORF of the IRES-driven mRNA is established by the placement of the preceding tRNA-mRNA-like structure in the A site, whereas the 40S P site remains unoccupied during this initial step. PMID:24927574

Koh, Cha San; Brilot, Axel F; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Korostelev, Andrei A

2014-06-24

338

Differential Host Cell Gene Expression and Regulation of Cell Cycle Progression by Nonstructural Protein 11 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Nonstructural protein 11 (nsp11) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a viral endoribonuclease with an unknown function. The regulation of cellular gene expression by nsp11 was examined by RNA microarrays using MARC-nsp11 cells constitutively expressing nsp11. In these cells, the interferon-?, interferon regulatory factor 3, and nuclear factor-?B activities were suppressed compared to those of parental cells, suggesting that nsp11 might serve as a viral interferon antagonist. Differential cellular transcriptome was examined using Affymetrix exon chips representing 28,536 transcripts, and after statistical analyses 66 cellular genes were shown to be upregulated and 104 genes were downregulated by nsp11. These genes were grouped into 5 major signaling pathways according to their functional relations: histone-related, cell cycle and DNA replication, mitogen activated protein kinase signaling, complement, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. Of these, the modulation of cell cycle by nsp11 was further investigated since many of the regulated genes fell in this particular pathway. Flow cytometry showed that nsp11 caused the delay of cell cycle progression at the S phase and the BrdU staining confirmed the cell cycle arrest in nsp11-expressing cells. The study provides insights into the understanding of specific cellular responses to nsp11 during PRRSV infection. PMID:24719865

Sun, Yan; Prasanth, Supriya G.

2014-01-01

339

18 CFR 1306.3 - Surrender of possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surrender of possession. 1306.3 Section 1306...Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... § 1306.3 Surrender of possession. Possession of...

2010-04-01

340

Consumption narratives of extended possessions and the extended self  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the nature of the boundaries between the extended self and possessions (including potentially extended possessions) in the context of gift giving for Hong Kong Chinese consumers. Our findings showed that informants narrated stories not only about the gifts that they themselves had received as being their important possessions and thus constituting part of their extended self, but

Phoebe Wong; Margaret K. Hogg; Markus Vanharanta

2012-01-01

341

Spirited into America: Narratives of possession, 1650--1850  

Microsoft Academic Search

My dissertation illustrates how British colonial writers and later, early national writers, created a colonial discourse of spirit possession. Stories of spirit possession in early America have traditionally been read along side of witchcraft narratives and wonder tales. This work has emphasized the particular social conditions that allowed for such fantastical narratives. Unlike witches however, the possessed did not voluntarily

Joy A. J Howard

2011-01-01

342

THE POSSESSIVE SYNTACTICAL TYPE AND THE MALAY LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1977 I prepared a paper for the Second International Conference on Austronesian linguistics. It dealt with the possessive category, its genera'1 features, its evolution and its use in grammatical structures of Indonesian languages (Alieva, 1978). Among the problems connected with the possessive category, it is essential to discuss the problem of the possessive structure of a sentence over against

N. ALIEVA

343

Persistence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus delays mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without apparent disease. Here, we introduced the method of multiplex PCR in order to differentiate shrimp with viral inserts from ones with the infectious virus. The method allowed us to study the effect of pre-infection of IHHNV, in comparison to IHHNV inserts, on WSSV resistance in P. monodon. Results A multiplex PCR system was developed to amplify the entire IHHNV genome, ensuring the accurate diagnosis. Field samples containing IHHNV DNA templates as low as 20 pg or equivalent 150 viral copies can be detected by this method. By challenging the two groups of diagnosed shrimp with WSSV, we found that shrimp with IHHNV infection and those with viral inserts responded to WSSV differently. Considering cumulative mortality, average time to death of shrimp in IHHNV-infected group (day 14) was significantly delayed relative to that (day 10) of IHHNV-inserted group. Real-time PCR analysis of WSSV copy number indicated the lower amount of WSSV in the IHHNV-infected group than the virus-inserted group. The ratio of IHHNV: WSSV copy number in all determined IHHNV-infected samples ranged from approximately 4 to 300-fold. Conclusion The multiplex PCR assay developed herein proved optimal for convenient differentiation of shrimp specimens with real IHHNV infection and those with insert types. Diagnosed shrimp were also found to exhibit different WSSV tolerance. After exposed to WSSV, the naturally pre-infected IHHNV P. monodon were less susceptible to WSSV and, consequently, survived longer than the IHHNV-inserted shrimp. PMID:23414329

2013-01-01

344

Helper T-cell antigenic site identification in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus gp120 envelope protein and induction of immunity in mice to the native protein using a 16-residue synthetic peptide.  

PubMed Central

Much effort has been devoted to the analysis of antibodies to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus antigens, but no studies, to our knowledge, have defined antigenic sites of this virus that elicit T-cell immunity, even though such immunity is important in protection against many other viruses. T cells tend to recognize only a limited number of discrete sites on a protein antigen. Analysis of immunodominant helper T-cell sites has suggested that such sites tend to form amphipathic helices. An algorithm based on this model was used to identify two candidate T-cell sites, env T1 and env T2, in the envelope protein of human T-lymphotropic virus type IIIB that were conserved in other human immunodeficiency virus isolates. Corresponding peptides were synthesized and studied in genetically defined inbred and F1 mice for induction of lymph node proliferation. After immunization with a 426-residue recombinant envelope protein fragment, significant responses to native gp 120, as well as to each peptide, were observed in both F1 combinations studied. Conversely, immunization with env T1 peptide induced T-cell immunity to the native gp 120 envelope protein. The genetics of the response to env T1 peptide were further examined and revealed a significant response in three of four independent major histocompatibility haplotypes tested, an indication of high frequency responsiveness in the population. Identification of helper T-cell sites should facilitate development of a highly immunogenic, carrier-free vaccine that induces T-cell and B-cell immunity. The ability to elicit T-cell immunity to the native viral protein by immunization with a 16-residue peptide suggests that such sites represent potentially important components of an effective vaccine for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images PMID:2438696

