Science.gov

Sample records for syndrome virus possesses

  1. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Possesses an Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon γ. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741

  2. The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhee; Yoo, Dongwan . E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

    2006-11-10

    The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-{delta}E-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-{delta}E virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-{delta}E virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm.

  3. Discovery of drugs that possess activity against feline leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Greggs, Willie M.; Clouser, Christine L.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gammaretrovirus that is a significant cause of neoplastic-related disorders affecting cats worldwide. Treatment options for FeLV are limited, associated with serious side effects, and can be cost-prohibitive. The development of drugs used to treat a related retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has been rapid, leading to the approval of five drug classes. Although structural differences affect the susceptibility of gammaretroviruses to anti-HIV drugs, the similarities in mechanism of replication suggest that some anti-HIV-1 drugs may also inhibit FeLV. This study demonstrates the anti-FeLV activity of four drugs approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) at non-toxic concentrations. Of these, tenofovir and raltegravir are anti-HIV-1 drugs, while decitabine and gemcitabine are approved to treat myelodysplastic syndromes and pancreatic cancer, respectively, but also have anti-HIV-1 activity in cell culture. Our results indicate that these drugs may be useful for FeLV treatment and should be investigated for mechanism of action and suitability for veterinary use. PMID:22258856

  4. Tourette's syndrome: from demonic possession and psychoanalysis to the discovery of gene.

    PubMed

    Germiniani, Francisco M B; Miranda, Anna Paula P; Ferenczy, Peter; Munhoz, Renato P; Teive, Hélio A G

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we make a brief historical review of the hypothesis concerning the etiology of Tourette's syndrome (TS), focusing on varying trends over time: at first, its presumed relation to witchcraft and demonic possessions, followed by the psychoanalytical theory, which attributed TS to a masturbatory equivalent. Then, progressing to modern time, to the immunological theory and finally the advent of genetics and their role in the etiology of TS. PMID:22836463

  5. H7N9 influenza virus neutralizing antibodies that possess few somatic mutations.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, Natalie J; Zhang, Heng; Bangaru, Sandhya; Sapparapu, Gopal; Kose, Nurgun; Lampley, Rebecca M; Bombardi, Robin G; Yu, Yingchun; Graham, Stephen; Branchizio, Andre; Yoder, Sandra M; Rock, Michael T; Creech, C Buddy; Edwards, Kathryn M; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Wilson, Ian A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Albrecht, Randy A; Crowe, James E

    2016-04-01

    Avian H7N9 influenza viruses are group 2 influenza A viruses that have been identified as the etiologic agent for a current major outbreak that began in China in 2013 and may pose a pandemic threat. Here, we examined the human H7-reactive antibody response in 75 recipients of a monovalent inactivated A/Shanghai/02/2013 H7N9 vaccine. After 2 doses of vaccine, the majority of donors had memory B cells that secreted IgGs specific for H7 HA, with dominant responses against single HA subtypes, although frequencies of H7-reactive B cells ranged widely between donors. We isolated 12 naturally occurring mAbs with low half-maximal effective concentrations for binding, 5 of which possessed neutralizing and HA-inhibiting activities. The 5 neutralizing mAbs exhibited narrow breadth of reactivity with influenza H7 strains. Epitope-mapping studies using neutralization escape mutant analysis, deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and x-ray crystallography revealed that these neutralizing mAbs bind near the receptor-binding pocket on HA. All 5 neutralizing mAbs possessed low numbers of somatic mutations, suggesting the clones arose from naive B cells. The most potent mAb, H7.167, was tested as a prophylactic treatment in a mouse intranasal virus challenge study, and systemic administration of the mAb markedly reduced viral lung titers. PMID:26950424

  6. H7N9 influenza virus neutralizing antibodies that possess few somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Thornburg, Natalie J.; Zhang, Heng; Bangaru, Sandhya; Kose, Nurgun; Lampley, Rebecca M.; Bombardi, Robin G.; Yu, Yingchun; Graham, Stephen; Branchizio, Andre; Yoder, Sandra M.; Rock, Michael T.; Creech, C. Buddy; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Wilson, Ian A.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Albrecht, Randy A.; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Avian H7N9 influenza viruses are group 2 influenza A viruses that have been identified as the etiologic agent for a current major outbreak that began in China in 2013 and may pose a pandemic threat. Here, we examined the human H7-reactive antibody response in 75 recipients of a monovalent inactivated A/Shanghai/02/2013 H7N9 vaccine. After 2 doses of vaccine, the majority of donors had memory B cells that secreted IgGs specific for H7 HA, with dominant responses against single HA subtypes, although frequencies of H7-reactive B cells ranged widely between donors. We isolated 12 naturally occurring mAbs with low half-maximal effective concentrations for binding, 5 of which possessed neutralizing and HA-inhibiting activities. The 5 neutralizing mAbs exhibited narrow breadth of reactivity with influenza H7 strains. Epitope-mapping studies using neutralization escape mutant analysis, deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and x-ray crystallography revealed that these neutralizing mAbs bind near the receptor-binding pocket on HA. All 5 neutralizing mAbs possessed low numbers of somatic mutations, suggesting the clones arose from naive B cells. The most potent mAb, H7.167, was tested as a prophylactic treatment in a mouse intranasal virus challenge study, and systemic administration of the mAb markedly reduced viral lung titers. PMID:26950424

  7. Isolation and characterization of novel human monoclonal antibodies possessing neutralizing ability against rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Yamada, Kentaro; Noguchi, Kazuko; Nakajima, Kantou; Takada, Kenzo; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Nishizono, Akira

    2010-11-01

    Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitis which is transmitted by exposure to the bite of rabid animals. Human and equine rabies immunoglobulins are indispensable pharmacological agents for severe bite exposure, as is vaccine. However, several disadvantages, including limited supply, adverse reactions, and high cost, hamper their wide application in developing countries. In the present study, two novel huMabs which neutralize rabies virus were established from vaccinated hyperimmune volunteers using the Epstein-Barr virus transformation method. One MAb (No. 254), which was subclass IgG3, effectively neutralized fixed rabies viruses of CVS, ERA, HEP-Flury, and Nishigahara strains and recognized a well-conserved epitope located in antigenic site II of the rabies virus glycoprotein. No. 254 possessed 68 ng/ml of FRNT₅₀ activity against CVS, 3.7 × 10⁻⁷ M of the Kd value, and the enhancing effect of complement-dependent virolysis. In addition, No. 254 showed effective neutralization potency in vivo in the mouse challenge test. The other MAb, 4D4, was subclass IgM and showed neutralizing activity against CVS and Nishigahara strains. 4D4 recognized a novel antigenic site which is associated with the neurovirulence of rabies, a glycoprotein located between antigenic site I and VI. Both human MAbs against rabies are expected to be utilized as a tool for future post-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:21044141

  8. Isolation of novel triple‐reassortant swine H3N2 influenza viruses possessing the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of a seasonal influenza virus in Vietnam in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Long Thanh; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Pham, Vu Phong; Le, Ha Thi Hong; Nguyen, Ha Truc; Le, Vu Tri; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Saito, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Ngo et al. (2012) Isolation of novel triple‐reassortant swine H3N2 influenza viruses possessing the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of a seasonal influenza virus in Vietnam in 2010. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(1), 6–10. Surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in 31 pig farms in northern and southern parts of Vietnam was conducted. Six H3N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from a pig farm in southern Vietnam. They were novel genetic reassortants between a triple–reassortant SIV and a human seasonal H3N2 virus. Their hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were derived from a human virus circulating around 2004–2006 and the remaining genes from a triple‐reassortant SIV that originated in North America. This is the first report describing the isolation of a novel triple‐reassortant SIV in Vietnam. PMID:21668659

  9. Sequence heterogeneity of murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus: the role of endogenous virus.

    PubMed

    Gayama, S; Vaupel, B A; Kanagawa, O

    1995-05-01

    A defective murine leukemia virus is the causative agent of murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS). We have cloned cDNAs from both virus infected and non-infected cells using the PCR methods with primers corresponding to the franking sequence of the unique p12 gag gene. Sequence analysis of these cDNA clones revealed: (i) the presence of endogenous virus related to MAIDS virus in C57BL/6 mice, (ii) B cell lineage specific expression of endogenous virus and (iii) extensive heterogeneity of MAIDS virus recovered from virus infected cells due to the recombination of the related viruses (defective pathogenic virus, ecotropic virus and endogenous virus). These findings suggest that the creation of virus variants in infected cells may play an important role in virus pathogenesis and escape from immune attack during the development of MAIDS. PMID:7547712

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integration Protein Expressed in Escherichia Coli Possesses Selective DNA Cleaving Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Paula A.; Fyfe, James A.

    1990-07-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integration protein, a potential target for selective antiviral therapy, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein, free of detectable contaminating endonucleases, selectively cleaved double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides that mimic the U3 and the U5 termini of linear HIV DNA. Two nucleotides were removed from the 3' ends of both the U5 plus strand and the U3 minus strand; in both cases, cleavage was adjacent to a conserved CA dinucleotide. The reaction was metal-ion dependent, with a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Reaction selectivity was further demonstrated by the lack of cleavage of an HIV U5 substrate on the complementary (minus) strand, an analogous substrate that mimics the U3 terminus of an avian retrovirus, and an HIV U5 substrate in which the conserved CA dinucleotide was replaced with a TA dinucleotide. Such an integration protein-mediated cleavage reaction is expected to occur as part of the integration event in the retroviral life cycle, in which a double-stranded DNA copy of the viral RNA genome is inserted into the host cell DNA.

  11. Borna disease virus possesses an NF-ĸB inhibitory sequence in the nucleoprotein gene

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Akiko; Fujino, Kan; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) has a non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA genome and causes persistent infection in many animal species. Previous study has shown that the activation of the IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB pathway is reduced by BDV infection even in cells expressing constitutively active mutant IKK. This result suggests that BDV directly interferes with the IKK/NF-κB pathway. To elucidate the mechanism for the inhibition of NF-κB activation by BDV infection, we evaluated the cross-talk between BDV infection and the NF-κB pathway. Using Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation analysis, we found that the nucleoproteins of BDV (BDV-N) and NF-κB1 share a common ankyrin-like motif. When THP1-CD14 cells were pre-treated with the identified peptide, NF-κB activation by Toll-like receptor ligands was suppressed. The 20S proteasome assay showed that BDV-N and BDV-N-derived peptide inhibited the processing of NF-κB1 p105 into p50. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assays showed that BDV-N interacted with NF-κB1 but not with NF-κB2, which shares no common motif with BDV-N. These results suggest BDV-N inhibits NF-κB1 processing by the 20S proteasome through its ankyrin-like peptide sequence, resulting in the suppression of IKK/NF-κB pathway activation. This inhibitory effect of BDV on the induction of the host innate immunity might provide benefits against persistent BDV infection. PMID:25733193

  12. Borna disease virus possesses an NF-ĸB inhibitory sequence in the nucleoprotein gene.

    PubMed

    Makino, Akiko; Fujino, Kan; Parrish, Nicholas F; Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) has a non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA genome and causes persistent infection in many animal species. Previous study has shown that the activation of the IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB pathway is reduced by BDV infection even in cells expressing constitutively active mutant IKK. This result suggests that BDV directly interferes with the IKK/NF-κB pathway. To elucidate the mechanism for the inhibition of NF-κB activation by BDV infection, we evaluated the cross-talk between BDV infection and the NF-κB pathway. Using Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation analysis, we found that the nucleoproteins of BDV (BDV-N) and NF-κB1 share a common ankyrin-like motif. When THP1-CD14 cells were pre-treated with the identified peptide, NF-κB activation by Toll-like receptor ligands was suppressed. The 20S proteasome assay showed that BDV-N and BDV-N-derived peptide inhibited the processing of NF-κB1 p105 into p50. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assays showed that BDV-N interacted with NF-κB1 but not with NF-κB2, which shares no common motif with BDV-N. These results suggest BDV-N inhibits NF-κB1 processing by the 20S proteasome through its ankyrin-like peptide sequence, resulting in the suppression of IKK/NF-κB pathway activation. This inhibitory effect of BDV on the induction of the host innate immunity might provide benefits against persistent BDV infection. PMID:25733193

  13. Molecular evolution and antigenic variation of European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana M; Capucci, Lorenzo; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Brocchi, Emiliana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Quéméner, Agnès; Le Pendu, Jacques; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Holmes, Edward C; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana

    2014-11-01

    European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) is the aetiological agent of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS), a disease affecting Lepus europaeus and Lepus timidus first diagnosed in Sweden in 1980. To characterize EBHSV evolution we studied hare samples collected in Sweden between 1982 and 2008. Our molecular clock dating is compatible with EBHSV emergence in the 1970s. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two lineages: Group A persisted until 1989 when it apparently suffered extinction; Group B emerged in the mid-1980s and contains the most recent strains. Antigenic differences exist between groups, with loss of reactivity of some MAbs over time, which are associated with amino acid substitutions in recognized epitopes. A role for immune selection is also supported by the presence of positively selected codons in exposed regions of the capsid. Hence, EBHSV evolution is characterized by replacement of Group A by Group B viruses, suggesting that the latter possess a selective advantage. PMID:25155199

  14. Congenital rubella syndrome with positive serology and virus isolation.

    PubMed

    Ooi, H L; Cheong, S M; Yogeswery, S; Norizah, I; Zuridah, H; Kumarasamy, V; Chua, K B

    2006-06-01

    An effective live attenuated rubella vaccine was available since 1969 and congenital rubella syndrome can be prevented with appropriate vaccination. We report a baby with congenital rubella syndrome born in Klang valley to indicate that the Universal Rubella Vaccination Programme adopted by the Ministry of Health Malaysia since 2002 has yet to achieve its effect of eliminating transmission of rubella and preventing congenital rubella infection in the community. To our knowledge, the virus isolate represents the first successful isolation of rubella virus in this country and will serve as the reference strain for future comparison in molecular epidemiological tracking of rubella virus activity this country. PMID:16898324

  15. L-696,229 specifically inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and possesses antiviral activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, M E; O'Brien, J A; Ruffing, T L; Nunberg, J H; Schleif, W A; Quintero, J C; Siegl, P K; Hoffman, J M; Smith, A M; Emini, E A

    1992-01-01

    L-696,229 (3-[2-(benzoxazol-2-yl)ethyl]-5-ethyl-6-methyl-pyridin-2 (1H)-one) is a specific inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) activity that possesses antiviral activity in cell culture (W.S. Saari, J.M. Hoffman, J.S. Wai, T.E. Fisher, C.S. Rooney, A.M. Smith, C.M. Thomas, M. E. Goldman, J. A. O'Brien, J. H. Nunberg, J. C. Quintero, W. A. Schleif, E. A. Emini, and P. S. Anderson, J. Med. Chem. 34:2922-2925, 1991). In the present study, the RT-inhibitory activity and antiviral properties were characterized in detail. The inhibition of RT activity was template-primer dependent with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.018 to 0.50 microM and was noncompetitive with respect to deoxynucleoside triphosphates. L-696,229 inhibited RT activity in a mutually exclusive manner with respect to either phosphonoformate or azidothymidine triphosphate and was a weak partial inhibitor of the RNase H activity associated with HIV-1 RT. The compound did not significantly inhibit other retroviral or cellular polymerases at 300 microM.L-696,229 inhibited the spread of HIV-1 infection in cell cultures with all cell types and viral isolates tested, including human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a virus isolate resistant to azidothymidine. PMID:1380788

  16. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel activity promotes virus fitness and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L; DeDiego, Marta L; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M; Regla-Nava, Jose A; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Alcaraz, Antonio; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M; Enjuanes, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC) activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS-CoV virulence. PMID:24788150

  17. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Envelope Protein Ion Channel Activity Promotes Virus Fitness and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L.; DeDiego, Marta L.; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M.; Regla-Nava, Jose A.; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Alcaraz, Antonio; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M.; Enjuanes, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC) activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS-CoV virulence. PMID:24788150

  18. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunit K

    2016-08-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped RNA viruses that infect birds, mammals, and humans. Infections caused by human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are mostly associated with the respiratory, enteric, and nervous systems. The hCoVs only occasionally induce lower respiratory tract disease, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. In 2002 to 2003, a global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was the seminal detection of a novel CoV (SARS-CoV). A decade later (June 2012), another novel CoV was implicated as the cause of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia. Although bats might serve as a reservoir of MERS-CoV, it is unlikely that they are the direct source for most human cases. Severe lines of evidence suggest that dromedary camels have been the major cause of transmission to humans. The emergence of MERS-CoV has triggered serious concerns about the potential for a widespread outbreak. All MERS cases were linked directly or indirectly to the Middle East region including Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, and UAE. MERS cases have also been reported in the later phases in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Tunisia. Most of these MERS cases were linked with the Middle East. The high mortality rates in family-based and hospital-based outbreaks were reported among patients with comorbidities such as diabetes and renal failure. MERS-CoV causes an acute, highly lethal pneumonia and renal dysfunction. The major complications reported in fatal cases are hyperkalemia with associated ventricular tachycardia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pericarditis, and multiorgan failure. The case-fatality rate seems to be higher for MERS-CoV (around 30%) than for SARS-CoV (9.6%). The combination regimen of type 1 interferon + lopinavir/ritonavir is considered as the first-line therapy for MERS. Antiviral treatment is generally recommended for 10 to 14 days in patients with MERS-CoV infection. Convalescent plasma

  19. Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

  20. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  1. Isolation of a nucleocapsid polypeptide of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 possessing immunologically type-specific and cross-reactive determinants.

    PubMed

    Heilman, C J; Zweig, M; Stephenson, J R; Hampar, B

    1979-01-01

    A polypeptide (p40) of approximately 40,000 molecular weight was isolated from herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 nucleocapsids by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. This protein appears to be the same as protein 22a described previously (Gibson and Roizman, J. Virol. 10:1044--1052, 1972). Competition immunoassays were developed by using purified p40 and antisera prepared in guinea pigs. The assays indicated that the p40's from herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 possess both type-specific and cross-reactive antigenic determinants. Antibodies to the p40 cross-reactive determinant reacted with antigens in simian herpes virus SA8-infected cells, but not with antigens induced by pseudorabies virus. Preliminary results indicated that a radioimmunoprecipitation test can be used to detect type-specific herpes simplex virus p40 antibodies in human sera. PMID:85720

  2. Aminoterminal amphipathic α-helix AH1 of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 4B possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production.

    PubMed

    Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Montserret, Roland; Paul, David; Castillo, Rosa; Meister, Simon; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Moradpour, Darius

    2014-10-01

    Nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a key organizer of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex formation. In concert with other nonstructural proteins, it induces a specific membrane rearrangement, designated as membranous web, which serves as a scaffold for the HCV replicase. The N-terminal part of NS4B comprises a predicted and a structurally resolved amphipathic α-helix, designated as AH1 and AH2, respectively. Here, we report a detailed structure-function analysis of NS4B AH1. Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance structural analyses revealed that AH1 folds into an amphipathic α-helix extending from NS4B amino acid 4 to 32, with positively charged residues flanking the helix. These residues are conserved among hepaciviruses. Mutagenesis and selection of pseudorevertants revealed an important role of these residues in RNA replication by affecting the biogenesis of double-membrane vesicles making up the membranous web. Moreover, alanine substitution of conserved acidic residues on the hydrophilic side of the helix reduced infectivity without significantly affecting RNA replication, indicating that AH1 is also involved in virus production. Selective membrane permeabilization and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of a functional replicon harboring an epitope tag between NS4B AH1 and AH2 revealed a dual membrane topology of the N-terminal part of NS4B during HCV RNA replication. Luminal translocation was unaffected by the mutations introduced into AH1, but was abrogated by mutations introduced into AH2. In conclusion, our study reports the three-dimensional structure of AH1 from HCV NS4B, and highlights the importance of positively charged amino acid residues flanking this amphipathic α-helix in membranous web formation and RNA replication. In addition, we demonstrate that AH1 possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production, potentially governed by different topologies of the N-terminal part of NS4B. PMID:25392992

  3. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication and quasispecies evolution in pigs that lack adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; Dekkers, Jack C M; Ewen, Catherine L; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2015-01-01

    The replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was studied in a line of pigs possessing a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Real-time RT-PCR revealed a unique course of infection for the SCID group. During the course of infection, viremia was initially significantly lower than normal littermates, but by 21 days was significantly elevated. Deep sequencing of the viral structural genes at days 11 and 21 identified seven amino acid substitutions in both normal and SCID pigs. The most significant change was a W99R substitution in GP2, which was present in the inoculum at a frequency of 35%, but eventually disappeared from all pigs regardless of immune status. Therefore, amino acid substitutions that appear during acute infection are likely the result of the adaptation of the virus to replication in pigs and not immune selection. PMID:25451069

  4. Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Balance Influences the Virulence Phenotype of a Recombinant H5N3 Influenza A Virus Possessing a Polybasic HA0 Cleavage Site

    PubMed Central

    Diederich, Sandra; Berhane, Yohannes; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Handel, Katherine; Cottam-Birt, Colleen; Ranadheera, Charlene; Kobasa, Darwyn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although a polybasic HA0 cleavage site is considered the dominant virulence determinant for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 and H7 viruses, naturally occurring virus isolates possessing a polybasic HA0 cleavage site have been identified that are low pathogenic in chickens. In this study, we generated a reassortant H5N3 virus that possessed the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N1 HPAI A/swan/Germany/R65/2006 and the remaining gene segments from low pathogenic A/chicken/British Columbia/CN0006/2004 (H7N3). Despite possessing the HA0 cleavage site GERRRKKR/GLF, this rH5N3 virus exhibited a low pathogenic phenotype in chickens. Although rH5N3-inoculated birds replicated and shed virus and seroconverted, transmission to naive contacts did not occur. To determine whether this virus could evolve into a HPAI form, it underwent six serial passages in chickens. A progressive increase in virulence was observed with the virus from passage number six being highly transmissible. Whole-genome sequencing demonstrated the fixation of 12 nonsynonymous mutations involving all eight gene segments during passaging. One of these involved the catalytic site of the neuraminidase (NA; R293K) and is associated with decreased neuraminidase activity and resistance to oseltamivir. Although introducing the R293K mutation into the original low-pathogenicity rH5N3 increased its virulence, transmission to naive contact birds was inefficient, suggesting that one or more of the remaining changes that had accumulated in the passage number six virus also play an important role in transmissibility. Our findings show that the functional linkage and balance between HA and NA proteins contributes to expression of the HPAI phenotype. IMPORTANCE To date, the contribution that hemagglutinin-neuraminidase balance can have on the expression of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus phenotype has not been thoroughly examined. Reassortment, which can result in new hemagglutinin

  5. Antibody to Coxsackie B virus in diagnosing postviral fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, N A; Carmichael, H A; Calder, B D; Behan, P O; Bell, E J; McCartney, R A; Hall, F C

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the association between coxsackie B virus infection and the postviral fatigue syndrome and to assess the immunological abnormalities associated with the syndrome. DESIGN--Case-control study of patients with the postviral fatigue syndrome referred by local general practitioners over one year. SETTING--General practitioner referrals in Dunbartonshire, Scotland. PATIENTS--254 Patients referred with the postviral fatigue syndrome (exhaustion, myalgia, and other symptoms referable to postviral fatigue syndrome of fairly recent onset--that is, several months) and age and sex matched controls obtained from same general practitioner; 11 patients were rejected because of wrong diagnoses, resolution of symptoms, and refusal to participate, leaving 243 patients and matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Detailed questionnaire (patients and controls) and clinical examination (patients) and blind analysis of blood sample at entry and after six months for determination of coxsackie B virus IgM and IgG antibodies and other variables (including lymphocyte protein synthesis, lymphocyte subsets, and immune complexes). RESULTS--Percentage positive rates for coxsackie B virus IgM at entry were 24.4% for patients and 22.6% for controls and for coxsackie B virus IgG 56.2% and 55.3% respectively; there were no significant differences between different categories of patients according to clinical likelihood of the syndrome nor any predictive value in a fourfold rise or fall in the coxsackie B virus IgG titre in patients between entry and review at six months. The rates of positive antibody test results in patients and controls showed a strong seasonal variation. Of the numerous immunological tests performed, only a few detected significant abnormalities; in particular the mean value for immune complex concentration was much higher in 35 patients and 35 controls compared with the normal range and mean value for total IgM was also raised in 227 patients and 35 controls

