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1

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae possesses an antiviral activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon ?. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741

Lévesque, Cynthia; Provost, Chantale; Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A; Gagnon, Carl A; Jacques, Mario

2014-01-01

2

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Possesses an Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon ?. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools.

Labrie, Josee; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario

2014-01-01

3

Possession syndrome at high altitude ( 4575 m/15000 ft ).  

PubMed

In a first of its kind, a 20 year old Hindu, highlander, working girl presented with abnormal behavior, unrelenting symptoms, had limited benefit by usual treatment and was diagnosed as possession syndrome. Exorcism offered symptomatic relief. The girl resumed normal activities with no recurrence in a 12 month follow up. Possession syndrome is explained in both medical and theological perspectives. Modern medicine associates it with a mental illness though True Possession syndrome without associated mental illness has been reported. Theological perspective can be amalgamated with current scientific theory and practice, thereby complimenting existing concepts. PMID:24442177

Khan, I D; Sahni, A K

2013-01-01

4

Do individuals with Williams syndrome possess absolute pitch?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although absolute pitch (AP) is a rare skill in typical development, individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are often referred to as possessing this musical ability. However, there is paucity of research on the topic. In this article, 2 studies were conducted to evaluate AP in WS. In Study 1, seven musically trained individuals with WS, 14 musically trained typically developing

Pastora Martínez-Castilla; María Sotillo; Ruth Campos

2011-01-01

5

Lead optimization of an acylhydrazone scaffold possessing antiviral activity against Lassa virus.  

PubMed

Previously we reported the optimization of antiviral scaffolds containing benzimidazole and related heterocycles possessing activity against a variety of arenaviruses. These series of compounds were discovered through an HTS campaign of a 400,000 small molecule library using lentivirus-based pseudotypes incorporated with the Lassa virus envelope glycoprotein (LASV GP). This screening also uncovered an alternate series of very potent arenavirus inhibitors based upon an acylhydrazone scaffold. Subsequent SAR analysis of this chemical series involved various substitutions throughout the chemical framework along with assessment of the preferred stereochemistry. These studies led to an optimized analog (ST-161) possessing subnanomolar activity against LASV and submicromolar activity against a number of other viruses in the Arenaviridae family. PMID:24064500

Burgeson, James R; Gharaibeh, Dima N; Moore, Amy L; Larson, Ryan A; Amberg, Sean M; Bolken, Tove' C; Hruby, Dennis E; Dai, Dongcheng

2013-11-01

6

The African Swine Fever Virus g5R Protein Possesses mRNA Decapping Activity  

PubMed Central

The African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) encodes a single Nudix enzyme in its genome, termed the g5R protein (g5Rp). Nudix phosphohydrolases cleave a variety of substrates, such as nucleotides and diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Previously, ASFV g5Rp was shown to hydrolyze diphosphoinositol polyphosphates and GTP, but was unable to cleave methylated mRNA cap analogues. In vaccinia virus (VACV), a distant relative of ASFV, the D9 and D10 Nudix enzymes were shown to cleave the mRNA cap, but only when the cap was attached to an RNA body. Here, we show that recombinant ASFV g5Rp hydrolyzes the mRNA cap when tethered to an RNA moiety, liberating m7GDP as product. Mutations in the Nudix motif abolished mRNA decapping activity, confirming that g5Rp was responsible for cap cleavage. The decapping activity of g5Rp was potently inhibited by excess uncapped RNA but not by methylated cap analogues, suggesting that substrate recognition occurs by RNA binding.

Parrish, Susan; Hurchalla, Megan; Liu, Shin-Wu; Moss, Bernard

2009-01-01

7

Ostrich involvement in the selection of H5N1 influenza virus possessing mammalian-type amino acids in the PB2 protein.  

PubMed

Amino acids at positions 627 and 701 in the PB2 protein (PB2-627 and PB2-701, respectively) of avian influenza A viruses affect virus replication in some mammalian cells. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses possessing mammalian-type PB2-627 were detected during the Qinghai Lake outbreak in 2005 and spread to Europe and Africa. Via a database search, we found a high rate of viral isolates from Ratitae, including ostrich, possessing mammalian-type PB2-627 or -701. Here, we report that H5N1 avian influenza viruses possessing mammalian-type amino acids in PB2-627 or -701 are selected during replication in ostrich cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19793811

Shinya, Kyoko; Makino, Akiko; Ozawa, Makoto; Kim, Jin Hyun; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Ito, Mutsumi; Le, Quynh Mai; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2009-12-01

8

Genomics and transcriptomics of White spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped DNA virus that infects shrimp and other crustaceans. The virions are approximately 275 x 120 nm in size and have an ovoid to bacilliform shape and a tail-like appendage at one end. Sequencing revealed that the circular, double stranded (ds) DNA genome of WSSV ranges between 293 and 307 kb in

Hendrik Marks

2005-01-01

9

Genetic Reassortment among Viruses Causing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the frequency and characteristics of reassortment among viruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), mixed infections were initiated in tissue culture by using two closely related strains of Sin Nombre virus, CC107 (from eastern California) and NMR11 (from New Mexico), which share the same species of rodent host in nature, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Potential reassortant

Luis L. Rodriguez; Jessica H. Owens; Clarence J. Peters; Stuart T. Nichol

1998-01-01

10

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Envelope Protein Ion Channel Activity Promotes Virus Fitness and Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC) activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1? were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1? was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS-CoV virulence.

Nieto-Torres, Jose L.; DeDiego, Marta L.; Verdia-Baguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeno, Jose M.; Regla-Nava, Jose A.; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Castano-Rodriguez, Carlos; Alcaraz, Antonio; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M.; Enjuanes, Luis

2014-01-01

11

Borna disease virus antibodies and the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We detected anti-Borna disease virus (BDV) antibodies at a 14.4% rate in patients with schizophrenia. The hypothesis of a higher rate of BDV seropositivity in deficit syndrome was borne out in a subset of 64 patients categorized according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome with 5\\/15 seropositive deficit and 4\\/49 seropositive nondeficit (p < 0.05). This suggests that the

Royce W. Waltrip; Robert W. Buchanan; William T. Carpenter; Brian Kirkpatrick; Ann Summerfelt; Alan Breier; Steven A. Rubin; Kathryn M. Carbone

1997-01-01

12

Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza Virus Possesses Lower Transmissibility and Fitness in Ferrets  

PubMed Central

The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir offers an important immediate option for the control of influenza, and its clinical use has increased substantially during the recent H1N1 pandemic. In view of the high prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in 2007–2008, there is an urgent need to characterize the transmissibility and fitness of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1/2009 viruses, although resistant variants have been isolated at a low rate. Here we studied the transmissibility of a closely matched pair of pandemic H1N1/2009 clinical isolates, one oseltamivir-sensitive and one resistant, in the ferret model. The resistant H275Y mutant was derived from a patient on oseltamivir prophylaxis and was the first oseltamivir-resistant isolate of the pandemic virus. Full genome sequencing revealed that the pair of viruses differed only at NA amino acid position 275. We found that the oseltamivir-resistant H1N1/2009 virus was not transmitted efficiently in ferrets via respiratory droplets (0/2), while it retained efficient transmission via direct contact (2/2). The sensitive H1N1/2009 virus was efficiently transmitted via both routes (2/2 and 1/2, respectively). The wild-type H1N1/2009 and the resistant mutant appeared to cause a similar disease course in ferrets without apparent attenuation of clinical signs. We compared viral fitness within the host by co-infecting a ferret with oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant H1N1/2009 viruses and found that the resistant virus showed less growth capability (fitness). The NA of the resistant virus showed reduced substrate-binding affinity and catalytic activity in vitro and delayed initial growth in MDCK and MDCK-SIAT1 cells. These findings may in part explain its less efficient transmission. The fact that the oseltamivir-resistant H1N1/2009 virus retained efficient transmission through direct contact underlines the necessity of continuous monitoring of drug resistance and characterization of possible evolving viral proteins during the pandemic.

Duan, Susu; Boltz, David A.; Seiler, Patrick; Li, Jiang; Bragstad, Karoline; Nielsen, Lars P.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

2010-01-01

13

Pathogenicity of swine influenza viruses possessing an avian or swine-origin PB2 polymerase gene evaluated in mouse and pig models  

PubMed Central

PB2 627K is a determinant of influenza host range and contributes to the pathogenicity of human-, avian-, and mouse-adapted influenza viruses in the mouse model. Here we used mouse and pig models to analyze the contribution of a swine-origin and avian-origin PB2 carrying either 627K or 627E in the background of the classical swine H1N1 (A/Swine/Iowa/15/30; 1930) virus. The results showed PB2 627K is crucial for virulence in the mouse model, independent of whether PB2 is derived from an avian or swine influenza virus (SIV). In the pig model, PB2 627E decreases pathogenicity of the classical 1930 SIV when it contains the swine-origin PB2, but not when it possesses the avian-origin PB2. Our study suggests the pathogenicity of SIVs with different PB2 genes and mutation of codon 627 in mice does not correlate with the pathogenicity of the same SIVs in the natural host, the pig.

Ma, Wenjun; Lager, Kelly M.; Li, Xi; Janke, Bruce H.; Mosier, Derek A; Painter, Laura E.; Ulery, Eva S.; Ma, Jingqun; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa; Webby, Richard J.; Richt, Jurgen A.

2010-01-01

14

The role of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus structural and non-structural proteins in virus pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating viral disease affecting the swine industry worldwide. The etiological agent, PRRS virus (PRRSV), possesses a RNA viral genome with nine open reading frames (ORFs). The ORF1a and ORF1b replicase-associated genes encode the polyproteins pp1a and pp1ab, respectively. The pp1a is processed in nine non-structural proteins (nsps): nsp1?, nsp1?, and nsp2 to nsp8. Proteolytic cleavage of pp1ab generates products nsp9 to nsp12. The proteolytic pp1a cleavage products process and cleave pp1a and pp1ab into nsp products. The nsp9 to nsp12 are involved in virus genome transcription and replication. The 3' end of the viral genome encodes four minor and three major structural proteins. The GP(2a), GP? and GP? (encoded by ORF2a, 3 and 4), are glycosylated membrane associated minor structural proteins. The fourth minor structural protein, the E protein (encoded by ORF2b), is an unglycosylated membrane associated protein. The viral envelope contains two major structural proteins: a glycosylated major envelope protein GP? (encoded by ORF5) and an unglycosylated membrane M protein (encoded by ORF6). The third major structural protein is the nucleocapsid N protein (encoded by ORF7). All PRRSV non-structural and structural proteins are essential for virus replication, and PRRSV infectivity is relatively intolerant to subtle changes within the structural proteins. PRRSV virulence is multigenic and resides in both the non-structural and structural viral proteins. This review discusses the molecular characteristics, biological and immunological functions of the PRRSV structural and nsps and their involvement in the virus pathogenesis. PMID:20388230

Music, Nedzad; Gagnon, Carl A

2010-12-01

15

Herpes simplex virus specific antibody determined by immunoblotting in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with the Guillain-Barr? syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The Guillain-Barré syndrome is often preceded by a herpes virus infection. Herpes simplex virus, however, has rarely been observed as the causative agent. A patient is described with a herpes simplex virus infection followed by a Guillain-Barré syndrome. Immunoblotting was used to detect herpes simplex virus-specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Images

Bernsen, H J; Van Loon, A M; Poels, R F; Verhagen, W I; Frenken, C W

1989-01-01

16

Green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, possesses the antiviral activity necessary to fight against the hepatitis B virus replication in vitro.  

PubMed

Although several antiviral drugs and vaccines are available for use against hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis caused by HBV remains a major public health problem worldwide, which has not yet been resolved, and new anti-HBV drugs are in great demand. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-HBV activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural-origin compound, in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. The antiviral activity of EGCG was examined by detecting the levels of HBsAg and HBeAg in the supernatant and extracellular HBV DNA. EGCG effectively suppressed the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg from HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it showed stronger effects at the level of 0.11-0.44 ?mol/ml (50-200 ?g/ml) than lamivudine (3TC) at 0.87 ?mol/ml (200 ?g/ml). EGCG also suppressed the amount of extracellular HBV DNA. The data indicated that EGCG possessed anti-HBV activity and suggested the potential of EGCG as an effective anti-HBV agent with low toxicity. PMID:24903990

Pang, Jing-Yao; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Wang, Jia-Bo; Ma, Zhi-Jie; Xiao, Xiao-He

2014-06-01

17

West Nile Virus Encephalitis Induced Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne neurotropic single stranded RNA flavivirus with <1% developing presenting with neurological disease. Immunocompromised and elderly patients are more prone to developing WNV meningitis or encephalitis. Definitive diagnosis of WNV meningoencephalitis is a combination of clinical suspicion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serology. Forty-eight year old Caucasian female presented with a sudden onset of altered mental status after being found unresponsive. She was confused with intermittent bouts of alertness/lethargy and unintelligible responses to questioning. Her medical problems included endometrial cancer that was in remission after undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy and postoperative chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Pertinent physical examination revealed muscle strength that was significantly decreased, nuchal rigidity and +2 pitting edema of both lower extremities. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative for any intracranial pathology. CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis with all CSF serology being negative except for positive WNV antibody. A few days after being admitted she developed involuntary random movements of her eyes and generalized jerking movements (myoclonus). This was determined to be opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) induced by the WNV meningoencephalitis. She then received five consecutive days of plasmapheresis with a significant improvement in her neurological status. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder associated with chaotic multidirectional eye movements, myoclonus and less frequently cerebellar ataxia. OMS affects as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people per year. The pathogenesis is not fully understood with the majority of cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome being idiopathic. According to current medical literature there have only been two previous case reports of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome associated with WNV encephalitis.

Cooper, Chad J.; Said, Sarmad

2014-01-01

18

West nile virus encephalitis induced opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne neurotropic single stranded RNA flavivirus with <1% developing presenting with neurological disease. Immunocompromised and elderly patients are more prone to developing WNV meningitis or encephalitis. Definitive diagnosis of WNV meningoencephalitis is a combination of clinical suspicion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serology. Forty-eight year old Caucasian female presented with a sudden onset of altered mental status after being found unresponsive. She was confused with intermittent bouts of alertness/lethargy and unintelligible responses to questioning. Her medical problems included endometrial cancer that was in remission after undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy and postoperative chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Pertinent physical examination revealed muscle strength that was significantly decreased, nuchal rigidity and +2 pitting edema of both lower extremities. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative for any intracranial pathology. CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis with all CSF serology being negative except for positive WNV antibody. A few days after being admitted she developed involuntary random movements of her eyes and generalized jerking movements (myoclonus). This was determined to be opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) induced by the WNV meningoencephalitis. She then received five consecutive days of plasmapheresis with a significant improvement in her neurological status. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder associated with chaotic multidirectional eye movements, myoclonus and less frequently cerebellar ataxia. OMS affects as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people per year. The pathogenesis is not fully understood with the majority of cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome being idiopathic. According to current medical literature there have only been two previous case reports of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome associated with WNV encephalitis. PMID:24987503

Cooper, Chad J; Said, Sarmad

2014-04-22

19

New genotypes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) are highly pathogenic to penaeid shrimp and have caused significant economic losses in the shrimp culture industry around the world. During 2010 and 2011, both WSSV and TSV were found in Saudi Arabia, where they caused severe mortalities in cultured Indian white shrimp Penaeus indicus. Most outbreaks of shrimp viruses in production facilities can be traced to the importation of infected stocks or commodity shrimp. In an attempt to determine the origins of these viral outbreaks in Saudi Arabia, we performed variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses for WSSV isolates and a phylogenetic analysis for TSV isolates. From the WSSV genome, the VNTR in open reading frames (ORFs) 125 and 94 were investigated with PCR followed by DNA sequence analysis. The genotypes were categorized as {N125, N94} where N is the number of repeat units in a specific ORF, and the subscript indicates the ORF (i.e. ORFs 125 and 94 in this case). From 15 Saudi Arabia WSSV isolates, we detected 3 genotypes: {6125, 794}, {7125, del94}, and {8125, 1394}. The WSSV genotype of {7125, del94} appears to be a new variant with a 1522 bp deletion encompassing complete coding regions of ORF 94 and ORF 95 and the first 82 bp of ORF 93. For TSV genotyping, we used a phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of TSV capsid protein 2 (CP2). We analyzed 8 Saudi Arabian isolates in addition to 36 isolates from other areas: SE Asia, Mexico, Venezuela and Belize. The Saudi Arabian TSV clustered into a new, distinct group. Based on these genotyping analyses, new WSSV and TSV genotypes were found in Saudi Arabia. The data suggest that they have come from wild shrimp Penaeus indicus from the Red Sea that are used for broodstock. PMID:22832716

Tang, Kathy F J; Navarro, Solangel A; Pantoja, Carlos R; Aranguren, Fernando L; Lightner, Donald V

2012-07-25

20

R5 Strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 from Rapid Progressors Lacking X4 Strains Do Not Possess X4-Type Pathogenicity in Human Thymus  

PubMed Central

Some individuals infected with only R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 progress to AIDS as quickly as individuals harboring X4 strains. We determined that three R5 viruses were much less pathogenic than an X4 virus in SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice, suggesting that R5 virus-mediated rapid disease progression is associated with host, not viral, factors.

Berkowitz, Robert D.; van 't Wout, Angelique B.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Moreno, Mary E.; Linquist-Stepps, Valerie D.; Bare, Christopher; Stoddart, Cheryl A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; McCune, Joseph M.

1999-01-01

21

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus among domesticated animals, China.  

PubMed

To investigate the infections of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in domesticated animals, we sampled a total of 3,039 animals in 2 counties in Shandong Province, People's Republic of China, from April to November 2011. SFTSV-specific antibodies were detected in 328 (69.5%) of 472 sheep, 509 (60.5%) of 842 cattle, 136 (37.9%) of 359 dogs, 26 (3.1%) of 839 pigs, and 250 (47.4%) of 527 chickens. SFTSV RNA was detected in all sampled animal species, but the prevalence was low, ranging from 1.7% to 5.3%. A cohort study in 38 sheep was conducted to determine when seroconversion to SFTSV occured. SFTSVs were isolated from sheep, cattle, and dogs and shared >95% sequence homology with human isolates from the same disease-endemic regions. These findings demonstrate that natural infections of SFTSV occur in several domesticated animal hosts in disease-endemic areas and that the virus has a wide host range. PMID:23648209

Niu, Guoyu; Li, Jiandong; Liang, Mifang; Jiang, Xiaolin; Jiang, Mei; Yin, Haiying; Wang, Zhidian; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Jin, Cong; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Xing, Zheng; Wang, Shiwen; Bi, Zhenqiang; Li, Dexin

2013-05-01

22

The Work Of Possession(s)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are delighted to introduce these papers under the rubric of ‘The Work of Possessions’, which names a fault line where two tectonic plates of twenty-first-century thought collide. Identifying two major meanings for the word possession in the English language—on the one hand an owned, held or otherwise controlled item, and on the other hand the overcoming of a person

Paul Christopher Johnson; Mary Keller

2006-01-01

23

Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome: an unusual presentation for West Nile virus encephalitis  

PubMed Central

A record number of West Nile virus (WNV) cases and fatalities seen in 2012 have brought to light the numerous manifestations of neuroinvasive disease. We report a case of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome attributed to WNV and its clinical course after treatment with a combination of steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Our objective is to highlight opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome as a potential manifestation of WNV encephalitis.

Afzal, Aasim; Ashraf, Sahar

2014-01-01

24

Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on subsequent Pasteurella multocida challenge in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) on a subsequent challenge with Pasteurella multocida in pigs. Sixteen, 3–4 week-old piglets, from a PRRSv and Aujeszky disease virus (ADV) free herd were used. Animals were equally and randomly allocated in four groups which were treated according the following schedule: Group I: negative

Luiz F. O. S. Carvalho; Joaquim Segalés; Carlos Pijoan

1997-01-01

25

White spot syndrome virus genetic variants detected in Mexico by a new multiplex PCR method  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most serious problems confronted by the shrimp farming industry is the disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In 1999, the first cases of this disease in Mexico were not easily diagnosed because some polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers previously published for WSSV detection failed to detect some variants of the virus. This is the first

Lucio Galavíz-Silva; Zinnia Judith Molina-Garza; Juan Manuel Alcocer-González; José Luis Rosales-Encinas; Cuauhtemoc Ibarra-Gámez

2004-01-01

26

Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect further into Central- and South-America. In cultured shrimp WSSV infection can reach a cumulative mortality of up to

Hulten van M. C. W

2001-01-01

27

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Florida: Association with the newly identified Black Creek Canal virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a recently recognized viral zoonosis. The first recognized cases were caused by a newly described hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus (previously known as Muerto Canyon virus), isolated from Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse). We describe a 33-year-old Floridian man who resided outside the ecologic range of P maniculatus but was found to have serologic evidence of a

Ali S Khan; Milton Gaviria; Pierre E Rollin; W. Gary Hlady; Thomas G Ksiazek; Lori R Armstrong; Richard Greenman; Eugene Ravkov; Michael Kolber; Howard Anapol; Eleni D Sfakianaki; Stuart T Nichol; Clarence J Peters; Rima F Khabbaz

1996-01-01

28

H9N2 influenza viruses possessing H5N1-like internal genomes continue to circulate in poultry in southeastern China.  

PubMed

The transmission of H9N2 influenza viruses to humans and the realization that the A/Hong Kong/156/97-like (H5N1) (abbreviated HK/156/97) genome complex may be present in H9N2 viruses in southeastern China necessitated a study of the distribution and characterization of H9N2 viruses in poultry in the Hong Kong SAR in 1999. Serological studies indicated that H9N2 influenza viruses had infected a high proportion of chickens and other land-based birds (pigeon, pheasant, quail, guinea fowl, and chukka) from southeastern China. Two lineages of H9N2 influenza viruses present in the live-poultry markets were represented by A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (Qa/HK/G1/97)-like and A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (Dk/HK/Y280/97)-like viruses. Up to 16% of cages of quail in the poultry markets contained Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses, while about 5% of cages of other land-based birds were infected with Dk/HK/Y280/97-like viruses. No reassortant between the two H9N2 virus lineages was detected despite their cocirculation in the poultry markets. Reassortant viruses represented by A/Chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2) were the major H9N2 influenza viruses circulating in the Hong Kong markets in 1997 but have not been detected since the chicken slaughter in 1997. The Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses were frequently isolated from quail, while Dk/HK/Y280/97-like viruses were predominately associated with chickens. The Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses were evolving relatively rapidly, especially in their PB2, HA, NP, and NA genes, suggesting that they are in the process of adapting to a new host. Experimental studies showed that both H9N2 lineages were primarily spread by the aerosol route and that neither quail nor chickens showed evidence of disease. The high prevalence of quail infected with Qa/HK/G1/97-like virus that contains six gene segments genetically highly related to HK/156/97 (H5N1) virus emphasizes the need for surveillance of mammals including humans. PMID:11000205

Guan, Y; Shortridge, K F; Krauss, S; Chin, P S; Dyrting, K C; Ellis, T M; Webster, R G; Peiris, M

2000-10-01

29

Parainfluenza virus infection associated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinical and radiological entity. The most accepted theory of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a loss of autoregulation in cerebral blood flow with a subsequent increase in vascular permeability and leakage of blood plasma and erythrocytes, producing vasogenic edema. In infection-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, a clinical pattern consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome develops. Parainfluenza virus has not been reported in the medical literature to be associated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Case presentation We report herein the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian woman with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with parainfluenza virus infection who presented with generalized headache, blurring of vision, new-onset seizure and flu-like symptoms. Conclusion Infection-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome as well as hypertension-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome favor the contribution of endothelial dysfunction to the pathophysiology of this clinicoradiological syndrome. In view of the reversible nature of this clinical entity, it is important that all physicians are well aware of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients presenting with headache and seizure activity. A detailed clinical assessment leading to the recognition of precipitant factors in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is paramount.

2012-01-01

30

The occurrence of enteric viruses in Light Turkey Syndrome.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to determine the role of enteric viruses in Light Turkey Syndrome (LTS), which is characterized by lower weight in market age turkeys than their standard breed character. In the surveillance study, we selected four LTS and two non-LTS turkey flocks in Minnesota and collected faecal samples at 2, 3, 5 and 8-weeks of age. Astrovirus, rotavirus, and reovirus were detected alone or in various combinations in both LTS and non-LTS flocks. No coronavirus was detected in LTS flocks and no corona- or reovirus was detected in non-LTS flocks. In the second study, 2-week-old turkey poults were divided into two groups; Group A (challenged) was inoculated orally with 10% pooled faecal suspension from LTS flocks and group B (control) was inoculated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Clinical signs of depression, huddling, and lack of uniform size were observed in the challenged group but not in the control group. diarrhoea was observed in both groups but was more severe in the challenged group than in the control group. Birds in the challenged group shed astrovirus, rotavirus and reovirus, while the control group shed only astrovirus. Virus shedding in both groups was observed for up to nine weeks of age. Significantly lower body weights were seen in the challenged group starting at seven weeks of age and lasting until 20 weeks of age. These findings suggest that viral enteritis at an early age may set up conditions for the development of LTS in adult turkeys. PMID:24066896

Mor, Sunil K; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Abin, Martha; Kromm, Michelle; Porter, Robert E; Goyal, Sagar M; Patnayak, Devi P

2013-01-01

31

Human Antibody Neutralizes Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, an Emerging Hemorrhagic Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a newly discovered member of the Bunyaviridae family, is the causative agent of an emerging hemorrhagic fever, SFTS, in China. Currently, there are no vaccines or effective therapies against SFTS. In this study, a combinatorial human antibody library was constructed from the peripheral lymphocytes of 5 patients who had recovered from SFTS. The library was screened against purified virions for the production of single-chain variable-region fragments (ScFv). Of the 6 positive clones, one clone (monoclonal antibody [MAb] 4-5) showed neutralizing activity against SFTSV infection in Vero cells. MAb 4-5 was found to effectively neutralize all of the clinical isolates of SFTSV tested, which were isolated from patients in China from 2010 to 2012. MAb 4-5 was found to bind a linear epitope in the ectodomain of glycoprotein Gn. Its neutralizing activity is attributed to blockage of the interactions between the Gn protein and the cellular receptor, indicating that inhibition of virus-cell attachment is its main mechanism. These data suggest that MAb 4-5 can be used as a promising candidate molecule for immunotherapy against SFTSV infection.

Guo, Xiling; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wenshuai; Chi, Ying; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Li, Xian; Qi, Xian; Jin, Qiu; Zhang, Xiao; Huang, Mingming; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yin; Bao, Changjun; Hu, Jianli; Liang, Shuyi; Bao, Lin; Wu, Tao

2013-01-01

32

Attenuation of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus by Molecular Breeding of Virus Envelope Genes from Genetically Divergent Strains  

PubMed Central

Molecular breeding via DNA shuffling can direct the evolution of viruses with desired traits. By using a positive-strand RNA virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), as a model, rapid attenuation of the virus was achieved in this study by DNA shuffling of the viral envelope genes from multiple strains. The GP5 envelope genes of 7 genetically divergent PRRSV strains and the GP5-M genes of 6 different PRRSV strains were molecularly bred by DNA shuffling and iteration of the process, and the shuffled genes were cloned into the backbone of a DNA-launched PRRSV infectious clone. Two representative chimeric viruses, DS722 with shuffled GP5 genes and DS5M3 with shuffled GP5-M genes, were rescued and shown to replicate at a lower level and to form smaller plaques in vitro than their parental virus. An in vivo pathogenicity study revealed that pigs infected with the two chimeric viruses had significant reductions in viral-RNA loads in sera and lungs and in gross and microscopic lung lesions, indicating attenuation of the chimeric viruses. Furthermore, pigs vaccinated with the chimeric virus DS722, but not pigs vaccinated with DS5M3, still acquired protection against PRRSV challenge at a level similar to that of the parental virus. Therefore, this study reveals a unique approach through DNA shuffling of viral envelope genes to attenuate a positive-strand RNA virus. The results have important implications for future vaccine development and will generate broad general interest in the scientific community in rapidly attenuating other important human and veterinary viruses.

Ni, Yan-Yan; Opriessnig, Tanja; Zhou, Lei; Cao, Dianjun; Huang, Yao-Wei; Halbur, Patrick G.

2013-01-01

33

Association of a novel DNA virus with the grapevine vein-clearing and vine decline syndrome.  

PubMed

A severe vein-clearing and vine decline syndrome has emerged on grapevines (Vitis vinifera) and hybrid grape cultivars in the Midwest region of the United States. The typical symptoms are translucent vein-clearing on young leaves, short internodes and decline of vine vigor. Known viral pathogens of grapevines were not closely associated with the syndrome. To obtain a comprehensive profile of viruses in a diseased grapevine, small RNAs were enriched and two cDNA libraries were constructed from a symptomatic grapevine and a symptomless grapevine, respectively. Deep sequencing of the two cDNA libraries showed that the most abundant viral small RNAs align with the genomes of viruses in the genus Badnavirus, the family Caulimoviridae. Amplification of the viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction allowed the assembly of the whole genome sequence of a grapevine DNA virus, which shared the highest homology with the Badnavirus sequences. This is the first report of a DNA virus in grapevines. The new DNA virus is closely associated with the vein-clearing symptom, and thus has been given a provisional name Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV). GVCV was detected in six grapevine cultivars showing vein-clearing and vine decline syndrome in Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana, suggesting its wide distribution in the Midwest region of the United States. Discovery of DNA viruses in grapevines merits further studies on their epidemics and economic impact on grape production worldwide. PMID:21554183

Zhang, Yu; Singh, Kashmir; Kaur, Ravneet; Qiu, Wenping

2011-09-01

34

Differential gene expression profile of the hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus infected Fenneropenaeus indicus by suppression subtractive hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppression Subtractive Hybridization was employed in order to identify the differentially expressed genes in the hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus infected Fenneropenaeus indicus. A forward subtracted cDNA library generated 356 clones following a white spot syndrome virus infection. A total of 345 clones with more than 100 nucleotides were selected for further analysis using bioinformatics tools after vector screening.

Roswin James; Nirmala Thampuran; K. V. Lalitha; Lawrance Anbu Rajan; Toms C. Joseph

2010-01-01

35

Duck Egg-Drop Syndrome Caused by BYD Virus, a New Tembusu-Related Flavivirus  

PubMed Central

Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus), with 87–91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope) proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

Yu, Xiuling; Wang, Yongyue; Liu, Peipei; Lu, Xishan; Zhang, Guozhong; Hu, Xueying; Liu, Di; Li, Xiaoxia; Su, Wenliang; Lu, Hao; Mok, Ngai Shing; Wang, Peiyi; Wang, Ming; Tian, Kegong; Gao, George F.

2011-01-01

36

Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome: an unusual presentation for West Nile virus encephalitis.  

PubMed

A record number of West Nile virus (WNV) cases and fatalities seen in 2012 have brought to light the numerous manifestations of neuroinvasive disease. We report a case of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome attributed to WNV and its clinical course after treatment with a combination of steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Our objective is to highlight opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome as a potential manifestation of WNV encephalitis. PMID:24688189

Afzal, Aasim; Ashraf, Sahar; Shamim, Sadat

2014-04-01

37

Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome--case report, French Polynesia, December 2013.  

PubMed

Zika fever, considered as an emerging disease of arboviral origin, because of its expanding geographic area, is known as a benign infection usually presenting as an influenza-like illness with cutaneous rash. So far, Zika virus infection has never led to hospitalisation. We describe the first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) occurring immediately after a Zika virus infection, during the current Zika and type 1 and 3 dengue fever co-epidemics in French Polynesia. PMID:24626205

Oehler, E; Watrin, L; Larre, P; Leparc-Goffart, I; Lastere, S; Valour, F; Baudouin, L; Mallet, Hp; Musso, D; Ghawche, F

2014-01-01

38

XMRV and related viruses not confirmed in blood of healthy donors or chronic fatigue syndrome patients  

Cancer.gov

A study supported by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services could not validate or confirm previous research findings that suggested the presence of one of several viruses in blood samples of people living with chronic fatigue syndrome. The new study also could not find the viruses in blood samples of healthy donors who were previously known to not have XMRV. The new findings suggest earlier results may have resulted from laboratory error, either contamination or false positive test results.

39

Absence of XMRV Retrovirus and Other Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ? ¶  

PubMed Central

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by prolonged and severe fatigue that is not relieved by rest. Attempts to treat CFS have been largely ineffective primarily because the etiology of the disorder is unknown. Recently, CFS has been associated with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) as well as other murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related viruses, though not all studies have found these associations. We collected blood samples from 100 CFS patients and 200 self-reported healthy volunteers from the same geographical area. We analyzed these in a blind manner using molecular, serological, and viral replication assays. We also analyzed samples from patients in the original study that reported XMRV in CFS patients. We did not find XMRV or related MLVs either as viral sequences or infectious viruses, nor did we find antibodies to these viruses in any of the patient samples, including those from the original study. We show that at least some of the discrepancy with previous studies is due to the presence of trace amounts of mouse DNA in the Taq polymerase enzymes used in these previous studies. Our findings do not support an association between CFS and MLV-related viruses, including XMRV, and the off-label use of antiretrovirals for the treatment of CFS does not seem justified at present.

Shin, Clifford H.; Bateman, Lucinda; Schlaberg, Robert; Bunker, Ashley M.; Leonard, Christopher J.; Hughen, Ronald W.; Light, Alan R.; Light, Kathleen C.; Singh, Ila R.

2011-01-01

40

Andes Virus Antigens Are Shed in Urine of Patients with Acute Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome? ‡  

PubMed Central

Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a highly pathogenic emerging disease (40% case fatality rate) caused by New World hantaviruses. Hantavirus infections are transmitted to humans mainly by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosol particles of rodent excreta and secretions. At present, there are no antiviral drugs or immunotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of hantaviral infection, and the survival rates for infected patients hinge largely on early virus recognition and hospital admission and aggressive pulmonary and hemodynamic support. In this study, we show that Andes virus (ANDV) interacts with human apolipoprotein H (ApoH) and that ApoH-coated magnetic beads or ApoH-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates can be used to capture and concentrate the virus from complex biological mixtures, such as serum and urine, allowing it to be detected by both immunological and molecular approaches. In addition, we report that ANDV-antigens and infectious virus are shed in urine of HCPS patients.

Godoy, Paula; Marsac, Delphine; Stefas, Elias; Ferrer, Pablo; Tischler, Nicole D.; Pino, Karla; Ramdohr, Pablo; Vial, Pablo; Valenzuela, Pablo D. T.; Ferres, Marcela; Veas, Francisco; Lopez-Lastra, Marcelo

2009-01-01

41

Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata), it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal

Naraporn Somboonna; Seksan Mangkalanan; Attasit Udompetcharaporn; Chartchai Krittanai; Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; T. W. Flegel

2010-01-01

42

Selective breeding of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) for growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 1998, the Oceanic Institute operated a breeding program for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on a selection index weighted equally for growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV). In 1998, two separate breeding lines were established. One line was selected 100% for growth (Growth line) and a second line was selected on an index weighted 70%

Brad J Argue; Steve M Arce; Jeffrey M Lotz; Shaun M Moss

2002-01-01

43

Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Variant  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) emerged in China in 2006, and HP-PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) has evolved continuously. Here, the complete genomic sequence of a novel HP-PRRSV field strain, JX, is reported. The present finding will contribute to further studies focusing on the evolutionary mechanism of PRRSV.

Wang, Lianghai; Hou, Jun; Zhang, Hexiao

2012-01-01

44

Experimental airborne transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were designed to determine if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or Bordetella bronchiseptica could be transmitted through indirect airborne contact. Three principal pigs were infected with PRRSV, B. bronchiseptica or both. Five days after the principal pigs were challenged, the three principal pigs and one direct-contact pig were placed into one isolation tent together, and three indirect-contact

Susan L Brockmeier; Kelly M Lager

2002-01-01

45

Ultrastructural characteristics of Sin Nombre virus, causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A previously unrecognized disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, was described following an outbreak of severe, often lethal, pulmonary illness in the southwestern United States in May–June, 1993. We have now studied the morphologic features of the causative agent, Sin Nombre virus (SNV), by thin section electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of infected Vero E6 cells. SNV virions were roughly spherical

C. S. Goldsmith; L. H. Elliott; C. J. Peters; S. R. Zaki

1995-01-01

46

Survival of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in fresh pork.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of pigs. Transmission of PRRS virus has been reported through many routes, with aerosol route being the most predominant. There may also be a potential risk of transmission through contami-nated pork, but this has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to experimentally contaminate fresh pork with three different concentrations of PRRSV and to study virus survival at ambient (25 °C), refrigerated (4 °C), and frozen (-20 °C) temperatures. Concentrations of virus representing natural infectivity level and 'worst case scenario' were studied. The virus was detected in fresh pork at all three virus concentrations for up to 48 h at ambient temperature. At 4 °C, the virus survived for 6 days in pork inoculated with the higher virus concentration and for 3 days in pork inoculated at the lower concentration. At frozen temperature, PRRSV was detected for up to 60 days in pork inoculated at the higher concentration and for 7 days in pork inoculated at the lower concentration. These results suggest that fresh pork has the potential to be a vehicle for virus dissemination depending upon temperature and time of storage. PMID:24334086

Guarino, Helena; Moura, Junior; Cox, Ryan B; Goyal, Sagar M; Patnayak, Devi P

2014-06-01

47

Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-lymphoproliferative disease with hemophagocytic syndrome, followed by fatal intestinal B lymphoma in a young adult female with WHIM syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare association of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T- and B-lymphoproliferative disease (EBV+ T- and EBV+ B-LPD) in a patient with WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome is reported. A 26-year-old Japanese female, who had been treated for WHIM syndrome since early childhood, developed hemophagocytic syndrome associated with EBV+ T-LPD at the lymph nodes and spleen. The disease rapidly resolved in

S. Imashuku; A. Miyagawa; T. Chiyonobu; H. Ishida; T. Yoshihara; T. Teramura; K. Kuriyama; T. Imamura; S. Hibi; A. Morimoto; S. Todo

2002-01-01

48

Management of the metabolic syndrome in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are an increasing subpopulation of patients seen in endocrine/diabetes clinics. This article explores evidence-based treatment recommendations for patients with metabolic syndrome who are also positive for HIV. Patients infected with HIV may manifest metabolic abnormalities. They often present with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), hypertension, visceral adiposity, and insulin resistance, among other symptoms consistent with features of the metabolic syndrome. The etiologies of the metabolic abnormalities are not completely understood. The role of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the separate effect of HIV on patients who are surviving longer may contribute to the increased incidence of the development of the metabolic syndrome. The role of the health care team is to provide patient education to patients with HIV concerning lifestyle modification in order to prevent complications related to the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20348287

Feigenbaum, Kathryn; Longstaff, Laura

2010-01-01

49

Possession, exorcism and psychoanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the historiographical utility of psychoanalysis, focussing in particular on retrospective explanations of demonic possession and exorcism. It is argued that while ‘full-blown’ psychoanalytic explanations—those that impose Oedipus complexes, anal eroticism or other sophisticated theoretical structures on the historical actors—may be vulnerable to the charge of anachronism, a weaker form of retrospective psychoanalysis can be defended as a

Nick Tosh

2002-01-01

50

Arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

Virus-host interaction is important for virus infection. White spot syndrome virus VP14 contains transmembrane and signal peptides domain, which is considered to be important for virus infection. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP14 with host cell. A new shrimp protein (arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvAK) is selected and its localization in shrimp cells is also confirmed. Cellular localization of LvAK protein in shrimp hemocytes showed that LvAK was primarily located at the periphery of hemocytes and was scarcely detectable in the nucleus. Tissue distribution indicated that arginine kinase gene was spread commonly in the tissues and was highly present in shrimp muscle tissue. The expression of LvAK mRNA in muscle was significantly up-regulated after WSSV stimulation. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that LvAK interacted with VP14 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Injection of LvAK protein enhanced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These results showed that LvAK is involved in WSSV infection. Future research on this topic will help to reveal the molecular mechanism of WSSV infection. PMID:24486504

Ma, Fang-fang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guang-kuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

2014-04-10

51

Incidence of respiratory viruses among travelers with a febrile syndrome returning from tropical and subtropical areas.  

PubMed

Fifty million people are estimated to travel from industrial countries to the tropics annually. In spite of exhaustive studies and widely different diagnosis among returned patients, some cases of febrile illnesses remain without an etiological diagnosis, suggesting that these cases could be due to viral respiratory tract infections. From August 2005 to October 2006, 118 febrile patients without a specific diagnosis in their first visit at the Center for International Health of the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona were included. In all of them, in order to study respiratory viruses, a nasopharyngeal swab was collected. Clinical and radiological features and epidemiological data, as well as other samples for microbiologic studies, were also collected during consultation. Based on the physician's judgment at the time of consultation, patients were classified into four groups: respiratory symptoms (62%), febrile syndrome with nonspecific symptoms (24%), digestive symptoms (10%), and patients presenting both respiratory and digestive symptoms (4%). A pathogen microorganism was detected in 61 patients (52%). Respiratory viruses were detected in 44 out of 118 (37%) travelers included in the study, representing 56% of the patients with respiratory symptoms. The most frequently viruses detected were influenza virus (38%), rhinovirus (23%), adenovirus (9%), and respiratory syncytial virus (9%). Respiratory viruses have been shown to play an important role in imported fever. In light of the fact that international tourism is an increasing phenomenon, new strategies to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses should be considered, specially for influenza when a vaccine is available. PMID:18297697

Camps, M; Vilella, A; Marcos, M A; Letang, E; Muñoz, J; Salvadó, E; González, A; Gascón, J; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Pumarola, T

2008-04-01

52

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Immunogenicity, efficacy and safety aspects  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is the leading cause of economic casualty in swine industry worldwide. The virus can cause reproductive failure, respiratory disease, and growth retardation in the pigs. This review deals with current status of commercial PRRS vaccines presently used to control PRRS. The review focuses on the immunogenicity, protective efficacy and safety aspects of the vaccines. Commercial PRRS modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine elicits delayed humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following vaccination. The vaccine confers late but effective protection against genetically homologous PRRSV, and partial protection against genetically heterologous virus. The MLV vaccine is of concern for its safety as the vaccine virus can revert to virulence and cause diseases. PRRS killed virus (KV) vaccine, on the other hand, is safe but confers limited protection against either homologous or heterologous virus. The KV vaccine yet helps reduce disease severity when administered to the PRRSV-infected pigs. Although efforts have been made to improve the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of PRRS vaccines, a better vaccine is still needed in order to protect against PRRSV.

Charerntantanakul, Wasin

2012-01-01

53

Meningitis-Retention Syndrome as a Presentation of West Nile Virus Meningitis  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old previously healthy man presented with fever, urinary retention, nuchal rigidity, and hyperreflexia but with a clear sensorium. His initial spinal fluid results were consistent with aseptic meningitis from West Nile virus infection, and this was confirmed by serological studies on blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were unremarkable. He received supportive care and urinary catheterization to prevent bladder injury from overdistension. He was discharged home without recurrence of urinary retention after five days of hospitalization. Therefore, this case report describes the first case of West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with the meningitis-retention syndrome.

Laengvejkal, Pavis; Argueta, Erwin; Limsuwat, Chok; Nugent, Kenneth

2013-01-01

54

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein Delivered by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Efficiently Induces Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic stability and growth characteristics of MVA-MERS-S make it a suitable candidate vaccine for clinical testing. Vaccinated mice produced high levels of serum antibodies neutralizing MERS-CoV. Thus, MVA-MERS-S may serve for further development of an emergency vaccine against MERS-CoV.

Song, Fei; Fux, Robert; Provacia, Lisette B.; Volz, Asisa; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Haagmans, Bart L.

2013-01-01

55

In vitro inactivation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and pseudorabies virus by slightly acidic electrolyzed water.  

PubMed

Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0-6.5) is a novel disinfectant with environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination properties which could have significant utility on farm. Two of the most important pathogenic viruses in pigs are porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the viricidal effectiveness of SAEW against PRRSV and PRV in vitro under different available chlorine concentrations (ACCs, 30, 50 and 70 mg/L), treatment times (5, 10 and 15 min) and temperatures (4, 20, 40 and 60°C), respectively. SAEW had a strong viricidal activity against both PRRSV and PRV. This activity increased with increasing ACC, treatment time and temperature. PRRSV and PRV titres of 7.0 log(10)TCID(50)/mL and 5.9 log(10)TCID(50)/mL, respectively, were completely inactivated by SAEW at an ACC of ? 50 mg/L for 10 min even though SAEW had no negative effect on the host cells. SAEW thus shows promise as a disinfectant for use on pig farms to reduce the spread of both PRRSV and PRV, and to limit the morbidity associated with those viruses. PMID:23489846

Hao, Xiaoxia; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jinliang; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Baoming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Cao, Wei

2013-08-01

56

Rous-associated virus type 7 induces a syndrome in chickens characterized by stunting and obesity.  

PubMed Central

Infection of 10-day-old chicken embryos with an avian retrovirus. Rous-associated virus type 7, resulted in a disease characterized by stunting and hyperlipidemia. By 20 days after hatch, infected chickens were smaller than hatchmates and developed ataxia and obesity over the next 30 days. Histological examinations of livers from infected chickens revealed a diffuse panlobular fatty infiltrate involving an accumulation of fat in microdroplets. Electron microscopic examinations of livers from infected chickens revealed hepatocytes with swollen mitochondria that lacked cristae. The thyroid and pancreas were infiltrated with lymphoblastoid cells by 1 week after hatch. An examination of the blood revealed a mild anemia, a frank lipemia, and high levels of uric acid. This syndrome induced by Rous-associated virus type 7 in chickens may be useful for elucidating the nature of several diseases, including that found in the fatty liver and kidney syndrome of chickens and that observed in a strain of obese chickens. Images

Carter, J K; Ow, C L; Smith, R E

1983-01-01

57

Genetic analysis of two porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses with different virulence isolated in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The S1 and SY0608 strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were individually isolated and had\\u000a different pathogenicity in pigs in 1997 and 2006. In order to understand their genomic characteristics, the full-length genome\\u000a of S1 and SY0608 isolates were sequenced and analyzed. The results indicated that their genome composition differed significantly\\u000a and shared only 88.5% nucleotide identity

Yufeng Li; Xinglong Wang; Ping Jiang; Wen Chen; Xianwei Wang

2008-01-01

58

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome associated with human herpes virus-6 rhomboencephalitis.  