Cease, K B; Margalit, H; Cornette, J L; Putney, S D; Robey, W G; Ouyang, C; Streicher, H Z; Fischinger, P J; Gallo, R C; DeLisi, C

1987-01-01

345

Detection of U.S., Lelystad, and European-Like Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses and Relative Quantitation in Boar Semen and Serum Samples by Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

Transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) via boar semen has been documented. Since semen is widely disseminated for artificial insemination and the virus can cause significant health and economic consequences, it is essential to have well-validated, rapid diagnostic techniques to detect and quantitate the virus for diagnostic and research purposes. Previously, boar semen was tested by a nested PCR (nPCR) assay which was compared to the “gold standard” swine bioassay. A correlation of 94% was observed, indicating that, most of the time, PCR detected infectious virus. Subsequently, a real-time PCR targeting the 3? untranslated region of the PRRSV genome was compared with nPCR by testing 413 serum and semen samples from PRRSV-inoculated and control boars. There was 95% agreement between the results of the two tests, with the majority of samples with discordant results containing virus at the lower range of detection by the assays. The virus in all samples was quantitated by using a standard curve obtained by serial dilution of an in vitro transcript. By using the in vitro transcript, the lower limit of sensitivity was observed to be approximately 33 copies/ml. Reactivity with a panel of more than 100 PRRSV isolates from various geographical regions in the United States was also documented. No reactivity with nine nonrelated swine viruses was noted. A real-time PCR was also developed for the detection of the European Lelystad virus and the European-like PRRSV now found in the United States. In six of six PRRSV-inoculated boars, peak levels of viremia occurred at 5 days postinoculation (DPI) and were most consistently detectable throughout 22 DPI. In five of six boars, PRRSV was shed in semen for 0 to 2 days during the first 10 DPI; however, one of six boars shed the virus in semen through 32 DPI. Therefore, in general, the concentration and duration of PRRSV shedding in semen did not correlate with the quantity or duration of virus in serum. These differences warrant further studies into the factors that prevent viral replication in the reproductive tract. PMID:15472293

Wasilk, A.; Callahan, J. D.; Christopher-Hennings, J.; Gay, T. A.; Fang, Y.; Dammen, M.; Reos, M. E.; Torremorell, M.; Polson, D.; Mellencamp, M.; Nelson, E.; Nelson, W. M.

2004-01-01

346

Instability of the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Pattern of Open Reading Frame 5 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus during Sequential Pig-to-Pig Passages  

PubMed Central

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis is one of the tools commonly used to study the molecular epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs). As PRRSVs are genetically variable, the stability of the RFLP pattern of a PRRSV during in vivo replication was evaluated by carrying out 13 sequential pig-to-pig passages (P1 to P13) of PRRSV ATCC VR-2332 in three independent pig lines for a total of 727 days. During P1 the pigs were inoculated with a homogeneous inoculum (CC-01) prepared through a series of plaque purifications, and during P2 to P13 the pigs were inoculated with a tissue filtrate from the corresponding pig in the previous passage. Fifteen viral plaque clones were directly isolated from CC-01 and the day 7 serum of each pig of each passage, open reading frame 5 of the clones was sequenced, and the clones were compared to CC-01 to assess the mutation rates and RFLP patterns (obtained by digestion with MluI, HincII, and SacII) over time. Among the 495 viral clones recovered during the passages, 398 clones, including CC-01, had pattern 2-5-2 (MluI-HincII-SacII); however, the remaining 97 viral clones showed different patterns (2-6-2 [P2], 1-5-2 [P3], 2-5-4 [P7], and 2-1-2 [P10]). Importantly, the MluI site that was reported to be present in only one of the PRRS modified live virus vaccine strains (Ingelvac) and its parental strain (ATCC VR-2332) can disappear during in vivo replication. Furthermore, sequence homology between CC-01 and clones with pattern 2-5-2 or clones with other patterns differed by 0.05 to 1.58% and 0.5 to 1.45%, respectively, suggesting that RFLP analysis cannot accurately predict genetic relatedness between PRRSVs. Collectively, precaution should be taken when the molecular epidemiology of PRRSVs is evaluated by RFLP analysis. PMID:15472294

Cha, Sang-Ho; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

2004-01-01

347

An experimental model to evaluate the role of transport vehicles as a source of transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to susceptible pigs  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in a scale-model trailer that was required to infect susceptible pigs, evaluate the potential of PRRSV-contaminated transport vehicles to infect naïve pigs and assess 4 sanitation programs for the prevention of virus spread. To maximize study power, scale models (1:150) of weaned-pig trailers were constructed that provided an animal density equal to that of an actual weaned-pig trailer capable of transporting 300 pigs. The 1st aim involved contaminating the interior of the model trailers with various concentrations (101 to 104 TCID50/mL) of PRRSV MN 30–100, then housing sentinel pigs in the trailers for 2 h. Pigs exposed to trailers contaminated with ? 103 TCID50/mL became infected. The 2nd aim involved housing experimentally infected seeder pigs in trailers for 2 h, then directly introducing sentinel pigs for 2 h. Infection of sentinels was demonstrated in 3 of 4 replicates. The 3rd aim involved applying 1 of 4 sanitation procedures (treatments) to contaminated trailers. Treatment 1 consisted of manual scraping of the interior to remove soiled bedding (wood chips). Treatment 2 consisted of bedding removal, washing (80°C, 20 500 kPa), and disinfecting (with 1:256 phenol; 10-min contact time). Treatment 3 consisted of treatment 2, followed by freezing and thawing. Treatment 4 consisted of bedding removal, washing, disinfecting, and drying. Ten replicates were conducted per treatment. Pretreatment swabs from all trailers tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Post-treatment swabs were PCR-positive for all trailers except those that were washed, disinfected, and dried. Infection of sentinel pigs by PRRSV was also detected by PCR after all treatments except washing, disinfecting, and drying. Under the conditions of this study, drying appeared to be an important component of a sanitation program for ensuring PRRSV biosecurity of transport vehicles. PMID:15188957