  6. White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies. PMID:20181325

  7. Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Chand, Ranjni J; Trible, Benjamin R; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2012-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most costly viral pathogen facing a modern pig industry. A unique feature of the virus is the ability to cause severe clinical disease and maintain a life-long subclinical infection. Persistence at the population level poses the biggest challenge for the successful control and elimination of the disease. A mechanistic basis for persistence includes the evasion of innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent advances include the study of how the non-structural proteins (nsp's) inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon genes. PMID:22709514

  8. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-Associated Haemophagocytic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Torti, Lorenza; Larocca, Luigi M.; Massini, Giuseppina; Cuccaro, Annarosa; Maiolo, Elena; Santangelo, Rosaria; Bianchi, Maria; Pennisi, Mariano Alberto; Hohaus, Stefan; Teofili, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17- year old female who developed fatal haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) one month following acute infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Despite initiation of treatment and reduction of EBV load, laboratory signs of HPS as severe cytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, hyperferritinemia and hypertriglyceridemia persisted, and the patient died of multiorgan failure. HPS is a rare, but life-threatening complication of EBV infection. PMID:22348190

  9. White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

  10. The role of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus structural and non-structural proteins in virus pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Music, Nedzad; Gagnon, Carl A

    2010-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating viral disease affecting the swine industry worldwide. The etiological agent, PRRS virus (PRRSV), possesses a RNA viral genome with nine open reading frames (ORFs). The ORF1a and ORF1b replicase-associated genes encode the polyproteins pp1a and pp1ab, respectively. The pp1a is processed in nine non-structural proteins (nsps): nsp1α, nsp1β, and nsp2 to nsp8. Proteolytic cleavage of pp1ab generates products nsp9 to nsp12. The proteolytic pp1a cleavage products process and cleave pp1a and pp1ab into nsp products. The nsp9 to nsp12 are involved in virus genome transcription and replication. The 3' end of the viral genome encodes four minor and three major structural proteins. The GP(2a), GP₃ and GP₄ (encoded by ORF2a, 3 and 4), are glycosylated membrane associated minor structural proteins. The fourth minor structural protein, the E protein (encoded by ORF2b), is an unglycosylated membrane associated protein. The viral envelope contains two major structural proteins: a glycosylated major envelope protein GP₅ (encoded by ORF5) and an unglycosylated membrane M protein (encoded by ORF6). The third major structural protein is the nucleocapsid N protein (encoded by ORF7). All PRRSV non-structural and structural proteins are essential for virus replication, and PRRSV infectivity is relatively intolerant to subtle changes within the structural proteins. PRRSV virulence is multigenic and resides in both the non-structural and structural viral proteins. This review discusses the molecular characteristics, biological and immunological functions of the PRRSV structural and nsps and their involvement in the virus pathogenesis. PMID:20388230

  11. Reverse Genetics System for Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Benjamin; Li, Ping; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Aqian; Liang, Mifang; Li, Dexin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that was first reported in China in 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome showed that SFTS virus represents a new lineage within the Phlebovirus genus, distinct from the existing sandfly fever and Uukuniemi virus groups, in the family Bunyaviridae. SFTS disease is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, chills, joint pain, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and some hemorrhagic manifestations with a case fatality rate of about 2 to 15%. Here we report the development of reverse genetics systems to study STFSV replication and pathogenesis. We developed and optimized functional T7 polymerase-based M- and S-segment minigenome assays, which revealed errors in the published terminal sequences of the S segment of the Hubei 29 strain of SFTSV. We then generated recombinant viruses from cloned cDNAs prepared to the antigenomic RNAs both of the minimally passaged virus (HB29) and of a cell culture-adapted strain designated HB29pp. The growth properties, pattern of viral protein synthesis, and subcellular localization of viral N and NSs proteins of wild-type HB29pp (wtHB29pp) and recombinant HB29pp viruses were indistinguishable. We also show that the viruses fail to shut off host cell polypeptide production. The robust reverse genetics system described will be a valuable tool for the design of therapeutics and the development of killed and attenuated vaccines against this important emerging pathogen. IMPORTANCE SFTSV and related tick-borne phleboviruses such as Heartland virus are emerging viruses shown to cause severe disease in humans in the Far East and the United States, respectively. Study of these novel pathogens would be facilitated by technology to manipulate these viruses in a laboratory setting using reverse genetics. Here, we report the generation of infectious SFTSV from cDNA clones and demonstrate that the behavior of recombinant viruses

  12. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a γ retrovirus that has been associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and prostate cancer. The search for viral causes of these syndromes was reignited by the finding that RNase L activity was low in hereditary prostate cancer and some CFS patients. The six strains of XMRV that have been sequenced have greater than 99% identity, indicating a new human infection rather than laboratory contamination. DNA, RNA, and proteins from XMRV have been detected in 50% to 67% of CFS patients and in about 3.7% of healthy controls. XMRV infections could be transmitted to permissive cell lines from CFS plasma, suggesting the potential for communicable and blood-borne spread of the virus and potentially CFS. This troubling concept is currently under intense evaluation. The most important steps now are to independently confirm the initial findings; develop reliable assays of biomarkers; and to move on to investigations of XMRV pathophysiology and treatment in CFS, prostate cancer, and potentially other virus-related syndromes, if they exist. PMID:20425007

  13. Phage-display for identifying peptides that bind the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and possess diagnostic potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spike (S) protein is a key structural protein of coronaviruses including, the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The S protein is a type I membrane glycoprotein located in the viral envelope and is responsible for mediating the binding of viral particles to specific cell recepto...

  14. Hepatitis B virus infection and metabolic syndrome: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Chi; Tseng, Tai-Chung; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Although hepatitis C virus infection is known to be linked with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis, the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and metabolic factors remains unclear. HBV infection is a health problem worldwide, especially in endemic regions such as Asia and Africa. It induces liver decompensation, cirrhosis, hepatocellualr carcinoma, and premature mortality. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome continues to increase in parallel with the epidemic of obesity, which is closely associated with the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or even cancer. The systemic review shows that chronic HBV infection protects against instead of promotes fatty liver. The mechanism is possibly due to a lower frequency of dyslipidemia profile in patients with chronic HBV infection. The association of HBV with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and the risk of arteriosclerosis is still inconclusive. In addition, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome may accelerate the progression of liver disease in patients with chronic HBV infection and synergistically induce cirrhosis or even hepatocellualr carcinoma development. PMID:25092429

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of White Spot Syndrome Virus Isolated from Cultured Litopenaeus vannamei in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Anaya, Libia Zulema; Gonzalez-Galaviz, Jose Reyes; Casillas-Hernandez, Ramón; Lares-Villa, Fernando; Estrada, Karel; Ibarra-Gamez, Jose Cuauhtemoc; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The first genome sequence of a Mexican white spot syndrome virus is presented here. White spot syndrome is a shrimp pandemic virus that has devastated production in Mexico for more than 10 years. The availability of this genome will greatly aid epidemiological studies worldwide, contributing to the molecular diagnostic and disease prevention in shrimp farming. PMID:26966222

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of White Spot Syndrome Virus Isolated from Cultured Litopenaeus vannamei in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Anaya, Libia Zulema; Gonzalez-Galaviz, Jose Reyes; Casillas-Hernandez, Ramón; Lares-Villa, Fernando; Estrada, Karel

    2016-01-01

    The first genome sequence of a Mexican white spot syndrome virus is presented here. White spot syndrome is a shrimp pandemic virus that has devastated production in Mexico for more than 10 years. The availability of this genome will greatly aid epidemiological studies worldwide, contributing to the molecular diagnostic and disease prevention in shrimp farming. PMID:26966222

  17. Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Kimman, Tjeerd G; Cornelissen, Lisette A; Moormann, Rob J; Rebel, Johanna M J; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2009-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and gaps in our knowledge that may be relevant for the development of a future generation of more effective vaccines. PRRSV replicates in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, induces apoptosis and necrosis, interferes with the induction of a proinflammatory response, only slowly induces a specific antiviral response, and may cause persistent infections. The virus appears to use several evasion strategies to circumvent both innate and acquired immunity, including interference with antigen presentation, antibody-mediated enhancement, reduced cell surface expression of viral proteins, and shielding of neutralizing epitopes. In particular the downregulation of type I interferon-alpha production appears to interfere with the induction of acquired immunity. Current vaccines are ineffective because they suffer both from the immune evasion strategies of the virus and the antigenic heterogeneity of field strains. Future vaccines therefore must "uncouple" the immune evasion and apoptogenic/necrotic properties of the virus from its immunogenic properties, and they should induce a broad immune response covering the plasticity of its major antigenic sites. Alternatively, the composition of the vaccine should be changed regularly to reflect presently and locally circulating strains. Preferably new vaccines should also allow discriminating infected from vaccinated pigs to support a virus elimination strategy. Challenges in vaccine development are the incompletely known mechanisms of immune evasion and immunity, lack of knowledge of viral sequences that are responsible for the pathogenic and immunosuppressive properties of the virus, lack of knowledge of the forces that drive antigenic

  18. Burning mouth syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Gilden, Don

    2016-01-01

    We present two cases of burning mouth syndrome (BMS)-of 8-month duration in a 61-year-old woman and of 2-year duration in a 63-year-old woman-both associated with increased levels of antivaricella zoster virus (VZV) IgM antibodies in serum and with pain that improved with antiviral treatment. Combined with our previous finding of BMS due to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, we recommend evaluation of patients with BMS not only for VZV or HSV-1 DNA in the saliva, but also for serum anti-VZV and anti-HSV-1 IgM antibodies. Both infections are treatable with oral antiviral agents. PMID:27382016

  19. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) topology and selective isoform integration in artificial membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Membrane modification of host subcellular compartments is critical to the replication of many RNA viruses. Enveloped viruses additionally require the ability to requisition cellular membranes during egress for the development of infectious progeny. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus...

  20. Persistence and retention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acquisition of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) by the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) was assessed through a bloodmeal, and virus persistence in the digestive organs of the fly using virus isolation and real-time PCR. Stable flies were fed blood containing live vi...

  1. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  2. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  3. New genotypes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Navarro, Solangel A; Pantoja, Carlos R; Aranguren, Fernando L; Lightner, Donald V

    2012-07-25

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) are highly pathogenic to penaeid shrimp and have caused significant economic losses in the shrimp culture industry around the world. During 2010 and 2011, both WSSV and TSV were found in Saudi Arabia, where they caused severe mortalities in cultured Indian white shrimp Penaeus indicus. Most outbreaks of shrimp viruses in production facilities can be traced to the importation of infected stocks or commodity shrimp. In an attempt to determine the origins of these viral outbreaks in Saudi Arabia, we performed variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses for WSSV isolates and a phylogenetic analysis for TSV isolates. From the WSSV genome, the VNTR in open reading frames (ORFs) 125 and 94 were investigated with PCR followed by DNA sequence analysis. The genotypes were categorized as {N125, N94} where N is the number of repeat units in a specific ORF, and the subscript indicates the ORF (i.e. ORFs 125 and 94 in this case). From 15 Saudi Arabia WSSV isolates, we detected 3 genotypes: {6125, 794}, {7125, del94}, and {8125, 1394}. The WSSV genotype of {7125, del94} appears to be a new variant with a 1522 bp deletion encompassing complete coding regions of ORF 94 and ORF 95 and the first 82 bp of ORF 93. For TSV genotyping, we used a phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of TSV capsid protein 2 (CP2). We analyzed 8 Saudi Arabian isolates in addition to 36 isolates from other areas: SE Asia, Mexico, Venezuela and Belize. The Saudi Arabian TSV clustered into a new, distinct group. Based on these genotyping analyses, new WSSV and TSV genotypes were found in Saudi Arabia. The data suggest that they have come from wild shrimp Penaeus indicus from the Red Sea that are used for broodstock. PMID:22832716

  4. Attenuation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain MN184 using chimeric construction with vaccine sequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Liang, Yajie; Han, Jun; Burkhart, Kelly M; Vaughn, Eric M; Roof, Michael B; Faaberg, Kay S

    2008-02-20

    Two genetically distinct infectious recombinant virus clones (pMLV, constructed from Ingelvac PRRS MLV and pMN184, constructed from virulent strain MN184) were developed to study attenuation of contemporary porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain MN184. Two reciprocal chimeric clones (pMLVORF1/MN184 and pMN184ORF1/MLV) were then constructed, such that the 5'UTR/ORF1 of one genotype was linked to ORF2-7/3'UTR from the other genotype. In vitro studies demonstrated that the rescued chimeric viruses possessed intermediate growth properties compared to recombinant rMLV and rMN184. Swine inoculation with rMN184 and rMLV verified that these viruses fully mimicked the respective parent virus. In addition, earlier and higher antibody responses were detected in animals infected with rMN184 in contrast to those infected with rMLV. Chimeric virus treatment groups showed similar antibody responses as seen with these parent viruses, but much less severe pathogenesis when compared to the rMN184 group. These data suggested that genetic aspects of Ingelvac PRRS MLV 5'UTR/ORF1 replicase region and/or the structural proteins/3'UTR can serve to attenuate virulent strain MN184. The data also indicated that designed PRRSV vaccines could be developed, keeping the known 5'UTR/replicase region of an early vaccine strain such as Ingelvac PRRS MLV intact, but replacing the structural protein/3'UTR domain with that of an emerging virulent virus. PMID:17976680

  5. Silencing of WIPK and SIPK mitogen-activated protein kinases reduces tobacco mosaic virus accumulation but permits systemic viral movement in tobacco possessing the N resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michie; Seo, Shigemi; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto-Katou, Ayako; Katou, Shinpei; Seto, Hideharu; Meshi, Tetsuo; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Ohashi, Yuko

    2010-08-01

    Infection of tobacco cultivars possessing the N resistance gene with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) results in confinement of the virus by necrotic lesions at the infection site. Although the mitogen-activated protein kinases WIPK and SIPK have been implicated in TMV resistance, evidence linking them directly to disease resistance is, as yet, insufficient. Viral multiplication was reduced slightly in WIPK- or SIPK-silenced plants but substantially in WIPK/SIPK-silenced plants, and was correlated with an increase in salicylic acid (SA) and a decrease in jasmonic acid (JA). Silencing of WIPK and SIPK in a tobacco cultivar lacking the N gene did not inhibit viral accumulation. The reduction in viral accumulation was attenuated by expressing a gene for an SA-degrading enzyme or by exogenously applying JA. Inoculation of lower leaves resulted in the systemic spread of TMV and formation of necrotic lesions in uninoculated upper leaves. These results suggested that WIPK and SIPK function to negatively regulate local resistance to TMV accumulation, partially through modulating accumulation of SA and JA in an N-dependent manner, but positively regulate systemic resistance. PMID:20615114

  6. Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (<50 nm diameter) icosahedral VLPs were significantly more abundant in coral tissue taken from diseased colonies, and there was an apparent, but not statistically significant, increase in abundance of filamentous VLPs in Symbiodinium cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

  7. Monkey Viperin Restricts Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jianyu; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Qiaoya; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen which causes huge economic damage globally in the swine industry. Current vaccination strategies provide only limited protection against PRRSV infection. Viperin is an interferon (IFN) stimulated protein that inhibits some virus infections via IFN-dependent or IFN-independent pathways. However, the role of viperin in PRRSV infection is not well understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length monkey viperin (mViperin) complementary DNA (cDNA) from IFN-α-treated African green monkey Marc-145 cells. It was found that the mViperin is up-regulated following PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells along with elevated IRF-1 gene levels. IFN-α induced mViperin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and strongly inhibits PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells. Overexpression of mViperin suppresses PRRSV replication by blocking the early steps of PRRSV entry and genome replication and translation but not inhibiting assembly and release. And mViperin co-localized with PRRSV GP5 and N protein, but only interacted with N protein in distinct cytoplasmic loci. Furthermore, it was found that the 13–16 amino acids of mViperin were essential for inhibiting PRRSV replication, by disrupting the distribution of mViperin protein from the granular distribution to a homogeneous distribution in the cytoplasm. These results could be helpful in the future development of novel antiviral therapies against PRRSV infection. PMID:27232627

  8. Virion packaging of multiple cleavage isoforms of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of a complex disease often resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, highly pathogenic isolates have emerged which have proven to be devastatingly effective pathogens, resulting in rapid systemic deterioration...

  9. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenesis and interaction with the immune System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis and control. Worldwide PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic...

  10. New York 1 and Sin Nombre Viruses Are Serotypically Distinct Viruses Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina; LaMonica, Rachel; Fay, Mary-Ellen; Hjelle, Brian; Schmaljohn, Connie; Shaw, Robert; Mackow, Erich R.

    1999-01-01

    New York 1 virus (NY-1) and Sin Nombre virus (SN) are associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). NY-1 and SN are derived from unique mammalian hosts and geographic locations but have similar G1 and G2 surface proteins (93 and 97% identical, respectively). Focus reduction neutralization assays were used to define the serotypic relationship between NY-1 and SN. Sera from NY-1-positive Peromyscus leucopus neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of ≥1/3,200 and ≤1/400, respectively (n = 12). Conversely, SN-specific rodent sera neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of <1/400 and 1/6,400, respectively (n = 13). Acute-phase serum from a New York HPS patient neutralized NY-1 (1/640) but not SN (<1/20), while sera from HPS patients from the southwestern United States had 4- to >16-fold-lower neutralizing titers to NY-1 than to SN. Reference sera to Hantaan, Seoul, and Prospect Hill viruses also failed to neutralize NY-1. These results indicate that SN and NY-1 define unique hantavirus serotypes and implicate the presence of additional HPS-associated hantavirus serotypes in the Americas. PMID:9854075

  11. European brown hare syndrome virus: relationship to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and other caliciviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Wirblich, C; Meyers, G; Ohlinger, V F; Capucci, L; Eskens, U; Haas, B; Thiel, H J

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against the capsid protein of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) were used to identify field cases of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) and to distinguish between RHDV and the virus responsible for EBHS. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of liver extract of an EBHS virus (EBHSV)-infected hare revealed a single major capsid protein species of approximately 60 kDa that shared epitopes with the capsid protein of RHDV. RNA isolated from the liver of an EBHSV-infected hare contained two viral RNA species of 7.5 and 2.2 kb that comigrated with the genomic and subgenomic RNAs of RHDV and were recognized by labeled RHDV cDNA in Northern (RNA) hybridizations. The nucleotide sequence of the 3' 2.8 kb of the EBHSV genome was determined from four overlapping cDNA clones. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame that contains part of the putative RNA polymerase gene and the complete capsid protein gene. This particular genome organization is shared by RHDV but not by other known caliciviruses. The deduced amino acid sequence of the capsid protein of EBHSV was compared with the capsid protein sequences of RDDV and other caliciviruses. The amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that EBHSV is closely related to RHDV and distantly related to other caliciviruses. On the basis of their genome organization, it is suggested that caliciviruses be divided into three groups. Images PMID:7518531

  12. Effects of interferon-alpha on the immune response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most devastating and costly diseases to the swine industry world-wide. Overall, the adaptive immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) is weak and results in delayed elimination of virus from the host and inferior vaccine protection. PR...

  13. Genomic sequence and virulence comparison of four type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a ubiquitous and costly virus that exhibits substantial sequence and virulence disparity among diverse isolates. In this study, we compared the whole genomic sequence and virulence of 4 North American Type 2 PRRSV isolates. Among the 4 i...

  14. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Chinese and low virulent US porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, a new strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has resulted in huge economic losses in the Chinese pig industry. We imported a cDNA clone of the rJXwn06 Chinese strain from which infectious virus was obtained to test the hypothesis that the novel Chinese PRRSV ...

  15. Characterization of the Taura syndrome virus isolate originating from the 2004 Texas Epizootic in cultured shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major viral pathogen of penaeid shrimp worldwide. A comprehensive investigation of the Texas isolate of TSV that caused epizootics in shrimp farms in Texas in 2004 (Us04Pv1) revealed that the virus was highly virulent in laboratory bioassays causing severe symptom dev...

  16. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  17. Green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, possesses the antiviral activity necessary to fight against the hepatitis B virus replication in vitro *

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jing-yao; Zhao, Kui-jun; Wang, Jia-bo; Ma, Zhi-jie; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2014-01-01

    Although several antiviral drugs and vaccines are available for use against hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis caused by HBV remains a major public health problem worldwide, which has not yet been resolved, and new anti-HBV drugs are in great demand. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-HBV activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural-origin compound, in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. The antiviral activity of EGCG was examined by detecting the levels of HBsAg and HBeAg in the supernatant and extracellular HBV DNA. EGCG effectively suppressed the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg from HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it showed stronger effects at the level of 0.11–0.44 μmol/ml (50–200 μg/ml) than lamivudine (3TC) at 0.87 μmol/ml (200 μg/ml). EGCG also suppressed the amount of extracellular HBV DNA. The data indicated that EGCG possessed anti-HBV activity and suggested the potential of EGCG as an effective anti-HBV agent with low toxicity. PMID:24903990

  18. Parainfluenza virus infection associated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinical and radiological entity. The most accepted theory of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a loss of autoregulation in cerebral blood flow with a subsequent increase in vascular permeability and leakage of blood plasma and erythrocytes, producing vasogenic edema. In infection-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, a clinical pattern consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome develops. Parainfluenza virus has not been reported in the medical literature to be associated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Case presentation We report herein the case of a 54-year-old Caucasian woman with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with parainfluenza virus infection who presented with generalized headache, blurring of vision, new-onset seizure and flu-like symptoms. Conclusion Infection-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome as well as hypertension-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome favor the contribution of endothelial dysfunction to the pathophysiology of this clinicoradiological syndrome. In view of the reversible nature of this clinical entity, it is important that all physicians are well aware of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients presenting with headache and seizure activity. A detailed clinical assessment leading to the recognition of precipitant factors in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is paramount. PMID:22448715

  19. Taura syndrome virus from Belize represents a unique variant.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Heidi S; Poulos, Bonnie T; Tang, Kathy F J; Bradley-Dunlop, Deborah; Lightner, Donald V

    2005-04-18

    A Taura syndrome virus (TSV) isolate from cultured Penaeus vannamei grown in Belize, Central America was characterized and shown to be a unique isolate. Mortality rates in laboratory infections of specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei, reactivity of the virus with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1A1 and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Belize isolate (BLZ02TSV) is a new valiant of TSV. The Hawaiian 1994 TSV isolate (HI94TSV, GenBank AF277675) was used as the reference isolate for these studies. Laboratory infections of SPF P. vannamei with BLZ02TSV demonstrated higher mortalities and earlier onset of mortalities compared to infections with HI94TSV. Shrimp tissues infected with BLZ02TSV reacted with a TSV-specific gene probe by in situ hybridization and were positive by RT-PCR using TSV diagnostic primers, thus indicating that the isolate was TSV. However, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry using MAb 1A1 demonstrated that BLZ02TSV did not react with the antibody, suggestive of changes in the VP1 region of the genome that codes for the polypeptide to which MAb 1A1 binds. Phylogenetic analysis of a 1.3 kbp fragment of the TSV VP1 capsid region revealed that BLZ02TSV represents a distinct group among more than 29 isolates of TSV studied thus far. This research demonstrates that BLZ02TSV is a unique isolate of TSV and reiterates a problem related to the use of MAb 1A1 for detection of TSV in clinical specimens. PMID:15918471

  20. Human Antibody Neutralizes Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, an Emerging Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiling; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wenshuai; Chi, Ying; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Li, Xian; Qi, Xian; Jin, Qiu; Zhang, Xiao; Huang, Mingming; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yin; Bao, Changjun; Hu, Jianli; Liang, Shuyi; Bao, Lin; Wu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a newly discovered member of the Bunyaviridae family, is the causative agent of an emerging hemorrhagic fever, SFTS, in China. Currently, there are no vaccines or effective therapies against SFTS. In this study, a combinatorial human antibody library was constructed from the peripheral lymphocytes of 5 patients who had recovered from SFTS. The library was screened against purified virions for the production of single-chain variable-region fragments (ScFv). Of the 6 positive clones, one clone (monoclonal antibody [MAb] 4-5) showed neutralizing activity against SFTSV infection in Vero cells. MAb 4-5 was found to effectively neutralize all of the clinical isolates of SFTSV tested, which were isolated from patients in China from 2010 to 2012. MAb 4-5 was found to bind a linear epitope in the ectodomain of glycoprotein Gn. Its neutralizing activity is attributed to blockage of the interactions between the Gn protein and the cellular receptor, indicating that inhibition of virus-cell attachment is its main mechanism. These data suggest that MAb 4-5 can be used as a promising candidate molecule for immunotherapy against SFTSV infection. PMID:23863504

  1. Mechanisms of suppression of interferon production by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Zhou, Y; Tong, G

    2012-01-01

    The recently emerged porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leads to one of the most economically significant infectious diseases of swine worldwide. The virus modulates the host innate and adaptive immunity to escape its immune response to facilitate the infection. Interferons (INFs) are principal antiviral cytokines, which represent components of the innate immunity and are regarded as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immunity. Currently, accumulating evidence indicates that the virus has developed various strategies to counteract the IFN production. Here, various mechanisms utilized by the virus to antagonize the IFN induction are reviewed. PMID:22404603

  2. Chronic fatigue syndrome. A critical appraisal of the role of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Koo, D

    1989-01-01

    The symptom complex currently designated the chronic fatigue syndrome was previously termed the chronic or chronic active Epstein-Barr virus syndrome or the chronic mononucleosis syndrome, prematurely assuming an etiologic role for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This presumption derived from the fact that some patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome have very high or very low titers of certain antibodies to EBV. A review of seroepidemiologic patterns of response to EBV and of studies of patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome shows that these antibody titers overlap considerably both with those of controls or other healthy persons and with those of patients with other illnesses. Given the high prevalence of exposure to EBV, it would be difficult to determine whether the virus caused the syndrome or whether the antibody elevations resulted from the illness, even if distinct differences in titers existed. Other methodologic issues of control selection, laboratory test comparability, and differing case definitions pose problems in studying this syndrome. The recently published working case definition should facilitate the continuing search for causes. PMID:2545048

  3. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    PubMed

    Su, Jingliang; Li, Shuang; Hu, Xudong; Yu, Xiuling; Wang, Yongyue; Liu, Peipei; Lu, Xishan; Zhang, Guozhong; Hu, Xueying; Liu, Di; Li, Xiaoxia; Su, Wenliang; Lu, Hao; Mok, Ngai Shing; Wang, Peiyi; Wang, Ming; Tian, Kegong; Gao, George F

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus), with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope) proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses. PMID:21455312

  4. Duck Egg-Drop Syndrome Caused by BYD Virus, a New Tembusu-Related Flavivirus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiuling; Wang, Yongyue; Liu, Peipei; Lu, Xishan; Zhang, Guozhong; Hu, Xueying; Liu, Di; Li, Xiaoxia; Su, Wenliang; Lu, Hao; Mok, Ngai Shing; Wang, Peiyi; Wang, Ming; Tian, Kegong; Gao, George F.