PubMed

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is characterized by opsoclonus and arrhythmic-action myoclonus that predominantly involves the trunk, limbs, and head. Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) can rarely cause encephalitis in immunocompetent children and adults. Here we report on a case of OMS associated with HHV-6 rhomboencephalitis. HHV-6 infection should be considered in OMS adults and detection of cell-free viral DNA, indicative of active infection, is mandatory in such cases. PMID:24793510

Belcastro, Vincenzo; Piola, Mirko; Binda, Sandro; Santoro, Domenico; Rezzonico, Monica; Arnaboldi, Marco

2014-06-15

59

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection, and Dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A new disease, Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was identified in the early 1980’s, when it was observed that an\\u000a unusually high number of otherwise healthy gay men in San Francisco, developed Kaposi’s sarcoma, and pneumocystis carinii\\u000a pneumonia (1, 2). Before the discovery of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the causative agent, and refinements were made in various\\u000a serological methods

T. K. Sreepada Rao

60

Transcriptional profile of shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes with DNA microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  In an attempt to obtain the transcriptional profile of shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes, DNA microarray analysis\\u000a was performed using amplified DNA fragments of the WSSV genome that covered most of the presumptive open reading frames (ORFs).\\u000a Total RNAs were extracted from WSSV-infected crayfish (Cambarus clarkii) and reverse transcribed into cDNA and labeled with 32P-dATP. The DNA microarray

Y. Lan; X. Xu; F. Yang; X. Zhang

2006-01-01

61

Inhaled Ribavirin Therapy in Adult Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in previously healthy adults is rare, but the overall mortality rate is 40%-60%. Inhaled ribavirin is approved for the treatment of hospitalized infants and young children with severe lower respiratory tract infections due to RSV. We present the case of an adult female with RSV pneumonia-induced ARDS who was successfully

Yung-Hung Luo; Chu-Yun Huang; Kuang-Yao Yang; Yu-Chin Lee

2011-01-01

62

Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains circulating in Hungarian swine herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of 37 ORF5 sequences of Hungarian porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains revealed that most of them (35) belonged to the European genotype, forming distinct subgroups, reflecting the exceptional diversity of Eastern European strains. Twelve vaccine-like strains were also found in non-vaccinated animals. Two strains belonged to the American genotype showing 90–91% nucleotide identity to the “Quebec”

Gyula Balka; Ákos Hornyák; Ádám Bálint; István Kiss; Sándor Kecskeméti; Tamás Bakonyi; Miklós Rusvai

2008-01-01

63

Unilateral nevoid telangiectasia syndrome (UNTS) associated with chronic Hepatitis C virus and positive immunoreactivity for VEGF.  

PubMed

Unilateral Nevoid Telangectasia Syndrome (UNTS) is characterized by superficial telangiectasias in a unilateral distribution. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may play a role in the pathogenesis of UNTS in patients with underlying hepatic disease. We report a case of a patient with UNTS accompanied by chronic hepatitis C virus infection, with a normal serum estrogen profile and strong positive immunohistochemical staining of lesional skin with VEGF. PMID:24945644

Smith, Ja; Kamangar, F; Prakash, N; Fung, Ma; Konia, T; Fazel, N

2014-01-01

64

Evaluation of aerosol transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus under controlled field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could be transmitted by aerosol under field conditions. A total of 210 five-month-old PRRSV-negative pigs were housed in a mechanically ventilated finishing facility containing 11 pens. Pen 1 contained 10 pigs (indirect contact controls) and pen 2 remained empty, providing a barrier of 2.5

S. Otake; S. A. Dee; L. Jacobson; C. Pijoan; M. Torremorell

2002-01-01

65

Immune response against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus during acute and chronic infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant obstacle to the prevention and control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the inability of current diagnostic tests to provide information concerning the stage of PRRSV infection. To explore possible prognostic combinations of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, 3-week-old pigs (n=10) were intramuscularly (IM) inoculated with PRRSV isolate VR-2332 and followed for 193 days post-inoculation

R. M. Molina; S.-H. Cha; W. Chittick; S. Lawson; M. P. Murtaugh; E. A. Nelson; J. Christopher-Hennings; K.-J. Yoon; R. Evans; R. R. R. Rowland; J. J. Zimmerman

2008-01-01

66

Genomic characterization of virulent, attenuated, and revertant passages of a North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain.  

PubMed

Pigs were exposed to three passages of the NADC-8 strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to investigate the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic properties. Differences were found in the virulence of the three passages called virulent, intermediate, and avirulent. Avirulent virus was derived by attenuation of virulent virus in cell culture and intermediate virus was derived by passage of avirulent virus in a pig. Nucleotide sequence differences between virulent and avirulent virus consisted of 50 nucleotide changes and a three-nucleotide deletion, and between avirulent and intermediate virus consisted of 8 nucleotide changes resulting in six amino acid changes. Three of these amino acid changes were direct reversions to virulent virus. Genetic changes, especially those seemingly associated with attenuation followed by some degree of reversion to virulence, in ORF1a, ORF1b, and ORF 6 regions of the genome may be involved in the control of PRRSV replication and virulence. PMID:15051397

Grebennikova, T V; Clouser, D F; Vorwald, A C; Musienko, M I; Mengeling, W L; Lager, K M; Wesley, R D; Biketov, S F; Zaberezhny, A D; Aliper, T I; Nepoklonov, E A

2004-04-10

67

Bayou virus-associated hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Eastern Texas: identification of the rice rat, Oryzomys palustris, as reservoir host.  

PubMed Central

We describe the third known case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) due to Bayou virus, from Jefferson County, Texas. By using molecular epidemiologic methods, we show that rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) are frequently infected with Bayou virus and that viral RNA sequences from HPS patients are similar to those from nearby rice rats. Bayou virus is associated with O. palustris; this rodent appears to be its predominant reservoir host.

Torrez-Martinez, N.; Bharadwaj, M.; Goade, D.; Delury, J.; Moran, P.; Hicks, B.; Nix, B.; Davis, J. L.; Hjelle, B.

1998-01-01

68

Recombinant egg drop syndrome subunit vaccine offers an alternative to virus propagation in duck eggs.  

PubMed

Egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus vaccines are routinely produced in embryonated duck eggs (Solyom et al., 1982). This procedure poses the risk of dissemination of pathogens, such as avian influenza virus, as the eggs used are not from specific pathogen free birds. To address this problem, the knob and part of the shaft domain of the fibre protein of the EDS virus (termed knob-s) were expressed in Escherichia coli and assessed as a subunit vaccine. A single vaccination with the recombinant protein induced the production of anti-EDS virus antibodies, as detected by haemagglutination inhibition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization tests, for at least 20 weeks. A positive correlation was demonstrated between these three assays. A dose-response assessment showed that the vaccine was effective over the range of 2 to 64 microg protein per dose. Two vaccinations with the recombinant protein, administered before the onset of lay, induced high haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres, comparable with those induced by an inactivated whole-virus vaccine. The vaccine did not have any adverse effects on egg production, quality or weight. The present study has shown that two vaccinations with the recombinant knob-s protein elicited high neutralizing antibody titres that persisted for more than 50 weeks of lay. PMID:18202947

Gutter, B; Fingerut, E; Gallili, G; Eliahu, D; Perelman, B; Finger, A; Pitcovski, J

2008-02-01

69

No Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Ixodid Ticks Collected in Seoul  

PubMed Central

Larvae, nymphs, and adult stages of 3 species of ixodid ticks were collected by tick drag methods in Seoul during June-October 2013, and their infection status with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus was examined using RT-PCR. During the period, 732 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 62 Haemaphysalis flava, and 2 Ixodes nipponensis specimens were collected. Among the specimens of H. longicornis, the number of female adults, male adults, nymphs, and larvae were 53, 11, 240, and 446, respectively. Ticks were grouped into 63 pools according to the collection site, species, and developmental stage, and assayed for SFTS virus. None of the pools of ticks were found to be positive for SFTS virus gene.

Jo, Sukju; Jang, Jungim; Choi, Sungmin

2014-01-01

70

No detection of severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus from ixodid ticks collected in seoul.  

PubMed

Larvae, nymphs, and adult stages of 3 species of ixodid ticks were collected by tick drag methods in Seoul during June-October 2013, and their infection status with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus was examined using RT-PCR. During the period, 732 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 62 Haemaphysalis flava, and 2 Ixodes nipponensis specimens were collected. Among the specimens of H. longicornis, the number of female adults, male adults, nymphs, and larvae were 53, 11, 240, and 446, respectively. Ticks were grouped into 63 pools according to the collection site, species, and developmental stage, and assayed for SFTS virus. None of the pools of ticks were found to be positive for SFTS virus gene. PMID:24850970

Ham, Heejin; Jo, Sukju; Jang, Jungim; Choi, Sungmin

2014-04-01

71

Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 elicits mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses in mice  

PubMed Central

Currently, killed-virus and modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines are used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. However, both types of vaccines have inherent drawbacks; accordingly, the development of novel PRRSV vaccines is urgently needed. Previous studies have suggested that yeast possesses adjuvant activities, and it has been used as an expression vehicle to elicit immune responses to foreign antigens. In this report, recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing GP5 of HP-PRRSV (Yeast-GP5) was generated and immune responses to this construct were analyzed in mice. Intestinal mucosal PRRSV-specific sIgA antibody and higher levels of IFN-? in spleen CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were induced by oral administration of Yeast-GP5. Additionally, Yeast-GP5 administered subcutaneously evoked vigorous cell-mediated immunity, and PRRSV-specific lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-? secretion were detected in the splenocytes of mice. These results suggest that Yeast-GP5 has the potential for use as a vaccine for PRRSV in the future.

Zhao, Haiyan; Wang, Yalan; Ma, Zhitao; Wang, Yongqiang

2014-01-01

72

Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 elicits mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses in mice.  

PubMed

Currently, killed-virus and modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines are used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. However, both types of vaccines have inherent drawbacks; accordingly, the development of novel PRRSV vaccines is urgently needed. Previous studies have suggested that yeast possesses adjuvant activities, and it has been used as an expression vehicle to elicit immune responses to foreign antigens. In this report, recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing GP5 of HP-PRRSV (Yeast-GP5) was generated and immune responses to this construct were analyzed in mice. Intestinal mucosal PRRSV-specific sIgA antibody and higher levels of IFN-? in spleen CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were induced by oral administration of Yeast-GP5. Additionally, Yeast-GP5 administered subcutaneously evoked vigorous cell-mediated immunity, and PRRSV-specific lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-? secretion were detected in the splenocytes of mice. These results suggest that Yeast-GP5 has the potential for use as a vaccine for PRRSV in the future. PMID:24378591

Zhao, Haiyan; Wang, Yalan; Ma, Zhitao; Wang, Yongqiang; Feng, Wen-Hai

2014-06-01

73

The SI Strain of Measles Virus Derived from a Patient with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Possesses Typical Genome Alterations and Unique Amino Acid Changes That Modulate Receptor Specificity and Reduce Membrane Fusion Activity ? ‡  

PubMed Central

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal sequela associated with measles and is caused by persistent infection of the brain with measles virus (MV). The SI strain was isolated in 1976 from a patient with SSPE and shows neurovirulence in animals. Genome nucleotide sequence analyses showed that the SI strain genome possesses typical genome alterations for SSPE-derived strains, namely, accumulated amino acid substitutions in the M protein and cytoplasmic tail truncation of the F protein. Through the establishment of an efficient reverse genetics system, a recombinant SI strain expressing a green fluorescent protein (rSI-AcGFP) was generated. The infection of various cell types with rSI-AcGFP was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. rSI-AcGFP exhibited limited syncytium-forming activity and spread poorly in cells. Analyses using a recombinant MV possessing a chimeric genome between those of the SI strain and a wild-type MV strain indicated that the membrane-associated protein genes (M, F, and H) were responsible for the altered growth phenotype of the SI strain. Functional analyses of viral glycoproteins showed that the F protein of the SI strain exhibited reduced fusion activity because of an E300G substitution and that the H protein of the SI strain used CD46 efficiently but used the original MV receptors on immune and epithelial cells poorly because of L482F, S546G, and F555L substitutions. The data obtained in the present study provide a new platform for analyses of SSPE-derived strains as well as a clear example of an SSPE-derived strain that exhibits altered receptor specificity and limited fusion activity.

Seki, Fumio; Yamada, Kentaro; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Okamura, Koji; Yanagi, Yusuke; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeda, Makoto

2011-01-01

74

The SI strain of measles virus derived from a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis possesses typical genome alterations and unique amino acid changes that modulate receptor specificity and reduce membrane fusion activity.  

PubMed

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal sequela associated with measles and is caused by persistent infection of the brain with measles virus (MV). The SI strain was isolated in 1976 from a patient with SSPE and shows neurovirulence in animals. Genome nucleotide sequence analyses showed that the SI strain genome possesses typical genome alterations for SSPE-derived strains, namely, accumulated amino acid substitutions in the M protein and cytoplasmic tail truncation of the F protein. Through the establishment of an efficient reverse genetics system, a recombinant SI strain expressing a green fluorescent protein (rSI-AcGFP) was generated. The infection of various cell types with rSI-AcGFP was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. rSI-AcGFP exhibited limited syncytium-forming activity and spread poorly in cells. Analyses using a recombinant MV possessing a chimeric genome between those of the SI strain and a wild-type MV strain indicated that the membrane-associated protein genes (M, F, and H) were responsible for the altered growth phenotype of the SI strain. Functional analyses of viral glycoproteins showed that the F protein of the SI strain exhibited reduced fusion activity because of an E300G substitution and that the H protein of the SI strain used CD46 efficiently but used the original MV receptors on immune and epithelial cells poorly because of L482F, S546G, and F555L substitutions. The data obtained in the present study provide a new platform for analyses of SSPE-derived strains as well as a clear example of an SSPE-derived strain that exhibits altered receptor specificity and limited fusion activity. PMID:21917959

Seki, Fumio; Yamada, Kentaro; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Okamura, Koji; Yanagi, Yusuke; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeda, Makoto

2011-11-01

75

Fanconi's Syndrome Associated with Prolonged Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy in a Hepatitis B Virus Patient  

PubMed Central

Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is commonly used as an antiviral agent in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Nephrotoxicity has been shown to occur at daily dosages of 60-120 mg. Fanconi's syndrome is a generalized dysfunction of the renal proximal tubular cells, which is usually accompanied by complications. Here we report a case of Fanconi's syndrome in a chronic hepatitis B patient who had been treated with a prolonged regimen of ADV at 10 mg/day. A 47-year-old man complained of severe back and chest-wall pain. He had chronic hepatitis B and had been treated with ADV at a daily dose of 10 mg for 38 months. He was hospitalized because of severe bone pain, and laboratory and radiologic findings suggested a diagnosis of Fanconi's syndrome with osteomalacia. After discontinuation of the ADV, he recovered and was discharged from hospital. His laboratory findings had normalized within 2 weeks. This case indicates that Fanconi's syndrome can be acquired by a chronic hepatitis B patient taking ADV at a conventional dosage of 10 mg/day. Therefore, patients treated with long-term ADV should be checked regularly for the occurrence of ADV-induced Fanconi's syndrome.

Jung, Young Kul; Choi, Jong Hwan; Kim, Chung Ho; Jung, Eun Suk; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae; Byun, Kwan Soo

2010-01-01

76

Detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses from poult enteritis syndrome in turkeys.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to detect and characterize enteric viruses [rotavirus, turkey astrovirus-2 (TAstV-2), reovirus, and turkey coronavirus] from cases of poult enteritis syndrome (PES) in Minnesota turkeys. Of the intestinal contents collected from 43 PES cases, 25 were positive for rotavirus and 13 for small round viruses by electron microscopy (EM). Of the enteric virus-positive cases by EM (n=27), 16 cases had rotavirus or small round viruses alone and the remaining 11 cases had both viruses. None of the cases were positive for reovirus or coronavirus by EM. However, with reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 40 cases (93%) were positive for rotavirus, 36 (84%) for TAstV-2, and 17 (40%) for reovirus. None of the cases were positive for turkey coronavirus by RT-PCR. The viruses from all cases were detected either alone or in combination of 2 or 3 by RT-PCR. Thus, 8 (19%) cases were positive for a single virus, whereas a combination of viruses was detected in the remaining 35 (81%) cases. The rota-TAstV-2 combination was the most predominant (n=18 cases). Fifteen cases were positive for all 3 viruses. The rotaviruses had sequence homology of 89.8 to 100% with previously published sequences of turkey rotaviruses at the nucleotide level. The TAstV-2 had sequence homology of 84.6 to 98.7% with previously published TAstV-2, whereas reoviruses had sequence homology of 91.6 to 99.3% with previously published sequences of turkey reoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that rota- and reoviruses clustered in a single group, whereas TAstV-2 clustered in 2 different groups. In conclusion, a larger number of PES cases was positive for rotavirus, TAstV-2, and reovirus by RT-PCR than with EM. The presence of more than one virus and changes at the genetic level in a virus may affect the severity of PES in turkey flocks. PMID:20075272

Jindal, N; Patnayak, D P; Chander, Y; Ziegler, A F; Goyal, S M

2010-02-01

77

Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Associated with Mumps Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder that is characterized by involuntary eye movements and myoclonus. OMS exhibits various etiologies, including paraneoplastic, parainfectious, toxic-metabolic, and idiopathic causes. The exact immunopathogenesis and pathophysiology of OMS are uncertain. Case Report We report the case of a 19-year-old male who developed opsoclonus and myoclonus several days after a flu-like illness. Serological tests revealed acute mumps infection. The findings of cerebrospinal fluid examinations and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. During the early phase of the illness, he suffered from opsoclonus and myoclonus that was so severe as to cause acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis. After therapies including intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient gradually improved and had fully recovered 2 months later. Conclusions This is the first report of OMS associated with mumps infection in Korea. Mumps infection should be considered in patients with OMS.

Kang, Bong-Hui

2014-01-01

78

Variable patterns of varicella-zoster virus reactivation in Ramsay Hunt syndrome.  

PubMed

The mechanism by which reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes facial paralysis in Ramsay Hunt syndrome remains unclear. The relationship between VZV load and the onset of facial paralysis was analyzed in 42 patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The patients were divided into three groups according to the times of appearance of zoster and of facial paralysis; group I (zoster preceding, n = 13), group II (simultaneous, n = 22), group III (paralysis preceding, n = 7). A real-time quantitative PCR assay was used to measure VZV DNA copy number in saliva, and paired sera were assayed for anti-VZV IgG and IgM antibodies. In group I, the VZV DNA-positive rate was low and virus load decreased gradually after the initial hospital visit around the time of onset of paralysis. The level of anti-VZV antibodies had in most cases already increased at that time. In group III, viral load tended to increase after the onset of paralysis and peaked around the time of appearance of zoster. The level of anti-VZV antibodies was low at the onset of paralysis but showed a significant increase when paired sera were tested. In group II, virus load and changes in level of anti-VZV antibodies either resembled group I or group III behavior. These results indicate that facial paralysis in Ramsay Hunt syndrome can occur at various times between the early and the regression phase of VZV reactivation, suggesting that there are variable patterns of development of facial nerve dysfunction caused by VZV reactivation and the progression of neuritis. PMID:15332286

Aizawa, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Fumio; Furuta, Yasushi; Sawa, Hirofumi; Fukuda, Satoshi

2004-10-01

79

Inverted repeat regions of Marek's disease virus DNA possess a structure similar to that of the a sequence of herpes simplex virus DNA and contain host cell telomere sequences.  

PubMed Central

The genomic structure of Marek's disease virus (MDV) is similar to those of the alphaherpesviruses herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. Sequence analysis of the junction region between the long component (L) and the short component (S) revealed the existence of an a-like sequence, similar in structure to the a sequence of HSV-1. Further study revealed that the MDV genome contains five copies of the a-like sequence within the long terminal repeat region as well as in the short terminal repeat region. The junction between the L and S components was found to contain 10 copies of the a-like sequence. Within the a-like sequence, a structure homologous to the DR2 of HSV was found to contain 17 copies of the telomeric sequence, GGGGTTA. There appears to be little to no sequence homology between the HSV a sequence and the MDV a-like sequence; however, the strong physical homology to its counterpart in HSV-1 suggests that the MDV a-like sequence may have the same functional homology (the domain for cleavage/packaging of the DNA into the viral capsids and for genomic inversion) as well. Images

Kishi, M; Bradley, G; Jessip, J; Tanaka, A; Nonoyama, M

1991-01-01

80

Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative syndromes: studies in two European families.  

PubMed

The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), also known as Duncan's disease, is an X-linked recessive disorder that is characterized by the inability of affected individuals to mount a sufficient immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). After EBV primary infection, male family members suffer from severe infectious mononucleosis (IM), aplastic anemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and a spectrum of lymphoproliferative diseases. Autosomal mode of inheritance with similar symptoms as in XLP has been reported. We have studied two families with EBV-associated syndromes and an X-linked and an autosomal mode of inheritance, respectively. Affected family members presented with severe IM, hemophagocytosis, aplastic anemia, acquired hypogammaglobulinemia, and B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:1646073

Schuster, V; Dohrmann, E; Kreth, H W

1991-01-01

81

DNA condensates organized by the capsid protein VP15 in White Spot Syndrome Virus  

SciTech Connect

The White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has a large circular double-stranded DNA genome of around 300 kb and it replicates in the nucleus of the host cells. The machinery of how the viral DNA is packaged has been remained unclear. VP15, a highly basic protein, is one of the major capsid proteins found in the virus. Previously, it was shown to be a DNA binding protein and was hypothesized to participate in the viral DNA packaging process. Using Atomic Force Microscopy imaging, we show that the viral DNA is associated with a (or more) capsid proteins. The organized viral DNA qualitatively resembles the conformations of VP15 induced DNA condensates in vitro. Furthermore, single-DNA manipulation experiments revealed that VP15 is able to condense single DNA against forces of a few pico Newtons. Our results suggest that VP15 may aid in the viral DNA packaging process by directly condensing DNA.

Liu Yingjie, E-mail: phyyj@nus.edu.s [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Wu Jinlu [Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chen Hu [Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Hew, Choy Leong, E-mail: dbshewcl@nus.edu.s [Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Yan Jie [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Centre for Bioimaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

2010-12-20

82

Clinical significance of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) remains unclear. Therefore,\\u000a we investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of HBV infection in Taiwanese patients with pSS. One hundred seventy-five\\u000a patients with pSS who fulfilled the 2002 American-European Revised Classification Criteria were enrolled. Eighteen (10.3%)\\u000a patients were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).

Ming-Han Chen; Liang-Tsai Hsiao; Ming-Huang Chen; Chang-Youh Tsai; Yi-Hsiang Huang; Chung-Tei Chou

83

Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against viral infection, and in turn, viruses have evolved to evade host immune surveillance. As a result, viruses may persist in host and develop chronic infections. Type I interferons (IFN-?/?) are among the most potent antiviral cytokines triggered by viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of pigs that is characterized by negligible induction of type I IFNs and viral persistence for an extended period. For IFN production, RIG-I/MDA5 and JAK-STAT pathways are two major signaling pathways, and recent studies indicate that PRRS virus is armed to modulate type I IFN responses during infection. This review describes the viral strategies for modulation of type I IFN responses. At least three non–structural proteins (Nsp1, Nsp2, and Nsp11) and a structural protein (N nucleocapsid protein) have been identified and characterized to play roles in the IFN suppression and NF-?B pathways. Nsp’s are early proteins while N is a late protein, suggesting that additional signaling pathways may be involved in addition to the IFN pathway. The understanding of molecular bases for virus-mediated modulation of host innate immune signaling will help us design new generation vaccines and control PRRS.

Sun, Yan; Han, Mingyuan; Kim, Chiyong; Calvert, Jay G.; Yoo, Dongwan

2012-01-01

84

Molecular characterization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, a member of the arterivirus group.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific cDNA clones spanning the 3' terminal 5 kb of the genomic RNA were isolated, sequenced, and used as probes for identification of PRRSV-specific RNAs. The PRRSV genome is a positive-stranded polyadenylated RNA of about 15 kb. In infected cells, a 3' coterminal nested set of six major subgenomic mRNAs could be demonstrated. Within the 3' terminal 3.5 kb of the PRRSV genome, six overlapping reading frames (ORFs) were identified, each most likely expressed by one of the subgenomic mRNAs. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that the most 3' terminal ORF (ORF7) encodes the PRRSV nucleocapsid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 14 kDa. It displays 44.8% amino acid identity with the capsid protein of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) and 23.6% with that of equine arteritis virus (EAV). The product of ORF6, the second 3' terminal ORF, represents a putative membrane protein and exhibits 53.2 and 27.2% amino acid identity with the corresponding LDV and EAV polypeptides, respectively. Similar to EAV, ORFs 2 through 5 might encode glycosylated viral proteins. The polypeptide deduced from the most 5' ORF (ORF1b) contains two conserved domains common to EAV and coronavirus polymerases. Genome organization, strategy of gene expression, and the sequence of deduced proteins show that PRRSV belongs to the Arterivirus group of viruses. PMID:8438574

Conzelmann, K K; Visser, N; Van Woensel, P; Thiel, H J

1993-03-01

85

Pathogenesis and prevention of placental and transplacental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-induced reproductive problems are characterized by embryonic death, late-term abortions, early farrowing and increase in number of dead and mummified fetuses, and weak-born piglets. The virus recovery from fetal tissues illustrates transplacental infection, but despite many studies on the subject, the means by which PRRSV spreads from mother to fetus and the exact pathophysiological basis of the virus-induced reproductive failure remain unexplained. Recent findings from our group indicate that the endometrium and placenta are involved in the PRRSV passage from mother to fetus and that virus replication in the endometrial/placental tissues can be the actual reason for fetal death. The main purpose of this review is to clarify the role that PRRSV replication and PRRSV-induced changes in the endometrium/placenta play in the pathogenesis of PRRSV-induced reproductive failure in pregnant sows. In addition, strategies to control placental and transplacental PRRSV infection are discussed.

2013-01-01

86

Detection and distribution of torque teno sus virus 1 in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus positive/negative pigs.  

PubMed

To investigate the detection rate and distribution of torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) positive/negative pigs, 2384 pathological tissues samples collected from 6 provinces of Eastern China from 2010 to 2013 were amplified using previously published PRRSV and TTSuV1 primers. The presence and viral load of TTSuV1 were investigated in a wide range of samples from 5 PRRSV positive/negative 4-week-old pigs by real-time TaqMan PCR. TTSuV1 was detected in 65.3% of 1115 PRRSV-positive samples, and 47.2% of 1269 negative samples. Viral DNA was most commonly detected in the immune organs, including spleen, lung, pancreas, and mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes, followed by serum, liver, kidney, trachea, anal swabs, nasal swabs and sex glands of PRRSV-positive or negative pigs. TTSuV1 DNA loads in PRRSV-positive pigs increased from 2 to 5 times in almost all the corresponding parts compared with PRRSV-negative pigs. Statistical analysis showed that PRRSV may have a synergistic effect with TTSuV1, and promote the replication and proliferation of TTSuV1. PMID:24970361

Zhang, Zhicheng; Wang, Yang; Dai, Wei; Dai, Dingzhen

2014-08-27

87

Protection from yellow head virus (YHV) infection in Penaeus vannamei pre-infected with Taura syndrome virus (TSV).  

PubMed

Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei that were pre-exposed to Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and then challenged with yellow head virus (YHV) acquired partial protection from yellow head disease (YHD). Experimental infections were carried out using specific-pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp which were first exposed per os to TSV; at 27, 37 and 47 d post infection they were then challenged by injection with 1 × 104 copies of YHV per shrimp (designated the TSV-YHV group). Shrimp not infected with TSV were injected with YHV as a positive control. Survival analyses comparing the TSV-YHV and YHV (positive control) groups were conducted, and significant survival rates were found for all the time groups (p < 0.001). A higher final survival was found in the TSV-YHV group (mean 55%) than in the positive control (0%) (p < 0.05). Duplex reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to quantify both TSV and YHV. Lower YHV copy numbers were found in the TSV-YHV group than in the positive control in pleopods (3.52 × 109 vs. 1.88 × 1010 copies µg RNA-1) (p < 0.001) and lymphoid organ (LO) samples (3.52 × 109 vs. 1.88 × 1010 copies µg RNA-1) (p < 0.01). In situ hybridization assays were conducted, and differences in the distribution of the 2 viruses in the target tissues were found. The foci of LO were infected with TSV but were not infected with YHV. This study suggests that a viral interference effect exists between TSV and YHV, which could, in part, explain the absence of YHD in the Americas, where P. vannamei are often raised in farms where TSV is present. PMID:22535868

Aranguren, Luis Fernando; Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V

2012-04-26

88

Epidemiological studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) related virus infection among urban rats in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Seroepidemiological studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) virus infection were carried out among urban rats(Rattus norvegicus andRattus rattus) and small field rodents in Hokkaido, Japan. An urban rat colony that was seropositive to SR-11 strain of HFRS virus (laboratory rat origin) was demonstrated in February 1983 at a dumping ground area of Kami-iso Town near Hakodate port.

J. Arikawa; I. TAKASttIMA; N. Hashimoto; K. Takahashi; K. Yagi; K. Hattori

1986-01-01

89

Avian Influenza: Potential Impact on Sub-Saharan Military Populations with High Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus\\/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several sub-Saharan militaries have large percentages of troops with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)\\/acquired im- munodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease. Two possible scenarios have been postulated regard- ing how such a coinfection of HIV and H5N1

Robert L. Feldman; COL Kent Nickell; MC USAR

2007-01-01

90

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Elicits a Weak Interferon Response Compared to Traditional Interferon-Inducing Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to investigate changes of interferon (IFN) production occurring over the first 48 h after infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) and to compare these changes to those induced by well-established IFN-inducing viruses, such as vesicular stomatitis (VSV) and Newcastle viruses (NDV). Experiments have been

Carolina Scagnolari; Simona Trombetti; Simona Cicetti; Silvia Antonelli; Carla Selvaggi; Lorena Perrone; Michela Visca; Sara Romano; Guido Antonelli

2008-01-01

91

N-Linked Glycosylation of GP5 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Is Critically Important for Virus Replication In Vivo  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that the N-linked glycan addition at certain sites in GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is important for production of infectious viruses and viral infectivity. However, such specific N-linked glycosylation sites do not exist in some field PRRSV isolates. This implies that the existence of GP5-associated glycan per se is not vital to the virus life cycle. In this study, we found that mutation of individual glycosylation sites at N30, N35, N44, and N51 in GP5 did not affect virus infectivity in cultured cells. However, the mutants carrying multiple mutations at N-linked glycosylation sites in GP5 had significantly reduced virus yields compared with the wild-type (wt) virus. As a result, no viremia and antibody response were detected in piglets that were injected with a mutant without all N-linked glycans in GP5. These results suggest that the N-linked glycosylation of GP5 is critically important for virus replication in vivo. The study also showed that removal of N44-linked glycan from GP5 increased the sensitivity of mutant virus to convalescent-phase serum samples but did not elicit a high-level neutralizing antibody response to wt PRRSV. The results obtained from the present study have made significant contributions to better understanding the importance of glycosylation of GP5 in the biology of PRRSV.

Wei, Zuzhang; Lin, Tao; Sun, Lichang; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Xiaoming; Gao, Fei; Liu, Runxia; Chen, Chunyan

2012-01-01

92

Persistence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in a swine operation.  

PubMed Central

A herd of Quebec seedstock pigs experienced in early 1992 a typical outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) associated with lesions of interstitial, proliferative and necrotizing pneumonia in weaned piglets. The nature of the infection was confirmed by serology using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and virus isolation in primary cultures of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM). Farm production recovered after eight weeks of losses. In order to evaluate the persistence of infection in the herd, five SPF-piglets were introduced in two different sections of the PRRS-affected barn four months after the disappearance of clinical symptoms, and two others were placed in a neighboring building with apparently healthy farrow-to-finnish pigs. Clinical signs, body temperature, humoral immune response, virological and histopathological findings were recorded over a 42-day period. Clinical signs were evident in all of the sentinels and prolonged fever (> or = 40 degrees C) was recorded one day post-exposure (PE). Antibody titers to PRRS virus could be detected by IIF on PAM seven days PE, and reached 1:1024 by day 21 PE. Three of the sentinels developed significant virus neutralizing antibody titers (> 1:8 to < or = 1:128) by day 35 PE. In all cases, the virus could be isolated from the serum between day 7 and 42 PE. Thus, the virus and specific antibodies coexisted for several weeks. Lesions of interstitial pneumonia was demonstrated in few animals. In experimental inoculation studies, the viral strain isolated from the sentinel pigs produced severe reproductive disorders in two sows inoculated at 95 days of gestation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2.

Bilodeau, R; Archambault, D; Vezina, S A; Sauvageau, R; Fournier, M; Dea, S

1994-01-01

93

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti-white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug.

Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

94

Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in recognition of beta-integrin.  

PubMed

The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that beta-integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of beta-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed that envelope proteins VP26, VP31, VP37, VP90 and nucleocapsid protein VP136 interacted with LvInt. RGD-, YGL- and LDV-related peptide functioned as motifs of WSSV proteins binding with beta-integrin. The beta-integrin ligand of RGDT had better blocking effect compared with that of YGL- and LDV-related peptides. In vivo assay indicated that RGD-, LDV- and YGL-related peptides could partially block WSSV infection. These data collectively indicate that multiple proteins were involved in recognition of beta-integrin. Identification of proteins in WSSV that are associated with beta-integrin will assist development of new agents for effective control of the white spot syndrome. PMID:24845502

Zhang, Jing-Yan; Liu, Qing-Hui; Huang, Jie

2014-06-01

95

No Evidence for XMRV Nucleic Acids, Infectious Virus or Anti-XMRV Antibodies in Canadian Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The gammaretroviruses xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) and MLV have been reported to be more prevalent in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients than in healthy controls. Here, we report the complex analysis of whole blood and plasma samples from 58 CFS patients and 57 controls from Canada for the presence of XMRV/MLV nucleic acids, infectious virus, and XMRV/MLV-specific antibodies. Multiple techniques were employed, including nested and qRT-PCR, cell culture, and immunoblotting. We found no evidence of XMRV or MLV in humans and conclude that CFS is not associated with these gammaretroviruses.

Steffen, Imke; Tyrrell, D. Lorne; Stein, Eleanor; Montalvo, Leilani; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Zhou, Yanchen; Lu, Kai; Switzer, William M.; Tang, Shaohua; Jia, Hongwei; Hockman, Darren; Santer, Deanna M.; Logan, Michael; Landi, Amir; Law, John; Houghton, Michael; Simmons, Graham

2011-01-01

96

No evidence for XMRV nucleic acids, infectious virus or anti-XMRV antibodies in Canadian patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.  

PubMed

The gammaretroviruses xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) and MLV have been reported to be more prevalent in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients than in healthy controls. Here, we report the complex analysis of whole blood and plasma samples from 58 CFS patients and 57 controls from Canada for the presence of XMRV/MLV nucleic acids, infectious virus, and XMRV/MLV-specific antibodies. Multiple techniques were employed, including nested and qRT-PCR, cell culture, and immunoblotting. We found no evidence of XMRV or MLV in humans and conclude that CFS is not associated with these gammaretroviruses. PMID:22114717

Steffen, Imke; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Stein, Eleanor; Montalvo, Leilani; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Zhou, Yanchen; Lu, Kai; Switzer, William M; Tang, Shaohua; Jia, Hongwei; Hockman, Darren; Santer, Deanna M; Logan, Michael; Landi, Amir; Law, John; Houghton, Michael; Simmons, Graham

2011-01-01

97

Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.  

PubMed

This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome. PMID:7258407

Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

1981-01-01

98

Changes in tissue defence system in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infected Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

The present study examined the changes occurring in the pro phenoloxidase system and antioxidant defence status in haemolymph, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infected Penaeus monodon. Tiger shrimps (P. monodon) were infected with white spot virus by intramuscular injection of the virus inoculum. Levels of lipid peroxides and the activities of phenoloxidase, glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST)] and antiperoxidative enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] were determined. WSSV infection induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in haemolymph, muscle and hepatopancreas of experimental P. monodon compared to normal controls. This was paralleled by significant reduction in the activities of phenol oxidase, glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes. The results of the present study indicate that the tissue antioxidant defence system in WSSV infected P. monodon is operating at a lower rate, which ultimately resulted in the failure of counteraction of free radicals, leading to oxidative stress as evidenced by the increased level of lipid peroxidation. PMID:17287147

Mathew, Suseela; Kumar, K Ashok; Anandan, R; Viswanathan Nair, P G; Devadasan, K

2007-04-01

99

Variation in open reading frames 3, 4 and 7 among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have revealed antigenic variation among UK isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) and the use of in vitro translation products has shown that this variation lies in the protein encoded by open reading frame (ORF) 3. This protein has been shown to be present in purified virion preparations, suggesting that it

Trevor W. Drew; J. Paul Lowings; Fenella Yapp

1997-01-01

100

First report of White spot syndrome virus in farmed and wild penaeid shrimp from lagoa dos patos estuary, southern brazil  

PubMed Central

In this study, we detected White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild Farfantepenaeus paulensis collected in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary and cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei. This is the first report of WSSV in F. paulensis from Lagoa dos Patos and farmed L. vannamei shrimps in Rio Grande do Sul.

Cavalli, Lissandra Souto; Romano, Luis Alberto; Marins, Luis Fernando; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

2011-01-01

101

An investigation of Artemia as a possible vector for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission to Penaeus indicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenicity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) for different developmental stages of Artemia was carried out by immersion challenge and oral route in order to investigate the possibility of Artemia acting as a reservoir or carrier of WSSV to marine shrimp. The WSSV failed to infect the developmental stages of Artemia; there were no differences in mortality between control

A. S Sahul Hameed; B. L. M Murthi; M Rasheed; S Sathish; K Yoganandhan; V Murugan; Kunthala Jayaraman

2002-01-01

102

What High School Students Who Are Mildly Mentally Retarded Know about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alabama high school students (N=309) with mild mental retardation completed a questionnaire concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and sources of information about human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Students demonstrated some basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and expressed some concern about getting AIDS. They…

Cobb, Hazel B.; Horn, Charles J., Jr.

103

Adverse possession of subsurface minerals  

SciTech Connect

Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

Bowles, P.N.

1983-01-01

104

Inhibition of Taura syndrome virus replication in Litopenaeus vannamei through silencing the LvRab7 gene using double-stranded RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of high mortality in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus\\u000a vannamei, Lv). Previously, silencing of Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) by injecting double-stranded RNA corresponding to PmRab7 (dsRNA-PmRab7) prevented white spot syndrome virus\\u000a or yellow head virus infection. Rab7 is proposed to be involved in intracellular trafficking of the viruses. This study aimed\\u000a to investigate

Chalermporn Ongvarrasopone; Pipop Saejia; Mayuree Chanasakulniyom; Sakol Panyim

2011-01-01

105

Influence of N-Linked Glycosylation of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus GP5 on Virus Infectivity, Antigenicity, and Ability To Induce Neutralizing Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 5 (GP5) is the most abundant envelope glycoprotein and a major inducer of neutralizing antibodies in vivo. Three putative N-linked glyco- sylation sites (N34, N44, and N51) are located on the GP5 ectodomain, where a major neutralization epitope also exists. To determine which of these putative sites are used for glycosylation and

Israrul H. Ansari; Byungjoon Kwon; Fernando A. Osorio; Asit K. Pattnaik

2006-01-01

106

Landscape Elements and Hantaan Virus-related Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, People's Republic of China  

PubMed Central

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in the People’s Republic of China, accounting for 90% of human cases reported globally. In this study, a landscape epidemiologic approach, combined with geographic information system and remote sensing techniques, was applied to increase our understanding of HFRS due to Hantaan virus and its relationship with landscape elements in China. The landscape elements considered were elevation, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, land surface temperature, soil type, and land use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HFRS incidence was remarkably associated with elevation, NDVI, precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, semihydromorphic soils, timber forests, and orchards. These findings have important applications for targeting HFRS interventions in mainland China.

Yan, Lei; Fang, Li-Qun; Huang, Hua-Guo; Zhang, Long-Qi; Feng, Dan; Zhao, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiao-Wen

2007-01-01

107

Posterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

Ocular manifestations can occur in up to 50% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and posterior segment involvement is the most common presentation. The posterior segment manifestations of AIDS can be divided into four categories: retinal vasculopathy, opportunistic infections, unusual malignancies and neuro-ophthalmologic abnormalities. Retinal microvasculopathy and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis are the most common manifestations, even in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has been shown to cause regression of CMV retinitis, reduce the incidence of CMV-related retinal detachments, and prolong patient survival. Immune recovery uveitis is a new cause of vision loss in patients on HAART. Diagnosis and treatment are guided by the particular conditions and immune status of the patient.

2008-01-01

108

Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His6 tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion against mother liquor containing 2?M sodium acetate, 100?mM MES pH 6.3, 25?mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7?d and diffracted to 2.2?Å; they belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98?Å and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labelled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3?Å.

Liu, Yang; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy L.

2006-01-01

109

White spot syndrome virus strains of different virulence induce distinct immune response in Cherax quadricarinatus.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified three white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains (WSSV-CN01, WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03) with significant differences in virulence. Among them, WSSV-CN01 caused significant higher and earlier mortality in redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, thus was determined as high-virulent, while WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03 were moderate-virulent and low-virulent. By investigating the total number of the circulating haemocytes and the activity of immune relative enzymes, we demonstrated that the different virulent WSSV strains induced distinct immune response in the host. Notably, a dramatic reduction of circulating haemocytes was observed in the crayfish infected with WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 but not WSSV-CN03. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 might be responsible for the decrease of circulating haemocytes. PMID:24795080

Gao, Meiling; Li, Fang; Xu, Limei; Zhu, Xiaoming

2014-07-01

110

Vanishing bile duct syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults: A report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) is a group of rare disorders characterized by ductopenia, the progressive destruction and disappearance of intrahepatic bile ducts leading to cholestasis. Described in association with medications, autoimmune disorders, cancer, transplantation, and infections, the specific mechanisms of disease are not known. To date, only 4 cases of VBDS have been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. We report 2 additional cases of HIV-associated VBDS and review the features common to the HIV-associated cases. Presentation includes hyperbilirubinemia, normal liver imaging, and negative viral and autoimmune hepatitis studies. In HIV-infected subjects, VBDS occurred at a range of CD4+ T-cell counts, in some cases following initiation or change in antiretroviral therapy. Lymphoma was associated with two cases; nevirapine, antibiotics, and viral co-infection were suggested as etiologies in the other cases. In HIV-positive patients with progressive cholestasis, early identification of VBDS and referral for transplantation may improve outcomes.

Oppenheimer, Ana Paula; Koh, Christopher; McLaughlin, Mary; Williamson, John C; Norton, Thomas D; Laudadio, Jennifer; Heller, Theo; Kleiner, David E; High, Kevin P; Morse, Caryn G

2013-01-01

111

Respiratory function and pulmonary lesions in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Pulmonary dysfunction was evaluated in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, isolate VR-2332) and compared to clinical and pathological findings. Infected pigs developed fever, reduced appetite, respiratory distress and dullness at 9 days post-inoculation (dpi). Non-invasive pulmonary function tests using impulse oscillometry and rebreathing of test gases (He, CO) revealed peripheral airway obstruction, reduced lung compliance and reduced lung CO-transfer factor. PRRSV-induced pulmonary dysfunction was most marked at 9-18 dpi and was accompanied by a significantly increased respiratory rate and decreased tidal volume. Expiration was affected more than inspiration. On histopathological examination, multifocal areas of interstitial pneumonia (more severe and extensive at 10 dpi than 21 dpi) were identified as a possible structural basis for reduced lung compliance and gas exchange disturbances. PMID:20089425

Wagner, Judith; Kneucker, Annette; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Fachinger, Vicky; Glaser, Melanie; Pesch, Stefan; Murtaugh, Michael P; Reinhold, Petra

2011-03-01

112

Identification of a Putative Receptor for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus on Porcine Alveolar Macrophages  

PubMed Central

To identify the receptor which may determine the macrophage tropism of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were produced. Two MAbs (41D3 and 41D5) which completely blocked PRRSV infection of PAM were further characterized. It was found that they reduce the attachment of PRRSV to PAM and immunoprecipitate a 210-kDa membrane protein from PAM. This protein was detected on the cell membranes of PAM but not of PRRSV-nonpermissive cells. A colocalization was found between the reactive sites of MAb 41D3 and PRRSV on PAM membranes. All PRRSV-infected cells in tissues of experimentally infected pigs reacted with MAb 41D3. Taken together, all these data suggest that the identified 210-kDa membrane protein is a putative receptor for PRRSV on porcine macrophages.

Duan, Xiaobo; Nauwynck, Hans J.; Favoreel, Herman W.; Pensaert, Maurice B.

1998-01-01

113

Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus  

SciTech Connect

The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa.

Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lin Shumei [School of life science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yanga Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

2005-07-05

114

Meningitis and stridor in advanced Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 37-year-old female presented confused with a preceding history of severe headache. After clinical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (including central nervous system involvement), and Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Her hospital stay was complicated. She developed stridor and a cerebrovascular accident with left hemiplegia. She died approximately 2 weeks after admission. The potential causes of her stridor included a mediastinal mass or a central mechanism secondary to tuberculosis meningitis. Limited resources precluded definitive imaging of the chest to rule out a mediastinal mass. Further, an autopsy was not done. Despite these limitations, this case is unique because it reports the presence of both stridor and tuberculosis meningitis in an adult patient.

Naidoo, P; Pillay, D; Saman, S

2013-01-01

115

Replication-Competent Recombinant Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Viruses Expressing Indicator Proteins and Antiviral Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In contrast, replication of IFN-expressing viruses was attenuated, similar to the level of replication observed after the addition of exogenous IFN. Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. Inhibition by the different IFN subtypes corresponded to their anti-PRRSV activity, i.e., IFN?5 ° IFN?1 > IFN-? > IFN?3. In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high?throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. This was shown when they were used to clearly demonstrate the involvement of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in the early stage of PRRSV infection. In addition, replication?competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and may induce more effective adaptive immunity against PRRSV infection.

Sang, Yongming; Shi, Jishu; Sang, Wenjing; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Blecha, Frank

2012-01-01

116

[Possessed! Some historical, psychiatric and curent moments of demonic possession].  