2004-01-01

348

Sensitive Mie scattering immunoagglutination assay of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from lung tissue samples in a microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

A microfluidic immunosensor utilizing Mie scattering immunoaggultination assay was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from lung tissue samples of domesticated pigs. Antibodies against PRRSV were conjugated to the surface of highly carboxylated polystyrene microparticles (diameter=920nm) and mixed with the diluted PRRSV tissue samples in a Y-shaped microchannel. Antibody-antigen binding induced microparticle immunoagglutination, which was detected by measuring the forward 45° light scattering of 380nm incident beam using microcallipered, proximity fiber optics. For comparison, multi-well experiments were also performed using the same optical detection setup. The detection limit was determined to be 10(-3)TCID(50)ml(-1) for PRRSV dissolved in PBS, while those of previous RT-PCR studies for PRRSV were 10(1)TCID(50)ml(-1) (conventional assays) or <1TCID(50)ml(-1) (quantitative real-time assays). Mie scattering simulations were able to predict the shape of the PRRSV standard curve, indicating that any non-linearity of the standard curve can be interpreted purely as an optical phenomenon. Each assay took less than 5min. A strong correlation could be found between RT-PCR and this method for the lung tissue samples, even though their respective detection mechanisms are different fundamentally (nucleic acids for RT-PCR and virus antigens for light scattering immunoagglutination assay). Several different dilution factors were also tested for tissue samples, and 1/10 and 1/100 were found to be usable. If the microfluidic chips are used only once (i.e. without re-using them), both superior sensitivity and satisfactory specificity can be demonstrated. Specificity studies revealed the presence of Type II PRRSV and non-presence of Type I PRRSV and that the microfluidic chip assay could detect Type II North American strain of PRRSV for the animals tested. This work demonstrates the potential of the Mie scattering immunoassay on a microfluidic chip towards real-time detection system for viral pathogens in domesticated animals. PMID:21871925

Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Chang-Hee; Choi, Eun-Jin; Kim, Keesung; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

2011-12-01

349

Can persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection induce Chronic Fatigue Syndrome as a Pavlov feature of the immune response?  

E-print Network

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is a protracted illness condition (lasting even years) appearing with strong flu symptoms and with complex, systemic, defaiances by the immune system. Here we study the most widely accepted picture for its genesis, namely a persistent acute mononucleosis infection, by means of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics techniques and we show how this may drive the immune system toward an out-of-equilibrium metastable state (with long life-time) displaying chronic activation of both humoral and cellular responses: a scenario with full inflammation without a direct "causes-effect" reason. By exploiting a bridge with the neuronal scenario, we mirror killer lymphocytes $T_K$ and $B$-cells to neurons and helper lymphocytes $T_{H_1},T_{H_2}$ to synapses, hence showing that -under minimal physical assumptions- the immune system may experience the Pavlov conditional reflex phenomenon such that if the exposition to a stimulus (EBV antigens) is too long, strong internal correlations among $B,T_K,T_H...

Agliari, Elena; Vidal, Kristian Gervasi; Guerra, Francesco

2011-01-01

350

Molecular docking analyses of Avicennia marinaderived phytochemicals against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope protein-VP28.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome (WSS) is one of the most common and most disastrous diseases of shrimp worldwide. It causes up to 100% mortality within 3 to 4 days in commercial shrimp farms, resulting in large economic losses to the shrimp farming industry. VP28 envelope protein of WSSV is reported to play a key role in the systemic infection in shrimps. Considering the most sombre issue of viral disease in cultivated shrimp, the present study was undertaken to substantiate the inhibition potential of Avicennia marinaderived phytochemicals against the WSSV envelope protein VP28. Seven A. marina-derived phytochemicals namely stigmasterol, triterpenoid, betulin, lupeol, avicenol-A, betulinic acid and quercetin were docked against the WSSV protein VP28 by using Argus lab molecular docking software. The chemical structures of the phytochemicals were retrieved from Pubchem database and generated from SMILES notation. Similarly the protein structure of the envelope protein was obtained from protein data bank (PDB-ID: 2ED6). Binding sites were predicted by using ligand explorer software. Among the phytochemicals screened, stigmasterol, lupeol and betulin showed the best binding exhibiting the potential to block VP28 envelope protein of WSSV, which could possibly inhibit the attachment of WSSV to the host species. Further experimental studies will provide a clear understanding on the mode of action of these phytochemicals individually or synergistically against WSSV envelope protein and can be used as an inhibitory drug to reduce white spot related severe complications in crustaceans. PMID:23144547

Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Singh, Reena; Senthilraja, Poomalai

2012-01-01

351

Reaching Kids with Asperger's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with Asperger's syndrome. This disorder has been described in terms of social deficits with cognitive skills remaining preserved in the afflicted individual. The essential characteristics of children with Asperger's Syndrome are that they possess qualitative impairment in social relationships, impairment in verbal and nonverbal…

Phemister, Art

2005-01-01

352

The shrimp IKK-NF-?B signaling pathway regulates antimicrobial peptide expression and may be subverted by white spot syndrome virus to facilitate viral gene expression  