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus), with 87–91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope) proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses. PMID:21455312

  5. ORF5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a target of diversifying selection as infection progresses from acute infection to virus rebound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; Trible, Benjamin R; Kerrigan, Maureen A; Tian, Kegong; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2016-06-01

    Genetic variation in both structural and nonstructural genes is a key factor in the capacity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to evade host defenses and maintain within animals, farms and metapopulations. However, the exact mechanisms by which genetic variation contribute to immune evasion remain unclear. In a study to understand the role of host genetics in disease resistance, a population of pigs were experimentally infected with a type 2 PRRSV isolate. Four pigs that showed virus rebound at 42days post-infection (dpi) were analyzed by 454 sequencing to characterize the rebound quasispecies. Deep sequencing of variable regions in nsp1, nsp2, ORF3 and ORF5 showed the largest number of nucleotide substitutions at day 28 compared to days 4 and 42 post-infection. Differences were also found in genetic variations when comparing tonsil versus serum. The results of dN/dS ratios showed that the same regions evolved under negative selection. However, eight amino acid sites were identified as possessing significant levels of positive selection, including A27V and N32S substitutions in the GP5 ectodomain region. These changes may alter GP5 peptide signal sequence processing and N-glycosylation, respectively. The results indicate that the greatest genetic diversity occurs during the transition between acute and rebound stages of infection, and the introduction of mutations that may result in a gain of fitness provides a potential mechanism for persistence. PMID:26961593

  6. A white spot syndrome virus microRNA promotes the virus infection by targeting the host STAT

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qian; Huang, Ying; He, Yaodong; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    JAK/STAT pathway plays an important role in invertebrates during virus infection. However the microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of JAK/STAT is not intensively investigated. Viral miRNAs, encoded by virus genome, have emerged as important regulators in the virus-host interactions. In this study, a WSSV (white spot syndrome virus)-encoded miRNA (WSSV-miR-22) was characterized in shrimp during virus infection. The results showed that the viral miRNA could promote WSSV infection in shrimp by targeting the host STAT gene. When the expression of JAK or STAT was knocked down by sequence-specific siRNA, the WSSV copies in shrimp were significantly increased, indicating that the JAK/STAT played positive roles in the antiviral immunity of shrimp. The further findings revealed that TEP1 and TEP2 were the effectors of JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The silencing of TEP1 or TEP2 led to an increase of WSSV copies in shrimp, showing TEP1 and TEP2 were involved in the shrimp immune response against virus infection. Therefore our study presented a novel viral miRNA-mediated JAK/STAT-TEP1/TEP2 signaling pathway in virus infection. PMID:26671453

  7. A white spot syndrome virus microRNA promotes the virus infection by targeting the host STAT.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qian; Huang, Ying; He, Yaodong; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    JAK/STAT pathway plays an important role in invertebrates during virus infection. However the microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of JAK/STAT is not intensively investigated. Viral miRNAs, encoded by virus genome, have emerged as important regulators in the virus-host interactions. In this study, a WSSV (white spot syndrome virus)-encoded miRNA (WSSV-miR-22) was characterized in shrimp during virus infection. The results showed that the viral miRNA could promote WSSV infection in shrimp by targeting the host STAT gene. When the expression of JAK or STAT was knocked down by sequence-specific siRNA, the WSSV copies in shrimp were significantly increased, indicating that the JAK/STAT played positive roles in the antiviral immunity of shrimp. The further findings revealed that TEP1 and TEP2 were the effectors of JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The silencing of TEP1 or TEP2 led to an increase of WSSV copies in shrimp, showing TEP1 and TEP2 were involved in the shrimp immune response against virus infection. Therefore our study presented a novel viral miRNA-mediated JAK/STAT-TEP1/TEP2 signaling pathway in virus infection. PMID:26671453

  8. Augmented immune responses in pigs immunized with an inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing the deglycosylated glycoprotein 5 under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leads to major economic losses in the swine industry. Vaccination is the most effective method to control the disease by PRRSV. Materials and Methods In this study, the efficacy of a glycoprotein (GP) 5-modified inactivated vaccine was investigated in pigs. The study was performed in three farms: farm A, which was porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)-negative, farm B (PRRS-active), which showed clinical signs of PRRS but had not used vaccines, and farm C (PRRS-stable), which had a history of endemic PRRS over the past years, but showed no more clinical signs after periodic administration of modified live virus vaccine. Results The inactivated vaccine induced great enhancement in serum neutralizing antibody titer, which was sufficient to protect pigs from further infections of PRRSV in a farm where pre-existing virus was circulating. Conclusion These results indicated that vaccination with the inactivated vaccine composed of viruses possessing deglycosylated GP5 would provide enhanced protection to pigs from farms suffering from endemic PRRSV. PMID:26866026

  9. The use of epitope tags in modified porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus vaccines to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus which has been a significant cause of economic loss to the global pork industry since its emergence in the late 1980's. Despite the availability of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines since the m...

  10. Detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of Penaeus chinensis by in situ hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wen-Bin; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Hideo, Fukuda

    2000-09-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) was purified from hemolymph of infected shrimp. After nucleic acid extraction from the purified virus particles, EcoR I-digested fragments of the WSSV genome were cloned; three of these fragments were used as non-radioactive probes labeled with DIG-11-dUTP. The probes hybridized in situ, with sections located in the nuclei of all WSSV-infected tissues. The virus was detected in the gill, stomach, epidermis, and connective tissue and so on, but not detected in healthy shrimp tissues and epithelial cells of hepatopancreatic tubules of diseased shrimp.

  11. Zika Virus: New Clinical Syndromes and Its Emergence in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Lazear, Helen M; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-05-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as causing an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines. PMID:26962217

  12. Certainties, doubts and hypotheses in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunobiology.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Laila; Díaz, Ivan; Mateu, Enric

    2010-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most costly pathogens for the swine industry. Since its emergence some 20 years ago, much has been learned about the immunobiology of PRRSV. Although vaccines are available, they do not provide full and universal protection against PRRSV infection. In the present review, current knowledge on the virus's immunobiology will be discussed including: role of viral receptors, innate immune response to the virus, regulation of the immune response by PRRSV, and the characteristics and role of adaptive immunity. In addition, some hypotheses for future research in this area are presented. PMID:20659507

  13. [Human herpes virus 6 infection in an inmunocompetent patient with carbamazepine-induced DRESS syndrome].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Sergio; Delama, Ignacio; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Eymin, Gonzalo; Ceballos, M Elena; Andino-Navarrete, Romina

    2016-06-01

    DRESS syndrome (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is an adverse life-threatening drug reaction characterized by a polymorphous rash associated with fever, lymphadenopathy and multiorgan involvement with eosinophilia. We present the case of an immunocompetent man with DRESS syndrome secondary to carbamazepine, that developed concomitantly meningoencephalitis caused by human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), and a review of literature. The pathogenic role of HHV-6 in DRESS syndrome remains controversial. Given the diagnostic and possibly prognostic significance of HHV-6, the screening seems to be a good measure to use in the clinical management of these patients. PMID:27598287

  14. Interaction between innate immunity and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yongming; Rowland, Raymond R R; Blecha, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Innate immunity provides frontline antiviral protection and bridges adaptive immunity against virus infections. However, viruses can evade innate immune surveillance potentially causing chronic infections that may lead to pandemic diseases. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an example of an animal virus that has developed diverse mechanisms to evade porcine antiviral immune responses. Two decades after its discovery, PRRSV is still one of the most globally devastating viruses threatening the swine industry. In this review, we discuss the molecular and cellular composition of the mammalian innate antiviral immune system with emphasis on the porcine system. In particular, we focus on the interaction between PRRSV and porcine innate immunity at cellular and molecular levels. Strategies for targeting innate immune components and other host metabolic factors to induce ideal anti-PRRSV protection are also discussed. PMID:22152291

  15. Survival of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in fresh pork.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Helena; Moura, Junior; Cox, Ryan B; Goyal, Sagar M; Patnayak, Devi P

    2014-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of pigs. Transmission of PRRS virus has been reported through many routes, with aerosol route being the most predominant. There may also be a potential risk of transmission through contami-nated pork, but this has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to experimentally contaminate fresh pork with three different concentrations of PRRSV and to study virus survival at ambient (25 °C), refrigerated (4 °C), and frozen (-20 °C) temperatures. Concentrations of virus representing natural infectivity level and 'worst case scenario' were studied. The virus was detected in fresh pork at all three virus concentrations for up to 48 h at ambient temperature. At 4 °C, the virus survived for 6 days in pork inoculated with the higher virus concentration and for 3 days in pork inoculated at the lower concentration. At frozen temperature, PRRSV was detected for up to 60 days in pork inoculated at the higher concentration and for 7 days in pork inoculated at the lower concentration. These results suggest that fresh pork has the potential to be a vehicle for virus dissemination depending upon temperature and time of storage. PMID:24334086

  16. Inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in vitro by forsythoside A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represents a significant challenge to the swine industry worldwide. Current control strategies against PRRSV are still inadequate and there is a need for new antiviral therapy method. Forsythoside is a compound derived from fruit of Forsy...

  17. GENETIC CONTROL OF SWINE RESPONSES TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is use the Swine Protein-Annotated Oligonucleotide Microarray (www.pigoligoarray.org) to identify immune regulatory and protective pathways to uncover genetic components involved in early immune responses during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Animals ...

  18. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: current status and future direction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980's. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the fi...

  19. Proteolytic Products of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nsp2 Replicase Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nsp2 replicase protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was recently demonstrated to be processed from its precursor by the PL2 protease at or near the G1196|G1197 dipeptide in transfected CHO cells. Here, the proteolytic cleavage of PRRSV nsp2 was further investiga...

  20. Highly pathogenic Chinese porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain JXwn06 in US swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, a large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) spread throughout the swine population in China. Causative PRRSV isolates were characterized genetically by a unique 30aa deletion in PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 and clinically...

  1. Swine immunity and resistance to persistent Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) elicits a weak immune response that is not fully protective and that results in persistent infection in a subset of pigs. Despite substantial research efforts the exact components of a protective anti-PRRSV immune response ar...

  2. Pathogenicity and Molecular Characterization of Emerging Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Vietnam in 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the "porcine high fever disease" that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ...

  3. Proteolytic processing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus nsp2 replicase protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One critical step in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication is the proteolytic processing of the ORF1 polyprotein (replicase). The replicase polyprotein is generally believed to be processed to generate at least 12 smaller nonstructural proteins (nsps) involved in r...

  4. Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV), which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) libraries derive...

  5. GENETIC CONTROL OF SWINE RESPONSES TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is to uncover genetic components involved in early immune responses during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. PRRS costs U.S. swine producers >$700 million annually. We want to determine what are the most significant pathways and genes involved in early i...

  6. Swine immunity and genetic resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vaccines are only partially effective against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) virus infection because they elicit a weak immune response that is not fully protective. PRRS is the most economically significant disease facing the swine industry today, costing U.S. pork pro...

  7. Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus JXwn06 causes high mortality in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, a large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) spread throughout the swine population in China. Causative PRRSV isolates were characterized genetically by a unique 30aa deletion in PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 and clinically...

  8. Sequence and virulence comparison of four North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable genetic, antigenic and virulence differences exist among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates and depending on strain, dose and immune status, some farms may be subclinically infected with PRRSV while others experience severe reproductive and/or respirato...

  9. The potential adjuvanticity of quaternized chitosan hydrogel based microparticles for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qi; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Xia; Wu, Ya-Jun; Jia, Pei-Yuan; Shan, Jun-Jie; Wu, Jie; Ma, Guang-Hui; Su, Zhi-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Infectious diseases possess a big threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Currently, inactivated veterinary vaccines have attracted much attention to prevent infection due to their safer profile compared to live attenuated vaccine. However, its intrinsic poor immunogenicity demands the incorporation of an adjuvant. Mineral oil based adjuvant (Montanide™ ISA206) was usually used to potentiate the efficacy of veterinary vaccines. However, ISA206 could not induce robust cellular immune responses, which was very important in controlling virus replication and clearing the infected cells. Moreover, mineral oil would result in severe side effects. To improve both the humoral and cellular immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) inactivated vaccine, we developed pH-sensitive and size-controllable quaternized chitosan hydrogel microparticles (Gel MPs) without using chemical cross linking agent. Gel MPs, ionic cross-linked with glycerophosphate (GP), were biocompatible and could efficiently adsorb the inactivated PRRSV vaccine with a loading capacity of 579.05μg/mg. After intramuscular immunization in mice, results suggested that Gel MPs elicited significantly higher cell-mediated immune responses and comparable humoral immune responses compared to ISA 206. Regarding the biocompatibility, safety and effectiveness, Gel MPs would be a promising candidate to enhance the efficacy of veterinary vaccine. PMID:27449471

  10. Competitive Fitness of Influenza B Viruses Possessing E119A and H274Y Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance-Associated Substitutions in Ferrets.

    PubMed

    Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Burnham, Andrew J; Vogel, Peter; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Govorkova, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the only antiviral drugs recommended for influenza treatment and prophylaxis. Although NAI-resistant influenza B viruses that could pose a threat to public health have been reported in the field, their fitness is poorly understood. We evaluated in ferrets the pathogenicity and relative fitness of reverse genetics (rg)-generated influenza B/Yamanashi/166/1998-like viruses containing E119A or H274Y NA substitutions (N2 numbering). Ferrets inoculated with NAI-susceptible rg-wild-type (rg-WT) or NAI-resistant (rg-E119A or rg-H274Y) viruses developed mild infections. Growth of rg-E119A virus in the nasal cavities was delayed, but the high titers at 3 days post-inoculation (dpi) were comparable to those of the rg-WT and rg-H274Y viruses (3.6-4.1 log10TCID50/mL). No virus persisted beyond 5 dpi and replication did not extend to the trachea or lungs. Positive virus antigen-staining of the nasal turbinate epithelium was intermittent with the rg-WT and rg-H274Y viruses; whereas antigen-staining for the rg-E119A virus was more diffuse. Virus populations in ferrets coinoculated with NAI-susceptible and -resistant viruses (1:1 mixture) remained heterogeneous at 5 dpi but were predominantly rg-WT (>70%). Although the E119A substitution was associated with delayed replication in ferrets, the H274Y substitution did not measurably affect viral growth properties. These data suggest that rg-H274Y has undiminished fitness in single virus inoculations, but neither rg-E119A nor rg-H274Y gained a fitness advantage over rg-WT in direct competition experiments without antiviral drug pressure. Taken together, our data suggest the following order of relative fitness in a ferret animal model: rg-WT > rg-H274Y > rg-E119A. PMID:27466813

  11. Competitive Fitness of Influenza B Viruses Possessing E119A and H274Y Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance–Associated Substitutions in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q.; Marathe, Bindumadhav M.; Burnham, Andrew J.; Vogel, Peter; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the only antiviral drugs recommended for influenza treatment and prophylaxis. Although NAI-resistant influenza B viruses that could pose a threat to public health have been reported in the field, their fitness is poorly understood. We evaluated in ferrets the pathogenicity and relative fitness of reverse genetics (rg)–generated influenza B/Yamanashi/166/1998-like viruses containing E119A or H274Y NA substitutions (N2 numbering). Ferrets inoculated with NAI-susceptible rg–wild-type (rg-WT) or NAI-resistant (rg-E119A or rg-H274Y) viruses developed mild infections. Growth of rg-E119A virus in the nasal cavities was delayed, but the high titers at 3 days post-inoculation (dpi) were comparable to those of the rg-WT and rg-H274Y viruses (3.6–4.1 log10TCID50/mL). No virus persisted beyond 5 dpi and replication did not extend to the trachea or lungs. Positive virus antigen-staining of the nasal turbinate epithelium was intermittent with the rg-WT and rg-H274Y viruses; whereas antigen-staining for the rg-E119A virus was more diffuse. Virus populations in ferrets coinoculated with NAI-susceptible and -resistant viruses (1:1 mixture) remained heterogeneous at 5 dpi but were predominantly rg-WT (>70%). Although the E119A substitution was associated with delayed replication in ferrets, the H274Y substitution did not measurably affect viral growth properties. These data suggest that rg-H274Y has undiminished fitness in single virus inoculations, but neither rg-E119A nor rg-H274Y gained a fitness advantage over rg-WT in direct competition experiments without antiviral drug pressure. Taken together, our data suggest the following order of relative fitness in a ferret animal model: rg-WT > rg-H274Y > rg-E119A. PMID:27466813

  12. An assessment of sanitation protocols for commercial transport vehicles contaminated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid (< 2 h) sanitation protocol designed for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) positive commercial transport vehicles involving cold water washing and disinfection via fumigation using scale models of weaned pig trailers. The study consisted of 2 phases. Following experimental contamination of model trailers with PRRSV MN 30–100 (5 × 105TCID50), phase 1 evaluated the presence or absence of PRRSV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on swabs collected from the trailer interiors 0, 60, and 90 min after treatment. Phase 2 consisted of evaluating the infectivity of trailers 90 min posttreatment by monitoring changes in the PRRSV-status of naïve sentinel pigs housed for 2 h. Treatments included washing only (treatment 1), washing plus formaldehyde fumigation (treatment 2), washing plus fumigation with glutaraldehyde-quaternary ammonium chloride (treatment 3), and washing plus overnight drying (treatment 4). Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus RNA was detected in all trailers (20 out of 20 replicates) at 60 and 90 min following the application of treatments 1 and 2. These trailers also contained infectious PRRSV, as determined by the infection of naïve pigs housed in treated trailers and the testing of organic debris collected from the interior of trailers by swine bioassay. At 90 min posttreatment, all trailers treated with glutaraldehyde-quaternary ammonium chloride were PCRnegative, non-infectious to sentinel pigs, and swine bioassay negative. Similar results were observed in trailers allowed to dry for 8 h. Under the conditions of this study, it appears certain disinfectants may possess different levels of efficacy against PRRSV and PRRSV-positive models may be effectively sanitized in the absence of overnight drying. PMID:15352546

  13. Vaccine efficacy and immune response to swine influenza virus challenge in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at the time of SIV-vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of concurrent infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on the efficacy of an inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine. Eight groups of pigs were used in the study. One group was infected with a virulent PR...

  14. Regulation and evasion of antiviral immune responses by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Qiong; Feng, Wen-hai

    2015-04-16

    Virus infection of mammalian cells triggers host innate immune responses to restrict viral replication and induces adaptive immunity for viral elimination. In order to survive and propagate, viruses have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to subvert host defense system by encoding proteins that target key components of the immune signaling pathways. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a RNA virus, impairs several processes of host immune responses including interfering with interferon production and signaling, modulating cytokine expression, manipulating apoptotic responses and regulating adaptive immunity. In this review, we highlight the molecular mechanisms of how PRRSV interferes with the different steps of initial antiviral host responses to establish persistent infection in pigs. Dissection of the PRRSV-host interaction is the key in understanding PRRSV pathogenesis and will provide a basis for the rational design of vaccines. PMID:25529442

  15. A Multicenter Blinded Analysis Indicates No Association between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and either Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus or Polytropic Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Harvey J.; Mikovits, Judy A.; Switzer, William M.; Ruscetti, Francis W.; Lo, Shyh-Ching; Klimas, Nancy; Komaroff, Anthony L.; Montoya, Jose G.; Bateman, Lucinda; Levine, Susan; Peterson, Daniel; Levin, Bruce; Hanson, Maureen R.; Genfi, Afia; Bhat, Meera; Zheng, HaoQiang; Wang, Richard; Li, Bingjie; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lee, Li Ling; Sameroff, Stephen; Heneine, Walid; Coffin, John; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The disabling disorder known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been linked in two independent studies to infection with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV). Although the associations were not confirmed in subsequent studies by other investigators, patients continue to question the consensus of the scientific community in rejecting the validity of the association. Here we report blinded analysis of peripheral blood from a rigorously characterized, geographically diverse population of 147 patients with CFS/ME and 146 healthy subjects by the investigators describing the original association. This analysis reveals no evidence of either XMRV or pMLV infection. PMID:22991430

  16. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Immunogenicity, efficacy and safety aspects

    PubMed Central

    Charerntantanakul, Wasin

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is the leading cause of economic casualty in swine industry worldwide. The virus can cause reproductive failure, respiratory disease, and growth retardation in the pigs. This review deals with current status of commercial PRRS vaccines presently used to control PRRS. The review focuses on the immunogenicity, protective efficacy and safety aspects of the vaccines. Commercial PRRS modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine elicits delayed humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following vaccination. The vaccine confers late but effective protection against genetically homologous PRRSV, and partial protection against genetically heterologous virus. The MLV vaccine is of concern for its safety as the vaccine virus can revert to virulence and cause diseases. PRRS killed virus (KV) vaccine, on the other hand, is safe but confers limited protection against either homologous or heterologous virus. The KV vaccine yet helps reduce disease severity when administered to the PRRSV-infected pigs. Although efforts have been made to improve the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of PRRS vaccines, a better vaccine is still needed in order to protect against PRRSV. PMID:24175208

  17. Plant-Derived Chimeric Virus Particles for the Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tinazzi, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Bason, Caterina; Beri, Ruggero; Zampieri, Roberta; Lico, Chiara; Bartoloni, Elena; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX), chimeric virus particles, and Cowpea mosaic virus, empty virus-like particles to display a linear peptide (lipo) derived from human lipocalin, which is immunodominant in Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases. PMID:26648961

  18. Plant-Derived Chimeric Virus Particles for the Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Bason, Caterina; Beri, Ruggero; Zampieri, Roberta; Lico, Chiara; Bartoloni, Elena; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX), chimeric virus particles, and Cowpea mosaic virus, empty virus-like particles to display a linear peptide (lipo) derived from human lipocalin, which is immunodominant in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases. PMID:26648961

  19. Transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from persistently infected sows to contact controls.

    PubMed Central

    Bierk, M D; Dee, S A; Rossow, K D; Otake, S; Collins, J E; Molitor, T W

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could persist in non-pregnant sows and if persistently infected sows could transmit virus to naive contact controls. Twelve PRRSV-naive, non-pregnant sows (index sows) were infected with a field isolate of PRRSV and housed in individual isolation rooms for 42 to 56 days postinfection. Following this period, 1 naive contact sow was placed in each room divided by a gate allowing nose-to-nose contact with a single index sow. Index sows were not viremic at the time of contact sow entry. Virus nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and infectious virus was detected by virus isolation in sera from 3 of the 12 contact sows at 49, 56, and 86 days postinfection. All 3 infected contacts developed PRRSV antibodies. Virus nucleic acid was detected in tissues of all of the 12 index sows at 72 or 86 days postinfection. Nucleic acid sequencing indicated that representative samples from index and infected contacts were homologous (> 99%) to the PRRSV used to infect index sows at the onset of the study. This study demonstrates that PRRSV can persist in sows and that persistently infected sows can transmit virus to naive contact animals. PMID:11768134

  20. Pathogenicity of swine influenza viruses possessing an avian or swine-origin PB2 polymerase gene evaluated in mouse and pig models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A viruses isolated from birds normally contain a PB2 polymerase gene with the avian-signature glutamic acid (E) at position 627, while those isolated from humans contain the mammalian-signature lysine (K) at this position. This residue has been shown to be a determinant of host range and c...

  1. Meningitis-Retention Syndrome as a Presentation of West Nile Virus Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Laengvejkal, Pavis; Argueta, Erwin; Limsuwat, Chok; Nugent, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old previously healthy man presented with fever, urinary retention, nuchal rigidity, and hyperreflexia but with a clear sensorium. His initial spinal fluid results were consistent with aseptic meningitis from West Nile virus infection, and this was confirmed by serological studies on blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were unremarkable. He received supportive care and urinary catheterization to prevent bladder injury from overdistension. He was discharged home without recurrence of urinary retention after five days of hospitalization. Therefore, this case report describes the first case of West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with the meningitis-retention syndrome. PMID:23983716

  2. Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Delivering Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Asisa; Kupke, Alexandra; Song, Fei; Jany, Sylvia; Fux, Robert; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schmidt, Jörg; Becker, Christin; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease in humans. We tested a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein by immunizing BALB/c mice with either intramuscular or subcutaneous regimens. In all cases, MVA-MERS-S induced MERS-CoV-specific CD8+ T cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Vaccinated mice were protected against MERS-CoV challenge infection after transduction with the human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor. This MERS-CoV infection model demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the candidate vaccine. PMID:26018172

  3. Challenges and opportunities for the control and elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rowland, R R R; Morrison, R B

    2012-03-01

    The control and elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represent two of the most challenging tasks facing the pig industry worldwide. Several factors related to the biology of the virus make disease detection and elimination difficult. Efforts are further hampered by the lack of vaccines that can protect naïve herds from infection. With this in mind, elimination efforts are being initiated which incorporate existing tools and knowledge. A new approach extends herd control strategies to the level of a region. One example of success in PRRSV regional elimination is the Stevens County project in Minnesota. PMID:25471243

  4. Mutations within the nuclear localization signal of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein attenuate virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhee; Hodgins, Douglas; Calvert, Jay G.; Welch, Siao-Kun W.; Jolie, Rika; Yoo, Dongwan . E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

    2006-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm, but the nucleocapsid (N) protein is specifically localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in virus-infected cells. A 'pat7' motif of 41-PGKK(N/S)KK has previously been identified in the N protein as the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS); however, the biological consequences of N protein nuclear localization are unknown. In the present study, the role of N protein nuclear localization during infection was investigated in pigs using an NLS-null mutant virus. When two lysines at 43 and 44 at the NLS locus were substituted to glycines, the modified NLS with 41-PGGGNKK restricted the N protein to the cytoplasm. This NLS-null mutation was introduced into a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. Upon transfection of cells, the NLS-null full-length clone induced cytopathic effects and produced infectious progeny. The NLS-null virus grew to a titer 100-fold lower than that of wild-type virus. To examine the response to NLS-null PRRSV in the natural host, three groups of pigs, consisting of seven animals per group, were intranasally inoculated with wild-type, placebo, or NLS-null virus, and the animals were maintained for 4 weeks. The NLS-null-infected pigs had a significantly shorter mean duration of viremia than wild-type-infected pigs but developed significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Mutations occurred at the NLS locus in one pig during viremia, and four types of mutations were identified: 41-PGRGNKK, 41-PGGRNKK, and 41-PGRRNKK, and 41-PGKKSKK. Both wild-type and NLS-null viruses persisted in the tonsils for at least 4 weeks, and the NLS-null virus persisting in the tonsils was found to be mutated to either 41-PGRGNKK or 41-PGGRNKK in all pigs. No other mutation was found in the N gene. All types of reversions which occurred during viremia and persistence were able to translocate the mutated N proteins to the nucleus, indicating a

  5. Viral interference between infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and white spot syndrome virus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Bonnichon, Valérie; Lightner, Donald V; Bonami, Jean-Robert

    2006-10-17

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly virulent and has caused significant production losses to the shrimp culture industry over the last decade. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) also infects penaeid shrimp and, while being less important than WSSV, remains a major cause of significant production losses in Litopenaeus vannamei (also called Penaeus vannamei) and L. stylirostris (also called Penaeus stylirostris). These 2 viruses and their interactions were previously investigated in L. stylirostris. We report here laboratory challenge studies carried out to determine if viral interference between IHHNV and WSSV also occurs in L. vannamei, and it was found that experimental infection with IHHNV induced a significant delay in mortality following WSSV challenge. L. vannamei infected per os with IHHNV were challenged with WSSV at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 d post-infection. Groups of naïve shrimp infected with WSSV alone died in 3 d whereas shrimp pre-infected with IHHNV for 30, 40 or 50 d died in 5 d. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the delay correlated to the IHHNV load and that WSSV challenge induced a decrease in IHHNV load, indicating some form of competition between the 2 viruses. PMID:17140141

  6. Rous-associated virus type 7 induces a syndrome in chickens characterized by stunting and obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J K; Ow, C L; Smith, R E

    1983-01-01

    Infection of 10-day-old chicken embryos with an avian retrovirus. Rous-associated virus type 7, resulted in a disease characterized by stunting and hyperlipidemia. By 20 days after hatch, infected chickens were smaller than hatchmates and developed ataxia and obesity over the next 30 days. Histological examinations of livers from infected chickens revealed a diffuse panlobular fatty infiltrate involving an accumulation of fat in microdroplets. Electron microscopic examinations of livers from infected chickens revealed hepatocytes with swollen mitochondria that lacked cristae. The thyroid and pancreas were infiltrated with lymphoblastoid cells by 1 week after hatch. An examination of the blood revealed a mild anemia, a frank lipemia, and high levels of uric acid. This syndrome induced by Rous-associated virus type 7 in chickens may be useful for elucidating the nature of several diseases, including that found in the fatty liver and kidney syndrome of chickens and that observed in a strain of obese chickens. Images PMID:6295959

  7. Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016.

    PubMed

    Rozé, Benoît; Najioullah, Fatiha; Fergé, Jean-Louis; Apetse, Kossivi; Brouste, Yannick; Cesaire, Raymond; Fagour, Cédric; Fagour, Laurence; Hochedez, Patrick; Jeannin, Séverine; Joux, Julien; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Valentino, Ruddy; Signate, Aïssatou; Cabié, André

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed. PMID:26967758

  8. Inclusion of modified heteroclite RNAs as a novel means to augment live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the leading causes of economic loss in the global pork industry is the swine pathogen porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). It is a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus which emerged in the late 1980’s in North America and Europe, with highly pathogenic strains emer...

  9. Attenuation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain MN184 using chimeric construction with vaccine sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two genetically distinct infectious recombinant virus clones (pMLV, constructed from Ingelvac(R) PRRS MLV and pMN184, constructed from virulent strain MN184) were developed to study attenuation of contemporary porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain MN184. Two reciprocal c...

  10. Infection of United States swine with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the pathogenic effects of Type 2 highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) on healthy 10-week old commercial swine in the United States, viral kinetics and resultant disease caused by intranasal inoculation of such virus rescued from an infectious clo...

  11. Fresh Pork and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Factors Related to the Risk of Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Hall, W; Neumann, E

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS) is a highly infectious virus. Experimentally, the disease can be induced in naïve pigs by the oral, intranasal and intramuscular routes. Depending on the virulence of the strain of the virus and the age of the pig, peak viremia can occur within 7 days of infection, and live virus can be isolated from blood or lymph nodes for several months post-infection. Young pigs tend to develop higher titres of viremia than older pigs infected by the same route and dose with the same strain of virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus survives in pork harvested from infected pigs for extended periods at temperatures of -20 or -70°C. In experimentally infected pigs, survival of PRRS virus in muscle held at 4°C has been demonstrated for at least 7 days, and infectivity of the virus in these samples was confirmed by bioassay. The optimal pH range for the survival of PRRS virus is thought to be 6.0 to 7.5. The elevated pH of non-meat tissues (generally one pH unit higher) is likely to favour extended survival of PRRS virus in pig carcasses from which all superficial and deep lymph nodes have not been removed. It is likely that exsanguinated carcasses held at 4°C retain sufficient blood or lymph tissue to contain infective doses of PRRS virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is rapidly inactivated by heat, providing a predictable method to ensure that pork tissues are free of viable virus and feeding of cooked swill or garbage should not constitute a risk to pigs. While the probability of viable PRRS virus being present in a pig carcass may be low, the risk is not zero. The importation of raw pork into countries where PRRS is not endemic represents a hazard with potentially severe economic consequences. PMID:24016101

  12. Bayou virus-associated hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Eastern Texas: identification of the rice rat, Oryzomys palustris, as reservoir host.

    PubMed Central

    Torrez-Martinez, N.; Bharadwaj, M.; Goade, D.; Delury, J.; Moran, P.; Hicks, B.; Nix, B.; Davis, J. L.; Hjelle, B.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the third known case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) due to Bayou virus, from Jefferson County, Texas. By using molecular epidemiologic methods, we show that rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) are frequently infected with Bayou virus and that viral RNA sequences from HPS patients are similar to those from nearby rice rats. Bayou virus is associated with O. palustris; this rodent appears to be its predominant reservoir host. PMID:9452404

  13. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  14. Virus reactivation and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kano, Yoko; Inaoka, Miyuki; Sakuma, Keiichi; Shiohara, Tetsuo

    2005-04-15

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is a severe multi-organ system reaction caused by specific drugs. Many reports have revealed that human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation contributes to the development of DIHS. In addition, recent articles have shown that reactivation of other herpesviruses such as human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) might be also implicated in the development of DIHS. These observations suggest that not only HHV-6 but also other herpesvirses might reactivate from the latency and play an important role in the appearance of clinical manifestations of DIHS. Several patients with DIHS were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in addition to systemic corticosteroids. The results have been encouraging although virus reactivation could not be suppressed. Although the pathomechanism of IVIG treatment in patients with DIHS remains unknown, the therapeutic effects of IVIG could be dependent, in part, on functional capabilities of anti-virus IgG contained in IVIG. PMID:15767030

  15. Varicella-zoster virus distribution in Ramsay Hunt syndrome revealed by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Murakami, S; Nakashiro, Y; Mizobuchi, M; Hato, N; Honda, N; Gyo, K

    1998-03-01

    The pathogenesis of facial nerve paralysis and vestibulo-cochlear dysfunction of Ramsay Hunt syndrome remains unclear as varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has not been demonstrated in the lesions. Using the polymerase chain reaction, we detected VZV genomes not only in the vesicles on the auricles or oral cavity but also in the facial nerve sheath, middle ear mucosa and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The VZV genome was undetectable in the same kinds of clinical samples obtained from control patients with facial nerve paralysis of other etiologies. The results indicated that VZV spreads widely in the neural components, mucocutaneous tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. The present study will facilitate better understanding of the pathogenesis of facial nerve paralysis, vertigo, hearing impairment and other cranial nerve dysfunction of Ramsay Hunt syndrome. PMID:9583779

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jake; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2016-08-01

    Improved survival with combination antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic increase in the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals 50 years of age or older such that by 2020 more than 50% of HIV-infected persons in the United States will be above this age. Recent studies confirm that antiretroviral therapy should be offered to all HIV-infected patients regardless of age, symptoms, CD4+ cell count, or HIV viral load. However, when compared with HIV-uninfected populations, even with suppression of measurable HIV replication, older individuals are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancies, liver disease, and other comorbidities. PMID:27394024

  17. Single-chain anti-idiotypic antibody retains its specificity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Wang, Gang; Li, Qiongyi; Du, Yongkun; Du, Taofeng; Mu, Yang; Xiao, Shuqi; Zhao, Qin; Wang, Chengbao; Sun, Yani; Xu, Xingang; Zhang, Gaiping; Hsu, Walter H; Cai, Xuehui; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (Mab2-5G2) raised against idiotypic antibodies to membrane glycoprotein GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The variable regions of the heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) of Mab2-5G2 were cloned and connected with a (Gly4Ser)3 linker. The recombinant scFv gene was cloned into the pEasy-E1 vector and expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies. The expressed scFv-His proteins renatured in a pH and urea gradient buffer retained the same immunological properties as that of Mab2-5G2. Renatured scFv-His protein retained the same characteristics as that of Mab2-5G2 by recognizing and binding to Marc-145 cells. Furthermore, renatured scFv-His along with Mab2-5G2 were used to immunize rabbits to produce anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab3) that neutralized PRRSV infection of Marc-145 cells. These results demonstrated that the expressed scFv-His protein possessed the same characteristics of Mab2-5G2 and will be suitable for future investigations of Mab2-5G2 antibody structure and its ability to interact with potential PRRSV cellular receptor as well as immunological properties against PRRSV infection. PMID:25448704

  18. Production and evaluation of virus-like particles displaying immunogenic epitopes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ambika Mosale Venkatesh; Ni, Yanyan; Meng, Xiangjin; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV) have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present the antigens in a more veritable conformation and are readily recognized by the immune system. Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has been successfully used as a carrier for more than 100 viral sequences. In this study, hybrid HBcAg VLPs were generated by fusion of the conserved protective epitopes of PRRSV and expressed in E. coli. An optimized purification protocol was developed to obtain hybrid HBcAg VLP protein from the inclusion bodies. This hybrid HBcAg VLP protein self-assembled to 23-nm VLPs that were shown to block virus infection of susceptible cells when tested on MARC 145 cells. Together with the safety of non-infectious and non-replicable VLPs and the low cost of production through E. coli fermentation, this hybrid VLP could be a promising vaccine candidate for PRRS. PMID:25874763

  19. Production and Evaluation of Virus-Like Particles Displaying Immunogenic Epitopes of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Ambika Mosale Venkatesh; Ni, Yanyan; Meng, Xiangjin; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV) have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present the antigens in a more veritable conformation and are readily recognized by the immune system. Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has been successfully used as a carrier for more than 100 viral sequences. In this study, hybrid HBcAg VLPs were generated by fusion of the conserved protective epitopes of PRRSV and expressed in E. coli. An optimized purification protocol was developed to obtain hybrid HBcAg VLP protein from the inclusion bodies. This hybrid HBcAg VLP protein self-assembled to 23-nm VLPs that were shown to block virus infection of susceptible cells when tested on MARC 145 cells. Together with the safety of non-infectious and non-replicable VLPs and the low cost of production through E. coli fermentation, this hybrid VLP could be a promising vaccine candidate for PRRS. PMID:25874763

  20. Effect of various pyrimidines possessing the 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl] moiety, able to mimic natural 2'-deoxyribose, on wild-type and mutant hepatitis B virus replication.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Semaine, Wassila; Johar, Monika; Tyrrell, D Lorne J; Agrawal, Babita

    2006-06-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Development of drug resistance against clinical anti-HBV drug lamivudine due to long-term use and rebound of viral DNA after cessation of treatment has been a major setback of the current therapy. We have synthesized a series of pyrimidine nucleosides possessing a variety of substituents at the C-5 position, and a 1-[(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl] flexible acyclic glycosyl moiety at the N-1 position, that have the ability to mimic the natural 2'-deoxyribosyl moiety. Some of these potential antiviral compounds included variations at both C-5 and C-6 positions of the uracil base. Other variations of the uracil derivatives were the 6-aza congeners. 4-Amino and 4-methoxy pyrimidine derivatives were also made. Compounds in which the base moiety was substituted by 5-chloro- (25), 5-(2-bromovinyl)- (32), or 5-bromo-6-methyl- (37) groups possess significant activity against duck-HBV, wild-type human HBV (2.2.15 cells), and lamivudine-resistant HBV containing single and double mutations. No cytotoxicity was seen in host HepG2 and Vero cells, up to the highest concentration tested. The anti-HBV activity exhibited by compounds 25, 32, and 37 was superior for human HBV and comparable for DHBV to that of the corresponding purine nucleoside, ganciclovir. Further, they were only 10-15-fold less inhibitory against human HBV in 2.2.15 cells than the reference drug, lamivudine. Other compounds in the series were moderately inhibitory against DHBV and wild-type human HBV. The size of the halogen and the electronegativity of the substituents at the 5- and 6-positions are important for antiviral activity toward HBV. These compounds were also evaluated for their antiviral activity for West Nile virus, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS-coronavirus, and hepatitis C virus. They were generally inactive in these antiviral assay systems (at concentrations up to 100 microg/mL). 1-[(2-Hydroxy-1

  1. Phages harboring specific peptides that recognize the N protein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus distinguish the virus from other viruses.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaofeng; Wang, Mingcui; Yin, Jiechao; Li, Guangxing

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop a novel diagnostic test for detecting porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) using phage display technology. The N gene of PRRSV isolate HH08 was cloned following reverse transcription-PCR. Sequence comparison indicated that the N gene shared 96.4% homology to that of North American PRRSV (isolate VR2332) and 35.5% with that of European PRRSV (isolate LV), indicating that the PRRSV isolate was related to the North American PRRSV genotype. The bacterially expressed N protein was used as a target in a biopanning process using a phage display random peptide library. Seven phages expressing different peptides had a specific binding activity with the N protein. The putative binding motifs were identified by DNA sequencing. More importantly, the selected phages harboring specific peptides that recognize the N protein of PRRSV were able to efficiently distinguish PRRSV from other viruses in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PMID:20237096

  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine does not fit in classical vaccinology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    All vaccines are developed to elicit an effective immune response in vaccinated animals such as innate, humoral and cell mediated response to protect animal health. Quality and intensity of the immune responses are differing by characteristics of the vaccine formulation and nature of the infectious agent. Modified live virus vaccines showed advantages over killed vaccines in terms of rapid immune response, duration of the immunity and better cell mediated protection mechanism. The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is relatively newly emerging (1986 in United States, 1990 in Europe) viral pathogen in pigs and tremendous effort has been made to protect pigs from this economically devastating disease such as developing killed, modified live, recombinant protein based and DNA vaccines. However, only cell culture attenuated virus vaccine is practiced with arguably limited efficacy. The PRRSV vaccine did not clear virus from infected pigs nor prevent re-infection of the virus. The vaccine showed very limited innate immune response, low anamnestic immune response and negligible cell mediated immune response. Despite of the current developed scientific technology, there still remain many questions to solve a most important pig disease worldwide. PMID:26273574

  3. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H S; Oleksiewicz, M B; Forsberg, R; Stadejek, T; Bøtner, A; Storgaard, T

    2001-06-01

    A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates was sequenced and compared with the parental strain of the vaccine virus (VR2332). This revealed five mutations that had occurred independently in all three vaccine-derived field isolates, indicating strong parallel selective pressure on these positions in the vaccine virus when used in swine herds. Two of these parallel mutations were direct reversions to the parental VR2332 sequence and were situated in a papain-like cysteine protease domain and in the helicase domain. The remaining parallel mutations might be seen as second-site compensatory mutations for one or more of the mutations that accumulated in the vaccine virus sequence during cell-culture adaptation. Evaluation of the remaining mutations in the ORF1 sequence revealed stronger selective pressure for amino acid conservation during spread in pigs than during vaccine production. Furthermore, it was found that the selective pressure did not change during the time period studied. The implications of these findings for PRRS vaccine attenuation and reversion are discussed. PMID:11369869

  4. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: genetic diversity of recent British isolates.

    PubMed

    Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Hughes, Gareth J; Westcott, David G; Naidu, Brindha; Williamson, Susanna; Woodger, Nicholas G A; Steinbach, Falko; Drew, Trevor W

    2013-03-23

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be a significant problem for European pig producers, contributing to porcine respiratory disease complex, neonatal piglet mortality, infertility and occasional abortion storms. PRRS virus (PRRSV), a member of the arterivirus family with two defined major genotypes, has been shown to be quite genetically diverse. In the present study, genetic analysis of multiple gene regions of over 100 viruses isolated in Britain between 2003 and 2007 revealed that the diversity of British strains is now far greater than during the early 1990s. All isolates belong to genotype 1 (European). While some recent isolates are still very similar to early isolates, a wide range of more diverse viruses is now also circulating. Interestingly, some isolates were found to be very similar to a modified-live vaccine strain, and it is suggested that use of the vaccine has affected the evolution pattern of PRRS virus strains in Britain. Evidence of deletions in one viral gene, ORF3, and of genome recombination was also seen. A molecular clock model using the ORF7 sequences estimates the rate of substitution as 3.8 × 10(-3) per site per year, thereby dating the most recent common ancestor of all British viruses to 1991, coincident with the first outbreak of disease. Our findings therefore have implications for both the diagnostic and prophylactic methods currently being used, which are discussed. PMID:23218831

  5. Minimal residues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig carcases and boar semen.

    PubMed

    Wang, F I

    1999-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease that affects pigs of all ages worldwide. One of the key features of PRRS pathogenesis is the prolonged viremia in which the virus coexists with antibody. Prolonged viremia raises the concern that porcine products and boar semen may be contaminated by residues of the PRRS virus serving as vehicles for spreading of the virus. To answer this question, we sampled blood, muscles and viscera organs from market pigs slaughtered using an on-the-rail system and utilized a direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect residual viral RNA. We found that the overall seropositive rate of the market pigs was 85.4% (205/240), yet only 7.9% (11/140) of the blood samples contained detectable amounts of virus residues, and all tested carcase specimens (n = 472) were negative. The clinical sensitivity of this PCR varied with the tissues tested, with 5 TCID50 per 50 microliters of serum, as determined by means of a spiking experiment. Semen samples (n = 38) of clinically healthy seropositive and seronegative boars were collected from six herds which were routinely subjected to artificial insemination for production purposes. None of the seminal plasma or sperm-rich fractions contained PCR detectable virus residues. However, the possibility of PRRS virus present in semen cannot be totally excluded. We conclude that in naturally infected albeit clinically healthy pigs, the amounts of PRRS virus residues in carcases or semen are minimal. Thus, the risk of these products causing animal health hazards is low. PMID:10518317

  6. Temporal localization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in reproductive tissues of experimentally infected boars.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Cinta; García, Carlos; Simarro, Isabel; Castro, José M

    2003-11-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to be shed in the semen of infected boars. To determine whether the reproductive tissues could be a persistent source of virus and the possible origin of PRRSV found in semen of infected boars, 20 PRRSV-seronegative boars were intranasally inoculated with 5 x 10(6) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of PRRSV and necropsied at different times post-inoculation (p.i.) from Day 2 to Day 37 p.i. Blood samples were collected before experimental inoculation, at necropsy and at different times p.i. At necropsy, epididymal semen and reproductive tissues were collected and the presence of the virus determined by virus isolation. The infection of the boars was demonstrated by the isolation of the virus from the sera of all inoculated boars and by seroconversion. PRRSV was detected in serum samples from Day 2 to Day 23 p.i., although the viremic period was largely dependent on the individual response to infection. Viral replication was proven within different reproductive tissues from Day 2 to Day 23 p.i., being most consistently found in the epididymus. In addition, PRRSV was isolated in semen from Day 4 to Day 10 p.i. The correlation of a diminished viremia and the inability to isolate PRRSV from semen or reproductive tissues may be due to one of two possibilities. First, viremia is responsible for most of the virus isolated from reproductive tissues due to the movement of PRRSV-infected cells out of the blood and into the tissues. Second, viremia may initially seed the reproductive tissues with PRRSV, and then the virus is produced into the reproductive tract and shed into semen at low levels. PMID:14519471

  7. Molecular virus screening to detect novel viruses from turkey flocks affected by Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) is an economically important, infectious enteric disease of young turkeys. The disease is characterized by decreased weight gain, increased morbidity and mortality, and increased production costs due to poor feed conversions. PEMS is considered to be a multi...

  8. RNAi-based inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Qiuyan; Bao, Yonghua; Li, Jinxiu; Chen, Zhisheng; Yu, Xiuling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

    2014-02-10

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating viral disease causing heavy losses to the swine industry worldwide. Many studies have shown that transient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or adenovirus-mediated RNA interfere (RNAi) could potentially inhibit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication in vivo and in vitro. Here, we applied RNAi to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed PRRSV-specific siRNA derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). First, we evaluated siRNA expression in the founding and F1 generation pigs and confirmed stable transmission. Then, we detected the expression of IFN-β and protein kinase R (PKR) and found no difference among TG, non-transgenic (NTG), and wild-type pigs. Lastly, the F1 generation pigs, including TG and NTG piglets, were challenged with 3×10⁴·⁵ TCID₅₀ of JXA1, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). Our results showed that the in vivo siRNA expression substantially reduced the serum HP-PRRSV titers and increased survival time by 3 days when TG pigs were compared with the NTG controls. These data suggested that RNAi-based genetic modification might be used to breed viral-resistant livestock with stable siRNA expression with no complications of siRNA toxicity. PMID:24333125

  9. The red clover necrotic mosaic virus capsid protein N-terminal amino acids possess specific RNA binding activity and are required for stable virion assembly.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ho; Sit, Tim L; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Lommel, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    The red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) bipartite RNA genome is packaged into two virion populations containing either RNA-1 and RNA-2 or multiple copies of RNA-2 only. To understand this distinctive packaging scheme, we investigated the RNA-binding properties of the RCNMV capsid protein (CP). Maltose binding protein-CP fusions exhibited the highest binding affinities for RNA probes containing the RNA-2 trans-activator or the 3' non-coding region from RNA-1. Other viral and non-viral RNA probes displayed CP binding but to a much lower degree. Deletion of the highly basic N-terminal 50 residues abolished CP binding to viral RNA transcripts. In planta studies of select CP deletion mutants within this N-terminal region revealed that it was indispensable for stable virion formation and the region spanning CP residues 5-15 is required for systemic movement. Thus, the N-terminal region of the CP is involved in both producing two virion populations due to its RNA binding properties and virion stability. PMID:23747688

  10. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis. PMID:8930949

  11. Plant-based porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus VLPs induce an immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Campero, Laura; Monroy-García, Alberto; Durán-Meza, Ana L; Villagrana-Escareño, María V; Ruíz-García, Jaime; Hernández, Jesús; Núñez-Palenius, Héctor G; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) significantly affects the swine industry worldwide. An efficient, protective vaccine is still lacking. Here, we report for the first time the generation and purification of PRRSV virus like particles (VLPs) by expressing GP5, M and N genes in Nicotiana silvestris plants. The particles were clearly visible by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with a size of 60-70 nm. Hydrodynamic diameter of the particles was obtained and it was confirmed that the VLPs had the appropriate size for PRRS virions and that the VLPs were highly pure. By measuring the Z potential we described the electrophoretic mobility behavior of VLPs and the best conditions for stability of the VLPs were determined. The particles were immunogenic in mice. A western blot of purified particles allowed detection of three coexpressed genes. These VLPs may serve as a platform to develop efficient PRRSV vaccines. PMID:26412521

  12. Transcription and identification of an envelope protein gene (p22) from shrimp white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Huang, Canhua; Xu, Xun; Hew, Choy L

    2002-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most virulent pathogens causing high mortality in shrimp. In the present study, an open reading frame (termed the p22 gene) was revealed from a WSSV cDNA library. The gene was expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli and purified. Specific antibody was raised using the purified fusion protein (GST-P22). Temporal analysis showed that the p22 gene was a late gene. After binding between purified WSSV virions and anti-GST-P22 IgG followed by labelling with gold-labelled secondary antibody, the gold particles, under a transmission electron microscope, could be found along the outer envelope of WSSV virions. This experiment suggests that the p22 gene encodes an envelope protein of the virus. PMID:11807241

  13. Rapid Detection of Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus by Real Time, Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41±0.17 min at 39°C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics. PMID:25121957

  14. Regulation of cell signaling and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ao; Zhang, Shujun

    2012-05-01

    In order to successfully survive in host and persistent infection, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) utilized sophisticated mechanisms to suppress or escape from the host' innate and adaptive immune systems, and then changed host gene expression. Signaling pathways play a pivotal role in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Once signaling pathways are activated by a variety of different stimuli, immune responses will be triggered by the activation of chemokines, transcription factors, and inflammatory cytokines to adjust the aggressive replication and dissemination of viruses. PRRSV infection is able to get many signaling pathways activation that facilitates distinct cell functions to modulate immune responses. In addition, the cross-talk of cell signaling pathways also can regulate PRRSV replication and also is present in this review by recent finding. PMID:22274732

  15. DNA condensates organized by the capsid protein VP15 in White Spot Syndrome Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingjie; Wu Jinlu; Chen Hu; Hew, Choy Leong; Yan Jie

    2010-12-20

    The White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has a large circular double-stranded DNA genome of around 300 kb and it replicates in the nucleus of the host cells. The machinery of how the viral DNA is packaged has been remained unclear. VP15, a highly basic protein, is one of the major capsid proteins found in the virus. Previously, it was shown to be a DNA binding protein and was hypothesized to participate in the viral DNA packaging process. Using Atomic Force Microscopy imaging, we show that the viral DNA is associated with a (or more) capsid proteins. The organized viral DNA qualitatively resembles the conformations of VP15 induced DNA condensates in vitro. Furthermore, single-DNA manipulation experiments revealed that VP15 is able to condense single DNA against forces of a few pico Newtons. Our results suggest that VP15 may aid in the viral DNA packaging process by directly condensing DNA.

  16. Rapid detection of shrimp white spot syndrome virus by real time, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41 ± 0.17 min at 39 °C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics. PMID:25121957

  17. Haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) in Norway: pathology and associated virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Nylund, A; Plarre, H; Hodneland, K; Devold, M; Aspehaug, V; Aarseth, M; Koren, C; Watanabe, K

    2003-03-17

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar pre-smolt, smolt and post-smolt, with clinical signs of haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) have been found in several locations along the Norwegian coast (Rogaland to Troms). Affected fish had pale gills and bleeding at the fin bases, but seemed to be in good physical condition with no obvious weight loss. The internal organs and body cavity showed distinct bleedings. Petechiae were found on the gastrointestinal tract, swim bladder and peritoneum, visceral adipose tissue, heart and somatic musculature. The liver was bright yellow and sometimes mottled with petechiae and ecchymoses. Acitic fluid was found in the visceral cavity and fluid was also present in the pericardial cavity. Histological examination revealed haemorrhage in most organs. The glomeruli were degenerated and the renal tubules were filled with erythrocytes. The aims of this study were to describe the pathology and discover, if possible, the aetiology of the HSS. Tissues were collected for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence (IFAT), reverse transcription (RT)-PCR diagnostics (screening for infectious salmon anaemia virus [ISAV], viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus [VHSV], salmon pancreas disease virus [SPDV], sleeping disease virus [SDV] and infectious haematopoetic necrosis virus [IHNV]), and tissue homogenates (heart, liver, kidney and spleen) were sterile-filtered and inoculated into cell cultures. Homogenates made from several tissues were also injected intraperitoneally into salmon and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The diagnostic tests revealed no consistent findings of any pathogens, with the exception of TEM which showed 2 types of virus-like particles: Type I was 50 to 60 nm in diameter and Type II about 50 nm in diameter. These virus-like particles were found in salmon from all farms affected by HSS and screened by TEM. Several different cells, blood vessel endothelial cells, endocardial cells, heart myofibres, and leukocytes

  18. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

    2014-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater. PMID:24658782

  19. Egg drop syndrome virus enters duck embryonic fibroblast cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingjing; Tan, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Caihong; Xu, Jiamin; Wang, Jingyu

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies of egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is restricted to serological surveys, disease diagnostics, and complete viral genome analysis. Consequently, the infection characteristics and entry routes of EDSV are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to explore the entry pathway of EDSV into duck embryonic fibroblast (DEF) cells as well as the infection characteristics and proliferation of EDSV in primary DEF and primary chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the virus triggered DEF cell membrane invagination as early as 10 min post-infection and that integrated endocytic vesicles formed at 20 min post-infection. The virus yield in EDSV-infected DEF cells treated with chlorpromazine (CPZ), sucrose, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), or NH4Cl was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the mock treatment, CPZ and sucrose greatly inhibited the production of viral progeny in a dose-dependent manner, while MβCD treatment did not result in a significant difference. Furthermore, NH4Cl had a strong inhibitory effect on the production of EDSV progeny. In addition, indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that virus particles clustered on the surface of DEF cells treated with CPZ or sucrose. These results indicate that EDSV enters DEF cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis followed by a pH-dependent step, which is similar to the mechanism of entry of human adenovirus types 2 and 5. PMID:26200954

  20. Pathogenesis and prevention of placental and transplacental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-induced reproductive problems are characterized by embryonic death, late-term abortions, early farrowing and increase in number of dead and mummified fetuses, and weak-born piglets. The virus recovery from fetal tissues illustrates transplacental infection, but despite many studies on the subject, the means by which PRRSV spreads from mother to fetus and the exact pathophysiological basis of the virus-induced reproductive failure remain unexplained. Recent findings from our group indicate that the endometrium and placenta are involved in the PRRSV passage from mother to fetus and that virus replication in the endometrial/placental tissues can be the actual reason for fetal death. The main purpose of this review is to clarify the role that PRRSV replication and PRRSV-induced changes in the endometrium/placenta play in the pathogenesis of PRRSV-induced reproductive failure in pregnant sows. In addition, strategies to control placental and transplacental PRRSV infection are discussed. PMID:24099529

  1. Inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by Cecropin D in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohong; Guo, Chunhe; Huang, Yumao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yaosheng

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to cause substantial economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Although vaccines are commercially available for the control of PRRSV infection, no vaccination regimen has been proved sustained success in terms of generating a protective immune response. Therefore, the development of novel antivirals is urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and viruses and play an important role in host innate immune response. Here, we tested whether Cecropin D (CD) could inhibit PRRSV infection and replication in vitro. The inhibitory effect of CD occurred during viral attachment and the early period of viral entry into Marc-145 cells. CD also attenuated virus-induced apoptosis during the late phase of PRRSV infection and suppressed virus release in Marc-145 cells, which might contribute to the inhibition of PRRSV infection. Similar inhibitory effects on PRRSV infection were also found with CD treatment in porcine alveolar macrophages, the major target cell type of PRRSV infection in pigs in vivo. These findings suggest that CD has the potential to develop a new therapeutic agent against PRRSV infection. PMID:26102162

  2. Pathogenesis and prevention of placental and transplacental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-induced reproductive problems are characterized by embryonic death, late-term abortions, early farrowing and increase in number of dead and mummified fetuses, and weak-born piglets. The virus recovery from fetal tissues illustrates transplacental infection, but despite many studies on the subject, the means by which PRRSV spreads from mother to fetus and the exact pathophysiological basis of the virus-induced reproductive failure remain unexplained. Recent findings from our group indicate that the endometrium and placenta are involved in the PRRSV passage from mother to fetus and that virus replication in the endometrial/placental tissues can be the actual reason for fetal death. The main purpose of this review is to clarify the role that PRRSV replication and PRRSV-induced changes in the endometrium/placenta play in the pathogenesis of PRRSV-induced reproductive failure in pregnant sows. In addition, strategies to control placental and transplacental PRRSV infection are discussed. PMID:24099529

  3. Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in boar semen by PCR.

    PubMed

    Christopher-Hennings, J; Nelson, E A; Nelson, J K; Hines, R J; Swenson, S L; Hill, H T; Zimmerman, J J; Katz, J B; Yaeger, M J; Chase, C C

    1995-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a devastating disease in swine. The presence and transmission of PRRSV by boar semen has been demonstrated by using a swine bioassay. In this assay, 4- to 8-week-old pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with semen from PRRSV-infected boars. Seroconversion of these piglets indicated the presence of PRRSV in semen. Seroconversion in gilts has also been demonstrated following artificial insemination with semen from PRRSV-infected boars. These methods of detecting PRRSV in boar semen are time-consuming, laborious, and expensive. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable and sensitive PCR assay to directly detect PRRSV in boar semen. Primers from open reading frames 1b and 7 of the PRRSV genome were used in nested PCRs. Virus was detected at concentrations as low as 10 infectious virions per ml in PRRSV-spiked semen. Specificity was confirmed by using a nested PCR and a 32P-labeled oligonucleotide probe. The primers did not react with related arteriviruses or other swine viruses. The PCR assay showed good correlation with the swine bioassay, and both methods were superior to virus isolation. To consistently identify PRRSV in boar semen, the cell fraction was separated by centrifugation at 600 x g for 20 min, a lysis buffer without a reducing agent (2-mercaptoethanol) was used, and nondiluted and 1:20-diluted cell fractions were evaluated by PCR. PRRSV was not reliably detected in the seminal plasma fraction of boar semen. PMID:7665637

  4. Effect of Vandetanib on Andes virus survival in the hamster model of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bird, Brian H; Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Dodd, Kimberly A; Erickson, Bobbie R; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-08-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease caused by hantavirus infection of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells leading to microvascular leakage, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion and high case fatality. Previously, we demonstrated that Andes virus (ANDV) infection caused up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and concomitant downregulation of the cellular adhesion molecule VE-cadherin leading to increased permeability. Analyses of human HPS-patient sera have further demonstrated increased circulating levels of VEGF. Here we investigate the impact of a small molecule antagonist of the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) activation in vitro, and overall impact on survival in the Syrian hamster model of HPS. PMID:27233645

  5. Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are members of family Arteriviridae; they share many biological properties but differ significantly in cellular tropism. Using an infectious cDNA clone of EAV, we engineered a panel of six chimeric viruses b...

  6. A Synthetic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain Confers Unprecedented Levels of Heterologous Protection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fangrui; Laegreid, William W.; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Steffen, David; Doster, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current vaccines do not provide sufficient levels of protection against divergent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains circulating in the field, mainly due to the substantial variation of the viral genome. We describe here a novel approach to generate a PRRSV vaccine candidate that could confer unprecedented levels of heterologous protection against divergent PRRSV isolates. By using a set of 59 nonredundant, full-genome sequences of type 2 PRRSVs, a consensus genome (designated PRRSV-CON) was generated by aligning these 59 PRRSV full-genome sequences, followed by selecting the most common nucleotide found at each position of the alignment. Next, the synthetic PRRSV-CON strain was generated through the use of reverse genetics. PRRSV-CON replicates as efficiently as our prototype PRRSV strain FL12, both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, when inoculated into pigs, PRRSV-CON confers significantly broader levels of heterologous protection than does wild-type PRRSV. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PRRSV-CON can serve as an excellent candidate for the development of a broadly protective PRRSV vaccine. IMPORTANCE The extraordinary genetic variation of RNA viruses poses a monumental challenge for the development of broadly protective vaccines against these viruses. To minimize the genetic dissimilarity between vaccine immunogens and contemporary circulating viruses, computational strategies have been developed for the generation of artificial immunogen sequences (so-called “centralized” sequences) that have equal genetic distances to the circulating viruses. Thus far, the generation of centralized vaccine immunogens has been carried out at the level of individual viral proteins. We expand this concept to PRRSV, a highly variable RNA virus, by creating a synthetic PRRSV strain based on a centralized PRRSV genome sequence. This study provides the first example of centralizing the whole genome of an RNA virus to improve

  7. N-linked glycosylation of GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is critically important for virus replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuzhang; Lin, Tao; Sun, Lichang; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Xiaoming; Gao, Fei; Liu, Runxia; Chen, Chunyan; Tong, Guangzhi; Yuan, Shishan

    2012-09-01

    It has been proposed that the N-linked glycan addition at certain sites in GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is important for production of infectious viruses and viral infectivity. However, such specific N-linked glycosylation sites do not exist in some field PRRSV isolates. This implies that the existence of GP5-associated glycan per se is not vital to the virus life cycle. In this study, we found that mutation of individual glycosylation sites at N30, N35, N44, and N51 in GP5 did not affect virus infectivity in cultured cells. However, the mutants carrying multiple mutations at N-linked glycosylation sites in GP5 had significantly reduced virus yields compared with the wild-type (wt) virus. As a result, no viremia and antibody response were detected in piglets that were injected with a mutant without all N-linked glycans in GP5. These results suggest that the N-linked glycosylation of GP5 is critically important for virus replication in vivo. The study also showed that removal of N44-linked glycan from GP5 increased the sensitivity of mutant virus to convalescent-phase serum samples but did not elicit a high-level neutralizing antibody response to wt PRRSV. The results obtained from the present study have made significant contributions to better understanding the importance of glycosylation of GP5 in the biology of PRRSV. PMID:22761373

  8. Persistence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in a swine operation.

    PubMed Central

    Bilodeau, R; Archambault, D; Vézina, S A; Sauvageau, R; Fournier, M; Dea, S

    1994-01-01

    A herd of Quebec seedstock pigs experienced in early 1992 a typical outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) associated with lesions of interstitial, proliferative and necrotizing pneumonia in weaned piglets. The nature of the infection was confirmed by serology using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and virus isolation in primary cultures of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM). Farm production recovered after eight weeks of losses. In order to evaluate the persistence of infection in the herd, five SPF-piglets were introduced in two different sections of the PRRS-affected barn four months after the disappearance of clinical symptoms, and two others were placed in a neighboring building with apparently healthy farrow-to-finnish pigs. Clinical signs, body temperature, humoral immune response, virological and histopathological findings were recorded over a 42-day period. Clinical signs were evident in all of the sentinels and prolonged fever (> or = 40 degrees C) was recorded one day post-exposure (PE). Antibody titers to PRRS virus could be detected by IIF on PAM seven days PE, and reached 1:1024 by day 21 PE. Three of the sentinels developed significant virus neutralizing antibody titers (> 1:8 to < or = 1:128) by day 35 PE. In all cases, the virus could be isolated from the serum between day 7 and 42 PE. Thus, the virus and specific antibodies coexisted for several weeks. Lesions of interstitial pneumonia was demonstrated in few animals. In experimental inoculation studies, the viral strain isolated from the sentinel pigs produced severe reproductive disorders in two sows inoculated at 95 days of gestation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2. PMID:7889462

  9. An Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Switzerland Following Import of Boar Semen.

    PubMed

    Nathues, C; Perler, L; Bruhn, S; Suter, D; Eichhorn, L; Hofmann, M; Nathues, H; Baechlein, C; Ritzmann, M; Palzer, A; Grossmann, K; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Thür, B

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in November 2012 in Switzerland (CH), traditionally PRRSV-free. It was detected after a German boar stud informed a semen importer about the detection of PRRSV during routine monitoring. Tracing of semen deliveries revealed 26 Swiss sow herds that had used semen from this stud after its last negative routine monitoring and 62 further contact herds. All herds were put under movement restrictions and examined serologically and virologically. As a first measure, 59 sows from five herds that had previously been inseminated with suspicious semen were slaughtered and tested immediately. Investigations in the stud resulted in 8 positive boars with recent semen deliveries to CH (Seven with antibodies and virus, one with antibodies only). In one boar out of six tested, virus was detected in semen. Of the 59 slaughtered sows, five from three herds were virus-positive. In one herd, the virus had spread, and all pigs were slaughtered or non-marketable animals euthanized. In the remaining herds, no further infections were detected. After confirmatory testings in all herds 3 weeks after the first examination gave negative results, restrictions were lifted in January 2013, and Switzerland regained its PRRSV-free status. The events demonstrate that import of semen from non-PRRS-free countries - even from negative studs - poses a risk, because monitoring protocols in boar studs are often insufficient to timely detect an infection, and infections of sows/herds occur even with low numbers of semen doses. The outbreak was eradicated successfully mainly due to the high disease awareness of the importer and because immediate actions were taken before clinical or laboratory diagnosis of a single case in the country was made. To minimize the risk of an introduction of PRRSV in the future, stricter import guidelines for boar semen have been implemented. PMID:25209832

  10. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Current status and future direction.

    PubMed

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980s. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the first modified live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine (PRRSV-MLV) became commercially available. PRRSV-MLVs provide homologous protection and help in reducing shedding of heterologous viruses, but they do not completely protect pigs against heterologous field strains. There have been many advances in understanding the biology and ecology of PRRSV; however, the complexities of virus-host interaction and PRRSV vaccinology are not yet completely understood leaving a significant gap for improving breadth of immunity against diverse PRRS isolates. This review provides insights on immunization efforts using infectious PRRSV-based vaccines since the 1990s, beginning with live PRRSV immunization, development and commercialization of PRRSV-MLV, and strategies to overcome the deficiencies of PRRSV-MLV through use of replicating viral vectors expressing multiple PRRSV membrane proteins. Finally, powerful reverse genetics systems (infectious cDNA clones) generated from more than 20 PRRSV isolates of both genotypes 1 and 2 viruses have provided a great resource for exploring many innovative strategies to improve the safety and cross-protective efficacy of live PRRSV vaccines. Examples include vaccines with diminished ability to down-regulate the immune system, positive and negative marker vaccines, multivalent vaccines incorporating antigens from other porcine pathogens, vaccines that carry their own cytokine adjuvants, and chimeric vaccine viruses with the potential for broad cross-protection against heterologous strains. To combat this devastating pig disease in the future, evaluation and commercialization of such improved live PRRSV vaccines is a shared goal among PRRSV researchers, pork

  11. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    PubMed

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. PMID:25779823

  12. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

  13. Rapid and sensitive detection of Taura syndrome virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Jareonram, Wansadaj; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Flegel, T W

    2007-12-01

    Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay is a novel method of gene amplification that amplifies nucleic acid with high specificity, sensitivity and rapidity, which can be applied for disease diagnosis in shrimp aquaculture. The method is performed under isothermal conditions with a set of four specially designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences of the target. In this study, using the RT-LAMP method, a protocol for detecting Taura syndrome virus which is a causative agent of Penaeus vannamei was developed. Time and temperature conditions for detection of TSV were optimized for 60min at 63 degrees C. The nucleic acids of other shrimp pathogens (yellow head virus; YHV and white spot syndrome; WSSV) were not amplified by this RT-LAMP system. The detection of TSV using RT-LAMP was 10 times more sensitive than the RT-PCR but less sensitive than nested RT-PCR. However this system was more convenient, rapid, and does not require sophisticated PCR machine. PMID:17643501

  14. Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.

    PubMed

    Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. PMID:25402810

  15. Antibody levels for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and rubella in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, S P; Kiefer, D J; Friedman-Kien, A E; Poiesz, B

    1986-01-01

    Significantly higher proportions of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) were positive for antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) compared with control groups of commercial blood donors. In contrast, no differences were found in the incidence of individuals positive for antibodies to rubella in these groups of subjects. Of those positive for antibodies to CMV and HSV in each group, the mean antibody levels were significantly higher in AIDS-LAS patients compared with the controls. The entire distribution of antibody concentrations to CMV and HSV in AIDS patients was shifted upward, so that significantly more patients showed high values and significantly fewer showed low values, indicating hyperactive humoral immune responses to these viruses. In sharp contrast, the AIDS patients with antibody levels for rubella showed the same distribution of antibody levels as did two groups of controls. No correlation was found between concentrations of CMV and HSV antibodies in individual AIDS-LAS patients. PMID:3009534

  16. Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy L.

    2006-08-01

    The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. Native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His{sub 6} tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion against mother liquor containing 2 M sodium acetate, 100 mM MES pH 6.3, 25 mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7 d and diffracted to 2.2 Å; they belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98 Å and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labelled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3 Å.

  17. Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-04-01

    Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%). PMID:25555812

  18. Pathogenicity and molecular characterization of emerging porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Vietnam in 2007.

    PubMed

    Metwally, S; Mohamed, F; Faaberg, K; Burrage, T; Prarat, M; Moran, K; Bracht, A; Mayr, G; Berninger, M; Koster, L; To, T L; Nguyen, V L; Reising, M; Landgraf, J; Cox, L; Lubroth, J; Carrillo, C

    2010-10-01

    In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the 'porcine high fever disease' that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). Additionally, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus were cultured from lung and spleen, and Streptococcus suis from one spleen sample. Genetic characterization of the Vietnamese PRRSV isolates revealed that this virus belongs to the North American genotype (type 2) with a high nucleotide identity to the recently reported Chinese strains. Amino acid sequence in the nsp2 region revealed 95.7-99.4% identity to Chinese strain HUN4, 68-69% identity to strain VR-2332 and 58-59% identity to strain MN184. A partial deletion in the nsp2 gene was detected; however, this deletion did not appear to enhance the virus pathogenicity in the inoculated pigs. Animal inoculation studies were conducted to determine the pathogenicity of PRRSV and to identify other possible agents present in the original specimens. Pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone and their contacts showed persistent fever, and two of five pigs developed cough, neurological signs and swollen joints. Necropsy examination showed mild to moderate bronchopneumonia, enlarged lymph nodes, fibrinous pericarditis and polyarthritis. PRRSV was re-isolated from blood and tissues of the inoculated and contact pigs. Pigs inoculated with lung and spleen tissue homogenates from sick pigs from Vietnam developed high fever, septicaemia, and died acutely within 72 h, while their contact pigs showed no clinical signs throughout the experiment. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus was cultured, and PRRSV was re-isolated only from the inoculated pigs. Results suggest that the cause of the swine deaths in Vietnam is a multifactorial syndrome with PRRSV as a major factor. PMID

  19. N-Glycosylation Profiling of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Envelope Glycoprotein 5

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Tao, Shujuan; Orlando, Ron; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-sense ssRNA virus whose envelope contains four glycoproteins and three nonglycosylated proteins. Glycans of major envelope glycoprotein 5 (GP5) are proposed as important for virus assembly and entry into permissive cells. Structural characterization of GP5 glycans would facilitate the mechanistic understanding of these processes. Thus, we purified the PRRSV type 2 prototype strain, VR2332, and analyzed the virion-associated glycans by both biochemical and mass spectrometric methods. Endoglycosidase digestion showed that GP5 was the primary protein substrate, and that the carbohydrate moieties were primarily complex-type N-glycans. Mass spectrometric analysis (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) of GP5 N-glycans revealed an abundance of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) oligomers in addition to sialic acids. GlcNAc and LacNAc accessibility to ligands was confirmed by lectin co-precipitation. Our findings help to explain PRRSV infection of cells lacking sialoadhesin and provide a glycan database to facilitate molecular structural studies of PRRSV. PMID:25726973

  20. Immunological Features of the Non-Structural Proteins of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rascón-Castelo, Edgar; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Mateu, Enric; Hernández, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is currently one of the most important viruses affecting the swine industry worldwide. Despite the large number of papers published each year, the participation of non-structural proteins (nsps) in the immune response is not completely clear. nsps have been involved in the host innate immune response, specifically, nsp1α/β, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp11 have been associated with the immunomodulation capability of the virus. To date, only participation by nsp1, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp7 in the humoral immune response has been reported, with the role of other nsps being overlooked. Furthermore, nsp1, nsp2, nsp5, nsp7 nsp9, nsp10, nsp11 have been implicated in the induction of IFN-γ and probably in the development of the cell-mediated immune response. This review discusses recent reports involving the participation of nsps in the modulation of the innate immune response and their role in the induction of both the humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:25719944

  1. MYH9 is an Essential Factor for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiming; Xiao, Shuqi; Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Chong; Zhao, Qin; Nan, Yuchen; Huang, Baicheng; Liu, Hongliang; Liu, Ningning; Lv, Junhua; Du, Taofeng; Sun, Yani; Mu, Yang; Wang, Gang; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhang, Gaiping; Hiscox, Julian A; Goodfellow, Ian; Zhou, En-Min

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an important swine disease worldwide. PRRSV has a limited tropism for certain cells, which may at least in part be attributed to the expression of the necessary cellular molecules serving as the virus receptors or factors on host cells for virus binding or entry. However, these molecules conferring PRRSV infection have not been fully characterized. Here we show the identification of non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) as an essential factor for PRRSV infection using the anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the PRRSV glycoprotein GP5. MYH9 physically interacts with the PRRSV GP5 protein via its C-terminal domain and confers susceptibility of cells to PRRSV infection. These findings indicate that MYH9 is an essential factor for PRRSV infection and provide new insights into PRRSV-host interactions and viral entry, potentially facilitating development of control strategies for this important swine disease. PMID:27112594

  2. Pathogenicity comparison between highly pathogenic and NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhe; Wang, Juan; Bai, Xiaofei; Ji, Guobiao; Yan, He; Li, Yingying; Wang, Yuzhou; Tan, Feifei; Xiao, Yan; Li, Xiangdong; Tian, Kegong

    2016-08-01

    The pathogenicity of HNjz15, an NADC30-like strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), was investigated and compared to that of a highly pathogenic PRRSV JAX1 strain. Six-week-old pigs infected with each virus showed typical clinical symptoms, including high fever and respiratory disorders. Pigs infected with JXA1 had more-severe clinical manifestations than pigs infected with HNjz15. HNjz15 replicated in vivo with kinetics similar to those of JXA1 but induced a lower level of PRRSV-specific antibody at the beginning of virus infection. Histopathologically, JXA1 infection led to more-severe lung lesions and broader organ tropism than HNjz15 did. Different from what was observed with the previously reported NADC30-like PRRSV JL580 strain, all HNjz15-infected pigs survived until the end of the study. All of these results indicated that NADC30-like PRRSV HNjz15 is virulent to pigs but is less pathogenic than the JXA1 and JL580 PRRSV strains. PMID:27151278

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Bas; Bickley, Lisa K.; van Aerle, Ronny; Bateman, Kelly S.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Santos, Eduarda M.; Tyler, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD) has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host–pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host–pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment. PMID:26797629

  4. Crystal Structure of Major Envelope Protein VP24 from White Spot Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lifang; Su, Yintao; Zhao, Yanhe; Fu, Zheng-qing; Wu, Yunkun

    2016-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major and most serious pathogen in the shrimp industry. As one of the most abundant envelope protein, VP24 acts as a core protein interacting with other structure proteins and plays an important role in virus assembly and infection. Here, we have presented the crystal structure of VP24 from WSSV. In the structure, VP24 consists of a nine-stranded β–barrel fold with mostly antiparallel β-strands, and the loops extending out the β–barrel at both N-terminus and C-terminus, which is distinct to those of the other two major envelope proteins VP28 and VP26. Structural comparison of VP24 with VP26 and VP28 reveals opposite electrostatic surface potential properties of them. These structural differences could provide insight into their differential functional mechanisms and roles for virus assembly and infection. Moreover, the structure reveals a trimeric assembly, suggesting a likely natural conformation of VP24 in viral envelope. Therefore, in addition to confirming the evolutionary relationship among the three abundant envelope proteins of WSSV, our structural studies also facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying special roles of VP24 in WSSV assembly and infection. PMID:27572278

  5. Genetic diversity of the Korean field strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won

    2016-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically significant diseases in the swine industry. The PRRS virus (PRRSV) has genetically diverse populations, like other RNA viruses, and various field strains continue to be reported worldwide. The molecular epidemiological study of PRRSV can provide important data for use in controlling the disease. In this study, 50 oral fluid samples from conventional farms in Korea were taken to analyze nucleotide sequences of the open reading frame 5 of PRRSV. The viruses present in more than 80% of oral fluid samples genetically originated from the type 2 PRRSV, which is North American (NA) lineage. In addition 8.9% of samples contained both of the type 1 PRRSV, which is European (EU) lineage and the type 2 PRRSV. About 60% of farms involved in this study had more than two strains of PRRSV. In phylogenetic analysis, the Korean field strains of PRRSV detected from the oral fluid samples were divided into several subgroups: four subgroups of Korean field strains clustered with the type 1 PRRSV, and other five subgroups of Korean field strains clustered with the type 2. These results suggest that the type 2 PRRSV is more prevalent than the type 1 in Korea and heterologous strains of PRRSV can simultaneously infect a single pig farm. PMID:26546289

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp. PMID:23991181

  7. The origin and evolution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Kousuke; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Nakane, Takashi; Hirose, Osamu; Gojobori, Takashi

    2005-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) are divided into North American and European types, which show about 40% difference in their amino acid sequences. The divergence time of these two types has been estimated to be about 1980 from epidemiological data. This suggested that PRRSV have evolved at a higher evolutionary rate (order of 10(-2)/site/year) compared with other RNA viruses of 10(-3) to 10(-5)/site/year. Here, to test the evolutionary history of PRRSV speculated by the epidemiological background, we estimated the divergence time and evolutionary rate of PRRSV with molecular evolutionary analysis. Estimated divergence time (1972-1988) corresponded well to that estimated by the epidemiological data, and the evolutionary rate (4.71-9.8) x 10(-2) of PRRSV was indeed the highest among RNA viruses so far reported. Furthermore, we inferred important sites for the adaptation in order to examine how PRRSV have adapted to swine since they emerged. The adaptive sites were located not only in the epitopes related to immunity but also in the transmembrane regions including a signal peptide. In particular, the adaptive sites in the transmembrane regions were considered to affect compatibility to the host cell membrane. We conclude that PRRSV were transmitted from another host species to swine in about 1980 and have adapted to swine by altering the transmembrane regions. PMID:15659555

  8. Immune responses in piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Song, Tengfei; Yu, Ying; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wang, Shujie; Rong, Fulong; Dong, Jianguo; Liu, He; Cai, Xuehui; Zhou, En-Min

    2011-08-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection compromises the host's innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune responses of piglets infected with highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV (HuN4 strain) with or without the immunization with CH-1R attenuated PRRSV vaccine. The response was evaluated for the clinical signs, pathological changes and virus load in immune organs, antibody responses and levels of serum IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10. The result showed that in comparison with the piglets received the immunization, the piglets infected with HP-PRRSV alone had the thymus atrophy, decreased serum levels of IL-4 and increased serum levels of IL-10 and INF-γ. These results suggest that elevated IL-10 levels at the early stage of the infection may enhance virus survival and delay the induction of protective immunity, while increased levels of IL-4 induce the effective immune responses and increase the animals' health status. PMID:21612828

  9. Immunological responses of swine to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, Michael P; Xiao, Zhengguo; Zuckermann, Federico

    2002-01-01

    The immunology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS) begins with an initial encounter of PRRSV with the pig. Regardless of the route of entry of PRRSV--via inhalation, intramuscular vaccination, insemination, or other routes--productive infection occurs predominately in alveolar macrophages of the lung. Thus, innate responses of the lung and the alveolar macrophage comprise the initial defense against PRRSV. The virus appears not to elicit innate interferon and cytokine responses characteristic of other strongly immunogenic viral pathogens, and its effects are consistent with induction of a weak adaptive immune response. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity is induced in due course, and results in clearance of virus from the circulation but not from lymphoid tissues, where the infection becomes persistent. Subsequent reexposure to PRRSV elicits an anamnestic response that is partially to completely protective. Within this unconventional picture of anti-PRRSV immunity lie a variety of unresolved issues, including the nature of protective immunity within individual pigs and among pigs in commercial populations, the efficacy of protective immunity against genetically different PRRSV isolates, the effects of developmental age, sex, genetics, and other host factors on the immune response to PRRSV, and the possible suppression of host immunity to other pathogens. PMID:12513925

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Bas; Bickley, Lisa K; van Aerle, Ronny; Bateman, Kelly S; Stentiford, Grant D; Santos, Eduarda M; Tyler, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD) has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host-pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host-pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment. PMID:26797629

  11. Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks as Reservoir and Vector of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li-Mei; Zhao, Li; Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhang, Zhen-Tang; Liu, Jian-Wei; Fang, Li-Zhu; Xue, Zai-Feng; Ma, Dong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Ding, Shu-Jun; Lei, Xiao-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a newly discovered phlebovirus. The Haemaphysalis longicornis tick has been suspected to be the vector of SFTSV. To determine whether SFTSV can be transmitted among ticks, from ticks to animals, and from animals to ticks, we conducted transmission studies between developmental stages of H. longicornis ticks and between ticks and mice. Using reverse transcription PCR, we also analyzed the prevalence of SFTSV infection among H. longicornis ticks collected from vegetation in Shandong Province, China. Our results showed a low prevalence of SFTSV among collected ticks (0.2%, 8/3,300 ticks), and we showed that ticks fed on SFTSV-infected mice could acquire the virus and transstadially and transovarially transmit it to other developmental stages of ticks. Furthermore, SFTSV-infected ticks could transmit the virus to mice during feeding. Our findings indicate ticks could serve as a vector and reservoir of SFTSV. PMID:26402039

  12. The ever-expanding diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, Michael P; Stadejek, Tomasz; Abrahante, Juan E; Lam, Tommy T Y; Leung, Frederick C-C

    2010-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus appeared 20 years ago as the cause of a new disease in swine. Today PRRS is the most significant swine disease worldwide in spite of intensive immunological interventions. The virus showed remarkable genetic variation with two geographically distinct genotypes at the time of its discovery, indicating the possibility of prolonged evolutionary divergence prior to its appearance as a swine pathogen. Since then, both type 1 and type 2 have spread geographically, radiated genetically, and acquired new phenotypic characteristics, especially increased virulence. Here, we explore various hypotheses that might account for rapid expansion and diversification of PRRSV, including mechanisms specific to PRRSV and other arteriviruses, cellular modification processes, and immunological selection. Phylogenetic analysis of PRRSV has provided a broadly applicable means to relate diverse isolates, but it does not explain biological variation in virulence or immunological cross-protection. We present other methods of classification and review their limitations. Major questions about PRRSV remain unanswered despite intensive investigation, suggesting that the interaction of PRRSV with pigs involves novel biological processes that may be relevant to other RNA virus and host interactions. PMID:20801173

  13. MYH9 is an Essential Factor for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jiming; Xiao, Shuqi; Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Chong; Zhao, Qin; Nan, Yuchen; Huang, Baicheng; Liu, Hongliang; Liu, Ningning; Lv, Junhua; Du, Taofeng; Sun, Yani; Mu, Yang; Wang, Gang; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhang, Gaiping; Hiscox, Julian A.; Goodfellow, Ian; Zhou, En-Min

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an important swine disease worldwide. PRRSV has a limited tropism for certain cells, which may at least in part be attributed to the expression of the necessary cellular molecules serving as the virus receptors or factors on host cells for virus binding or entry. However, these molecules conferring PRRSV infection have not been fully characterized. Here we show the identification of non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) as an essential factor for PRRSV infection using the anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the PRRSV glycoprotein GP5. MYH9 physically interacts with the PRRSV GP5 protein via its C-terminal domain and confers susceptibility of cells to PRRSV infection. These findings indicate that MYH9 is an essential factor for PRRSV infection and provide new insights into PRRSV-host interactions and viral entry, potentially facilitating development of control strategies for this important swine disease. PMID:27112594

  14. Structure of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Doan, Danny N P; Dokland, Terje

    2003-11-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped RNA virus of the Arteriviridae family, genomically related to the coronaviruses. PRRSV is the causative agent of both severe and persistent respiratory disease and reproductive failure in pigs worldwide. The PRRSV virion contains a core made of the 123 amino acid nucleocapsid (N) protein, a product of the ORF7 gene. We have determined the crystal structure of the capsid-forming domain of N. The structure was solved to 2.6 A resolution by SAD methods using the anomalous signal from sulfur. The N protein exists in the crystal as a tight dimer forming a four-stranded beta sheet floor superposed by two long alpha helices and flanked by two N- and two C-terminal alpha helices. The structure of N represents a new class of viral capsid-forming domains, distinctly different from those of other known enveloped viruses, but reminiscent of the coat protein of bacteriophage MS2. PMID:14604534

  15. Application of GP5 protein to develop monoclonal antibody against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong; Cheng, Yan; Wu, Jin-yang; He, Jian-hui; Shang, You-jun; Liu, Xiang-tao

    2011-08-01

    In this study, a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(PRRSV), named as 8C9 and4B4, were produced by fusing SP2/0 myeloma cells and spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with the PRRSV (TCID(50)=5.5), screened by the indirect ELISA and subjected to several limiting dilutions. mAbs were then identified by biological characterization. Among the two fusion cell strains, 8C9 belonged to the IgG1 subclass and 4B4 belonged to the IgG2a subclass. The titers in cell culture supernatant and abdomen liquor reached to 1:10(4)and 1:10(5), respectively. The specificity test indicated that the two cells had specific reactions for the PRRSV and GP5 protein respectively, and no reaction with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) or Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). The molecular weights of the heavy chain and light chain were about 45.0 kDa and 25.0 kDa, respectively. In neutralization activity tests, the results showed that the prepared mAb 4B4 can protect 50% of cells with no CPE in dilution up to 1:512, but mAB 8C9 has no neutralization activities to PRRSV. PMID:21847758

  16. A Bayesian phylogeographical analysis of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V G; Kim, H K; Moon, H J; Park, S J; Chung, H C; Choi, M K; Park, B K

    2014-12-01

    Understanding viral transmission is an important factor for the effective prevention one of the most devastating swine diseases, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. Focusing on molecular epidemiology of type 1 PRRSV, this study analysed a large ORF5 dataset collected worldwide from 1991 to 2012 using a coalescent-based Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. The results suggested that the virus diversified into unique subpopulations in Russia & Belarus and Italy approximately 100 years ago. Previously unreported consecutive diffusions of the virus were identified, which showed that some countries, such as Spain and Germany, acted as distribution sources to some extent. This study also provided statistical evidence for the existence of an ORF5-based phylogeographical structure of type 1 PRRSV, in which the virus tended to cluster by geographical locations more tightly than expected by chance. In contrast to this tight geographical structure, the evolution of the ORF5 gene, based on mapping of non-synonymous/synonymous substitutions, was best described by a non-homogeneous process that could be implicated as a mechanism for viral immune evasion. PMID:23336975

  17. Herpes simplex virus type 1 colitis in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dray, Xavier; Treton, Xavier; Mazeron, Marie-Christine; Lavergne-Slove, Anne; Joly, Francisca; Mimram, Dora; Attar, Alain; Tobelem, Gérard; Bouhnik, Yoram

    2006-05-01

    We report on a case of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 colitis in a 69-year-old patient with common variable immunodeficiency syndrome. A treatment with polyvalent immunoglobulins was discontinued in April 2001. In March 2004 she developed chronic diarrhoea related to rectosigmoidal and caecal ulcerations. In November 2004, HSV was recovered in tissue culture from colonic biopsies. Valaciclovir was then started, leading the patient to clinical remission at day 4, and continued for a 6-week course (without any secondary antiviral prophylaxis). Colonic biopsies were negative for HSV by tissue culture and PCR within 3 weeks of antiviral treatment. Intravenous polyvalent immunoglobulin infusions were readministered within the third week of antiviral treatment. She has declared no clinical event since this period. Three months after the antiviral treatment was achieved, a rectosigmoidoscopy showed an ad-integrum macroscopic and histological mucosal healing whereas PCR was negative for HSV in the colonic tissue. As a large proportion of patients with common variable immunodeficiency syndrome present not only as a humoral immunodeficiency but also as a defect in the cellular immunity compartment (with T-cell deficits), HSV, as well as cytomegalovirus, should be investigated in patients with common variable immunodeficiency syndrome presenting colitis. PMID:16607152

  18. Molecular Diagnosis of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Puumala Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lagerqvist, Nina; Hagström, Åsa; Lundahl, Malin; Nilsson, Elin; Juremalm, Mikael; Larsson, Inger; Alm, Erik; Bucht, Göran; Ahlm, Clas

    2016-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two severe acute diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS; also called hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome [HCPS]) in the Americas. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most common causative agent of HFRS in Europe. Current routine diagnostic methods are based on serological analyses and can yield inconclusive results. Hantavirus-infected patients are viremic during the early phase of disease; therefore, detection of viral RNA genomes can be a valuable complement to existing serological methods. However, the high genomic sequence diversity of PUUV has hampered the development of molecular diagnostics, and currently no real-time reverse transcription-quantitative (RT)-PCR assay is available for routine diagnosis of HFRS. Here, we present a novel PUUV RT-PCR assay. The assay was validated for routine diagnosis of HFRS on samples collected in Sweden during the winter season from 2013 to 2014. The assay allowed detection of PUUV RNA in 98.7% of confirmed clinical HFRS samples collected within 8 days after symptomatic onset. In summary, this study shows that real-time RT-PCR can be a reliable alternative to serological tests during the early phase of HFRS. PMID:26962084

  19. Molecular Diagnosis of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Puumala Virus.

    PubMed

    Lagerqvist, Nina; Hagström, Åsa; Lundahl, Malin; Nilsson, Elin; Juremalm, Mikael; Larsson, Inger; Alm, Erik; Bucht, Göran; Ahlm, Clas; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-05-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two severe acute diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS; also called hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome [HCPS]) in the Americas. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most common causative agent of HFRS in Europe. Current routine diagnostic methods are based on serological analyses and can yield inconclusive results. Hantavirus-infected patients are viremic during the early phase of disease; therefore, detection of viral RNA genomes can be a valuable complement to existing serological methods. However, the high genomic sequence diversity of PUUV has hampered the development of molecular diagnostics, and currently no real-time reverse transcription-quantitative (RT)-PCR assay is available for routine diagnosis of HFRS. Here, we present a novel PUUV RT-PCR assay. The assay was validated for routine diagnosis of HFRS on samples collected in Sweden during the winter season from 2013 to 2014. The assay allowed detection of PUUV RNA in 98.7% of confirmed clinical HFRS samples collected within 8 days after symptomatic onset. In summary, this study shows that real-time RT-PCR can be a reliable alternative to serological tests during the early phase of HFRS. PMID:26962084

  20. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  1. Differential immunity in pigs with high and low responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred Hampshire by Duroc crossbred pigs (HD) and 100 NE Index line pigs (I) were infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and evaluated for resistance/susceptibility. Controls (100/line) were uninfected littermates to infected pigs. Viremia (V), weight change (...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Highly Virulent Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Variants That Recently Emerged in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Timothy P. L.; Osorio, Fernando A.

    2016-01-01

    A recent outbreak of particularly virulent disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus has occurred in swine herds across the United States. We report here the complete genome sequence of eight viral isolates from four Nebraska herds experiencing an outbreak of severe disease in 2016. PMID:27491998

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of an NADC30-Like Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Characterized by Recombination with Other Strains.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingying; Ji, Guobiao; Wang, Juan; Tan, Feifei; Zhuang, Jinshan; Li, Xiangdong; Tian, Kegong

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of an NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), HNyc15, which was characterized by recombination with VR-2332 and CH-1a PRRSV strains in open reading frames (ORFs) 2 to 4. PMID:27151798

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of an NADC30-Like Strain of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Guobiao; Li, Yingying; Tan, Feifei; Zhuang, Jinshan; Li, Xiangdong; Tian, Kegong

    2016-01-01

    The most recently emergent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in China are characterized by 393 nucleotide deletions in the nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) region and are known as NADC30-like strains. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the NADC30-like HNjz15 strain that was isolated in 2015. PMID:27103728

  5. The Effects of a Kansas Education Class on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, R. Warren, Jr.

    This study was undertaken to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of 8th, 9th, and 10th grade Kansas students pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Attitudes and knowledge of 9th and 10th grade students who had participated in a Sex Respect Class offered in the 9th grade were compared…

  6. What High School Students Who Are Mildly Mentally Retarded Know about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Hazel B.; Horn, Charles J., Jr.

    Alabama high school students (N=309) with mild mental retardation completed a questionnaire concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and sources of information about human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Students demonstrated some basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and expressed some concern about getting AIDS. They…

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Highly Virulent Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Variants That Recently Emerged in the United States.

    PubMed

    Workman, Aspen M; Smith, Timothy P L; Osorio, Fernando A; Vu, Hiep L X

    2016-01-01

    A recent outbreak of particularly virulent disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus has occurred in swine herds across the United States. We report here the complete genome sequence of eight viral isolates from four Nebraska herds experiencing an outbreak of severe disease in 2016. PMID:27491998

  8. In Depth Global Analysis of Transcript Abundance Levels Following Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Infection of the primary target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not under...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of an NADC30-Like Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Characterized by Recombination with Other Strains

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingying; Ji, Guobiao; Wang, Juan; Tan, Feifei; Zhuang, Jinshan

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of an NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), HNyc15, which was characterized by recombination with VR-2332 and CH-1a PRRSV strains in open reading frames (ORFs) 2 to 4. PMID:27151798

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of an NADC30-Like Strain of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guobiao; Li, Yingying; Tan, Feifei; Zhuang, Jinshan

    2016-01-01

    The most recently emergent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in China are characterized by 393 nucleotide deletions in the nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) region and are known as NADC30-like strains. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the NADC30-like HNjz15 strain that was isolated in 2015. PMID:27103728

  11. Clinical and pathological responses of pigs from two genetically diverse commercial lines to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response to infection from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) for two genetically diverse commercial pig lines was investigated. Seventy two pigs from each line, aged 6 weeks, were challenged with PRRSV VR-2385, and 66 littermates served as control. The clinical response...

  12. Pathogenicity of three type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The present study, a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSv strains in a reproductive model, was used as a pilot study...

  13. The vOTU domain of highly-pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus displays a differential substrate preference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arterivirus genus member Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes an economically devastating disease that presents global concerns to the pork industry, which have been exacerbated by the emergence of a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (HP-PRRSV) in China and Southeast Asia....

  14. The SI Strain of Measles Virus Derived from a Patient with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Possesses Typical Genome Alterations and Unique Amino Acid Changes That Modulate Receptor Specificity and Reduce Membrane Fusion Activity ▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Fumio; Yamada, Kentaro; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Okamura, Koji; Yanagi, Yusuke; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal sequela associated with measles and is caused by persistent infection of the brain with measles virus (MV). The SI strain was isolated in 1976 from a patient with SSPE and shows neurovirulence in animals. Genome nucleotide sequence analyses showed that the SI strain genome possesses typical genome alterations for SSPE-derived strains, namely, accumulated amino acid substitutions in the M protein and cytoplasmic tail truncation of the F protein. Through the establishment of an efficient reverse genetics system, a recombinant SI strain expressing a green fluorescent protein (rSI-AcGFP) was generated. The infection of various cell types with rSI-AcGFP was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. rSI-AcGFP exhibited limited syncytium-forming activity and spread poorly in cells. Analyses using a recombinant MV possessing a chimeric genome between those of the SI strain and a wild-type MV strain indicated that the membrane-associated protein genes (M, F, and H) were responsible for the altered growth phenotype of the SI strain. Functional analyses of viral glycoproteins showed that the F protein of the SI strain exhibited reduced fusion activity because of an E300G substitution and that the H protein of the SI strain used CD46 efficiently but used the original MV receptors on immune and epithelial cells poorly because of L482F, S546G, and F555L substitutions. The data obtained in the present study provide a new platform for analyses of SSPE-derived strains as well as a clear example of an SSPE-derived strain that exhibits altered receptor specificity and limited fusion activity. PMID:21917959

  15. The nonstructural protein 11 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus inhibits NF-κB signaling by means of its deubiquitinating activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dang; Fan, Jinxiu; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ouyang, Haiping; Ouyang, Chao; Zhang, Huan; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Kui; Xiao, Shaobo

    2015-12-01

    Since its emergence in the late 1980s, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been devastating the swine industry worldwide. The causative agent is an Arterivirus, referred to as PRRS virus (PRRSV). The pathogenic mechanisms of PRRS are poorly understood, but are believed to correlate with the ability of PRRSV to inhibit immune responses of the host. However, precisely how the virus is capable of doing so remains obscure. In this study, we showed that PRRSV infection led to reduced ubiquitination of cellular proteins. Screening all of the 12 nonstructural proteins (Nsps) encoded by PRRSV revealed that, apart from the Nsp2 which contains the deubiqintinating (DUB) ovarian tumor (OTU) domain, Nsp11, which encodes a unique and conserved endoribonuclease (NendoU) throughout the Nidovirus order, also possesses DUB activity. In vivo assay demonstrated that Nsp11 specifically removed lysine 48 (K48)-linked polyubiquitin chains and the conserved sites C112, H144, D173, K180, and Y219 were critical for its DUB activity. Remarkably, DUB activity was responsible for the capacity of Nsp11 to inhibit nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Mutations abrogating the DUB activity of Nsp11 toward K48-linked polyubiquitin chains of IκBα nullified the suppressive effect on NF-κB. Our data add Nsp11 to the list of DUBs encoded by PRRSV and uncover a novel mechanism by which PRRSV cripples host innate immune responses. PMID:26342881

  16. The localization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein to the nucleolus of infected cells and identification of a potential nucleolar localization signal sequence.

    PubMed

    Rowland, R R; Kervin, R; Kuckleburg, C; Sperlich, A; Benfield, D A

    1999-10-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) possesses two regions in the N-terminal half of the protein that are enriched in basic amino acids. Presumably, these basic regions are important for packaging the RNA genome within the nucleocapsid of the virus. The PSORT computer program identified the same regions as nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence motifs. N protein localization to the nucleus of infected MARC-145 and porcine pulmonary macrophages was observed following staining with SDOW-17 and SR-30 anti-N monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, the co-localization of SR-30 antibody with human ANA-N autoimmune serum identified the nucleolus as the primary site for N protein localization within the nucleus. The localization of the N protein in the absence of infection was studied by following fluorescence in MARC-145 cells transfected with a plasmid, which expressed the nucleocapsid protein fused to an enhanced green fluorescent protein (N-EGFP). Similar to infected cells, N-EGFP localized to the cytoplasm and the nucleolus. Results following the transfection of cells with pEGFP fused to truncated portions of the N gene identified a region containing the second basic stretch of amino acids as the nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) sequence. Another outcome following transfection was the rapid disappearance of cells that expressed high levels of N-EGFP. However, cell death did not correlate with localization of N-EGFP to the nucleolus. PMID:10500278

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in Jiangsu Province, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuyi; Bao, Changjun; Zhou, Minghao; Hu, Jianli; Tang, Fenyang; Guo, Xiling; Jiao, Yongjun; Zhang, Wenshuai; Luo, Peilin; Li, Luxun; Zhu, Kuanyuan; Tan, Wenwen; Lu, Qimei; Ge, Hengming; Chen, Abao

    2014-02-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), which is caused by a novel bunyavirus, is an emerging infectious disease in China. In 2011, this new virus was designated as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of SFTSV infection. The investigation was conducted among the general population in Jiangsu Province, China in 2011. A total of 2,510 serum samples were collected. Testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of SFTSV infection. Result showed that the overall seroprevalence of SFTSV infection was 0.44% (11 of 2,510) in seven counties in Jiangsu Province. Multiple variable logistic regression analysis showed that raising goats, farming, and grazing were risk factors for SFTSV infection. Raising goats, farming, and grazing might be important risk factors for virus exposure, and appropriate health education could be useful in preventing infections. PMID:24343883

  18. White spot syndrome virus enters crayfish hematopoietic tissue cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiajun; Li, Fang; Wu, Junjun; Yang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen of aquacultured shrimp. However, the mechanism of its entry remains poorly understood. In this study, by analyzing the internalization of WSSV using crayfish hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cells, we showed that WSSV virions were engulfed by cell membrane invaginations sharing the features of clathrin-coated pits and then internalized into coated cytoplasmic vesicles. Further investigation indicated that WSSV internalization was significantly inhibited by chlorpromazine (CPZ) but not genistein. The internalized virions were colocalized with endogenous clathrin as well as transferrin which undergoes clathrin-dependent uptake. Preventing endosome acidification by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) or chloroquine (CQ) dramatically reduced WSSV entry as well. Moreover, disturbance of dynamin activity or depletion of membrane cholesterol also blocked WSSV uptake. These data indicate that WSSV enters crayfish HPT cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a pH-dependent manner, and membrane cholesterol as well as dynamin is critical for efficient viral entry. PMID:26397221

  19. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Lucas Masiêro; Ferreira, Maria Lucia Brito; Nascimento, Osvaldo Jm

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is now considered an emerging flavivirosis, with a first large outbreak registered in the Yap Islands in 2007. In 2013, a new outbreak was reported in the French Polynesia, with associated cases of neurological complications including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The incidence of GBS has increased in Brazil since 2015, what is speculated to be secondary to the ZIKV infection outbreak. The gold-standard test for detection of acute ZIKV infection is the polymerase-chain reaction technique, an essay largely unavailable in Brazil. The diagnosis of GBS is feasible even in resource-limited areas using the criteria proposed by the GBS Classification Group, which is based solely on clinical grounds. Further understanding on the relationship of ZIKV with neurological complications is a research urgency. PMID:27050856

  20. Neutralizing Antibodies and Sin Nombre Virus RNA after Recovery from Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chunyan; Prescott, Joseph; Nofchissey, Robert; Goade, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Patients who later have a mild course of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are more likely to exhibit a high titer of neutralizing antibodies against Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of HCPS, at the time of hospital admission. Because administering plasma from patients who have recovered from HCPS to those in the early stages of disease may be an advantageous form of passive immunotherapy, we examined the neutralizing antibody titers of 21 patients who had recovered from SNV infection. Even 1,000 days after admission to the hospital, 6 of 10 patients had titers of 800 or higher, with one sample retaining a titer of 3,200 after more than 1,400 days. None of the convalescent-phase serum samples contained detectable viral RNA. These results confirm that patients retain high titers of neutralizing antibodies long after recovery from SNV infection. PMID:15109416

  1. White spot syndrome virus strains of different virulence induce distinct immune response in Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meiling; Li, Fang; Xu, Limei; Zhu, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we identified three white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains (WSSV-CN01, WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03) with significant differences in virulence. Among them, WSSV-CN01 caused significant higher and earlier mortality in redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, thus was determined as high-virulent, while WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03 were moderate-virulent and low-virulent. By investigating the total number of the circulating haemocytes and the activity of immune relative enzymes, we demonstrated that the different virulent WSSV strains induced distinct immune response in the host. Notably, a dramatic reduction of circulating haemocytes was observed in the crayfish infected with WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 but not WSSV-CN03. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 might be responsible for the decrease of circulating haemocytes. PMID:24795080

  2. Seroprevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in southeastern China and analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, J M; Zhang, Y J; Gong, Z Y; Zhang, L; Lv, H K; Lin, J F; Chai, C L; Ling, F; Liu, S L; Gu, S P; Zhu, Z H; Zheng, X H; Lan, Y Q; Ding, F; Huang, W Z; Xu, J R; Chen, E F; Jiang, J M

    2015-03-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV. PMID:24866248

  3. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus envelope (E) protein interacts with mitochondrial proteins and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pujhari, Sujit; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N

    2016-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. The PRRSV E protein, encoded by ORF 2b, is one of the non-glycosylated minor structural proteins. In this study, we present evidence for the interaction of the E protein with mitochondrial proteins ATP5A (part of ATP synthase complex), prohibitin, and ADP/ATP translocase. We additionally demonstrate partial mitochondrial localization of the E protein in transfected cells. To functionally investigate these interactions, we infected MARC-145 cells with PRRSV or alphavirus replicon particles (VRPs) expressing PRRSV E protein. In infected cells, production of ATP was significantly reduced. The E protein also induced apoptosis by activating caspase-3, which results in PARP cleavage. Taken together, these data suggest that the PRRSV E protein interacts with mitochondrial proteins and induces apoptosis by inhibiting ATP production. PMID:27068165

  4. Characterization of white spot syndrome virus VP52B and its interaction with VP26.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fanyu; Jie, Zuliang; Hou, Luhong; Li, Fang; Yang, Feng

    2015-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens of cultured shrimp. Identification of envelope protein interactions has become a central issue for the understanding of WSSV assembly. In this paper, WSSV envelope protein VP52B was fused with GST-tag and expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3). Immunogold-electron microscopy revealed that VP52B was located on the outside surface of WSSV virions. Far-Western blotting analysis suggested that VP52B might directly interact with a major viral envelope protein VP26, and their interaction was confirmed by GST pull-down assay. Further investigation showed that the VP52B binding domain was located between residues 135-170 of VP26. These findings will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of WSSV morphogenesis. PMID:25331340

  5. Serological evidence of type 2 (North American genotype) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Barun Kumar; Manandhar, Salina; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread throughout Asia, causing significant losses to commercial farmers and smallholders. However, little is known about PRRS in Nepal, a South Asian country with a gradually increasing pig industry. In 2011, a pilot project was initiated to identify the status of PRRSV in pigs of the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Out of 98 serum samples, 31 (32 %; 95 % CI 23-42 %) were found positive by ELISA. All positive samples belonged to the type 2 (North American) genotype. Molecular evaluation by real-time PCR however did not yield positive results. At the herd level, seropositivity was associated with a history of abortion and premature birth. Veterinarians, farmers and government should be aware of this threat to the Nepalese pig industry and initiate an appropriate response. PMID:26712360

  6. Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,Y.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

    2006-01-01

    The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His{sub 6} tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapor diffusion against mother liquor containing 2 M sodium acetate, 100 mM MES pH 6.3, 25 mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7 d and diffracted to 2.2 Angstroms; they belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98 Angstroms and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labeled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3 Angstroms.

  7. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Li Li; Lin Shumei; Yanga Feng . E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-07-05

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa.

  8. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Germacrone Against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiaping; Bai, Xiaolei; Cui, Tiantian; Zhou, Han; Chen, Yao; Xie, Jiexiong; Shi, Qingwei; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Guihong

    2016-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most serious diseases affecting the swine industry worldwide; however, there is no efficient control strategies against PRRSV at present. Therefore, development of new antiviral treatment strategies is urgently needed. As reported, germacrone can efficiently impair influenza virus replication. In this study, we exploited whether germacrone has the potential to inhibit PRRSV infection. Our results showed that the germacrone significantly inhibited replication of PRRSV in vitro and repressed the synthesis of viral RNA and protein. However, it did not block PRRSV binding and entry. Further studies confirmed that germacrone impaired PRRSV replication at an early stage, and inhibited infection of both classic and highly pathogenic type II PRRSV strains. Collectively, our findings imply that the germacrone has the potential to be used as an anti-PRRSV drug. PMID:27178541

  9. Hemophagocytic syndrome following an Epstein-Barr virus infection: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Eakle, J F; Bressoud, P F

    2000-04-01

    Hemophagocytosis is an uncommon disorder characterized by proliferation of histiocytes that actively engulf other hematopoietic cells causing cytopenia. Reactive or secondary hemophagocytosis is very rare in healthy adults in the US. Various infectious, as well as neoplastic and immunologic etiologies of reactive hemophagocytosis have been reported. It is a non-malignant, reactive disorder characterized by hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow and reticuloendothelial system (RES) resulting in pancytopenia, fever, hepatic dysfunction, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). No consensus exists in the literature regarding optimal treatment of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS). We report a case of VAHS in a previously healthy immunocompetent male and review the diagnosis and management of this rare disorder. PMID:10816985

  10. Genetic diversity and multiple introductions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tun, Hein M; Shi, Mang; Wong, Charles L Y; Ayudhya, Suparlark N N; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Thanawonguwech, Roongroje; Leung, Frederick C C

    2011-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is prevalent in Thailand, causing a huge impact on the country's swine industry. Yet the diversity and origin of these Thai PRRSVs remained vague. In this context, we collected all the Thai PRRSV sequences described earlier and incorporated them into the global diversity. The results indicated that PRRSVs in Thailand were originated from multiple introductions involving both Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSVs. Many of the introductions were followed by extensive geographic expansion, causing regional co-circulation of diverse PRRSV variants in three major pig-producing provinces. Based on these results, we suggest (1) to avoid blind vaccination and to apply vaccines tailor-made for target diversity, (2) to monitor pig importation and transportation, and (3) to implement a better biosecurity to reduce horizontal transmissions as three potentially effective strategies of controlling PRRS in Thailand. PMID:21486451

  11. Blue crabs Callinectes sapidus as potential biological reservoirs for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Powell, James W B; Browdy, Craig L; Burge, Erin J

    2015-03-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen of cultured shrimp and was first detected in farms in South Carolina (USA) in 1997 and subsequently in wild shrimp in 1999. We screened groups of 1808 wild Atlantic white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and 300 blue crabs Callinectes sapidus collected from South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida for the presence of WSSV using the Shrimple® immunoassay-strip test, with all positives and random subsets of negatives tested by TaqMan real-time PCR and in infectivity bioassays. Of 87 shrimp and 11 crabs that tested positive using the Shrimple® test, only a single C. sapidus was confirmed to be infected with WSSV by PCR and the infectivity bioassay. The data indicate that the prevalence of WSSV in these species is low in these southeastern US regions, but that C. sapidus may serve as a biological reservoir. PMID:25751859

  12. Replication-competent recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) viruses expressing indicator proteins and antiviral cytokines.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yongming; Shi, Jishu; Sang, Wenjing; Rowland, Raymond R R; Blecha, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In contrast, replication of IFN-expressing viruses was attenuated, similar to the level of replication observed after the addition of exogenous IFN. Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. Inhibition by the different IFN subtypes corresponded to their anti-PRRSV activity, i.e., IFNω5 ° IFNα1 > IFN-β > IFNδ3. In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high‑throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. This was shown when they were used to clearly demonstrate the involvement of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in the early stage of PRRSV infection. In addition, replication‑competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and may induce more

  13. Expression, purification and crystallization of two major envelope proteins from white spot syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xuhua; Hew, Choy Leong

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization of the N-terminal transmembrane region-truncated VP26 and VP28 of white spot syndrome virus is described. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 Å resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 Å. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 Å, and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution.

  14. [Macrophage activation syndrome in primary human herpes virus-6 infection: a rare condition after liver transplantation in infants].

    PubMed

    Lecointe, D; Fabre, M; Habes, D; Mielot, F; Bernard, O; Nordmann, P

    2000-12-01

    Human herpes virus-6 primary infection generally occurs during the first three years of childhood and is generally asymptomatic. The virus has been identified as the causal agent of exanthemum subitum in children or mononucleosis-like disease in adults, and may also cause several disorders in immunocompromised patients. We report a clinical case of acute rejection observed 29 days after orthotopic liver transplantation in a 22-month-old child associated with acute hepatitis and a hemophagocytic syndrome on day 38. Human herpes virus-6 primary infection was identified based on several virological tests: seroconversion, detection of viral DNA in bone marrow and peripheral blood after polymerase chain reaction, and detection of viral replication in peripheral blood. Tests for Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus or Parvovirus B19 infections were negative. After treatment by ganciclovir (Cymévan(R)), clinical status improved. PMID:11173737

  15. MiR-22 promotes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication by targeting the host factor HO-1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuqi; Du, Taofeng; Wang, Xue; Ni, Huaibao; Yan, Yunhuan; Li, Na; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Angke; Gao, Jiming; Liu, Hongliang; Pu, Fengxing; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min

    2016-08-30

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important viruses affecting the swine industry worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in virus-host interactions by regulating the expression of viral or host gene at posttranscriptional level. Our previous research showed that PRRSV infection down-regulates the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a pivotal cytoprotective enzyme, and overexpression of HO-1 inhibits PRRSV replication. In this study, we demonstrate that host miRNA miR-22 can downregulate HO-1 expression by directly targeting its 3' untranslated region. Suppression of HO-1 expression by miR-22 facilitates PRRSV replication. This work suggests that PRRSV may utilize cellular miRNA to modify antiviral host factor expression, enabling viral replication, which not only provides new insights into virus-host interactions during PRRSV infection, but also suggests potential therapies for PRRSV infection. PMID:27527787

  16. Pathogenicity and genetic characteristics associated with cell adaptation of a virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 DEL strain CA-2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Chul; Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Gun-Seok; Shin, Jae-Ho; Yoon, In-Joong; Kang, Shien-Young; Lee, Changhee

    2016-04-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most common and world-widespread viral pathogen of swine. We previously reported genomic sequences and pathogenicity of type 2 Korean PRRSV strains belonging to the virulent lineage 1 family, which contain remarkable amino acid deletions in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2 DEL) compared to VR-2332. Here, a virulent type 2 Korean PRRSV nsp2 DEL strain, CA-2, was serially propagated in MARC-145 cells for up to 100 passages (CA-2-P100). As the passage number increased, the phenotypic characteristics of cell-adapted CA-2 strains were altered, in terms of higher viral titers and larger plaque sizes compared to the parental virus. Pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, including TNF-α, IL-8, MCP-1, and MCP-2, were found to be significantly down-regulated in PAM cells with the CA-2-P100 strain compared to its parental nsp2 DEL virus. Animal inoculation studies demonstrated that the virulence of CA-2-P100 was reduced significantly, with showing normal weight gain, body temperatures, and lung lesions comparable to the control group. Furthermore, high-passage CA-2-P100 showed declined and transient viremia kinetics, as well as delayed and low PRRSV-specific antibody responses in infected pigs. In addition, we determined whole genome sequences of low to high-passage derivatives of CA-2. The nsp2 DEL pattern was conserved for 100 passages, whereas no other deletions or insertions arose during the cell adaptation process. However, CA-2-P100 possessed 54 random nucleotide substitutions that resulted in 27 amino acid changes distributed throughout the genome, suggesting that these genetic drifts provide a possible molecular basis correlated with the cell-adapted features in vitro and the attenuated phenotype in vivo. Taken together, our data indicate that the cell-attenuated CA-2-P100 strain is a promising candidate for developing a safe and effective live PRRSV vaccine. PMID:27016772

  17. Schizophrenia or possession?

    PubMed

    Irmak, M Kemal

    2014-06-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a life-long condition characterized by acute symptom exacerbations and widely varying degrees of functional disability. Some of its symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, produce great subjective psychological pain. The most common delusion types are as follows: "My feelings and movements are controlled by others in a certain way" and "They put thoughts in my head that are not mine." Hallucinatory experiences are generally voices talking to the patient or among themselves. Hallucinations are a cardinal positive symptom of schizophrenia which deserves careful study in the hope it will give information about the pathophysiology of the disorder. We thought that many so-called hallucinations in schizophrenia are really illusions related to a real environmental stimulus. One approach to this hallucination problem is to consider the possibility of a demonic world. Demons are unseen creatures that are believed to exist in all major religions and have the power to possess humans and control their body. Demonic possession can manifest with a range of bizarre behaviors which could be interpreted as a number of different psychotic disorders with delusions and hallucinations. The hallucination in schizophrenia may therefore be an illusion-a false interpretation of a real sensory image formed by demons. A local faith healer in our region helps the patients with schizophrenia. His method of treatment seems to be successful because his patients become symptom free after 3 months. Therefore, it would be useful for medical professions to work together with faith healers to define better treatment pathways for schizophrenia. PMID:23269538

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Using drug from mathematical perceptive

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Amar Nath; Saha, Shubhankar; Roy, Priti Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Entry of acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus into the host immune cell involves the participation of various components of host and viral cell unit. These components may be categorized as attachment of the viral surface envelope protein subunit, gp120, to the CD4+ receptor and chemokine coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, present on T cell surface. The viral fusion protein, gp41, the second cleaved subunit of Env undergoes reconfiguration and the membrane fusion reaction itself. Since the CD4+ T cell population is actively involved; the ultimate outcome of human immunodeficiency virus infection is total collapse of the host immune system. Mathematical modeling of the stages in viral membrane protein-host cell receptor-coreceptor interaction and the effect of antibody vaccine on the viral entry into the susceptible host cell has been carried out using as impulsive differential equations. We have studied the effect of antibody vaccination and determined analytically the threshold value of drug dosage and dosing interval for optimum levels of infection. We have also investigated the effect of perfect adherence of drug dose on the immune cell count in extreme cases and observed that systematic drug dosage of the immune cells leads to longer and improved lives. PMID:26568917

  19. Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against Taura syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Côté, I; Poulos, B T; Redman, R M; Lightner, D V

    2009-12-01

    We produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from the fusion of Taura syndrome virus variants from Belize (TSV-BZ) immunized BALB/cJ mouse spleen cells and non-immunoglobulin secreting SP2/0 mouse myeloma cells. One antibody, 2C4, showed strong specificity and sensitivity for TSV in dot-blot immunoassay and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. The MAb reacted against native TSV-BZ, TSV variants from Sinaloa, Mexico (TSV-SI) and TSV variants from Hawaii (TSV-HI) in dot-blot immunoassay. By IHC, the antibody identified the virus in a pattern similar to the digoxigenin-labelled TSV-cDNA probe for the TSV-BZ, TSV-HI and TSV-SI variants, but not for the TSV variants from Venezuela (TSV-VE) and the TSV variants from Thailand (TSV-TH). MAb 2C4 did not react against other shrimp pathogens or with normal shrimp tissue. Western blot analysis showed a strong reaction against CP2, a region of high antigenic variability amongst TSV variants. This antibody has potential diagnostic application in detection and differentiation of certain TSV biotypes. PMID:19602090

  20. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in the boar: a review.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Cinta; Castro, José M

    2005-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by PRRS virus, which, like other members of the Arterividae family, has the ability to infect macrophages and to persist in tissues for at least several months after the acute stage of infection subsides. As a consequence, PRRS has a complex epidemiologic profile and has been especially difficult to control under the usual conditions of commercial swine production. Although vaccines are commonly used, vaccination is only one of several approaches to be considered in designing a control strategy. At least equally important are procedures developed on the basis of a thorough understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. The objective of this review is to summarize current knowledge in relation to PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection in the boar. The information available related to this topic will be summarized and discussed, and the implications for the control of the condition highlighted. The main emphasis will be on questions about the pathogenesis of infection, including duration of viremia and the origin of PRRSV found in semen; the clinical signs associated with the disease, paying special attention to the effects on seminal quality; the epidemiology of the condition, with special emphasis on the duration of PRRSV shedding in semen and the implications that this may have on venereal transmission, as well as the role that other potential routes of shedding may have on the dissemination of PRRSV. PMID:15589269

  1. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong Xiao, Shaobo

    2014-11-15

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. - Highlights: • PRRSV infection triggers HMGB1 release from MARC-145 cells and PAMs. • HMGB1 does not significantly affect PRRSV proliferation. • HMGB1 is involved in PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. • HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses through TLR2/4 and RAGE.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses isolated from 1991 to 2013 in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming-Chung; Chang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Tien-Shine; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Chieh; Wang, Fun-In; Huang, Yu-Liang

    2015-11-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was first identified in Taiwan in 1991, but the genetic diversity and evolution of PRRSV has not been thoroughly investigated over the past 20 years. The aim of this study was to bridge the gap in understanding of its molecular epidemiology. A total of 31 PRRSV strains were collected and sequenced. The sequences were aligned using the MUSCLE program, and phylogenetic analysis were performed by the maximum-likelihood method and the neighbor-joining method using MEGA 5.2 software. In the early 1990s, two prototype strains, WSV and MD001 of the North American genotype, were first identified. Over the years, both viruses evolved separately. The population dynamics of PRRSV revealed that the strains of the MD001 group were predominant in Taiwan. Evolution was manifested in changes in the nsp2 and ORF5 genes. In addition, a suspected newly invading exotic strain was recovered in 2013, suggesting that international spread is still taking place and that it is affecting the population dynamics. Overall, the results provide an important basis for vaccine development for the control and prevention of PRRS. PMID:26246243

  3. [Varicella zoster virus-induced meningoencephalitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Wakida, Kenji; Sakurai, Takeo; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    A 69-year-old male was admitted to hospital with clouded consciousness and abnormal behavior. His body temperature was 38.2 degree Celsius upon admission and he was somnolent. Herpes zoster was observed along the first division of the trigeminal nerve on the right side of the face. The right palpebra was severely swollen, and the right eye showed a dilated pupil, loss of light reflex, and total ophthalmoplegia. A spinal tap revealed pleocytosis and increased proteins, and a DNA-PCR test for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was positive. Optic neuritis was diagnosed based on fundoscopy. Following acyclovir administration, the patient regained full consciousness and the rash was alleviated; however, visual acuity did not recover. VZV-induced meningoencephalitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome is rarely observed. We suspect that VZV initially infected the nasociliary nerve at the distal end of the first division of trigeminal nerve and spread to the adjacent optic, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves, resulting in VZV-induced meningoencephalitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome. PMID:25200582

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae preceding Lemierre's syndrome due to Fusobacterium nucleatum complicated by acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Klein, Natalie C; Petelin, Andrew; Cunha, Burke A

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Lemierre's syndrome due to a rare species of Fusobacterium, that is, Fusobacterium nucleatum preceded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae pharyngitis and followed later by Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis. PMID:22464641

  5. Differences in immune response of pigs challenged with a high versus low dose inoculum of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be an economically important infectious disease of swine. Mechanisms governing activation of the innate immune response to PRRSV remain to be elucidated. Virulence differences observed between PRRSV isolates have been attribu...

  6. Cytokine profiles in pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. Cytokine responses have been exhaustively studied in nursery pigs and show contradictory results. Since no detailed reports on cytokine respons...

  7. Guillain–Barré Syndrome (42 Cases) Occurring During a Zika Virus Outbreak in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    Watrin, Louise; Ghawché, Frédéric; Larre, Philippe; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Mathis, Stéphane; Fournier, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Zika virus (transmitted by mosquitoes) reached French Polynesia for the first time in 2013, leading to an epidemic affecting 10% of the total population. So far, it has not been known to induce any neurological complications, but, a few weeks after the outbreak, an unexpectedly high number of 42 patients presented with Guillain–Barré syndrome. We report the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of this series. Males predominated with a sex ratio of 2.82 (mean age: 46). All patients (except 2) were native Polynesian. At admission, 55% were able to walk unaided against 38% at nadir, 24% had swallowing troubles (nadir: 45%), 74% had motor weakness of the limbs (nadir: 86%) and deep tendon reflexes were diminished or not found in the vast majority of patients. Mean duration of the progressive phase and of the plateau phase was respectively 7 and 9 days. Thirty-eight percent of the patients were admitted in intensive care unit and 10 patients underwent tracheotomy. Nerve electrophysiological studies at admission showed marked distal motor conduction alterations, which had almost completely disappeared at the 4th month; this pattern was more suggestive of acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) than of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). Lumbar puncture showed elevated proteins in 90% of the cases, with cell count always inferior to 50/μL. This epidemic raises several questions, such as the potential existence of interactions between Zika virus and Polynesian HLA system and/or the consequences of several recombination events of this virus. This situation should call for increased vigilance, especially in countries where Aedes mosquitoes are present. PMID:27057874

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma protein carbonylation in virus C and metabolic syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Martin, Fernando Ariel; Mebarki, Mouniya; Paradis, Valérie; Friguet, Bertrand; Radman, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is becoming the leading cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in MS is peculiar compared to other chronic liver diseases. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic imbalance in MS increase reactive oxygen species damaging proteins. In the present work we study the difference in protein oxidative damage (carbonylation) in human HCC derived from virus C infection (VHC) and from MS (MS_HCC) as the only subjacent cause. We selected a patient cohort containing of 10 non-tumoral and 10 tumoral liver resections in each study group (virus C and MS HCC) based on clinical patient history and histological parameters. Protein samples were labeled to saturation using CF 647-hydrazide™ dye. This approach allows us to perform carbonyl detection alongside with a DIGE experiment. We detected a total of 1184 spots with 36 differentially expressed proteins and 47 spots differentially carbonylated between VHC and MS_HCC (fold change >1.5, p<0.05). VHC up-regulated proteins are involved in signaling pathways related to cancer development such as signaling by EGFR, Wnt, Cdc20 and cell cycle. Further, up-regulated proteins in MS HCC, are implicated in metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. Differential carbonylation analysis between VHC and MS_HCC showed protein damage in proteins such as glucose phosphate isomerase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. Higher protein carbonylation in MS_HCC samples was observed in proteins involved in redox response and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, the observed difference in protein oxidative damage between MS and Virus C derived carcinoma could account for the different cancer development pathway. PMID:26461368

  9. Innate and adaptive immunity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    PubMed

    Loving, Crystal L; Osorio, Fernando A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Zuckermann, Federico A

    2015-09-15

    Many highly effective vaccines have been produced against viruses whose virulent infection elicits strong and durable protective immunity. In these cases, characterization of immune effector mechanisms and identification of protective epitopes/immunogens has been informative for the development of successful vaccine programs. Diseases in which the immune system does not rapidly clear the acute infection and/or convalescent immunity does not provide highly effective protection against secondary challenge pose a major hurdle for clinicians and scientists. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) falls primarily into this category, though not entirely. PRRSV causes a prolonged infection, though the host eventually clears the virus. Neutralizing antibodies can provide passive protection when present prior to challenge, though infection can be controlled in the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies. In addition, primed pigs (through natural exposure or vaccination with a modified-live vaccine) show some protection against secondary challenge. While peripheral PRRSV-specific T cell responses have been examined, their direct contribution to antibody-mediated immunity and viral clearance have not been fully elucidated. The innate immune response following PRRSV infection, particularly the antiviral type I interferon response, is meager, but when provided exogenously, IFN-α enhances PRRSV immunity and viral control. Overall, the quality of immunity induced by natural PRRSV infection is not ideal for informing vaccine development programs. The epitopes necessary for protection may be identified through natural exposure or modified-live vaccines and subsequently applied to vaccine delivery platforms to accelerate induction of protective immunity following vaccination. Collectively, further work to identify protective B and T cell epitopes and mechanisms by which PRRSV eludes innate immunity will enhance our ability to develop more effective methods

  10. VP24 Is a Chitin-Binding Protein Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zaipeng; Han, Yali; Xu, Limei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral ingestion is the major route of infection for the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). However, the mechanism by which virus particles in the digestive tract invade host cells is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that WSSV virions can bind to chitin through one of the major envelope proteins (VP24). Mutagenesis analysis indicated that amino acids (aa) 186 to 200 in the C terminus of VP24 were required for chitin binding. Moreover, the P-VP24186–200 peptide derived from the VP24 chitin binding region significantly inhibited the VP24-chitin interaction and the WSSV-chitin interaction, implying that VP24 participates in WSSV binding to chitin. Oral inoculation experiments showed that P-VP24186–200 treatment reduced the number of virus particles remaining in the digestive tract during the early stage of infection and greatly hindered WSSV proliferation in shrimp. These data indicate that binding of WSSV to chitin through the viral envelope protein VP24 is essential for WSSV per os infection and provide new ideas for preventing WSSV infection in shrimp farms. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show that WSSV can bind to chitin through the envelope protein VP24. The chitin-binding domain of VP24 maps to amino acids 186 to 200 in the C terminus. Binding of WSSV to chitin through the viral envelope protein VP24 is essential for WSSV per os infection. These findings not only extend our knowledge of WSSV infection but also provide new insights into strategies to prevent WSSV infection in shrimp farms. PMID:26512091

  11. Associated Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in the Older Adults with Chronic Virus Hepatitis in the Community.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuan-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Chao; Kee, Kwong-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lin, Chun-Yin; Lin, Sheng-Che; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2016-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic virus hepatitis elders in the community. Those subjects with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and/or anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) screened in the community before were invited to this study and 451 responded. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements, blood tests, ultrasound and fibroscan examinations. The cut-off of liver stiffness measurement-liver cirrhosis (LSM-LC) was 10 kPa for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 12 kPa for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, respectively. Among 451 responders, 56 were excluded due to negative HBsAg or anti-HCV. Three hundreds and ninety-five subjects included 228 CHB patients, 156 CHC patients and 11 dual hepatitis patients, had a mean age of 62±12.6 years. Fifty-four (23.7%) CHB patients coexisted with MetS whereas 40 (25.6%) CHC patients also had MetS. Those patients with MetS had more LSM-LC cases than those without (20.4% vs 9.8%, p = 0.04 in CHB patients; 28.2% vs 13.5%, p = 0.037 in CHC patients, respectively). In multivariate logistic analysis, detectable viremia was reversely associated with MetS in CHB patients after adjustment for age, gender and body mass index (odds ratio (OR): 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18-0.99; p = 0.047). Regarding CHC patients, higher LSM level was the only factor contributed to MetS (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.02-1.19; p = 0.012). In conclusion, elder CHB patients coexisted with MetS might experience an inactive virus replication but have an advanced liver fibrosis. In elder CHC patients, only higher LSM level was associated with MetS. PMID:27177024

  12. Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Fetal Susceptibility to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ladinig, Andrea; Foxcroft, George; Ashley, Carolyn; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing). The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection. PMID:25275491

  13. Attempts to enhance cross-protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses using chimeric viruses containing structural genes from two antigenically distinct strains.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong; Khatun, Amina; Kim, Won-Il; Cooper, Vickie; Cho, Yong-Il; Wang, Chong; Choi, Eun-Jin; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Due to significant antigenic variations between field isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), suboptimal cross-protection between different viruses impedes the effective control of PRRS via vaccination. Our previous study showed that chimeric viruses containing mixed structural genes from two distinct strains (VR2332 and JA142) of PRRSV were highly susceptible to the viral neutralizing activity of antisera generated against both parental strains. In this study, three chimeric viruses (JAP5, JAP56 and JAP2-6) were constructed by replacing ORF5, ORFs 5 and 6, and ORFs 2-6 of VR2332 with the corresponding genes of JA142, respectively, and their ability to confer cross-protection against challenge with the VR2332 and JA142 strains was evaluated in vivo. A total of 114 pigs were divided into 6 groups, and each group was intramuscularly injected with one of the 3 chimeric viruses (n=16 pigs per group), VR2332 (n=24), JA142 (n=24), or sham inoculum (n=18). At 44days post-inoculation (dpi), these pigs were further divided into 15 groups (n=6 or 8 pigs per group) and intranasally challenged with VR2332, JA142, or sham inoculum. All pigs inoculated with one of the chimeric viruses prior to challenge had lower viremia levels than the challenge control pigs. Prior inoculation with JAP56 markedly decreased viremia to nearly undetectable levels in pigs challenged with either VR2332 or JA142. These results suggest that chimeric viruses harboring mixed structural genes from two distinct PRRSV strains can provide protection against both donor viruses. PMID:27406935

  14. Biophysical characterisation of the nucleocapsid protein from a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Stefanie S; Osorio, Fernando A; Hiscox, Julian A

    2012-03-01

    The arterivirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is a multifunctional protein that binds viral RNA for encapsidation and has potential roles in host cell processes. This study characterised the N protein from a highly virulent North American strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The association with viral RNA was mapped to defined motifs on the N protein. The results indicated that disulphide bridge formation played a key role in RNA binding, offering an explanation why infectious virus cannot be rescued if cysteine residues are mutated, and that multiple sites may promote RNA binding. PMID:22306009

  15. The presence of alpha interferon at the time of infection alters the innate and adaptive immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most devastating and costly diseases to the swine industry world-wide. Overall, the adaptive immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) is weak and results in delayed elimination of virus from the host and inferior vaccine protection. PRR...

  16. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection of porcine alveolar macrophages on Toll-like receptors elicitation of type I interferon responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of virus replication initially depends on rapid activation of the innate immune responses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are potent inducers of innate immunity against viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) initiates infection in pulmonary alveolar m...

  17. Immunodominant epitopes in nsp2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus are dispensable for replication but play an important role in viral pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the largest protein of the virus. Besides its crucial role in viral replication, recent studies indicated its involvement in modulating host immunity. In this study, each of the six identified immu...

  18. Presence of interferon-alpha delays viral replication and reduces disease signs in pigs challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to other viruses that infect the respiratory system, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) appears to induce only modest levels of interferon-alpha (IFNA). However, IFNA has been shown to inhibit PRRSV replication in vitro, and indirectly to inhibit replication in viv...

  19. Comparative analysis of routes of immunization of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in a heterologous virus challenge study.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Kang; Hiremath, Jagadish; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Shyu, Duan-Liang; Dhakal, Santosh; Arcos, Jesus; Schleappi, Rose; Holman, Lynette; Roof, Michael; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), which infects primarily the respiratory tract of pigs. Thus intranasal (IN) delivery of a potent vaccine-adjuvant formulation is promising. In this study, PRRS-MLV (VR2332) was coadministered ± an adjuvant Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate or CpG ODN through intramuscular (IM) or IN route as a mist, and challenged with a heterologous PRRSV 1-4-4 IN at 42 days post-vaccination (dpv). At 14 and 26 dpv, vaccine viral RNA copies were one log greater in the plasma of PRRS-MLV IM compared to IN vaccinated pigs, and the infectious replicating vaccine virus was detected only in the IM group. In PRRS-MLV ± adjuvant IM vaccinated pigs, reduced viral RNA load and absence of the replicating challenged virus was observed at 7, 10 and 14 days post-challenge (dpc). At 14 dpc, in BAL fluid ≥ 5 log viral RNA copies were detected in all the pig groups, but the replicating challenged virus was undetectable only in IM groups. Immunologically, virus neutralizing antibody titers in the plasma of IM (but not IN) vaccine groups was ≥ 8 against the vaccine and challenged viruses. At 26 dpv, PRRS-MLV IM (without adjuvant) received pigs had significantly increased population of CD4 and CD8 T cells in PBMC. At 14 dpc, relatively increased population of IFN-γ(+) total lymphocytes, NK, CD4, CD8 and γδ T cells were observed in the MLV-IM group. In conclusion, PRRS-MLV IM vaccination induced the virus specific T cell response in pigs, but still it is required to improve its cross-protective efficacy. PMID:26988085

  20. Immune responses of pigs immunized with a recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressing porcine GM-CSF.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chong; Huang, Baicheng; Li, Qiongyi; Li, Liangliang; Xue, Biyun; Ding, Peiyang; Cai, Xuehui; Wang, Chengbao; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-11-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread worldwide, causing huge economic losses to the swine industry. The current PRRSV vaccines have failed to provide broad protection against various strains. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an efficacious adjuvant, has been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of various vaccines. The purpose of this study was to construct a recombinant live attenuated PRRSV that expresses porcine GM-CSF (pGM-CSF) and evaluate the immune responses of pigs immunized with the recombinant virus. The results showed that the recombinant PRRSV was successfully rescued and had similar growth properties to parental virus grown in Marc-145 cells. The recombinant virus was stable for 10 passages in cell culture. Pigs intramuscularly immunized with the recombinant virus produced a similar humoral response to that elicited using parental virus. With regard to cell-mediated immunity assessed in peripheral blood, the recombinant virus induced higher proportion of CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T cells (DPT), higher IFN-γ level at 0 and 7 days post-challenge (DPC), and lower viremia at 21 DPC than pigs immunized with parental virus. These results indicate that recombinant PRRSV expressing pGM-CSF can induce a significant higher cellular immune response and reduce the persistent infection compared pigs vaccinated with the parental virus. This is first report of evaluation of immune response in pigs elicited by a recombinant live attenuated PRRSV expressing porcine GM-CSF. It may represent a novel strategy for future development of genetic engineered vaccines against PRRSV infection. PMID:26300317

  1. Hepatopulmonary syndrome in HIV-hepatitis C virus coinfection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Torno, Mauro S; Witt, Mallory D; Sue, Darryl Y

    2004-08-01

    A wide array of diagnoses must be considered when a patient with advanced liver disease and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection presents with hypoxemia. It is important to entertain the possibility of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) in such patients, a diagnosis that must be confirmed with a contrast-enhanced echocardiogram (bubble study). We describe a case of HPS diagnosed in a patient with HIV infection and chronic liver disease and review the literature on HPS. PMID:15307020

  2. Therapeutic Trial of Rifabutin After Rifampicin-Associated DRESS Syndrome in Tuberculosis-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfected Patients.

    PubMed

    Lehloenya, Rannakoe J; Dlamini, Sipho; Muloiwa, Rudzani; Kakande, Betty; Ngwanya, Mzudumile R; Todd, Gail; Dheda, Keertan

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of a rifamycin from the treatment regimen for tuberculosis negatively impacts outcomes. Cross-reactivity between the rifamycins after drug eruptions is unclear. We report 6 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with rifampicin-associated drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome confirmed on diagnostic rechallenge. The patients subsequently tolerated rifabutin. These data inform clinical management of tuberculosis-associated drug reactions. PMID:27419190

  3. Therapeutic Trial of Rifabutin After Rifampicin-Associated DRESS Syndrome in Tuberculosis-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lehloenya, Rannakoe J.; Dlamini, Sipho; Muloiwa, Rudzani; Kakande, Betty; Ngwanya, Mzudumile R.; Todd, Gail; Dheda, Keertan

    2016-01-01

    Elimination of a rifamycin from the treatment regimen for tuberculosis negatively impacts outcomes. Cross-reactivity between the rifamycins after drug eruptions is unclear. We report 6 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with rifampicin-associated drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome confirmed on diagnostic rechallenge. The patients subsequently tolerated rifabutin. These data inform clinical management of tuberculosis-associated drug reactions. PMID:27419190

  4. Collaboration between a soluble C-type lectin and calreticulin facilitates white spot syndrome virus infection in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Wei; Xu, Yi-Hui; Xu, Ji-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2014-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) mainly infects crustaceans through the digestive tract. Whether C-type lectins (CLs), which are important receptors for many viruses, participate in WSSV infection in the shrimp stomach remains unknown. In this study, we orally infected kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus to model the natural transmission of WSSV and identified a CL (designated as M. japonicus stomach virus-associated CL [MjsvCL]) that was significantly induced by virus infection in the stomach. Knockdown of MjsvCL expression by RNA interference suppressed the virus replication, whereas exogenous MjsvCL enhanced it. Further analysis by GST pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation showed that MjsvCL could bind to viral protein 28, the most abundant and functionally relevant envelope protein of WSSV. Furthermore, cell-surface calreticulin was identified as a receptor of MjsvCL, and the interaction between these proteins was a determinant for the viral infection-promoting activity of MjsvCL. The MjsvCL-calreticulin pathway facilitated virus entry likely in a cholesterol-dependent manner. This study provides insights into a mechanism by which soluble CLs capture and present virions to the cell-surface receptor to facilitate viral infection. PMID:25070855

  5. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Lindelof, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case, the syndrome was seen along with severe encephalitis. PMID:26600786

  6. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Lindelof, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case, the syndrome was seen along with severe encephalitis. PMID:26600786

  7. Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    DeFreitas, E.; Hilliard, B.; Cheney, P.R.; Bell, D.S.; Kiggundu, E.; Sankey, D.; Wroblewska, Z.; Palladino, M.; Woodward, J.P.; Koprowski, H. )

    1991-04-01

    Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) is a recently recognized illness characterized by debilitating fatigue as well as immunological and neurological abnormalities. Once thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, it is now thought to have a different but unknown etiology. The authors evaluted 30 adult and pediatric CFIDS patients from six eastern states for the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II by Western immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of blood samples. The majority of patients were positive for HTLV antibodies by Western blotting and for HTLV-II gag sequences by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Twenty nonexposure healthy controls were negative in all assays. These data support an association between an HTLV-II-like virus and CFIDS.

  8. Time Lags between Exanthematous Illness Attributed to Zika Virus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and Microcephaly, Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paploski, Igor A D; Prates, Ana Paula P B; Cardoso, Cristiane W; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M O; Waller, Lance A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme S

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5-9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30-33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome. PMID:27144515

  9. Time Lags between Exanthematous Illness Attributed to Zika Virus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and Microcephaly, Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Paploski, Igor A.D.; Prates, Ana Paula P.B.; Cardoso, Cristiane W.; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Waller, Lance A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Kitron, Uriel

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5–9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30–33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome. PMID:27144515

  10. The spread of type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in North America: a phylogeographic approach.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mang; Lemey, Philippe; Singh Brar, Manreetpal; Suchard, Marc A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Carman, Susy; D'Allaire, Sylvie; Delisle, Benjamin; Lambert, Marie-Ève; Gagnon, Carl A; Ge, Li; Qu, Yihan; Yoo, Dongwan; Holmes, Edward C; Chi-Ching Leung, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    The emergence and spread of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (Type 2 PRRSV) in North America is heavily influenced by the multiple site production system used in the hog industry. However, it is unclear how anthropogenic factors such has this have shaped the current spatial distribution of PRRSV genotypes. We employed Bayesian phylogeographic analyses of 7040 ORF5 sequences to reveal the recent geographical spread of Type 2 PRRSV in North America. The directions and intensities in our inferred virus traffic network closely mirror the hog transportation. Most notably, we reveal multiple viral introductions from Canada into the United States causing a major shift in virus genetic composition in the Midwest USA that went unnoticed by the regular surveillance and field epidemiological studies. Overall, these findings provide important insights into the dynamics of Type 2 PRRSV evolution and spread that will facilitate programs for control and prevention. PMID:24210109