PubMed

Being possessed by demons or evil spirits is one of the oldest ways of explaining bodily and mental disorders. The article briefly mentions some contributions from other disciplines, but considers in particular psychiatry's and medicine's approach throughout history. During the middle ages of Europe possession (and witchcraft) was considered just one out of several causes of mental illness. Astrological theories prevailed, in addition to the humoral theories of medicine. In addition distinctions were made between eccentricity, madness and religious visions and revelations. A large number of the alleged witches and possessed persons who were burned probably had visible mental disturbances. Today's psychiatry does not refer symptoms of possession to any specific category, but usually classifies this as some kind of psychotic disturbance of thought. Exorcism of evil spirits by Jesus Christ is described often in the Gospels. Possession was the only "available" concept for a bundle of neuro-psychiatric disorders: dissociative states, psychoses and epilepsy. To day, the terminology and "diagnostic" principles have been taken over by fundamentalistic groups, who practise exorcism on persons with (probably) minor mental problems and symptoms. The author criticises this activity. PMID:9019873

Høyersten, J G

1996-12-10

117

Avian Influenza: Potential Impact on Sub-Saharan Military Populations with High Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several sub-Saharan militaries have large percentages of troops with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become i...

K. Nickell R. L. Feldman

2007-01-01

118

Monoclonal antibodies against Nsp2 protein of the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be a serious threat, causing an economically significant impact on the swine industry worldwide. In this study, non-structural protein Nsp2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by dialysis. An important monoclonal antibody (MAb 2H6) against Nsp2 protein was generated by fusing mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0 with spleen lymphocytes from Nsp2 protein immunized mice. Then activity of the MAb was characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis, and indirect immunofluorescence assays. The results demonstrated that the MAb has a positive reaction to HP-PRRSV in IFA at 1:100 dilution and in Western blot analysis at 1:500 dilution, and no reaction with classic PRRSV. These indicated that this MAb against Nsp2 protein of PRRSV might be a good candidate for a specific diagnostic method and functional exploration of the Nsp2 protein. PMID:24111869

Li, Bin; Du, Luping; Sun, Bing; Yu, Zhengyu; Wen, Libin; Zhang, Xuehan; Guo, Rongli; Ni, Yanxiu; Hu, Yiyi; Zhou, Junming; Zhu, Haodan; Lv, Lixin; Yu, Yang; Wang, Xiaomin; He, Kongwang

2013-10-01

119

The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation  

PubMed Central

Background. There are challenges in the clinical diagnosis of drug-induced injury and in obtaining information on the reactivation of human herpes viruses (HHV) during idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. Objectives. (i) To develop a unified list of drugs incriminated in drug-induced hepatotoxicity and severe cutaneous reactions, in which drug hypersensitivity leads to HHV-6 reactivation and further complication of therapy and recovery and (ii) to supplement the already available data on reporting frequencies of liver- or skin-induced cases with knowledge of individual case reports, including HHV-6 reactivation and briefly introducing chromosomally integrated HHV-6. Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i) idiosyncratic reactions, (ii) drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii) human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy.

Pritchett, Joshua C.; Nanau, Radu M.; Neuman, Manuela G.

2012-01-01

120

Immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus induced by virus-like particles in mice  

PubMed Central

Virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV). In this study, recombinant baculovirus vAcS and vAcME were constructed to express the S protein and the M and E proteins of SARS CoV, respectively. Electron microscope analysis demonstrated the formation of VLPs in vAcME and vAcS coinfected insect cells. Mice immunized four times with VLPs developed high antibody titres against SARS CoV. In addition, VLPs elicited cell-mediated immunity as demonstrated by enhanced interferon-? and interleukin-4 production. VLPs also conferred protective immunity against the infection of Spike protein pseudotyped murine leukaemia virus. Our findings demonstrate that SARS CoV VLPs are immunogenic and can elicit strong SARS CoV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. This is the first study describing the immunogenicity of SARS CoV VLPs, providing valuable data for developing a protective vaccine against SARS CoV infection.

Lu, Xinya; Chen, Yao; Bai, Bingke; Hu, Hui; Tao, Ling; Yang, Jihong; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Ze; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hanzhong

2007-01-01

121

Pathogenesis of emerging severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in C57/BL6 mouse model  

PubMed Central

The discovery of an emerging viral disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), has prompted the need to understand pathogenesis of SFTSV. We are unique in establishing an infectious model of SFTS in C57/BL6 mice, resulting in hallmark symptoms of thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia. Viral RNA and histopathological changes were identified in the spleen, liver, and kidney. However, viral replication was only found in the spleen, which suggested the spleen to be the principle target organ of SFTSV. Moreover, the number of macrophages and platelets were largely increased in the spleen, and SFTSV colocalized with platelets in cytoplasm of macrophages in the red pulp of the spleen. In vitro cellular assays further revealed that SFTSV adhered to mouse platelets and facilitated the phagocytosis of platelets by mouse primary macrophages, which in combination with in vivo findings, suggests that SFTSV-induced thrombocytopenia is caused by clearance of circulating virus-bound platelets by splenic macrophages. Thus, this study has elucidated the pathogenic mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in a mouse model resembling human SFTS disease.

Jin, Cong; Liang, Mifang; Ning, Junyu; Gu, Wen; Jiang, Hong; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Fushun; Zhang, Quanfu; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Ting; Han, Ying; Zhang, Weilun; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Qin; Sun, Lina; Liu, Qinzhi; Wang, Tao; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Ying; Qin, Chuan; Li, Dexin

2012-01-01

122

Protection of Procambarus clarkii against white spot syndrome virus using inactivated WSSV.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly pathogenic and prevalent virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. The potentiality of binary ethylenimine (BEI)-inactivated WSSV against WSSV in crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, was investigated in this study. Efficacy of BEI-inactivated WSSV was tested by vaccination trials followed by challenge of crayfish with WSSV. The crayfish injected with BEI-inactivated WSSV showed a better survival (P<0.05) to WSSV on the 7th and 21st day post-vaccination (dpv) compared to the control. Calculated relative percent survival (RPS) values were 77% and 60% on the 7th and 21st dpv for 2mM BEI-inactivated WSSV, and 63%, 30% on 7th and 21st dpv for 3mM BEI-inactivated WSSV. However, heat-inactivated WSSV did not provide protection from WSSV even on 7th dpv. In the inactivation process WSSV especially their envelope proteins maybe changed as happened to 3mM BEI and heat-inactivated WSSV particles. These results indicate the protective efficacy of BEI-inactivated WSSV lies on the integrity of envelope proteins of WSSV and the possibility of BEI-inactivated WSSV to protect P. clarkii from WSSV. PMID:19268545

Zhu, Fei; Du, Huahua; Miao, Zhi-Guo; Quan, Hai-Zhi; Xu, Zi-Rong

2009-05-01

123

Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in East China.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to have evolved at a high evolutionary rate and the extensive genetic variation. In this study, 44 PRRSV positive cases obtained from different provinces of China were sequenced and analyzed. Comparative analysis of partial isolates based on nsp2 sequences revealed that highly pathogenic PRRSV were the dominant viruses in China from 2008 to 2010 and some novel strains with an extra deletion of 19aa. Phylogenetic analysis based on the GP5 genes showed that the PRRSV isolates from 1996 to 2010 had a great variation and the North American genotype was further divided into six subgenotypes. No apparent relationship between the heterogeneity and the geographic origin of isolates was observed. The 44 isolates and 29 representative strains were divided into six subgenotypes. Further analysis of the GP5 protein suggested that these strains of subgenotypes I, II and III exhibited variations in the primary neutralizing epitope and almost all isolates of subgenotypes II and III had more N-linked glycosylation sites. In addition, some mutations which could mirror the viral evolution and adaptation were also observed in this study. All these results might be useful to study the genetic variation and genetic relatedness among PRRSV strains in China. PMID:24607342

Wang, Xiaomin; He, Kongwang; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhou, Zhongtao; Mao, Aihua; Yu, Zhengyu

2014-06-01

124

The Endemic Copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a Potential Vector of White Spot Syndrome Virus.  

PubMed

Abstract The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. Received May 22, 2013; accepted October 2, 2013. PMID:24895865

Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

2014-06-01

125

Spontaneous Resolution of Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection and Concomitant Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in an Otherwise Healthy Adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Reported here is the case of a patient who spontaneously recovered from hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute B19\\u000a infection and concomitant Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. The previously healthy 37-year-old-man was hospitalized after 10\\u000a days of high fever, arthralgia and arthritis and was determined to have hemophagocytic syndrome. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies\\u000a to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antigen, early antigen and

C. Larroche; C. Scieux; P. Honderlick; A. M. Piette; F. Morinet; O. Blétry

2002-01-01

126

Involuntary mass spirit possession among the Miskitu.  

PubMed

This paper seeks to understand the outbreaks and the development of grisi siknis, a form of mass spirit possession among the Miskitu of north-eastern Nicaragua. Earlier documented outbreaks typically involved a few adolescents, however, in recent years, violent large-scale epidemics have taken place, involving many people of all ages. This has coincided with recent developments in Miskitu society marked by conflicts, contradictions and tense social relations. The anthropological field technique of participant-observation was used. The research took place during 11 months from 2005 to 2008 in the port town of Puerto Cabezas. A total of 38 informants were interviewed. Group discussions, narratives and informal and semi-structured interviews were carried out, as well as participation in healing rituals. The paper shows that socio-economic, cultural, personal as well as environmental factors all contribute to outbreaks of grisi siknis. The affliction has previously been considered a 'culture-bound syndrome' only occurring among the Miskitu. However, when viewed in a more contemporary context and cross-cultural perspective, grisi siknis shows similarities with other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession, particularly in the ways it is manifested, experienced and appears to be spreading. The paper argues that the phenomenon should no longer be considered a 'culture-bound condition' but in fact a Miskitu version of involuntary mass spirit possession. Further research that seeks to understand other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession should emphasize the social, personal and environmental context as well as cross-cultural comparisons in order to encompass fully the role of culture in relation to illness and suffering. PMID:22746214

Wedel, Johan

2012-01-01

127

Passive Immunization of Crayfish ( Procambius clarkiaii ) with Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin (IgY) Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major cause of mortality in shrimp lacking a true adaptive immune response. In this\\u000a study, high activity egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against WSSV for passive immunization of crustaceans was already prepared\\u000a as crude and purified product, while an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was used for quality control of IgY\\u000a activity. The effectiveness

Yanan Lu; Junjun Liu; Liji Jin; Xiaoyu Li; YuHong Zhen; Hongyu Xue; Qiuye Lin; Yongping Xu

2009-01-01

128

Differential host cell gene expression regulated by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 and GP5 glycoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) GP4 and GP5 proteins are two membrane-associated viral glycoproteins that have been shown to induce neutralizing antibodies. In the present study, the host cell gene expression profiles altered by the GP4 and GP5 proteins were investigated by the use of DNA microarrays. Sublines of Marc-145 and HeLa cells were established by stable

Changhee Lee; Aimee Bachand; Michael P. Murtaugh; Dongwan Yoo

2004-01-01

129

PmRab7 Is a VP28Binding Protein Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to isolate and characterize white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-binding proteins from shrimp. After a blot of shrimp hemocyte membrane proteins was overlaid with a recombinant WSSV envelope protein (rVP28), the reactive bands on the blot were detected using anti-VP28 antibody. Among three membrane- associated molecules identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, there was a 25-kDa protein that

Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; W. Wannapapho; C. F. Lo; T. W. Flegel

2006-01-01

130

Dietary ?-1,3-glucan effectively improves immunity and survival of Penaeus monodon challenged with white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of dietary ?-1,3-glucan (BG), derived from Schizophyllum commune, in modulating the non-specific immunity of the grass prawn Penaeus monodon and its resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were investigated. Juvenile P. monodon (6.5±0.4g) were fed for 20 days on a series of test diets containing graded levels of BG (0, 1, 2, 10, 20gkg?1diet) and were then

Cheng-Fang Chang; Mao-Sen Su; Houng-Yung Chen; I-Chiu Liao

2003-01-01

131

Interferon-gamma in a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 20-month-old male with fulminant infectious mononucleosis and the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) was studied. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) and EBV DNA were detected in various tissues. Despite a combined treatment with acyclovir, immunoglobulin, and methylprednisolone, the patient deteriorated rapidly. Following treatment with recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-?), defervescence occurred and circulating EBNA-positive cells markedly decreased. IFN-? prior to treatment

Motohiko Okano; Geoffrey M. Thiele; Roger H. Kobayashi; Jack R. Davis; Mark S. Synovec; Helen L. Grierson; Howard S. Jaffe; David T. Purtilo

1989-01-01

132

Identical twin brothers concordant for Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis and discordant for Epstein-Barr virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on identical twin brothers, one of whom presented at 14 months of age with fever and clinical, laboratory and histological evidence of Epstein-Barr virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) and 4 months later with typical signs and symptoms of Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH). The other twin, without previous symptoms, also displayed at that time LCH associated with signs of recent

Chun-Jung Chen; Tsyr-Yuh Ho; Jang-Jih Lu; Lai-Fa Sheu; Shih-Yi Lee; Chiung-Hsi Tien; Shin-Nan Cheng

2004-01-01

133

Characterization of White Spot Syndrome Virus Envelope Protein VP51A and Its Interaction with Viral Tegument Protein VP26  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we characterize a novel white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) structural protein, VP51A (WSSV-TW open reading frame 294), identified from a previous mass spectrometry study. Temporal-tran- scription analysis showed that vp51A is expressed in the late stage of WSSV infection. Gene structure analysis showed that the transcription initiation site of vp51A was 135 bp upstream of the translation

Yun-Shiang Chang; Wang-Jing Liu; Tsung-Lu Chou; Yuan-Ting Lee; Tai-Lin Lee; Wei-Tung Huang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Chu-Fang Lo

2008-01-01

134

Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 viral loads in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) affected pigs.  

PubMed

Torque teno viruses (TTV) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular single-stranded DNA genome, which are considered non-pathogenic. However, TTVs have been eventually linked to human diseases. TTVs infecting pigs, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2), have been recently associated to porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). To get more insights into such potential disease association, the aim of this study was to quantify TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral loads in serum of pigs affected by two PCVDs, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). Such study was carried out by means of a newly developed real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. Both TTSuVs were highly prevalent among studied pigs. TTSuV2 viral loads were significantly higher in PMWS affected animals, further supporting the previously suggested association between TTSuV2 and PMWS. On the contrary, TTSuV1 prevalence and loads were not related with the studied PCVDs. PMID:21719215

Aramouni, M; Segalés, J; Sibila, M; Martin-Valls, G E; Nieto, D; Kekarainen, T

2011-12-15

135

Possible transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection from an elite controller to a patient who progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, exhibit persistent virus replication and declining CD4+ cell numbers, and progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome within 10?years of infection. Elite controllers are rare individuals with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection who can maintain undetectable plasma virus levels and remain asymptomatic without antiretroviral therapy. It has been proposed that elite controllers benefit from being infected with attenuated human immunodeficiency virus-1 variants. Case presentation A 31-year-old African woman presented with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection during pregnancy and was diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Subsequently, her husband, a 31-year-old African man, was tested and found to be seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus-1. His plasma human immunodeficiency virus-1 ribonucleic acid level was found to be below the limit of detection of the clinical assay. Conclusion This report provides evidence for the first described case of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection possibly transmitted from an elite controller to a patient who progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This observation strengthens the case against avirulence as a mechanism that protects elite controllers.

2012-01-01

136

Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) is a recently recognized illness characterized by debilitating fatigue as well as immunological and neurological abnormalities. Once thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, it is now thought to have a different but unknown etiology. The authors evaluted 30 adult and pediatric CFIDS patients from six eastern states for the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II by Western immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of blood samples. The majority of patients were positive for HTLV antibodies by Western blotting and for HTLV-II gag sequences by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Twenty nonexposure healthy controls were negative in all assays. These data support an association between an HTLV-II-like virus and CFIDS.

DeFreitas, E.; Hilliard, B.; Cheney, P.R.; Bell, D.S.; Kiggundu, E.; Sankey, D.; Wroblewska, Z.; Palladino, M.; Woodward, J.P.; Koprowski, H. (Wistar Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1991-04-01

137

The spread of type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in North America: a phylogeographic approach.  

PubMed

The emergence and spread of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (Type 2 PRRSV) in North America is heavily influenced by the multiple site production system used in the hog industry. However, it is unclear how anthropogenic factors such has this have shaped the current spatial distribution of PRRSV genotypes. We employed Bayesian phylogeographic analyses of 7040 ORF5 sequences to reveal the recent geographical spread of Type 2 PRRSV in North America. The directions and intensities in our inferred virus traffic network closely mirror the hog transportation. Most notably, we reveal multiple viral introductions from Canada into the United States causing a major shift in virus genetic composition in the Midwest USA that went unnoticed by the regular surveillance and field epidemiological studies. Overall, these findings provide important insights into the dynamics of Type 2 PRRSV evolution and spread that will facilitate programs for control and prevention. PMID:24210109

Shi, Mang; Lemey, Philippe; Singh Brar, Manreetpal; Suchard, Marc A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Carman, Susy; D'Allaire, Sylvie; Delisle, Benjamin; Lambert, Marie-Ève; Gagnon, Carl A; Ge, Li; Qu, Yihan; Yoo, Dongwan; Holmes, Edward C; Chi-Ching Leung, Frederick

2013-12-01

138

A Lethal Disease Model for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters Infected with Sin Nombre Virus  

PubMed Central

Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model.

Brocato, Rebecca L.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Bell, Todd M.; Wells, Jay B.; Queen, Laurie A.

2014-01-01

139

Antibody Response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Nonstructural Proteins and Implications for Diagnostic Detection and Differentiation of PRRSV Types I and II?  

PubMed Central

To further characterize the humoral immune response of pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to study the kinetics of antibody responses directed against PRRSV nonstructural proteins in pigs experimentally exposed to the virus. The highest immunoreactivities were against nsp1, nsp2, and nsp7. Using the recombinant nsp7 as an antigen, we validated a dual ELISA for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of serum antibodies against type I and type II PRRSV. Receiver operating characteristic analysis based on 1,334 known-positive and 1,357 known-negative samples showed good specificity (98.3% to type I and 99.3% to type II) and sensitivity (97.4% for type I and 99.8% for type II). To differentiate type I and type II PRRSV, 470 sera originating from experimentally inoculated pigs were tested, and positive sera were correctly differentiated in 469 of 470 samples. The capability of the nsp7 dual ELISA to detect serum antibody responses from pigs infected with various genetically different field strains was determined. The nsp7 dual ELISA possessed 97.6% agreement with the Idexx HerdChek PRRS 2XR ELISA. In further testing of Idexx ELISA suspected false-positive samples, the nsp7 dual ELISA resolved 98% of the samples as negative. Taken together, these results indicate that the nsp7 dual ELISA can be used as a differential test for PRRSV serology with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This ELISA offers an additional tool for routine or follow-up diagnostics, as well as having substantial value in epidemiological surveys and outbreak investigations.

Brown, Elizabeth; Lawson, Steven; Welbon, Craig; Gnanandarajah, Josephine; Li, Juan; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Nelson, Eric A.; Molina, Ramon M.; Zimmerman, Jeffery J.; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Fang, Ying

2009-01-01

140

Characterization of the microRNAome in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infected Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), a member of the arterivirus family, is the causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). PRRS is characterized by late term abortions and respiratory disease, particularly in young pigs. Small regulatory RNAs termed microRNA (miRNA) are associated with gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs are known to play many diverse and complex roles in viral infections. To discover the impact of PRRSV infections on the cellular miRNAome, Illumina deep sequencing was used to construct small RNA expression profiles from in vitro cultured PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). A total of forty cellular miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed within the first 48 hours post infection (hpi). The expression of six miRNAs, miR-30a-3p, miR-132, miR-27b*, miR-29b, miR-146a and miR-9-2, were altered at more than one time point. Target gene identification suggests that these miRNAs are involved in regulating immune signaling pathways, cytokine, and transcription factor production. The most highly repressed miRNA at 24 hpi was miR-147. A miR-147 mimic was utilized to maintain miR-147 levels in PRRSV-infected PAMs. PRRSV replication was negatively impacted by high levels of miR-147. Whether down-regulation of miR-147 is directly induced by PRRSV or if it is part of the cellular response and PRRSV indirectly benefits remains to be determined. No evidence could be found of PRRSV-encoded miRNAs. Overall, the present study has revealed that a large and diverse group of miRNAs are expressed in swine alveolar macrophages and that the expression of a subset of these miRNAs is altered in PRRSV infected macrophages.

A. Hicks, Julie; Yoo, Dongwan; Liu, Hsiao-Ching

2013-01-01

141

Metabolic Syndrome Predicts All-Cause Mortality in Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Abstract We examined the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual defining criteria on all-cause mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. We used data from 567 HIV-infected participants of the Nutrition for Healthy Living study with study visits between 9/1/2000 and 1/31/2004 and determined mortality through 12/31/2006. MS was defined using modified National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Cox proportional hazards for all-cause mortality were estimated for baseline MS status and for its individual defining criteria. There were 83 deaths with median follow-up of 63 months. Baseline characteristics associated with increased risk of mortality were: older age in years (univariate hazard ratio [HR] 1.04, p<0.01), current smoking (HR 1.99, p=0.02), current heroin use (HR 1.97, p=0.02), living in poverty (HR 2.0, p<0.01), higher mean HIV viral load (HR 1.81, p<0.01), and having a BMI <18 (HR 5.84, p<0.01). For MS and its criteria, only low HDL was associated with increased risk of mortality on univariate analysis (HR 1.84, p=0.01). However, metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 2.31, p=0.02) and high triglycerides (adjusted HR 3.97, p<0.01) were significantly associated with mortality beyond 36 months follow-up. MS, low HDL, and high triglycerides are associated with an increased risk of mortality in HIV-infected individuals.

Wanke, Christine A.; Ruthazer, Robin; Bica, Ioana; Isaac, Rita; Knox, Tamsin A.

2013-01-01

142

Epstein-Barr virus and the lacrimal gland pathology of Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

The lacrimal gland (LG) immunopathology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) consists of a proliferation of B and CD4 lymphocytes surrounding epithelial structures (Pepose JS, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:1599-1605). Based on the detection of EBV genomes in a greater percentage of SS than normal LG biopsies, we previously postulated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a risk factor for LG lymphoproliferation in SS (Pflugfelder SC, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:976-984). The purpose of this study was to determine the cellular site(s) of infection, virus type, and antigen expression of EBV infecting normal and SS LGs. EBV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in intraductal epithelia in 13-33% of lobules in 21% of normal LGs and in cells in areas of B lymphoproliferation as well as the majority of epithelia in 86% of SS LGs. EBV genomic sequences were amplified from 36% of normal and 88% of SS LG biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. Only type 1 EBV sequences were amplified in SS LGs; in contrast EBV nuclear antigen 2-deleted but not type 1 sequences were amplified in normal LGs. Immunohistochemistry with EBV-specific monoclonal antibodies was performed on normal and SS LGs. No EBV antigens were detected in normal LGs. In contrast, latent antigens (latent membrane protein, EBV nuclear antigen 2) were detected in lymphocytes in areas of B lymphoproliferation, and early and late lytic cycle antigens were observed in epithelia in SS LGs. These studies suggest that EBV may play a role in the LG B lymphoproliferation and epithelial pathologic changes observed in SS. PMID:8391219

Pflugfelder, S C; Crouse, C A; Monroy, D; Yen, M; Rowe, M; Atherton, S S

1993-07-01

143

Enhancing neutralizing antibody production by an interferon-inducing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) continues to cause substantial economic losses to the global swine industry. PRRSV appears to inhibit synthesis of type I interferons (IFNs), such as IFN-? and -?, which are critical for the innate immunity and play an important role in the modulation of adaptive immunity. An atypical PRRSV strain, A2MC2, is able to induce type I IFNs in vitro. In this study, A2MC2 induction of neutralizing antibodies in vivo was compared with the Ingelvac PRRS modified live virus (MLV) vaccine strain and VR-2385 (a moderate virulent strain). Three-week-old pigs were exposed to these PRRSV strains via intranasal or intramuscular routes to also account for a possible effect of inoculation routes. The interferon-inducing A2MC2 resulted in earlier onset and significantly higher levels of PRRSV neutralizing antibodies than the MLV. In addition, the A2MC2-induced neutralizing antibodies were capable of neutralizing VR-2385, a heterologous strain. The pigs exposed via intranasal route had higher titers of neutralizing antibodies than those injected via intramuscular route. Macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions 14 days post-exposure indicated that A2MC2 had similar virulence in vivo as VR-2385. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) collected during the necropsy 14 days post-exposure in the A2MC2 group had higher level expression of IFN-? than the MLV group. These results indicate that A2MC2 can be further explored for development of an improved vaccine against PRRS. PMID:24063978

Wang, Rong; Xiao, Yueqiang; Opriessnig, Tanja; Ding, Yi; Yu, Ying; Nan, Yuchen; Ma, Zexu; Halbur, Patrick G; Zhang, Yan-Jin

2013-11-12

144

Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on subsequent Pasteurella multocida challenge in pigs.  

PubMed

This trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) on a subsequent challenge with Pasteurella multocida in pigs. Sixteen, 3-4 week-old piglets, from a PRRSv and Aujeszky disease virus (ADV) free herd were used. Animals were equally and randomly allocated in four groups which were treated according the following schedule: Group I: negative controls; Group II: inoculation with only PRRSV; Group III: inoculation with PRRSV and P. multocida; Group IV: inoculation with ADV and P. multocida (positive controls). PRRSV and ADV were inoculated intranasally, at the doses of 10(4.6) and 10(4.5) TCID50/ml, respectively. Five days later, pigs from groups III and IV were inoculated intranasally, with two ml of a 10(9) CFU/ml suspension of equal parts of P. multocida, strains A52 and A24. No lesions were observed in piglets of group I. Microscopically, interstitial pneumonia was identified in all piglets of groups II and III and 3/4 piglets from group IV. Bronchopneumonia was detected in 3/4 of the piglets from group III and in all animals of group IV which, additionally, showed meningo-encephalitis and purulent rhinitis. Macroscopically, only piglets of groups III and IV had lung consolidation. However, much lower pneumonic scores (2.3%) were observed in group III, where 3 of 4 piglets were affected. On the other hand, all piglets of group IV showed some degree of pulmonary consolidation, with a mean score of 13.7%. Based on these results, it appears that the role of PRRSV as a initiator of secondary diseases is still undefined, but is probably mild. There was no clear interaction between PRRSv and Pasteurella multocida under the conditions and strains tested here. PMID:9220619

Carvalho, L F; Segalés, J; Pijoan, C

1997-04-01

145

Does hyperthermia increase apoptosis in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected Litopenaeus vannamei?  

PubMed

Apoptosis plays a critical role in development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. It has also been described as an anti-viral mechanism in both insects and vertebrates. In fact, to escape the immune system and to increase their spread, some viruses such as baculovirus produce anti-apoptotic molecules. Conversely, a recent report showing a positive correlation between the number of apoptotic cells and the severity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in Penaeus monodon suggested that apoptosis might be the cause of death in viral-infected shrimp. Searching for the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effect of hyperthermia for WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei (also called Penaeus vannamei) and considering that hyperthermia increases apoptosis in other experimental models, we investigated the presence of apoptosis by Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end label (TUNEL), from 4 of 168 h in 3 groups of 50 L. vannamei juveniles. Group 1 consisted of experimentally infected shrimp (intramuscular injection of 3 x 10(7) viral copies) kept at 25 degrees C, Group 2 of similarly infected shrimp kept at 32 degrees C and Group 3 of uninjected shrimp kept at 32 degrees C. Apoptosis was found only in WSSV-infected individuals. Shrimp at 25 degrees C were positive for apoptotic cells in 48 (16%) of their examined tissues or organs, compared to 62 (21%) for those at 32 degrees C. Moreover, shrimp at 32 degrees C also had a significantly higher overall mean apoptotic index (AI) than shrimp at 25 degrees C (p < 0.05). Comparison of mean AI at 72, 96 and 120 h post-infection showed that individuals at 32 degrees C presented a significantly higher values than those at 25 degrees C. These results suggested that hyperthermia might facilitate apoptosis in WSSV-infected L. vannamei and might be one of the mechanisms responsible for increased survival of infected shrimp maintained at 32 degrees C. PMID:12718474

Granja, Clarissa B; Aranguren, Luis Fernando; Vidal, Oscar M; Aragón, Lacides; Salazar, Marcela

2003-03-17

146

Genomic sequence and virulence comparison of four Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a ubiquitous and costly virus that exhibits substantial sequence and virulence disparity among diverse isolates. In this study, we compared the whole genomic sequence and virulence of 4 Type 2 PRRSV isolates. Among the 4 isolates, SDSU73, MN184, and NADC30 were all clearly more virulent than NADC31, and among the 3 more virulent isolates, there were subtle differences based on viral replication, lung lesions, lymphadenopathy, febrile response, decreased weight gains, and cytokine responses in the lung. Lesions consistent with bacterial bronchopneumonia were present to varying degrees in pigs infected with PRRSV, and bacteria typically associated with the porcine respiratory disease complex were isolated from the lung of these pigs. Genomic sequence evaluation indicates that SDSU73 is most similar to the nucleotide sequence of JA142, the parental strain of Ingelvac(®) PRRS ATP, while the nucleotide sequences of NADC30 and NADC31 are more similar to strain MN184. Both the NADC30 and NADC31 isolates of PRRSV, isolated in 2008, maintain the nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) deletion seen in MN184 that was isolated in 2001, but NADC31 has two additional 15 and 36 nucleotide deletions, and these strains are 8-14% different on a nucleotide basis from the MN184 strain. These results indicate that newer U.S. Type 2 strains still exhibit variability in sequence and pathogenicity and although PRRSV strains appear to be reducing the size of the nsp2 over time, this does not necessarily mean that the strain is more virulent. PMID:23073232

Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Vorwald, Ann C; Kehrli, Marcus E; Baker, Rodney B; Nicholson, Tracy L; Lager, Kelly M; Miller, Laura C; Faaberg, Kay S

2012-10-01

147

Epstein-Barr virus and the lacrimal gland pathology of Sj?gren's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland (LG) immunopathology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) consists of a proliferation of B and CD4 lymphocytes surrounding epithelial structures (Pepose JS, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:1599-1605). Based on the detection of EBV genomes in a greater percentage of SS than normal LG biopsies, we previously postulated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a risk factor for LG lymphoproliferation in SS (Pflugfelder SC, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:976-984). The purpose of this study was to determine the cellular site(s) of infection, virus type, and antigen expression of EBV infecting normal and SS LGs. EBV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in intraductal epithelia in 13-33% of lobules in 21% of normal LGs and in cells in areas of B lymphoproliferation as well as the majority of epithelia in 86% of SS LGs. EBV genomic sequences were amplified from 36% of normal and 88% of SS LG biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. Only type 1 EBV sequences were amplified in SS LGs; in contrast EBV nuclear antigen 2-deleted but not type 1 sequences were amplified in normal LGs. Immunohistochemistry with EBV-specific monoclonal antibodies was performed on normal and SS LGs. No EBV antigens were detected in normal LGs. In contrast, latent antigens (latent membrane protein, EBV nuclear antigen 2) were detected in lymphocytes in areas of B lymphoproliferation, and early and late lytic cycle antigens were observed in epithelia in SS LGs. These studies suggest that EBV may play a role in the LG B lymphoproliferation and epithelial pathologic changes observed in SS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Pflugfelder, S. C.; Crouse, C. A.; Monroy, D.; Yen, M.; Rowe, M.; Atherton, S. S.

1993-01-01

148

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...possession; property not normally taken into physical possession. 72.14 Section 72...possession; property not normally taken into physical possession. (a) When a consular...representative such acton is not a taking of physical possession by the officer....

2012-04-01

149

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...possession; property not normally taken into physical possession. 72.14 Section 72...possession; property not normally taken into physical possession. (a) When a consular...representative such acton is not a taking of physical possession by the officer....

2010-04-01

150

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...possession; property not normally taken into physical possession. 72.14 Section 72...possession; property not normally taken into physical possession. (a) When a consular...representative such acton is not a taking of physical possession by the officer....

2011-04-01

151

Median infectious dose (ID??) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate MN-184 via aerosol exposure.  

PubMed

The median infectious dose (ID(50)) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus isolate MN-184 was determined for aerosol exposure. In 7 replicates, 3-week-old pigs (n=58) respired 10l of airborne PRRS virus from a dynamic aerosol toroid (DAT) maintained at -4°C. Thereafter, pigs were housed in isolation and monitored for evidence of infection. Infection occurred at virus concentrations too low to quantify by microinfectivity assays. Therefore, exposure dose was determined using two indirect methods ("calculated" and "theoretical"). "Calculated" virus dose was derived from the concentration of rhodamine B monitored over the exposure sequence. "Theoretical" virus dose was based on the continuous stirred-tank reactor model. The ID(50) estimate was modeled on the proportion of pigs that became infected using the probit and logit link functions for both "calculated" and "theoretical" exposure doses. Based on "calculated" doses, the probit and logit ID(50) estimates were 1 × 10(-0.13)TCID(50) and 1 × 10(-0.14)TCID(50), respectively. Based on "theoretical" doses, the probit and logit ID(50) were 1 × 10(0.26)TCID(50) and 1 × 10(0.24)TCID(50), respectively. For each point estimate, the 95% confidence interval included the other three point estimates. The results indicated that MN-184 was far more infectious than PRRS virus isolate VR-2332, the only other PRRS virus isolate for which ID(50) has been estimated for airborne exposure. Since aerosol ID(50) estimates are available for only these two isolates, it is uncertain whether one or both of these isolates represent the normal range of PRRS virus infectivity by this route. PMID:21474258

Cutler, Timothy D; Wang, Chong; Hoff, Steven J; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J

2011-08-01

152

Infectious Transcripts from Cloned Genome-Length cDNA of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

The 5?-terminal end of the genomic RNA of the Lelystad virus isolate (LV) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was determined. To construct full-length cDNA clones, the 5?-terminal sequence was ligated to cDNA clones covering the complete genome of LV. When RNA that was transcribed in vitro from these full-length cDNA clones was transfected into BHK-21 cells, infectious LV was produced and secreted. The virus was rescued by passage to porcine alveolar lung macrophages or CL2621 cells. When infectious transcripts were transfected to porcine alveolar lung macrophages or CL2621 cells, no infectious virus was produced due to the poor transfection efficiency of these cells. The growth properties of the viruses produced by BHK-21 cells transfected with infectious transcripts of LV cDNA resembled the growth properties of the parental virus from which the cDNA was derived. Two nucleotide changes leading to a unique PacI restriction site directly downstream of the ORF7 gene were introduced in the genome-length cDNA clone. The virus recovered from this mutated cDNA clone retained the PacI site, which confirmed the de novo generation of infectious LV from cloned cDNA. These results indicate that the infectious clone of LV enables us to mutagenize the viral genome at specific sites and that it will therefore be useful for detailed molecular characterization of the virus, as well as for the development of a safe and effective live vaccine for use in pigs.

Meulenberg, J. J. M.; Bos-de Ruijter, J. N. A.; van de Graaf, R.; Wensvoort, G.; Moormann, R. J. M.

1998-01-01

153

Studies of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine boca-like virus and torque teno virus indicate the presence of multiple viral infections in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome pigs.  

PubMed

In a previous study, using random amplification and large-scale sequencing technology, we identified a novel porcine parvovirus belonging to the genus Bocavirus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) in Swedish pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In addition to bocavirus we demonstrated the presence of torque teno virus (TTV) genogroups 1 and 2 in these cases of PMWS, indicating the simultaneous presence of several viruses in this disease complex. In the present study, 34 PMWS-affected animals and 24 pigs without PMWS were screened by PCR for the presence of PCV-2, TTV-1, TTV-2 and porcine boca-like virus (Pbo-likeV). The studies revealed the following infection rates in the PMWS-affected pigs: PCV-2 100%, TTV-1 77%, TTV-2 94% and Pbo-likeV 88%. In comparison, the pigs without PMWS had the following rates: PCV-2 80%, TTV-1 79%, TTV-2 83% and Pbo-likeV 46%. The sequence identity between the different Swedish Pbo-likeV sequences ranged between 98% and 100%. By checking co-infection, it was found that 71% of the PMWS-affected pigs harbor simultaneously all these viruses. As a contrast, in the group without PMWS only 33% of the animals were positive simultaneously for these viruses. These observations indicate a multiple viral infection in PMWS-affected pigs. It has to be studied further if the clinical manifestation of PMWS might be due to synergistic effects of different viruses acting together. PMID:20542066

Blomström, Anne-Lie; Belák, Sándor; Fossum, Caroline; Fuxler, Lisbeth; Wallgren, Per; Berg, Mikael

2010-09-01

154

Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective The presence of the retrovirus xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Considering the potentially great medical and social relevance of such a discovery, we investigated whether this finding could be confirmed in an independent European cohort of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Design Analysis of a well defined cohort of patients and matched neighbourhood controls by polymerase chain reaction. Setting Certified (ISO 15189) laboratory of clinical virology in a university hospital in the Netherlands. Population Between December 1991 and April 1992, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 76 patients and 69 matched neighbourhood controls. In this study we tested cells from 32 patients and 43 controls from whom original cryopreserved phials were still available. Main outcome measures Detection of XMRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the XMRV integrase gene and/or a nested polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the XMRV gag gene. Results We detected no XMRV sequences in any of the patients or controls in either of the assays, in which relevant positive and negative isolation controls and polymerase chain reaction controls were included. Spiking experiments showed that we were able to detect at least 10 copies of XMRV sequences per 105 peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real time as well as by nested polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating high sensitivity of both assays. Conclusions This study failed to show the presence of XMRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome from a Dutch cohort. These data cast doubt on the claim that XMRV is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome in the majority of patients.

2010-01-01

155

Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome -- After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus  

PubMed Central

Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg) was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg) prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route.

Ogg, Monica; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Hooper, Jay W.

2013-01-01

156

Polychaete worms--a vector for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

The present work provides the first evidence of polychaete worms as passive vectors of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the transmission of white spot disease to Penaeus monodon broodstocks. The study was based on live polychaete worms, Marphysa spp., obtained from worm suppliers/worm fishers as well as samples collected from 8 stations on the northern coast of Tamilnadu (India). Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon broodstock with undeveloped ovaries were experimentally infected with WSSV by feeding with polychaete worms exposed to WSSV. Fifty percent of polychaete worms obtained from worm suppliers were found to be WSSV positive by 2-step PCR, indicating high prevalence of WSSV in the live polychaetes used as broodstock feed by hatcheries in this area. Of 8 stations surveyed, 5 had WSSV positive worms with prevalence ranging from 16.7 to 75%. Polychaetes collected from areas near shrimp farms showed a higher level of contamination. Laboratory challenge experiments confirmed the field observations, and > 60% of worms exposed to WSSV inoculum were proved to be WSSV positive after a 7 d exposure. It was also confirmed that P. monodon broodstock could be infected with WSSV by feeding on WSSV contaminated polychaete worms. Though the present study indicates only a low level infectivity in wild polychaetes, laboratory experiments clearly indicated the possibility of WSSV transfer from the live feed to shrimp broodstock, suggesting that polychaete worms could play a role in the epizootiology of WSSV. PMID:15819425

Vijayan, K K; Stalin Raj, V; Balasubramanian, C P; Alavandi, S V; Thillai Sekhar, V; Santiago, T C

2005-02-28

157

Foamy virus vector-mediated gene correction of a mouse model of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.  

PubMed

The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia and immunodeficiency. Hematopoietic cell transplantation can cure the disease and gene therapy is being tested as an alternative treatment option. In this study, we assessed the use of foamy virus (FV) vectors as a gene transfer system for WAS, using a Was knockout (KO) mouse model. Preliminary experiments using FV vectors expressing the green fluorescent protein under the transcriptional control of the endogenous WAS promoter or a ubiquitously acting chromatin opening element allowed us to define transduction conditions resulting in high (>40%) and long-term in-vivo marking of blood cells after transplantation. In following experiments, Was KO mice were treated with FV vectors containing the human WAS complementary DNA (cDNA). Transplanted animals expressed the WAS protein (WASp) in T and B lymphocytes, as well as platelets and showed restoration of both T-cell receptor-mediated responses and B-cell migration. We also observed recovery of platelet adhesion and podosome formation in dendritic cells (DCs) of treated mice. These data demonstrate that FV vectors can be effective for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-directed gene correction of WAS. PMID:22215016

Uchiyama, Toru; Adriani, Marsilio; Jagadeesh, G Jayashree; Paine, Adam; Candotti, Fabio

2012-06-01

158

Foamy Virus Vector-mediated Gene Correction of a Mouse Model of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia and immunodeficiency. Hematopoietic cell transplantation can cure the disease and gene therapy is being tested as an alternative treatment option. In this study, we assessed the use of foamy virus (FV) vectors as a gene transfer system for WAS, using a Was knockout (KO) mouse model. Preliminary experiments using FV vectors expressing the green fluorescent protein under the transcriptional control of the endogenous WAS promoter or a ubiquitously acting chromatin opening element allowed us to define transduction conditions resulting in high (>40%) and long-term in-vivo marking of blood cells after transplantation. In following experiments, Was KO mice were treated with FV vectors containing the human WAS complementary DNA (cDNA). Transplanted animals expressed the WAS protein (WASp) in T and B lymphocytes, as well as platelets and showed restoration of both T-cell receptor-mediated responses and B-cell migration. We also observed recovery of platelet adhesion and podosome formation in dendritic cells (DCs) of treated mice. These data demonstrate that FV vectors can be effective for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-directed gene correction of WAS.

Uchiyama, Toru; Adriani, Marsilio; Jagadeesh, G Jayashree; Paine, Adam; Candotti, Fabio

2012-01-01

159

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti-white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug.

Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

160

Mapping codon usage of the translation initiation region in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus genome  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respitatory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently emerged pathogen and severely affects swine populations worldwide. The replication of PRRSV is tightly controlled by viral gene expression and the codon usage of translation initiation region within each gene could potentially regulate the translation rate. Therefore, a better understanding of the codon usage pattern of the initiation translation region would shed light on the regulation of PRRSV gene expression. Results In this study, the codon usage in the translation initiation region and in the whole coding sequence was compared in PRRSV ORF1a and ORFs2-7. To investigate the potential role of codon usage in affecting the translation initiation rate, we established a codon usage model for PRRSV translation initiation region. We observed that some non-preferential codons are preferentially used in the translation initiation region in particular ORFs. Although some positions vary with codons, they intend to use codons with negative CUB. Furthermore, our model of codon usage showed that the conserved pattern of CUB is not directly consensus with the conserved sequence, but shaped under the translation selection. Conclusions The non-variation pattern with negative CUB in the PRRSV translation initiation region scanned by ribosomes is considered the rate-limiting step in the translation process.

2011-01-01

161

White spot syndrome virus VP12 interacts with adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus VP12 contains cell attachment motif RGD which is considered to be critical for host cell binding. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP12 with host cells. A new shrimp protein (adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvANT) is selected by far-western overlay assay. Tissue distribution of adenine nucleotide translocase mRNA showed that it was commonly spread in all the tissues detected. Cellular localization of LvANT in shrimp hemocytes showed that it was primarily located in the cytoplasm of hemocytes and colocalized with mitochondria. ELISA and far-western blot assay confirmed that VP12 interacted with LvANT. In vivo neutralization assay showed that anti-LvANT antibody can significantly reduce the mortality of shrimp challenged by WSSV at 48h post-treatment. Our results collectively showed that VP12 is involved in host cell binding via interaction with adenine nucleotide translocase. PMID:24607653

Ma, Fang-fang; Chou, Zhi-guang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guangkuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

2014-05-01

162

Chronic fatigue syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

CFS; Fatigue - chronic; Immune dysfunction syndrome; Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) ... The exact cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is unknown. Some theories suggest CFS may be due to: Epstein-Barr virus or human herpes virus-6 (HHV- ...

163

Mental illness complicated by the santeria belief in spirit possession.  

PubMed

Santeria, a religious system that blends African and Catholic beliefs, is practiced by many Cuban Americans. One aspect of this system is the belief in spirit possession. Basic santeria beliefs and rituals, including the fiesta santera (a gathering at which some participants may become possessed), are briefly described, and four cases in which the patients' belief in possession played a role in their mental illness are presented. The belief in possession can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, but it should not be considered a culture-bound syndrome. Rather, it may be a nonspecific symptom of a variety of mental illnesses and should be evaluated in the context of the patient's overall belief system and ability to carry out usual activities. PMID:3224955

Alonso, L; Jeffrey, W D

1988-11-01

164

In vitro and ex vivo analyses of co-infections with swine influenza and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses.  

PubMed

Viral respiratory diseases remain problematic in swine. Among viruses, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SIV), alone or in combination, are the two main known contributors to lung infectious diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that experimental dual infections of pigs with PRRSV followed by SIV can cause more severe disease than the single viral infections. However, our understanding of the impact of one virus on the other at the molecular level is still extremely limited. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine the influence of dual infections, compared to single infections, in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and precision cut lung slices (PCLS). PAMs were isolated and PCLS were acquired from the lungs of healthy 8-week-old pigs. Then, PRRSV (ATCC VR-2385) and a local SIV strain of H1N1 subtype (A/Sw/Saskatchewan/18789/02) were applied simultaneously or with 3h apart on PAMs and PCLS for a total of 18 h. Immuno-staining for both viruses and beta-tubulin, real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA assays targeting various genes (pathogen recognition receptors, interferons (IFN) type I, cytokines, and IFN-inducible genes) and proteins were performed to analyze the cell and the tissue responses. Interference caused by the first virus on replication of the second virus was observed, though limited. On the host side, a synergistic effect between PRRSV and SIV co-infections was observed for some transcripts such as TLR3, RIG-I, and IFN? in PCLS. The PRRSV infection 3h prior to SIV infection reduced the response to SIV while the SIV infection prior to PRRSV infection had limited impact on the second infection. This study is the first to show an impact of PRRSV/SIV co-infection and superinfections in the cellular and tissue immune response at the molecular level. It opens the door to further research in this exciting and intriguing field. PMID:24418046

Dobrescu, I; Levast, B; Lai, K; Delgado-Ortega, M; Walker, S; Banman, S; Townsend, H; Simon, G; Zhou, Y; Gerdts, V; Meurens, F

2014-02-21

165

Quantitative assay for measuring the Taura syndrome virus and yellow head virus load in shrimp by real-time RT-PCR using SYBR Green chemistry.  