PubMed Central

The I?B kinases IKK? and IKK? and the IKK-related kinases TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IKK? are the master regulators of the NF-?B signaling pathway. Although this pathway has been extensively studied in mammals, less attention has been paid in crustaceans, which have significant economic value. Here, we report the cloning and functional studies of two IKK homologs, LvIKK? and LvIKK?, from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. LvIKK? and LvIKK? mRNAs are widely expressed in different tissues and are responsive to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, LvIKK? but not LvIKK? activates the promoters of NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), such as the Penaeidins (PENs). In HEK 293T cells, both LvIKK? and LvIKK? activate an NF-?B reporter. The silencing of LvIKK? or LvIKK? using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) decreases the expression of L. vannamei AMPs, including PENs, lysozyme and crustins. Intriguingly, LvIKK?- or LvIKK?-silenced L. vannamei are resistant to WSSV infection. We hypothesized that successful infection with WSSV requires the activation of the IKK–NF-?B signaling pathway to modulate viral gene expression. We constructed luciferase reporters for 147 WSSV genes. By screening, we found that the WSV051, WSV059, WSV069, WSV083, WSV090, WSV107, WSV244, WSV303, WSV371 and WSV445 promoters can be activated by LvIKK? or LvIKK? in Drosophila S2 cells. Taken together, our results reveal that LvIKK? and LvIKK? may participate in the regulation of shrimp AMPs and that WSSV may subvert the L. vannamei IKK–NF-?B signaling pathway to facilitate viral gene expression. PMID:23954949

Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Liu, Bo-Du; Huang, Xian-De; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-01-01

353

Visual detection of white spot syndrome virus using DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles as probes combined with loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

The integration of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and DNA-functionalized AuNPs as visual detection probes (LAMP-AuNPs) was developed and applied for the detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Penaeid shrimp in this study. The principle of this combination assay relies on the basis of stability characteristics of the DNA-functionalized AuNPs upon hybridization with the complementary target DNA toward salt-induced aggregation. If the detected target DNA is not complementary to the ssDNA probes, the DNA-functionalized AuNPs will be aggregated due to the screening effect of salt, resulting in the change of solution color from red to blue/gray and shift of the surface plasmon peak to longer wavelength. While the DNA-functionalized AuNPs are perfectly matched to the detected target DNA, the color of solution still remains red in color and no surface plasmon spectral shift. This assay provides simply technique, time-saving and its detection results could be achieved qualitatively and quantitatively by visualization using the naked eye due to the colorimetric change and by measurement using the UV-vis spectroscopy due to the surface plasmon spectral shift, respectively. In this study, LAMP-AuNPs assay was successfully developed with the detection of WSSV-LAMP generated product at 0.03 ?g/reaction, and showed the sensitivity of 2 × 10(2) copies WSSV plasmid DNA, that is comparable to the most sensitive method reported to date. The LAMP-AuNPs assay described in this study revealed a highly sensitive, rapid and reliable diagnostic protocol for detection of WSSV. This technique has a potential as a routine method for assessing the infectious diseases in Penaeid shrimp not only for WSSV, but also for other shrimp pathogens, and can be useful tool in field conditions for the diagnosis or surveillance programs. PMID:23211683

Seetang-Nun, Yortyot; Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

2013-04-01

354

Nonstructural protein 1{alpha} subunit-based inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation and suppression of interferon-{beta} production by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

SciTech Connect

Induction of type I interferon (IFN-{alpha}/{beta}) is an early antiviral response of the host, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to downregulate the IFN response during infection in cells and pigs. We report that the PRRSV nonstructural protein 1{alpha} (Nsp1{alpha}) subunit of Nsp1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic protein distributed to the nucleus and contains a strong suppressive activity for IFN-{beta} production that is mediated through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway. Nsp1{alpha} suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B when stimulated with dsRNA or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B suppression was RIG-I-dependent. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B activation was associated with the poor production of IFN-{beta} during PRRSV infection. The C-terminal 14 amino acids of the Nsp1{alpha} subunit were critical in maintaining immunosuppressive activity of Nsp1{alpha} for both IFN-{beta} and NF-{kappa}B, suggesting that the newly identified zinc finger configuration comprising of Met180 may be crucial for inhibitory activities. Nsp1{alpha} inhibited I{kappa}B phosphorylation and as a consequence NF-{kappa}B translocation to the nucleus was blocked, leading to the inhibition of NF-{kappa}B stimulated gene expression. Our results suggest that PRRSV Nsp1{alpha} is a multifunctional nuclear protein participating in the modulation of the host IFN system.

Song Cheng [Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Krell, Peter [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.ed [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

2010-11-25

355

Molecular cloning and characterizations of porcine SAMHD1 and its roles in replication of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The sterile alpha motif and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1) protein is a novel innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. Here, we cloned the full-length SAMHD1 complementary DNA (cDNA) from porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes. The porcine SAMHD1 cDNA was of 3951?bp with an open reading frame of 1884?bp, encoding a polypeptide of 627 amino acids. Porcine SAMHD1 mRNA was detected in all swine tissues examined, with the higher expression in the tonsil, lung, liver, and lymph node tissues. The SAMHD1 protein was localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of SAMHD1 blocked the proliferation of HuN4, a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV), in MARC-145 cells, by inhibiting the synthesis of the HuN4 complement RNA. The antiviral effects of the simian SAMHD1 protein were nearly equivalent to those of porcine SAMHD1 in the HuN4-infected MARC-145 cells. Phosphorylation analysis of SAMHD1 showed that overexpressed SAMHD1 protein was in primarily an unphosphorylated state. SAMHD1 overexpression increased the transcript abundance of IFN-stimulated genes ISG15 and ISG56. The mRNA levels of SAMHD1 and ISGs were significantly increased in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 protein level was also elevated, and the protein was not phosphorylated during infection. Collectively, our data indicate that SAMHDI inhibits HP-PRRSV proliferation through inhibiting the replication of HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 might be the protein participating in the IFN signaling and is thus an important immunoregulatory protein in innate immunity. PMID:25106914

Yang, Shen; Shan, Tongling; Zhou, Yanjun; Jiang, Yifeng; Tong, Wu; Liu, Fei; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Qingzhan; Tong, Guangzhi

2014-12-01

356

Spatial and temporal patterns of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genotypes in Ontario, Canada, 2004–2007  

PubMed Central

Background The spread of PRRSV among pig herds has been investigated experimentally, but few observational studies have investigated this subject. Because PRRSV is endemic and live modified vaccines are used in Ontario, the spatial and temporal distributions of 6 PRRSV genotypes were investigated in the province during the period from 2004–2007. The purpose was to find evidence of spread of PRRSV genotypes and determine if spread could be attributed to supplier or ownership connections between herds. Sequence information from PRRSV ORF5 and related source-herd demographic information were obtained from diagnostic submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph. Results A spatial cluster that could not be attributed to supplier or ownership connections among herds in the cluster was detected for RFLP type 1-3-4. Because of genetic dissimilarity among members of the cluster, it was considered to be a result of past spread of the RFLP type. A spatio-temporal cluster detected for RFLP type 1-18-4 was attributed to a shared gilt supplier among the herds in the cluster. Significant spatio-temporal patterns detected for RFLP type 2-5-2, which is considered to be a vaccine-type virus were most likely due to grouping of herds in an ownership that used the corresponding vaccine. Clustering within herd-ownership was a risk factor for presence of five of the six genotypes investigated in the present study. Conclusions Although the literature indicates that PRRSV can spread via aerosol between pig herds, the present study found no strong evidence of this occurring in Ontario. The evidence pointed toward transmission of PRRSV occurring in this population by common sources of animals or similarity of herd ownership, which is a proxy measure for other connections between herds. It is also apparent that the recognition and testing of these connections between herds is a necessary part of interpreting spatio-temporal patterns of PRRSV genotypes. PMID:24708804

2014-01-01

357

Replicative advantage in tissue culture of egg-adapted influenza virus over tissue-culture derived virus: implications for vaccine manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza virus derived from clinical material on MDCK cells has been shown to possess heamagglutinin (HA) indistinguishable from that of the natural, uncultivated virus. In contrast, virus derived in embryonated hens' eggs are variants with substitutions in their HA in the vicinity of the receptor binding site. We report here the superior growth of egg-adapted virus over cell-derived virus on

James S. Robertson; Pamela Cook; Ann-Marie Attwell; Susan P. Williams

1995-01-01

358

Possession and Exchange of Materials in Chinese and American Preschools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied possession behaviors in 80 Chinese and American preschool children. Members from both groups took materials from each other. American children reacted more defensively to these actions than did their Chinese counterparts. Possession disputes were more likely to result in aggressive actions in the U.S. classroom than in the Chinese. (RJC)

Navon, Roberta; Ramsey, Patricia G.

1989-01-01

359

50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145 Section...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) From...

2012-10-01

360

50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145 Section...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the...

2013-10-01

361

50 CFR 648.235 - Possession and landing restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...governing the harvest, possession, landing, purchase, and sale of shark fins are found at part 600, subpart N, of this chapter...governing the harvest, possession, landing, purchase, and sale of shark fins are found at part 600, subpart N, of this...

2011-10-01

362

50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fishing vessel that possesses an Atlantic tuna in the Atlantic Ocean or that lands an Atlantic tuna in an Atlantic coastal...a fishing vessel that possesses a swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean or lands a swordfish in an Atlantic coastal port...

2011-10-01

363

50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fishing vessel that possesses an Atlantic tuna in the Atlantic Ocean or that lands an Atlantic tuna in an Atlantic coastal...a fishing vessel that possesses a swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean or lands a swordfish in an Atlantic coastal port...

2012-10-01

364

50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fishing vessel that possesses an Atlantic tuna in the Atlantic Ocean or that lands an Atlantic tuna in an Atlantic coastal...a fishing vessel that possesses a swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean or lands a swordfish in an Atlantic coastal port...

2013-10-01

365

50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fishing vessel that possesses an Atlantic tuna in the Atlantic Ocean or that lands an Atlantic tuna in an Atlantic coastal...a fishing vessel that possesses a swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean or lands a swordfish in an Atlantic coastal port...

2010-10-01

366

Identification of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Small Molecule against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah Viruses by Using a Novel High-Throughput Screening Assay  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses are members of different viral families and are known causative agents of fatal viral diseases. These viruses depend on cathepsin L for entry into their target cells. The viral glycoproteins need to be primed by protease cleavage, rendering them active for fusion with the host cell membrane. In this study, we developed a novel high-throughput screening assay based on peptides, derived from the glycoproteins of the aforementioned viruses, which contain the cathepsin L cleavage site. We screened a library of 5,000 small molecules and discovered a small molecule that can inhibit the cathepsin L cleavage of all viral peptides with minimal inhibition of cleavage of a host protein-derived peptide (pro-neuropeptide Y). The small molecule inhibited the entry of all pseudotyped viruses in vitro and the cleavage of SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein in an in vitro cleavage assay. In addition, the Hendra and Nipah virus fusion glycoproteins were not cleaved in the presence of the small molecule in a cell-based cleavage assay. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the small molecule is a mixed inhibitor of cathepsin L. Our broad-spectrum antiviral small molecule appears to be an ideal candidate for future optimization and development into a potent antiviral against SARS-CoV and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses. IMPORTANCE We developed a novel high-throughput screening assay to identify small molecules that can prevent cathepsin L cleavage of viral glycoproteins derived from SARS-CoV and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses that are required for their entry into the host cell. We identified a novel broad-spectrum small molecule that could block cathepsin L-mediated cleavage and thus inhibit the entry of pseudotypes bearing the glycoprotein derived from SARS-CoV or Ebola, Hendra, or Nipah virus. The small molecule can be further optimized and developed into a potent broad-spectrum antiviral drug. PMID:24501399