PubMed

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the two RNA viruses infecting penaeid shrimp (Penaeus sp.) that have caused major economic losses to shrimp aquaculture. A rapid and highly sensitive detection and quantification method for TSV and YHV was developed using the GeneAmp 5700 Sequence Detection System and SYBR Green chemistry. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) mixture contained a fluorescent dye, SYBR Green, which exhibits fluorescence enhancement upon binding to double strand cDNA. The enhancement of fluorescence was found to be proportional to the initial concentration of the template cDNA. A linear relationship was observed between input plasmid DNA and cycle threshold (C(T)) values for 10(6) down to a single copy of both viruses. To control for the variation in sample processing and in reverse transcription reaction among samples, shrimp beta-actin and elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) genes were amplified in parallel with the viral cDNA. The sensitivity and the efficiency of amplification of EF-1alpha was greater than beta-actin when compared to TSV and YHV amplification efficiency suggesting that EF-1alpha is a better internal control for the RT-PCR detection of TSV and YHV. In addition, sample to sample variation in EF-1alpha C(T) value was lower than the variation in beta-actin C(T) value of the corresponding samples. The specificity of TSV, YHV, EF-1alpha and beta-actin amplifications was confirmed by analyzing the dissociation curves of the target amplicon. The C(T) values of TSV and YHV samples were normalized against EF-1alpha C(T) values for determining the absolute copy number from the standard curve of the corresponding virus. The method described here is highly robust and is amenable to high throughput assays making it a useful tool for diagnostic, epidemiological and genetic studies in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:12020794

Dhar, Arun K; Roux, Michelle M; Klimpel, Kurt R

2002-06-01

166

Genetic analysis of ORF5 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important swine pathogens because it is highly infectious and causes economic losses due to decreased pig productivity. In this study, the 603 bp complete major envelope protein encoding gene (ORF5) of 32 field PRRSV isolates from Vietnam collected during 2008-2012 were sequenced and analyzed. Multiple nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) alignments of ORF5 were performed on the 32 isolates: the representative strains (European and North American genotypes), Chinese strains available in GenBank and vaccine strains licensed for use in Vietnam. The results showed 94.8-100.0% nt identity and 94.0-100% aa similarity among the 32 isolates. These isolates shared similarities with the prototype of the North American PRRSV strain (VR-2332; nt 87.8-89.3%, aa 87.5-90.0%), and Lelystat virus, the prototype of the European PRRSV strain (LV; nt 61.1-61.9%, aa 55.1-57.0%). There was greater similarity with QN07 (nt 96.5-98.5%, aa 96.0-99.0%) from the 2007 PRRS outbreak in QuangNam Province, CH-1a (nt 93.2-95.1%, 91.5-93.5%) isolated in China in 1995 and JXA1 (nt 96.5-98.6%, aa 95.0-98.0%), the highly pathogenic strain from China isolated in 2006. The Vietnamese isolates were more similar to JXA1-R (nt 96.5-98.6%, aa 95.0-98.0%), the strain used in Chinese vaccines, than to Ingelvac MLV/BSL-PS (nt 87.2-89.0%, aa 86.0-89.0%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 32 isolates were of the North American genotype and classified into sub-lineage 8.7. This sub-lineage contains highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strains. This study documents genetic variation in circulating PRRSV strains and could assist more effective use of PRRS vaccines in Vietnam. PMID:23650891

Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Thu, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Son, Nguyen Giang; Ha, Le Thi Thu; Hung, Vo Khanh; Nguyen, Nguyen Thao; Khoa, Do Vo Anh

2013-07-01

167

Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.  

PubMed

The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies. PMID:21951451

Brewster, David

2011-09-01

168

Expression, purification and crystallization of two major envelope proteins from white spot syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-­terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1?M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0?M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2?M calcium acetate, 0.1?M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2?Å resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31?Å. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37?Å, and diffracts to 2.0?Å resolution.

Tang, Xuhua; Hew, Choy Leong

2007-01-01

169

Association between hepatitis B virus infection and metabolic syndrome: a retrospective cohort study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) and hepatitis B (HBV) infection are two major public health problems in China. There are few studies about their association, and the results of these studies are contradictory. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the association between MS and HBV in a Shanghai community-based cohort. Methods Nine hundred seventy-six Shanghai residents were recruited from the Putuo community. 480 HBV infections were in exposed group and 496 non-infections in unexposed group. All metabolic-related parameters and hepatitis B serology were tested with routine biochemical or immunological methods. “Exposed” was defined by HBV infection represented by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and without anti-virus treatment. “Unexposed” were subjects who didn’t infect with HBV (Represented by HBsAg) and no MS when they entered the cohort. MS was defined based on the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and related 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between HBV infection and MS over a 20-year follow-up period. Results Of 976 subjects recruited, 480 had latent HBV infection (exposed subjects). After adjusting for age, the crude HR was 2.46 (95% CI: 1.77, 3.41). After adjusting for potential risk factors of MS (age, gender, smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet), the HR was 2.27 (95% CI: 1.52, 3.38). Conclusions This 20-year follow-up retrospective cohort study in Shanghai showed a positive association between HBV infection and MS.

2014-01-01

170

Expression, Purification, Crystallization of Two Major Envelope Proteins from White Spot Syndrome Virus  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 {angstrom}. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 {angstrom}, and diffracts to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution.

Tang,X.; Hew, C.

2007-01-01

171

Evolutionary Trajectory of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Genome Shrinkage during Spread in Asia  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the sole member of the novel Nimaviridae family, and the source of major economic problems in shrimp aquaculture. WSSV appears to have rapidly spread worldwide after the first reported outbreak in the early 1990s. Genomic deletions of various sizes occur at two loci in the WSSV genome, the ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 variable regions, and these have been used as molecular markers to study patterns of viral spread over space and time. We describe the dynamics underlying the process of WSSV genome shrinkage using empirical data and a simple mathematical model. Methodology/Principal Findings We genotyped new WSSV isolates from five Asian countries, and analyzed this information together with published data. Genome size appears to stabilize over time, and deletion size in the ORF23/24 variable region was significantly related to the time of the first WSSV outbreak in a particular country. Parameter estimates derived from fitting a simple mathematical model of genome shrinkage to the data support a geometric progression (k<1) of the genomic deletions, with k?=?0.371±0.150. Conclusions/Significance The data suggest that the rate of genome shrinkage decreases over time before attenuating. Bioassay data provided support for a link between genome size and WSSV fitness in an aquaculture setting. Differences in genomic deletions between geographic WSSV isolates suggest that WSSV spread did not follow a smooth pattern of geographic radiation, suggesting spread of WSSV over long distances by commercial activities. We discuss two hypotheses for genome shrinkage, an adaptive and a neutral one. We argue in favor of the adaptive hypothesis, given that there is support for a link between WSSV genome size and fitness.

Hemerik, Lia; Vlak, Just M.

2010-01-01

172

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Induces Interleukin-15 through the NF-?B Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) mainly infects macrophages/dendritic cells and modulates cytokine expression in these cells. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in wide range of biological activities. It has been shown to be essential for the generation, activation, and proliferation of NK and NKT cells and for the survival and activation of CD8+ effector and memory T cells. In this study, we discovered that PRRSV infection upregulated IL-15 production at both the mRNA and protein levels in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMo), and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). We subsequently demonstrated that the NF-?B signaling pathway was essential for PRRSV infection-induced IL-15 production. First, addition of an NF-?B inhibitor drastically reduced PRRSV infection-induced IL-15 production. We then found that NF-?B was indeed activated upon PRRSV infection, as evidenced by I?B phosphorylation and degradation. Moreover, we revealed an NF-?B binding motif in the cloned porcine IL-15 (pIL-15) promoter, deletion of which abrogated the pIL-15 promoter activity in PRRSV-infected alveolar macrophages. In addition, we demonstrated that PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein had the ability to induce IL-15 production in porcine alveolar macrophage cell line CRL2843 by transient transfection, which was mediated by its multiple motifs, and it also activated NF-?B. These data indicated that PRRSV infection-induced IL-15 production was likely through PRRSV N protein-mediated NF-?B activation. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underling the IL-15 production induced by PRRSV infection.

Fu, Yi; Quan, Rong; Zhang, Hexiao; Hou, Jun

2012-01-01

173

First case of anti-ganglioside GM1-positive Guillain-Barré syndrome due to hepatitis E virus infection.  

PubMed

A 51-year-old previously healthy woman presented with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and elevated liver enzymes. Further diagnostic investigations showed the presence of an acute hepatitis E infection associated with anti-ganglioside GM1 antibodies. After treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, the patient made a rapid recovery. Here, we report the first case of GBS due to acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection associated with the presence of anti-ganglioside GM1 antibodies. We also review available literature on the association between acute HEV infection and GBS. PMID:21877179

Maurissen, I; Jeurissen, A; Strauven, T; Sprengers, D; De Schepper, B

2012-06-01

174

Severe Eye Complications from Stevens-Johnson Syndrome in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patient in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe form of erythema multiforme that primarily affects skin and mucous membranes. In Malawi, manifestations of SJS may become more common in human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients receiving nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) because the CD4 cell threshold for starting ART has increased from 250 to 350 cells/?L. We describe a patient with severe ocular complications from SJS that developed soon after initiation of nevirapine-based ART and cotrimoxazole preventive treatment, which led to blindness. We draw attention to preventive measures that can potentially reduce permanent ocular damage from SJS.

Schulze Schwering, Markus; Kayange, Petros; van Oosterhout, Joep J.; Spitzer, Martin S.

2013-01-01

175

Varicella-Zoster Virus Encephalitis in a Patient Undergoing Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome—Overt Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is rare after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation\\u000a (SCT). Here, we describe the first patient who developed VZV encephalitis after cord blood transplantation (CBT). A 35-year-old\\u000a man with myelodysplastic syndrome-overt leukemia underwent CBT. On day +23, a neutrophil count consistently greater than 0.5\\u000a X 109\\/L was achieved. On day +42,1 mg\\/kg

Kenji Fukuno; Akira Tomonari; Satoshi Takahashi; Jun Ooi; Kashiya Takasugi; Nobuhiro Tsukada; Takaaki Konuma; Tohru Iseki; Hisataka Moriwaki; Arinobu Tojo; Shigetaka Asanoa

2006-01-01

176

High concordance of intraocular antibody synthesis against the rubella virus and Fuchs heterochromic uveitis syndrome in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To prospectively study the relationship between Fuchs heterochromic uveitis syndrome (FHUS) and intraocular production of specific antibodies against the rubella virus (RV) in Slovenia. Methods Using the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient technique, intraocular synthesis of specific antibodies against RV, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma gondii–specific immunoglobulin G antibodies was performed in 12 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed FHUS and 12 patients with idiopathic recurrent unilateral anterior uveitis (AU) without clinical features of FHUS. Results Specific intraocular antibody synthesis against RV with a positive Goldmann-Witmer coefficient was proven in 11 of 12 (92%) FHUS patients, and in none of the non-FHUS AU patients (Fisher’s exact test <0.0001). In one patient with FHUS, specific antibodies against RV and varicella-zoster virus were concurrently detected. Specific antibodies against cytomegalovirus were detected in one patient with unilateral recurrent AU. Conclusions Intraocular production of specific immunoglobulin G against RV was proven in the majority of tested cohort of FHUS patients from Slovenia as compared to the group of patients with idiopathic AU, which suggests that RV is involved in the pathogenesis of FHUS in this geographic area.

Petrovec, Miroslav; Zigon, Nina; Hawlina, Marko; Kraut, Aleksandra; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D.F.; Valentincic, Natasa Vidovic

2012-01-01

177

In vitro screening for compounds derived from traditional chinese medicines with antiviral activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Seventeen compounds derived from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) were tested for their antiviral activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vitro. Visualization with the cytopathologic effect (CPE) assay and the 3-(4, 5-dimethyithiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test were used to determine the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and 50% effective concentration (EC50) in cultured Marc-145 cells. Among the tested compounds, chlorogenic acid and scutellarin showed potential anti-PRRSV activity. The EC50 values were 270.8 ± 14.6 ?g/ml and 28.21 ± 26.0 ?g/ml and the selectivity indexes were >5.54 and 35.5, respectively. The time-of-addition and virucidal assay indicated that the anti-PRRSV activity of the two compounds could be due to their inhibiting the early stage of virus replication and/or inactivating the virus directly. The inhibition of the virus attachment was not observed in the adsorption inhibition assay. The inhibition ratios of chlorogenic acid and scutellarin were, respectively, 90.8% and 61.1% at the maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations. The results have provided a basis for further exploration of their antiviral properties and mechanisms in vivo. We believe that the chlorogenic acid and scutellarin have a great potential to be developed as new anti-PRRSV drugs for clinical application. PMID:23727804

Cheng, Jia; Sun, Na; Zhao, Xin; Niu, Li; Song, Meiqin; Sun, Yaogui; Jiang, Junbing; Guo, Jianhua; Bai, Yuansheng; He, Junping; Li, Hongquan

2013-08-01

178

The association of metabolic syndrome and Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1: The Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome together with insulin resistance and their consequences are basic factors in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The infectious aspects of metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we

Iraj Nabipour; Katayon Vahdat; Seyed Mojtaba Jafari; Raha Pazoki; Zahra Sanjdideh

2006-01-01

179

The primary neutralization epitope of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus strain VR2332 is located in the middle of the GP5 ectodomain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Pigs infected with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain VR-2332 were found to generate high\\u000a levels of antibodies (Abs) that bound in an indirect ELISA to synthetic peptides representing segments of the primary envelope\\u000a glycoprotein (GP5) ectodomain of this virus. Use of overlapping GP5 ectodomain peptides of various length indicated that the\\u000a epitope recognized by the Abs was

P. G. W. Plagemann; R. R. R. Rowland; K. S. Faaberg

2002-01-01

180

Detection of RNA Sequences in Cultures of a Stealth Virus Isolated from the Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Health Care Worker with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cytopathic stealth virus was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid of a nurse with chronic fatigue syndrome. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on the patient’s culture yielded positive results with primer sets based on sequences of a previously isolated African green monkey simian-cytomegalovirus-derived stealth virus. The same primer sets did not yield PCR products when tested directly on DNA

John Martin

1997-01-01

181

Analysis of white spot syndrome virus envelope protein complexome by two-dimensional blue native\\/SDS PAGE combined with mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped virus, but the organization of its envelope proteins remains largely\\u000a unknown. In the present study, we used blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) and SDS-PAGE in combination\\u000a with mass spectrometry to analyze the envelope protein complexome of WSSV. Our results show that the viral envelope consists\\u000a of multi-protein complexes (MPCs). Within

Zichong Li; Limei Xu; Fang Li; Qing Zhou; Feng Yang

2011-01-01

182

Targeting Membrane-Bound Viral RNA Synthesis Reveals Potent Inhibition of Diverse Coronaviruses Including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS–CoV), and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections.

Bergstrom, Tomas; Kann, Nina; Adamiak, Beata; Hannoun, Charles; Kindler, Eveline; Jonsdottir, Hulda R.; Muth, Doreen; Kint, Joeri; Forlenza, Maria; Muller, Marcel A.; Drosten, Christian; Thiel, Volker; Trybala, Edward

2014-01-01

183

Targeting membrane-bound viral RNA synthesis reveals potent inhibition of diverse coronaviruses including the middle East respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections. PMID:24874215

Lundin, Anna; Dijkman, Ronald; Bergström, Tomas; Kann, Nina; Adamiak, Beata; Hannoun, Charles; Kindler, Eveline; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R; Muth, Doreen; Kint, Joeri; Forlenza, Maria; Müller, Marcel A; Drosten, Christian; Thiel, Volker; Trybala, Edward

2014-05-01

184

Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to influenza virus A/H1N1v in a patient with HIV/HCV co-infection.  

PubMed

The clinical severity of human infection with the novel influenza virus A/H1N1v has not been completely defined, especially in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients. Although most patients develop mild to moderate symptoms, severe disease may occur in a limited proportion of cases. We report the case of a 44-year-old man infected with HIV and HCV with a high CD4 cell count who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with influenza virus A/H1N1v infection. The patient recovered completely after oseltamivir therapy and mechanical ventilation. PMID:21515759

Madeddu, G; Rezza, G; Fois, A G; Naitana, A G V; Piredda, G; Pirina, P; Mura, M S

2011-04-01

185

Serum selenium and skin diseases among Nigerians with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The role of selenium as an antioxidant micronutrient has garnered the unprecedented focus of researchers in recent times. No clinical study has related serum selenium concentration to skin diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Methods In this study, 134 newly diagnosed HIV patients that satisfied the inclusion criteria were included. Skin diseases were clinically diagnosed and fasting venous blood was taken for assessment of serum selenium using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results The mean age of HIV subjects with and without skin disease were not significantly different: 32.72 ± 9.21 versus 35.86 ± 8.55 years, P = 0.077, respectively. The mean of serum selenium (0.51 ± 0.48 versus 0.81 ± 0.39), CD4+ count (228.06 ± 212.89 versus 446.41 ± 182.87), and body mass index (BMI; 21.09 ± 3.58 versus 23.53 ± 3.35) were significantly lower (P < 0.001) for HIV/AIDS participants with skin disease than those without skin disease. We found significant clustering of symptoms and signs: fever (P = 0.037), weight loss (P = 0.009), oral candidiasis (P = 0.038), pallor (P = 0.037) among HIV/AIDS subjects with skin diseases than those without. Low serum selenium concentration was significantly associated with primary skin disease of HIV/AIDS, such as pruritic papular eruption of AIDS (P = 0.003), xeroderma (P = 0.030), fluffy hair (P = 0.021), blue-black nail hyperpigmentation (P = 0.033) and secondary skin disease, such as oral candidiasis (P = 0.002). There was a significant association between low serum selenium concentration and increasing frequency of skin diseases (P = 0.002), but serum selenium was not significantly related to extents of distribution of skin diseases (P > 0.05). Conclusion serum selenium concentration was lower among HIV subjects with skin diseases than those without skin disease. Pruritic papular eruption, xeroderma, fluffy hair, blue-black nail hyper pigmentation, and oral candidiasis were significantly associated with low serum selenium concentration.

Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Mejiuni, David Ayodele; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Atiba, Adeniran Samuel; Bamimore, Gbenga Micheal

2013-01-01

186

The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods  

PubMed Central

Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P) ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN) titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p < 0.05). VN titer was significantly different in the 106 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI)-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p < 0.05). Consequently, the inactivated vaccines tested in this study provided weak memory responses with sequential challenge without any obvious active immune responses in the vaccinated pigs. Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

2011-01-01

187

Development of a Colloidal Gold Kit for the Diagnosis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

It is critical to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection. Here, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) to detect SFTSV infection is described. The ICA uses gold nanoparticles coated with recombinant SFTSV for the simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SFTSV. The ICA was developed and evaluated by using positive sera samples of SFTSV infection (n = 245) collected from the CDC of China. The reference laboratory diagnosis of SFTSV infection was based on the “gold standard”. The results demonstrated that the positive coincidence rate and negative coincidence rate were determined to be 98.4% and 100% for IgM and 96.7% and 98.6% for IgG, respectively. The kit showed good selectivity for detection of SFTSV-specific IgG and IgM with no interference from positive sera samples of Japanese encephalitis virus infection, Dengue virus infection, Hantavirus infection, HIV infection, HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody, Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody, or RF. Based on these results, the ICS test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for SFTSV infections.

Wang, Xianguo; Zhang, Quanfu; Hao, Fen; Gao, Xunian; Wu, Wei; Liang, Minyao; Liao, Zhihua; Xu, Weiwen; Li, Dexin; Wang, Shiwen

2014-01-01

188

Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1?.  

PubMed

The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb(pro)) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb(pro) L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. (15)N-HSQC measurements of Lb(pro) L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb(pro), lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1?, with a papain-like fold like Lb(pro), stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the ?-sheet domains but none of the ?-helical domains of Lb(pro) and nsp1? superimpose; consequently, the ?-helical domain of nsp1? is oriented differently relative to its ?-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1? but not Lb(pro). PMID:23756127

Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

2013-09-01

189

Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1??  

PubMed Central

The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lbpro) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lbpro L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. 15N-HSQC measurements of Lbpro L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLbpro, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1?, with a papain-like fold like Lbpro, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the ?-sheet domains but none of the ?-helical domains of Lbpro and nsp1? superimpose; consequently, the ?-helical domain of nsp1? is oriented differently relative to its ?-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1? but not Lbpro.

Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

2013-01-01

190

Clinical effect of cidofovir and a diet supplemented with Spirulina platensis in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infected specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiviral product cidofovir and a diet supplemented with Spirulina platensis were tested for their efficacy to prevent or delay\\/reduce mortality due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in specific pathogen free (SPF) shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. Cidofovir was injected intramuscularly at 200 mg\\/kg shrimp mean body weight (MBW) at the moment of WSSV challenge. Spirulina was supplemented in

M. M. Rahman; C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla; M. Wille; V. Alday Sanz; L. Audoorn; J. Neyts; M. B. Pensaert; P. Sorgeloos; H. J. Nauwynck

2006-01-01

191

Complete genome sequence of a novel natural recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated from a pig farm in yunnan province, southwest china.  

PubMed

YN-2011 is a highly pathogenic North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Unlike previously described PRRSVs, which contained a 30-amino-acid deletion in NS2, YN-2011 had no amino acid deletions or insertions but had several new mutations in NS2. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of YN-2011. PMID:23405309

Yan, Yulin; Xin, Aiguo; Zhu, Gaohong; Huang, Hui; Liu, Qian; Shao, Zhiyong; Zang, Yating; Chen, Ling; Sun, Yongke; Gao, Hong

2013-01-01

192

Discriminating between serological responses to European-genotype live vaccine and European-genotype field strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) by peptide ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peptide ELISA was developed based on an immunodominant and hypervariable epitope in the ORF4 envelope glycoprotein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The peptide sequence was derived from the Porcilis live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine strain (genotype 1, European). Antibodies induced by the field PRRSVs currently circulating in Poland were not detected by the Porcilis ORF4 peptide ELISA. In

Martin B. Oleksiewicz; Tomasz Stadejek; Zbigniew Ma?kiewicz; Marian Porowski; Zygmunt Pejsak

2005-01-01

193

Psychopathology in 90 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients with mostly intravenous drug use history  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents systematic clinical data regarding psychiatric diagnoses, personal and family psychiatric histories, and symptomatologic aspects of 90 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, of whom slightly less than two thirds were at risk due to intravenous drug abuse. In addition, a comparison was made between the distribution patterns of these variables at

Pasquale Perretta; Cristiana Nisita; Elena Zaccagnini; Claudio Lorenzetti; Andrea Nuccorini; Giovanni B Cassano; Hagop S Akiskal

1996-01-01

194

Complete Nucleotide Sequences of the M and S Segments of Two Hantavirus Isolates from California: Evidence for Reassortment in Nature among Viruses Related to Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the complete nucleotide sequence of the M and the S genome segments and a portion of the L segments of two hantavirus isolates from Peromyscus maniculatus trapped in eastern California. The isolates, Convict Creek 107 and 74 (CC107 and CC74) are genetically similar to viruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in New Mexico. CC107 and CC74 each

Dexin Li; Alan L. Schmaljohn; Kevin Anderson; Connie S. Schmaljohn

1995-01-01

195

Computer-aided codon-pairs deoptimization of the major envelope GP5 gene attenuates porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Synthetic attenuated virus engineering (SAVE) is an emerging technology that enables rapid attenuation of viruses. In this study, by using SAVE we demonstrated rapid attenuation of an arterivirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The major envelope GP5 gene of PRRSV was codon-pair deoptimized aided by a computer algorithm. The codon-pair deoptimized virus, designated as SAVE5 with a deoptimized GP5 gene, was successfully rescued in vitro. The SAVE5 virus replicated at a lower level in vitro with a significant decrease of GP5 protein expression compared to the wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus. Pigs experimentally infected with the SAVE5 virus had significantly lower viremia level up to 14 days post-infection as well as significantly reduced gross and histological lung lesions when compared to wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus-infected pigs, indicating the attenuation of the SAVE5 virus. This study proved the feasibility of rapidly attenuating PRRSV by SAVE. PMID:24503075

Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Zhao; Opriessnig, Tanja; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Zhou, Lei; Cao, Dianjun; Cao, Qian; Yang, Hanchun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2014-02-01

196

Provable data possession at untrusted stores  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a model for provable data possession (PDP) that allows a client that has stored data at an untrusted server to verify that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it. The model generates probabilistic proofs of possession by sampling random sets of blocks from the server, which drastically reduces I\\/O costs. The client maintains a constant amount

Giuseppe Ateniese; Randal C. Burns; Reza Curtmola; Joseph Herring; Lea Kissner; Zachary N. J. Peterson; Dawn Xiaodong Song

2007-01-01

197

An entero?like virus associated with the runting syndrome in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small round unenveloped virus, 31 nm in diameter, and with no obvious surface structure, was identified during the first week of life in the gut contents of broiler chickens which later developed runting. This virus grew in the cytoplasm of the villous epithelial cells of the small intestine, with a predilection for the mid small intestine. Broilers orally infected

M. S. McNulty; G. M. Allan; T. J. Connor; J. B. McFerran; R. M. McCracken

1984-01-01

198

Avian influenza virus, Streptococcus suis serotype 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and beyond: molecular epidemiology, ecology and the situation in China  

PubMed Central

The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and the subsequent identification of its animal origin study have heightened the world's awareness of animal-borne or zoonotic pathogens. In addition to SARS, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, and the lower pathogenicity H9N2 AIV have expanded their host ranges to infect human beings and other mammalian species as well as birds. Even the ‘well-known’ reservoir animals for influenza virus, migratory birds, became victims of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Not only the viruses, but bacteria can also expand their host range: a new disease, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, caused by human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection, has been observed in China with 52 human fatalities in two separate outbreaks (1998 and 2005, respectively). Additionally, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection has increased worldwide with severe disease. Several outbreaks and sporadic isolations of this pathogen in China have made it an important target for disease control. A new highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been isolated in both China and Vietnam recently; although PRRSV is not a zoonotic human pathogen, its severe outbreaks have implications for food safety. All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China.

Ma, Ying; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Di; Gao, George F.

2009-01-01

199

Central role of JC virus-specific CD4+ lymphocytes in progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.  

PubMed

Progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy and progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome are caused by infection of the central nervous system with the JC polyoma virus. Both are complications of monoclonal antibody therapy in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. Progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome can obscure the diagnosis of progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy and lead to severe clinical disability and possibly death. Different from progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy, in which demyelination results from oligodendrocyte lysis by JC virus in the absence of an immune response, tissue destruction in progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is caused by a vigorous immune response within the brain. The cells and mediators that are involved in progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome are as yet poorly understood. We examined two patients with multiple sclerosis, who developed progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy and later progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome under natalizumab therapy. Due to initially negative JC viral deoxyribonucleic acid testing in the cerebrospinal fluid, a diagnostic brain biopsy was performed in one patient. Histopathology revealed brain inflammation characterized by a prominent T cell infiltrate (CD4(+)> CD8(+) T cells), but also B/plasma cells and monocytes. Despite very low JC viral load, both patients showed high intrathecal anti-JC virus antibodies. Brain-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells were studied regarding antigen specificity and function. CD4(+) T cells were highly specific for peptides from several JC virus proteins, particularly the major capsid protein VP1. T cell phenotyping revealed CD4(+) Th1 and bifunctional Th1-2 cells. The latter secrete large amounts of interferon-? and interleukin-4 explaining the strong brain inflammation, presence of plasma cells and secretion of intrathecal anti-VP1 antibodies. The functional phenotype of brain-infiltrating JC virus-specific CD4(+) T cells was confirmed and extended by examining brain-derived JC virus-specific CD4(+) T cell clones. Our data provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and indicate that JC virus-specific CD4(+) T cells play an important role in both eliminating JC virus from the brain, but also in causing the massive inflammation with often fatal outcome. PMID:21908874

Aly, Lilian; Yousef, Sara; Schippling, Sven; Jelcic, Ilijas; Breiden, Petra; Matschke, Jakob; Schulz, Robert; Bofill-Mas, Silvia; Jones, Louise; Demina, Viktorya; Linnebank, Michael; Ogg, Graham; Girones, Rosina; Weber, Thomas; Sospedra, Mireia; Martin, Roland

2011-09-01

200

Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size?=?520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions.

Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

2013-01-01

201

A newly identified protein complex that mediates white spot syndrome virus infection via chitin-binding protein.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped virus which has caused severe mortality and huge economic losses in the shrimp farming industry. The enveloped virus must be combined with the receptors of the host cell membrane by the virus envelope proteins. In the case of WSSV, binding of envelope proteins with receptors of the host cell membrane was discovered in a number of previous studies, such as VP53A and 10 other proteins with chitin-binding protein (CBP), VP28 with Penaeus monodon Rab7, VP187 with ?-integrin, and so on. WSSV envelope proteins were also considered capable of forming a protein complex dubbed an 'infectome'. In this study, the research was focused on the role of CBP in the WSSV infection process, and the relationship between CBP and the envelope proteins VP24, VP28, VP31, VP32 VP39B, VP53A and VP56. The results of the reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that CBP existed in a variety of shrimp. The speed of WSSV infection could be slowed down by inhibiting CBP gene expression. Far-Western blot analysis and His pull-down assays were conducted, and a protein complex was found that appeared to be composed of a 'linker' protein consisting of VP31, VP32 and VP39B together with four envelope proteins, including VP24, VP28, VP53A and VP56. This protein complex was possibly another part of the infectome and the possible binding region with CBP. The findings of this study may have identified certain points for further WSSV research. PMID:24836670

Huang, Po-Yu; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Chen, Li-Li

2014-08-01

202

Synergistic effects of sequential infection with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. Coinfection with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PCV2 in the field has recently become extensive in some Asian countries. A synergistic pathogenicity between PRRSV and PCV2 infections has previously been reported. However, the consequences of the sequential infection of pigs with these two viruses are unknown. Methods Thirty 35-day-old piglets were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5 each): HP-PRRSV/PCV2 (group 1, inoculated with HP-PRRSV, then inoculated with PCV2 one week later), PCV2/HP-PRRSV (group 2, inoculated with PCV2, then inoculated with HP-PRRSV one week later), HP-PRRSV+PCV2 (group 3, inoculated with HP-PRRSV and PCV2 concurrently), HP-PRRSV (group 4, inoculated with HP-PRRSV), PCV2 (group 5, inoculated with PCV2), and the control (group 6, uninfected). This experiment lasted 28 days. Clinical symptoms and rectal temperatures were recorded each day after inoculation, body weight was recorded weekly, and serum samples were obtained for viral nucleic acid quantification and antibody titration. Variations in CD3+, CD4+ CD8–, CD3+, CD4–, and CD8+ cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and mononuclear cells were determined by flow cytometry. The serum concentrations of interferon ? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and macrophage granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were determined. Pathological changes in different tissues from the experimentally infected pigs were recorded. Results The piglets in group 1 had the highest viral loads, the lowest antibody titers, the most-severe clinical signs, and the highest mortality (3/5, 60%; the mortality in the other groups was 0%), and interstitial pneumonia was more severe in this group compare to the other HP-PRRSV infected groups. The serum levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, and GM-CSF varied (increased or decreased) most widely in group 1, as did each immunocyte subgroup. Conclusions HP-PRRSV infection followed by PCV2 infection enhanced the replication of both viruses in the experimental piglets and led to more-severe clinical signs and lesions, indicating greater synergistic effects during the sequential infection of piglets with HP-PRRSV and then PCV2.

2013-01-01

203

Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent  

PubMed Central

Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata), it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g) that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g), the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64%) died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56%) died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g) on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22%) remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single-challenge and serial challenge results, and on previous published work showing that S. serrata is relatively unaffected by WSSV infection, we propose that susceptibility to white spot disease in the genus Scylla is species-dependent and may also be dose-history dependent. In practical terms for shrimp farmers, it means that S. olivacea and S. paramamosain may pose less threat as WSSV carriers than S. serrata. For crab farmers, our results suggest that rearing of S. serrata would be a better choice than S. paramamosain or S. olivacea in terms of avoiding losses from seasonal outbreaks of white spot disease.

2010-01-01

204

Immunohistochemical characterization of type II pneumocyte proliferation after challenge with type I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize histologically and immunohistochemically the lung lesions developing in growing pigs, 10 and 21 days after experimental challenge with a field strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Lung lesions were scored for (1) pneumocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, (2) septal mononuclear infiltration, (3) intra-alveolar necrotic debris, (4) intra-alveolar inflammatory cell accumulation and (5) perivascular inflammatory cell accumulation. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies specific for cytokeratin, Ki67, thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1, the myelomonocytic marker MAC387 and PRRSV. Anti-TTF-1 identified type II pneumocytes and there was marked proliferation of these cells compared with control lung (P <0.05). Anti-cytokeratin labelled type I and II pneumocytes as well as bronchial epithelial cells; however, this labelling was not suitable for cell counting purposes. There was a correlation between lesion severity and the number of cells expressing Ki67 (P <0.05). PMID:23453491

Balka, G; Ladinig, A; Ritzmann, M; Saalmüller, A; Gerner, W; Käser, T; Jakab, C; Rusvai, M; Weißenböck, H

2013-01-01

205

In Vitro Virucidal and Virustatic Properties of the Crude Extract of Cynodon dactylon against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.  

PubMed

The in vitro virustatic and virucidal tests of the crude extract of Cynodon dactylon against infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a cause of major devastating pig disease, were described. Crude extract of C. dactylon was prepared for cytotoxicity on tissue-culture cells that were used to measure virustatic and virucidal activities against PRRSV. Crude extract of C. dactylon at 0.78?mg/mL showed no cytotoxicity on the cell line, and at that concentration significantly inhibited replication of PRRSV as early as 24 hours post infection (hpi). C. dactylon also inactivated PRRSV as determined by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) compared to the control experiments. In summary, the present study may be among the earliest studies to describe virustatic and virucidal activities of C. dactylon crude extract against PRRSV in vitro. Extracts of C. dactylon may be useful for PRRSV control and prevention on pig farms. PMID:24744959

Pringproa, Kidsadagon; Khonghiran, Oapkun; Kunanoppadol, Suchaya; Potha, Teerapong; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

2014-01-01

206

The signal sequence of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoprotein 3 is sufficient for endoplasmic reticulum retention.  

PubMed

The glycoprotein 3 (GP3) of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus has the characteristic domains of a membrane protein. However, this protein has been reported to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) rather than transported to the plasma membrane of the cell. In this study, we performed confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of variants of GP3 and found that the signal sequence of the GP3 led to confinement of GP3 in the ER, while the functional ortransmembrane domain did not affect its localization. Based on these results, we concluded that the signal sequence of GP3 contains the ER retention signal, which might play an important role in assembly of viral proteins. PMID:23820208

Kim, Do-Geun; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Park, Seung-Yong; Lee, Joong-Bok; Lee, Sang-Soo

2013-01-01

207

Cytokine profiles and phenotype regulation of antigen presenting cells by genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the immunological response of antigen presenting cells (APC) to genotype-I isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection by analysing the cytokine profile induced and evaluating the changes taking place upon infection on immunologically relevant cell markers (MHCI, MHCII, CD80/86, CD14, CD16, CD163, CD172a, SWC9). Several types of APC were infected with 39 PRRSV isolates. The results show that different isolates were able to induce different patterns of IL-10 and TNF-?. The four possible phenotypes based on the ability to induce IL-10 and/or TNF-? were observed, although different cell types seemed to have different capabilities. In addition, isolates inducing different cytokine-release profiles on APC could induce different expression of cell markers.

2011-01-01

208

Dybbuk-possession as a hysterical symptom: psychodynamic and socio-cultural factors.  

PubMed

The Dybbuk is the traditional Jewish variant of the phenomenon spirit-possession, involving spirits of the dead. Manifestations of such supposed possessions have always been considered malevolent and treated by exorcism. Descriptions of such cases have always been found in folklore, but have not been discussed in psychological or anthropological literature. Based on analyses of 63 documented cases of dybbuk, this paper seeks to analyze the Jewish variant of spirit-possession from psychodynamic and socio-cultural points of view. Psychodynamically, dybbuk-possession is conceived of as a hysterical syndrome expressed by repressed impulses, primarily sexual. By analyzing the psychological content of dybbuk-possession, specific psychoanalytically derived hypotheses concerning the dynamics of underlying hysterical symptoms may be validated. From the perspective of psychiatric ethnology, the dybbuk is a culture-bound syndrome viewed as a working alliance between society and a selected group of deviants. PMID:2606645

Bilu, Y; Beit-Hallahmi, B

1989-01-01

209

Effect of modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) vaccine on the shedding of wild-type virus from an infected population of growing pigs.  

PubMed

There are ongoing efforts to eliminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) from regions in the United States swine industry. However, an important challenge for the accomplishment of those efforts is the re-infection of pig units due to the area spread of PRRSv. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRRS modified-live virus vaccine (MLV) on viral shedding and on dynamics of PRRSv infection in pig populations raised under commercial conditions. The study composed of two rooms of 1000 pigs each. Ten percent of pigs of each room were inoculated with a field isolate of PRRSv. Rooms had separate air spaces and strict scientifically validated biosecurity protocols were adopted to avoid movement of pathogens between rooms. At 8 and 36 dpi (days post inoculation), all pigs of the challenge-vaccine group were inoculated with a MLV vaccine. Pigs of the challenge-control group were placebo-inoculated. Blood and oral fluid samples were collected from each room at 0, 8, 36, 70, 96 and 118 dpi for PRRSv RNA detection using PCR. PRRSv-antibodies were also screened from blood serum samples with a commercially available ELISA test. Additionally, tonsil scraping samples were collected from both groups at 70, 96 and 118 dpi. Moreover, air samples were collected 6 times per week from 0 to 118 dpi and were tested for PRRSv RNA using qPCR assay. There was no difference in the PRRSv infection dynamics measured as duration and magnitude of viremia and seroconversion. Also, there was no difference in the frequency of tonsil scraping samples PRRSv-positive by PCR. However, the challenge-vaccine group had significantly less PRRSv shed compared to the challenge-control group. The challenge-vaccine group had significant less PRRSv-positive oral fluids at 36 dpi. Moreover, the challenge-vaccine group had significant reduction in the cumulative PRRSv shed in the air. PMID:22063389

Linhares, Daniel C L; Cano, Jean Paul; Wetzell, Thomas; Nerem, Joel; Torremorell, Montserrat; Dee, Scott A

2012-01-01

210

The DNA Virus White Spot Syndrome Virus Uses an Internal Ribosome Entry Site for Translation of the Highly Expressed Nonstructural Protein ICP35  

PubMed Central

Although shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus (?300 kbp), it expresses many polycistronic mRNAs that are likely to use internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements for translation. A polycistronic mRNA encodes the gene of the highly expressed nonstructural protein ICP35, and here we use a dual-luciferase assay to demonstrate that this protein is translated cap independently by an IRES element located in the 5? untranslated region of icp35. A deletion analysis of this region showed that IRES activity was due to stem-loops VII and VIII. A promoterless assay, a reverse transcription-PCR together with quantitative real-time PCR analysis, and a stable stem-loop insertion upstream of the Renilla luciferase open reading frame were used, respectively, to rule out the possibility that cryptic promoter activity, abnormal splicing, or read-through was contributing to the IRES activity. In addition, a Northern blot analysis was used to confirm that only a single bicistronic mRNA was expressed. The importance of ICP35 to viral replication was demonstrated in a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) interference knockdown experiment in which the mortality of the icp35 dsRNA group was significantly reduced. Tunicamycin was used to show that the ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is required for icp35 IRES activity. We also found that the intercalating drug quinacrine significantly inhibited icp35 IRES activity in vitro and reduced the mortality rate and viral copy number in WSSV-challenged shrimp. Lastly, in Sf9 insect cells, we found that knockdown of the gene for the Spodoptera frugiperda 40S ribosomal protein RPS10 decreased icp35 IRES-regulated firefly luciferase activity but had no effect on cap-dependent translation.

Kang, Shih-Ting; Wang, Han-Ching; Yang, Yi-Ting

2013-01-01

211

A simple and rapid immunochromatographic strip test for detecting antibody to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is rapidly gaining worldwide importance as one of the most economically significant diseases of swine. The antibody of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is detected currently by the combined use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, serum neutralization test, immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. These methods are time-consuming and require specialized equipment operated by trained technicians. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simple strip assay (based on a chromatographic and immunogold system) for specific detection of PRRSV antibody in swine sera. This "immunochromatographic strip" test uses Escherichia coli-expressed viral recombinant membrane protein antigen in combination with recombinant nucleocapsid protein as capture protein for detecting antibodies against PRRSV. In this study, the performance of this assay was evaluated with sera from both clinical samples and experimentally infected piglets. Detection by immunochromatographic strip test was compared with detection by a standard, available commercially, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The immunochromatographic test strip detected antibodies in sera known to contain antibodies to PRRSV in 95.7% sensitivity of samples from pigs infected experimentally and 98.6% sensitivity of clinical serum samples. For sera that did not contain antibodies to PRRSV, the specificity was 97.8% and 98.2% for clinical and experimental serum samples, respectively. PMID:18619681

Cui, Shangjin; Zhou, Shenghua; Chen, Changmu; Qi, Ting; Zhang, Chaofan; Oh, JinSik

2008-09-01

212

Novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by an alternative ORF5 present in all arteriviruses  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus that emerged in the late 1980s in both Europe and North America as the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), now the most important disease of swine worldwide. Despite extensive characterization of PRRSV proteins by direct analysis and comparison with other arteriviruses, determinants of virulence, pathogenesis and protective immune recognition remain poorly understood. Thus, we hypothesized that additional ORFs are present in the PRRSV genome that may contribute to its biological properties, and so we screened highly purified virions of strain VR2332, the prototype type 2 PRRSV, for evidence of novel polypeptides. A 51 aa polypeptide was discovered that is encoded by an alternative ORF of the subgenomic mRNA encoding the major envelope glycoprotein, GP5, and which is incorporated into virions. The protein, referred to as ORF5a protein, is expressed in infected cells, and pigs infected with PRRSV express anti-ORF5a protein antibodies. A similar ORF is present as an alternative reading frame in all PRRSV subgenomic RNA5 genes and in all other arteriviruses, suggesting that this ORF5a protein plays a significant role in arterivirology. Its discovery also provides a new potential target for immunological and pharmacological intervention in PRRS.

Johnson, Craig R.; Griggs, Theodor F.; Gnanandarajah, Josephine

2011-01-01

213

A Putative Cell Surface Receptor for White Spot Syndrome Virus Is a Member of a Transporter Superfamily  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a large enveloped DNA virus, can cause the most serious viral disease in shrimp and has a wide host range among crustaceans. In this study, we identified a surface protein, named glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), which could also interact with WSSV envelope protein, VP53A. Sequence analysis revealed that Glut1 is a member of a large superfamily of transporters and that it is most closely related to evolutionary branches of this superfamily, branches that function to transport this sugar. Tissue tropism analysis showed that Glut1 was constitutive and highly expressed in almost all organs. Glut1's localization in shrimp cells was further verified and so was its interaction with Penaeus monodon chitin-binding protein (PmCBP), which was itself identified to interact with an envelope protein complex formed by 11 WSSV envelope proteins. In vitro and in vivo neutralization experiments using synthetic peptide contained WSSV binding domain (WBD) showed that the WBD peptide could inhibit WSSV infection in primary cultured hemocytes and delay the mortality in shrimps challenged with WSSV. These findings have important implications for our understanding of WSSV entry.

Huang, Huai-Ting; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Huang, Po-Yu; Chen, Li-Li

2012-01-01

214

Infectiousness of pigs infected by the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) is time-dependent  

PubMed Central

The time-dependent transmission rate of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and the correlation between infectiousness, virological parameters and antibody responses of the infected pigs were studied in experimental conditions. Seven successive transmission trials involving a total of 77 specific pathogen-free piglets were carried out from 7 to 63 days post-inoculation (dpi). A semi-quantitative real time RT-PCR was developed to assess the evolution of the viral genome load in blood and nasal swabs from inoculated and contact pigs, with time. Virus genome in blood was detectable in inoculated pigs from 7 to 77 dpi, whereas viral genome shedding was detectable from nasal swabs from 2 to 48 dpi. The infectiousness of inoculated pigs, assessed from the frequency of occurrence of infected pigs in susceptible groups in each contact trial, increased from 7 to 14 dpi and then decreased slowly until 42 dpi (3, 7, 2, 1 and 0 pigs infected at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 dpi, respectively). These data were used to model the time-dependent infectiousness by a lognormal-like function with a latency period of 1 day and led to an estimated basic reproduction ratio, R0 of 2.6 [1.8, 3.3]. The evolution of infectiousness was mainly correlated with the time-course of viral genome load in the blood whereas the decrease of infectiousness was strongly related to the increase in total antibodies.

2012-01-01

215

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Genotype 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses Emerging in Recent Years in China  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is characterized by its extensive genetic diversity. Here we analyzed 101 sequences of NSP2 hypervariable region, 123 ORF3 sequences, and 118 ORF5 sequences from 128 PRRSV-positive clinical samples collected in different areas of China during 2008–early 2012. The results indicated that the amino acid identities of the three genes among these sequences were 87.6%–100%, 92.5%–100%, and 77%–100%, respectively. Meanwhile, 4 novel patterns of deletion and insertion in NSP2 region or GP5 were first found. The phylogenetic analysis on these 3 genes revealed that the Chinese PRRSV strains could be divided into three subgroups; majority of genes analyzed here were clustered in subgroup 3 with multiple branches; the strains with 30-aa deletion in NSP2-coding region were still the dominant virus in the field. Further phylogenetic analysis on four obtained complete genomic sequences showed that they were clustered into different branches with the Chinese corresponding representative strains. Our analyses suggest that the genetic diversity of genotype 2 PRRSV in the field displays a tendency of increasing in recent years in China, and the 30-aa deletion in NSP2-coding region should be no longer defined as the molecular marker of the Chinese HP-PRRSV.

Zhou, Lei; Yang, Xiaorong; Tian, Yuan; Geng, Gang; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

2014-01-01

216

Characterization of Hantaan virions, the prototype virus of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.  

PubMed

Hantaan virus, strain 76-118, was propagated to high titer in a clone of Vero cells, and infectious virions were successfully concentrated and purified. Infectivity and virus antigenic activity were closely associated with a virus particle that exhibited a sedimentation rate indistinguishable from a representative member of the Bunyaviridae. Purified virions sedimented to a density of 1.16-1.17 in sucrose and 1.20-1.21 in cesium chloride. Detergent disruption of virions resulted in a nucleocapsid structure (density, 1.18 in sucrose and 1.25 in cesium chloride) and soluble protein antigens. Three separate nucleocapsids were resolved by rate-zonal centrifugation and contained a single but common polypeptide of 50,000 daltons. Electrophoresis of radiolabeled RNA extracted from purified virions yielded a profile of three RNA species with apparent molecular weights of 2.7, 1.2, and 0.6 X 10(6). These data support earlier electron microscopy reports which suggested that Hantaan virus has characteristics similar to some members of the virus family Bunyaviridae. PMID:6140290

Schmaljohn, C S; Hasty, S E; Harrison, S A; Dalrymple, J M

1983-12-01

217

Virulence and genotype-associated infectivity of interferon-treated macrophages by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses.  

PubMed

The polarization into M1 and M2 macrophages (M?) is essential to understand M? function. Consequently, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of IFN-? (M1), IL-4 (M2) and IFN-? activation of M? on the susceptibility to genotype 1 and 2 porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) strains varying in virulence. To this end, monocyte-derived M? were generated by culture during 72h and polarization was induced for another 24h by addition of IFN-?, IL-4 or IFN-?. M? were infected with a collection of PRRSV isolates belonging to genotype 1 and genotype 2. Undifferentiated and M2 M? were highly susceptible to all PRRSV isolates. In contrast, M1 and IFN-? activated M? were resistant to low pathogenic genotype 1 PRRSV but not or only partially to genotype 2 PRRSV strains. Interestingly, highly virulent PRRSV isolates of both genotypes showed particularly high levels of infection compared with the prototype viruses in both M1 and IFN-?-treated M? (P<0.05). This was seen at the level of nucleocapsid expression, viral titres and virus-induced cell death. In conclusion, by using IFN-? and IFN-? stimulated M? it is possible to discriminate between PRRSV varying in genotype and virulence. Genotype 2 PRRSV strains are more efficient at escaping the intrinsic antiviral effects induced by type I and II IFNs. Our in vitro model will help to identify viral genetic elements responsible for virulence, an information important not only to understand PRRS pathogenesis but also for a rational vaccine design. Our results also suggest that monocyte-derived M? can be used as a PRRSV infection model instead of alveolar M?, avoiding the killing of pigs. PMID:24220223

García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Baumann, Arnaud; Vielle, Nathalie Jane; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Quereda, Juan José; Pallarés, Francisco José; Ramis, Guillermo; Carrasco, Librado; Summerfield, Artur

2014-01-22

218

Alpha interferon (2b) in combination with zidovudine for the treatment of presymptomatic feline leukemia virus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic efficacies of human recombinant alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IFN-alpha plus zidovudine (AZT), and AZT alone were evaluated in presymptomatic cats with established feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (FAIDS) infection and high levels of persistent antigenemia. Subcutaneous injection of 1.6 x 10(6) U of human recombinant IFN-alpha 2b per kg delivered peak concentrations in plasma of 3,600 U/ml at 2 h postadministration with a half-life of elimination of 2.9 h. This dosage of IFN-alpha could be delivered to cats for up to 12 weeks without significant clinical toxicity. Oral administration of AZT (20 mg/kg three times daily) resulted in peak concentrations in plasma of 3 micrograms/ml at 2 h with a half-life of elimination of approximately 1.60 h. Treatment of FeLV-FAIDS-infected cats with IFN-alpha, either alone or in combination with orally administered AZT, resulted in significant decreases in circulating p27 core antigen beginning 2 weeks after the initiation of therapy. AZT alone had no effect on circulating virus antigen. Depending upon whether high (1.6 x 10(6) U/kg)- or low (1.6 x 10(4) to 1.6 x 10(5) U/kg)-dosage IFN-alpha was used, cats became refractory to therapy 3 or 7 weeks after the beginning of treatment. At these times, IFN-alpha-treated animals developed antibodies to IFN-alpha that were neutralizing, specific for human recombinant IFN-alpha, and dose dependent in magnitude. The results of this study indicate that human recombinant IFN-alpha is effective in reducing circulating virus antigenic load in cats persistently infected with FeLV-FAIDS. However, the continued efficacy of IFN-alpha therapy appeared to be limited by the formation of cytokine-specific neutralizing antibodies. Images

Zeidner, N S; Myles, M H; Mathiason-DuBard, C K; Dreitz, M J; Mullins, J I; Hoover, E A

1990-01-01

219

Risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and resulting challenges for effective disease surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to identify risk factors for active porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection at farm level and to assess the probability of an infected farm being detected through passive disease surveillance in England. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study on 147 farrow-to-finish farms conducted from April 2008 – April 2009. The risk factors for active PRRSV infection were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The surveillance system was evaluated using a stochastic scenario tree model. Results Evidence of PRRSV circulation was confirmed on 35.1% (95%CI: 26.8-43.4) of farms in the cross sectional study, with a higher proportion of infected farms in areas with high pig density (more than 15000 pigs within 10 km radius from the farm). Farms were more likely to have active PRRSV infection if they used the live virus vaccine-Porcilis PRRS (OR=7.5, 95%CI: 2.5-22.8), were located in high pig density areas (OR=2.9, 95%CI: 1.0-8.3) or had dead pigs collected (OR=5.6, 95%CI: 1.7-18.3). Farms that weaned pigs at 28 days of age or later had lower odds of being PRRSV positive compared to those weaning at 21-27 days (OR=0.2, 95%CI: 0.1-0.7). The probability of detecting an infected farm through passive surveillance for disease was low (mode=0.074, 5th and 95th percentiles: 0.067; 0.083 respectively). In particular farms which used live virus vaccine had lower probabilities for detection compared to those which did not. Conclusions Risk factors identified highlight the importance of biosecurity measures for the incursion of PRRSV infection. The results further indicate that a combined approach of surveillance for infection and disease diagnosis is needed to assist effective control and/or elimination of PRRSV from the pig population.

2012-01-01

220

Characterization of two newly emerged isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from Northeast China in 2013.  

PubMed

A newly emerged porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that has caused severe reproductive losses in sows appeared in some regions of China in 2013. To explore the biology of this new PRRSV and understand more fully genetic diversity in PRRSV isolates from China, the complete genome of the two 2013 Chinese isolates, designated HLJA1 and HLJB1, were analyzed. Genomic sequence analysis showed that HLJA1 and HLJB1 shared 88.6-98.3% nucleotide identity with genotype 2 (North American type, NA-type) isolates, but only 61.1% with the genotype 1 (European type, EU-type) isolate of Lelystad virus, indicating that both these isolates belong to the NA-type PRRSV genotype. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the NA-type PRRSV isolates formed three subgroups (1, 2 and 3); representatives of these subgroups are VR-2332, CH-1a and HUN4, respectively. HLJA1 and HLJB1 belong to subgroup 2. Analysis of NSP2 revealed that HLJA1 has a 48-amino acid deletion at positions 473-480 and 482-521, unlike other HP-PRRSV isolates, while HLJB1 has only a 1-amino acid deletion at position 481 compared with CH-1a. Interestingly, HLJA1 replicated in PAM cells but not in MARC-145 cells, whereas HLJB1 replicated in both cell types. The neutralizing antibody titer of pig hyperimmune sera against HUN4 was significantly higher than that of HLJA1 or HLJB1. Additionally, genetic variability in GP5 and GP3 proteins and in the novel ORF5a protein was evident. In addition to elucidating the genetic relationships between PRRSV isolates, our results suggest that Chinese PRRSV will remain a pandemic virus. PMID:24703221

Leng, Chao-liang; Tian, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Wu-chao; Zhang, Hong-liang; Zhai, Hong-yue; An, Tong-qing; Peng, Jin-mei; Ye, Chao; Sun, Long; Wang, Qian; Sun, Yan; Li, Lin; Zhao, Hong-yuan; Chang, Dan; Cai, Xue-hui; Zhang, Gui-hong; Tong, Guang-zhi

2014-06-25

221

Safety of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Virus (MLV) vaccine strains in a young pig infection model  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the safety of all modified live virus vaccines commercially available in Europe against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose, one hundred and twenty three-week-old piglets, divided into five groups, were used. On day 0 of the experiment, nine pigs per group were removed and the remaining fifteen were vaccinated with the commercial vaccines Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Amervac PRRS, Pyrsvac-183 and Porcilis PRRS by the IM route or were mock vaccinated and used as controls. On day 3, the nine unvaccinated pigs were re-introduced into their respective groups and served as sentinel pigs. Clinical signs were recorded daily and lung lesions were determined on days 7, 14 and 21, when 5 vaccinated pigs per group were euthanized. Blood samples and swabs were taken every three days and different organs were collected at necropsy to determine the presence of PRRSV. None of the vaccines studied caused detectable clinical signs in vaccinated pigs although lung lesions were found. Altogether, these results indicate that all vaccines can be considered clinically safe. However, some differences were found in virological parameters. Thus, neither Pyrsvac-183 nor Porcilis PRRS could be detected in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cultures or in lung sections used to determine PRRSV by immunohistochemistry, indicating that these viruses might have lost their ability to replicate in PAM. This inability to replicate in PAM might be related to the lower transmission rate and the delay in the onset of viremia observed in these groups

2013-01-01

222

'Kwanzan Stunting' syndrome: detection and molecular characterization of an Italian isolate of Little cherry virus 1.  

PubMed

Evident stunting was observed for the first time on Prunus serrulata 'Kwanzan' indicator trees in Southern Italy during the indexing of two sour cherry accessions from cultivars 'Marasca di Verona' and 'Spanska'. Bud break and shooting were delayed and the developing leaves remained small. During the third year many Kwanzan plants died, regardless of the indexed cultivar. Electrophoretic analysis showed the presence of dsRNA pattern in extracts of stunted Kwanzan with a similar size to that of viruses of the family Closteroviridae. An identical pattern of more abundant dsRNA bands was obtained from GF305 seedlings grafted with the same sour cherry accessions. Observations by electron microscopy revealed the presence of long flexuous virus particles in both indicators (Kwanzan and GF305), characteristic of closteroviruses. Subsequent cloning work, starting from the dsRNA extracts of cultivar Marasca di Verona grafted on GF305 indicator, yielded 7 different clones, all showing high identity to the Little cherry virus 1 genome. Full sequencing of this virus isolate (ITMAR) was then done resulting in a complete genome composed of 16,936nt. Primers designed on the obtained sequences for RT-PCR detection confirmed the presence of Little cherry virus 1 in Kwanzan and GF305 trees, inoculated with both sour cherry cultivars. Phylogenetic analysis of the minor coat protein grouped virus isolates into two clusters: one including Italian isolates of sweet cherry, Japanese plum, peach and almond, together with German sweet cherry UW1 isolate, and a second one containing the Italian isolates of sour cherry (ITMAR and ITSPA), that were found associated with strong symptoms of 'Kwanzan Stunting'. PMID:19463722

Matic, Slavica; Minafra, Angelantonio; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A; Pallás, Vicente; Myrta, Arben; Martelli, Giovanni P

2009-07-01

223

[Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore virus) in the Peruvian Amazon region].  

PubMed

Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later. PMID:23085803

Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Alvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F

2012-01-01

224

Possession and Morality in Early Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the moment children say "mine!" by two years of age, objects of possession change progressively from being experienced as primarily unalienable property (i.e., something that is absolute or nonnegotiable), to being alienable (i.e., something that is negotiable in reciprocal exchanges). As possession begins to be experienced as alienable, the…

Rochat, Philippe

2011-01-01

225

50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Possession...person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass in, or harvested from the...operator of a fishing vessel issued a black sea bass moratorium permit, or is...

2009-10-01

226

50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Possession...person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass, in, or harvested from the...operator of a fishing vessel issued a black sea bass moratorium permit, or is...

2010-10-01

227

Epilepsy and religious experiences: Voodoo possession.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizures have a historical association with religion, primarily through the concept of spirit possession. Five cases where epileptic seizures were initially attributed to Voodoo spirit possession are presented. The attribution is discussed within the context of the Voodoo belief system. PMID:9952273

Carrazana, E; DeToledo, J; Tatum, W; Rivas-Vasquez, R; Rey, G; Wheeler, S

1999-02-01

228

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Correlation but not Causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseas es. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in

Peter H. Duesberg

1989-01-01

229

Interleukin-21 Overexpression Dominates T Cell Response to Epstein-Barr Virus in a Fatal Case of X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Type 1  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine whose actions are closely related to B cell differentiation into plasma cells as well as to CD8+ cytolytic T cell effector and memory generation, influencing the T lymphocyte response to different viruses. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 (XLP-1) is a primary immunodeficiency syndrome that is characterized by a high susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. We observed in a pediatric patient with XLP-1 that IL-21 was expressed in nearly all peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, IL-21 could not be found in the lymph nodes, suggesting massive mobilization of activated cells toward the infection's target organs, where IL-21-producing cells were detected, resulting in large areas of tissue damage.

Ortega, Consuelo; Estevez, Orlando A.; Fernandez, Silvia; Aguado, Rocio; Rumbao, Jose M.; Gonzalez, Teresa; Perez-Navero, Juan L.

2013-01-01

230

Shotgun Identification of the Structural Proteome of Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus and iTRAQ Differentiation of Envelope and Nucleocapsid Subproteomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen that causes severe mortality and economic losses to shrimp cultivation worldwide. The genome of WSSV con- tains a 305-kb double-stranded circular DNA, which en- codes 181 predicted ORFs. Previous gel-based proteom- ics studies on WSSV have identified 38 structural proteins. In this study, we applied shotgun proteomics using off- line coupling

Zhengjun Li; Qingsong Lin; Jing Chen; Jin Lu Wu; Teck Kwang Lim; Siew See Loh; Xuhua Tang; Choy-Leong Hew

2007-01-01

231

Commercial spray-dried porcine plasma does not transmit porcine circovirus type 2 in weaned pigs challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate if spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP) containing porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) genome supplemented in feed could transmit PCV2 to pigs challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Twenty-three PRRSV-free pigs, non-viraemic for PCV2, were housed in bio-safety level 3 facilities and assigned to four groups in a 2×2 factorial

Joan Pujols; Cristina Lorca-Oró; Ivan Díaz; Louis E. Russell; Joy M. Campbell; Joe D. Crenshaw; Javier Polo; Enric Mateu; Joaquim Segalés

232

Development of an 8-plex Luminex assay to detect swine cytokines for vaccine development: Assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Luminex (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX) multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 8 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum for use in assessment of vaccine candidates. The fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) was tested on archived sera in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine\\/challenge study. This FMIA simultaneously detects innate (IL-1?, IL-8, IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-12), regulatory (IL-10),

Steven Lawson; Joan Lunney; Federico Zuckermann; Fernando Osorio; Eric Nelson; Craig Welbon; Travis Clement; Ying Fang; Susan Wong; Karen Kulas; Jane Christopher-Hennings

2010-01-01

233

Immunization with Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Based Recombinant Vaccine against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Is Associated with Enhanced Hepatitis in Ferrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a newly identified coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a serious emerging human infectious disease. In this report, we immunized ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with recom- binant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) expressing the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein. Immunized ferrets developed a more rapid and vigorous neutralizing antibody response than control animals after challenge with SARS-CoV;

Hana Weingartl; Markus Czub; Stefanie Czub; James Neufeld; Peter Marszal; Jason Gren; Greg Smith; Shane Jones; Roxanne Proulx; Yvonne Deschambault; Elsie Grudeski; Anton Andonov; Runtao He; Yan Li; John Copps; Allen Grolla; Daryl Dick; Jody Berry; Shelley Ganske; Lisa Manning; Jingxin Cao

2004-01-01

234

THE ECONOMIC BURDEN OF ILLNESS FOR HOUSEHOLDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A REVIEW OF STUDIES FOCUSING ON MALARIA, TUBERCULOSIS, AND HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS\\/ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ill-health contributes to impoverishment, a process brought into sharper focus by the impact of the human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS) epidemic. This paper reviews studies that have measured the economic costs and consequences of illness for households, focusing on malaria, tuberculosis (TB), and HIV\\/AIDS. It finds that in resource-poor settings illness imposed high and regressive cost burdens on patients

STEVEN RUSSELL

235

Protection of Shrimp against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) with ?-1,3- d -glucan-encapsulated vp28siRNA Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp viral pathogen responsible for large economic losses to shrimp aquaculture\\u000a all over the world. The RNAi mediated by siRNA contributes a new strategy to control this viral disease. However, the efficient\\u000a approach to deliver the siRNA into shrimp remains to be addressed. In this investigation, an antiviral vp28-siRNA was encapsulated\\u000a in

Fei Zhu; Xiaobo Zhang

236

Immunohistochemical staining of cells in the brain of a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with a monoclonal antibody to visna virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several monoclonal antibodies to different epitopes of the two major core proteins of visna virus, p25 and p15, were tested with the Avidin-Biotin immunostaining method on formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections of brains from patients with aquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who had shown neurological symptoms at death. In one of five AIDS cases a few cells, mainly inflammatory cells, showed

G. Georgsson; D. J. Houwers; K. Steffinsson; P. A. Pfilsson; G. Pétursson

1987-01-01

237

Identification of two auto-cleavage products of nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected cells: nsp1 function as interferon antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 is predicted to be auto-cleaved from the replicase polyprotein into nsp1? and nsp1? subunits. In infected cells, we detected the actual existence of nsp1? and nsp1?. Cleavage sites between nsp1?\\/nsp1? and nsp1?\\/nsp2 were identified by protein microsequencing analysis. Time course study showed that nsp1? and nsp1? mainly localize into the cell nucleus

Z. Chen; S. Lawson; Z. Sun; X. Zhou; X. Guan; J. Christopher-Hennings; E. A. Nelson; Y. Fang

2010-01-01

238

Infection dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a continuous-flow population of pigs also infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight 10-week-old pigs were inoculated intratracheally with 1 × 105 colour-changing units\\/ml Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 232, and another 32 pigs were not inoculated but were divided into 12 direct-contact pigs and 20 indirect-contact pigs. Thirty-five days later, the inoculated pigs were inoculated intranasally with 1 × 102·4tcid50 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) strain mn 30-100. Viraemia, seroconversion

E. Fano; C. Pijoan; S. Dee

2007-01-01

239

MRN-100, an Iron-based Compound, Possesses Anti-HIV Activity In Vitro*  

PubMed Central

We examined the in vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity of MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and tervalent ferrates. MRN-100 action against HIV-1 (SF strain) was tested in primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) by analyzing p24 antigen production and percent survival of MNC infected with HIV. MRN-100 at a concentration of 10% (v/v) inhibited HIV-1 replication in 11 out of 14 samples (79%). The percentage of suppression of p24 antigen was ?12.3 to 100% at 10 days post-treatment. MRN-100 also exhibited a significant protective effect in the survival of HIV-1-infected MNC. MNC survival post-treatment was dose dependent, 70.4% ± 8.4, 83.6% ± 10.7 and 90% ± 11.4, at concentrations 2.5, 5 and 10% (v/v), respectively, as compared with 53% ± 4 for HIV-1-infected MNC without treatment. The effect was detected as early as 4 days and continued up to 11 days. Treatment with MRN-100 caused no significant change in proliferative response of MNC alone or cocultured with different mitogens: PHA and Con-A (activators of T cell function) and PWM (activator of CD4+ T cell-dependent B cells). We concluded that MRN-100 possesses anti-HIV activity in vitro and without an increase in lymphocyte proliferation, MRN-100 may be a useful agent for treating patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Shaheen, Magda

2010-01-01

240

Interaction of the European genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with sialoadhesin (CD169/Siglec-1) inhibits alveolar macrophage phagocytosis  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus that shows a restricted in vivo tropism for subsets of porcine macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being major target cells. The virus is associated with respiratory problems in pigs of all ages and is commonly isolated on farms with porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Due to virus-induced macrophage death early in infection, PRRSV hampers the innate defence against pathogens in the lungs. In addition, the virus might also directly affect the antimicrobial functions of macrophages. This study examined whether interaction of European genotype PRRSV with primary alveolar macrophages (PAM) affects their phagocytic capacity. Inoculation of macrophages with both subtype I PRRSV (LV) and subtype III PRRSV (Lena) showed that the virus inhibits PAM phagocytosis. Similar results were obtained using inactivated PRRSV (LV), showing that initial interaction of the virion with the cell is sufficient to reduce phagocytosis, and that no productive infection is required. When macrophages were incubated with sialoadhesin- (Sn) or CD163-specific antibodies, two entry mediators of the virus, only Sn-specific antibodies downregulated the phagocytic capacity of PAM, indicating that interaction with Sn, but not CD163, mediates the inhibitory effect of PRRSV on phagocytosis. In conclusion, this study shows that European genotype PRRSV inhibits PAM phagocytosis in vitro, through the interaction with its internalization receptor Sn. If similar events occur in vivo, this interaction may be important in the development of PRDC, as often seen in the field.

2012-01-01

241

Isolation and characterization of a Chinese strain of Tembusu virus from Hy-Line Brown layers with acute egg-drop syndrome in Fujian, China.  

PubMed

Tembusu virus (TMUV) has been a causative agent of an acute egg-drop syndrome found in Chinese duck populations since at least 2010. In this paper, we report the characterization of a TMUV-like flavivirus (named CJD05) isolated from naturally infected egg-laying fowl. The virus was identified and then isolated from hens suffering from severe egg drop and fever in Fujian Province, China. The virus replicated well in MDEF and CEF cells, and its cytopathogenic effect (CPE) was apparent. Hemagglutinating activity (HA) was negative for this virus using erythrocytes from both chickens and pigeons. Viral particles were enveloped and approximately 45 nm in diameter, as observed by electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length nucleotide sequence of CJD05 indicated that this virus is closely related to the duck-origin TMUV, belonging to Ntaya group of flavivirus. Most importantly, pathogenicity studies showed that CJD05 is highly virulent in 1-day-old chicks, 1-day-old Muscovy ducks, egg-laying chickens and shelducks. Our research highlights the increase in epidemic disease caused by avian TMUV, and subsequent outbreaks are becoming more complicated to treat. The pathogenic mechanisms of the virus are still not fully understood, further research is needed. PMID:24297489

Chen, Shilong; Wang, Shao; Li, Zhaolong; Lin, Fengqiang; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Xiaoli; Wang, Jingxiang; Chen, Shaoying; Huang, Meiqing; Zheng, Min

2014-05-01

242

Evolution of a TB SCID into an Omenn syndrome phenotype following parainfluenza 3 virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in both of the recombination activating genes (RAG)1 and RAG2 can lead to either T-B-severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) or Omenn syndrome (OS), two diseases presenting with totally different clinical and laboratory manifestations. The fact that the same mutations can cause either T-B- SCID or OS, even within the same family, lends credibility to the hypothesis that an additional

Ilan Dalal; Uri Tabori; Bela Bielorai; Hana Golan; Eli Rosenthal; Ninette Amariglio; Gidi Rechavi; Amos Toren

2005-01-01

243

Subself theory and reincarnation/possession.  

PubMed

A subself model of the mind is used to account for multiple personality, possession, the spirit controls of mediums, reincarnation, and the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenics, with suggestions for empirical research. PMID:15739836

Lester, David

2004-12-01

244

Exorcism and possession in psychotherapy practice.  

PubMed

There has been an evolution in the layman's concept of mental disorder. Medieval belief in possession by demons and witches gave way to a 19th century medical model and more recently classical psychoanalytic formulations. Concurrently professional helping endeavor has moved increasingly from a more traditionally medical to psychotherapeutic process, and from a classical psychotherapeutic process wherein the therapist remained to a degree unresponsive and detached to a more modern emphasis on such qualities as empathy, sensitivity, reliability, and optimism as ingredients of successful psychotherapeutic practice. Freud's account of Haizmann's demonological neurosis usefully formulates the possession concept in psychological terms. However, recent developments in psychotherapeutic practice argue for a validity in the possession model of psychological distress. The possessing forces of object relations psychology are of course not the possessing demons and witches of medieval times but the possessing good and bad objects of early intrapsychic life set up through processes of introjection and incorporation in response to frustration in the early infant-mother relationship. Points of similarity in this comparison should not obscure features of contrast--ther is no place for histrionic manipulation nor for a moralistic attitude in the practice of psychotherapy. A case is described to illustrate these points. PMID:7066843

Henderson, J

1982-03-01

245

Enhanced Saquinavir Exposure in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients with Diarrhea and/or Wasting Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The protease inhibitor saquinavir was administered to 100 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients as a single 600-mg oral dose (hard gelatin capsules) with a standard breakfast, including 200 ml of grapefruit juice, during an open-label trial to assess whether diarrhea and/or wasting syndrome has consequences on its pharmacokinetics. Three groups of patients were enrolled: group 1, asymptomatic patients (n = 30); group 2, AIDS symptomatic patients without body weight loss or diarrhea (n = 37); and group 3, AIDS symptomatic patients with severe body weight loss and/or diarrhea (n = 33). Clinical and biological data (covariates) were collected. A population approach was performed with three blood samples per patient to estimate the mean population pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance [CL]/oral bioavailability [F], V/F, ka, and lag time) and the derived ones (kel, Cmax, Tmax, and area under the curve [AUC]). The relationships between groups, exposure (i.e., estimated individual post hoc AUCs), and covariates were explored by using multiple linear regressions. A significant increase in median AUCs (165, 349, and 705 ng?·?h?·?ml?1 for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively [P < 0.0001]) was observed. The enhancement in saquinavir exposure could be due to the destruction of the transporters in enterocytes and/or to the enlargement of their tight junctions, allowing a paracellular crossing of saquinavir as the illness spreads. Because of grapefruit juice intake by every patient, no implication of CYP3A4 could be assessed. These results strongly suggest that, despite its low intrinsic oral bioavailability, saquinavir can be considered as a relevant treatment for HIV-1-infected patients with diarrhea and/or wasting syndrome. This must be evaluated in a long-term period.

Trout, Herve; Mentre, France; Panhard, Xaviere; Kodjo, Alissi; Escaut, Lelia; Pernet, Pascal; Gobert, Jean-Gerard; Vittecoq, Daniel; Knellwolf, Anne-Laure; Caulin, Charles; Bergmann, Jean-Francois

2004-01-01

246

Effect of dexamethasone on acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by the H5N1 virus in mice.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids are widely used in the treatment of different inflammatory diseases. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by the H5N1 viral infection in mice. BALB/c mice, 6-8 weeks old, were divided into three groups with 80 mice in each. The infected group and the DEX-treated infected group were inoculated intranasally with 1 x 10(2) 50% mouse infectious dose of A/Chicken/Hebei/108/2002 (H5N1) viruses, with daily intraperitoneal injections of PBS, or 2.5 mg.kg(-1) DEX at days 3-14 post inoculation, respectively. The control group received noninfectious allantoic fluid and a daily intraperitoneal injection of PBS. In H5N1-infected mice, DEX treatment did not improve the mortality (17 out of 20 versus 16 out of 20 deaths in the DEX-treated infected group versus the infected group), and did not alleviate clinical signs, including weight loss, decreased food intake and inactivity. There was no significant amelioration of the hypoxaemia and ARDS-associated pathological changes in DEX-treated infected mice, as assessed by blood gas analysis and histological score. Furthermore, DEX therapy did not inhibit inflammatory cellular infiltration and cytokine release (interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid induced by the H5N1 infection. In conclusion, dexamethasone treatment (2.5 mg.kg(-1)) from days 3-14 post inoculation has no beneficial effect on acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by the H5N1 infection in mice. PMID:19129272

Xu, T; Qiao, J; Zhao, L; He, G; Li, K; Wang, J; Tian, Y; Wang, H

2009-04-01

247

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replicates in testicular germ cells, alters spermatogenesis, and induces germ cell death by apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

Like other arteriviruses, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is shed in semen, a feature that is critical for the venereal transmission of this group of viruses. In spite of its epidemiological importance, little is known of the association of PRRSV or other arteriviruses with gonadal tissues. We experimentally infected a group of boars with PRRSV 12068-96, a virulent field strain. By combined use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we detected infection by PRRSV in the testes of these boars. The PRRSV testicular replication in testis centers on two types of cells: (i) epithelial germ cells of the seminiferous tubules, primarily spermatids and spermatocytes, and (ii) macrophages, which are located in the interstitium of the testis. Histopathologically, hypospermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), and abundant germ cell depletion and death were observed. We obtained evidence that such germ cell death occurs by apoptosis, as determined by a characteristic histologic pattern and evidence of massive DNA fragmentation detected in situ (TUNEL [terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated digoxigenin-UTP nick end labeling] assay). Simultaneously with these testicular alterations, we observed that there is a significant increase in the number of immature sperm cells (mainly MGCs, spermatids, and spermatocytes) in the ejaculates of the PRRSV-inoculated boars and that these cells are infected with PRRSV. Our results indicate that PRRSV may infect target cells other than macrophages, that these infected cells can be primarily responsible for the excretion of infectious PRRSV in semen, and that PRRSV induces apoptosis in these germ cells in vivo.

Sur, J H; Doster, A R; Christian, J S; Galeota, J A; Wills, R W; Zimmerman, J J; Osorio, F A

1997-01-01

248

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in an HIV-1 infected patient with disseminated varicella zoster virus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon pathology characterized by the acute onset of headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, seizures and focal neurological deficits. It was initially described in the setting of hypertension, uremia and immunosuppression. In the last decade there have been emerging reports of PRES in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection in the presence of hypertension, dialysis, hypercalcaemia and two opportunistic infections: blastomycosis and tuberculosis (TB). Case presentation Here we present the case of a 54 year old male being treated for disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) and vasculopathy in the setting of HIV infection who acutely deteriorated to the point of requiring intubation. His clinicoradiological diagnosis was of PRES and he subsequently improved within 72 h with supportive management. Serial neuroimaging correlated with the clinical findings. The pathogenesis of PRES is poorly understood but is thought to stem from vasogenic oedema either as a result of loss of endothelial integrity and transudate of fluid across the blood–brain barrier, or secondary to vasospasm resulting in tissue oedema in the absence of infarction. How HIV infection impacts on this model is unclear. It is possible the HIV infection causes endothelial dysfunction and disruption of the blood–brain barrier that may be further exacerbated by infections in the central nervous system. Conclusion The phenomenon of PRES in advanced HIV is an important clinical entity for both physicians and critical care doctors to recognize firstly given its potential mortality but also because of its favourable prognosis and reversibility with supportive care and treatment of underlying causes.

2013-01-01

249

Structure of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Complex with Suramin Reveals Therapeutic Potential  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV). Lack of vaccines and inadequate therapeutic treatments have made the spread of the virus a global concern. Viral nucleocapsid protein (N) is essential for its transcription and replication. Here, we present the crystal structures of N from SFTSV and its homologs from Buenaventura (BUE) and Granada (GRA) viruses. The structures reveal that phleboviral N folds into a compact core domain and an extended N-terminal arm that mediates oligomerization, such as tetramer, pentamer, and hexamer of N assemblies. Structural superimposition indicates that phleboviral N adopts a conserved architecture and uses a similar RNA encapsidation strategy as that of RVFV-N. The RNA binding cavity runs along the inner edge of the ring-like assembly. A triple mutant of SFTSV-N, R64D/K67D/K74D, almost lost its ability to bind RNA in vitro, is deficient in its ability to transcribe and replicate. Structural studies of the mutant reveal that both alterations in quaternary assembly and the charge distribution contribute to the loss of RNA binding. In the screening of inhibitors Suramin was identified to bind phleboviral N specifically. The complex crystal structure of SFTSV-N with Suramin was refined to a 2.30-Å resolution. Suramin was found sitting in the putative RNA binding cavity of SFTSV-N. The inhibitory effect of Suramin on SFTSV replication was confirmed in Vero cells. Therefore, a common Suramin-based therapeutic approach targeting SFTSV-N and its homologs could be developed for containing phleboviral outbreaks.

Jiao, Lianying; Ouyang, Songying; Liang, Mifang; Niu, Fengfeng; Shaw, Neil; Wu, Wei; Ding, Wei; Jin, Cong; Peng, Yao; Zhu, Yanping; Zhang, Fushun; Wang, Tao; Li, Chuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Luan, Chi-Hao; Li, Dexin

2013-01-01

250

Confirmation of Choclo Virus as the Cause of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and high serum antibody prevalence in Panama  

PubMed Central

Choclo virus (CHOV) was described in sigmodontine rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, and humans during an outbreak of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in 1999 to 2000 in western Panama. Although HCPS is rare, hantavirus-specific serum antibody prevalence among the general population is high suggesting that CHOV may cause many mild or asymptomatic infections. The goals of this study were to confirm the role of CHOV in HCPS and in the frequently detected serum antibody and to established the phylogenetic relationship with other New World hantaviruses. CHOV was cultured to facilitate the sequencing of the small (S) and medium (M) segments and to perform CHOV-specific serum neutralization antibody assays. Sequences of the S and M segments found a close relationship to other Oligoryzomys-borne hantaviruses in the Americas, highly conserved terminal nucleotides, and no evidence for recombination events. The maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses of complete M segment nucleotide sequences indicate a close relationship to Maporal and Laguna Negra viruses, found at the base of the South American clade. In a focus neutralization assay acute and convalescent sera from 6 Panamanian HCPS patients neutralized CHOV in dilutions from 1:200 to 1:6400. In a sample of antibody-positive adults without a history of HCPS, 9 of 10 sera neutralized CHOV in dilutions ranging from 1:100 to 1:6400. Although cross-neutralization with other sympatric hantaviruses not yet associated with human disease is possible, CHOV appears to be the causal agent for most of the mild or asymptomatic hantavirus infections, as well as HCPS, in Panama.

Nelson, Randin; Canate, Raul; Pascale, Juan Miguel; Dragoo, Jerry W.; Armien, Blas; Armien, Anibal G.; Koster, Frederick

2010-01-01

251

Highly Divergent Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Incorporate Multiple Isoforms of Nonstructural Protein 2 into Virions  

PubMed Central

Viral structural proteins form the critical intermediary between viral infection cycles within and between hosts, function to initiate entry, participate in immediate early viral replication steps, and are major targets for the host adaptive immune response. We report the identification of nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) as a novel structural component of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) particle. A set of custom ?-nsp2 antibodies targeting conserved epitopes within four distinct regions of nsp2 (the PLP2 protease domain [OTU], the hypervariable domain [HV], the putative transmembrane domain [TM], and the C-terminal region [C]) were obtained commercially and validated in PRRSV-infected cells. Highly purified cell-free virions of several PRRSV strains were isolated through multiple rounds of differential density gradient centrifugation and analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) and Western blot assays using the ?-nsp2 antibodies. Purified viral preparations were found to contain pleomorphic, predominantly spherical virions of uniform size (57.9 nm ± 8.1 nm diameter; n = 50), consistent with the expected size of PRRSV particles. Analysis by IEM indicated the presence of nsp2 associated with the viral particle of diverse strains of PRRSV. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of nsp2 in purified viral samples and revealed that multiple nsp2 isoforms were associated with the virion. Finally, a recombinant PRRSV genome containing a myc-tagged nsp2 was used to generate purified virus, and these particles were also shown to harbor myc-tagged nsp2 isoforms. Together, these data identify nsp2 as a virion-associated structural PRRSV protein and reveal that nsp2 exists in or on viral particles as multiple isoforms.

Kappes, Matthew A.; Miller, Cathy L.

2013-01-01

252

A Phase 1 clinical trial of Hantaan virus and Puumala virus M-segment DNA vaccines for haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome delivered by intramuscular electroporation.  

PubMed

Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is endemic in Asia, Europe and Scandinavia, and is caused by infection with the hantaviruses Hantaan (HTNV), Seoul (SEOV), Puumala (PUUV), or Dobrava (DOBV) viruses. We developed candidate DNA vaccines for HFRS expressing the Gn and Gc genes of HTNV or PUUV and evaluated them in an open-label, single-centre Phase 1 study. Three groups of nine participants each were vaccinated on days 0, 28 and 56 with the DNA vaccines for HTNV, PUUV, or a mixture of both vaccines using the Ichor Medical Systems TriGrid™ Intramuscular Delivery System. All vaccinations consisted of a total dose of 2.0 mg DNA in an injected volume of 1 mL saline. For the combined vaccine, the mixture contained equal amounts (1.0 mg) of each DNA vaccine. There were no study-related serious adverse events. Neutralizing antibody responses were measured by a plaque reduction neutralization test. Neutralizing antibody responses were detected in five of nine and seven of nine individuals who completed all three vaccinations with the HTNV or PUUV DNA vaccines, respectively. In the combined vaccine group, seven of the nine volunteers receiving all three vaccinations developed neutralizing antibodies to PUUV. The three strongest responders to the PUUV vaccine also had strong neutralizing antibody responses to HTNV. These results demonstrate that the HTNV and PUUV DNA vaccines delivered by electroporation separately or as a mixture are safe. In addition, both vaccines were immunogenic, although when mixed together, more participants responded to the PUUV than to the HTNV DNA vaccine. PMID:24447183

Hooper, J W; Moon, J E; Paolino, K M; Newcomer, R; McLain, D E; Josleyn, M; Hannaman, D; Schmaljohn, C

2014-05-01

253

Detection of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Brains of Cattle with a Neurological Syndrome: Pathological and Molecular Studies  

PubMed Central

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was investigated in the central nervous system (CNS) of cattle with neurological syndrome. A total of 269 CNS samples were submitted to nested-PCR (BLV env gene gp51), and the viral genotypes were identified. The nested-PCR was positive in 4.8% (13/269) CNS samples, with 2.7% (2/74) presenting at histological examination lesions of nonpurulent meningoencephalitis (NPME), whereas 5.6% (11/195) not presenting NPME (P > 0.05). No samples presented lymphosarcoma. The PCR products (437?bp) were sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis by neighbor-joining and maximum composite likelihood methods, and genotypes 1, 5, and 6 were detected, corroborating other South American studies. The genotype 6 barely described in Brazil and Argentina was more frequently detected in this study. The identity matrices showed maximum similarity (100%) among some samples of this study and one from Argentina (FJ808582), recovered from GenBank. There was no association among the genotypes and NPME lesions.

D'Angelino, Rubens Henrique Ramos; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Harakava, Ricardo; Gregori, Fabio

2013-01-01

254

Modulation of Intracellular Restriction Factors Contributes to Methamphetamine-Mediated Enhancement of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Virus Infection of Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of methamphetamine (METH), a sympathomimetic stimulant, is particularly common among patients infected with HIV. In vitro studies have determined that METH enhances HIV infection of CD4+ T cells, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and macrophages. In addition, animal studies have also showed that METH treatment increases brain viral load of SIV-infected monkeys and promotes HIV replication and viremia in HIV/hu-CycT1 transgenic mice. However, the mechanisms (s) of METH actions on HIV remain to be determined. In this study, we investigated the impact of METH on intracellular restriction factors against HIV and SIV. We demonstrated that METH treatment of human blood mononuclear phagocytes significantly affected the expression of anti-HIV microRNAs and several key elements (RIG-I, IRF-3/5, SOCS-2, 3 and PIAS-1, 3, X, Y) in the type I IFN pathway. The suppression of these innate restriction factors was associated with a reduced production of type I IFNs and the enhancement of HIV or SIV infection of macrophages. These findings indicate that METH use impairs intracellular innate antiviral mechanism(s) in macrophages, contributing to cell susceptibility to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus infection.

Wang, Xu; Wang, Yizhong; Ye, Li; Li, Jieliang; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Sinem; Ho, Wenzhe

2014-01-01

255

Detection of bovine leukemia virus in brains of cattle with a neurological syndrome: pathological and molecular studies.  

PubMed

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was investigated in the central nervous system (CNS) of cattle with neurological syndrome. A total of 269 CNS samples were submitted to nested-PCR (BLV env gene gp51), and the viral genotypes were identified. The nested-PCR was positive in 4.8% (13/269) CNS samples, with 2.7% (2/74) presenting at histological examination lesions of nonpurulent meningoencephalitis (NPME), whereas 5.6% (11/195) not presenting NPME (P > 0.05). No samples presented lymphosarcoma. The PCR products (437?bp) were sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis by neighbor-joining and maximum composite likelihood methods, and genotypes 1, 5, and 6 were detected, corroborating other South American studies. The genotype 6 barely described in Brazil and Argentina was more frequently detected in this study. The identity matrices showed maximum similarity (100%) among some samples of this study and one from Argentina (FJ808582), recovered from GenBank. There was no association among the genotypes and NPME lesions. PMID:23710448

D'Angelino, Rubens Henrique Ramos; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Harakava, Ricardo; Gregori, Fábio; Del Fava, Claudia

2013-01-01

256

Antiviral effect of dietary germanium biotite supplementation in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium. The present study was conducted to better understand the effects of GB on immune responses in a mouse model, and to demonstrate the clearance effects of this mineral against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of a feed supplement that would promote immune activity and help prevent diseases. In the mouse model, dietary supplementation with GB enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and increased the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV, viral titers in lungs and lymphoid tissues from the GB-fed group were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group 12 days post-infection. Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that GB-fed pigs displayed less severe pathological changes associated with PRRSV infection compared to the control group, indicating that GB promotes PRRSV clearance. These antiviral effects in pigs may be related to the ability of GB to increase CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte production observed in the mice. Hence, this mineral may be an effective feed supplement for increasing immune activity and preventing disease. PMID:23814470

Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo

2013-01-01

257

Can persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection induce chronic fatigue syndrome as a Pavlov reflex of the immune response?  

PubMed

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a protracted illness condition (lasting even years) appearing with strong flu symptoms and systemic defiances by the immune system. Here, by means of statistical mechanics techniques, we study the most widely accepted picture for its genesis, namely a persistent acute mononucleosis infection, and we show how such infection may drive the immune system towards an out-of-equilibrium metastable state displaying chronic activation of both humoral and cellular responses (a state of full inflammation without a direct 'causes-effect' reason). By exploiting a bridge with a neural scenario, we mirror killer lymphocytes T(K) and B cells to neurons and helper lymphocytes [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] to synapses, hence showing that the immune system may experience the Pavlov conditional reflex phenomenon: if the exposition to a stimulus (Epstein-Barr virus antigens) lasts for too long, strong internal correlations among B,T(K) and T(H) may develop ultimately resulting in a persistent activation even though the stimulus itself is removed. These outcomes are corroborated by several experimental findings. PMID:22873615

Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Vidal, Kristian Gervasi; Guerra, Francesco

2012-01-01

258

Grade 4 febrile neutropenia and Fournier's Syndrome associated with triple therapy for hepatitis C virus: A case report  

PubMed Central

The use of triple therapy for hepatitis C not only increases the rate of sustained virological responses compared with the use of only interferon and ribavirin (RBV) but also leads to an increased number of side effects. The subject of this study was a 53-year-old male who was cirrhotic with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 A and was a previous null non-responder. We initially attempted retreatment with boceprevir (BOC), Peg-interferon and RBV, and a decrease in viral load was observed in the 8th week. In week 12, he presented with disorientation, flapping, fever, tachypnea, arterial hypotension and tachycardia. He also exhibited leucopenia with neutropenia. Cefepime and filgrastim were initiated, and treatment for hepatitis C was suspended. A myelogram revealed hypoplasia, cytotoxicity and maturational retardation. After 48 h, he developed bilateral inguinal erythema that evolved throughout the perineal area to the root of the thighs, with exulcerations and an outflow of seropurulent secretions. Because we hypothesized that he was suffering from Fournier’s Syndrome, treatment was replaced with the antibiotics imipenem, linezolid and clindamycin. After this new treatment paradigm was initiated, his lesions regressed without requiring surgical debridement. Triple therapy requires knowledge regarding the management of adverse effects and drug interactions; it also requires an understanding of the importance of respecting the guidelines for the withdrawal of treatment. In this case report, we observed an adverse event that had not been previously reported in the literature with the use of BOC.

Oliveira, Kelly Cristhian Lima; Cardoso, Emili de Oliveira Bortolon; de Souza, Suzana Carla Pereira; Machado, Flavia Souza; Zangirolami, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Moreira, Alecsandro; Silva, Giovanni Faria; de Oliveira, Cassio Vieira

2014-01-01

259

New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS. PMID:22157244

Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

2013-04-01

260

Sodium alginate from Sargassum wightii retards mortalities in Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii (16.35 ± 1.42%, mean [±SD] yield from 5 extractions) was prepared as a powder or beads and used to enrich Artemia nauplii at concentrations of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg l-1. The alginate-enriched nauplii were fed to Penaeus monodon shrimp postlarvae (PL) stage 15 (PL15, i.e. 15 d old) for 20 d. Mean weight gain and specific growth rate over this period were 0.24 g and 15.8%, respectively, in PL groups not fed alginate, and 0.20-0.28 g and 14.7-16.5%, respectively, in PL groups fed alginate. Amongst PL35 then challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by immersion, all PL not fed alginate died within 9 d. However, amongst PL fed the 4 concentrations of alginate powder or beads, mortality rates reduced with increasing alginate concentration, and between 25 and 32% PL remained alive when the bioassay was terminated on Day 21. Amongst alginate-fed PL groups compared with the control group, mortality was reduced by 26.5 to 58.4%. Nested PCR detection of WSSV revealed sodium alginate concentration-dependent reductions in infection loads. The data indicate that sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed and fed to P. monodon can retard progression of WSSV disease. PMID:22832717

Immanuel, Grasian; Sivagnanavelmurugan, Madasasmy; Balasubramanian, Varatharajan; Palavesam, Arunachalam

2012-07-25

261

An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India  

PubMed Central

A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8?mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds.

Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K. M.; Mohamed Hatha, A. A.

2012-01-01

262

Antiviral effect of dietary germanium biotite supplementation in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium. The present study was conducted to better understand the effects of GB on immune responses in a mouse model, and to demonstrate the clearance effects of this mineral against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of a feed supplement that would promote immune activity and help prevent diseases. In the mouse model, dietary supplementation with GB enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and increased the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV, viral titers in lungs and lymphoid tissues from the GB-fed group were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group 12 days post-infection. Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that GB-fed pigs displayed less severe pathological changes associated with PRRSV infection compared to the control group, indicating that GB promotes PRRSV clearance. These antiviral effects in pigs may be related to the ability of GB to increase CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte production observed in the mice. Hence, this mineral may be an effective feed supplement for increasing immune activity and preventing disease.

Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A

2013-01-01

263

Interaction between single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines on dually infected pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and/or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination on dually infected pigs. In total, 72 pigs were randomly divided into nine groups (eight pigs per group), as follows: five vaccinated and challenged groups, three non-vaccinated and challenged groups, and a negative control group. Single-dose vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone decreased the levels of PRRSV viremia and PRRSV-induced pulmonary lesions, whereas single-dose vaccination against PRRSV alone did not decrease nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and mycoplasma-induced pulmonary lesions in the dually infected pigs. The M. hyopneumoniae challenge impaired the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the PRRSV vaccine, whereas the PRRSV challenge did not impair the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study provides swine practitioners and producers with efficient vaccination regimes; vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae is the first step in protecting pigs against co-infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. PMID:24702900

Park, Su-Jin; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

2014-06-01

264

Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors  

PubMed Central

We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 ?m long and 850-485 ?m wide constructed from 8 ?m thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody-coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label-free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label-free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100 virions (nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions (nucleocapsids)/100?l, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label-free, in-situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation.

Capobianco, Joseph; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.

2011-01-01

265

Evaluation of an air-filtration system for preventing aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a commercial air-filtration system to reduce aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The system consisted of a pre-filter and 2 filters with EU8 and EU13 ratings. In each of 4 trials, 5 PRRSV-infected donor pigs and 1 naïve recipient pig (each 25 kg) were housed in opposing chambers connected by a 1.3-m-long duct. The system filtered air entering 1 recipient-pig chamber (filtered facility) from the donor- chamber but not a 2nd recipient-pig chamber (nonfiltered facility). The donor pigs had been experimentally infected with PRRSV MN-184, an isolate previously documented to be shed at a high frequency in contagious aerosols. On days 3 to 7 after infection of the donors, the 2 groups were housed in their respective chambers for 6 h and then in separate facilities, where samples were collected for testing by polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay over 14 d. Aerosol transmission was observed in 6 of the 20 replicates in the nonfiltered facility, whereas all pigs remained PRRSV-negative in the filtered facility; the difference was significant at P < 0.01. Thus, under the conditions of this study, the air-filtration system evaluated appeared to be highly effective at reducing aerosol transmission of PRRSV.

2005-01-01

266

Serological characterization of dengue virus infections observed among dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome cases in upper Myanmar.  

PubMed

In Myanmar, dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children. From Pyinmana Hospital in 2004 and Mandalay Children Hospital in 2006, 160 patients diagnosed clinically to have DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were examined for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels. A focus reduction neutralization test was also used to determine primary or secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection. By using IgM-capture ELISA, 139 cases were confirmed as DENV infections. Of these IgM-positives, 94 samples were collected 7-24 days from the onset of illness, to which 13 (14%) and 81 (86%) were determined to be primary and secondary DENV infections, respectively. The 13 primary DENV infection cases were spread among the various severity groups (DHF grade I-IV and DSS) and represented age groups ranging from <1 year of age to 9 years of age. The patients in these primary infection cases showed a remarkably high IgM with a low IgG titer response compared with the secondary infection cases. No significant differences were observed in IgG titers with clinical severity. The data obtained in this study suggest that primary DENV infection cases exist certainly among DHF/DSS cases in Myanmar, and that additional mechanism(s) aside from the antibody-dependent enhancement mechanism could have influenced the clinical severity in DHF/DSS cases. PMID:23595687

Ngwe Tun, Mya Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Kurosawa, Yae; Lwin, Yee Yee; Lin, Sanda; Aye, Kay Thi; Thet Khin, Pe; Myint, Tin; Htwe, Khin; Mapua, Cynthia A; Natividad, Filipinas F; Hirayama, Kenji; Morita, Kouichi

2013-07-01

267

Interferon-gamma in a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.  

PubMed

A 20-month-old male with fulminant infectious mononucleosis and the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) was studied. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) and EBV DNA were detected in various tissues. Despite a combined treatment with acyclovir, immunoglobulin, and methylprednisolone, the patient deteriorated rapidly. Following treatment with recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), defervescence occurred and circulating EBNA-positive cells markedly decreased. IFN-gamma prior to treatment ranged from 10.8 to 24.5 U/ml in the patient's serum and increased linearly post exogenous IFN-gamma treatment. His natural killer (NK)-cell activity remained in the normal range throughout his illness but autologous EBV-infected cells were not killed in vitro by his peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). These results suggest that patients with the fatal infectious mononucleosis phenotype of XLP may produce endogenous IFN-gamma. Defective cytotoxic T cells against EBV-infected cells seem to be responsible for the fulminant infectious mononucleosis in this patient. PMID:2539385

Okano, M; Thiele, G M; Kobayashi, R H; Davis, J R; Synovec, M S; Grierson, H L; Jaffe, H S; Purtilo, D T

1989-01-01

268

Immune modulations and protection by translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in Fenneropenaeus indicus harboring white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

Fenneropenaeus indicus translationally controlled tumor protein (Fi-TCTP) was cloned and expressed using pET 100a-D-TOPO in prokaryotic expression system and it exhibited putative antioxidant activity as assessed in vitro by enhanced growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The protective efficacy of recombinant Fi-TCTP (rFi-TCTP) was evaluated in F. indicus by intramuscular and oral administration. Intramuscular injection of rFi-TCTP to shrimps, on subsequent white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection exhibited 42% relative percent survival. To understand the mechanism of protection, immunological parameters such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), phenoloxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed in early (24h) and late (60h) stages of infection. rFi-TCTP pretreatment significantly lowers the WSSV induced ROS generation and respiratory burst during early and late stages of infection. Further, WSSV induced apoptotic changes such as reduced haemocyte count, loss in MMP and DNA fragmentation were significantly reduced during early and late stage of infection upon rFi-TCTP administration. Hence, the immunomodulatory studies suggest that protective effect of rFi-TCTP in treated shrimps, might be due to the reduction in ROS and apoptosis, following decreased mitochondrial damage together with reduced phenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst. PMID:24837973

Rajesh, S; Kamalakannan, V; Narayanan, R B

2014-07-01

269

A Novel Compound from the Mushroom Cryptoporus volvatus Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a serious contagious disease in the swine industry. At present, there are no effective control strategies against PRRSV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment regimens that have efficacious antiviral activity to compensate for vaccines. The anti-infective effect of Cryptoporus volvatus has previously been demonstrated in Tradational Chinese Medicine. In this report, we expected to identify a new anti-PRRSV agent in the aqueous extract of C. volvatus, by employing a combination of modern chromatographic purification techniques and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Our results showed that C. volvatus extracts from every separation step differed in their inhibitory potency on PRRSV. One anti-PRRSV component designated as CM-H-L-5 was isolated from water-soluble fraction of C. volvatus. The inhibition induced by CM-H-L-5 occurred in a dose-dependent manner. CM-H-L-5 appeared to be a low-molecular-weight polyol fragment with amide groups and carboxylic acid groups. Collectively, our findings imply that CM-H-L-5 from the aqueous extract of C. volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapy.

Ma, Zengqiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Mengjuan; Wang, Hexiang; Feng, Wen-hai; Ng, Tzi Bun

2013-01-01

270

Cytokines transcript levels in lung and lymphoid organs during genotype 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection.  

PubMed

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine. PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection in the pig is characterized by a weak or absent host innate immune response. The underlying mechanisms of PRRSV pathogenesis are still unclear. The analysis of transcript levels represents an alternative to immunoassays for the detection of cytokines that sometimes are difficult to detect due to their low amounts. This study sets out to determine the differences in pathogenesis and the immune response between lung, tonsil, tracheobronchial lymph node (Tb-LN) and retropharyngeal LN (Rf-LN) of PRRSV 2982 strain infected pigs. PRRSV strain 2982 avoided the onset of an effective innate immune response, especially in PRRSV main target (lung) and reservoir (tonsil) organs. PRRSV lead to an impaired expression of IFN-? and TNF-? gene expression, which finally induced a weak and delayed adaptive immune response through an inefficient IL-12 and IFN-? expression. Finally, PRRSV replication favored the expression of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine in infected pigs. PMID:24726859

García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Quereda, Juan José; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Carrasco, Librado; Ramis, Guillermo; Pallarés, Francisco José

2014-07-15

271

Experimental infection of United States swine with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of Type 2 highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) in 10-week old swine in the United States was investigated. rJXwn06, rescued from an infectious clone of Chinese HP-PRRSV, replicated in swine with at least 100-fold increased kinetics over U.S. strain VR-2332. rJXwn06 caused significant weight loss, exacerbated disease due to bacterial sepsis and more severe histopathological lung lesions in pigs exposed to HP-PRRSV than to those infected with VR-2332. Novel findings include identification of bacterial species present, the degree of thymic atrophy seen, and the inclusion of contact animals that highlighted the ability of HP-PRRSV to rapidly transmit between animals. Furthermore, comprehensive detailed cytokine analysis of serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and tracheobronchial lymph node tissue homogenate revealed a striking elevation in levels of cytokines associated with both innate and adaptive immunity in HP-PRRSV infected swine, and showed that contact swine differed in the degree of cytokine response. PMID:23079105

Guo, Baoqing; Lager, Kelly M; Henningson, Jamie N; Miller, Laura C; Schlink, Sarah N; Kappes, Matthew A; Kehrli, Marcus E; Brockmeier, Susan L; Nicholson, Tracy L; Yang, Han-Chun; Faaberg, Kay S

2013-01-20

272

Interactome Profile of the Host Cellular Proteins and the Nonstructural Protein 2 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

The nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) is considered to be one of crucial viral proteins in the replication and pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In the present study, the host cellular proteins that interact with the NSP2 of PRRSV were immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody from the MARC-145 cells infected by a recombinant PRRSV with 3xMyc tag insertion in its NSP2-coding region, and then 285 cellular proteins interacting with NSP2 were identified by LC-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology and enriched KEGG Pathway bioinformatics analyses indicated that the identified proteins could be assigned to different subcellular locations and functional classes. Functional analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with infectious disease, translation, immune system, nervous system and signal transduction. Two interested cellular proteins–BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6) and apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) which may involve in transporting of NSP2 to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or PRRSV-driven apoptosis were validated by Western blot. The interactome data between PRRSV NSP2 and cellular proteins contribute to the understanding of the roles of NSP2 in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV, and also provide novel cellular target proteins for elucidating the associated molecular mechanisms of the interaction of host cellular proteins with viral proteins in regulating the viral replication.

Zhang, Han; Li, Yan; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yu, Kangzhen; Yang, Hanchun

2014-01-01

273

Identifying putative candidate genes and pathways involved in immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.  

PubMed

Differences in gene expression were compared between RNAs from lungs of high (HR) and low (LR) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) burden pigs using the swine protein-annotated long oligonucleotide microarray, the Pigoligoarray. Pathway analyses were carried out to determine biological processes, pathways and networks that differ between the LR and HR responses. Differences existed between HR and LR pigs for 16 signalling pathways [P < 0.01/-log (P-value) >1.96]. Top canonical pathways included acute phase response signalling, crosstalk between dendritic cells and natural killer cells and tight junction signalling, with numerous immune response genes that were upregulated (SOCS1, SOD2, RBP4, HLA-B, HLA-G, PPP2R1A and TAP1) or downregulated (IL18, TF, C4BPA, C1QA, C1QB and TYROBP). One mechanism, regulation of complement activation, may have been blocked in HR (PRRSV-susceptible) pigs and could account for the poor clearance of PRRSV by infected macrophages. Multiple inhibiting signals may have prevented effective immune responses in susceptible HR pigs, although some protective genes were upregulated in these pigs. It is likely that in HR pigs, expression of genes associated with protection was delayed, so that the immune response was not stimulated early; thus, PRRSV infection prevented protective immune responses. PMID:22486506

Wysocki, M; Chen, H; Steibel, J P; Kuhar, D; Petry, D; Bates, J; Johnson, R; Ernst, C W; Lunney, J K

2012-06-01

274

Shrimp Taura syndrome virus detection by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows rapid amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions using four sets of specially designed primers that recognize six distinct target sequences with high specificity and sensitivity. In this report, a 60-min reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) method for amplification of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) cDNA using biotin-labeled primer was combined with a chromatographic lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for rapid and simple visual detection of TSV-specific amplicons. The LFD process involved a 5-min post RT-LAMP step for specific hybridization of cDNA with an FITC-labeled DNA probe that confirmed the presence of specific, biotin-labeled TSV amplicons. The resulting DNA duplexes could be visualized trapped at the LFD strip test line within 5min of sample exposure. Using the combined RT-LAMP and LFD system, the total assay interval was approximately 70min, excluding RNA extraction time. Detection sensitivity was comparable to other commonly used methods for nested RT-PCR detection of TSV. In addition to reduced assay time when compared to electrophoresis, combination of RT-LAMP with LFD confirms amplicon identity by hybridization and eliminates the need to handle carcinogenic ethidium bromide. PMID:18662723

Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Arunrut, Narong; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Flegel, T W

2008-11-01

275

Dobrava virus carried by the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis, causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Romania.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been confirmed by serological methods during recent years in Romania. In the present study, focus-reduction neutralization tests (FRNT) confirmed Dobrava hantavirus (DOBV) as the causative agent in some HFRS cases, but could not distinguish between DOBV and Saaremaa virus (SAAV) infections in other cases. DOBV was detected by a DOBV-specific TaqMan assay in sera of nine patients out of 22 tested. Partial sequences of the M genomic segment of DOBV were obtained from sera of three patients and revealed the circulation of two DOBV lineages in Romania. Investigation of rodents trapped in Romania found three DOBV-positive Apodemus flavicollis out of 83 rodents tested. Two different DOBV lineages were also detected in A. flavicollis as determined from partial sequences of the M and S genomic segments. Sequences of DOBV in A. flavicollis were either identical or closely related to the sequences obtained from the HFRS patients. The DOBV strains circulating in Romania clustered in two monophyletic groups, together with strains from Slovenia and the north of Greece. This is the first evidence for the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents and for a DOBV etiology of HFRS in Romania. PMID:24746107

Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca Ioana; Sirbu, Anca; Dinu, Sorin; Waldstrom, Maria; Heyman, Paul; Murariu, Dimitru; Petrescu, Angela; Szmal, Camelia; Oprisan, Gabriela; Lundkvist, Ake; Ceianu, Cornelia S

2014-05-01

276

Molecular characterization, immune response against white spot syndrome virus infection of peroxiredoxin 4 in Fenneropenaeus chinensis and its antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of antioxidant proteins and perform important functions in intracellular signal transduction. Here, we report a Prx gene from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The full-length cDNA of FcPrx gene contained an open reading frame of 735 bp encoding a polypeptide of 275 amino acids. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid of FcPrx is 27445.43 Da with an estimated pI of 5.71. Sequence comparison showed that the FcPrx shares high identities with Prx IVs and it was named FcPrx4. A real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to assess the mRNA expression of FcPrx4 in different tissues and temporal expression in hemocytes and hepatopancreas of F. chinensis challenged by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Transcripts of FcPrx4 can be detected in all tissues examined. The expression of FcPrx4 showed significant up-regulation in shrimp hemocytes and hepatopancreas after artificial infection with WSSV. A fusion protein containing FcPrx4 was produced in vitro and was confirmed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) assay. And activity analysis indicated that the recombinant FcPrx4 proteins can reduce H2O2 in the presence of dithiothreitol. PMID:24418456

Zhang, Qingli; Huang, Jie; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Qinghui; Wei, Jiankai; Liang, Gaofeng; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-03-01

277

A novel Sin Nombre virus DNA vaccine and its inclusion in a candidate pan-hantavirus vaccine against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)?  

PubMed Central

Sin Nombre virus (SNV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) causes a hemorrhagic fever known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. There have been approximately 200 fatal cases of HPS in the United States since 1993, predominantly in healthy working-age males (case fatality rate 35%). There are no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat HPS. Previously, we reported that hantavirus vaccines based on the full-length M gene segment of Andes virus (ANDV) for HPS in South America, and Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, all elicited high-titer neutralizing antibodies in animal models. HFRS is more prevalent than HPS (>20,000 cases per year) but less pathogenic (case fatality rate 1–15%). Here, we report the construction and testing of a SNV full-length M gene-based DNA vaccine to prevent HPS. Rabbits vaccinated with the SNV DNA vaccine by muscle electroporation (mEP) developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated three times with the SNV DNA vaccine using a gene gun were completely protected against SNV infection. This is the first vaccine of any kind that specifically elicits high-titer neutralizing antibodies against SNV. To test the possibility of producing a pan-hantavirus vaccine, rabbits were vaccinated by mEP with an HPS mix (ANDV and SNV plasmids), or HFRS mix (HTNV and PUUV plasmids), or HPS/HFRS mix (all four plasmids). The HPS mix and HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies predominantly against ANDV/SNV and HTNV/PUUV, respectively. Furthermore, the HPS/HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies against all four viruses. These findings demonstrate a pan-hantavirus vaccine using a mixed-plasmid DNA vaccine approach is feasible and warrants further development.

Hooper, Jay W.; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Brocato, Rebecca

2014-01-01

278

A novel Sin Nombre virus DNA vaccine and its inclusion in a candidate pan-hantavirus vaccine against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).  

PubMed

Sin Nombre virus (SNV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) causes a hemorrhagic fever known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. There have been approximately 200 fatal cases of HPS in the United States since 1993, predominantly in healthy working-age males (case fatality rate 35%). There are no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat HPS. Previously, we reported that hantavirus vaccines based on the full-length M gene segment of Andes virus (ANDV) for HPS in South America, and Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, all elicited high-titer neutralizing antibodies in animal models. HFRS is more prevalent than HPS (>20,000 cases per year) but less pathogenic (case fatality rate 1-15%). Here, we report the construction and testing of a SNV full-length M gene-based DNA vaccine to prevent HPS. Rabbits vaccinated with the SNV DNA vaccine by muscle electroporation (mEP) developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated three times with the SNV DNA vaccine using a gene gun were completely protected against SNV infection. This is the first vaccine of any kind that specifically elicits high-titer neutralizing antibodies against SNV. To test the possibility of producing a pan-hantavirus vaccine, rabbits were vaccinated by mEP with an HPS mix (ANDV and SNV plasmids), or HFRS mix (HTNV and PUUV plasmids), or HPS/HFRS mix (all four plasmids). The HPS mix and HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies predominantly against ANDV/SNV and HTNV/PUUV, respectively. Furthermore, the HPS/HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies against all four viruses. These findings demonstrate a pan-hantavirus vaccine using a mixed-plasmid DNA vaccine approach is feasible and warrants further development. PMID:23892100

Hooper, Jay W; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Brocato, Rebecca

2013-09-13

279

Identification of non-essential regions in nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus for replication in cell culture.  

PubMed

Nucleocapsid (N) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) plays a central role in virus replication. In this study, serial N- and C-terminal truncations of N protein were performed in the context of type 2 PRRSV infectious cDNA clone, and our results revealed that a stretch of inter-genotypic variable N terminal residues aa 5-13 ((5)NGKQQKKK(13)K) and the last four inter-genotypic variable aa residues ((120)SPS(123)A) at the C terminus of N protein were dispensable for type 2 PRRSV infectivity. All the recovered deletion mutant viruses had spontaneous mutations in the N coding region, including substitution, deletion and insertion. We re-engineered the additional internal deletion with or without the original C-terminal deletion back into wild-type APRRS and found that the internal domain spanning the inter-genotypic variable residues 39-42 ((39)KGP(42)G) and conserved residues 48-52 ((48)KNPE(52)K), respectively, were dispensable for type 2 PRRSV viability. These results demonstrated that N protein contains non-essential regions for virus viability in cell culture. Such dispensable regions could be utilized as insertion site for foreign tag expression and the rescued viruses could be the candidates for marker vaccine. PMID:21440019

Tan, Feifei; Wei, Zuzhang; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Rong; Zhuang, Jinshan; Sun, Zhi; Yuan, Shishan

2011-06-01

280

[Expression and identification of truncated Nsp7 protein of North American and Europe genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus].  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) non-structural protein 7 (Nsp7) plays an important role in the induction of host humoral immune response and could serve as an ideal antigen for serological genotyping assay for PRRSV based on the significant difference in immunoreactivities of North American (NA) and European (EU) PRRSV Nsp7. In this study, Nsp7 of NA and EU PRRSVwas separately expressed and purified using prokaryotic expression system. The purified recombinant Nsp7 proteins reacted with serum antibodies against corresponding genotype PRRSV in Western blotting. However, nonspecific reaction of whole recombinant Nsp7 with antibodies against another genotype PRRSV was observed, indicating that whole NA PRRSV Nsp7 and EU PRRSV Nsp7 have similar antigenic epitopes and recombinant proteins could not be used for genotyping of antibodies against PRRSV. Based on the analysis of similar antigenic epitopes at the hydrophilic region of NA PRRSV Nsp7 and EU PRRSV Nsp7 by bioinformatics assessment, partial Nsp7 gene region deleted sequences encoding similar antigenic epitopes was constructed by fusion PCR. The recombinant truncated Nsp7 (NA-deltaNsp7 and EU-deltaNsp7, about 43 kDa) was expressed and the molecular weight was about 43 kDa. The results of Western blotting showed that NA-deltaNSP7 and EU-deltaNSP7 could be specifically recognized by positive serum to NA or EU PRRSV individually and nonspecific reaction was eliminated. This study provided a basis for further development of serological genotyping assay for North American and European genotype PRRSV infection. PMID:23631115

Qiu, Peng; Ning, Kun; Cai, Lin; Liu, Qi; Wang, Baoyue; Zhai, Xinyan; Yu, Xiuling; Ni, Jianqiang; Tian, Kegong

2013-01-01

281

Development of Indirect ELISAs for Differential Serodiagnosis of Classical and Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop two indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISAs) for detection of serum antibodies against classical vaccine strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). To detect the common antibodies against classical and HP-PRRSV, the coating antigen used in the iELISA (designated iELISA-180) was the antigen of Nsp2-180, the 180aa at amino terminal of Nsp2. To detect the different antibodies against classical and HP-PRRSV, the coating antigen in the second iELISA (designated iELISA-D29) was Nsp2-D29, the deleted 29aa in Nsp2 of HP-PRRSV. The antigen concentration and serum dilutions were optimized using a draughtboard titration. The cut-off values of 0.361 at OD450nm for the iELISA-180 and 0.27 at OD450nm for the iELISA-D29 were determined by testing a panel of 120 classical PRRSV positive and 198 PRRSV negative pig serum samples, which generated the specificity of 97.1% and 96.7%, the sensitivity of 96.9% and 96.3% for iELISA-180 and iELISA-D29, respectively. The agreements between the Western blot and iELISA-180 and iELISA-D29 were 98%, 96.7%, respectively. The developed iELISAs can be used to differentiate serologically HP-PRRSV from the vaccinated or classical PRRSV in clinical serum samples. PMID:23217174

Xiao, Y H; Wang, T T; Zhao, Q; Wang, C B; Lv, J H; Nie, L; Gao, J M; Ma, X C; Hsu, W H; Zhou, E M

2014-08-01

282

Immunogenicity of recombinant GP5 protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressed in tobacco plant.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the ORF5-encoded major envelop glycoprotein 5 (GP5) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) expressed in tobacco plant as a potential pig oral vaccine in protection against PRRSV infection. Six-week-old PRRSV-free pigs were fed four times orally with 50g of chopped fresh GP5 transgenic tobacco leaves (GP5-T) (GP5 reaching 0.011% of total soluble protein) or wild-type tobacco leaves (W-T) each on days 0, 14, 28, and 42. Samples of serum, saliva, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected on days -1, 6, 13, 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48 after the initial oral vaccination. A similar vaccination-dependent gradual increase in the responses of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV total IgG and IgA, respectively, and in the levels of PRRSV-specific blastogenic response of PBMCs was seen in GP5-T-treated pigs; all statistically significant elevations occurred after the 2nd vaccination and were revealed after 20 days post-initial oral vaccination (DPIOV). Pigs fed on GP5-T also developed serum neutralizing antibodies to PRRSV at a titer of 1:4-1:8 after the 4th vaccination by 48 DPIOV. No detectable anti-PRRSV antibody responses and PRRSV-specific blastogenic response were seen in W-T-treated pigs. The present study has demonstrated that pigs fed on GP5-T could develop specific mucosal as well as systemic humoral and cellular immune responses against PRRSV. The results also support that transgenic plant as GP5-T can be an effective system for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs. PMID:20053461

Chia, Min-Yuan; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Chan, Hui-Ting; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling; Chang, Hui-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Chieh; Lin, Chun-Ming; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren

2010-06-15

283

Use of an Experimental Model To Test the Efficacy of Planned Exposure to Live Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus?  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to test the efficacy and safety of planned exposure to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in protecting naïve and previously exposed pigs against PRRSV challenge and to gain information on the dose of PRRSV necessary to induce a protective immune response. Fifty 2-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to one of five groups: a group exposed to a low dose of autogenous PRRSV vaccine (the L-VAC group), a group exposed to a high dose of autogenous vaccine (the H-VAC group), a group exposed to a low dose of a heterologous PRRSV strain (strain SDSU73) prior to planned exposure (the SDSU73-L-VAC group), a group exposed to a high dose of a heterologous PRRSV strain (strain SDSU73) prior to planned exposure (the SDSU73-H-VAC group), and a control group. All groups were challenged with PRRSV VR2385 5 weeks after the planned exposure. Necropsy was done 2 weeks after the PRRSV challenge. The H-VAC, SDSU73-L-VAC, and SDSU73-H-VAC groups had significantly (P < 0.05) less severe clinical disease (sneezing, respiratory scores, and weight gain), significantly (P < 0.05) less severe macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions, and significantly (P < 0.05) lower numbers of PRRSV genomic copy numbers in their sera compared to the results for the control group. Planned exposure to live PRRSV can be used as an inexpensive and effective way to decrease the severity of PRRSV-induced disease following subsequent challenge.

Opriessnig, Tanja; Baker, Rodney B.; Halbur, Patrick G.

2007-01-01

284

Characterization of White Spot Syndrome Virus Envelope Protein VP51A and Its Interaction with Viral Tegument Protein VP26?  

PubMed Central

In this study, we characterize a novel white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) structural protein, VP51A (WSSV-TW open reading frame 294), identified from a previous mass spectrometry study. Temporal-transcription analysis showed that vp51A is expressed in the late stage of WSSV infection. Gene structure analysis showed that the transcription initiation site of vp51A was 135 bp upstream of the translation start codon. The poly(A) addition signal overlapped with the translation stop codon, TAA, and the poly(A) tail was 23 bp downstream of the TAA. Western blot analysis of viral protein fractions and immunoelectron microscopy both suggested that VP51A is a viral envelope protein. Western blotting of the total proteins extracted from WSSV virions detected a band that was close to the predicted 51-kDa mass, but the strongest signal was around 72 kDa. We concluded that this 72-kDa band was in fact the full-length VP51A protein. Membrane topology assays demonstrated that the VP51A 72-kDa protein is a type II transmembrane protein with a highly hydrophobic transmembrane domain on its N terminus and a C terminus that is exposed on the surface of the virion. Coimmunoprecipitation, colocalization, and yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that VP51A associated directly with VP26 and indirectly with VP28, with VP26 acting as a linker protein in the formation of a VP51A-VP26-VP28 complex.

Chang, Yun-Shiang; Liu, Wang-Jing; Chou, Tsung-Lu; Lee, Yuan-Ting; Lee, Tai-Lin; Huang, Wei-Tung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

2008-01-01

285

Prohibitin Interacts with Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Prevents Infection in the Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii  

PubMed Central

Prohibitins (PHBs) are ubiquitously expressed conserved proteins in eukaryotes that are associated with apoptosis, cancer formation, aging, stress responses, cell proliferation, and immune regulation. However, the function of PHBs in crustacean immunity remains largely unknown. In the present study, we identified a PHB in Procambarus clarkii red swamp crayfish, which was designated PcPHB1. PcPHB1 was widely distributed in several tissues, and its expression was significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge at the mRNA level and the protein level. These observations prompted us to investigate the role of PcPHB1 in the crayfish antiviral response. Recombinant PcPHB1 (rPcPHB1) significantly reduced the amount of WSSV in crayfish and the mortality of WSSV-infected crayfish. The quantity of WSSV in PcPHB1 knockdown crayfish was increased compared with that in the controls. The effects of RNA silencing were rescued by rPcPHB1 reinjection. We further confirmed the interaction of PcPHB1 with the WSSV envelope proteins VP28, VP26, and VP24 using pulldown and far-Western overlay assays. Finally, we observed that the colloidal gold-labeled PcPHB1 was located on the outer surface of the WSSV, which suggests that PcPHB1 specifically binds to the envelope proteins of WSSV. VP28, VP26, and VP24 are structural envelope proteins and are essential for attachment and entry into crayfish cells. Therefore, PcPHB1 exerts its anti-WSSV effect by binding to VP28, VP26, and VP24, preventing viral infection. This study is the first report on the antiviral function of PHB in the innate immune system of crustaceans.

Lan, Jiang-Feng; Li, Xin-Cang; Sun, Jie-Jie; Gong, Jing; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Shi, Li-Jie; Weng, Yu-Ding; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

2013-01-01

286

Validation of a Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be one of the most significant diseases of swine. IDEXX HerdChek PRRS, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has become the industry standard for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus (PRRSV). The need to accurately determine the PRRSV serostatus of herds and individual animals has prompted the development of several follow-up assay methods. A highly specific and repeatable blocking ELISA (bELISA) was developed on the basis of the use of an expressed PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein as the antigen and a biotinylated monoclonal antibody. Validation of the bELISA used sera from 316 animals experimentally and naturally infected with North American PRRSV and sera from 370 uninfected animals. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the data calculated a diagnostic sensitivity of 97.8% and a diagnostic specificity of 100%. The between-run coefficient of variation of an internal quality control serum was 4.24%. The bELISA was able to detect seroconversion as well as the IDEXX ELISA and the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay; kappa values were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. A collection of 133 serum samples with unexpected positive IDEXX ELISA results was obtained from 4,038 diagnostic samples submitted from farms from which PRRS-negative results were expected. The bELISA identified 97% of the samples as PRRS seronegative, while the IFA identified 100% as seronegative. The anticipated use of the bELISA is as a follow-up test to the IDEXX ELISA for determining the PRRSV serostatus of individual animals with unexpected positive test results from swine herds from which negative results are expected.

Ferrin, Neal H.; Fang, Ying; Johnson, Craig R.; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Polson, Dale D.; Torremorell, Montserrat; Gramer, Marie L.; Nelson, Eric A.

2004-01-01

287

Evaluation of 4 intervention strategies to prevent the mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Four intervention strategies were tested for their ability to prevent the mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): the use of disposable plastic boots to prevent contamination of personal footwear, the use of boot baths to disinfect PRRSV-contaminated plastic boots, the use of plastic slatted (Polygrate) flooring in the anteroom to prevent PRRSV contamination of incoming personal footwear, and the use of bag-in-a-box shipping methods to prevent PRRSV contamination of the contents of a container destined for a swine farm. Ten PRRSV-positive replicates and 10 PRRSV-negative (sham-inoculated) replicates were used for each strategy. Swabs were collected from selected sites and tested by TaqMan polymerase chain reaction for PRRSV RNA and by swine bioassay to confirm the presence of infectious PRRSV. Results indicated that the use of disposable boots, bleach boot baths or bag-in-a-box shipping methods was highly efficacious in preventing mechanical transmission of PRRSV. In contrast, the use of Polygrate flooring in the anteroom did not prevent contamination of personal footwear. The numbers of PRRSV-positive samples from the Polygrate surface and the soles of incoming footwear placed directly on the Polygrate surface were not significantly different (P = 0.24) from those of footwear that directly contacted the floor of the contaminated anteroom. Although these results are promising, this study should be considered a pilot project and the intervention strategies not considered biosecurity protocols. The model used may or may not represent field conditions. Therefore, the information should be used to develop larger experimental studies, with sufficient statistical power, in combination with field-based epidemiologic studies to better assess the role of mechanical transmission of PRRSV under field conditions.

2004-01-01

288

Multiplex Method for Simultaneous Serological Detection of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Circovirus Type 2?  

PubMed Central

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Routine serological diagnosis and surveillance play an important role in the prevention of PRDC, as it is a leading cause of economic losses to the swine industry. We herein describe an advanced microsphere-based immunoassay that permits the simultaneous detection of antibodies to PCV2 and PRRSV, thereby reducing the time and effort involved in testing. Recombinant PRRSV nucleoprotein antigen and the PCV2 capsid antigen were coupled to fluorophore-dyed beads with distinct spectral addresses. Weekly serum samples from 72 pigs that were experimentally exposed to either PCV2, PRRSV, or both PCV2 and PRRSV were used to validate the microbead assay (MBA) in comparison with the “gold standard” enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The kinetics of the PCV2- and PRRSV-specific antibody responses measured by the microbead assay were comparable to those of the standard assays; Spearman's rank correlations were 0.72 (P < 0.001) for PRRSV and 0.80 (P < 0.001) for PCV2. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined using field sera whose positive or negative status was determined by the standard tests. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were both 98% for PCV2 and were 91% and 93%, respectively, for PRRSV (kappa coefficients, 0.85 and 0.67 for PCV2 and PRRSV, respectively). Multiplexing did not interfere with assay performance or diagnostic sensitivity. Therefore, the described study demonstrates proof of concept for the development of more versatile and economical microbead array-based multiplex serological test panels for veterinary use.

Lin, Kathy; Wang, Chong; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Ramamoorthy, Sheela

2011-01-01

289

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge among high school students in K?r?kkale province of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess the existing level of knowledge of high school children about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the sources of their information. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two high schools in Kirikkale, Turkey and data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample. Results: Four hundred and seventy three participants; 230 males and 243 females were analyzed. Their ages ranged from 15 to 19 years with a mean age of 16.81 ± 1.27. 92.2% of the students claimed to have heard about HIV/AIDS prior to the study with slightly more females than males. Although with some misconceptions, majority of the participants knew that HIV is not transmitted by sharing meals, casual contact, and sleeping in the same room and using the same bathroom. 93.4% identi?ed HIV/AIDS as a life-threatening disease and 27% believe that there is a cure for AIDS. 64% and 22.8% respectively believed that the people can protect themselves by using condoms and by avoiding sexual contact. Internet was preponderantly claimed as the most important source of information about HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that the students have a fairly high knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This is not without some misconceptions about the prognosis of the disease. Internet was the major source of HIV/AIDS information.

Ayl?kc?, Bahad?r Ugur; Bamise, Cornelius Tokunbo; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa; Turkal, Mustafa; Colak, Hakan

2013-01-01

290

Nsp9 and Nsp10 Contribute to the Fatal Virulence of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Emerging in China  

PubMed Central

Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by the Chinese highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV), has resulted in large economic loss to the swine industry since its outbreak in 2006. However, to date, the region(s) within the viral genome that are related to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV remain unknown. In the present study, we generated a series of full-length infectious cDNA clones with swapped coding regions between the highly pathogenic RvJXwn and low pathogenic RvHB-1/3.9. Next, the in vitro and in vivo replication and pathogenicity for piglets of the rescued chimeric viruses were systematically analyzed and compared with their backbone viruses. First, we swapped the regions including the 5?UTR+ORF1a, ORF1b, and structural proteins (SPs)-coding region between the two viruses and demonstrated that the nonstructural protein-coding region, ORF1b, is directly related to the fatal virulence and increased replication efficiency of HP-PRRSV both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we substituted the nonstructural protein (Nsp) 9-, Nsp10-, Nsp11- and Nsp12-coding regions separately; or Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together; or Nsp9-, Nsp10- and Nsp11-coding regions simultaneously between the two viruses. Our results indicated that the HP-PRRSV Nsp9- and Nsp10-coding regions together are closely related to the replication efficiency in vitro and in vivo and are related to the increased pathogenicity and fatal virulence for piglets. Our findings suggest that Nsp9 and Nsp10 together contribute to the fatal virulence of HP-PRRSV emerging in China, helping to elucidate the pathogenesis of this virus.

Zhang, Jialong; Ge, Xinna; Zhou, Rong; Zheng, Huaguo; Geng, Gang; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

2014-01-01

291

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Quasispecies That Include Homologues of Human Isolates Revealed through Whole-Genome Analysis and Virus Cultured from Dromedary Camels in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Complete Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) genome sequences were obtained from nasal swabs of dromedary camels sampled in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through direct analysis of nucleic acid extracts or following virus isolation in cell culture. Consensus dromedary MERS-CoV genome sequences were the same with either template source and identical to published human MERS-CoV sequences. However, in contrast to individual human cases, where only clonal genomic sequences are reported, detailed population analyses revealed the presence of more than one genomic variant in individual dromedaries. If humans are truly infected only with clonal virus populations, we must entertain a model for interspecies transmission of MERS-CoV wherein only specific genotypes are capable of passing bottleneck selection.

Mishra, Nischay; Jain, Komal; Zalmout, Iyad S.; Jabado, Omar J.; Karesh, William B.; Daszak, Peter; Mohammed, Osama B.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2014-01-01

292

High infection rate of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) with Puumala virus is associated with a winter outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Croatia.  

PubMed

SUMMARY An outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) started on Medvednica mountain near Zagreb in January 2012. In order to detect the aetiological agent of the disease in small rodents and to make the link with the human outbreak, rodents were trapped at four different altitudes. Using nested RT-PCR, Puumala virus (PUUV) RNA was detected in 41/53 (77·4%) bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) RNA was found in 6/61 (9·8%) yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). Sequence analysis of a 341-nucleotide region of the PUUV S segment, obtained from all infected bank voles and five HFRS patients, showed 98·8-100% sequence similarity, indicating that the patients were probably exposed to PUUV on Medvednica mountain. A very large bank-vole population combined with an extremely high infection rate of PUUV was responsible for this unusual winter outbreak of HFRS in Croatia. PMID:24800636

Tadin, A; Bjedov, L; Margaletic, J; Zibrat, B; Krajinovic, L Cvetko; Svoboda, P; Kurolt, I C; Majetic, Z Stritof; Turk, N; Rode, O Dakovic; Civljak, R; Kuzman, I; Markotic, A

2014-09-01

293

The impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus genetic heterogeneity on molecular assay performances.  

PubMed

The remarkable economic losses due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) have stated the control and eradication of this disease is one of the main issues of swine modern farming. The limited cross-protection of vaccine-induced immunity compelled the adoption of strict biosecurity measures that must be associated with the prompt diagnosis of infection. In our study four RT-PCR methods, a RT-PCR, a SYBR Green I and two hydrolysis probes, were compared to evaluate their respective benefits and disadvantages. One hundred and seventy samples originating from 50 farms located in northern Italy were tested with all assays and performances were evaluated using a Bayesian approach to deal with the absence of a Gold Standard. Sequencing the complete of ORF7, the segment targeted by all methods, allowed a gain of insight into the genetic variability of Italian strains and to investigate the role of mismatches on assay sensitivity. Our study evidenced that methods based only on primers-genome interaction better tolerate PRRSV genetic variability, demonstrating a greater sensitivity (Se): SYBR Green I (Se=98.4%) and RT-PCR (Se=99%) outperform both in-house (Se=71.4%) and commercial (Se=91.7%) probe-based methods. On the other hand, probe-based assays allowed an easier genotyping of PRRSV strains and implementation of the internal control system (IC). Phylogenetic analysis allowed demonstration of a presence of two clades circulating continuously in northern Italy since 1996, when their probable ancestors were collected. PMID:24642238

Drigo, Michele; Franzo, Giovanni; Gigli, Alessandra; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Gracieux, Patrice; Ceglie, Letizia

2014-06-15

294

Evidence for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) broodstock, in the southeast coast of India.  

PubMed

A survey on the presence of the viruses of two economically significant diseases, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild-collected Penaeus monodon broodstock, was conducted during different seasons of the year in two major coastal areas of southeast India. The broodstock were collected along the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during summer, premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for three consecutive years. A total of 7905 samples were collected and subjected to MBV screening, and 6709 samples that were screened as MBV negative were diagnosed for WSSV. MBV was detected using rapid malachite green staining and WSSV by nested polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence data of the viruses were analysed using the EpiCalc 2000 program at 95% confidence interval. Samples collected from the Andhra Pradesh coast displayed a slightly higher prevalence of WSSV and MBV infection than those collected from Tamil Nadu, although this difference was not statistically significant (P > 005). In addition, it was found that the prevalence of both WSSV and MBV infections fluctuated according to season. Data on prevalence of these viruses in broodstock would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management along the southeast coast of India. PMID:22924635

Remany, M C; Daly, C; Nagaraj, S; Panda, A K; Jaideep, K; Samraj, Y C T

2012-11-01

295

Stable expression of foreign gene in nonessential region of nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: applications for marker vaccine design.  

PubMed

The nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been shown to be highly heterogeneous and variable among PRRSV strains and some sequences in the middle region of the nsp2 are not essential to viral replication. Recent studies have attempted to insert foreign genes in the nsp2 nonessential regions but the foreign genes were not stably expressed by recombinant viruses in vitro. In the present study, we first constructed an infectious cDNA clone with deletion of 75 nucleotides (25 amino acids) in the nsp2 region (rHuN4-F112-?508-532) of the attenuated vaccine virus HuN4-F112 derived from a highly pathogenic PRRSV HuN4 and then inserted a gene fragment encoding a immunodominant B-cell epitope (49 amino acids) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) nucleoprotein (NP) in-frame into the deletion site. The viable recombinant virus was rescued from the full-length cDNA infectious clone in vitro. The engineered viruses rescued from the cDNA clone indicated that the deletions of 75 nucleotides and insertion of NDV NP gene in the nsp2 region did not affect viral replication; they had similar growth kinetics to its parental virus. The inserting gene could be expressed consistently when the recombinant virus was passaged up to twenty times in cell cultures as determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and genomic sequencing. To investigate the potential application of the NDV NP gene-inserted PRRSV as a marker vaccine, piglets were immunized with the recombinant virus and then challenged with lethal dose of highly pathogenic PRRSV. The immunized piglets produced specific antibodies against both the NDV NP and PRRSV, and lacked antibodies against the deleted 25aa nsp2 epitope. After challenge, all immunized piglets were protected from clinical disease or death, while all piglets in control group died (5/5) by ten days post challenge. The results of the present study indicated that the recombinant PRRSV (rHuN4-F112-?508-532) could be used as a potential marker vaccine against PRRS. PMID:22513707

Xu, Yan-Zhao; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Shan-Rui; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu; Yu, Hai; Tong, Guang-Zhi

2012-09-14

296

Study of Opportunistic Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Intestinal parasites predominantly coccidian parasites are a common cause for diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during January 2009-December 2010. A total of 1,088 stool samples from 544 seropositive HIV positive cases were examined microscopically for ova and cyst using wet mount preparations and stained smears. Out of 544 patients, 343 had prolonged diarrhea for more than 4 weeks, 57 had acute diarrhea of lesser than 7 days and 144 were asymptomatic cases who attended out-patient department; included in this study after taking consent from patients. Enteric pathogens were detected in 274 (50.36%) of the 544 patients. Results and Conclusions: The parasites identified were Cryptosporidium (135), Isospora belli (42), Cyclospora (12), Microsporidia (02), Entamoeba histolytica (49), Hookworm (34). Intestinal parasites in chronic diarrhea were significantly higher than the acute diarrhea (63.05% vs. 7.35%; P < 0.05). Parasitic pathogens were frequently associated with HIV-positive patients with diarrhea in Western India. Stools of all HIV-positive patients with diarrhea should thoroughly be investigated to identify etiologic agents for proper management. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during January 2009-December 2010. A total of 1,088 stool samples from 544 seropositive HIV positive cases were examined microscopically for ova and cyst using wet mount preparations and stained smears. Out of 544 patients, 343 had prolonged diarrhea for more than 4 weeks, 57 had acute diarrhea of lesser than 7 days and 144 were asymptomatic cases who attended out-patient department; included in this study after taking consent from patients. Enteric pathogens were detected in 274 (50.36%) of the 544 patients. Results and Conclusions: The parasites identified were Cryptosporidium (135), Isospora belli (42), Cyclospora (12), Microsporidia (02), Entamoeba histolytica (49), Hookworm (34). Intestinal parasites in chronic diarrhea were significantly higher than the acute diarrhea (63.05% vs. 7.35%; P > 0.05). Parasitic pathogens were frequently associated with HIV-positive patients with diarrhea in Western India. Stools of all HIV-positive patients with diarrhea should thoroughly be investigated to identify etiologic agents for proper management.

Mathur, Manish Kumar; Verma, Ajoy Kumar; Makwana, Gopee E; Sinha, Mala

2013-01-01

297

SAR analysis of a series of acylthiourea derivatives possessing broad-spectrum antiviral activity.  

PubMed

A series of acylthiourea derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for broad-spectrum antiviral activity with selected viruses from Poxviridae (vaccinia virus) and two different genera of the family Bunyaviridae (Rift Valley fever and La Crosse viruses). A compound selected from a library screen, compound 1, displayed submicromolar antiviral activity against both vaccinia virus (EC(50)=0.25 ?M) and La Crosse virus (EC(50)=0.27 ?M) in cytopathic effect (CPE) assays. SAR analysis was performed to further improve antiviral potency and to optimize drug-like properties of the initial hits. During our analysis, we identified 26, which was found to be nearly fourfold more potent than 1 against both vaccinia and La Crosse viruses. Selected compounds were further tested to more fully characterize the spectrum of antiviral activity. Many of these possessed single digit micromolar and sub-micromolar antiviral activity against a diverse array of targets, including influenza virus (Orthomyxoviridae), Tacaribe virus (Arenaviridae), and dengue virus (Flaviviridae). PMID:22664128

Burgeson, James R; Moore, Amy L; Boutilier, Jordan K; Cerruti, Natasha R; Gharaibeh, Dima N; Lovejoy, Candace E; Amberg, Sean M; Hruby, Dennis E; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar R; Allen, Robert D; Dai, Dongcheng

2012-07-01

298

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...possession with the rest of the personal effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4) Perishable items. (c) The consular officer should in his or her discretion take appropriate...

2009-04-01

299

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...found in residences and places of storage such as furniture, household effects and furnishings, works of art, and book and wine collections, unless such items are of such nature and quantity that they can readily be taken into physical possession...

2013-04-01

300

Protective humoral immune response induced by an inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressing the hypo-glycosylated glycoprotein 5.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Although inactivated and live vaccines are commercially available for the control of PRRS, both types of vaccine have not always proven successful in terms of generating a protective immune response, particularly in the case of inactivated vaccines. In this study, we tested whether an inactivated vaccine could induce a humoral immune response to PRRS during a homologous challenge. Amino acid substitutions were introduced into glycoprotein (GP) 5 of the FL12 strain of the PRRS virus (PRRSV) using site-directed mutagenesis with a pFL12 infectious clone. The substitutions led to double deglycosylation in the putative glycosylation moieties on GP5. The mutant virus was subsequently inactivated with binary ethylenimine. The efficacy of the inactivated mutant virus was compared with that of the inactivated wild-type PRRSV. Only the inactivated mutant PRRSV induced serum neutralizing antibodies at six weeks post-vaccination. The group that was administered the inactivated mutant virus twice exhibited a significantly increased neutralizing antibody titer after a challenge with the virulent homologous strain and exhibited more rapid clearing of viremia compared to other groups, including the groups that were administered either the inactivated mutant or wild-type virus only once and the group that was administered the inactivated wild-type virus twice. Histopathological examination of lung tissue sections revealed that the group that was administered the inactivated mutant virus twice exhibited significantly thinner alveolar septa, whereas the thickness of the alveolar septa of the other groups were markedly increased due to lymphocyte infiltration. These results indicated that the deglycosylation of GP5 enhanced the immunogenicity of the inactivated mutant PRRSV and that twice administrations of the inactivated mutant virus conferred better protection against the homologous challenge. These findings suggest that the inactivated PRRSV that expresses a hypo-glycosylated GP5 is a potential inactivated vaccine candidate and a valuable tool for controlling PRRS for the swine industry. PMID:24814552

Lee, Jung-Ah; Kwon, Byungjoon; Osorio, Fernando A; Pattnaik, Asit K; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Lee, Sang-Won; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok

2014-06-17

301

Stellar accretion of matter possessing angular momentum  

SciTech Connect

Observations of novae and theoretical results, in which the authors studied the nova outburst by radially accreting H-rich matter onto an He white dwarf, have convinced them that realistic nova models must be based on accretion that includes the angular momentum of the accreting matter. In the present paper the authors develop the theory of accretion onto stars of matter possessing angular momentum, including the shear forces between the accreting matter and the star (assumed to be nonrotating), distribution of accreted matter and its angular momentum by turbulent mixing, thermalizing of rotational kinetic energy, and loss of energy by horizontal expansion. 25 references.

Kutter, G.S.; Sparks, W.M.

1987-10-01

302

DRESS syndrome.  

PubMed

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, initially recognized as a serious form of cutaneous drug adverse reaction, is now viewed as a drug-related syndrome that can cause life-threatening organ dysfunctions. Characteristic features include a long time interval from first drug exposure to symptom onset and a prolonged course, often with flares, even after discontinuation of the causal drug. The pathophysiology of DRESS syndrome remains incompletely understood but involves reactivation of herpes viruses (HHV-6, HHV-7, EBV, and CMV), against which the body mounts a strong immune response. The culprit drugs may not only affect epigenetic control mechanisms, thereby promoting viral reactivation, but also induce an antiviral T-cell response by interacting with the major histocompatibility complex receptor in individuals with genetic susceptibility factors. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a potentially life-threatening form of cutaneous drug adverse reaction. The severity of this syndrome is related to the systemic manifestations, which can result in multiorgan failure. DRESS syndrome is characterized by highly specific features, most notably regarding the timing of the manifestations. New insights into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms indicate a role for immunogenetic susceptibility factors and for reactivation of human herpes viruses (HHVs), chiefly HHV-6. We report a typical case of DRESS syndrome and discuss recent data about this condition. PMID:23816504

Descamps, Vincent; Ranger-Rogez, Sylvie

2014-01-01

303

Genome-wide association and genomic prediction for host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background Host genetics has been shown to play a role in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is the most economically important disease in the swine industry. A region on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 4 has been previously reported to have a strong association with serum viremia and weight gain in pigs experimentally infected with the PRRS virus (PRRSV). The objective here was to identify haplotypes associated with the favorable phenotype, investigate additional genomic regions associated with host response to PRRSV, and to determine the predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) based on the SSC4 region and based on the rest of the genome. Phenotypic data and 60 K SNP genotypes from eight trials of ~200 pigs from different commercial crosses were used to address these objectives. Results Across the eight trials, heritability estimates were 0.44 and 0.29 for viral load (VL, area under the curve of log-transformed serum viremia from 0 to 21 days post infection) and weight gain to 42 days post infection (WG), respectively. Genomic regions associated with VL were identified on chromosomes 4, X, and 1. Genomic regions associated with WG were identified on chromosomes 4, 5, and 7. Apart from the SSC4 region, the regions associated with these two traits each explained less than 3% of the genetic variance. Due to the strong linkage disequilibrium in the SSC4 region, only 19 unique haplotypes were identified across all populations, of which four were associated with the favorable phenotype. Through cross-validation, accuracies of EBV based on the SSC4 region were high (0.55), while the rest of the genome had little predictive ability across populations (0.09). Conclusions Traits associated with response to PRRSV infection in growing pigs are largely controlled by genomic regions with relatively small effects, with the exception of SSC4. Accuracies of EBV based on the SSC4 region were high compared to the rest of the genome. These results show that selection for the SSC4 region could potentially reduce the effects of PRRS in growing pigs, ultimately reducing the economic impact of this disease.

2014-01-01

304

Experimental infections reveal that common Thai crustaceans are potential carriers for spread of exotic Taura syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) was first reported as a serious cause of shrimp mortality limited to reared Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei in the Americas, where it spread principally through regional and international transfer of live post larvae (PL) and broodstock. Subsequently, through importation of infected broodstock, TSV outbreaks spread to Asia, first to Taiwan and China and then to Thailand, Indonesia and Korea. Since its introduction to Thailand, outbreaks have occasionally been reported from rearing ponds stocked with batches of specific pathogen free (SPF) P. vannamei PL that tested negative for TSV by nested RT-PCR assay. Since it was possible that the outbreaks may have occurred via horizontal transfer of TSV from wild carrier species, we tested 5 common native crustaceans that live in and around shrimp ponds (2 palaemonid shrimp species, Palaemon styliferus and Macrobrachium lanchesteri, and 3 species of crabs, Sesarma mederi, Scylla serrata and Uca vocans) for susceptibility to TSV in experimental challenges. We found that U. vocans, S. serrata and S. mederi did not die but, respectively, gave strong RT-PCR reactions indicating heavy viral load at 5, 10 and 15 d post-injection of TSV and 10, 15 and up to 50 d after feeding with TSV-infected P. vannamei carcasses. Also after feeding, P. styliferus did not die, but a high proportion gave strong RT-PCR reactions at 5 d post-challenge and no reactions at 15 d. Similarly after feeding, M. lanchesteri showed no mortality and gave only light RT-PCR reactions at 2 d, moderate reactions at 5 d and no reaction at 15 d. By contrast, transmission experiments from the TSV-infected crabs and palaemonid shrimp via water or feeding resulted in death of all the exposed P. vannamei from 8 to 12 d post-challenge and all were positive for heavy viral load by RT-PCR assay. Despite the results of these laboratory challenge tests, natural TSV infections were not detected by nested RT-PCR in samples of these species taken from the wild. These results indicated that transmission of TSV from infected crabs and palaemonid shrimp via water or feeding might pose a potential risk to shrimp aquaculture. PMID:18589994

Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Arunrut, Narong; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2008-05-01

305

Evaluation of the efficacy of an attenuated live vaccine against highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in young pigs.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (10(5.0) 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID(50)]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. PMID:22695163

Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang; Wu, Hua

2012-08-01

306

Evaluation of the Efficacy of an Attenuated Live Vaccine against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Young Pigs  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (105.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV.

Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang

2012-01-01

307

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Quasispecies That Include Homologues of Human Isolates Revealed through Whole-Genome Analysis and Virus Cultured from Dromedary Camels in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Complete Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) genome sequences were obtained from nasal swabs of dromedary camels sampled in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through direct analysis of nucleic acid extracts or following virus isolation in cell culture. Consensus dromedary MERS-CoV genome sequences were the same with either template source and identical to published human MERS-CoV sequences. However, in contrast to individual human cases, where only clonal genomic sequences are reported, detailed population analyses revealed the presence of more than one genomic variant in individual dromedaries. If humans are truly infected only with clonal virus populations, we must entertain a model for interspecies transmission of MERS-CoV wherein only specific genotypes are capable of passing bottleneck selection. IMPORTANCE In most cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the route for human infection with the causative agent, MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), is unknown. Antibodies to and viral nucleic acids of MERS-CoV have been found in dromedaries, suggesting the possibility that they may serve as a reservoir or vector for human infection. However, neither whole viral genomic sequence nor infectious virus has been isolated from dromedaries or other animals in Saudi Arabia. Here, we report recovery of MERS-CoV from nasal swabs of dromedaries, demonstrate that MERS-CoV whole-genome consensus sequences from dromedaries and humans are indistinguishable, and show that dromedaries can be simultaneously infected with more than one MERS-CoV. Together with data indicating widespread dromedary infection in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, these findings support the plausibility of a role for dromedaries in human infection. PMID:24781747

Briese, Thomas; Mishra, Nischay; Jain, Komal; Zalmout, Iyad S; Jabado, Omar J; Karesh, William B; Daszak, Peter; Mohammed, Osama B; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Lipkin, W Ian

2014-01-01

308

Comparison of viremia of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in naturally infected pigs by zip nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a RNA virus with high genetic variation. This virus causes significant economic losses in most pig-producing countries. The clinical presentation of PRRSV ranges from asymptomatic to devastating. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific zip nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR assay to evaluate the viremia of natural PRRSV-infected pigs in Taiwan. Serum samples were collected from 577 pigs aged 5–12 weeks. These include 444 clinically healthy pigs and 133 symptomatic pigs were confirmed to have porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Results Viremia was quantified in 79 of the 444 (17.8%) clinically healthy pigs and in 112 of the 133 (84.2%) PRDC cases. Viremias were significantly more common in pigs with PRDC compared with the clinically healthy pigs (P <0.0001). These results suggest that a high viral load is a major feature of PRRSV-affected pigs. Conclusions ZNA probe-based real-time PCR can be a useful tool to diagnose symptomatic and asymptomatic PRRSV-infected pigs. The presence of this marker in a sample of animals with high PRRSV loads (>104.2 PRRSV genomes/?l of serum) seems to indicate that it correlates with the presence of PRDC in pigs.

2013-01-01

309

Phylogeny-directed search for murine leukemia virus-like retroviruses in vertebrate genomes and in patients suffering from myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) like retroviruses (MLLVs) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs)) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect "stealth" infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered. PMID:22315600

Blomberg, Jonas; Sheikholvaezin, Ali; Elfaitouri, Amal; Blomberg, Fredrik; Sjösten, Anna; Mattson Ulfstedt, Johan; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Källander, Clas; Ohrmalm, Christina; Sperber, Göran

2011-01-01

310

The Presence of Alpha Interferon at the Time of Infection Alters the Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most devastating and costly diseases to the swine industry worldwide. Overall, the adaptive immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) is weak, which results in delayed elimination of virus from the host and inferior vaccine protection. PRRSV has been shown to induce a meager alpha interferon (IFN-?) response, and we hypothesized that elevated IFN-? levels early in infection would shorten the induction time and increase elements of the adaptive immune response. To test this, we measured both antibody and cell-mediated immunity in pigs after the administration of a nonreplicating human adenovirus type 5 vector expressing porcine IFN-? (Ad5–pIFN-?) at the time of PRRSV infection and compared the results to those for pigs infected with PRRSV alone. Viremia was delayed, and there was a decrease in viral load in the sera of pigs administered the Ad5–pIFN-?. Although seroconversion was slightly delayed in pigs receiving Ad5–pIFN-?, probably due to the early reduction in viral replication, little difference in the overall or neutralizing antibody response was seen. However, there was an increase in the number of virus-specific IFN-?-secreting cells detected in the pigs receiving Ad5–pIFN-?, as well as an altered cytokine profile in the lung at 14 days postinfection, indicating that the presence of IFN-? at the time of infection can alter innate and adaptive immune responses to PRRSV.

Loving, Crystal L.; Nelson, Eric A.; Miller, Laura C.; Nicholson, Tracy L.; Register, Karen B.; Grubman, Marvin J.; Brough, Douglas E.; Kehrli, Marcus E.

2012-01-01

311

The presence of alpha interferon at the time of infection alters the innate and adaptive immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most devastating and costly diseases to the swine industry worldwide. Overall, the adaptive immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) is weak, which results in delayed elimination of virus from the host and inferior vaccine protection. PRRSV has been shown to induce a meager alpha interferon (IFN-?) response, and we hypothesized that elevated IFN-? levels early in infection would shorten the induction time and increase elements of the adaptive immune response. To test this, we measured both antibody and cell-mediated immunity in pigs after the administration of a nonreplicating human adenovirus type 5 vector expressing porcine IFN-? (Ad5-pIFN-?) at the time of PRRSV infection and compared the results to those for pigs infected with PRRSV alone. Viremia was delayed, and there was a decrease in viral load in the sera of pigs administered the Ad5-pIFN-?. Although seroconversion was slightly delayed in pigs receiving Ad5-pIFN-?, probably due to the early reduction in viral replication, little difference in the overall or neutralizing antibody response was seen. However, there was an increase in the number of virus-specific IFN-?-secreting cells detected in the pigs receiving Ad5-pIFN-?, as well as an altered cytokine profile in the lung at 14 days postinfection, indicating that the presence of IFN-? at the time of infection can alter innate and adaptive immune responses to PRRSV. PMID:22301694

Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Nelson, Eric A; Miller, Laura C; Nicholson, Tracy L; Register, Karen B; Grubman, Marvin J; Brough, Douglas E; Kehrli, Marcus E

2012-04-01

312

Development of genetic markers in the non-structural protein 2 region of a US type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: implications for future recombinant marker vaccine development.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a major problem in the pork industry worldwide. The limitations of current PRRSV vaccines require the development of a new generation of vaccines. One of the key steps in future vaccine development is to include markers for diagnostic differentiation of vaccinated animals from those naturally infected with wild-type virus. Using a cDNA infectious clone of type 1 PRRSV, this study constructed a recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PRRSV containing a deletion of an immunogenic epitope, ES4, in the nsp2 region. In a nursery pig disease model, the recombinant virus was attenuated with a lower level of viraemia in comparison with that of the parental virus. To complement the marker identification, GFP and ES4 epitope-based ELISAs were developed. Pigs immunized with the recombinant virus lacked antibodies directed against the corresponding deleted epitope, but generated a high-level antibody response to GFP by 14 days post-infection. These results demonstrated that this recombinant marker virus, in conjunction with the diagnostic tests, enables serological differentiation between marker virus-infected animals and those infected with the wild-type virus. This rationally designed marker virus will provide a basis for further development of PRRSV marker vaccines to assist with the control of PRRS. PMID:19008397

Fang, Ying; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Brown, Elizabeth; Liu, Haixia; Chen, Zhenhai; Lawson, Steven R; Breen, Rachael; Clement, Travis; Gao, Xiaofei; Bao, Jingjing; Knudsen, David; Daly, Russell; Nelson, Eric

2008-12-01

313

Phase transitions in systems possessing shock solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it has been shown that there are three families of stochastic one-dimensional nonequilibrium lattice models for which the single-shock measures form an invariant subspace of the states of these models. Here, both the stationary states and dynamics of single-shocks on a one-dimensional lattice are studied. This is done for both an infinite lattice and a finite lattice with boundaries. It is seen that these models possess both static and dynamical phase transitions. The static phase transition is the well-known low-high density phase transition for the asymmetric simple exclusion process. The branching-coalescing random walk and asymmetric Kawasaki-Glauber process models also show the same phase transition. Double-shocks on a one-dimensional lattice are also investigated. It is shown that at the stationary state the contribution of double-shocks with higher width becomes small, and the main contribution comes from thin double-shocks.

Arabsalmani, Maryam; Aghamohammadi, Amir

2006-07-01

314

Bacterial predators possess unique membrane lipid structures.  

PubMed

Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALO) are a phylogenetically diverse group of predatory prokaryotes that consists of the two families Bdellovibrionaceae and Bacteriovoracaceae. We investigated the phospholipid composition of the three important BALO strains Bacteriovorax stolpii (DSM 12778), Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 (DSM 50701) and Peredibacter starrii (DSM 17039). We confirmed the presence of sphingophosphonolipids in B. stolpii, while we characterized sphingophosphonolipids with a 2-amino-3-phosphonopropanate head group for the first time. In B. bacteriovorus HD100 phosphatidylthreonines were found and, thus, B. bacteriovorus is the second prokaryote investigated so far possessing this rare lipid class. In the third analyzed organism, P. starrii, we observed phosphatidylethanolamine structures with an additional N-glutamyl residue, which form the first reported class of amino acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamines. PMID:21984111

Müller, Frederic D; Beck, Sebastian; Strauch, Eckhard; Linscheid, Michael W

2011-12-01

315

Detection of locally produced antibodies to herpes viruses in the aqueous of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARN).  

PubMed

Intraocular synthesis of IgG antibodies against HSV (herpes simplex virus), CMV (cytomegalovirus) and VZV (varicella zoster virus) is considered as an indirect proof of uveoretinal infection. Paired serum and aqueous samples obtained from 16 patients with retinitis associated with AIDS, 3 patients with ARN, 8 patients with posterior uveitis not related to AIDS or ARN and 5 patients with senile cataract were tested for total immunoglobulin G levels and antibodies to HSV, CMV and VZV by the fixed cell immunofluorescence technique. Since therapy must often be started before results of cultures are available, rapid detection of locally produced anti-Herpes Virus antibodies can be a precious tool in the diagnosis of ocular viral infection. Using this technique we were able to confirm the clinically suspected diagnosis in more than 50% of AIDS patients with retinitis and in two out of three patients with ARN. PMID:2166640

Luyendijk, L; vd Horn, G J; Visser, O H; Suttorp-Schulten, M S; vd Biesen, P R; Rothova, A; Kijlstra, A

1990-01-01

316

[Mental disease related to belief in being possessed by the "Zar" spirit].  

PubMed

The belief in being possessed by the "Zar" spirit is widespread in East and Central Africa, particularly in Sudan and Ethiopia. It also affects Jews living in Ethiopia, as well as those who have immigrated to Israel. According to this belief, being possessed by Zar is the cause of almost all somatic and mental disturbances. Zar exorcism, rituals, language and the clinical syndromes of 13 cases of Zar possession treated in our outpatient clinic are described. Of the 13, 8 were neurotic and the rest atypical psychotics, who except for 1, remitted quickly. Of the 13, 9 were married, 6 were males and 8 were 40 or older. All had a history of Zar possession while still in Ethiopia, and in the immediate families of 8 there were others with a history of Zar possession. 8 of the cases spoke in a peculiar "Zar language." In all cases the new episode of Zar possession appeared during the first 2 years of living in Israel. The differential diagnosis of DSM-III R categories in relation to Zar possession illness, and anthropological and sociopsychological implications of the illness in Israel as compared to Ethiopia are discussed. According to an accepted theory, Zar possession is found in the weaker strata of Amharic society. In Ethiopia, therefore, it was the women who were usually affected. In Israel, there has been a dramatic emancipation of the Ethiopian woman, and men were relegated to lower status. For these reasons, in Israel it is the men among the Ethiopian immigrants who are more susceptible to the condition. We find it important to combine both traditional and modern therapeutic modalities in treating Zar possession. PMID:7926995

Arieli, A; Aychen, S

1994-06-01

317

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein confers ability to efficiently produce virus-like particles when substituted for the human immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We replaced the HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) domain with different N-coding sequences to test SARS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) self-interaction\\u000a capacity, and determined the capabilities of each chimera to direct virus-like particle (VLP) assembly. Analysis results indicate\\u000a that the replacement of NC with the carboxyl-terminal half of the SARS-CoV N resulted in the production of wild type (wt)-level\\u000a virus-like particles (VLPs) with the

Shui-Mei Wang; Yu-Fen Chang; Yi-Ming Arthur Chen; Chin-Tien Wang

2008-01-01

318

Genetic manipulation of a transcription-regulating sequence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals key nucleotides determining its activity.  

PubMed

The factors that determine the transcription-regulating sequence (TRS) activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remain largely unclear. In this study, the effect of mutagenesis of conserved C nucleotides at positions 5 and 6 in the leader TRS (TRS-L) and/or canonical body TRS7 (TRS-B7) on the synthesis of subgenomic (sg) mRNA and virus infectivity was investigated in the context of a type 2 PRRSV infectious cDNA clone. The results showed that a double C mutation in the leader TRS completely abolished sg mRNAs synthesis and virus infectivity, but a single C mutation did not. A single C or double C mutation in TRS-B7.1 or/and TRS-B7.2 impaired or abolished the corresponding sg mRNA synthesis. Introduction of identical mutations in the leader and body TRSs partially restored sg mRNA7.1 and/or sg mRNA7.2 transcription, indicating that the base-pairing interaction between sense TRS-L and cTRS-B is a crucial factor influencing sg mRNA synthesis. Analysis of the mRNA leader-body junctions of mutants provided evidence for a mechanism of discontinuous minus-strand transcription. This study also showed that mutational inactivation of TRS-B7.1 or TRS-B7.2 did not affect the production of infectious progeny virus, and the sg mRNA formed from each of them could express N protein. However, TRS-B7.1 plays more important roles than TRS-B7.2 in maintaining the growth characteristic of type 2 PRRSV. These results provide more insight into the molecular mechanism of genome expression and subgenomic mRNA transcription of PRRSV. PMID:24562427

Zheng, Haihong; Zhang, Keyu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Changlong; Lu, Jiaqi; Gao, Fei; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hao; Lin, Tao; Li, Liwei; Tong, Guangzhi; Wei, Zuzhang; Yuan, Shishan

2014-08-01

319

An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-? secreting CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system.

Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

2014-01-01

320

Complete Protection against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Mediated Lethal Respiratory Disease in Aged Mice by Immunization with a Mouse-Adapted Virus Lacking E Protein  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic coronaviruses, including the one that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. No specific therapy for any human coronavirus is available, making vaccine development critical for protection against these viruses. We previously showed that recombinant SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Urbani strain based) lacking envelope (E) protein expression (rU-?E) provided good but not perfect protection in young mice against challenge with virulent mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15). To improve vaccine efficacy, we developed a second set of E-deleted vaccine candidates on an MA15 background (rMA15-?E). rMA15-?E is safe, causing no disease in 6-week-, 12-month-, or 18-month-old BALB/c mice. Immunization with this virus completely protected mice of three ages from lethal disease and effected more-rapid virus clearance. Compared to rU-?E, rMA15-?E immunization resulted in significantly greater neutralizing antibody and SARS-CoV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. After challenge, inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, and lung destruction were decreased in the lungs of rMA15-?E-immunized mice compared to those in rU-?E-immunized 12-month-old mice. Collectively, these results show that immunization with a species-adapted attenuated coronavirus lacking E protein expression is safe and provides optimal immunogenicity and long-term protection against challenge with lethal virus. This approach will be generally useful for development of vaccines protective against human coronaviruses as well as against coronaviruses that cause disease in domestic and companion animals.

Fett, Craig; DeDiego, Marta L.; Regla-Nava, Jose A.; Enjuanes, Luis

2013-01-01

321

2-pyrones possessing antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

The 2-pyrone sub-unit is found in a number of natural products possessing broad spectrum biological activity. Such compounds are validated as being capable of binding to specific protein domains and able to exert a remarkable range of biological effects. In an effort to identify synthetic 2-pyrones with interesting biological effects, herein we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-substituted-6-methyl-2-pyrones. Synthetic routes to 4-alkyl/alkenyl/aryl/alkynyl-6-methyl-2-pyrones have been developed utilising Sonogashira, Suzuki and Negishi cross-coupling starting from readily available 4-bromo-6-methyl-2-pyrone. Specific conditions for each organometallic protocol were required for successful cross-coupling. In particular, a triethylamine/acetonitrile--base/solvent mixture was crucial to Sonogashira alkynylation of 4-bromo-6-methyl-2-pyrone, whereas thallium carbonate was a mandatory base for the Suzuki cross-coupling of trialkylboranes. The 2-pyrones demonstrate potent inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Botrytis cinerea. The growth inhibitory activities of selected 2-pyrones were determined in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma and K562 human chronic myelogenous leukaemia cell lines using an in vitro cell culture system (MTT assay). These studies demonstrate that 4-phenylethynyl-, 4-tetrahydropyranylpropargyl ether- and 4-ethynyl-6-methyl-2-pyrones have excellent potential as a new class of anticancer agents. PMID:15246105

Fairlamb, Ian J S; Marrison, Lester R; Dickinson, Julia M; Lu, Feng-Ju; Schmidt, Jan Peter

2004-08-01

322

A cross-sectional survey of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection of domestic animals in Laizhou City, Shandong Province, China.  

PubMed

A serosurvey of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection in domestic animals was conducted in the rural areas of Laizhou City, Shandong Province, China to determine strategies for control and prevention of SFTS. Serum samples were collected from cattle, goats, dogs, pigs, and chickens and antibodies against SFTSV were detected by double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of 641 serum samples, the SFTSV seropositive rate was 41.8% (268/641): 74.8%, 57.1%, 52.1%, 35.9%, and 0%, for goats, cattle, dogs, chickens, and pigs, respectively. We also found that the SFTSV seropositive rates were high among the aged cattle, goats, dogs, and chickens. SFTSV infections existed among cattle, goats, dogs, and chickens in Laizhou City, and goats had the highest seroprevalence. SFTSV seroprevalence increased with an increase in age among animals. To control of animal infestation with ticks may prevent human SFTSV infections. PMID:24451093

Ding, Shujun; Yin, Haiying; Xu, Xuehua; Liu, Guosheng; Jiang, Shanxiang; Wang, Weiqing; Han, Xinqiang; Liu, Jingyu; Niu, Guoyu; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yu, Xue-jie; Wang, Xianjun

2014-01-01

323

A life-threatening respiratory syncytial virus infection: a previously healthy infant with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and acute respiratory distress syndrome.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Although the course of RSV infection is usually benign, a small proportion of infants require mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. We describe an eight-month-old previously healthy female who developed bilateral pneumothorax and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to RSV infection. Because of the severe hypoxemia, three doses of surfactant were administered and prone positioning was implemented for nine days. After a prolonged course of mechanical ventilation, she was extubated at day 21 and discharged from the pediatric intensive care unit four days later. We conclude that RSV infections can be severe, and some patients may require mechanical ventilation. Supportive therapies like surfactant replacement therapy and prone positioning can be beneficial in patients with ARDS in whom severe hypoxemia persists despite high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and plateau pressures. PMID:24382538

Odek, Ca?lar; Kendirli, Tan?l; Yaman, Ayhan; Aldemir-Kocaba?, Bilge; Ince, Erdal

2013-01-01

324

The Zinc-Finger Domain Was Essential for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nonstructural Protein-1? to Inhibit the Production of Interferon-?  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has caused one of the most economically devastating and pandemic diseases of swine. Previous studies have documented that PRRSV nonstructural protein-1? (nsp1?) was an interferon antagonist, but the mechanism by which nsp1? inhibited the interferon (IFN)-? production was unclear. Here, by site-directed mutagenesis of the predicted zinc-coordinating residues of the zinc-finger (ZF) domain of nsp1? or by deletion of the ZF domain of nsp1?, we explored whether the ZF domain was required for nsp1? to disrupt the IFN-? production. The results showed that both mutagenesis of the predicted zinc-coordinating residues of the ZF domain and deletion of the ZF domain made nsp1? lose its interferon antagonism activity. In conclusion, our present work indicated that the ZF domain of nsp1? was necessary for nsp1? to inhibit the IFN-? induction.

Shi, Xibao; Zhang, Xiaozhuan; Wang, Fangyu; Wang, Li; Qiao, Songlin; Guo, Junqing; Luo, Chunhui; Wan, Bo; Deng, Ruiguang

2013-01-01

325

The impact of animal age, bacterial coinfection, and isolate pathogenicity on the shedding of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in aerosols from experimentally infected pigs  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of different variables (animal age, bacterial coinfection, and isolate pathogenicity) on the shedding of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in aerosols. Animals were grouped according to age (2 versus 6 mo) and inoculated with a PRRSV isolate of either low (MN-30100) or high (MN-184) pathogenicity. Selected animals in each group were also inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The pigs were anesthetized and aerosol samples (1000 breaths/sample) collected on alternating days from 1 to 21 after PRRSV inoculation. The results indicated that animal age (P = 0.09), M. hyopneumoniae coinfection (P = 0.09), and PRRSV isolate pathogenicity (P = 0.15) did not significantly influence the concentration of PRRSV in aerosols. However, inoculation with the PRRSV MN-184 isolate significantly increased the probability of aerosol shedding (P = 0.00005; odds ratio = 3.22). Therefore, the shedding of PRRSV in aerosols may be isolate-dependent.

Cho, Jenny G.; Dee, Scott A.; Deen, John; Trincado, Carlos; Fano, Eduardo; Jiang, Yin; Faaberg, Kay; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Guedes, Alonso; Collins, James E.; Joo, Han Soo

2006-01-01

326

Disguising the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: creative flavor compounding and techniques, part 2.  

PubMed

Adherence to antiretrovirals for pediatric patients is challenging for a variety of reasons, many of which are quite obvious. The medication's taste and texture may contribute to a child's resistance to following their regimen. To make the problem of compliance even more complex, there are fewer pediatric-friendly formulations available and fewer alternative options for antiretrovirals when compared to formulations and alternatives available to adults. For the sake of compliance, it is vital that parents and/or caregivers be offered innovative ways to disguise the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Compounding pharmacists can play an important role in finding answers to this situation. This article provides an in-depth discussion on some of the specific flavoring and taste-masking options that are available in the effort to increase adherence in the pediatric patient population. PMID:24579293

Horace, Alexis E; Akbarian-Tefagh, Jessica

2013-01-01

327

Disguising the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: creative flavor compounding and techniques, part 1.  

PubMed

The question of how to disguise the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is common for physicians, pharmacists, and parents/caregivers. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is essential for living a long life and is imperative for the successful treatment of pediatric patients. The taste of these medications has been shown to affect adherence in this patient population. Parents/caregivers are not only tasked with remembering refills, dosages, and strengths of antiretrovirals, they have to become persuasive diplomats for the daily administration of these medications to their children. Provided in this first part of a two-part article is background information on this topic and a discussion on palatability concerns. PMID:24459785

Horace, Alexis E; Akbarian-Tefagh, Jessica

2013-01-01

328

Does telaprevir possess a direct antidiabetic effect?  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces insulin resistance, which improves upon viral clearance. Telaprevir is a protease inhibitor effective against HCV genotype 1. We reported a case, whose history suggests that telaprevir may induce some antidiabetic effect independently of its suppression of HCV. A 56-year-old woman with obesity, type 2 diabetes treated with sitagliptin and metformin, and HCV-related cirrhosis was given triple therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha, ribavirin and telaprevir. After 2 weeks of treatment, HCV RNA was no longer detectable but the patient described a pronounced drop in the capillary glucose levels and episodes of hypoglycaemia that compelled her to stop all antidiabetic treatment. One month after stopping telaprevir, she had to resume her antidiabetic treatment, despite a persisting virological response. Despite reaching a sustained virological response, her diabetes progressed. Although the suppression of HCV replication may have played a role in reducing glucose intolerance, the fact that this patient resumed her prior antidiabetic treatment upon completing the telaprevir treatment, while still aviremic, suggests that telaprevir may have an additional antidiabetic effect. Further evidence about the possible role and mechanisms of telaprevir as antidiabetic agent is warranted. PMID:24329983

Tallón de Lara, Paulino; Himschoot, Thomas; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Negro, Francesco

2014-07-01

329

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Working Case Definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome is a poorly defined symptom complex characterized primarily by chronic or recurrent debilitating fatigue and various combinations of other symptoms, including sore throat, lymph node pain and tenderness, headache, myalgia, and arthralgias. Although the syndrome has received recent attention, and has been diagnosed in many patients, the chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome has not been defined

GARY P. HOLMES; JONATHAN E. KAPLAN; NELSON M. GANTZ; ANTHONY L KOMAROFF; LAWRENCE B. SCHONBERGER; STEPHEN E. STRAUS; JAMES F. JONES; RICHARD E. DUBOIS; CHARLOTTE CUNNINGHAM-RUNDLES; SAVITA PAHWA; GIOVANNA TOSATO; LEONARD S. ZEGANS; DAVID T. PURTILO; NATHANIEL BROWN; ROBERT T. SCHOOLEY; IRENA BRUS; Georgia Atlanta

1988-01-01

330

Targeted mutations in a highly conserved motif of the nsp1? protein impair the interferon antagonizing activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Non-structural protein 1? (nsp1?) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains a papain-like cysteine protease (PLP?) domain and has been identified as the main viral protein antagonizing the host innate immune response. In this study, nsp1? was determined to suppress the expression of reporter genes as well as to suppress 'self-expression' in transfected cells, and this activity appeared to be associated with its interferon (IFN) antagonist function. To knock down the effect of nsp1? on IFN activity, a panel of site-specific mutations in nsp1? was analysed. Double mutations K130A/R134A (type 1 PRRSV) or K124A/R128A (type 2 PRRSV) targeting a highly conserved motif of nsp1?, GKYLQRRLQ (in bold), impaired the ability of nsp1? to suppress IFN-? and reporter gene expression, as well as to suppress 'self-expression' in vitro. Subsequently, viable recombinant viruses vSD01-08-K130A/R134A and vSD95-21-K124A/R128A, containing double mutations in the GKYLQRRLQ motif were generated using reverse genetics. In comparison with WT viruses, these nsp1? mutants showed impaired growth ability in infected cells, but the PLP? cleavage function was not directly affected. The expression of selected innate immune genes was determined in vSD95-21-K124A/R128A mutant-infected cells. The results consistently showed that gene expression levels of IFN-?, IFN-? and IFN-stimulated gene 15 were upregulated in cells that were infected with the vSD95-21-K124A/R128A compared with that of WT virus. These data suggest that PRRSV nsp1? may selectively suppress cellular gene expression, including expression of genes involved in the host innate immune function. Modifying the key residues in the highly conserved GKYLQRRLQ motif could attenuate virus growth and improve the cellular innate immune responses. PMID:23761406

Li, Yanhua; Zhu, Longchao; Lawson, Steven R; Fang, Ying

2013-09-01

331

50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

2013-10-01

332

50 CFR 648.106 - Summer flounder possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder possession restrictions. 648.106...UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.106 Summer flounder possession restrictions....

2013-10-01

333

50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

2010-10-01

334

50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

2012-10-01

335

50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

2011-10-01

336

Molecular characterization of transcriptome-wide interactions between highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine alveolar macrophages in vivo.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects mainly the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Previous studies have analyzed the global gene expression profiles of lung tissue in vivo and PAMs in vitro following infection with PRRSV, however, transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PAMs in vivo has not yet been established. In this study, we employed Affymetrix microarrays to investigate the gene expression patterns of PAMs isolated from Tongcheng piglets (a Chinese indigenous breed) after infection with HP-PRRSV. During the infection, Tongcheng piglets exhibited typical clinical signs, e.g. fever, asthma, coughing, anorexia, lethargy and convulsion, but displayed mild regional lung damage at 5 and 7 dpi. Microarray analysis revealed that HP-PRRSV infection has affected PAMs in expression of the important genes involved in cytoskeleton and exocytosis organization, protein degradation and folding, intracellular calcium and zinc homeostasis. Several potential antiviral strategies might be employed in PAMs, including upregulating IFN-induced genes and increasing intracellular zinc ion concentration. And inhibition of the complement system likely attenuated the lung damage during HP-PRRSV infection. Transcriptomic analysis of PAMs in vivo could lead to a better understanding of the HP-PRRSV-host interaction, and to the identification of novel antiviral therapies and genetic components of swine tolerance/susceptibility to HP-PRRS. PMID:21850204

Zhou, Ping; Zhai, Shanli; Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Ping; Jiang, Tengfei; Hu, Xueying; Jiang, Yunbo; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qingde; Xu, Xuewen; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Bang

2011-01-01

337

Isolation, Characterization, and Molecular Modeling of a Rheumatoid Factor from a Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patient with Sj?gren's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We have previously isolated several IgG rheumatoid factors (RFs) from patients with both rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura using phage display system. To study IgG RFs in patients with other autoimmune diseases, phage display antibody libraries from a hepatitis C virus infected patient with Sjögren's syndrome were constructed. After panning, a specific clone RFL11 was isolated for characterization in advance. The binding activity and specificity of RFL11 to IgG Fc fragment were comparable to those of RFs previously isolated. The analysis with existed RF-Fc complex structures indicated the homology model of RFL11 is similar to IgM RF61 complex with high binding affinity of about 6 × 10?8?M. This effect resulted from longer complementarity-determining region (CDR) combining key somatic mutations. In the RFL11-Fc interfaces, the CDR-H3 loop forms a finger-like structure extending into the bottom of Fc pocket and resulting in strong ion and cation-pi interactions. Moreover, a process of antigen-driven maturation was proven by somatically mutated VH residues on H2 and H3 CDR loops in the interfaces. Taken together, these results suggested that high affinity IgG RFs can be generated in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease.

Leu, Sy-Jye; Liu, Chia-Yu

2013-01-01

338

Antiviral activity of bis(2-methylheptyl)phthalate isolated from Pongamia pinnata leaves against White Spot Syndrome Virus of Penaeus monodon Fabricius.  

PubMed

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an extremely virulent, contagious, causative agent of the White spot syndrome of shrimp and causes high mortality and affects most of the commercially important cultured marine crustacean species globally. Oral administration of ethanolic extract and purified compound from the leaves of Pongamia pinnata, an indigenious Indian "medicinal plant" "has increased the survival of WSSV infected Penaeus monodon". Pelletized feed impregnated with ethanolic extract of the leaves of P. pinnata was fed to shrimp prior and after WSSV infection at 200 and 300 microg/g of body weight of shrimp/day. The survival rate for the WSSV-infected shrimp that were fed with 200 and 300 microg extract/g were 40% and 80%, respectively. The active WSSV antiviral compound 1 that was isolated from the leaves of P. pinnata was identified as bis(2-methylheptyl)phthalate. Thus, the present work revealed that oral administration of the crude and purified compound from the leaves of P. pinnata effectively inhibited WSSV pathogenesis and reduced the mortality of infected shrimp. PMID:17328984

Rameshthangam, P; Ramasamy, P

2007-06-01

339

Abnormal anti-Epstein Barr virus antibodies in carriers of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome and in females at risk.  

PubMed

The asymptomatic hemizygous female carriers of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) have abnormal antibody responses to EBV. This suggests partial expression of the defect that leads to EBV-provoked life-threatening diseases in their affected sons. EBV specific antibodies were measured in 65 serum samples of 12 obligate carrier females and seven of their daughters (females at risk) during periods ranging from 1 to 5 yr. Abnormal qualitative antiviral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG titers were nearly fourfold higher than normal controls, two carriers had persistent IgM anti-VCA antibody, two-thirds had persistent IgA anti-VCA antibody, and half of the women had titers to early antigen (EA). Five of seven females exhibited a similar persistent pattern. In contrast, none of the unaffected family members nor 23 normal controls expressed IgA or IgM titers to VCA even with high exposure to the virus, and anti-EA was detected in only one control. Therefore, these findings may prove useful for detecting carriers of the syndrome. Abnormal anti-EBV titers similar to the carrier pattern have been reported in patients and other immunosuppressed individuals, and are indicative of active viral infection. PMID:6274962

Sakamoto, K; Seeley, J K; Lindsten, T; Sexton, J; Yetz, J; Ballow, M; Purtilo, D T

1982-02-01

340

Sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri target the envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus and protect against viral infection in shrimp haemocytes.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at evaluating an underlying mechanism of the antiviral activity of the sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Primary culture of haemocytes from Penaeus monodon was performed and inoculated with WSSV, after which the cytopathic effect (CPE), cell viability and viral load were determined. Haemocytes treated with WSSV-SG pre-mix showed decreased CPE, viral load and cell mortality from the viral infection. Solid-phase virus-binding assays revealed that SG bound to WSSV in a dose-related manner. Far Western blotting analysis indicated that SG bound to VP 26 and VP 28 proteins of WSSV. In contrast to the native SG, desulfated SG did not reduce CPE and cell mortality, and showed low binding activity with WSSV. The current study suggests that SG from Gracilaria fisheri elicits its anti-WSSV activity by binding to viral proteins that are important for the process of viral attachment to the host cells. It is anticipated that the sulfate groups of SG are important for viral binding. PMID:24509436

Rudtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

2014-05-01

341

The application of a duplex reverse transcription real-time PCR for the surveillance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2.  

PubMed

The porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is the most common disease in commercial pork production worldwide. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the most important agents of PRDC, usually co-infect in the same pigs. In order to survey the prevalence of PCV2 and PRRSV in pigs of various ages, a duplex reverse transcription real-time PCR (DRT-rPCR) was developed and applied in the present study. The DRT-rPCR did not cross-react with 10 swine viruses other than PCV2 and PRRSV, with detection limits of 1 TCID50/ml for PCV2 and 6.3 TCID50/ml for PRRSV. Surveillance using DRT-rPCR together with serology revealed that in the five farms studied, pigs were most susceptible to PRRSV at 6-14 weeks of age, whereas susceptibility to PCV2 varied by the management system but was mostly at 10-14 weeks of age. Cross analysis of viral loads versus antibody titers revealed that PCV2 load was affected negatively by anti-PCV2 ORF2 antibody, which constituted the most important non-infectious factor affecting the development of PMWS. These results indicated that DRT-rPCR was developed and applied successfully to the surveillance of PCV2 and PRRSV in the field. PMID:24560782

Chang, Chia-Yi; Deng, Ming-Chung; Wang, Fun-In; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Yang, Chia-Huei; Chang, Chieh; Huang, Yu-Liang

2014-06-01

342

White Spot Syndrome Virus IE1 and WSV056 Modulate the G1/S Transition by Binding to the Host Retinoblastoma Protein  

PubMed Central

DNA viruses often target cellular proteins to modulate host cell cycles and facilitate viral genome replication. However, whether proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) requires regulation of the host cell cycle remains unclear. In the present study, we show that two WSSV paralogs, IE1 and WSV056, can interact with Litopenaeus vannamei retinoblastoma (Rb)-like protein (lv-RBL) through the conserved LxCxE motif. Further investigation revealed that IE1 and WSV056 could also bind to Drosophila retinoblastoma family protein 1 (RBF1) in a manner similar to how they bind to lv-RBL. Using the Drosophila RBF-E2F pathway as a model system, we demonstrated that both IE1 and WSV056 could sequester RBF1 from Drosophila E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and subsequently activate E2F1 to stimulate the G1/S transition. Our findings provide the first evidence that WSSV may regulate cell cycle progression by targeting the Rb-E2F pathway.

Ran, Xiaozhuo; Bian, Xiaofang; Ji, Yongchang; Yan, Xiumin; Yang, Feng

2013-01-01

343

Identification of two auto-cleavage products of nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected cells: nsp1 function as interferon antagonist  

SciTech Connect

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 is predicted to be auto-cleaved from the replicase polyprotein into nsp1alpha and nsp1beta subunits. In infected cells, we detected the actual existence of nsp1alpha and nsp1beta. Cleavage sites between nsp1alpha/nsp1beta and nsp1beta/nsp2 were identified by protein microsequencing analysis. Time course study showed that nsp1alpha and nsp1beta mainly localize into the cell nucleus after 10 h post infection. Further analysis revealed that both proteins dramatically inhibited IFN-beta expression. The nsp1beta was observed to significantly inhibit expression from an interferon-stimulated response element promoter after Sendai virus infection or interferon treatment. It was further determined to inhibit nuclear translocation of STAT1 in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that nsp1beta has ability to inhibit both interferon synthesis and signaling, while nsp1alpha alone strongly inhibits interferon synthesis. These findings provide important insights into mechanisms of nsp1 in PRRSV pathogenesis and its impact in vaccine development.

Chen, Z.; Lawson, S.; Sun, Z.; Zhou, X. [Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Guan, X. [Department of Pharmaceutical Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Christopher-Hennings, J.; Nelson, E.A. [Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Fang, Y., E-mail: ying.fang@sdstate.ed [Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Department of Biology/Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

2010-03-01

344

Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) located in ORF75, ORF94 and ORF125. In the current study, we investigated whether or not the number of repeat units in the VNTRs correlates with virus outbreak status and/or shrimp farming practice. We analysed 662 WSSV samples from individual WSSV-infected Penaeus monodon shrimp from 104 ponds collected from two important shrimp farming regions of the Mekong Delta: Ca Mau and Bac Lieu. Using this large data set and statistical analysis, we found that for ORF94 and ORF125, the mean number of repeat units (RUs) in VNTRs was significantly lower in disease outbreak ponds than in non-outbreak ponds. Although a higher mean RU number was observed in the improved-extensive system than in the rice-shrimp or semi-intensive systems, these differences were not significant. VNTR sequences are thus not only useful markers for studying WSSV genotypes and populations, but specific VNTR variants also correlate with disease outbreaks in shrimp farming systems. PMID:22913744

Hoa, T T T; Zwart, M P; Phuong, N T; de Jong, M C M; Vlak, J M

2012-11-01

345

Kinetics of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) humoral immune response in swine serum and oral fluids collected from individual boars  

PubMed Central

Background The object of this study was to describe and contrast the kinetics of the humoral response in serum and oral fluid specimens during acute porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. The study involved three trials of 24 boars each. Boars were intramuscularly inoculated with a commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (Trial 1), a Type 1 PRRSV field isolated (Trial 2), or a Type 2 PRRSV field isolate (Trial 3). Oral fluid samples were collected from individual boars on day post inoculation (DPI) -7 and 0 to 21. Serum samples were collected from all boars on DPI ?7, 0, 7, 14, 21 and from 4 randomly selected boars on DPI 3, 5, 10, and 17. Thereafter, serum and oral fluid were assayed for PRRSV antibody using antibody isotype-specific ELISAs (IgM, IgA, IgG) adapted to serum or oral fluid. Results Statistically significant differences in viral replication and antibody responses were observed among the three trials in both serum and oral fluid specimens. PRRSV serum IgM, IgA, and IgG were first detected in samples collected on DPI 7, 10, and 10, respectively. Oral fluid IgM, IgA, and IgG were detected in samples collected between DPI 3 to 10, 7 to 10, and 8 to 14, respectively. Conclusions This study enhanced our knowledge of the PRRSV humoral immune response and provided a broader foundation for the development and application of oral fluid antibody-based diagnostics.

2013-01-01

346

Crystal Structures of Major Envelope Proteins VP26 and VP28 from White Spot Syndrome Virus Shed Light on Their Evolutionary Relationship?  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen known to infect various crustaceans. It has bacilliform morphology with a tail-like appendage at one end. The envelope consists of four major proteins. Envelope structural proteins play a crucial role in viral infection and are believed to be the first molecules to interact with the host. Here, we report the localization and crystal structure of major envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 from WSSV at resolutions of 2.2 and 2.0 Å, respectively. These two proteins alone account for approximately 60% of the envelope, and their structures represent the first two structural envelope proteins of WSSV. Structural comparisons among VP26, VP28, and other viral proteins reveal an evolutionary relationship between WSSV envelope proteins and structural proteins from other viruses. Both proteins adopt ?-barrel architecture with a protruding N-terminal region. We have investigated the localization of VP26 and VP28 using immunoelectron microscopy. This study suggests that VP26 and VP28 are located on the outer surface of the virus and are observed as a surface protrusion in the WSSV envelope, and this is the first convincing observation for VP26. Based on our studies combined with the literature, we speculate that the predicted N-terminal transmembrane region of VP26 and VP28 may anchor on the viral envelope membrane, making the core ?-barrel protrude outside the envelope, possibly to interact with the host receptor or to fuse with the host cell membrane for effective transfer of the viral infection. Furthermore, it is tempting to extend this host interaction mode to other structural viral proteins of similar structures. Our finding has the potential to extend further toward drug and vaccine development against WSSV.

Tang, Xuhua; Wu, Jinlu; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy Leong

2007-01-01

347

Development and Validation of an Assay To Detect Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Titers in Pig Oral Fluid Samples  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA) are important for clearing the virus. Pen-based pig oral fluid samples for disease surveillance are gaining in importance due to the ease of collection and low cost. The aim of this study was to develop a PRRSV-specific NA assay to determine NA titers in pig oral fluid samples. At first, we standardized the PRRSV NA assay using pen-based pig oral fluid samples collected over a period of 3 months from a herd of swine that received a PRRSV modified live vaccine (PRRS-MLV), and we also used oral fluid and serum samples collected from individual boars that were vaccinated with PRRS-MLV or infected with a virulent PRRSV strain. Our results suggest that a PRRSV NA titer of >8 in oral fluid samples is virus specific and can be detected beginning at 28 days after vaccination or infection. To validate the assay, we used 104 pen-based pig oral fluid and five representative serum samples from each pen of unknown history, as well as 100 serum samples from repeatedly vaccinated sows and oral fluid samples of their respective litters belonging to four different swine-breeding farms. Our results demonstrated that PRRSV NA titers in oral fluid samples are correlated with serum sample titers, and maternally derived PRRSV-specific NA titers could be detected in litters at the time of weaning. In conclusion, we have standardized and validated the pig oral fluid-based PRRSV NA assay, which has 94.3% specificity and 90.5% repeatability. The assay can be used to monitor herd immunity against PRRSV in vaccinated and infected herds of swine.

Ouyang, Kang; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Olsen, Chris; Hiremath, Jagadish; Elkalifa, Nadia; Schleappi, Rose; Wu, Jianmin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

348

Development of primary cell cultures from mud crab, Scylla serrata, and their potential as an in vitro model for the replication of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Primary cell cultures were developed from haemocytes and testis of Scylla serrata. Haemocytes were collected from live animals and cultured in double-strength L-15 medium (2× L-15) prepared in crab saline, supplemented with 5% foetal bovine serum and antibiotic-antimycotic solution (penicillin 100 U/mL, streptomycin 100 ?g/mL and amphotericin B 0.25 ?g/mL) with osmolality adjusted to 894 mOsm/kg. The haemocytes adhered within 2 h after seeding and showed proliferation up to 72 h. The disaggregated testis tissue fragments were seeded in 3× L-15 supplemented with non-essential amino acid mixture, lipid concentrate and antibiotic-antimycotic solution, with osmolality adjusted to 1,035 mOsm/kg with crab saline. Cells from the testis could be subcultured and maintained up to 21 d as suspension culture. Different dilutions of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) inoculum (known virus copy number) prepared from infected Penaeus monodon were inoculated in the cultured cells, and the cytopathic effects like detachment, rounding of cells and clear areas of depleted cells were observed after 48 h in haemocyte cultures. However, WSSV-exposed testis cells did not show any obvious change until 72 h post-infection. WSSV was detected in both haemocyte and testis cultures at different time-points of infection by conventional and real-time PCR using WSSV-specific primers. The transcripts of WSSV were found to be much higher in haemocytes than in testis culture. The virus harvested from the cultured haemocytes after three passages could infect healthy P. monodon. The present study showed that mud crab haemocyte culture can support WSSV replication, and it can be used as an in vitro tool for WSSV replication. PMID:24357036

Deepika, A; Makesh, M; Rajendran, K V

2014-05-01

349

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveillance using pre-weaning oral fluid samples detects circulation of wild-type PRRSV.  

PubMed

Oral fluid samples collected from litters of piglets (n=600) one day prior to weaning were evaluated as a method to surveil for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections in four sow herds of approximately 12,500 sow each. Serum samples from the litters' dam (n=600) were included for comparison. All four herds were endemically infected with PRRSV and all sows had been vaccinated ? 2 times with PRRSV modified-live virus vaccines. After all specimens had been collected, samples were randomized and assayed by PRRSV real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and four PRRSV antibody ELISA assays (IgM, IgA, IgG, and Commercial Kit). All sow serum samples were negative by PRRSV RT-qPCR, but 9 of 600 oral fluid samples tested positive at two laboratories. Open reading frame 5 (ORF5) sequencing of 2 of the 9 positive oral fluid samples identified wild-type viruses as the source of the infection. A comparison of antibody responses in RT-qPCR positive vs. negative oral fluid samples showed significantly higher IgG S/P ratios in RT-qPCR-positive oral fluid samples (mean S/P 3.46 vs. 2.36; p=0.02). Likewise, sow serum samples from RT-qPCR-positive litter oral fluid samples showed significantly higher serum IgG (mean S/P 1.73 vs. 0.98; p<0.001) and Commercial Kit (mean S/P 1.97 vs. 0.98; p<0.001) S/P ratios. Overall, the study showed that pre-weaning litter oral fluid samples could provide an efficient and sensitive approach to surveil for PRRSV in infected, vaccinated, or presumed-negative pig breeding herds. PMID:24393634

Kittawornrat, Apisit; Panyasing, Yaowalak; Goodell, Christa; Wang, Chong; Gauger, Phillip; Harmon, Karen; Rauh, Rolf; Desfresne, Luc; Levis, Ian; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

2014-01-31

350

Boosting In Planta Production of Antigens Derived from the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Subsequent Evaluation of Their Immunogenicity  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of swine, caused by an arterivirus, the PRRS virus (PRRSV). This virus infects pigs worldwide and causes huge economic losses. Due to genetic drift, current vaccines are losing their power. Adaptable vaccines could provide a solution to this problem. This study aims at producing in planta a set of antigens derived from the PRRSV glycoproteins (GPs) to be included in a subunit vaccine. We selected the GP3, GP4 and GP5 and optimized these for production in an Arabidopsis seed platform by removing transmembrane domains (Tm) and/or adding stabilizing protein domains, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and immunoglobulin (IgG) ‘Fragment crystallizable’ (Fc) chains. Accumulation of the GPs with and without Tm was low, reaching no more than 0.10% of total soluble protein (TSP) in homozygous seed. However, addition of stabilizing domains boosted accumulation up to a maximum of 2.74% of TSP when GFP was used, and albeit less effectively, also the Fc chains of the porcine IgG3 and murine IgG2a increased antigen accumulation, to 0.96% and 1.81% of TSP respectively, while the murine IgG3 Fc chain did not. Antigens with Tm were less susceptible to these manipulations to increase yield. All antigens were produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and accordingly, they carried high-mannose N-glycans. The immunogenicity of several of those antigens was assessed and we show that vaccination with purified antigens did elicit the production of antibodies with virus neutralizing activity in mice but not in pigs.

Piron, Robin; De Koker, Stefaan; De Paepe, Annelies; Goossens, Julie; Grooten, Johan; Nauwynck, Hans; Depicker, Ann

2014-01-01

351

THE POSSESSIVE SYNTACTICAL TYPE AND THE MALAY LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1977 I prepared a paper for the Second International Conference on Austronesian linguistics. It dealt with the possessive category, its genera'1 features, its evolution and its use in grammatical structures of Indonesian languages (Alieva, 1978). Among the problems connected with the possessive category, it is essential to discuss the problem of the possessive structure of a sentence over against

N. ALIEVA

352

Syntactic Exorcism: Toward an LFG Analysis of Swahili 'External Possession  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the periphery of linguistic investigation lie those data that have yet to be satisfactorily explained. 'External possession' or 'possessor-raising' constructions often fall into this category, despite their widespread, cross-linguistic manifestation. Swahili of East Africa exhibits an 'external possession' construction which scholars have dealt with in a variety of ways. Until now, most analyses of Swahili 'external possession' have shared

TERRILL B. SCHROCK

2007-01-01

353

Enhanced immune responses in pigs by DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of European type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The European (EU) type of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has recently emerged in China. In this study, three recombinant DNA vaccines, pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5 (coexpressing EU type PRRSV GP3 and GP5), pVAX1-EU-ORF3 and pVAX1-EU-ORF5, were constructed and evaluated for their abilities to induce humoral and cellular responses as well as to protect piglets against homologous virus challenge. All piglets were given booster vaccinations at 21 days after the initial inoculation and then challenged 14 days later. Pigs inoculated with pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5 developed significantly higher (P<0.05) PRRSV-specific antibody responses, neutralizing antibodies and levels of IL-4 and IL-10 than those given pVAX1-EU-ORF3, pVAX1-EU-ORF5 or pVAX1. Moreover, pigs immunized with pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5 had markedly increased levels of IFN-? and IL-2 in serum and T-lymphocytes (CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells) in peripheral blood. Thus, EU-type PRRSV GP3 and GP5 proteins demonstrated good immunogenicity and reactogenicity and could induce cellular immunity in pigs. Following challenge with the Lelystad virus (LV) strain, piglets inoculated with pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5 showed viremia and virus load distributed in organ tissues that were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in the pVAX1-EU-ORF3 group and control group, and slightly lower than those in the pVAX1-EU-ORF5 group (P>0.05). As GP3 could enhance humoral- and cell-mediated immune responses to GP5, the results of this study suggested that these two proteins delivered by a vaccine can synergistically induce immunity against PRRSV. PMID:24882496

Ren, Jingqiang; Lu, Huijun; Wen, Shubo; Sun, Wenchao; Yan, Fulong; Chen, Xing; Jing, Jie; Liu, Hao; Liu, Cunxia; Xue, Fei; Xiao, Pengpeng; Xin, Shu; Jin, Ningyi

2014-09-01

354

Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and efficient differentiation between Canadian and European strains by reverse transcription and PCR amplification.  

PubMed Central

Two sets of oligonucleotide primers (1008PS-1009PR and 1010PLS-1011PLR) were designed according to the sequence of the nucleocapsid protein (N) gene of Quebec reference strain IAF-exp91 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The primers were used in reverse transcription and PCR (RT-PCR) experiments for detection of viral genomic RNA either from infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) or tissues from experimentally infected specific-pathogen-free pigs. Considering the high degree of variation detected between the nucleotide sequences of the N genes of IAF-exp91 and Lelystad virus (LV) strains of PRRSV, the primers 1008PS-1009PR were referred to as the specific primers, since they were chosen in such a manner that they could amplify only sequences from IAF-exp91 RNA and not from LV. On the other hand, the primer pair 1010PLS-1011PLR was common to both strains of PRRSV. When analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, the products of RT-PCR from each set of primers were resolved as single band of the predicted size, the specificity of amplified products being confirmed by Southern blotting with a specific IAF-exp91 N gene probe. No amplification was observed when RNA was extracted from uninfected PAM or from other porcine viruses. As expected, only the common primer pair was able to amplify RNA from the Quebec reference strain and two European strains (LV and Weybridge). The resulting bands displayed differences in electrophoretic mobilities due to the absence of 37 nucleotides in both European strains, thus allowing their differentiation from the IAF-exp91 strain. Most of the tissue culture-adapted Quebec isolates were detected with both primer pairs. The sensitivity of the enzymatic amplification method for detection of PRRSV from lung tissues was a 50% tissue culture infective dose of 5. RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of PRRSV in tissues from experimentally infected pigs and as sensitive as virus isolation in PAM, especially when combined with Southern blotting with the digoxigenin-labeled N probe and chemiluminescence detection. Images

Mardassi, H; Wilson, L; Mounir, S; Dea, S

1994-01-01

355

Genomic analysis and pathogenic characteristics of Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 deletion strains isolated in Korea.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a globally ubiquitous swine virus that exhibits genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity among isolates. The present study was conducted to determine the complete genome sequence and pathogenicity of two Korean type 2 PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) deletion mutants, CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4. The full-length genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 were determined to be 15,018 and 15,019 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, respectively, which were 393- or 392-nucleotide shorter than that of the type 2 NA prototype strain VR-2332 due to the presence of notable large deletions within the nsp2 gene. The genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 consisted of a 189- or 190-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 14,677-nucleotide protein-coding region, and a 151-nucleotide 3' UTR. Whole genome evaluation revealed that the nucleotide sequences of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 are most similar to each other (10.7% sequence divergence), and then to the Korean strain CA-1 (11.3% sequence divergence) and the US strain MN184C (13.1% sequence divergence), respectively. To evaluate the in vitro immunity of nsp2 deletion variants, we sought to explore alteration of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in PAM-pCD163 cells infected with each virus strain using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytokine genes including IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-?, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and RANTES were found to be significantly elevated in nsp2 deletion virus-infected PAM cells. In contrast, expression of interferons (IFN-?, ?, and ?) and antiviral genes including ISG-15, -54, and -56 were unchanged or down-regulated in PAM cells infected with the nsp2 deletion mutants. Animal studies to assess the pathogenicity of nsp2 deletion PRRSVs demonstrated that both CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 strains notably produce weight loss in infected pigs. Furthermore, the nsp2 deletion mutants replicated well in pigs with significantly increased and prolonged viremia kinetics. Taken together, our results indicate that, among the three isolates, the outcome of in vitro and in vivo infection by CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 is comparable, suggesting that the large nsp2 deletion may be one of the viral genetic determinants contributing to PRRSV pathogenicity. PMID:24646599

Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Lee, Yoo Jin; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Chul; Yoon, In-Joong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Shien-Young; Choi, Young-Ki; Lee, Changhee

2014-06-01

356

Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

Kielbasa, Johanna M.; Chandrasekharan, Gopal M.; Holmes, Cynthia L.; Gomez, Michael R.

2013-01-01

357

A Subset of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus GP3 Glycoprotein Is Released into the Culture Medium of Cells as a Non-Virion-Associated and Membrane-Free (Soluble) Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GP3 protein of the IAF-Klop strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was expressed in 293 cells by a recombinant human type 5 adenovirus carrying the open reading frame 3 gene. The protein exhibited a molecular mass of 42 kDa and comigrated with GP3 expressed in PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells. Removal of N-linked glycans from GP3 resulted in

HELMI MARDASSI; PATRICK GONIN; CARL A. GAGNON; BERNARD MASSIE; SERGE DEA

1998-01-01

358

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

359

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Outbreak in Argentina: Molecular Evidence for Person-to-Person Transmission of Andes Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) cases around a southwestern Argentina town and in persons living 1400 km away but in contact with those cases was detected during the spring of 1996. In order to evaluate person-to-person transmission we compared the homology of PCR-amplified viral sequences of 26 Argentine and Chilean cases. Sixteen of them were epidemiologically linked cases

P. J. Padula; A. Edelstein; S. D. L. Miguel; N. M. López; C. M. Rossi; R. D. Rabinovich

1998-01-01

360

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among drug users: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a key predictor of survival for human immuno- deficiency virus (HIV)-infected people. Suboptimal adherence among marginalized populations such as HIV-positive drug users could be associated with clinical failure and the emergence of viral resistance. Objective To conduct a systematic review of studies assessing adherence to HAART among HIV-positive drug users (DU)

Monica Malta; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Monica M. F. Magnanini; Francisco I. Bastos

2008-01-01

361

Expression of Transgenes from Newcastle Disease Virus with a Segmented Genome?  

PubMed Central

Paramyxoviruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family of the order Mononegavirales. They have a nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA genome and can cause a number of diseases in humans and animals. We generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) possessing a two-segmented genome. Each genomic segment is flanked by authentic NDV 3? and 5? noncoding termini allowing for efficient replication and transcription. A reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted into one segment, and a red fluorescent protein dsRed gene was inserted into the other segment in order to easily detect the replication and transcription of segments in infected cells. The rescued viruses grew well and were stable in embryonated chicken eggs over multiple passages. We were able to detect the expression of both reporter genes in the same cell infected with the virus possessing a segmented genome, and viral particles can contain either one or two types of RNA segments. We also rescued a two-segmented virus expressing GFP and the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus spike S protein, which is about 200 kDa. The chimeric virus extends the coding capacity of NDV by 30%, suggesting that the two-segmented NDV can be used for development of vaccines or gene therapy vectors carrying long and multiple transgenes.

Gao, Qinshan; Park, Man-Seong; Palese, Peter

2008-01-01

362

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by nonimmunosuppressive analogs of cyclosporin A.  

PubMed Central

Analogs of the immunosuppressive cyclic undecapeptide cyclosporin A (CsA) with substitutions in positions 1, 4, 6, and/or 11 were rationally designed to possess substantially diminished or no immunosuppressive activity. When these compounds were assayed for their capacity to interfere with the replication of human immunodeficiency virus, some displayed a potent antiviral activity in newly infected cells. However, only CsA could interfere with virus replication in persistently infected cells. One CsA analog with antiviral activity costimulated the phytohemagglutinin-induced production of interleukin 2 by human lymphocytes. Human immunodeficiency virus particles from drug-exposed cells showed lower infectivity than virions from untreated cells. Thus, these nonimmunosuppressive analogs of CsA constitute a promising class of lead compounds to develop drugs for effective treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images Fig. 2

Bartz, S R; Hohenwalter, E; Hu, M K; Rich, D H; Malkovsky, M

1995-01-01

363

Russian Federation: penalties eased for possession of illegal drugs.  

PubMed

In November 2003, after long deliberations, the Russian Parliament passed a bill amending the national Criminal Code to differentiate between the liability for possession of illegal drugs for drug users and for drug traffickers. The reforms involved redefining the terms "large" and "extra-large" with respect to the quantities for possession and trafficking of illegal substances. (There is no criminal liability for possession of less than a large amount.) On 16 December 2003, the new bill was enacted into law. PMID:15216819

2004-04-01

364

Penaeus monodon TATA Box-Binding Protein Interacts with the White Spot Syndrome Virus Transactivator IE1 and Promotes Its Transcriptional Activity?  

PubMed Central

We show here that the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early protein IE1 interacts with the Penaeus monodon TATA box-binding protein (PmTBP) and that this protein-protein interaction occurs in the absence of any other viral or cellular proteins or nucleic acids, both in vitro and in vivo. Mapping studies using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusion proteins containing truncations of IE1 and PmTBP delimited the interacting regions to amino acids (aa) 81 to 180 in IE1 and, except for aa 171 to 230, to aa 111 to 300 in PmTBP. A WSSV IE1 transactivation assay showed that large quantities (>800 ng) of the GAL4-IE1 plasmid caused “squelching” of the GAL4-IE1 activity and that this squelching effect was alleviated by the overexpression of PmTBP. Gene silencing of WSSV ie1 and PmTBP by pretreatment with double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) prior to WSSV challenge showed that the expression of these two target genes was specifically inhibited by their corresponding dsRNAs 72 and 96 h after dsRNA treatment. dsRNA silencing of ie1 and PmTBP expression also significantly reduced WSSV replication and the expression of the viral early gene dnapol (DNA polymerase gene). These results suggest that WSSV IE1 and PmTBP work cooperatively with each other during transcription initiation and, furthermore, that PmTBP is an important target for WSSV IE1's transactivation activity that can enhance viral gene expression and help in virus replication.

Liu, Wang-Jing; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chen, I-Tung; Wang, K. C. Han-Ching; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

2011-01-01

365

Comparative pathogenesis of type 1 (European genotype) and type 2 (North American genotype) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in infected boar  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) now has two main genotypes, genotype 1 (European) and genotype 2 (North American). There is a lack of data on the comparison of pathogenicity of the two genotypes in boars. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the amount of PRRSV present in semen over time and compare the viral distribution and microscopic lesions of type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-infected boars. Methods Twenty-four 8-month-old PRRSV-naïve Duroc boars were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups. The boars in groups 1 (n?=?9) and 2 (n?=?9) were intranasally inoculated with type 1 or type 2 PRRSV, respectively. The boars in groups 1 (n?=?6) served as negative controls. Semen and blood samples were collected up to 35 days post-inoculation (dpi), and necropsies were performed on 14, 21, and 35 dpi. Results There were no significant differences in the genomic copy number of PRRSV, microscopic testicular lesion score, number of PRRSV-positive germ cells, or number of apoptotic cells between the type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-infected boars throughout the experiment. Histopathological changes were manifested by the desquamation of spermatocytes and the presence of multinucleated giant cells in seminiferous tubules of both type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-infected boars. The distribution of PRRSV-positive cells was focal; the virus was found in single germ cells or small clusters of germ cells, localized to the spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, and non-sperm cells in type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-infected boars. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that two genotypes of PRRSV do not have significantly different virulence toward the male reproductive system of pigs.

2013-01-01

366

An experimental model to evaluate the role of transport vehicles as a source of transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to susceptible pigs  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in a scale-model trailer that was required to infect susceptible pigs, evaluate the potential of PRRSV-contaminated transport vehicles to infect naïve pigs and assess 4 sanitation programs for the prevention of virus spread. To maximize study power, scale models (1:150) of weaned-pig trailers were constructed that provided an animal density equal to that of an actual weaned-pig trailer capable of transporting 300 pigs. The 1st aim involved contaminating the interior of the model trailers with various concentrations (101 to 104 TCID50/mL) of PRRSV MN 30–100, then housing sentinel pigs in the trailers for 2 h. Pigs exposed to trailers contaminated with ? 103 TCID50/mL became infected. The 2nd aim involved housing experimentally infected seeder pigs in trailers for 2 h, then directly introducing sentinel pigs for 2 h. Infection of sentinels was demonstrated in 3 of 4 replicates. The 3rd aim involved applying 1 of 4 sanitation procedures (treatments) to contaminated trailers. Treatment 1 consisted of manual scraping of the interior to remove soiled bedding (wood chips). Treatment 2 consisted of bedding removal, washing (80°C, 20 500 kPa), and disinfecting (with 1:256 phenol; 10-min contact time). Treatment 3 consisted of treatment 2, followed by freezing and thawing. Treatment 4 consisted of bedding removal, washing, disinfecting, and drying. Ten replicates were conducted per treatment. Pretreatment swabs from all trailers tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Post-treatment swabs were PCR-positive for all trailers except those that were washed, disinfected, and dried. Infection of sentinel pigs by PRRSV was also detected by PCR after all treatments except washing, disinfecting, and drying. Under the conditions of this study, drying appeared to be an important component of a sanitation program for ensuring PRRSV biosecurity of transport vehicles.

2004-01-01

367

Evaluation of the efficacy of a new modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine (Fostera PRRS) against heterologous PRRSV challenge.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate a new modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine (Fostera PRRS, Zoetis, Florham, NJ, USA) that was based on a virulent US PRRSV isolate (P129) attenuated using CD163-expressing cell lines. Sixty-four PRRSV-seronegative 3-week-old pigs were randomly divided into the following four groups: vaccinated challenged (group 1), vaccinated unchallenged (group 2), unvaccinated challenged (group 3), and unvaccinated unchallenged (group 4). The pigs in groups 1 and 2 were immunized with a 2.0mL dose of modified live PRRSV vaccine at 21 days of age, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. At 56 days of age (0 days post-challenge), the pigs in groups 1 and 3 were inoculated intranasally with 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/mL of PRRSV (SNUVR090851 strain, fourth passage in MARC-145 cells). Vaccinated challenged pigs exhibited significantly lower (P<0.05) respiratory scores, viremia, macroscopic and microscopic lung lesion scores, and PRRSV-antigen with interstitial pneumonia than unvaccinated challenged pigs. The induction of PRRSV-specific IFN-?-SCs by the new modified live PRRSV vaccine produced a protective immune response, leading to the reduction of PRRSV viremia. Although the new modified live PRRSV vaccine is not effective against heterologous PRRSV challenge, the new modified live PRRSV vaccine was able to reduce the levels of viremia and nasal shedding, and severity of PRRSV-induced lesions after challenging virus under experimental conditions. PMID:24970363

Park, Changhoon; Seo, Hwi Won; Han, Kiwon; Kang, Ikjae; Chae, Chanhee

2014-08-27

368

Nonmuscle Myosin Heavy Chain IIA Is a Critical Factor Contributing to the Efficiency of Early Infection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. Most patients infected by SFTSV present with fever and thrombocytopenia, and up to 30% die due to multiple-organ dysfunction. The mechanisms by which SFTSV enters multiple cell types are unknown. SFTSV contains two species of envelope glycoproteins, Gn (44.2 kDa) and Gc (56 kDa), both of which are encoded by the M segment and are cleaved from a precursor polypeptide (about 116 kDa) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Gn fused with an immunoglobulin Fc tag at its C terminus (Gn-Fc) bound to multiple cells susceptible to the infection of SFTSV and blocked viral infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Immunoprecipitation assays following mass spectrometry analysis showed that Gn binds to nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA), a cellular protein with surface expression in multiple cell types. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of NMMHC-IIA, but not the closely related NMMHC-IIB or NMMHC-IIC, reduced SFTSV infection, and NMMHC-IIA specific antibody blocked infection by SFTSV but not other control viruses. Overexpression of NMMHC-IIA in HeLa cells, which show limited susceptivity to SFTSV, markedly enhanced SFTSV infection of the cells. These results show that NMMHC-IIA is critical for the cellular entry of SFTSV. As NMMHC-IIA is essential for the normal functions of platelets and human vascular endothelial cells, it is conceivable that NMMHC-IIA directly contributes to the pathogenesis of SFTSV and may be a useful target for antiviral interventions against the viral infection.

Qi, Yonghe; Liu, Chenxuan; Gao, Wenqing; Chen, Pan; Fu, Liran; Peng, Bo; Wang, Haimin; Jing, Zhiyi; Zhong, Guocai

2014-01-01

369

Phylogenetic comparison of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains detected in domestic pigs until 2008 and in 2012 in Croatia  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been present for the last 2 decades in Croatia, causing large economical losses in the pig production. The clinical features of the infections are mostly manifested by the development of respiratory problems, weight loss and poor growth performance, as well as reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Even though the infections are continuously recognized in some regions in Croatia, the heterogeneity of the detected viral strains from 2012 has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to compare virus strains of PCV2 and PRRSV detected until 2008 in Croatia with strains isolated in 2012 to gain a better epidemiological understanding of these two infections. Results PCV2 and PRRSV strains detected in 2012 in fattening pigs from regions where these two diseases have been previously described were compared to strains that have been detected in the same regions within the past two decades. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the circulating PCV2 and PRRSV strains are distantly related to the previously described Croatian viral strains. However, when compared to known isolates from the GenBank a high genetic identity of PRRSV isolates with isolates from Hungary, Denmark and the Netherlands was found. Conclusion The results of this study reveal that even though PCV2 and PRRSV are constantly present in the investigated regions in Croatia, the viral strains found in 2012 genetically differ from those detected in earlier years. This indicates that new entries into the pig population appeared with regard to both infections, probably as a result of pig trade.

2014-01-01

370

Effects of endosulfan exposure and Taura Syndrome Virus infection on the survival and molting of the marine penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Molting in crustaceans is an important endocrine-controlled biological process that plays a critical role in growth and reproduction. Many factors can affect this physiological cycle in crustaceans including environmental stressors and disease agents. For example the pathology of Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) of shrimp is closely related to molting cycle. Similarly, endosulfan, a commonly used pesticide is a potential endocrine disruptor. This study explores interrelationships between pesticide exposure, virus infection and their interactions with physiology and susceptibility of the shrimp. Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) were challenged with increasing doses of endosulfan and TSV (TSV-C, a Belize reference strain) to determine the respective median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s). The 96-h endosulfan LC(50) was 5.32 ?g L(-1), while the 7-d TSV LC(50) was 54.74 mg L(-1). Subsequently, based on their respective LC(50) values, a 20-d interaction experiment with sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (2 ?g L(-1)) and TSV (30 mg L(-1)) confirmed a significant interaction (p<0.05, ?(2)=5.29), and thereby the susceptibility of the shrimp. Concurrently, molt-stage of animals, both at the time of exposure and death, was compared with mortality. For animals challenged with TSV, no strong correlation between molt-stage and mortality was observed (p>0.05). For animals exposed to endosulfan, animals in the postmolt stage were shown to be more susceptible to acute toxicity (p<0.05). For animals exposed to both TSV and endosulfan, interference of endosulfan-associated stress lead to increasingly higher susceptibility at postmolt (p<0.05) during the acute phase of the TSV disease cycle. PMID:22119282

Tumburu, Laxminath; Shepard, Eleanor F; Strand, Allan E; Browdy, Craig L

2012-03-01

371

Analysis of the swine tracheobronchial lymph node transcriptomic response to infection with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative investigation into the host transcriptome response in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 13 days post-infection with HP-PRRSV rJXwn06, PRRSV strain VR-2332 or sham inocula. RNA from each was prepared for next-generation sequencing. Amplified library constructs were directly sequenced and a list of sequence transcripts and counts was generated using an RNAseq analysis pipeline to determine differential gene expression. Transcripts were annotated and relative abundance was calculated based upon the number of times a given transcript was represented in the library. Results Major changes in transcript abundance occurred in response to infection with either PRRSV strain, each with over 630 differentially expressed transcripts. The largest increase in transcript level for either virus versus sham-inoculated controls were three serum amyloid A2 acute-phase isoforms. However, the degree of up or down-regulation of transcripts following infection with HP-PRRSV rJXwn06 was greater than transcript changes observed with US PRRSV VR-2332. Also, of 632 significantly altered transcripts within the HP-PRRSV rJXwn06 library 55 were up-regulated and 69 were down-regulated more than 3-fold, whilst in the US PRRSV VR-2332 library only 4 transcripts were up-regulated and 116 were down-regulated more than 3-fold. Conclusions The magnitude of differentially expressed gene profiles detected in HP-PRRSV rJXwn06 infected pigs as compared to VR-2332 infected pigs was consistent with the increased pathogenicity of the HP-PRRSV in vivo.

2012-01-01

372

Construction and immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Background The European (EU) genotype of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (Genotype-I PRRSV) has recently emerged in China. The coexistence of Genotype-I and -II PRRSV strains could cause seriously affect PRRSV diagnosis and management. Current vaccines are not able to protect against PRRSV infection completely and have inherent drawbacks. Thus, genetically engineered vaccines, including DNA vaccine and live vector engineered vaccines, have been developed. This study aimed to determine the enhanced immune responses of mice inoculated with a DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of a Genotype-I PRRSV. Results To evaluate the immunogenicity of GP3 and GP5 proteins from European-type PRRSV, three DNA vaccines, pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5, pVAX1-EU-ORF3 and pVAX1-EU-ORF5, were constructed, which were based on a Genotype-I LV strain (GenBank ID: M96262). BALB/c mice were immunized with the DNA vaccines; delivered in the form of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles. To increase the efficiency of the vaccine, Quil A (Quillaja) was used as an adjuvant. GP3 and GP5-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN gamma) from the immunized mice sera, and other immune parameters, were examined, including T-cell proliferation responses and subgroups of spleen T-lymphocytes. The results showed that ORF3 and ORF5 proteins of Genotype-I PRRSV induced GP3 and GP5-specific antibodies that could neutralize the virus. The levels of Cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN–? of the experimental groups were significantly higher than those of control groups after booster vaccination (P?virus could stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes in mice in the experimental group. Conclusions Using Quil A as adjuvant, Genotype-I PRRSV GP3 and GP5 proteins produced good immunogenicity and reactivity. More importantly, better PRRSV-specific neutralizing antibody titers and cell-mediated immune responses were observed in mice immunized with the DNA vaccine co-expressing GP3 and GP5 proteins than in mice immunized with a DNA vaccine expressing either protein singly. The results of this study demonstrated that co-immunization with GP3 and GP5 produced a better immune response in mice.

2014-01-01

373

Development and validation of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain assay for universal detection of the White Spot Syndrome Virus in marine crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Background The White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), the sole member of the family Whispoviridae, is the etiological agent that causes severe mortality events in wild and farmed shrimp globally. Given its adverse effects, the WSSV has been included in the list of notifiable diseases of the Office of International Epizootic (OIE) since 1997. To date there are no known therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus, and a surveillance program in brood-stock and larvae, based on appropriate diagnostic tests, has been strongly recommended. However, some currently used procedures intended for diagnosis of WSSV may be particularly susceptible to generate spurious results harmfully impacting the shrimp farming industry. Methods In this study, a sensitive one-step SYBR green-based real-time PCR (qPCR) for the detection and quantitation of WSSV was developed. The method was tested against several WSSV infected crustacean species and on samples that were previously diagnosed as being positive for WSSV from different geographical locations. Results A universal primer set for targeting the WSSV VP28 gene was designed. This method demonstrated its specificity and sensitivity for detection of WSSV, with detection limits of 12 copies per sample, comparable with the results obtained by other protocols. Furthermore, the primers designed in the present study were shown to exclusively amplify the targeted WSSV VP28 fragment, and successfully detected the virus in different samples regardless of their geographical origin. In addition, the presence of WSSV in several species of crustaceans, including both naturally and experimentally infected, were successfully detected by this method. Conclusion The designed qPCR assay here is highly specific and displayed high sensitivity. Furthermore, this assay is universal as it allows the detection of WSSV from different geographic locations and in several crustacean species that may serve as potential vectors. Clearly, in many low-income import-dependent nations, where the growth of shrimp farming industries has been impressive, there is a demand for cost-effective diagnostic tools. This study may become an alternative molecular tool for a less expensive, rapid and efficient detection of WSSV.

2013-01-01

374

Epstein-Barr virus-induced diseases in the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome and related disorders.  

PubMed

Information regarding the development of diverse diseases associated with EBV virus in immune deficient patients has been gained by studying males with XLP, and their families. Multiple immune defenses normally protect against the ubiquitous EBV. Depending on the type and degree of inherited or acquired immunodeficiency, EBV may more or less be capable of inducing a variety of diseases. Multiple methods may be needed to document EBV in the immune deficient individual. Rational approaches to prevention and intervention in EBV-induced diseases in immune compromised individuals are being developed. PMID:2990590

Purtilo, D T

1985-01-01

375

50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Any person that possesses a blue marlin or a white marlin taken from its...boundary of the EEZ or lands a blue marlin or a white marlin in an Atlantic... . Any person that possesses a blue marlin, white marlin, or...

2010-10-01

376

31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

2013-07-01

377

50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145 Section...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the...

2013-10-01

378

50 CFR 20.39 - Termination of possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.39 Termination...requirements of this part, the possession of birds taken by any hunter shall be deemed to have ceased when such birds have been delivered by him to...

2013-10-01

379

Whose? L2-English Speakers' Possessive Pronoun Gender Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of an experiment on production of "his/her" in English as a second language (L2) by proficient native speakers of Italian, Spanish, and Dutch. In Dutch and English, 3rd person singular possessive pronouns agree in gender with their antecedents, in Italian and Spanish possessives in general agree with the noun they…

Anton-Mendez, Ines

2011-01-01

380

The Relationship between Social Capital and Weapon Possession on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research focused on the problem of how college officials might be able to predict weapon possession on college campuses. We hypothesized that measures of social capital (i.e., trust and participation in society) may be useful in identifying individuals who are likely to possess weapons on campuses. Prior research has shown that those…

Messer, Rachel H.; Bradley, Kristopher I.; Calvi, Jessica L.; Kennison, Shelia M.

2012-01-01

381

50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fishing vessel that possesses an Atlantic tuna in the Atlantic Ocean or that lands an Atlantic tuna in an Atlantic coastal...a fishing vessel that possesses a swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean or lands a swordfish in an Atlantic coastal port...

2013-10-01

382

Evaluation of alternative strategies to MERV 16-based air filtration systems for reduction of the risk of airborne spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a re-emerging disease of pigs and a growing threat to the global swine industry. For sustainable disease control it is critical to prevent the airborne spread of the etiologic agent, PRRS virus, between pig populations. The application of MERV 16-based air filtration systems to swine facilities in an effort to reduce this risk has been proposed; however, due to the cost and air flow restrictions of such systems the need for alternative strategies has arisen. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate 3 groups of alternative biosecurity strategies for reducing the risk of the airborne spread of PRRSV. Strategies evaluated included mechanical filters, antimicrobial filters and a disinfectant-EVAP (evaporative cooling) system. Results from this study indicate that while alternatives to MERV 16-based biosecurity protocols for protecting farms from the airborne spread of PRRSV are available, further information on their efficacy in the field is needed before conclusions can be drawn. PMID:19345522

Dee, Scott; Pitkin, Andrea; Deen, John

2009-07-01

383

Differential Host Cell Gene Expression and Regulation of Cell Cycle Progression by Nonstructural Protein 11 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Nonstructural protein 11 (nsp11) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a viral endoribonuclease with an unknown function. The regulation of cellular gene expression by nsp11 was examined by RNA microarrays using MARC-nsp11 cells constitutively expressing nsp11. In these cells, the interferon-?, interferon regulatory factor 3, and nuclear factor-?B activities were suppressed compared to those of parental cells, suggesting that nsp11 might serve as a viral interferon antagonist. Differential cellular transcriptome was examined using Affymetrix exon chips representing 28,536 transcripts, and after statistical analyses 66 cellular genes were shown to be upregulated and 104 genes were downregulated by nsp11. These genes were grouped into 5 major signaling pathways according to their functional relations: histone-related, cell cycle and DNA replication, mitogen activated protein kinase signaling, complement, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. Of these, the modulation of cell cycle by nsp11 was further investigated since many of the regulated genes fell in this particular pathway. Flow cytometry showed that nsp11 caused the delay of cell cycle progression at the S phase and the BrdU staining confirmed the cell cycle arrest in nsp11-expressing cells. The study provides insights into the understanding of specific cellular responses to nsp11 during PRRSV infection.

Sun, Yan; Prasanth, Supriya G.

2014-01-01

384

Differential host cell gene expression and regulation of cell cycle progression by nonstructural protein 11 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Nonstructural protein 11 (nsp11) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a viral endoribonuclease with an unknown function. The regulation of cellular gene expression by nsp11 was examined by RNA microarrays using MARC-nsp11 cells constitutively expressing nsp11. In these cells, the interferon-?, interferon regulatory factor 3, and nuclear factor-? B activities were suppressed compared to those of parental cells, suggesting that nsp11 might serve as a viral interferon antagonist. Differential cellular transcriptome was examined using Affymetrix exon chips representing 28,536 transcripts, and after statistical analyses 66 cellular genes were shown to be upregulated and 104 genes were downregulated by nsp11. These genes were grouped into 5 major signaling pathways according to their functional relations: histone-related, cell cycle and DNA replication, mitogen activated protein kinase signaling, complement, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. Of these, the modulation of cell cycle by nsp11 was further investigated since many of the regulated genes fell in this particular pathway. Flow cytometry showed that nsp11 caused the delay of cell cycle progression at the S phase and the BrdU staining confirmed the cell cycle arrest in nsp11-expressing cells. The study provides insights into the understanding of specific cellular responses to nsp11 during PRRSV infection. PMID:24719865

Sun, Yan; Li, Dong; Giri, Sumanprava; Prasanth, Supriya G; Yoo, Dongwan

2014-01-01

385

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nonstructural Protein 4 Induces Apoptosis Dependent on Its 3C-Like Serine Protease Activity  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease in pigs caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV). Although PRRSV infection-induced cell apoptosis has been established, the related viral protein is still unknown. Here, we reported that PRRSV nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4) was a critical apoptosis inducer. Nsp4 could activate caspase-3, -8, and -9. Using truncated constructs without different domains in nsp4, we demonstrated that the full-length of nsp4 structure was required for its apoptosis-inducing activity. Furthermore, using site-directed mutagenesis to inactivate the 3C-like serine protease activity of nsp4, we showed that nsp4-induced apoptosis was dependent on its serine protease activity. The ability of nsp4 to induce apoptosis was significantly impaired by His39, Asp64, and Ser118 mutations, suggesting that His39, Asp64, and Ser118 were essential for nsp4 to trigger apoptosis. In conclusion, our present work showed that PRRSV nsp4 could induce apoptosis in host cells and might be partially responsible for the apoptosis induced by PRRSV infection. PRRSV 3C-like protease-mediated apoptosis represents the first report in the genus Arterivirus, family Arteriviridae.

Ma, Zhitao; Wang, Yalan; Zhao, Haiyan; Xu, Ao-Tian; Wang, Yongqiang; Tang, Jun; Feng, Wen-hai

2013-01-01

386

Identification of a Novel Nonstructural Protein, VP9, from White Spot Syndrome Virus: Its Structure Reveals a Ferredoxin Fold with Specific Metal Binding Sites?  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a major mRNA species. The structure of full-length VP9 was determined by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is the first structure to be reported for WSSV proteins. The crystal structure of VP9 revealed a ferredoxin fold with divalent metal ion binding sites. Cadmium sulfate was found to be essential for crystallization. The Cd2+ ions were bound between the monomer interfaces of the homodimer. Various divalent metal ions have been titrated against VP9, and their interactions were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. The titration data indicated that VP9 binds with both Zn2+ and Cd2+. VP9 adopts a similar fold as the DNA binding domain of the papillomavirus E2 protein. Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells.

Liu, Yang; Wu, Jinlu; Song, Jianxing; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy L.

2006-01-01

387

Downregulation of antigen-presenting cells in tonsil and lymph nodes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-infected pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can persist in different organs of infected pigs, which suggests a failure in the immune response. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a pivotal role in the induction of effective T- and B-cell responses. In this study, we investigated the changes in the different APC subpopulations and T- and B-cell counts in the tonsil, retropharyngeal and mediastinal lymph nodes of pigs experimentally infected with a European PRRSV field isolate. Our results demonstrated that the expression of S100, SWC3, HLA-DR molecule and CD3 was diminished in the studied organs throughout the study, observing a significant negative correlation between viral antigen and HLA-DR expression in both retropharyngeal and mediastinal lymph nodes. In contrast, ?-light chains showed an increase during the study. Taking all into account, after PRRSV infection, no enhancement in the number of APCs and T cells was observed, suggesting an impairment of the immune function which may allow the persistence of PRRSV into the organism. PMID:22816521

Rodríguez-Gómez, I M; Gómez-Laguna, J; Barranco, I; Pallarés, F J; Ramis, G; Salguero, F J; Carrasco, L

2013-10-01

388

Immunostimulatory activity of sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri and development of resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.  

PubMed

Sulfated galactans (SG) were isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri). Chemical analysis revealed SG contains sulfate (12.7%) and total carbohydrate (42.2%) with an estimated molecular mass of 100 kDa. Structure analysis by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that SG is a complex structure with a linear backbone of alternating 3-linked ?-D-galactopyranose and 4-linked 3,6-anhydrogalactose units with partial 6-O-methylate-?-D-galactopyranose and with sulfation occurring on C4 of D-galactopyranose and C6 of L-galactopyranose units. SG treatment enhanced immune parameters including total haemocytes, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anions and superoxide dismutase in shrimp Penaeus monodon. Shrimp fed with Artemia salina enriched with SG (100 and 200 ?g ml(-1)) and inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) showed a significantly lower mortality rate and lower viral VP 28 amplification and expression than control. The results suggest that SG from G. fisheri exhibits immune stimulatory and antiviral activities that could protect P. monodon from WSSV infection. PMID:24161778

Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Rudtanatip, Tawut; Praiboon, Jantana

2014-01-01

389

Cloning and characterization of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain in Fenneropenaeus chinensis and its essential role in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of cytoplasmic dynein in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, the full-length cDNA of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain (FcDYNCI) was cloned in Fenneropenaeus chinensis, which consists of 2582 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 660 amino acids. Sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment displayed that FcDYNCI was a member of cytoplasmic dynein 1 family. The FcDYNCI mRNA was most highly expressed in hemocytes, which was significantly up-regulated post WSSV infection. At 12 h post infection (hpi), confocal microscopic observation showed that WSSV could be co-localized with cytoplasmic dynein in hemocytes. After silencing by specific FcDYNCI dsRNA, the FcDYNCI mRNA level and the protein amount of FcDYNCI in hemocytes both exhibited a significant reduction, and the expression levels of three WSSV genes ie1, wsv477 and vp28 all exhibited the greatest decreases at 24 hpi. These results suggested that cytoplasmic dynein was involved in WSSV infection. PMID:24925758

Feng, Jixing; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin

2014-08-01

390

Commercial spray-dried porcine plasma does not transmit porcine circovirus type 2 in weaned pigs challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate if spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP) containing porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) genome supplemented in feed could transmit PCV2 to pigs challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Twenty-three PRRSV-free pigs, non-viraemic for PCV2, were housed in bio-safety level 3 facilities and assigned to four groups in a 2×2 factorial design consisting of PRRSV challenge and a negative control. The diet contained 0 or 8kg SDPP per 100kg of feed. PRRSV challenge groups were inoculated intranasally with 2mL of a suspension containing 10(6) TCID(50)/mL PRRSV. The SDPP used in the study contained 7.56×10(5) PCV2 genome copies per gram. Dietary treatments were fed from 4days prior to PRRSV inoculation until 28days post-inoculation (PI). All challenged pigs developed PRRSV viraemia by day 3PI and PRRSV antibodies were detected in sera by day 14PI, with no difference between diet treatments. Neither PRRSV viraemia nor seroconversion was observed in non-challenged pigs. PCV2 was not detected in the serum of any pigs throughout the experimental period. SDPP containing the PCV2 genome supplemented in feed did not result in PCV2 transmission to either healthy or PRRSV-infected pigs under these experimental conditions. PMID:21458335

Pujols, Joan; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Díaz, Ivan; Russell, Louis E; Campbell, Joy M; Crenshaw, Joe D; Polo, Javier; Mateu, Enric; Segalés, Joaquim

2011-11-01