Elshabrawy, Hatem A.; Fan, Jilao; Haddad, Christine S.; Ratia, Kiira; Broder, Christopher C.; Caffrey, Michael

2014-01-01

367

No association found between the detection of either xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus or polytropic murine leukemia virus and chronic fatigue syndrome in a blinded, multi-site, prospective study by the establishment and use of the SolveCFS BioBank  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009, a retrospective study reported the detection of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in clinical isolates derived from individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS). While many efforts to confirm this observation failed, one report detected polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV), instead of XMRV. In both studies, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods were employed which could provide the basis for the development of a practical diagnostic tool. To confirm these studies, we hypothesized that the ability to detect these viruses will not only depend upon the technical details of the methods employed but also on the criteria used to diagnose CFS and the availability of well characterized clinical isolates. Methods A repository of clinical isolates from geographically distinct sites was generated by the collection of fresh blood samples from well characterized CFS and healthy subjects. Molecular techniques were used to generate assay positive controls and to determine the lower limit of detection (LLOD) for murine retroviral and Intracisternal A particle (Cell 12(4):963-72, 1977) detection methods. Results We report the establishment of a repository of well-defined, clinical isolates from five, geographically distinct regions of the US, the comparative determination of the LLODs and validation efforts for the previously reported detection methods and the results of an effort to confirm the association of these retroviral signatures in isolates from individuals with CFS in a blinded, multi-site, prospective study. We detected various, murine retroviral DNA signatures but were unable to resolve a difference in the incidence of their detection between isolates from CFS (5/72; 6.7%) and healthy (2/37; 5.4%) subjects (Fisher’s Exact Test, p-value?=?1). The observed sequences appeared to reflect the detection of endogenous murine retroviral DNA, which was not identical to either XMRV or pMLV. Conclusions We were unable to confirm a previously reported association between the detection of XMRV or pMLV sequences and CFS in a prospective, multi-site study. Murine retroviral sequences were detected at a low frequency that did not differ between CFS and control subjects. The nature of these sequences appeared to reflect the detection of pre-existing, endogenous, murine retroviral DNA in the PCR reagents employed. PMID:25092471

2014-01-01

368

Research Projects in Ly's & Liang's Labs How virus-host interactions affect Lassa and Influenza virus  

E-print Network

Virus Causes Lethal Hemorrhagic Fever · Severe multisystem syndrome · Damage to overall vascular system virus infected guinea pigs Mass Spect #12;Hemorrhagic fever-like syndromes in virulent Pi hi d i i f t d-infected guinea pig as a good surrogate animal model for Lassa and other hemorrhagic fever diseases. · The reverse

Blanchette, Robert A.

369

Neuroendocrine responses of a crustacean host to viral infection: effects of infection of white spot syndrome virus on the expression and release of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to characterize the changes in crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) transcript and peptide levels in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in a crustacean, Procambarus clarkii. After viral challenge, significant increase in virus load began at 24 h post injection (hpi) and the increase was much more substantial at 48 and 72 hpi. The hemolymph CHH levels rapidly increased after viral challenge; the increase started as early as 3 hpi and lasted for at least 2 d after the challenge. In contrast, the hemolymph glucose levels did not significantly changed over a 2 d period in the WSSV-infected animals. The CHH transcript and peptide levels in tissues were also determined. The CHH transcript levels in the eyestalk ganglia (the major site of CHH synthesis) of the virus-infected animals did not significantly change over a 2 d period and those in 2 extra-eyestalk tissues (the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia) significantly increased at 24 and 48 hpi. The CHH peptide levels in the eyestalk ganglia of the virus-infected animals significantly decreased at 24 and 48 hpi and those in the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia remained unchanged over a 2 d period. These data demonstrated a WSSV-induced increase in the release of CHH into hemolymph that is rapid in onset and lasting in duration. Changes in the CHH transcript and peptide levels implied that the WSSV-induced increase in hemolymph CHH levels primarily resulted from an enhanced release from the eyestalk ganglia, but the contribution of the 2 extra-eyestalk tissues to hemolymph pool of CHH increased as viral infection progressed. The combined patterns of change in the hemolymph glucose and CHH levels further suggest that the virus-enhanced CHH release would lead to higher glycolytic activity and elevated glucose mobilization presumably favorable for viral replication. PMID:23174320

Lin, Ling-Jiun; Chen, Yan-Jhou; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Lee, Chi-Ying

2013-02-01

370

Epidemiology and Clinical Parameters of Adult Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome at the Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in South Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has continued to ravage the teeming populations in Nigeria, with disastrous consequences. Despite many studies and progress on HIV/AIDS in Africa, the data on the status of the patients at the commencement of therapy is lacking. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic, clinical and some laboratory features of adult HIV/AIDS patients, seen at the commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria between July 2002 and October 2004. Subjects and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Adult patients living with HIV/AIDS were studied using an interview administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1. Results: A total of 400 respondents participated in this study. The mean age was 36.8 (8.8) years. Almost 60% patients were married and the HIV concordance rate was 53.3% (136/255). Nearly 30% of the families had at least one child positive for HIV. The most common associated risky behavior was injection administered in patent medicine stores 74.5%(302/400) and the most common clinical symptom was respiratory. Of the 400 patients recruited in this study, 19 (4.8%) were lost to follow-up on the 6 months’ visit, giving a follow-up rate of 95.2% (381/400). There was statistically significant difference in the mean body weight (P = 0.02), mean total white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and mean CD4+ count (P < 0.001) at presentation and after 6 months of ART therapy. Conclusion: HIV/AIDS patients present late and body weight, CD4+ count and total white blood cell count seemed to recover quickly on commencement of ART. The prevalence of concordance among couples and mother to child transmission rates tended to be high. Administration of injectable at patent medicine stores and multiple sexual partners are the most significant risk factors. PMID:24761241

Eleje, GU; Ele, PU; Okocha, EC; Iloduba, UC

2014-01-01

371

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China  

PubMed Central

Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. Results 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. Conclusions HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in this population likely being engaged in high-risk sex. Government programs should pay more attention to public education, health promotion and intervention for the control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. PMID:24520921

2014-01-01

372

Genome-wide gene expression profiles in lung tissues of pig breeds differing in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an infectious disease characterized by severe reproductive deficiency in pregnant sows, typical respiratory symptoms in piglets, and high mortality rate of piglets. In this study, we employed an Affymetrix microarray chip to compare the gene expression profiles of lung tissue samples from Dapulian (DPL) pigs (a Chinese indigenous pig breed) and Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY) pigs after infection with PRRSV. During infection with PRRSV, the DLY pigs exhibited a range of clinical features that typify the disease, whereas the DPL pigs showed only mild signs of the disease. Overall, the DPL group had a lower percentage of CD4(+) cells and lower CD4(+)/CD8(+)ratios than the DLY group (p<0.05). For both IL-10 and TNF-?, the DLY pigs had significantly higher levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01). The DLY pigs have lower serum IFN-? levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01). The serum IgG levels increased slightly from 0 dpi to 7 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi (p<0.0001). Microarray data analysis revealed 16 differentially expressed (DE) genes in the lung tissue samples from the DLY and DPL pigs (q?5%), of which LOC100516029 and LOC100523005 were up-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs, while the other 14 genes were down-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs compared with the PRRSV-infected DLY pigs. The mRNA expression levels of 10 out of the 16 DE genes were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and their fold change was consistent with the result of microarray data analysis. We further analyzed the mRNA expression level of 8 differentially expressed genes between the DPL and DLY pigs for both uninfected and infected groups, and found that TF and USP18 genes were important in underlying porcine resistance or susceptibility to PRRSV. PMID:24465897

Xing, Jinyi; Xing, Feng; Zhang, Chenhua; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanping; Yang, Lijuan; Jiang, Chenglan; Zhang, Chaoyang; Wen, Changhong; Jiang, Yunliang

2014-01-01

373

Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background: Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: To check if a thesis resulted in a publication, we searched: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. Results: One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. Conclusion: This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals. There is also a great necessity to build capacity in scientific writing among university students in Cameroon. PMID:24971222

Munung, NS; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

2014-01-01

374

An evaluation of thermo-assisted drying and decontamination for the elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from contaminated livestock transport vehicles  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of this report is to validate a new protocol, the thermo-assisted drying and decontamination (TADD) system, for eliminating porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from contaminated transport vehicles. Scale models of weaned pig trailers were used. The principle of TADD is to raise the interior temperature of trailers to 71°C for 30 min to promote drying and degradation of PRRSV. Trailer interiors were artificially contaminated with 5 ×105 TCID50 of PRRSV strain MN 30-100, then treated with 1 of 4 treatments: 1) TADD; 2) air only (no supplemental heat); 3) overnight (8 h) drying; and 4) washing only. Following treatment, swabs were collected from the trailer interiors at 0, 10, 20, and 30 min post-treatment and from the overnight group after 8 h. Swabs were tested for PRRSV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a measure of the presence of infectious PRRSV, sentinel pigs were housed in treated trailers for 2 h post-treatment and supernatants from swabs were injected IM into naïve pigs (bioassay), the recipient pigs were then tested for PRRSV infection. All trailers were PRRSV positive by PCR immediately after washing, prior to treatment (pt). At 10 min pt, 7/10 swabs were positive from the TADD trailers; however, all swabs collected at 20 and 30 min pt were PRRSV negative by PCR, and trailer interiors were visibly dry. In contrast, 9/19, 6/10, and 6/10 swabs collected at 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively, from trailers treated with air only were positive and visibly wet. All swabs (10/10) collected from trailers treated with washing only were PRRSV positive by PCR and all swabs collected at 8 h of drying were PRRSV negative by PCR. All tests for the presence of infectious PRRSV were negative for trailers treated with TADD and overnight drying, while infectious PRRSV was detected in sentinel pigs and bioassay pigs in the other groups. Under the conditions of this study, the efficacy of the TADD system was equal to that of the overnight drying treatment, and it required a shorter period of time to complete its objective. PMID:15745224

2005-01-01

375

The African polio vaccine-acquired immune deficiency syndrome connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seroepidemiological, clinical and molecular findings suggest that the acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus human immunodeficiency virus-1 was introduced into the human species at the time (late 1950s) and in the geographic area (Zaire) in which millions of Africans were vaccinated with attenuated poliomyelitis virus strains that were produced in kidney tissue obtained from monkeys. Since monkeys not only harbor viruses

V. Reinhardt; A. Roberts

1997-01-01

376

33. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Walter F. Price, architect, June 5, 1913. PROPOSED COVERED PASSAGES FOR THE PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

377

50 CFR 648.86 - NE Multispecies possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...r) of this section. (2) Scallop dredge vessels. (i) No person owning or operating a scallop dredge vessel issued a NE multispecies permit...or possess haddock on board, a scallop dredge vessel from January 1 through June...

2010-10-01

378

50 CFR 648.86 - NE Multispecies possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...r) of this section. (2) Scallop dredge vessels. (i) No person owning or operating a scallop dredge vessel issued a NE multispecies permit...or possess haddock on board, a scallop dredge vessel from January 1 through June...

2012-10-01

379

50 CFR 648.86 - NE Multispecies possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...r) of this section. (2) Scallop dredge vessels. (i) No person owning or operating a scallop dredge vessel issued a NE multispecies permit...or possess haddock on board, a scallop dredge vessel from January 1 through June...

2013-10-01

380

50 CFR 648.86 - NE Multispecies possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...r) of this section. (2) Scallop dredge vessels. (i) No person owning or operating a scallop dredge vessel issued a NE multispecies permit...or possess haddock on board, a scallop dredge vessel from January 1 through June...

2011-10-01

381

50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.23 Bag/possession limits. (a) EEZ off the southern...

2011-10-01

382

50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.23 Bag/possession limits. (a) EEZ off the southern...

2010-10-01

383

2. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated CHILDREN POISED AT EDGE OF FILLED SWIMMING POOL - Faraway Ranch, Swimming Pool, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

384

42. Photocopy of bridge drawing, 1923 (original in possession of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Photocopy of bridge drawing, 1923 (original in possession of Wilkes-Barre City Engineer's Office) ALTERNATE DESIGN - South Street Bridge, Spans Pennsylvania Avenue, Wilkes-Barre Boulevard, Pocono Northeast Railroad, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

385

33. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County Auditor, Johnson County, Iowa. PLAN OF STONE PIER FOR EAST END, SUTLIFF'S FERRY BRIDGE, JOHNSON COUNTY, IOWA, 1897 - Sutliff's Ferry Bridge, Spanning Cedar River (Cedar Township), Solon, Johnson County, IA

386

35. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County Auditor, Johnson County, Iowa. SPECIFICATIONS FOR BRIDGE OVER THE CEDAR RIVER AT SUTLIFF'S FERRY JOHNSON COUNTY, IOWA - Sutliff's Ferry Bridge, Spanning Cedar River (Cedar Township), Solon, Johnson County, IA

387

20. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) US Army photograph, 1949 VIEW SOUTH ELEVATION, OUTER END-PIER 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 4, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

388

12. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) US Army Photograph, 1952 VIEW OF TEST HOLES BETWEEN PIERS - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

389

5. Photocopy of photograph, original negative in the possession of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopy of photograph, original negative in the possession of John R. Morison, Peterborough, New Hampshire. Photographer unknown 16 March 1887. STEAMER JOHN BERTRAM WITH PNEUMATIC EQUIPMENT BARGE ON PIER III - Rulo Bridge, Spanning Missouri River, Rulo, Richardson County, NE

390

6. Photocopy of photograph, original negative in the possession of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopy of photograph, original negative in the possession of John R. Morison, Peterborough, New Hampshire. Photographer unknown circa June, 1887. AIR CHAMBER AND PNEUMATIC PUMP ABOARD THE STEAMER JOHN BERTRAM - Rulo Bridge, Spanning Missouri River, Rulo, Richardson County, NE

391

1. Photocopy of photograph, original negative in the possession of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopy of photograph, original negative in the possession of John R. Morison, Peterborough, New Hampshire. Photographer unknown, circa 1887. SOUTH WEB AND WEST PORTAL OF BRIDGE - Omaha Bridge, Spanning Missouri River, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

392

1. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP Office, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP Office, COolidge, AZ. No date, circa 1935. Photographer unknown. COOLIDGE DIESEL PLANT - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Coolidge Diesel Plant, Off Highway 57, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

393

39. Photocopy of bridge drawing, 1923 (original in possession of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Photocopy of bridge drawing, 1923 (original in possession of Wilkes-Barre City Engineer's Office) STRESS SHEET TRUSS SPANS - South Street Bridge, Spans Pennsylvania Avenue, Wilkes-Barre Boulevard, Pocono Northeast Railroad, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

394

6. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) Topo-Metrics, Inc, 1992. Aerial view of the Brooklyn Army Terminal - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

395

1. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet Arsenal Museum, New York. 'VILLAGE OF WEST TROY EMBRACING WATER VLIET' BY S. A. BEERS, 1845. - Watervliet Arsenal, South Broadway, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

396

14. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Earl ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Earl & Donna Harris, 22802 Prospect Road, Cupertino, CA) 1914, photographer unknown VIEW OF HOUSE BEFORE LANDSCAPING - Woodhills, Prospect Road, Cupertino, Santa Clara County, CA

397

15. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Earl ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Earl & Donna Harris, 22802 Prospect Road, Cupertino, CA) 1914, photographer unknown VIEW OF HOUSE AFTER LANDSCAPING - Woodhills, Prospect Road, Cupertino, Santa Clara County, CA

398

17. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Earl ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Earl & Donna Harris, 22802 Prospect Road, Cupertino, CA) Circa 1955, photographer unknown VIEW OF SWIMMING POOL, GARDENS, AND EAST FRONT OF ADOBE STUDIO - Woodhills, Prospect Road, Cupertino, Santa Clara County, CA

399

16. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Earl ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Earl & Donna Harris, 22802 Prospect Road, Cupertino, CA) 1914, photographer unknown TRELLIS OVER STEPS TO MAIN ENTRANCE - Woodhills, Prospect Road, Cupertino, Santa Clara County, CA

400

Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Atlanta Housing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Atlanta Housing Authority, Atlanta GA). Photographer unknown, circa 1940. VIEW OF APARTMENT INTERIOR. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

401

22. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'NORTH EAST ELEVATION' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

402

20. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'SOUTH WEST ELEVATION' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

403

18. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'FIRST FLOOR PLAN' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA