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1

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Possesses an Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon ?. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741

Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario

2014-01-01

2

The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties  

SciTech Connect

The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-{delta}E-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-{delta}E virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-{delta}E virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm.

Lee, Changhee [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Yoo, Dongwan [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

2006-11-10

3

Contemporary North American influenza H7 viruses possess human receptor specificity: Implications for virus transmissibility  

PubMed Central

Avian H7 influenza viruses from both the Eurasian and North American lineage have caused outbreaks in poultry since 2002, with confirmed human infection occurring during outbreaks in The Netherlands, British Columbia, and the United Kingdom. The majority of H7 infections have resulted in self-limiting conjunctivitis, whereas probable human-to-human transmission has been rare. Here, we used glycan microarray technology to determine the receptor-binding preference of Eurasian and North American lineage H7 influenza viruses and their transmissibility in the ferret model. We found that highly pathogenic H7N7 viruses from The Netherlands in 2003 maintained the classic avian-binding preference for ?2–3-linked sialic acids (SA) and are not readily transmissible in ferrets, as observed previously for highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses. However, H7N3 viruses isolated from Canada in 2004 and H7N2 viruses from the northeastern United States isolated in 2002–2003 possessed an HA with increased affinity toward ?2–6-linked SA, the linkage type found prominently on human tracheal epithelial cells. We identified a low pathogenic H7N2 virus isolated from a man in New York in 2003, A/NY/107/03, which replicated efficiently in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets and was capable of transmission in this species by direct contact. These results indicate that H7 influenza viruses from the North American lineage have acquired sialic acid-binding properties that more closely resemble those of human influenza viruses and have the potential to spread to naïve animals. PMID:18508975

Belser, Jessica A.; Blixt, Ola; Chen, Li-Mei; Pappas, Claudia; Maines, Taronna R.; Van Hoeven, Neal; Donis, Ruben; Busch, Julia; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2008-01-01

4

A replication-incompetent virus possessing an uncleavable hemagglutinin as an influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

Vaccination is one of the most effective measures to protect against influenza virus infection. Inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines are available; however, their efficacy is suboptimal. To develop a safe and more immunogenic vaccine, we produced a novel replication-incompetent influenza virus that possesses uncleavable hemagglutinin (HA) and tested its vaccine potential. The uncleavable HA was engineered by substituting the arginine at the C-terminus of HA1 with threonine, which prevents cleavage of HA into its HA1 and HA2 subunits, preventing fusion between the host and viral membranes. Although this fusion-deficient HA influenza virus that possesses uncleavable HA (uncleavable HA virus) could undergo multiple cycles of replication in only wild-type HA-expressing cells, it could infect normal cells and express viral proteins in infected cells, but could not generate infectious virus from infected cells due to the uncleavable HA. When C57BL/6 mice were intranasally immunized with the uncleavable HA virus, influenza-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in nasal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage samples and in serum. In addition, influenza-specific CD8(+) T cells accumulated in the lungs of these mice. Moreover, mice immunized with the uncleavable HA virus were protected against a challenge of lethal doses of influenza virus, unlike mice immunized with a formalin-inactivated virus. These findings demonstrate that this fusion-deficient virus, which possesses uncleavable HA, is a suitable influenza vaccine candidate. PMID:22867723

Katsura, Hiroaki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinji; Sakabe, Saori; Hatta, Yasuko; Murakami, Shin; Shimojima, Masayuki; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2012-09-14

5

Tourette's syndrome: from demonic possession and psychoanalysis to the discovery of gene.  

PubMed

In this paper we make a brief historical review of the hypothesis concerning the etiology of Tourette's syndrome (TS), focusing on varying trends over time: at first, its presumed relation to witchcraft and demonic possessions, followed by the psychoanalytical theory, which attributed TS to a masturbatory equivalent. Then, progressing to modern time, to the immunological theory and finally the advent of genetics and their role in the etiology of TS. PMID:22836463

Germiniani, Francisco M B; Miranda, Anna Paula P; Ferenczy, Peter; Munhoz, Renato P; Teive, Hélio A G

2012-07-01

6

A hybridoma secreting a neutralising monoclonal antibody to egg drop syndrome 1976 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybridoma (HPRS\\/AM\\/1) secreting neutralising antibody to Egg drop syndrome 1976 virus strain D61 was established. This monoclonal antibody also neutralised two other strains tested thereby showing that all the strains possess at least one common antigenic determinant which is important in infection. However, this epitope was not involved in haemagglutination. The antigen was identified in the nuclei of infected

A. P. A. Mockett; T. D. K. Brown; P. J. Davis

1984-01-01

7

Monoclonal antibodies specific to Cucumber mosaic virus coat protein possess DNA-hydrolyzing activity.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to Cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CMV-CP) were designed from cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences of the light chain genes of 10 out of 14 different hybridoma cell lines. Ten of these mAbs revealed a very restricted germline family VkappaII, within which gene bd2 has identical amino acid sequences with VIPase and an i41SL 1-2 catalytic antibody light chain, both of which possess peptidase activity. Four out of the 14 mAbs illustrated another germline family VkappaIA, within which gene bb1.1 had high homology with BV04-01 light chain mAb, which hydrolyses ssDNA. Interestingly, our mAbs showed DNA-hydrolytic activity at an optimum pH of 4-5, which is a typical pattern of autoimmune diseases in which autoantibodies hydrolyze supercoiled plasmid DNA. This is the first evidence ever that CMV-CP could stimulate catalytic antibodies, which have an identical sequence homology with autoantibodies. Furthermore, the CMV-CP-specific mAbs will be important for isolating antibodies specific to the CPs of bacteria, viruses, cancer cells, etc. that could be used for medical therapy. PMID:19187964

Zein, Haggag S; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Miyatake, Kazutaka

2009-04-01

8

Human Cytomegalovirus Inhibitor AL18 Also Possesses Activity against Influenza A and B Viruses  

PubMed Central

AL18, an inhibitor of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase, was serendipitously found to also block the interaction between the PB1 and PA polymerase subunits of influenza A virus. Furthermore, AL18 effectively inhibited influenza A virus polymerase activity and the overall replication of influenza A and B viruses. A molecular model to explain the binding of AL18 to both cytomegalovirus and influenza targets is proposed. Thus, AL18 represents an interesting lead for the development of new antivirals. PMID:22908168

Muratore, Giulia; Mercorelli, Beatrice; Goracci, Laura; Cruciani, Gabriele; Digard, Paul

2012-01-01

9

Egg transmission of egg drop syndrome 1976 virus in fowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg transmission of egg drop syndrome 1976 virus (BC14 virus) in fowl was demonstrated in the second and third week after experimental infection. Eggs of BC14 virus infected hens were incubated weekly after disinfection with formaline gas. After 18 days of incubation, eggs with live embryos were homogenized. This egg material was fed to adult hens, housed in isolators.Seroconversion in

J. H. H. van Eck

1980-01-01

10

Monoclonal antibodies specific to Cucumber mosaic virus coat protein possess DNA-hydrolyzing activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to Cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CMV-CP) were designed from cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences of the light chain genes of 10 out of 14 different hybridoma cell lines. Ten of these mAbs revealed a very restricted germline family V?II, within which gene bd2 has identical amino acid sequences with VIPase and an i41SL 1-2

Haggag S. Zein; Kazutaka Miyatake

2009-01-01

11

Plant virus incorporated hydrogels as scaffolds for tissue engineering possess low immunogenicity in vivo.  

PubMed

Viruses are no longer recognized purely for being ubiquitous pathogens, but have served as building blocks for material chemistry and nanotechnology. Thousands of coat protein subunits of a viral particle can be modified chemically and/or genetically. We have previously shown that the three-dimensional porous hydrogels can easily be functionalized by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a rod-like plant virus, using its mutant, RGD-TMV. RGD-TMV hosted bioadhesive peptide (RGD) in the hydrogel, which was shown to enhance cell attachment and promote osteogenic differentiation of cultured stem cell. To translate this technology to potential clinical applications, we sought to study the biocompatibility of the hydrogel. In this paper, the hydrogels were implanted in vivo and assessed for their immunogenicity, toxicity, and biodegradability. Immune response for TMV substantially decreased when incorporated in the hydrogel implants. The implanted TMV hydrogels exhibited no apparent toxicity and were degradable in mice. The results highlighted the feasibility of using TMV incorporated hydrogels as scaffolding materials for regenerative medicine in terms of biocompatibility and biodegradability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 887-895, 2015. PMID:24829052

Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Lee, L Andrew; You, Shaojin; Yang, Xiaoming; Wang, Qian

2015-03-01

12

Molecular evolution and antigenic variation of European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV).  

PubMed

European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) is the aetiological agent of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS), a disease affecting Lepus europaeus and Lepus timidus first diagnosed in Sweden in 1980. To characterize EBHSV evolution we studied hare samples collected in Sweden between 1982 and 2008. Our molecular clock dating is compatible with EBHSV emergence in the 1970s. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two lineages: Group A persisted until 1989 when it apparently suffered extinction; Group B emerged in the mid-1980s and contains the most recent strains. Antigenic differences exist between groups, with loss of reactivity of some MAbs over time, which are associated with amino acid substitutions in recognized epitopes. A role for immune selection is also supported by the presence of positively selected codons in exposed regions of the capsid. Hence, EBHSV evolution is characterized by replacement of Group A by Group B viruses, suggesting that the latter possess a selective advantage. PMID:25155199

Lopes, Ana M; Capucci, Lorenzo; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Brocchi, Emiliana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Quéméner, Agnès; Le Pendu, Jacques; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Holmes, Edward C; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana

2014-11-01

13

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Origin Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is a serious swine disease that appeared suddenly in the midwestern United States and central Europe approximately 14 years ago; the disease has now spread worldwide. In North America and Europe, the syndrome is caused by two genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus whose genomes diverge by approximately 40%. My hypothesis, which explains the origin and evolution of the two distinct PRRSV genotypes, is that a mutant of a closely related arterivirus of mice (lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus) infected wild boars in central Europe. These wild boars functioned as intermediate hosts and spread the virus to North Carolina in imported, infected European wild boars in 1912; the virus then evolved independently on the two continents in the prevalent wild hog populations for approximately 70 years until independently entering the domestic pig population. PMID:12967485

2003-01-01

14

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integration Protein Expressed in Escherichia Coli Possesses Selective DNA Cleaving Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integration protein, a potential target for selective antiviral therapy, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein, free of detectable contaminating endonucleases, selectively cleaved double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides that mimic the U3 and the U5 termini of linear HIV DNA. Two nucleotides were removed from the 3' ends of both the U5 plus strand and the U3 minus strand; in both cases, cleavage was adjacent to a conserved CA dinucleotide. The reaction was metal-ion dependent, with a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Reaction selectivity was further demonstrated by the lack of cleavage of an HIV U5 substrate on the complementary (minus) strand, an analogous substrate that mimics the U3 terminus of an avian retrovirus, and an HIV U5 substrate in which the conserved CA dinucleotide was replaced with a TA dinucleotide. Such an integration protein-mediated cleavage reaction is expected to occur as part of the integration event in the retroviral life cycle, in which a double-stranded DNA copy of the viral RNA genome is inserted into the host cell DNA.

Sherman, Paula A.; Fyfe, James A.

1990-07-01

15

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Envelope Protein Ion Channel Activity Promotes Virus Fitness and Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC) activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1? were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1? was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS-CoV virulence. PMID:24788150

Nieto-Torres, Jose L.; DeDiego, Marta L.; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M.; Regla-Nava, Jose A.; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Alcaraz, Antonio; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M.; Enjuanes, Luis

2014-01-01

16

Differentiation of egg drop syndrome virus isolates by restriction endonuclease analysis of virus dna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus were compared by restriction endonuclease analysis of the virus DNA. One virus, an Australian chicken isolate, was distinguished from the others using the endonucleases EcoRl, BamUl, Kpnl, Hindlll, Pstl and Pvull, all of which recognise six base pair DNA sequences. Polyacrylamide gel restriction fragment patterns generated by Haelll, Hhall and TaqI, which

D. Todd; M. S. McNulty; Joan A. Smyth

1988-01-01

17

Feline Urological Syndrome: is a virus responsible for the disease?  

E-print Network

FELINE UROLOGICAL SYNDRDNE: IS A VIRUS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DISEASE' ? A Thesis by Cynthia Louise Swenson Subni ted to the Graduate College of Texas ASH University in par tiel r equir ements for the deqree of HA TER OF SCIENCE December 1884... Iiajor Subject: Veterinary Nicrobioloqy FELINE UROLOGICAL SYNDROME: IS A VIRUS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DISEASE? A Thesis by CYNTHIA LOUISE SWANSON Approved as to style and content by: / (C Dr. S aaart McConnell (Chairman of Comittee) r, . John...

Swansn, Cynthia Louise

2012-06-07

18

Epidemiological studies with egg drop syndrome?1976 (eds?76) virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of egg drop syndrome?1976 (EDS?76) virus has been investigated under experimental conditions and in the field. Quantitative experimental studies indicated that the rate of virus spread from infected to in?contact chickens depended on the amount of challenge, being more rapid when the number of infected chickens in a group of susceptible ones was greatest.In field studies, lateral spread

Jane K. A. Cook; J. H. Darbyshire

1980-01-01

19

Purification and hemagglutinating properties of egg drop syndrome 1976 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We purified three populations of virus particles, F7, F9 and F17, with buoyant densities of 1.34, 1.33 and 1.29 g\\/ml, respectively, in CsCl equilibrium density gradients from cultures of chick embryo liver cells infected with the H-162 strain of the virus of egg drop syndrome 1976. F9 particles were infectious complete virions and most F17 particles were empty particles.

S. Takai; M. Higashihara; M. Matumoto

1984-01-01

20

Malsoor virus, a novel bat phlebovirus, is closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and heartland virus.  

PubMed

During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

Mourya, D T; Yadav, P D; Basu, A; Shete, A; Patil, D Y; Zawar, D; Majumdar, T D; Kokate, P; Sarkale, P; Raut, C G; Jadhav, S M

2014-03-01

21

Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus  

PubMed Central

During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

2014-01-01

22

Comparative serological studies with egg drop syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivities of five serological tests (haemagglutination inhibition, ELISA, serum neutralisation, fluorescent antibody and agar gel immunodiffusion) for detection of Egg Drop Syndrome virus antibody were compared. In experimentally inoculated birds seroconversion was first detected at five days post?inoculation using haemagglutination inhibition, ELISA, serum neutralisation and fluorescent antibody test, and at seven days post?inoculation using agar gel immunodiffusion. Sera from

B. M. Adair; D. Todd; J. B. McFerran; E. R. McKillop

1986-01-01

23

Aminoterminal Amphipathic ?-Helix AH1 of Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 4B Possesses a Dual Role in RNA Replication and Virus Production  

PubMed Central

Nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a key organizer of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex formation. In concert with other nonstructural proteins, it induces a specific membrane rearrangement, designated as membranous web, which serves as a scaffold for the HCV replicase. The N-terminal part of NS4B comprises a predicted and a structurally resolved amphipathic ?-helix, designated as AH1 and AH2, respectively. Here, we report a detailed structure-function analysis of NS4B AH1. Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance structural analyses revealed that AH1 folds into an amphipathic ?-helix extending from NS4B amino acid 4 to 32, with positively charged residues flanking the helix. These residues are conserved among hepaciviruses. Mutagenesis and selection of pseudorevertants revealed an important role of these residues in RNA replication by affecting the biogenesis of double-membrane vesicles making up the membranous web. Moreover, alanine substitution of conserved acidic residues on the hydrophilic side of the helix reduced infectivity without significantly affecting RNA replication, indicating that AH1 is also involved in virus production. Selective membrane permeabilization and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of a functional replicon harboring an epitope tag between NS4B AH1 and AH2 revealed a dual membrane topology of the N-terminal part of NS4B during HCV RNA replication. Luminal translocation was unaffected by the mutations introduced into AH1, but was abrogated by mutations introduced into AH2. In conclusion, our study reports the three-dimensional structure of AH1 from HCV NS4B, and highlights the importance of positively charged amino acid residues flanking this amphipathic ?-helix in membranous web formation and RNA replication. In addition, we demonstrate that AH1 possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production, potentially governed by different topologies of the N-terminal part of NS4B. PMID:25392992

Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Montserret, Roland; Paul, David; Castillo, Rosa; Meister, Simon; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Moradpour, Darius

2014-01-01

24

White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern  

PubMed Central

Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies. PMID:20181325

Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

2010-01-01

25

Oseltamivir–Resistant Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza Virus Possesses Lower Transmissibility and Fitness in Ferrets  

PubMed Central

The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir offers an important immediate option for the control of influenza, and its clinical use has increased substantially during the recent H1N1 pandemic. In view of the high prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in 2007–2008, there is an urgent need to characterize the transmissibility and fitness of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1/2009 viruses, although resistant variants have been isolated at a low rate. Here we studied the transmissibility of a closely matched pair of pandemic H1N1/2009 clinical isolates, one oseltamivir-sensitive and one resistant, in the ferret model. The resistant H275Y mutant was derived from a patient on oseltamivir prophylaxis and was the first oseltamivir-resistant isolate of the pandemic virus. Full genome sequencing revealed that the pair of viruses differed only at NA amino acid position 275. We found that the oseltamivir-resistant H1N1/2009 virus was not transmitted efficiently in ferrets via respiratory droplets (0/2), while it retained efficient transmission via direct contact (2/2). The sensitive H1N1/2009 virus was efficiently transmitted via both routes (2/2 and 1/2, respectively). The wild-type H1N1/2009 and the resistant mutant appeared to cause a similar disease course in ferrets without apparent attenuation of clinical signs. We compared viral fitness within the host by co-infecting a ferret with oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant H1N1/2009 viruses and found that the resistant virus showed less growth capability (fitness). The NA of the resistant virus showed reduced substrate-binding affinity and catalytic activity in vitro and delayed initial growth in MDCK and MDCK-SIAT1 cells. These findings may in part explain its less efficient transmission. The fact that the oseltamivir-resistant H1N1/2009 virus retained efficient transmission through direct contact underlines the necessity of continuous monitoring of drug resistance and characterization of possible evolving viral proteins during the pandemic. PMID:20686654

Duan, Susu; Boltz, David A.; Seiler, Patrick; Li, Jiang; Bragstad, Karoline; Nielsen, Lars P.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

2010-01-01

26

Biochemical Studies on a Virus Associated with Egg Drop Syndrome 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A number of hitherto undescribed, serologically identical viruses have been isolated from a syndrome of depressed egg production in broiler breeder flocks (Egg Drop Syndrome 1976). One of these, I27 virus, was purified after growth in chick embryo liver cells. Three particle types BI, B2 and B3 with densities of I'32, 1\\

D. Todd; M. S. McNulty

1978-01-01

27

Biological and physical properties of a virus (strain 127) associated with the egg drop syndrome 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological and physical properties of strain 127 virus, a haemagglutinating virus associated with the egg drop syndrome 1976, are described. Haematoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescent studies demonstrated that virus multiplication took place in the nucleus of cells with production of typical adenovirus inclusions. Thin section electron microscopy showed typical adenovirus particles and associated inclusions accumulating in nuclei.Strain 127 infectivity

B. M. Adair; J. B. McFerran; T. J. Connor; M. S. McNulty; E. R. McKillop

1979-01-01

28

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nevada.  

PubMed Central

We summarize information from three sets of epidemiologic data: the Nevada AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] Surveillance System, which contains information about every case identified within the state boundaries through September 1989; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence reporting systems, which currently include data on all HIV-positive reports submitted statewide to public health authorities; and surveys on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Nevadans concerning HIV-related disease. The Nevada State AIDS Task Force outlined major policy recommendations, nearly half of which concerned testing; only 2 dealt with preventing HIV transmission. Greater efforts should go into education, particularly directed toward groups at greatest risk of exposure to HIV, and to improve community-based care of infected persons. PMID:2024509

Jarvis, J. Q.; Semiatin, S. L.

1991-01-01

29

Virion packaging of multiple cleavage isoforms of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of a complex disease often resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, highly pathogenic isolates have emerged which have proven to be devastatingly effective pathogens, resulting in rapid systemic deterioration...

30

Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

31

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Comparison: Divergent Evolution on Two Continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently described arterivirus responsible for disease in swine worldwide. Comparative sequence analysis of 3*-terminal structural genes of the single- stranded RNA viral genome revealed the presence of two genotypic classes of PRRSV, represented by the proto- type North American and European strains, VR-2332 and Lelystad virus (LV), respectively. To better under-

CHRIS J. NELSEN; MICHAEL P. MURTAUGH; KAY S. FAABERG

1999-01-01

32

Typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses by a multiplex PCR assay.  

PubMed Central

A rapid multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish between North American and European genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus after a portion of the polymerase gene (open reading frame 1b) was sequenced for two North American PRRS virus strains. DNA products with unique sizes characteristic of each genotype were obtained. PMID:8968921

Gilbert, S A; Larochelle, R; Magar, R; Cho, H J; Deregt, D

1997-01-01

33

Genomic sequence and virulence comparison of four type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a ubiquitous and costly virus that exhibits substantial sequence and virulence disparity among diverse isolates. In this study, we compared the whole genomic sequence and virulence of 4 North American Type 2 PRRSV isolates. Among the 4 i...

34

Egg drop syndrome 1976 (EDS?76) virus infection in inadequately vaccinated chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to study the epizootiology of the egg drop syndrome 1976 virus infection in chickens that were not adequately protected by vaccination. Virus excretion was demonstrated when chickens vaccinated at the recommended level were challenged within 10 days of vaccination and when chickens were challenged 6 weeks after administration of low doses of vaccine. In the latter

Jane K. A. Cook

1983-01-01

35

Genomic characterization of Indian isolates of egg drop syndrome 1976 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five Indian isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS) 1976 virus and the reference strain 127 were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of viral DNA, and the hexon gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Using these techniques, no differences were seen among these viruses. However, partial sequencing of the hexon gene revealed major differences (4.6%) in one of the isolates sequenced,

G. Dhinakar Raj; S. Sivakumar; S. Sudharsan; A. C. Mohan; K. Nachimuthu

2001-01-01

36

Recombinant egg drop syndrome subunit vaccine offers an alternative to virus propagation in duck eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus vaccines are routinely produced in embryonated duck eggs (Solyom et al., 1982). This procedure poses the risk of dissemination of pathogens, such as avian influenza virus, as the eggs used are not from specific pathogen free birds. To address this problem, the knob and part of the shaft domain of the fibre protein of the

B. Gutter; E. Fingerut; G. Gallili; D. Eliahu; B. Perelman; A. Finger; J. Pitcovski

2008-01-01

37

Green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, possesses the antiviral activity necessary to fight against the hepatitis B virus replication in vitro *  

PubMed Central

Although several antiviral drugs and vaccines are available for use against hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis caused by HBV remains a major public health problem worldwide, which has not yet been resolved, and new anti-HBV drugs are in great demand. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-HBV activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural-origin compound, in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. The antiviral activity of EGCG was examined by detecting the levels of HBsAg and HBeAg in the supernatant and extracellular HBV DNA. EGCG effectively suppressed the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg from HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it showed stronger effects at the level of 0.11–0.44 ?mol/ml (50–200 ?g/ml) than lamivudine (3TC) at 0.87 ?mol/ml (200 ?g/ml). EGCG also suppressed the amount of extracellular HBV DNA. The data indicated that EGCG possessed anti-HBV activity and suggested the potential of EGCG as an effective anti-HBV agent with low toxicity. PMID:24903990

Pang, Jing-yao; Zhao, Kui-jun; Wang, Jia-bo; Ma, Zhi-jie; Xiao, Xiao-he

2014-01-01

38

Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in mid-gestation sows and fetuses.  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate whether porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus was able to cross the placenta and infect midgestation fetuses following intranasal inoculation of sows and whether PRRS virus directly infected fetuses following in utero inoculation. In experiment 1, eight sows between 45 and 50 days of gestation were intranasally inoculated with PRRS virus (ATCC VR-2332), and four control sows were inoculated with uninfected cell culture lysate. Virus inoculated sows were viremic on postinoculation (PI) days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, shed virus in their feces and nasal secretions, and became leukopenic. Sixty-nine of 71 fetuses from principal sows euthanized on PI day 7, 14 or 21 were alive at necropsy and no virus was isolated from any of the fetuses. Two principal sows that farrowed 65 and 67 days PI delivered 25 live piglets and three stillborn fetuses. The PRRS virus was isolated from two live piglets in one litter. In experiment 2, laparotomies were performed on five sows between 40 and 45 days of gestation and fetuses were inoculated in utero with either PRRS virus alone, PRRS virus plus a swine serum containing PRRS antibodies, or uninfected cell culture lysate. Three sows were euthanized on PI day 4 and two sows on PI day 11. Viral replication occurred in fetuses inoculated with virus alone and was enhanced in fetuses inoculated with virus plus antibody. No virus was isolated from control fetuses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8269364

Christianson, W T; Choi, C S; Collins, J E; Molitor, T W; Morrison, R B; Joo, H S

1993-01-01

39

Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS) due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat. PMID:25657139

Taraphdar, D; Roy, B K; Chatterjee, S

2015-02-01

40

Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome: an unusual presentation for West Nile virus encephalitis  

PubMed Central

A record number of West Nile virus (WNV) cases and fatalities seen in 2012 have brought to light the numerous manifestations of neuroinvasive disease. We report a case of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome attributed to WNV and its clinical course after treatment with a combination of steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Our objective is to highlight opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome as a potential manifestation of WNV encephalitis. PMID:24688189

Afzal, Aasim; Ashraf, Sahar

2014-01-01

41

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus down-modulates TNF-? production in infected macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection on the synthesis and secretion of TNF-? and other pro-inflammatory cytokines by porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) was investigated as well as the effect that TNF-? has on the replication of this virus. A clear reduction of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced expression of TNF–? mRNA was observed in cells incubated

L López-Fuertes; E Campos; N Doménech; A Ezquerra; J. M Castro; J Dom??nguez; F Alonso

2000-01-01

42

and modulates virus release Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 3a protein forms an ion channel  

E-print Network

and modulates virus release Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 3a protein, see: Notes: #12;Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 3a protein forms an ion been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome. ORF

Tian, Weidong

43

An in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the virulence of egg drop syndrome virus for the chicken reproductive tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence of strains of egg drop syndrome (EDS) 1976 virus for the female reproductive tract of chickens was assessed in vitro using oviduct organ cultures (OOC) prepared from precociously induced oviducts in young chicks by oestrogen treatment. Ciliostasis, haemagglutination and virus titres in infected OOC supernatants, histology and immunoperoxidase test results indicated the pathogenic ability of the four viruses

G. Dhinakar Raj; S. Sivakumar; B. Murali Manohar; K. Nachimuthu; A. Mahalinga Nainar

2001-01-01

44

Down Syndrome: A Novel Risk Factor for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis— A Prospective Birth-Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. Respiratory syncytial virus is the single-most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. Preterm birth and congenital heart disease are known risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections. Although Down syndrome is associated with a high risk of respiratory tract infections, little is known about the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus infections in this group. The

Beatrijs L. P. Bloemers; A. Marceline van Furth; Michel E. Weijerman; Reinoud J. B. J. Gemke

2008-01-01

45

The use of epitope tags in modified porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus vaccines to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus which has been a significant cause of economic loss to the global pork industry since its emergence in the late 1980's. Despite the availability of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines since the m...

46

Duck egg drop syndrome virus: an emerging Tembusu-related flavivirus in China.  

PubMed

Duck egg drop syndrome virus (DEDSV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus isolated from ducks in China. DEDSV infection mainly results in severe egg drop syndrome in domestic poultry, which leads to huge economic losses. Thus, the discovery of ways and means to combat DEDSV is urgent. Since 2010, a remarkable amount of progress concerning DEDSV research has been achieved. Here, we review current knowledge on the epidemiology, symptomatology, and pathology of DEDSV. A detailed dissection of the viral genome and polyprotein sequences, comparative analysis of viral antigenicity and the corresponding potential immunity against the virus are also summarized. Current findings indicate that DEDSV should be a distinct species from Tembusu virus. Moreover, the adaption of DEDSV in wildlife and its high homology to pathogenic flaviviruses (e.g., West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and dengue virus), illustrate its reemergence and potential to become a zoonotic pathogen that should not be overlooked. Detailed insight into the antigenicity and corresponding immunity against the virus is of clear significance for the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs specific for DEDSV. PMID:23917842

Liu, PeiPei; Lu, Hao; Li, Shuang; Wu, Ying; Gao, George Fu; Su, JingLiang

2013-08-01

47

Induction of type I interferons by a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) inhibits synthesis of type I interferons (IFNs) in infected pigs and in cultured cells. Here we report that one PRRSV mutant A2MC2 induces type I IFNs in cultured cells and has no effect on IFN downstream signaling. The mutant isolate was p...

48

Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV), which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) libraries derive...

49

Genetic control of host resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manuscript focuses on the advances made using genomic approaches to identify biomarkers that define genes and pathways that are correlated with swine resistance to infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the most economically important swine viral pathogen wo...

50

Ultrastructural characteristics of Sin Nombre virus, causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A previously unrecognized disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, was described following an outbreak of severe, often lethal, pulmonary illness in the southwestern United States in May–June, 1993. We have now studied the morphologic features of the causative agent, Sin Nombre virus (SNV), by thin section electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of infected Vero E6 cells. SNV virions were roughly spherical

C. S. Goldsmith; L. H. Elliott; C. J. Peters; S. R. Zaki

1995-01-01

51

Pathogenicity and Molecular Characterization of Emerging Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Vietnam in 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the "porcine high fever disease" that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ...

52

Complete genome sequence of a novel highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus variant.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) emerged in China in 2006, and HP-PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) has evolved continuously. Here, the complete genomic sequence of a novel HP-PRRSV field strain, JX, is reported. The present finding will contribute to further studies focusing on the evolutionary mechanism of PRRSV. PMID:23118452

Wang, Lianghai; Hou, Jun; Zhang, Hexiao; Feng, Wen-hai

2012-12-01

53

Proteolytic Products of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nsp2 Replicase Protein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nsp2 replicase protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was recently demonstrated to be processed from its precursor by the PL2 protease at or near the G1196|G1197 dipeptide in transfected CHO cells. Here, the proteolytic cleavage of PRRSV nsp2 was further investiga...

54

H9N2 Influenza Viruses Possessing H5N1-Like Internal Genomes Continue To Circulate in Poultry in Southeastern China  

PubMed Central

The transmission of H9N2 influenza viruses to humans and the realization that the A/Hong Kong/156/97-like (H5N1) (abbreviated HK/156/97) genome complex may be present in H9N2 viruses in southeastern China necessitated a study of the distribution and characterization of H9N2 viruses in poultry in the Hong Kong SAR in 1999. Serological studies indicated that H9N2 influenza viruses had infected a high proportion of chickens and other land-based birds (pigeon, pheasant, quail, guinea fowl, and chukka) from southeastern China. Two lineages of H9N2 influenza viruses present in the live-poultry markets were represented by A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (Qa/HK/G1/97)-like and A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (Dk/HK/Y280/97)-like viruses. Up to 16% of cages of quail in the poultry markets contained Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses, while about 5% of cages of other land-based birds were infected with Dk/HK/Y280/97-like viruses. No reassortant between the two H9N2 virus lineages was detected despite their cocirculation in the poultry markets. Reassortant viruses represented by A/Chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2) were the major H9N2 influenza viruses circulating in the Hong Kong markets in 1997 but have not been detected since the chicken slaughter in 1997. The Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses were frequently isolated from quail, while Dk/HK/Y280/97-like viruses were predominately associated with chickens. The Qa/HK/G1/97-like viruses were evolving relatively rapidly, especially in their PB2, HA, NP, and NA genes, suggesting that they are in the process of adapting to a new host. Experimental studies showed that both H9N2 lineages were primarily spread by the aerosol route and that neither quail nor chickens showed evidence of disease. The high prevalence of quail infected with Qa/HK/G1/97-like virus that contains six gene segments genetically highly related to HK/156/97 (H5N1) virus emphasizes the need for surveillance of mammals including humans. PMID:11000205

Guan, Y.; Shortridge, K. F.; Krauss, S.; Chin, P. S.; Dyrting, K. C.; Ellis, T. M.; Webster, R. G.; Peiris, M.

2000-01-01

55

Immediate protection of mice from lethal wild-type Sendai virus (HVJ) infections by a temperature-sensitive mutant, HVJpi, possessing homologous interfering capacity.  

PubMed

Protection of mice from lethal Sendai virus (HVJ) infections by a temperature-sensitive mutant, HVJpi, which was isolated from a carrier culture, was studied. HVJpi had a strong interfering capacity with the replication of virulent wild-type virus in LLCMK2 cells. When a high dose of HVJpi (3.0 x 10(7) CIU) was inoculated intranasally into mice, the mice showed neither illness nor lung lesions but gained significant resistance against the challenge of virulent wild-type virus (18 LD50) immediately after inoculation. In contrast, the mice inoculated with a lower dose of HVJpi (8.2 x 10(5) CIU) did not show the immediate resistance but became immune several days after inoculation. Time courses of the virus replication in the lung revealed that the replication of wild-type virus was strongly suppressed to about 1/1000 by the simultaneous infection with a high dose of HVJpi, thus resulting in minimizing the lung lesions and survival of all the mice infected. Neither interferon nor natural killer cells appeared to play a major role in the immediate immune status by HVJpi, since no difference was observed in protection of mice simultaneously infected with wild-type virus and HVJpi in spite of pretreatment of the mice with anti-interferon and anti-asialo GM1 antibodies as compared with that of the untreated doubly infected mice. On the other hand, it was suggested by analysis of viral polypeptides synthesized in the lung of infected mice by Western blotting that the early stage of replication of wild-type virus in the lung was inhibited mainly by the interfering capacity of HVJpi. These results indicate that HVJpi is an unique virus mutant which is capable of protecting mice from lethal Sendai virus infections by its interfering capacity immediately after inoculation and then by the induction of virus-specific immune responses. PMID:2162116

Kiyotani, K; Takao, S; Sakaguchi, T; Yoshida, T

1990-07-01

56

Full Genome Sequence of Egg Drop Syndrome Virus Strain FJ12025 Isolated from Muscovy Duckling.  

PubMed

Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) strain FJ12025 was isolated from a 9-day-old Muscovy duckling. The results of the sequence showed that the genome of strain FJ12025 is 33,213 bp in length, with a G+C content of 43.03%. When comparing the genome sequence of strain FJ12025 to that of laying duck original strain AV-127, we found 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two viral genome sequences. A genomic sequence comparison of FJ12025 and AV-127 will help to understand the phenotypic differences between the two viruses. PMID:23969050

Fu, Guanghua; Chen, Hongmei; Huang, Yu; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Qiuling; Shi, Shaohua; Wan, Chunhe; Chen, Cuiteng; Lin, Jiansheng

2013-01-01

57

Challenges and opportunities for the control and elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The control and elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represent two of the most challenging tasks facing the pig industry worldwide. Several factors related to the biology of the virus make disease detection and elimination difficult. Efforts are further hampered by the lack of vaccines that can protect naïve herds from infection. With this in mind, elimination efforts are being initiated which incorporate existing tools and knowledge. A new approach extends herd control strategies to the level of a region. One example of success in PRRSV regional elimination is the Stevens County project in Minnesota. PMID:25471243

Rowland, R R R; Morrison, R B

2012-03-01

58

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, South Korea, 2013  

PubMed Central

During 2013, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome was diagnosed in 35 persons in South Korea. Environmental temperature probably affected the monthly and regional distribution of case-patients within the country. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates from Korea were closely related to isolates from China and Japan. PMID:25341085

Park, Sun-Whan; Han, Myung-Guk; Yun, Seok-Min; Park, Chan; Lee, Won-Ja

2014-01-01

59

Two episodes of systemic capillary leak syndrome in an 8-year-old boy, following influenza A virus infection.  

PubMed

Systemic capillary leak syndrome is a rare condition, characterized by hypotension, edema, hemoconcentration and hypoalbuminemia. We describe 2 episodes of systemic capillary leak syndrome, following influenza A virus infection, occurring during 2 subsequent influenza seasons, in an 8-year-old boy. PMID:23995592

Perme, Tina; Pokorn, Marko; Markelj, Gašper; Av?in, Tadej; Battelino, Tadej; Urši?, Tina; Vidmar, Ivan; Grosek, Štefan

2014-02-01

60

Swine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Québec: Isolation of an enveloped virus serologically-related to Lelystad virus  

PubMed Central

Sera were collected from convalescent sows and sick piglets from six pig farms in southern Quebec that have experienced outbreaks of the so-called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. By indirect immunoperoxidase, a few of these sera (4 of 14) (28.6%) were found to be positive for antibody to the Lelystad virus, whereas by indirect immunofluorescence 30 of 36 (83.3%) were positive for antibody to the antigenically-related American isolate ATCC-VR2332. Pregnant sows inoculated intranasally with filtered homogenates prepared from the lungs of necropsied piglets obtained from a seropositive farm developed fever, inappetence, and reproductive failure characterized by stillbirths and various stages of mummification. Lesions of interstitial pneumonia were induced in experimentally-infected specific pathogen-free piglets. A virus, having morphological and biological characteristics of viruses assigned to the family Togaviridae, was isolated from lung tissues of experimentally-infected animals; it could only be propagated in primary cultures of porcine alveolar macrophages. Identification of the virus was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody directed against the nucleocapsid protein of the ATCC-VR2332 isolate and porcine sera that were found positive for antibody to both the Lelystad and ATCC-VR2332 isolates. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17424133

Dea, Serge; Bilodeau, Robert; Athanassious, Raffat; Sauvageau, René; Martineau, Guy Pierre

1992-01-01

61

In vitro inactivation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and pseudorabies virus by slightly acidic electrolyzed water.  

PubMed

Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0-6.5) is a novel disinfectant with environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination properties which could have significant utility on farm. Two of the most important pathogenic viruses in pigs are porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the viricidal effectiveness of SAEW against PRRSV and PRV in vitro under different available chlorine concentrations (ACCs, 30, 50 and 70 mg/L), treatment times (5, 10 and 15 min) and temperatures (4, 20, 40 and 60°C), respectively. SAEW had a strong viricidal activity against both PRRSV and PRV. This activity increased with increasing ACC, treatment time and temperature. PRRSV and PRV titres of 7.0 log(10)TCID(50)/mL and 5.9 log(10)TCID(50)/mL, respectively, were completely inactivated by SAEW at an ACC of ? 50 mg/L for 10 min even though SAEW had no negative effect on the host cells. SAEW thus shows promise as a disinfectant for use on pig farms to reduce the spread of both PRRSV and PRV, and to limit the morbidity associated with those viruses. PMID:23489846

Hao, Xiaoxia; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jinliang; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Baoming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Cao, Wei

2013-08-01

62

Mutations within the nuclear localization signal of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein attenuate virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm, but the nucleocapsid (N) protein is specifically localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in virus-infected cells. A 'pat7' motif of 41-PGKK(N/S)KK has previously been identified in the N protein as the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS); however, the biological consequences of N protein nuclear localization are unknown. In the present study, the role of N protein nuclear localization during infection was investigated in pigs using an NLS-null mutant virus. When two lysines at 43 and 44 at the NLS locus were substituted to glycines, the modified NLS with 41-PGGGNKK restricted the N protein to the cytoplasm. This NLS-null mutation was introduced into a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. Upon transfection of cells, the NLS-null full-length clone induced cytopathic effects and produced infectious progeny. The NLS-null virus grew to a titer 100-fold lower than that of wild-type virus. To examine the response to NLS-null PRRSV in the natural host, three groups of pigs, consisting of seven animals per group, were intranasally inoculated with wild-type, placebo, or NLS-null virus, and the animals were maintained for 4 weeks. The NLS-null-infected pigs had a significantly shorter mean duration of viremia than wild-type-infected pigs but developed significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Mutations occurred at the NLS locus in one pig during viremia, and four types of mutations were identified: 41-PGRGNKK, 41-PGGRNKK, and 41-PGRRNKK, and 41-PGKKSKK. Both wild-type and NLS-null viruses persisted in the tonsils for at least 4 weeks, and the NLS-null virus persisting in the tonsils was found to be mutated to either 41-PGRGNKK or 41-PGGRNKK in all pigs. No other mutation was found in the N gene. All types of reversions which occurred during viremia and persistence were able to translocate the mutated N proteins to the nucleus, indicating a strong selection pressure for reversion at the NLS locus of the N protein in vivo. Reversions from NLS-null to functional NLS in the tonsils suggest a possible correlation of viral persistence with N protein nuclear localization. These results show that N protein nuclear localization is non-essential for PRRSV multiplication but may play an important role in viral attenuation and in pathogenesis in vivo.

Lee, Changhee [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Hodgins, Douglas [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Calvert, Jay G. [Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 (United States); Welch, Siao-Kun W. [Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 (United States); Jolie, Rika [Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

2006-03-01

63

Close Phylogenetic Relationship between Egg Drop Syndrome Virus, Bovine Adenovirus Serotype 7, and Ovine Adenovirus Strain 287  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cloned egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus genomic DNA fragment containing the protease gene has been identified and the complete nucleotide sequence of the protease and partial nucleotide sequence of the hexon genes has been determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the protease gene has revealed EDS virus to be genetically more closely related to bovine adenovirus type 7 (BAV-7) and ovine

Balázs Harrach; Brian M Meehan; Mária Benkö; Brian M Adair; Daniel Todd

1997-01-01

64

Serological survey for the prevalence of antibodies to egg drop syndrome 1976 virus in domesticated and wild birds in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serological survey of chicken, turkey, goose and duck flocks for the presence of antibodies to egg drop syndrome virus 1976 (EDS 76) has been carried out in Israel. In most of the chicken flocks sampled egg production was not normal, but no antibodies against this virus were detected. Likewise, turkey breeding flocks were similarly negative. All Pekin duck flocks

M. Malkinson; Y. Weisman

1980-01-01

65

Antibodies to egg?drop syndrome 76 virus in wild birds in possible conjunction with egg?shell problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies against egg drop syndrome 1976 (EDS 76) virus (strain 127) were detected with the aid of the haemagglutination inhibition test and virus neutralisation test in serum samples of two out of 381 owls, in one out of four storks, in one out of two swans and in one out of 18 wild geese. The antibody positive two owls and

E. F. Kaleta; S. E. D. Khalaf; O. Siegmann

1980-01-01

66

Infection of United States swine with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess the pathogenic effects of Type 2 highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) on healthy 10-week old commercial swine in the United States, viral kinetics and resultant disease caused by intranasal inoculation of such virus rescued from an infectious clo...

67

Studies on the carriage and transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by individual houseflies (Musca domestica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to determine the site of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in individual houseflies, to assess whether an individual housefly could transmit PRRSV to a susceptible pig, and to compare the ability of PCR, virus isolation and a pig bioassay to detect PRRSV in houseflies. In the first experiment 26 houseflies were fed

S. Otake; S. A. Dee; R. D. Moon; K. D. Rossow; C. Trincado; C. Pijoan

2004-01-01

68

Small molecule inhibitors of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) possess antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian and human pandemic influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are activated in course of many viral infections. Here we analyzed the activity of JNK inhibitors on influenza A virus (IAV) amplification. Human lung epithelial cells were infected with either the highly pathogenic avian virus strain A/FPV/Bratislava/79 (H7N7) or the pandemic swine-origin influenza virus A/Hamburg/4/09 (H1N1v). The application of the JNK inhibitors SP600125 and AS601245 reduced IAV amplification by suppressing viral protein and RNA synthesis. Although AS601245 appeared to generally block the transcription of newly introduced genes, SP600125 specifically affected viral RNA synthesis. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of SEK/MKK4 and siRNA-mediated suppression of JNK2 expression confirmed that specific manipulation of the JNK pathway attenuates virus propagation. An IAV minigenome replication assay revealed that SP600125 did not directly affect the activity of the viral RNA polymerase complex but seems to suppress an anti-influenza nonstructural protein 1-mediated virus supportive function. Finally, when H7N7- or H1N1v-infected mice were treated with SP600125, the viral load is reduced in lungs of treated compared with untreated mice. Our data suggest that this class of ATP competitive inhibitors once optimized for antiviral action potentially represent novel drugs for antiviral intervention. PMID:22628315

Nacken, Wolfgang; Ehrhardt, Christina; Ludwig, Stephan

2012-05-01

69

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein expressed by attenuated vaccinia virus protectively immunizes mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spike protein (S), a membrane component of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is anticipated to be an important component of candidate vaccines. We constructed recombinant forms of the highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) containing the gene encoding full-length SARS-CoV S with and without a C-terminal epitope tag called MVA\\/S-HA and MVA\\/S, respectively. Cells infected with MVA\\/Sor

Himani Bisht; Anjeanette Roberts; Leatrice Vogel; Alexander Bukreyev; Peter L. Collins; Brian R. Murphy; Kanta Subbarao; Bernard Moss

2004-01-01

70

Evaluation of Egg Drop Syndrome Virus Vaccines by Measuring Antibody Levels in Egg Yolk in Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two inactivated vaccines were prepared from locally isolated and characterized egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus using mineral oil and aluminium hydroxide as adjuvants. The immunogenicity of oil-based, alum-adsorbed and a commercial oil-based vaccine were determined in commercial layers. A total of 40 commercial layers of 16 weeks of age were procured and divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C

M. A. ILYAS; I. HUSSAIN; M. SIDDIQUE; M. H. RASOOL; M. K. MANSOOR; S. MANZOOR

71

Identification and characterization of penton base and pVIII protein of egg drop syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequence and location of the penton base and pVIII genes of the egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus, an avian adenovirus, were determined. The penton base gene is located at 34.8–38.8 map units. The coding sequence has a length of 1359 nt and encodes a polypeptide of 452 amino acids (aa) with a molecular weight of 51 105 Da.

K. Rohn; C. Prusas; G. Monreal; M. Hess

1997-01-01

72

Ultrastructural Characterisation of isolate 127 of egg drop syndrome 1976 virus as an adenovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus isolate 127 causing egg drop syndrome 1976 was purified and examined by electron microscopy. In CsCl equilibrium density gradients three bands could be visualised. Two bands at an apparent density of 1.32 g\\/ml, which could not be separated by fractionation, harboured high amounts of HA?activity and infectivity. Electron microscopic examination of these bands revealed particles of typical adenovirus morphology.

V. Kraft; S. Grund; G. Monreal

1979-01-01

73

The complete genomic sequence of egg drop syndrome virus strain AAV2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search for the genome of egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV-76) Chinese strain AAV-2, part of restriction endonuclease physical\\u000a map is analyzed, the complete genomic library is organized. On basis of this, the complete genome nucleotide sequences (32\\u000a 838 bp in length, including terminal structures) are determined. The data analysis shows: compared with the other Adenoviruses,\\u000a strain AAV-2 has

Qi Jin; Liyu Zeng; Fan Yang; Maoxiang Li; Yunde Hou

1999-01-01

74

The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Egg Drop Syndrome Virus: An Intermediate between Mastadenoviruses and Aviadenoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of an avian adenovirus, the egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus, was determined. The total genome length is 33,213 nucleotides, resulting in a molecular weight of 21.9 × 106. The GC content is only 42.5%. Between map units 3.5 and 76.9, the distribution of open reading frames with homology to known genes is similar to that reported

Michael Hess; Helmut Blöcker; Petra Brandt

1997-01-01

75

Outbreaks of egg drop syndrome due to EDS76 virus in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two outbreaks of the egg drop syndrome were observed in quail flocks maintained on a farm together with chickens. The decrease in egg production ranged from 10.6 per cent to 50.6 per cent, and the number of soft-shelled eggs increased with the decline in egg production. In both the outbreaks haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to EDS-76 virus were detected. Fluorescent viral

BB Das; HK Pradhan

1992-01-01

76

Genetic variation and pathogenicity of highly virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus emerging in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly pathogenic swine disease designated as ‘porcine high fever disease (PHFD)’ appeared recently in China. Porcine reproductive\\u000a and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was identified as an agent associated with PHFD, and two discontiguous sequence deletions\\u000a were identified as a genetic marker in the Nsp2 region of the viral genome. To examine PHFD in Shandong province, a total\\u000a of 10

J. Wu; J. Li; F. Tian; S. Ren; M. Yu; J. Chen; Z. Lan; X. Zhang; Dongwan Yoo; Jinbao Wang

2009-01-01

77

Molecular characterization of a highly pathogenetic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus variant in Hubei, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been recognized as one of the most important pathogens of\\u000a pigs throughout the world. In 2006, more than 10 provinces of China have experienced an epizootic outbreak of pig diseases\\u000a characterized by high fever, reddened skin and high morbidity and mortality. From June 2006 to April 2007, we have investigated\\u000a some clinical

Yi Huang; Bing Zhang; Zhen-fang Fu; Simon Rayner; Fang-liang Zheng; Wang-wang Liang; Ke-li Yang; Di-ping Xu; Han-zhong Wang

2009-01-01

78

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and Objective: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by avian influenza H5N1 viral infection has been reported in many humans since this virus was found to infect hu- mans in Hong Kong in 1997, but no studies regarding an animal model of ARDS with H5N1 viral infection have been found in the literature. Here we present a mouse

Tong Xu; Jian Qiao; Lihong Zhao; Guirong Wang; Guimei He; Kai Li; Yong Tian; Mingyu Gao; Jianlin Wang; Huiyu Wang; Changgui Dong

2006-01-01

79

Evaluation of contact exposure as a method for acclimatizing growing pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—To determine whether 6.5-week-old gilts that have not previously been ex- posed to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus can be acclimatized to an endemic strain of the virus by commingling with age-matched gilts inoculated with the endemic PRRS virus strain and whether 10.5-week-old gilts can be acclimatized by com- mingling with age-matched inoculated or contact-exposed animals. Design—Randomized controlled

Kapil Vashisht; Keith R. Erlandson; Lawrence D. Firkins; Federico A. Zuckermann; Tony L. Goldberg

2008-01-01

80

Sequence analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus of the American type collected from Danish swine herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Vaccine-like viruses of American type of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were detected in serum\\u000a samples by RT-PCR. The viruses were analysed by nucleotide sequencing of the genomic region encoding open reading frames 2\\u000a to 7. During the ongoing study of Danish isolates of PRRSV by means of nucleotide sequencing, RT-PCR reactions and subsequent\\u000a nucleotide sequencing showed the

K. G. Madsen; C. M. Hansen; E. S. Madsen; B. Strandbygaard; A. Bøtner; K. J. Sørensen

1998-01-01

81

Antibody production and blastogenic response in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed Central

Seven five-week piglets were infected intranasally with 10(5) TCID50 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus strain IAF.exp91. All virus-exposed pigs developed fever, labored abdominal breathing, conjunctivitis, and lymph node enlargement within the first 96 h postexposure (PE), which continued to d 10 to 14 PE. Two pigs that were necropsied at d 7 and 10 PE had diffuse interstitial pneumonitis, cardiopathy and lymphadenopathy. All 5 remaining pigs produced serum IgM and IgG antibodies against PRRS virus by 7 or 14 days PE, as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. This corresponded with the capability of isolating the virus from serum d 7 to d 49 or d 63 PE. Low serum neutralizing antibody titers were detected in 3 of the virus-exposed pigs by 35 days PE. A transient episode of diminished proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) was observed in the virus-exposed pigs at d 3 PE. However, in vitro spontaneous uptake of [3H]-thymidine was significantly increased in lymphocyte cultures of the same pigs at d 7 or d 14 PE. These results suggest polyclonal activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:8785726

Vézina, S A; Loemba, H; Fournier, M; Dea, S; Archambault, D

1996-01-01

82

Pathogenicity of swine influenza viruses possessing an avian or swine-origin PB2 polymerase gene evaluated in mouse and pig models  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Influenza A viruses isolated from birds normally contain a PB2 polymerase gene with the avian-signature glutamic acid (E) at position 627, while those isolated from humans contain the mammalian-signature lysine (K) at this position. This residue has been shown to be a determinant of host range and c...

83

Single-chain anti-idiotypic antibody retains its specificity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5.  

PubMed

Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (Mab2-5G2) raised against idiotypic antibodies to membrane glycoprotein GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The variable regions of the heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) of Mab2-5G2 were cloned and connected with a (Gly4Ser)3 linker. The recombinant scFv gene was cloned into the pEasy-E1 vector and expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies. The expressed scFv-His proteins renatured in a pH and urea gradient buffer retained the same immunological properties as that of Mab2-5G2. Renatured scFv-His protein retained the same characteristics as that of Mab2-5G2 by recognizing and binding to Marc-145 cells. Furthermore, renatured scFv-His along with Mab2-5G2 were used to immunize rabbits to produce anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab3) that neutralized PRRSV infection of Marc-145 cells. These results demonstrated that the expressed scFv-His protein possessed the same characteristics of Mab2-5G2 and will be suitable for future investigations of Mab2-5G2 antibody structure and its ability to interact with potential PRRSV cellular receptor as well as immunological properties against PRRSV infection. PMID:25448704

Yu, Ying; Wang, Gang; Li, Qiongyi; Du, Yongkun; Du, Taofeng; Mu, Yang; Xiao, Shuqi; Zhao, Qin; Wang, Chengbao; Sun, Yani; Xu, Xingang; Zhang, Gaiping; Hsu, Walter H; Cai, Xuehui; Zhou, En-Min

2015-01-01

84

Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 elicits mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses in mice  

PubMed Central

Currently, killed-virus and modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines are used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. However, both types of vaccines have inherent drawbacks; accordingly, the development of novel PRRSV vaccines is urgently needed. Previous studies have suggested that yeast possesses adjuvant activities, and it has been used as an expression vehicle to elicit immune responses to foreign antigens. In this report, recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing GP5 of HP-PRRSV (Yeast-GP5) was generated and immune responses to this construct were analyzed in mice. Intestinal mucosal PRRSV-specific sIgA antibody and higher levels of IFN-? in spleen CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were induced by oral administration of Yeast-GP5. Additionally, Yeast-GP5 administered subcutaneously evoked vigorous cell-mediated immunity, and PRRSV-specific lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-? secretion were detected in the splenocytes of mice. These results suggest that Yeast-GP5 has the potential for use as a vaccine for PRRSV in the future. PMID:24378591

Zhao, Haiyan; Wang, Yalan; Ma, Zhitao; Wang, Yongqiang

2014-01-01

85

Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and healthy controls in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence

William M Switzer; Hongwei Jia; Oliver Hohn; HaoQiang Zheng; Shaohua Tang; Anupama Shankar; Norbert Bannert; Graham Simmons; R Michael Hendry; Virginia R Falkenberg; William C Reeves; Walid Heneine

2010-01-01

86

Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Associated with Mumps Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder that is characterized by involuntary eye movements and myoclonus. OMS exhibits various etiologies, including paraneoplastic, parainfectious, toxic-metabolic, and idiopathic causes. The exact immunopathogenesis and pathophysiology of OMS are uncertain. Case Report We report the case of a 19-year-old male who developed opsoclonus and myoclonus several days after a flu-like illness. Serological tests revealed acute mumps infection. The findings of cerebrospinal fluid examinations and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. During the early phase of the illness, he suffered from opsoclonus and myoclonus that was so severe as to cause acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis. After therapies including intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient gradually improved and had fully recovered 2 months later. Conclusions This is the first report of OMS associated with mumps infection in Korea. Mumps infection should be considered in patients with OMS. PMID:25045383

Kang, Bong-Hui

2014-01-01

87

Hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic syndrome: interactions.  

PubMed

Significant concerns have been raised about the metabolic effects of antiretroviral medication, including the classic triad of dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance (IR) and characteristic alterations in fat distribution (lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy). Co-infection with hepatitis C appears to exacerbate IR, reduce serum lipids and induce prothrombotic changes in the treated human immunodeficiency virus patient. The effects of co-infection are complex. While combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events through promotion of dyslipidaemia, IR and fat redistribution, co-infection exacerbates IR while reducing serum lipids. Co-infection also promotes a prothrombotic state characterized by endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation, which may enhance risk for cardiovascular disease. Consideration must be given to selection of appropriate treatment regimens and timing of therapy in co-infected patients to minimize metabolic derangements and, ultimately, reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:19187071

Kotler, Donald P

2009-03-01

88

Hijacking of Host Calreticulin Is Required for the White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication Cycle  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope of purified WSSV virions. CRT was also found to be of high importance for proper oligomerization of the viral structural proteins VP26 and VP28, and when CRT glycosylation was blocked with tunicamycin, a significant decrease in both viral replication and assembly was detected. Together, these findings suggest that CRT confers several advantages to WSSV, from the initial steps of WSSV infection to the assembly of virions. Therefore, CRT is required as a “vital factor” and is hijacked by WSSV for its replication cycle. IMPORTANCE White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and the cause of a serious disease in a wide range of crustaceans that often leads to high mortality rates. We have previously shown that the protein calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell, is important in the host response to the virus. In this report, we show that the virus uses this host protein to enter the cell and to make the host produce new viral structural proteins. Through its interaction with two viral proteins, the virus “hijacks” host calreticulin and uses it for its own needs. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between a large DNA virus and the host protein CRT and may help in understanding the viral infection process in general. PMID:24807724

Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Guo, Enen; Tharntada, Sirinit; Lo, Chu-Fang; Söderhäll, Kenneth

2014-01-01

89

DNA condensates organized by the capsid protein VP15 in White Spot Syndrome Virus  

SciTech Connect

The White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has a large circular double-stranded DNA genome of around 300 kb and it replicates in the nucleus of the host cells. The machinery of how the viral DNA is packaged has been remained unclear. VP15, a highly basic protein, is one of the major capsid proteins found in the virus. Previously, it was shown to be a DNA binding protein and was hypothesized to participate in the viral DNA packaging process. Using Atomic Force Microscopy imaging, we show that the viral DNA is associated with a (or more) capsid proteins. The organized viral DNA qualitatively resembles the conformations of VP15 induced DNA condensates in vitro. Furthermore, single-DNA manipulation experiments revealed that VP15 is able to condense single DNA against forces of a few pico Newtons. Our results suggest that VP15 may aid in the viral DNA packaging process by directly condensing DNA.

Liu Yingjie, E-mail: phyyj@nus.edu.s [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Wu Jinlu [Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chen Hu [Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Hew, Choy Leong, E-mail: dbshewcl@nus.edu.s [Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Yan Jie [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Centre for Bioimaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

2010-12-20

90

Potential role of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus structural protein GP2 in apoptosis inhibition.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a serious threat to the pork industry, and its pathogenesis needs further investigations. To study the role of two structural proteins of PRRSV in virus-host cells interactions, two stable cell lines (MARC-2a and MARC-N) expressing GP2 and N proteins, respectively, were established. We induced apoptosis in these cells by treating them with staurosporine and found a significant reduction in the number of apoptotic cells in MARC-2a as compared to MARC-N and MARC-145 cells. In addition, we found significantly higher activities of transcriptional factors (NF- ? B and AP-1) in both cell lines as compared to MARC-145 (parent cells). Overall, our data suggest that, although both stable cell lines activate NF- ? B and AP-1, GP2 triggers the antiapoptotic process through an intermediate step that needs to be further investigated. PMID:24511529

Pujhari, Sujit; Baig, Tayyba T; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N

2014-01-01

91

Mild Clinical Course of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in an Elderly Japanese Patient  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious and hemorrhagic disease recently described in China and western Japan. A 71-year-old healthy Japanese woman noticed a tick biting her after harvesting in an orchard and removed it herself. She developed diarrhea, anorexia, and chills eight days later. Because these symptoms continued, she visited a primary care physician 6 days after the onset. Laboratory data revealed thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was then referred to our hospital. Although not completely fulfilling the diagnostic criteria used in a retrospective study in Japan, SFTS was suspected, and we detected SFTS virus in the patient's blood using RT-PCR. However, she recovered without intensive treatment and severe complications 13 days after the onset. In this report, we present a mild clinical course of SFTS virus infection in Japan in detail. PMID:25574405

Ohagi, Yuko; Nakamoto, Chiaki; Nakamoto, Hiromichi; Saijo, Masayuki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Nakano, Yoshio; Fujimoto, Tokuzo

2014-01-01

92

Potential Role of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Structural Protein GP2 in Apoptosis Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a serious threat to the pork industry, and its pathogenesis needs further investigations. To study the role of two structural proteins of PRRSV in virus-host cells interactions, two stable cell lines (MARC-2a and MARC-N) expressing GP2 and N proteins, respectively, were established. We induced apoptosis in these cells by treating them with staurosporine and found a significant reduction in the number of apoptotic cells in MARC-2a as compared to MARC-N and MARC-145 cells. In addition, we found significantly higher activities of transcriptional factors (NF-?B and AP-1) in both cell lines as compared to MARC-145 (parent cells). Overall, our data suggest that, although both stable cell lines activate NF-?B and AP-1, GP2 triggers the antiapoptotic process through an intermediate step that needs to be further investigated. PMID:24511529

Pujhari, Sujit; Baig, Tayyba T.; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N.

2014-01-01

93

Rapid detection of shrimp white spot syndrome virus by real time, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41 ± 0.17 min at 39 °C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics. PMID:25121957

Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

2014-01-01

94

Studies of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine boca-like virus and torque teno virus indicate the presence of multiple viral infections in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, using random amplification and large-scale sequencing technology, we identified a novel porcine parvovirus belonging to the genus Bocavirus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) in Swedish pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In addition to bocavirus we demonstrated the presence of torque teno virus (TTV) genogroups 1 and 2 in these cases

Anne-Lie Blomström; Sándor Belák; Caroline Fossum; Lisbeth Fuxler; Per Wallgren; Mikael Berg

2010-01-01

95

Cross-protective immunity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by intranasal delivery of a live virus vaccine with a potent adjuvant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an immunosuppressive chronic respiratory viral disease of pigs that is responsible for major economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. The efficacy of parenteral administration of widely used modified live virus PRRS vaccine (PRRS-MLV) against genetically divergent PRRSV strains remains questionable. Therefore, we evaluated an alternate and proven mucosal immunization approach by intranasal

Varun Dwivedi; Cordelia Manickam; Ruthi Patterson; Katie Dodson; Michael Murtaugh; Jordi B. Torrelles; Larry S. Schlesinger; Gourapura J. Renukaradhya

2011-01-01

96

Anti?cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in hepatitis C virus associated rheumatological manifestations and Sjögren's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the diagnostic reliability of anti?CCP antibodies (anti?CCP?Ab) in distinguishing hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated rheumatological manifestations and Sjögren's syndrome from rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 147 HCV infected patients (HCV RNA positive) were compared with 64 patients with definite rheumatoid arthritis in a retrospective study. Anti?CCP?Ab were detected using the Immunoscan ELISA kit (second generation) and rheumatoid factor (RF) by the FIDIS™ Rheuma kit. Results Among the 147 HCV infected patients (77 women; mean (SD) age 58 (16) years), 77 (52%) had a mixed cryoglobulin (MC), 38 (26%) an MC associated systemic vasculitis, 35 (24%) arthralgia/arthritis, and seven (5%) definite Sjögren's syndrome. HCV infected patients with arthralgia were more often RF positive than those without arthralgia (54% v 27%; p?=?0.003), but less often than patients with rheumatoid arthritis (54% v 81%; p?=?0.009). Anti?CCP?Ab were detected in only two HCV infected patients with arthralgia (5.7%), in none without arthralgia or with Sjögren's syndrome, and in 78% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With a specificity of 93.5% and a positive predictive value of 96% for rheumatoid arthritis, anti?CCP?Ab were the most specific biological marker. Conclusions Anti?CCP antibodies are very rarely found in HCV infected patients with rheumatological manifestations or Sjögren's syndrome. They are reliable serological markers to distinguish these from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:16474032

Sène, D; Ghillani?Dalbin, P; Limal, N; Thibault, V; van Boekel, T; Piette, J?C; Cacoub, P

2006-01-01

97

Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against viral infection, and in turn, viruses have evolved to evade host immune surveillance. As a result, viruses may persist in host and develop chronic infections. Type I interferons (IFN-?/?) are among the most potent antiviral cytokines triggered by viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of pigs that is characterized by negligible induction of type I IFNs and viral persistence for an extended period. For IFN production, RIG-I/MDA5 and JAK-STAT pathways are two major signaling pathways, and recent studies indicate that PRRS virus is armed to modulate type I IFN responses during infection. This review describes the viral strategies for modulation of type I IFN responses. At least three non–structural proteins (Nsp1, Nsp2, and Nsp11) and a structural protein (N nucleocapsid protein) have been identified and characterized to play roles in the IFN suppression and NF-?B pathways. Nsp’s are early proteins while N is a late protein, suggesting that additional signaling pathways may be involved in addition to the IFN pathway. The understanding of molecular bases for virus-mediated modulation of host innate immune signaling will help us design new generation vaccines and control PRRS. PMID:22590680

Sun, Yan; Han, Mingyuan; Kim, Chiyong; Calvert, Jay G.; Yoo, Dongwan

2012-01-01

98

Pathogenesis of in utero infection in porcine fetuses with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed Central

Porcine fetuses were exposed in utero to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) at stages of gestation ranging from 34 to 85 days and examined 17 to 31 days later to determine the effect of gestational age on fetal susceptibility. For each of the 8 litters tested during the study, all of the fetuses of 1 horn of the uterus were exposed to virus by intraamniotic injection; those of the other horn were exposed similarly to a sham inoculum that consisted of sterile cell culture medium. Viral infectivity titers associated with fetal tissues collected at necropsy indicated that, regardless of gestational age, the virus had replicated in fetuses exposed intraamniotically. In addition, virus had also spread and replicated in sham-inoculated littermates in 3 litters. On the basis of these findings it appears that there may be little or no temporal difference in fetal susceptibility to infection with PRRSV. If so, the lack of early fetal death as a commonly recognized feature of naturally occurring cases of PRRS may be due to a greater resistance of early gestational fetuses to the lethal effects of PRRSV, as suggested by this study, and/or a greater likelihood of transplacental infection during late gestation. PMID:8521351

Lager, K M; Mengeling, W L

1995-01-01

99

Pathogenesis and prevention of placental and transplacental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-induced reproductive problems are characterized by embryonic death, late-term abortions, early farrowing and increase in number of dead and mummified fetuses, and weak-born piglets. The virus recovery from fetal tissues illustrates transplacental infection, but despite many studies on the subject, the means by which PRRSV spreads from mother to fetus and the exact pathophysiological basis of the virus-induced reproductive failure remain unexplained. Recent findings from our group indicate that the endometrium and placenta are involved in the PRRSV passage from mother to fetus and that virus replication in the endometrial/placental tissues can be the actual reason for fetal death. The main purpose of this review is to clarify the role that PRRSV replication and PRRSV-induced changes in the endometrium/placenta play in the pathogenesis of PRRSV-induced reproductive failure in pregnant sows. In addition, strategies to control placental and transplacental PRRSV infection are discussed. PMID:24099529

2013-01-01

100

Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome (WSS) is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (nr) database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO) scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at . Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:17506900

Leu, Jiann-Horng; Chang, Chih-Chin; Wu, Jin-Lu; Hsu, Chun-Wei; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lo, Chu-Fang; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng

2007-01-01

101

Enhanced replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in a homogeneous subpopulation of MA104 cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two different cell populations, high- (MARC-145) and low-permissive cell clones (L-1) to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus, were derived from MA-104 cell line (parent cell: P) by cell cloning. Maximum virus yields in MARC-145, P, and L-1 cell clones were 108.5, 103.5, and 102.5 tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50)\\/0.1 ml, respectively. The MARC-145 cell clone supported

H. S. Kim; J. Kwang; I. J. Yoon; H. S. Joo; M. L. Frey

1993-01-01

102

PREPARATION OF CONJUGATE FOR USE IN AN ELISA FOR HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE AGAINST EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS IN LAYER CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed for the detection of antibodies against Egg Drop Syndrome (EDS) virus. Virus identification was done through haemaggluti- nation inhibition (HI) test using known antisera. Antichicken immunoglobulins were raised in goats and purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation technique. These goat-antichicken immunoglobulins were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Twenty-seven serum samples were collected from a

M. K. Mansoor; S. U. Rahman; I. Hussain; M. H. Rasool; M. A. Zahoor

103

Pharmacologic management of human immunodeficiency virus wasting syndrome.  

PubMed

Pharmacologic interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) wasting have been studied since the 1990s, but the results of these interventions have been difficult to compare because the studies used different HIV wasting definitions and assessed various patient outcomes. Thus, we performed a systematic review of the current literature to identify studies that evaluated pharmacologic management of HIV wasting and to compare and contrast treatment options. Further, we provide a comprehensive review of these treatment options and describe the definition of HIV wasting used in each study, the outcomes assessed, and whether antiretroviral therapy was used during the HIV wasting treatment. Literature searches of the PubMed/Medline (1946-2014) and Google Scholar databases were performed, and a review of the bibliographies of retrieved articles was performed to identify additional references. Only English-language articles pertaining to humans and HIV-infected individuals were evaluated. Thirty-six studies were identified that assessed pharmacologic interventions to treat HIV wasting. Appetite stimulants, such as megestrol acetate, have been shown to increase total body weight (TBW) and body mass index in HIV-infected patients with wasting. Studies evaluating dronabinol showed conflicting data on TBW increases, but the drug may have minimal benefit on body composition compared with other appetite stimulants. Testosterone has been shown to be effective in HIV wasting for those who suffer from hypogonadism. Recombinant human growth hormone has been evaluated for HIV wasting and has shown promising results for TBW and lean body mass increases. Thalidomide has been studied; however, its use is limited due to its toxicities. Although megestrol acetate and dronabinol are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV wasting, it is important to recognize other comorbidities such as depression or hypogonadism that may contribute to the patient's appetite and weight loss. If a patient is diagnosed with hypogonadism and HIV wasting, testosterone would be a good therapeutic option. Although mirtazapine is not FDA approved for the management of HIV wasting, it has been shown to promote weight gain while treating depression symptoms. Mirtazapine may be a promising pharmacologic option in the management of HIV wasting and depression, but further research is needed. PMID:24782295

Badowski, Melissa; Pandit, Neha Sheth

2014-08-01

104

Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are members of family Arteriviridae; they share many biological properties but differ significantly in cellular tropism. Using an infectious cDNA clone of EAV, we engineered a panel of six chimeric viruses b...

105

The M\\/GP5 Glycoprotein Complex of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Binds the Sialoadhesin Receptor in a Sialic Acid-Dependent Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major threat to swine health worldwide and is considered the most significant viral disease in the swine industry today. In past years, studies on the entry of the virus into its host cell have led to the identification of a number of essential virus receptors and entry mediators. However, viral

Wander Van Breedam; Hanne Van Gorp; Jiquan Q. Zhang; Paul R. Crocker; Peter L. Delputte; Hans J. Nauwynck

2010-01-01

106

Serological survey of wild birds in Australia for the prevalence of antibodies to egg drop syndrome 1976 (EDS?76) and infectious Bursal disease viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from 11 species of seasonal or sedentary wild water birds in Western Australia were examined for antibodies to viruses endemic in commercial chickens in Australia. Antibodies to two serotypes of infectious bursal disease virus, and to egg drop syndrome 1976 (EDS?76) virus were demonstrated in these sera.

G. E. Wilcox; R. L. P. Flower; W. Baxendale; J. S. Mackenzie

1983-01-01

107

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

108

[Hemophagocytic syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Presentation of a case and treatment in the Resuscitation Unit].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 17 year old male patient, who was admitted to the Resuscitation Unit with the diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome, associated with infection by Epstein-Barr virus with unfavorable outcome. Hemophagocytic syndrome is a pathological immune activation syndrome due to the production/uncontrolled modulation of some cytokines. Its clinical signs and symptoms, defined by consensus criteria HLH-2004, are not pathognomonic, and often appear sequentially, thus suspicion should be followed by aggressive supportive therapy combined with early specific treatment of the triggering factor, as it is the only way to improve survival in patients with multiple organic failure as a result. PMID:24468010

Figueiredo González, O; Iglesias Fernández, M; Río Gómez, A; Ulibarrena Redondo, C; Casas García, M L

2014-12-01

109

Persistence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in a swine operation.  

PubMed Central

A herd of Quebec seedstock pigs experienced in early 1992 a typical outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) associated with lesions of interstitial, proliferative and necrotizing pneumonia in weaned piglets. The nature of the infection was confirmed by serology using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and virus isolation in primary cultures of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM). Farm production recovered after eight weeks of losses. In order to evaluate the persistence of infection in the herd, five SPF-piglets were introduced in two different sections of the PRRS-affected barn four months after the disappearance of clinical symptoms, and two others were placed in a neighboring building with apparently healthy farrow-to-finnish pigs. Clinical signs, body temperature, humoral immune response, virological and histopathological findings were recorded over a 42-day period. Clinical signs were evident in all of the sentinels and prolonged fever (> or = 40 degrees C) was recorded one day post-exposure (PE). Antibody titers to PRRS virus could be detected by IIF on PAM seven days PE, and reached 1:1024 by day 21 PE. Three of the sentinels developed significant virus neutralizing antibody titers (> 1:8 to < or = 1:128) by day 35 PE. In all cases, the virus could be isolated from the serum between day 7 and 42 PE. Thus, the virus and specific antibodies coexisted for several weeks. Lesions of interstitial pneumonia was demonstrated in few animals. In experimental inoculation studies, the viral strain isolated from the sentinel pigs produced severe reproductive disorders in two sows inoculated at 95 days of gestation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2. PMID:7889462

Bilodeau, R; Archambault, D; Vézina, S A; Sauvageau, R; Fournier, M; Dea, S

1994-01-01

110

An Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Switzerland Following Import of Boar Semen.  

PubMed

An outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in November 2012 in Switzerland (CH), traditionally PRRSV-free. It was detected after a German boar stud informed a semen importer about the detection of PRRSV during routine monitoring. Tracing of semen deliveries revealed 26 Swiss sow herds that had used semen from this stud after its last negative routine monitoring and 62 further contact herds. All herds were put under movement restrictions and examined serologically and virologically. As a first measure, 59 sows from five herds that had previously been inseminated with suspicious semen were slaughtered and tested immediately. Investigations in the stud resulted in 8 positive boars with recent semen deliveries to CH (Seven with antibodies and virus, one with antibodies only). In one boar out of six tested, virus was detected in semen. Of the 59 slaughtered sows, five from three herds were virus-positive. In one herd, the virus had spread, and all pigs were slaughtered or non-marketable animals euthanized. In the remaining herds, no further infections were detected. After confirmatory testings in all herds 3 weeks after the first examination gave negative results, restrictions were lifted in January 2013, and Switzerland regained its PRRSV-free status. The events demonstrate that import of semen from non-PRRS-free countries - even from negative studs - poses a risk, because monitoring protocols in boar studs are often insufficient to timely detect an infection, and infections of sows/herds occur even with low numbers of semen doses. The outbreak was eradicated successfully mainly due to the high disease awareness of the importer and because immediate actions were taken before clinical or laboratory diagnosis of a single case in the country was made. To minimize the risk of an introduction of PRRSV in the future, stricter import guidelines for boar semen have been implemented. PMID:25209832

Nathues, C; Perler, L; Bruhn, S; Suter, D; Eichhorn, L; Hofmann, M; Nathues, H; Baechlein, C; Ritzmann, M; Palzer, A; Grossmann, K; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Thür, B

2014-09-11

111

Risks and prevention of severe RS virus infection among children with immunodeficiency and Down's syndrome.  

PubMed

By the age of two years, almost all infants are infected with the Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). One of the main causes of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis and pneumonia at this age is RSV infection. In addition to well-known risks for severe RSV disease, such as prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and congenital heart disease, immunodeficiencies, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome or neuromuscular diseases have also been identified as risks. While the medical needs for RSV prevention in these risk groups are high, clinical evidence to support this is limited. Palivizumab was recently approved in Japan for prophylaxis in children with immunodeficiency or Down's syndrome. A clinical guidance protocol for the prevention of RSV infection using Palivizumab in these risk groups is provided here on the basis of a review of the available literature and on expert opinion. Thus, the present article reviews the published literature related to RSV infections in infants and children with immunodeficiencies or Down's syndrome in order to outline the risks, pathology and physiology of severe RSV disease in these patient groups. The purpose of this article is to facilitate understanding of the medical scientific bases for the clinical guidance. PMID:24929631

Mori, Masaaki; Morio, Tomohiro; Ito, Shuichi; Morimoto, Akira; Ota, Setsuo; Mizuta, Koichi; Iwata, Tsutomu; Hara, Toshiro; Saji, Tsutomu

2014-08-01

112

Survival of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Pork Products.  

PubMed

There is a risk of virus transmission through contaminated pork, and many viruses are considered potential hazards for both humans and livestock. The risk of transmission may be elevated with importation/exportation of meat between countries globally. Survival of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in different pork products has not been studied. The present study evaluated PRRSV survival in four different products: fresh sausage, ham, bacon, and acidified sausage prepared with experimentally contaminated pork. These products were prepared according to standard methods used by the manufacturers of pork products, and then stored at room temperature, 4 °C and -20 °C. PRRSV was detected only in fresh sausage for up to 15 days at 4 °C and for 30 days at -20 °C. No PRRSV was detected at any temperature in any of the other three products. These preliminary data provide valuable information for the pork processing industry, as well as in planning for import/export of these products among different countries. PMID:23760750

Guarino, Helena; Cox, Ryan B; Goyal, Sagar M; Patnayak, Devi P

2013-06-13

113

Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Infection as a Possible Cause of Ogilvie's Syndrome in an Immunocompromised Host  

PubMed Central

We describe an immunodeficient adult with Ogilvie's syndrome preceding a disseminated papulovesicular skin rash in whom varicella-zoster virus infection was demonstrated by PCR assay in cutaneous and colonic biopsy specimens. In view of the significant morbidity and mortality that this condition carries, early and accurate molecular diagnosis and timely treatment are strongly recommended. PMID:24808241

Salcines-Caviedes, José R.; Román, Javier Gómez; Cano-Hoz, Marta; Fernández-Ayala, Marta; Casuso-Sáenz, Elena; Abascal-Carrera, Ismael; Campo-Ruiz, Ana; Martín, Marta Cobo; Díaz-Pérez, Ainhoa; González-Gutiérrez, Pablo; Aguado, José M.

2014-01-01

114

ISOLATION OF EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS AND ITS MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus were recovered from five different outbreaks of EDS in commercial laying hens in and around Faisalabad. The aberrant eggs were fed to the susceptible laying hens for experimental induction of infection. The samples from infected birds (egg washing, cloacal swabs, oviducts and spleens) were collected, processed and inoculated into 11-day old duck

M. H. Rasool; S. U. Rahman; M. K. Mansoor

2005-01-01

115

What High School Students Who Are Mildly Mentally Retarded Know about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alabama high school students (N=309) with mild mental retardation completed a questionnaire concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and sources of information about human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Students demonstrated some basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and expressed some concern about getting AIDS. They…

Cobb, Hazel B.; Horn, Charles J., Jr.

116

Clinical and pathological responses of pigs from two genetically diverse commercial lines to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The response to infection from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) for two genetically diverse commercial pig lines was investigated. Seventy two pigs from each line, aged 6 weeks, were challenged with PRRSV VR-2385, and 66 littermates served as control. The clinical response...

117

Pathogenesis and antigenic characterization of a new East European subtype 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is divided into a European and North American genotype. East European PRRSV isolates have been found to be of the European genotype, but form different subtypes. In the present study, PRRSV was isolated from a Belarusian farm with reproductive and respiratory failure and designated \\

Uladzimir U Karniychuk; Marc Geldhof; Merijn Vanhee; Jan Van Doorsselaere; Tamara A Saveleva; Hans J Nauwynck

2010-01-01

118

Detection and Typing of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus by Multiplex Real-Time RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes economic losses in the pig industry worldwide, and PRRS viruses (PRRSV) are classified into the two distinct genotypes “North American (NA, type 2)” and “European (EU, type 1)”. In 2006, a highly pathogenic NA strain of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), characterized by high fever as well as high morbidity and mortality, emerged in swine farms

Kerstin Wernike; Bernd Hoffmann; Malte Dauber; Elke Lange; Horst Schirrmeier; Martin Beer

2012-01-01

119

THE IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MACROPHAGES TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS VARIES BETWEEN GENETICALLY DIVERSE LINES OF PIGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be responsible for financial losses in the swine industry worldwide. It remains undetermined whether genetic variability of the host in susceptibility to PRRSV exists and if this variability can be exploited to help control thi...

120

The vOTU domain of highly-pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus displays a differential substrate preference  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arterivirus genus member Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes an economically devastating disease that presents global concerns to the pork industry, which have been exacerbated by the emergence of a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (HP-PRRSV) in China and Southeast Asia....

121

Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus  

SciTech Connect

The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa.

Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lin Shumei [School of life science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yanga Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

2005-07-05

122

Mycoplasma pneumoniae preceding Lemierre's syndrome due to Fusobacterium nucleatum complicated by acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis in an immunocompetent host.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of Lemierre's syndrome due to a rare species of Fusobacterium, that is, Fusobacterium nucleatum preceded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae pharyngitis and followed later by Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis. PMID:22464641

Klein, Natalie C; Petelin, Andrew; Cunha, Burke A

2013-01-01

123

Epidemiology of egg drop syndrome virus in ducks from South Korea.  

PubMed

Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is an important pathogen of poultry that decreases egg production in chickens and causes respiratory disease in goslings. In 2011, we obtained serum samples from 139 domestic Pekin ducks, 416 one-day-old Pekin ducklings, and 75 wild ducks (67 mallards and 8 pintails) to survey their exposure to EDSV. A total of 123 of 139 sera (88.5%) from Pekin ducks, 396 of the ducklings (95.2%), and 16 of 67 mallards (23.9%) were positive. Field cases of EDSV in wild and domestic ducks were investigated. Six cases from domestic Pekin ducks were identified by PCR detection and were used for virus isolation and molecular analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial hexon and full fiber genes showed that the D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017 strains among 6 isolates belonged to different clusters compared with other known strains including the 127 strain. We assessed cell growth efficiency by hemagglutination (HA) titers and cytopathic effects in duck embryo liver cells and chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells to investigate host adaptation. The D11-JW-017 strain propagated more in chicken embryo liver than the D11-JW-012 strain and the field isolate from chickens. Our results demonstrate the high prevalence of EDSV in wild and domestic ducks in South Korea and provide information on EDSV from ducks that showed variable adaptability in chickens. PMID:23776265

Cha, S-Y; Kang, M; Park, C-K; Choi, K-S; Jang, H-K

2013-07-01

124

Respiratory disease due to current egg drop syndrome virus in Pekin ducks.  

PubMed

Severe acute respiratory symptoms with coughing, dyspnea, and gasping were reported in two flocks of 9-day-old Pekin ducklings from different provinces. Gross lesions, white exudate and mucous membrane congestion in the trachea as well as blue to purple color changes and sclerosis in lungs were observed. Histological lesions revealed that the trachea and bronchial epithelium were hyperplastic and infiltrated by neutrophil granulocytes. Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) was differentially diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction, and the strains were isolated from tracheas and lungs by inoculation of 10-day-old embryonated duck eggs. The virus isolates were designated strain D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017. The clinical and pathological signs were reproduced by intra-tracheal inoculation of the isolates in 3-day-old ducklings. Although the two isolates produced similar clinical signs, pathological lesions and ciliostasis, the D11-JW-017 strain resulted in more severe clinical signs with progressive symptoms compared to those of D11-JW-012 strain-infected ducklings. We suggest that different EDSV strains with mild or severe to moderate pathogenicity coexist and have potential risks in poultry. Hereby, we report an EDSV infection in ducklings. PMID:23639475

Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kang, Min; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Park, Choi-Kyu; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

2013-08-30

125

Characterization and Interactome Study of White Spot Syndrome Virus Envelope Protein VP11  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV viral particle consists of three structural layers that surround its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. Here we characterize the WSSV structural protein VP11 (WSSV394, GenBank accession number AF440570), and use an interactome approach to analyze the possible associations between this protein and an array of other WSSV and host proteins. Temporal transcription analysis showed that vp11 is an early gene. Western blot hybridization of the intact viral particles and fractionation of the viral components, and immunoelectron microscopy showed that VP11 is an envelope protein. Membrane topology software predicted VP11 to be a type of transmembrane protein with a highly hydrophobic transmembrane domain at its N-terminal. Based on an immunofluorescence assay performed on VP11-transfected Sf9 cells and a trypsin digestion analysis of the virion, we conclude that, contrary to topology software prediction, the C-terminal of this protein is in fact inside the virion. Yeast two-hybrid screening combined with co-immunoprecipitation assays found that VP11 directly interacted with at least 12 other WSSV structural proteins as well as itself. An oligomerization assay further showed that VP11 could form dimers. VP11 is also the first reported WSSV structural protein to interact with the major nucleocapsid protein VP664. PMID:24465701

Liu, Wang-Jing; Shiung, Hui-Jui; Lo, Chu-Fang; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lai, Ying-Jang; Lee, Tai-Lin; Huang, Wei-Tung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Chang, Yun-Shiang

2014-01-01

126

Crayfish hematopoietic tissue cells but not hemocytes are permissive for white spot syndrome virus replication.  

PubMed

Hemocytes are the major immune cells of crustaceans which are believed to be essential for the pathogenesis of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Crayfish hemocytes and hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cells have been found to be susceptible to WSSV infection, but the procedure of WSSV infection to both cell types has not yet been carefully investigated. In this study, we analyzed the infection and proliferation of WSSV in crayfish hemocytes as well as HPT cells in detail through transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The results showed that WSSV could enter both hemocytes and HPT cells through endocytosis, but the production of progeny virus was only achieved in HPT cells. Further investigation demonstrated that although WSSV could transcribe its genes in both cell types, viral genome replication and structural protein expression were unsuccessful in hemocytes, which may be responsible for the failure of progeny production. Therefore, we propose that both hemocytes and HPT cells are susceptible to WSSV infection but only HPT cells are permissive to WSSV replication. These findings will extend our knowledge of the interaction between WSSV and the host immune system. PMID:25541079

Wu, Junjun; Li, Fang; Huang, Jiajun; Xu, Limei; Yang, Feng

2015-03-01

127

Inhibition of HSP70 reduces porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Successful viral infection requires the involvement of host cellular factors in their life cycle. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) can be recruited by numerous viruses to promote the folding, maturation, or assembly of viral proteins. We have previously shown that HSP70 is significantly elevated in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected lungs, suggesting HSP70 may play a potential role during PRRSV infection. In this study, we tried to investigate the role of HSP70 during PRRSV infection. Results In this study, we observed that PRRSV infection induced the expression of HSP70. The down-regulation of HSP70 using quercetin, a HSPs synthesis inhibitor, or small interfering RNAs (siRNA) reduced the viral protein level and viral production. Notably, these inhibitory effects on PRRSV infection could be attenuated by heat shock treatment. In addition, HSP70 was found to colocalize with the viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and knockdown of HSP70 decreased the dsRNA levels, suggesting HSP70 is involved in the formation of viral replication and transcription complex (RTC) and thus affects the viral replication. Conclusions Our study revealed that HSP70 is an essential host factor required for the replication of PRRSV. The inhibition of HSP70 significantly reduced PRRSV replication, which may be applied as an effective antiviral strategy. PMID:24625230

2014-01-01

128

Protection of Penaeus monodon against White Spot Syndrome Virus by Oral Vaccination  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the shrimp farming industry. No adequate treatments against this virus are available. It is generally accepted that invertebrates such as shrimp do not have an adaptive immune response system such as that present in vertebrates. As it has been demonstrated that shrimp surviving a WSSV infection have higher survival rates upon subsequent rechallenge, we investigated the potential of oral vaccination of shrimp with subunit vaccines consisting of WSSV virion envelope proteins. Penaeus monodon shrimp were fed food pellets coated with inactivated bacteria overexpressing two WSSV envelope proteins, VP19 and VP28. Vaccination with VP28 showed a significant lower cumulative mortality compared to vaccination with bacteria expressing the empty vectors after challenge via immersion (relative survival, 61%), while vaccination with VP19 provided no protection. To determine the onset and duration of protection, challenges were subsequently performed 3, 7, and 21 days after vaccination. A significantly higher survival was observed both 3 and 7 days postvaccination (relative survival, 64% and 77%, respectively), but the protection was reduced 21 days after the vaccination (relative survival, 29%). This suggests that contrary to current assumptions that invertebrates do not have a true adaptive immune system, a specific immune response and protection can be induced in P. monodon. These experiments open up new ways to benefit the WSSV-hampered shrimp farming industry. PMID:14747570

Witteveldt, Jeroen; Cifuentes, Carolina C.; Vlak, Just M.; van Hulten, Mariëlle C. W.

2004-01-01

129

Experimental Inoculation of Conventional Pigs with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Circovirus 2  

PubMed Central

Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a disease of nursery and fattening pigs characterized by growth retardation, paleness of the skin, dyspnea, and increased mortality rates. Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been demonstrated to be the cause of PMWS. However, other factors are needed for full development of the syndrome, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection has been suggested to be one of them. Twenty-four conventional 5-week-old pigs were distributed in four groups: control (n = 5), PRRSV inoculated (n = 5), PCV2 inoculated (n = 7), and PRRSV and PCV2 inoculated (n = 7). The two groups inoculated with PRRSV showed growth retardation. Pigs inoculated with both PRRSV and PCV2 had increased rectal temperature. One of these pigs developed wasting, had severe respiratory distress, and died. The most important microscopic lesion in pigs inoculated with PCV2 was lymphocyte depletion with histiocytic infiltration of the lymphoid organs, more severe and in a wider range of tissues in doubly inoculated pigs. Interstitial pneumonia was observed in the three inoculated groups. PCV2 nucleic acid was found by in situ hybridization in larger amounts and in a wider range of lymphoid tissues in PRRSV- and PCV2-inoculated than in PCV2-inoculated pigs. TaqMan PCR was performed to quantify the PCV2 loads in serum during the experiment. PCV2 loads were higher in doubly inoculated pigs than in pigs inoculated with PCV2 alone. These findings indicate that severe disease can be reproduced in conventional 5-week-old pigs by inoculation of PRRSV and PCV2. Moreover, these results support the hypothesis that PRRSV infection enhances PCV2 replication. PMID:11884547

Rovira, A.; Balasch, M.; Segalés, J.; García, L.; Plana-Durán, J.; Rosell, C.; Ellerbrok, H.; Mankertz, A.; Domingo, M.

2002-01-01

130

Suppression of the Interferon and NF-?B Responses by Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, multiorgan dysfunction, and a high fatality rate between 12 and 30%. It is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel Phlebovirus in family Bunyaviridae. Although the viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown, hemopoietic cells appear to be targeted by the virus. In this study we report that human monocytes were susceptible to SFTSV, which replicated efficiently, as shown by an immunofluorescence assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. We examined host responses in the infected cells and found that antiviral interferon (IFN) and IFN-inducible proteins were induced upon infection. However, our data also indicated that downregulation of key molecules such as mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) or weakened activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and NF-?B responses may contribute to a restricted innate immunity against the infection. NSs, the nonstructural protein encoded by the S segment, suppressed the beta interferon (IFN-?) and NF-?B promoter activities, although NF-?B activation appears to facilitate SFTSV replication in human monocytes. NSs was found to be associated with TBK1 and may inhibit the activation of downstream IRF and NF-?B signaling through this interaction. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the nucleoprotein (N), also encoded by the S segment, exhibited a suppressive effect on the activation of IFN-? and NF-?B signaling as well. Infected monocytes, mainly intact and free of apoptosis, may likely be implicated in persistent viral infection, spreading the virus to the circulation and causing primary viremia. Our findings provide the first evidence in dissecting the host responses in monocytes and understanding viral pathogenesis in humans infected with a novel deadly Bunyavirus. PMID:22623799

Qu, Bingqian; Qi, Xian; Wu, Xiaodong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J.; Xu, Wayne; Tang, Fenyang; Li, Zhifeng; Wu, Bing; Powell, Kira; Wegner, Marta; Li, Dexin

2012-01-01

131

Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS) outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7) have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity

Min Xu; Shujie Wang; Linxi Li; Liancheng Lei; Yonggang Liu; Wenda Shi; Jiabin Wu; Liqin Li; Fulong Rong; Mingming Xu; Guangli Sun; Hua Xiang; Xuehui Cai

2010-01-01

132

Schizophrenia or possession?  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is typically a life-long condition characterized by acute symptom exacerbations and widely varying degrees of functional disability. Some of its symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, produce great subjective psychological pain. The most common delusion types are as follows: "My feelings and movements are controlled by others in a certain way" and "They put thoughts in my head that are not mine." Hallucinatory experiences are generally voices talking to the patient or among themselves. Hallucinations are a cardinal positive symptom of schizophrenia which deserves careful study in the hope it will give information about the pathophysiology of the disorder. We thought that many so-called hallucinations in schizophrenia are really illusions related to a real environmental stimulus. One approach to this hallucination problem is to consider the possibility of a demonic world. Demons are unseen creatures that are believed to exist in all major religions and have the power to possess humans and control their body. Demonic possession can manifest with a range of bizarre behaviors which could be interpreted as a number of different psychotic disorders with delusions and hallucinations. The hallucination in schizophrenia may therefore be an illusion-a false interpretation of a real sensory image formed by demons. A local faith healer in our region helps the patients with schizophrenia. His method of treatment seems to be successful because his patients become symptom free after 3 months. Therefore, it would be useful for medical professions to work together with faith healers to define better treatment pathways for schizophrenia. PMID:23269538

Irmak, M Kemal

2014-06-01

133

Defining the Cellular Target(s) of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Blocking Monoclonal Antibody 7G10  

Microsoft Academic Search

We produced a monoclonal antibody (MAb) (7G10) that has blocking activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, we identified the components of the 7G10 MAb-bound complex as cytoskeletal filaments: vimentin, cytokeratin 8, cytokeratin 18, actin, and hair type II basic keratin. Vimentin bound to PRRSV nucleocapsid protein and anti-vimentin antibodies showed PRRSV-blocking activ- ity. Vimentin

Jeong-Ki Kim; Al-Majhdi Fahad; Kumar Shanmukhappa; Sanjay Kapil

2006-01-01

134

Detection of egg drop syndrome virus antigen or genome by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay orpolymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against an Indian isolate of egg drop syndrome (EDS)virus and characterized. Four hybridoma clones were secreting mAbs that bound to a 100 kDa protein,presumably the hexon protein. These mAbs were found to cross-react with two other Indian isolates of EDSvirus and to the reference UK 127 strain. Three of these mAbs were mapped to

G. Dhinakar Raj; S. Sivakumar; K. Matheswaran; M. Chandrasekhar; V. Thiagarajan; K. Nachimuthu

2003-01-01

135

Seroprevalence of egg drop syndrome - 76 virus as cause of poor egg productivity of poultry in Nsukka, South East Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if egg drop syndrome 76 virus infection is among the causes of lowered egg productivity in commercial poultry\\u000a farms in South Eastern Part of Nigeria and to know the prevalence of the infection, ten farms with history of lowered egg\\u000a production in Nsukka local government area of Enugu State were randomly selected. Sera from ten hens in each

M. C. O Ezeibe; O. N. Okoroafor; J. I. Eze; I. C. Eze

2008-01-01

136

Development of a vaccine vector based on a subgenomic replicon of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a DNA-launched subgenomic replicon of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was developed for use as a vaccine vector. This replicon plasmid contained a PRRSV subgenome without structural genes ORF2–ORF6, and was under the transcriptional control of the immediate-early promoter of cytomegalovirus (CMV). Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a reporter gene, the DNA-launched subgenomic

Qinfeng Huang; Qingxia Yao; Huiying Fan; Shaobo Xiao; Youhui Si; Huanchun Chen

2009-01-01

137

Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of a Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Variant in Piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since May 2006, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) variant characterized by 30 amino acids deletion within its NSP2-coding region emerged and caused extensive economic losses to China's pig industry. To investigate the in vivo pathogenicity and immune responses of the newly emerging PRRSV, 3 groups of 60-d-old conventional piglets were inoculated intranasally with a representative

Tian-chao WEI; Zhi-jun TIAN; Yan-jun ZHOU; Tong-qing AN; Yi-feng JIANG; Yan XIAO; Shouping HU; Jin-mei PENG; Xiao-fang HAO; Shan-rui ZHANG; Guang-zhi TONG

2011-01-01

138

CD4+ and CD8+ cells accumulate in the brains of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that CD4+ T lymphocytes accumulate in brains of end-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)\\u000a patients, we examined T-lymphocyte subsets in the CA1, CA3, and CA4 regions of the hippocampus of AIDS patients with (n = 10) and without (n = 11) human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (HIVE) plus controls (n = 7). HIV p24 antigen was common in

C. K. Petito; B. Adkins; M. McCarthy; B. Roberts; I. Khamis

2003-01-01

139

Immunogenicity of recombinant GP5 protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressed in tobacco plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the ORF5-encoded major envelop glycoprotein 5 (GP5) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) expressed in tobacco plant as a potential pig oral vaccine in protection against PRRSV infection. Six-week-old PRRSV-free pigs were fed four times orally with 50g of chopped fresh GP5 transgenic tobacco leaves (GP5-T) (GP5

Min-Yuan Chia; Shih-Hsuan Hsiao; Hui-Ting Chan; Yi-Yin Do; Pung-Ling Huang; Hui-Wen Chang; Yi-Chieh Tsai; Chun-Ming Lin; Victor Fei Pang; Chian-Ren Jeng

2010-01-01

140

A Lethal Disease Model for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters Infected with Sin Nombre Virus  

PubMed Central

Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model. PMID:24198421

Brocato, Rebecca L.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Bell, Todd M.; Wells, Jay B.; Queen, Laurie A.

2014-01-01

141

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Review article PRRSV, the virus Janneke J.M. MEULENBERG Department of Virology, Institute Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virusDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

Characterization of the microRNAome in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infected Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), a member of the arterivirus family, is the causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). PRRS is characterized by late term abortions and respiratory disease, particularly in young pigs. Small regulatory RNAs termed microRNA (miRNA) are associated with gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs are known to play many diverse and complex roles in viral infections. To discover the impact of PRRSV infections on the cellular miRNAome, Illumina deep sequencing was used to construct small RNA expression profiles from in vitro cultured PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). A total of forty cellular miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed within the first 48 hours post infection (hpi). The expression of six miRNAs, miR-30a-3p, miR-132, miR-27b*, miR-29b, miR-146a and miR-9-2, were altered at more than one time point. Target gene identification suggests that these miRNAs are involved in regulating immune signaling pathways, cytokine, and transcription factor production. The most highly repressed miRNA at 24 hpi was miR-147. A miR-147 mimic was utilized to maintain miR-147 levels in PRRSV-infected PAMs. PRRSV replication was negatively impacted by high levels of miR-147. Whether down-regulation of miR-147 is directly induced by PRRSV or if it is part of the cellular response and PRRSV indirectly benefits remains to be determined. No evidence could be found of PRRSV-encoded miRNAs. Overall, the present study has revealed that a large and diverse group of miRNAs are expressed in swine alveolar macrophages and that the expression of a subset of these miRNAs is altered in PRRSV infected macrophages. PMID:24339989

A. Hicks, Julie; Yoo, Dongwan; Liu, Hsiao-Ching

2013-01-01

143

Characterization of homologous and heterologous adaptive immune responses in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection  

PubMed Central

The present study characterized the homologous and heterologous immune response in type-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Two experiments were conducted: in experiment 1, eight pigs were inoculated with PRRSV strain 3262 and 84?days post-inoculation (dpi) they were challenged with either strain 3262 or strain 3267 and followed for the next 14?days (98 dpi). In experiment 2, eight pigs were inoculated with strain 3267 and challenged at 84 dpi as above. Clinical course, viremia, humoral response (neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, NA) and virus-specific IFN-? responses (ELISPOT) were evaluated all throughout the study. Serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and TGF-? were determined (ELISA) after the second challenge. In experiment 1 primo-inoculation with strain 3262 induced viremia of???28?days, low titres of homologous NA but strong IFN-? responses. In contrast, strain 3267 induced longer viremias (up to 56?days), higher NA titres (? 6 log2) and lower IFN-? responses. Inoculation with 3267 produced higher serum IL-8 levels. After the re-challenge at 84 dpi, pigs in experiment 1 developed mostly a one week viremia regardless of the strain used. In experiment 2, neither the homologous nor the heterologous challenge resulted in detectable viremia although PRRSV was present in tonsils of some animals. Homologous re-inoculation with 3267 produced elevated TGF-? levels in serum for 7–14?days but this did not occur with the heterologous re-inoculation. In conclusion, inoculation with different PRRSV strains result in different virological and immunological outcomes and in different degrees of homologous and heterologous protection. PMID:22515169

2012-01-01

144

Age-dependent resistance to Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in swine  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a prolonged, economically devastating infection in pigs, and immune resistance to infection appears variable. Since the porcine adaptive immune system is not fully competent at birth, we hypothesized that age influences the dynamics of PRRSV infection. Thus, young piglets, growing 16-20-week-old finisher pigs, and mature third parity sows were infected with virulent or attenuated PRRSV, and the dynamics of viral infection, disease, and immune response were monitored over time. Results Virulent PRRSV infection and disease were markedly more severe and prolonged in young piglets than in finishers or sows. Attenuated PRRSV in piglets also produced a prolonged viremia that was delayed and reduced in magnitude, and in finishers and sows, about half the animals showed no viremia. Despite marked differences in infection, antibody responses were observed in all animals irrespective of age, with older pigs tending to seroconvert sooner and achieve higher antibody levels than 3-week-old animals. Interferon ? (IFN ?) secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells were more abundant in sows but not specifically increased by PRRSV infection in any age group, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in blood were not correlated with PRRSV infection status. Conclusion These findings show that animal age, perhaps due to increased innate immune resistance, strongly influences the outcome of acute PRRSV infection, whereas an antibody response is triggered at a low threshold of infection that is independent of age. Prolonged infection was not due to IL-10-mediated immunosuppression, and PRRSV did not elicit a specific IFN ? response, especially in non-adult animals. Equivalent antibody responses were elicited in response to virulent and attenuated viruses, indicating that the antigenic mass necessary for an immune response is produced at a low level of infection, and is not predicted by viremic status. Thus, viral replication was occurring in lung or lymphoid tissues even though viremia was not always observed. PMID:19860914

Klinge, Kelly L; Vaughn, Eric M; Roof, Michael B; Bautista, Elida M; Murtaugh, Michael P

2009-01-01

145

Epstein-Barr virus and the lacrimal gland pathology of Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland (LG) immunopathology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) consists of a proliferation of B and CD4 lymphocytes surrounding epithelial structures (Pepose JS, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:1599-1605). Based on the detection of EBV genomes in a greater percentage of SS than normal LG biopsies, we previously postulated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a risk factor for LG lymphoproliferation in SS (Pflugfelder SC, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:976-984). The purpose of this study was to determine the cellular site(s) of infection, virus type, and antigen expression of EBV infecting normal and SS LGs. EBV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in intraductal epithelia in 13-33% of lobules in 21% of normal LGs and in cells in areas of B lymphoproliferation as well as the majority of epithelia in 86% of SS LGs. EBV genomic sequences were amplified from 36% of normal and 88% of SS LG biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. Only type 1 EBV sequences were amplified in SS LGs; in contrast EBV nuclear antigen 2-deleted but not type 1 sequences were amplified in normal LGs. Immunohistochemistry with EBV-specific monoclonal antibodies was performed on normal and SS LGs. No EBV antigens were detected in normal LGs. In contrast, latent antigens (latent membrane protein, EBV nuclear antigen 2) were detected in lymphocytes in areas of B lymphoproliferation, and early and late lytic cycle antigens were observed in epithelia in SS LGs. These studies suggest that EBV may play a role in the LG B lymphoproliferation and epithelial pathologic changes observed in SS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8391219

Pflugfelder, S. C.; Crouse, C. A.; Monroy, D.; Yen, M.; Rowe, M.; Atherton, S. S.

1993-01-01

146

Co-Interactive DNA-Binding between a Novel, Immunophilin-Like Shrimp Protein and VP15 Nucleocapsid Protein of White Spot Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most serious pathogens of penaeid shrimp. Although its genome has been completely characterized, the functions of most of its putative proteins are not yet known. It has been suggested that the major nucleocapsid protein VP15 is involved in packaging of the WSSV genome during virion formation. However, little is known in its relationship with shrimp host cells. Using the yeast two-hybrid approach to screen a shrimp lymphoid organ (LO) cDNA library for proteins that might interact with VP15, a protein named PmFKBP46 was identified. It had high sequence similarity to a 46 kDa-immunophilin called FKBP46 from the lepidopteran Spodoptera frugiperda (the fall armyworm). The full length PmFKBP46 consisted of a 1,257-nucleotide open reading frame with a deduced amino acid sequence of 418 residues containing a putative FKBP-PPIase domain in the C-terminal region. Results from a GST pull-down assay and histological co-localization revealed that VP15 physically interacted with PmFKBP46 and that both proteins shared the same subcellular location in the nucleus. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that PmFKBP46 possessed DNA-binding activity and functionally co-interacted with VP15 in DNA binding. The overall results suggested that host PmFKBP46 might be involved in genome packaging by viral VP15 during virion assembly. PMID:21980453

Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Senapin, Saengchan; Huang, Wei-Pang; Lo, Chu-Fang; Flegel, Timothy W.

2011-01-01

147

Detection of MLV-related virus gene sequences in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy blood donors  

PubMed Central

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a serious systemic illness of unknown cause. A recent study identified DNA from a xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 68 of 101 patients (67%) by nested PCR, as compared with 8 of 218 (3.7%) healthy controls. However, four subsequent reports failed to detect any murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus gene sequences in blood of CFS patients. We examined 41 PBMC-derived DNA samples from 37 patients meeting accepted diagnostic criteria for CFS and found MLV-like virus gag gene sequences in 32 of 37 (86.5%) compared with only 3 of 44 (6.8%) healthy volunteer blood donors. No evidence of mouse DNA contamination was detected in the PCR assay system or the clinical samples. Seven of 8 gag-positive patients tested again positive in a sample obtained nearly 15 y later. In contrast to the reported findings of near-genetic identity of all XMRVs, we identified a genetically diverse group of MLV-related viruses. The gag and env sequences from CFS patients were more closely related to those of polytropic mouse endogenous retroviruses than to those of XMRVs and were even less closely related to those of ecotropic MLVs. Further studies are needed to determine whether the same strong association with MLV-related viruses is found in other groups of patients with CFS, whether these viruses play a causative role in the development of CFS, and whether they represent a threat to the blood supply. PMID:20798047

Lo, Shyh-Ching; Pripuzova, Natalia; Li, Bingjie; Komaroff, Anthony L.; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Wang, Richard; Alter, Harvey J.

2010-01-01

148

Studies of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine boca-like virus and torque teno virus indicate the presence of multiple viral infections in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome pigs.  

PubMed

In a previous study, using random amplification and large-scale sequencing technology, we identified a novel porcine parvovirus belonging to the genus Bocavirus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) in Swedish pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In addition to bocavirus we demonstrated the presence of torque teno virus (TTV) genogroups 1 and 2 in these cases of PMWS, indicating the simultaneous presence of several viruses in this disease complex. In the present study, 34 PMWS-affected animals and 24 pigs without PMWS were screened by PCR for the presence of PCV-2, TTV-1, TTV-2 and porcine boca-like virus (Pbo-likeV). The studies revealed the following infection rates in the PMWS-affected pigs: PCV-2 100%, TTV-1 77%, TTV-2 94% and Pbo-likeV 88%. In comparison, the pigs without PMWS had the following rates: PCV-2 80%, TTV-1 79%, TTV-2 83% and Pbo-likeV 46%. The sequence identity between the different Swedish Pbo-likeV sequences ranged between 98% and 100%. By checking co-infection, it was found that 71% of the PMWS-affected pigs harbor simultaneously all these viruses. As a contrast, in the group without PMWS only 33% of the animals were positive simultaneously for these viruses. These observations indicate a multiple viral infection in PMWS-affected pigs. It has to be studied further if the clinical manifestation of PMWS might be due to synergistic effects of different viruses acting together. PMID:20542066

Blomström, Anne-Lie; Belák, Sándor; Fossum, Caroline; Fuxler, Lisbeth; Wallgren, Per; Berg, Mikael

2010-09-01

149

Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

Ocular complications are known to occur as a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. They can be severe leading to ocular morbidity and visual handicap. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Though posterior segment lesions can be more vision-threatening, there are varied anterior segment manifestations which can also lead to ocular morbidity and more so can affect the quality of life of a HIV-positive person. Effective antiretroviral therapy and improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections have led to an increase in the survival of an individual afflicted with AIDS. This in turn has led to an increase in the prevalence of anterior segment and adnexal disorders. Common lesions include relatively benign conditions such as blepharitis and dry eye, to infections such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus and molluscum contagiosum and malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi?s sarcoma. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a new phenomenon known as immune recovery uveitis which presents with increased inflammation, has been noted to be on the rise. Several drugs used in the management of AIDS such as nevirapine or indinavir can themselves lead to severe inflammation in the anterior segment and adnexa of the eye. This article is a comprehensive update of the important anterior segment and adnexal manifestations in HIV-positive patients with special reference to their prevalence in the Indian population. PMID:18711264

Sudharshan, S

2008-01-01

150

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

151

The effect of porcine parvovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on porcine reproductive performance.  

PubMed

From a worldwide perspective, porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are the most common viral causes of porcine reproductive failure. A typical epidemic of PPV-induced reproductive failure is presented as an increased number of mummified fetuses and sometimes, entire litters are mummified. If infection with PPV is very early in gestation, the number of liveborn pigs may be further reduced as a result of embryonic death and resorption. During the acute stage of infection gilts and sows have few, if any, clinical signs, and it is unlikely that PPV is ever the direct cause of abortion. In contrast, a typical epidemic of PRRSV-induced reproductive failure is presented as a broader spectrum of clinical features including abortions, late-term dead fetuses, stillborn pigs, and weakborn pigs. In the later stages of an epidemic, there may also be an increase in the number of mummified fetuses, but their prevalence is likely to be far less than during an epidemic of PPV-induced reproductive failure. During the acute stage of infection with PRRSV, gilts and sows may have few, if any, clinical signs, or they may be severely affected and even die. This difference largely reflects the relative virulence of the strain of PRRSV causing the epidemic. A timely and reliable laboratory diagnosis of either disease can be made when appropriate tests are performed with appropriate samples. Vaccines are available for prevention of both diseases. PMID:10844195

Mengeling, W L; Lager, K M; Vorwald, A C

2000-07-01

152

A familial syndrome of susceptibility to chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.  

PubMed Central

In two members of a family (daughter and father) active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections persisted over periods of 4 and 3 years respectively (possibly 10 years in the father). Both had persistent splenomegaly and occasional bouts of unexplained fever but lived otherwise normal lives. The other members of the family (mother and son) were healthy. The titres of antibody to the EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) and early antigen (EA) were extremely high in the daughter's blood, whereas the titres of antibody to the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen were low in the daughter's blood and undetectable in the father's. Target cells of the EBV infection that were obtained from the daughter's blood were established in culture with great difficulty and showed increased expression of VCA and EA. Other immunologic investigations in the two patients revealed that the ratio of helper to suppressor T lymphocytes was inverted, natural killer-cell activity was abnormally low, lymphocyte responses to certain mitogens were depressed and there was a serum factor blocking mitogen-induced transformation. The possibility that the patients' unusual susceptibility to EBV infection represented an inherited syndrome (perhaps X-linked) is discussed. PMID:6318944

Joncas, J. H.; Ghibu, F.; Blagdon, M.; Montplaisir, S.; Stefanescu, I.; Menezes, J.

1984-01-01

153

Comparative proteomic profiles of the hepatopancreas in Fenneropenaeus chinensis response to white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infects all shrimp species and is the greatest detriment to shrimp culture. To better understand the mechanism of molecular responses to WSSV infection in Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis, two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used. Differentially expressed proteins in the hepatopancreas of control and WSSV-injected Chinese white shrimp between (6, 12 and 24 h post-injection) were screened. Quantitative intensity analysis and mass spectrometry revealed that 54 spots of 47 proteins were significantly up-regulated, including some immune-related proteins, such as Toll receptor precursor, Leu-rich repeat protein, peroxinectin and serine proteinase-like protein. Fourteen spots of 13 proteins, such as heat shock protein, ATP synthase sub-unit beta and thrombospondin, were down-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Protein expression patterns of the infected shrimp were drastically altered by WSSV infection. Some of the altered proteins were further investigated at the mRNA level using semi-quantitative reverse transcript PCR. These data may provide some information about shrimp proteins that participate in the WSSV infection process. PMID:20580833

Chai, Ying-Mei; Yu, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Zhu, Qian; Wang, Jin-Xing

2010-09-01

154

Mapping codon usage of the translation initiation region in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus genome  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respitatory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently emerged pathogen and severely affects swine populations worldwide. The replication of PRRSV is tightly controlled by viral gene expression and the codon usage of translation initiation region within each gene could potentially regulate the translation rate. Therefore, a better understanding of the codon usage pattern of the initiation translation region would shed light on the regulation of PRRSV gene expression. Results In this study, the codon usage in the translation initiation region and in the whole coding sequence was compared in PRRSV ORF1a and ORFs2-7. To investigate the potential role of codon usage in affecting the translation initiation rate, we established a codon usage model for PRRSV translation initiation region. We observed that some non-preferential codons are preferentially used in the translation initiation region in particular ORFs. Although some positions vary with codons, they intend to use codons with negative CUB. Furthermore, our model of codon usage showed that the conserved pattern of CUB is not directly consensus with the conserved sequence, but shaped under the translation selection. Conclusions The non-variation pattern with negative CUB in the PRRSV translation initiation region scanned by ribosomes is considered the rate-limiting step in the translation process. PMID:22014033

2011-01-01

155

Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource-limited settings.  

PubMed Central

Strategies for confronting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have included a range of different approaches that focus on prevention and treatment. However, debate persists over what levels of emphasis are appropriate for the different components of the global response. This paper presents an overview of this debate and briefly summarizes the evidence on a range of interventions designed to prevent the spread of HIV infection, paying particular attention to voluntary counselling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We also review the experience with antiretroviral therapy to date in terms of response rates and survival rates, adherence, drug resistance, behavioural change and epidemiological impact. Although various studies have identified strategies with proven effectiveness in reducing the risks of HIV infection and AIDS mortality, considerable uncertainties remain. Successful integration of treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS will require a balanced approach and rigorous monitoring of the impact of programmes in terms of both individual and population outcomes. PMID:15744406

Hogan, Daniel R.; Salomon, Joshua A.

2005-01-01

156

Studies on the persistence and excretion of egg drop syndrome 1976 virus in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

EDS virus strain 127 did not induce clinical signs or gross lesions in susceptible chicks of various age groups and in adult cocks. Virus persistence in various internal organs and the rate of excretion of virus by experimentally?infected chicken declined rapidly with increasing age. Virus 127 was detectable in organs of young chicks up to 5 weeks post?infection and in

Ursula Heffels; S. E. D. Khalaf; E. F. Kaleta

1982-01-01

157

Generation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by in vitro assembly of viral genomic cDNA fragments.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent for a swine disease affecting the pig industry worldwide. Infection with PRRSV leads to reproductive complications, respiratory illness, and weak immunity to secondary infections. To better control PRRSV infection, novel approaches for generating control measures are critically needed. Here, in vitro Gibson assembly (GA) of viral genomic cDNA fragments was tested for its use as a quick and simple method to recover infectious PRRSV in cell culture. GA involves the activities of T5-exonuclease, Phusion polymerase, and Taq ligase to join overlapping cDNA fragments in an isothermal condition. Four overlapping cDNA fragments covering the entire PRRSV genome and one vector fragment were used to create a plasmid capable of expressing the PRRSV genome. The assembled product was used to transfect a co-culture of 293T and MARC-145 cells. Supernatants from the transfected cells were then passaged onto MARC-145 cells to rescue infectious virus particles. Verification and characterization of the recovered virus confirmed that the GA protocol generated infectious PRRSV that had similar characteristics to the parental virus. This approach was then tested for the generation of a chimeric virus. By replacing one of the four genomic fragments with that of another virus strain, a chimeric virus was successfully recovered via GA. In conclusion, this study describes for the first time the use of GA as a simple, yet powerful tool for generating infectious PRRSV needed for studying PRRSV biology and developing novel vaccines. PMID:25300804

Suhardiman, Maman; Kramyu, Jarin; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Jongkaewwattana, Anan; Wanasen, Nanchaya

2015-01-01

158

Polarisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex II Host Genotype with Pathogenesis of European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of European Brown Hare Syndrome virus (EBHSV) in Denmark and possible relation between disease pathogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) host genotype. Liver samples were examined from 170 brown hares (hunted, found sick or dead), collected between 2004 and 2009. Macroscopical and histopathological findings consistent with EBHS were detected in 24 (14.1%) hares; 35 (20.6%) had liver lesions not typical of the syndrome, 50 (29.4%) had lesions in other tissues and 61 (35.9%) had no lesions. Sixty five (38.2%) of 170 samples were found to be EBHSV-positive (RT-PCR, VP60 gene). In order to investigate associations between viral pathogenesis and host genotype, variation within the exon 2 DQA gene of MHC was assessed. DQA exon 2 analysis revealed the occurrence of seven different alleles in Denmark. Consistent with other populations examined so far in Europe, observed heterozygosity of DQA (Ho?=?0.1180) was lower than expected (He?=?0.5835). The overall variation for both nucleotide and amino acid differences (2.9% and 14.9%, respectively) were lower in Denmark than those assessed in other European countries (8.3% and 16.9%, respectively). Within the peptide binding region codons the number of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) was much higher than synonymous substitutions (dS), which would be expected for MHC alleles under balancing selection. Allele frequencies did not significantly differ between EBHSV-positive and -negative hares. However, allele Leeu-DQA*30 was detected in significantly higher (P?=?0.000006) frequency among the positive hares found dead with severe histopathological lesions than among those found sick or apparently healthy. In contrast, the latter group was characterized by a higher frequency of the allele Leeu-DQA*14 as well as the proportion of heterozygous individuals (P?=?0.000006 and P?=?0.027). These data reveal a polarisation between EBHSV pathogenesis and MHC class II genotype within the European brown hare in Denmark. PMID:24069299

Iacovakis, Christos; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A.; Touloudi, Antonia; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Valiakos, George; Giannoulis, Themis; Stamatis, Costas; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Kantere, Maria; Asferg, Tommy; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Salomonsen, Charlotte M.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Birtsas, Periklis; Petrovska, Liljana; Hannant, Duncan; Billinis, Charalambos

2013-01-01

159

Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.  

PubMed

The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies. PMID:21951451

Brewster, David

2011-09-01

160

Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".  

PubMed

Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:25083808

Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

2015-02-01

161

Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Fenneropenaeus chinensis Hemocytes upon White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

To elucidate molecular responses of shrimp hemocytes to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was applied to investigate differentially expressed proteins in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) at 24 h post infection (hpi). Approximately 580 protein spots were detected in hemocytes of healthy and WSSV-infected shrimps. Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 26 protein spots were significantly up-regulated, and 19 spots were significantly down-regulated. By mass spectrometry, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) 1, cytosolic MnSOD, triosephosphate isomerase, tubulin alpha-1 chain, microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1, nuclear receptor E75 protein, vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B L form, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, arginine kinase, etc., amounting to 33 differentially modulated proteins were identified successfully. According to Gene Ontology annotation, the identified proteins were classified into nine categories, consisting of immune related proteins, stimulus response proteins, proteins involved in glucose metabolic process, cytoskeleton proteins, DNA or protein binding proteins, proteins involved in steroid hormone mediated signal pathway, ATP synthases, proteins involved in transmembrane transport and ungrouped proteins. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of three up-regulated proteins (SUMO, heat shock protein 70, and arginine kinase) and one down-regulated protein (prophenoloxidase) were further analyzed by real-time RT-PCR at the transcription level after WSSV infection. The results showed that SUMO and heat shock protein 70 were significantly up-regulated at each sampling time point, while arginine kinase was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 hpi. In contrast, prophenoloxidase was significantly down-regulated at each sampling time point. The results of this work provided preliminary data on proteins in shrimp hemocytes involved in WSSV infection. PMID:24587154

Li, Wei; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

2014-01-01

162

Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Japanese encephalitis virus infection in China.  

PubMed

Abstract Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is preceded by an infection in about two-thirds of patients. However, the infectious organism is often not identified. GBS secondary to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection has been reported only in India. Herein, we report a case of GBS preceded by JEV infection in China. A 23-year-old male had generalized weakness, numbness in the extremities, and bilateral facial nerve paralysis. One week prior, he had a high fever with headache, and several days later, he developed facial diplegia and sensory disturbances. Physical examination revealed facial diplegia and a weak gag reflex, quadriparesis more pronounced distally, generalized hyporeflexia, and no Babinski sign. JEV IgM and hepatitis B surface antibody (HbsAb) tests were positive. Other tests for hepatitis B infection were negative. Nerve electrophysiology suggested an acute demyelinating sensorimotor polyradiculoneuropathy. His cerebrospinal fluid was clear, the leukocyte count was 5 × 10(6)/L (normal range: 0-5 × 10(6)/L), protein 0.62?g/L (normal range: 0.15-0.45?g/L), and JEV IgM was weakly positive. He was diagnosed with GBS associated with a recent JEV infection. Intravenous (IV) immunoglobulins combined with IV methylprednisone was administered for 5 days, and at the 3-month follow-up, a complete neurological recovery was noted. GBS may be associated with JEV infection. GBS exhibits a good response to intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange and has a good prognosis making prompt diagnosis important. PMID:25140441

Xiang, Jing-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Huang, Jie; Zhao, Yu-Wu

2014-10-01

163

Expression, Purification, Crystallization of Two Major Envelope Proteins from White Spot Syndrome Virus  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 {angstrom}. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 {angstrom}, and diffracts to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution.

Tang,X.; Hew, C.

2007-01-01

164

Duck Egg-Drop Syndrome Caused by BYD Virus, a New Tembusu-Related Flavivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the

Jingliang Su; Shuang Li; Xudong Hu; Xiuling Yu; Yongyue Wang; Peipei Liu; Xishan Lu; Guozhong Zhang; Xueying Hu; Di Liu; Xiaoxia Li; Wenliang Su; Hao Lu; Ngai Shing Mok; Peiyi Wang; Ming Wang; Kegong Tian; George F. Gao; Jianming Qiu

2011-01-01

165

[Antigenic and genetic properties of Seoul virus strains--a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].  

PubMed

Data on the circulation of a new genetic variant of Seol virus, which was designated as "Vladivostok" (the name of the place where it was isolated)--VDV, were obtained, by using the antigenic and genetic analysis of hantavirus strains isolated from patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and from brown rats, and described in the present paper. A complete identity of nucleotide sequences of the M-segment fragment of isolates obtained from HFRS patients and of those obtained from rats was demonstrated, which confirms the key role of brown rat as a source of infection. PMID:12894473

Slonova, R A; Iashina, L N; Kompanets, G G; Mishin, V A

2003-01-01

166

Detection of a pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) in an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS).  

PubMed

A pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) from an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) was detected and genetically characterized. The affected hedgehog had a nonsuppurative encephalitis with vacuolization of the white matter, and the brain samples yielded RNA reads highly homogeneous to PVM strain 15 (96.5% of full genomic sequence homology by analysis of next generation sequencing). PVM antigen was also detected in the brain and the lungs immunohistochemically. A PVM was strongly suggested as a causative agent of encephalitis of a hedgehog with suspected WHS. This is a first report of PVM infection in hedgehogs. PMID:25129384

Madarame, Hiroo; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kimura, Moe; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ochiai, Hideharu; Mizutani, Tetsyuya

2014-09-17

167

Lateral transmission of egg drop syndrome?76 virus by the egg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to determine if eggs produced by infected hens could be involved in the lateral spread of EDS virus.It was demonstrated that birds which ate the abnormally shelled eggs produced 8 to 17 days after experimental infection with EDS virus, or normally shelled eggs produced 8 to 15 days after infection, became infected with the virus. Laying

Joan A. Smyth; B. M. Adair

1988-01-01

168

Identification of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Like Virus in a Leaf-Nosed Bat in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Bats are reservoirs for emerging zoonotic viruses that can have a profound impact on human and animal health, including lyssaviruses, filoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs). In the course of a project focused on pathogen discovery in contexts where human-bat contact might facilitate more efficient interspecies transmission of viruses, we surveyed gastrointestinal tissue obtained from bats collected in caves in Nigeria that are frequented by humans. Coronavirus consensus PCR and unbiased high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed the presence of coronavirus sequences related to those of SARS-CoV in a Commerson’s leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni). Additional genomic sequencing indicated that this virus, unlike subgroup 2b CoVs, which includes SARS-CoV, is unique, comprising three overlapping open reading frames between the M and N genes and two conserved stem-loop II motifs. Phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with these features suggest that this virus represents a new subgroup within group 2 CoVs. PMID:21063474

Quan, Phenix-Lan; Firth, Cadhla; Street, Craig; Henriquez, Jose A.; Petrosov, Alexandra; Tashmukhamedova, Alla; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Egholm, Michael; Osinubi, Modupe O. V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Ogunkoya, Albert B.; Briese, Thomas; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2010-01-01

169

Comparison of RNA extraction methods for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from boar semen.  

PubMed

To detect Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in semen, various RNA extraction techniques have been utilized for RT-PCR, but rarely compared, to determine an optimized extraction protocol. Due to the viscosity, non-homogeneity, high cellularity and large volume of boar semen produced, difficulties can be encountered in obtaining RNA from the seminal cell fraction. This study compared six RNA extractions, five which used a commercially available kit (RNeasy, Qiagen Inc.) for use on highly cellular samples and a traditional phenol/chloroform procedure. All extractions were compared on serially diluted PRRSV "spiked" seminal cell fractions. The two methods resulting in recovery of the highest amount of RNA, which included a Qiashredder (Qiagen Inc.) (protocol 1) or cell lysis/centrifugation technique (protocol 3) preceding the RNeasy procedure were then compared using naturally infected semen samples from experimentally infected boars. Both protocols detected similar amounts of virus in "spiked" samples, but protocol 1 detected eight additional PRRSV-positive semen samples in naturally infected semen. This study demonstrated that semen "spiked" with PRRSV (cell-free virus) may not be representative of naturally infected semen samples (cell associated virus) for comparing extraction protocols, but did identify a useful extraction technique for boar semen. PMID:16621036

Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Dammen, Matthew; Nelson, Eric; Rowland, Raymond; Oberst, Richard

2006-09-01

170

Immunogenicity study of plant-made oral subunit vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).  

PubMed

Currently, killed-virus and modified-live PRRSV vaccines are used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome disease (PRRS). However, very limited efficacy of killed-virus vaccines and serious safety concerns for modified-live virus vaccines demand the development of novel PRRSV vaccines. In this report, we investigated the possibility of using transgenic plants as a cost-effective and scalable system for production and delivery of a viral protein as an oral subunit vaccine against PRRSV. Corn calli were genetically engineered to produce PRRSV viral envelope-associated M protein. Both serum and intestine mucosal antigen-specific antibodies were induced by oral administration of the transgenic plant tissues to mice. In addition, serum and mucosal antibodies showed virus neutralization activity. The neutralization antibody titers after the final boost reached 6.7 in serum and 3.7 in fecal extracts, respectively. A PRRSV-specific IFN-? response was also detected in splenocytes of vaccinated animals. These results demonstrate that transgenic corn plants are an efficient subunit vaccine production and oral delivery system for generation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses against PRRSV. PMID:22300722

Hu, Jianzhong; Ni, Yanyan; Dryman, Barbara A; Meng, X J; Zhang, Chenming

2012-03-01

171

Epstein-Barr and human immunodeficiency viruses in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary central nervous system lymphoma.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma was examined. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors was used as substrate for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Targets for amplification were the EBNA-1 region of EBV, the gag region of HIV, and a single copy cellular sequence as a control. The cases studied were autopsy and surgical specimens collected between the years 1985 and 1989. By the working formulation for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, five had large cell, four had mixed large and small cleaved cell, two had small cleaved cell, and one had an unclassified histology. Epstein-Barr virus was detected in 6 of 12 tumors studied. Human immunodeficiency virus was not detected in any of the tumors. The presence of EBV was not correlated with any particular histologic tumor type. It is concluded that EBV, not HIV, can be detected in a large percentage (50%) of AIDS-related primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas. This viral association may be significant in light of the demonstrated ability of EBV to induce lymphoid tumors in experimental mammalian systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1323221

Morgello, S.

1992-01-01

172

Hexon based PCRs combined with restriction enzyme analysis for rapid detection and differentiation of fowl adenoviruses and egg drop syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), two of them combined with restriction enzyme analysis (REA), were developed for detection and differentiation of all 12 fowl adenovirus (FAV) serotypes and the egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus. For primer construction FAV1, FAV10 and EDS virus hexon proteins were aligned and conserved and variable regions were determined. Two primer sets (H1\\/H2 and H3\\/H4)

R Raue; M Hess

1998-01-01

173

Adverse possession of subsurface minerals  

SciTech Connect

Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

Bowles, P.N.

1983-01-01

174

Targeting Membrane-Bound Viral RNA Synthesis Reveals Potent Inhibition of Diverse Coronaviruses Including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS–CoV), and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections. PMID:24874215

Bergström, Tomas; Kann, Nina; Adamiak, Beata; Hannoun, Charles; Kindler, Eveline; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Muth, Doreen; Kint, Joeri; Forlenza, Maria; Müller, Marcel A.; Drosten, Christian; Thiel, Volker; Trybala, Edward

2014-01-01

175

Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus throughout a coordinated sequence of events during cold weather.  

PubMed

Using a field-based model, mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) wa assessed throughout a coordinated sequence of events that replicated common farm worker behavior during cold weather (< 0 degrees C). The model involved fomites (boots and containers), vehicle sanitation, transport, and the movement of personnel. A field strain of PRRSV was inoculated into carriers consisting of snow and water, and carriers were adhered to the undercarriage of a vehicle. The vehicle was driven approximately 50 km to a commercial truck washing facility where the driver's boots contacted the carriers during washing, introducing the virus to the vehicle interior. The vehicle was then driven 50 km to a simulated farm site, and the driver's boots mechanically spread virus into the farm anteroom. Types of containers frequently employed in swine farms (styrofoam semen cooler, metal toolbox, plastic lunch pail, and cardboard animal health product shipping parcel) contacted drippings from footwear on the anteroom floor. The truck wash floor, vehicle cab floor mats, boot soles, anteroom floor, and the ventral surface of containers were sampled to track the virus throughout the model. Ten replicates were conducted, along with sham-inoculated controls. At multiple sampling points PRRSV nucleic acid was detected in 8 of 10 replicates. In each of the 8 PCR-positive replicates, infectious PRRSV was detected on the surfaces of containers by virus isolation or swine bioassay. All sham-inoculated controls were negative. These results indicate that mechanical transmission of PRRSV can occur during coordinated sequence of events in cold weather. PMID:12418778

Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Rossow, Kurt; Wiese, Carrie; Otake, Satoshi; Joo, Han Soo; Pijoan, Carlos

2002-10-01

176

Serum selenium and skin diseases among Nigerians with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The role of selenium as an antioxidant micronutrient has garnered the unprecedented focus of researchers in recent times. No clinical study has related serum selenium concentration to skin diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Methods In this study, 134 newly diagnosed HIV patients that satisfied the inclusion criteria were included. Skin diseases were clinically diagnosed and fasting venous blood was taken for assessment of serum selenium using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results The mean age of HIV subjects with and without skin disease were not significantly different: 32.72 ± 9.21 versus 35.86 ± 8.55 years, P = 0.077, respectively. The mean of serum selenium (0.51 ± 0.48 versus 0.81 ± 0.39), CD4+ count (228.06 ± 212.89 versus 446.41 ± 182.87), and body mass index (BMI; 21.09 ± 3.58 versus 23.53 ± 3.35) were significantly lower (P < 0.001) for HIV/AIDS participants with skin disease than those without skin disease. We found significant clustering of symptoms and signs: fever (P = 0.037), weight loss (P = 0.009), oral candidiasis (P = 0.038), pallor (P = 0.037) among HIV/AIDS subjects with skin diseases than those without. Low serum selenium concentration was significantly associated with primary skin disease of HIV/AIDS, such as pruritic papular eruption of AIDS (P = 0.003), xeroderma (P = 0.030), fluffy hair (P = 0.021), blue-black nail hyperpigmentation (P = 0.033) and secondary skin disease, such as oral candidiasis (P = 0.002). There was a significant association between low serum selenium concentration and increasing frequency of skin diseases (P = 0.002), but serum selenium was not significantly related to extents of distribution of skin diseases (P > 0.05). Conclusion serum selenium concentration was lower among HIV subjects with skin diseases than those without skin disease. Pruritic papular eruption, xeroderma, fluffy hair, blue-black nail hyper pigmentation, and oral candidiasis were significantly associated with low serum selenium concentration. PMID:23990734

Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Mejiuni, David Ayodele; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Atiba, Adeniran Samuel; Bamimore, Gbenga Micheal

2013-01-01

177

Development of a Colloidal Gold Kit for the Diagnosis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

It is critical to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection. Here, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) to detect SFTSV infection is described. The ICA uses gold nanoparticles coated with recombinant SFTSV for the simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SFTSV. The ICA was developed and evaluated by using positive sera samples of SFTSV infection (n = 245) collected from the CDC of China. The reference laboratory diagnosis of SFTSV infection was based on the “gold standard”. The results demonstrated that the positive coincidence rate and negative coincidence rate were determined to be 98.4% and 100% for IgM and 96.7% and 98.6% for IgG, respectively. The kit showed good selectivity for detection of SFTSV-specific IgG and IgM with no interference from positive sera samples of Japanese encephalitis virus infection, Dengue virus infection, Hantavirus infection, HIV infection, HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody, Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody, or RF. Based on these results, the ICS test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for SFTSV infections. PMID:24826381

Wang, Xianguo; Zhang, Quanfu; Hao, Fen; Gao, Xunian; Wu, Wei; Liang, Minyao; Liao, Zhihua; Xu, Weiwen; Li, Dexin; Wang, Shiwen

2014-01-01

178

Assessment of the roles of copepod Apocyclops royi and bivalve mollusk Meretrix lusoria in white spot syndrome virus transmission.  

PubMed

Here, we investigate the roles of copepods and bivalve mollusks in the transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which is the causative pathogen of an acute, contagious disease that causes severe mortalities in cultured shrimp. Copepods are common components in seawater ponds and are often eaten as live food by shrimp post-larvae. WSSV has been detected in these animals, but it is unknown whether this was due to contamination or infection. Meanwhile, the bivalve mollusk Meretrix lusoria is often used as live food for brooders, and in Taiwan, this hard clam is sometimes co-cultured with shrimp in farming ponds. However, mollusks' ability to accumulate, or allow the replication of, shrimp viruses has not previously been studied. In this study, WSSV, the copepod Apocyclops royi and bivalve mollusk M. lusoria were experimentally challenged with WSSV and then assayed for both the presence of the virus and for viral gene expression. Results showed that the WSSV genome could be detected and that the viral loads were increased in a time-dependent manner after challenge both in A. royi and M. lusoria. Reverse transcriptase PCR monitoring of WSSV gene expression showed that WSSV could replicate in A. royi but not in M. lusoria, which suggested that WSSV, while could infect A. royi, was only accumulated in M. lusoria. A bioassay further showed that the WSSV accumulated in M. lusoria could be transmitted to Litopenaeus vannamei and cause severe infection. PMID:21279409

Chang, Yun-Shiang; Chen, Tsan-Chi; Liu, Wang-Jing; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

2011-10-01

179

Genomic Sequencing Reveals Mutations Potentially Related to the Overattenuation of a Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) continues to evolve when serially passaged in Marc-145 cells. In this study, we analyzed the genomic and antigenic variants of HP-PRRSV strain JXA1 during in vitro passage. Protective efficacies of JXA1 from passages 100, 110, 120, 140, and 170 against the high-virulence parental virus were evaluated by inoculating pigs with each of these viruses and then challenging with JXA1 from passage 5 at 28 days postimmunization. We found that the antigenicities of JXA1 from passages after 110 were significantly reduced. Inoculation with JXA1 from passages after 110 provided only insufficient protection against the parental strain challenge, indicating that the immunogenicity of JXA1 is significantly decreased when it is in vitro passaged for 110 times and more. To identify the genomic variants that emerged during the overattenuation, eight complete genomes of highly passaged JXA1 were sequenced. One guanine deletion in the 5? untranslated region (UTR), two nucleotide substitutions in the 3? UTR, and 65 amino acid mutations in nonstructural and structural proteins that accompanied with the attenuation and overattenuation were determined. Genomic sequencing of in vitro serially passaged HP-PRRSV first identified the mutations potentially correlated with the overattenuation of a HP-PRRSV strain. These results facilitate the research aimed at elucidating the mechanisms for PRRSV genomic and antigenic changes and may also contribute to developing a safe and effective PRRSV vaccine. PMID:23408525

Yu, Xiuling; Chen, Nanhua; Deng, Xiaoyu; Cao, Zhen; Han, Wei; Hu, Dongmei; Wu, Jiajun; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Baoyue; Gu, Xiaoxue

2013-01-01

180

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) subverts normal development of adaptive immunity by proliferation of germline-encoded B cells with hydrophobic HCDR3  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isolator piglets infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) develop severe hypergammaglobulinemia, lymph node adenopathy and autoimmune disease. The expanded B cell clones in this disease are unusual in bearing hydrophobic HCDR3 regions and these are disseminated to mo...

181

Analysis of the swine tracheobronchial lymphnode transcriptomic response to infection with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative investigation into the host transcriptome response in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 14...

182

Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on porcine alveolar macrophage function as determined using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. The major target of infection is the alveolar macrophage (AM). Infection of AMs by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not...

183

Validation of a major quantitative trait locus associated with host response to experimental infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infectious diseases are costly to the swine industry and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most devastating. In earlier work, a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV was identified on Sus scrofa chromosome 4 (SSC4) using ~560 exp...

184

Molecular Evolution Analysis and Geographic Investigation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Like Virus in Palm Civets at an Animal Market and on Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive numbers of palm civets were culled to remove sources for the reemergence of severe acute respi- ratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangdong Province, China, in January 2004, following SARS coronavirus detection in market animals. The virus was identified in all 91 palm civets and 15 raccoon dogs of animal market origin sampled prior to culling, but not in 1,107 palm

Biao Kan; Ming Wang; Huaiqi Jing; Huifang Xu; Xiugao Jiang; Meiying Yan; Weili Liang; Han Zheng; Kanglin Wan; Qiyong Liu; Buyun Cui; Yanmei Xu; Enmin Zhang; Hongxia Wang; Jingrong Ye; Guichang Li; Machao Li; Zhigang Cui; Xiaobao Qi; Kai Chen; Lin Du; Kai Gao; Yu-teng Zhao; Xiao-zhong Zou; Yue-Ju Feng; Yu-Fan Gao; Rong Hai; Dongzhen Yu; Yi Guan; Jianguo Xu

2005-01-01

185

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replicase - Isoforms of Nonstructural Protein 2 and Interaction with Heat Shock 70kDa Protein 5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nsp2 replicase protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), when expressed independently, was recently demonstrated to be processed from its precursor by the PL2 protease at or near the G**1196|G**1197 dipeptide in transfected CHO cells. The proteolytic cleavage of nsp...

186

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: morphological, biochemical and serological characteristics of Quebec isolates associated with acute and chronic outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Cytolytic and noncytolytic strains of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated in primary cultures of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) from lung homogenates of stillborn fetuses or blood samples of dyspneic piglets collected from Quebec pig farms having experienced acute or chronic outbreaks of PRRS. Serological identification of the virus was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence and indirect protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy using reference antiserum prepared from experimentally-infected specific pathogen free (SPF) piglets and monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) directed against the p15 nucleocapsid (N) protein of the reference ATCC-VR2332 isolate. Intracytoplasmic enveloped viral particles that tended to accumulate into cytoplasmic vesicles were observed in the infected PAM; no budding was demonstrated at the level of the cytoplasmic membrane. The extracellular virions appeared as pleomorphic but mostly spherical enveloped particles, 50-72 nm in diameter (averaged diameter of 50 particles was 58.3 nm), with an isometric core about 25-30 nm. Buoyant density of the virus in CsCL density gradients was estimated to 1.18-1.20 g/mL. No hemagglutinating activity was demonstrated. Analysis of semipurified virions of isolate IAF-exp91 by radioimmunoprecipitation (RIPA) and Western immunoblotting experiments, using reference rabbit and porcine hyperimmune sera, revealed four major viral proteins, a predominant 15 kD N protein and three other proteins with predicted M(r_ of 19, 26 and 42 kD. Progeny viral particles produced in PRRSV-infected PAM in the presence of tunicamycin lacked the 42 kD protein, thus confirming its N-glycosylated nature. Immunoprecipitation experiments using the anti-ATCC-VR2332 MoAbs confirmed the close antigenic relationships between Quebec and American reference isolates of PRRSV. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:8143254

Mardassi, H; Athanassious, R; Mounir, S; Dea, S

1994-01-01

187

Virus Research 120 (2006) 146155 Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus  

E-print Network

-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infectivity by peptides analogous to the viral spike protein Bruno Sainz Jr.a,, Eric C Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the cause of an atypical pneumonia reserved. Keywords: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus; Class I viral fusion protein

Wimley, William C.

188

[Possessed! Some historical, psychiatric and curent moments of demonic possession].  

PubMed

Being possessed by demons or evil spirits is one of the oldest ways of explaining bodily and mental disorders. The article briefly mentions some contributions from other disciplines, but considers in particular psychiatry's and medicine's approach throughout history. During the middle ages of Europe possession (and witchcraft) was considered just one out of several causes of mental illness. Astrological theories prevailed, in addition to the humoral theories of medicine. In addition distinctions were made between eccentricity, madness and religious visions and revelations. A large number of the alleged witches and possessed persons who were burned probably had visible mental disturbances. Today's psychiatry does not refer symptoms of possession to any specific category, but usually classifies this as some kind of psychotic disturbance of thought. Exorcism of evil spirits by Jesus Christ is described often in the Gospels. Possession was the only "available" concept for a bundle of neuro-psychiatric disorders: dissociative states, psychoses and epilepsy. To day, the terminology and "diagnostic" principles have been taken over by fundamentalistic groups, who practise exorcism on persons with (probably) minor mental problems and symptoms. The author criticises this activity. PMID:9019873

Høyersten, J G

1996-12-10

189

Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size?=?520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24204661

Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

2013-01-01

190

Synergistic effects of sequential infection with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. Coinfection with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PCV2 in the field has recently become extensive in some Asian countries. A synergistic pathogenicity between PRRSV and PCV2 infections has previously been reported. However, the consequences of the sequential infection of pigs with these two viruses are unknown. Methods Thirty 35-day-old piglets were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5 each): HP-PRRSV/PCV2 (group 1, inoculated with HP-PRRSV, then inoculated with PCV2 one week later), PCV2/HP-PRRSV (group 2, inoculated with PCV2, then inoculated with HP-PRRSV one week later), HP-PRRSV+PCV2 (group 3, inoculated with HP-PRRSV and PCV2 concurrently), HP-PRRSV (group 4, inoculated with HP-PRRSV), PCV2 (group 5, inoculated with PCV2), and the control (group 6, uninfected). This experiment lasted 28 days. Clinical symptoms and rectal temperatures were recorded each day after inoculation, body weight was recorded weekly, and serum samples were obtained for viral nucleic acid quantification and antibody titration. Variations in CD3+, CD4+ CD8–, CD3+, CD4–, and CD8+ cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and mononuclear cells were determined by flow cytometry. The serum concentrations of interferon ? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and macrophage granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were determined. Pathological changes in different tissues from the experimentally infected pigs were recorded. Results The piglets in group 1 had the highest viral loads, the lowest antibody titers, the most-severe clinical signs, and the highest mortality (3/5, 60%; the mortality in the other groups was 0%), and interstitial pneumonia was more severe in this group compare to the other HP-PRRSV infected groups. The serum levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, and GM-CSF varied (increased or decreased) most widely in group 1, as did each immunocyte subgroup. Conclusions HP-PRRSV infection followed by PCV2 infection enhanced the replication of both viruses in the experimental piglets and led to more-severe clinical signs and lesions, indicating greater synergistic effects during the sequential infection of piglets with HP-PRRSV and then PCV2. PMID:23971711

2013-01-01

191

A major QTL associated with host response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus challenge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes severely decreased reproductive performance in breeding animals and increased respiratory problems and morbidity in growing animals, ultimately resulting in great economic losses in the swine industry. Vaccination has not generally been eff...

192

Do viral proteins possess unique biophysical features?  

PubMed

Natural selection shapes the sequence, structure and biophysical properties of proteins to fit their environment. We hypothesize that highly thermostable proteins and viral proteins represent two opposing adaptation strategies. Thermostable proteins are highly compact and possess well-packed hydrophobic cores and intensely charged surfaces. By contrast, viral proteins, and RNA viral proteins in particular, display a high occurrence of disordered segments and loosely packed cores. These features might endow viral proteins with increased structural flexibility and effective ways to interact with the components of the host. They could also be related to high adaptability levels and mutation rates observed in viruses, thus, representing a unique strategy for buffering the deleterious effects of mutations, such that those that have little (interactions), have little to lose. PMID:19062293

Tokuriki, Nobuhiko; Oldfield, Christopher J; Uversky, Vladimir N; Berezovsky, Igor N; Tawfik, Dan S

2009-02-01

193

In Vitro Virucidal and Virustatic Properties of the Crude Extract of Cynodon dactylon against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

The in vitro virustatic and virucidal tests of the crude extract of Cynodon dactylon against infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a cause of major devastating pig disease, were described. Crude extract of C. dactylon was prepared for cytotoxicity on tissue-culture cells that were used to measure virustatic and virucidal activities against PRRSV. Crude extract of C. dactylon at 0.78?mg/mL showed no cytotoxicity on the cell line, and at that concentration significantly inhibited replication of PRRSV as early as 24 hours post infection (hpi). C. dactylon also inactivated PRRSV as determined by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) compared to the control experiments. In summary, the present study may be among the earliest studies to describe virustatic and virucidal activities of C. dactylon crude extract against PRRSV in vitro. Extracts of C. dactylon may be useful for PRRSV control and prevention on pig farms. PMID:24744959

Khonghiran, Oapkun; Kunanoppadol, Suchaya; Potha, Teerapong; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

2014-01-01

194

Cytokine profiles and phenotype regulation of antigen presenting cells by genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the immunological response of antigen presenting cells (APC) to genotype-I isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection by analysing the cytokine profile induced and evaluating the changes taking place upon infection on immunologically relevant cell markers (MHCI, MHCII, CD80/86, CD14, CD16, CD163, CD172a, SWC9). Several types of APC were infected with 39 PRRSV isolates. The results show that different isolates were able to induce different patterns of IL-10 and TNF-?. The four possible phenotypes based on the ability to induce IL-10 and/or TNF-? were observed, although different cell types seemed to have different capabilities. In addition, isolates inducing different cytokine-release profiles on APC could induce different expression of cell markers. PMID:21314968

2011-01-01

195

Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.  

PubMed

Baiyangdian (BYD) virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0) = 21) indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average) for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides. PMID:22529985

Vaidya, Naveen K; Wang, Feng-bin; Zou, Xingfu; Wahl, Lindi M

2012-01-01

196

A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus.

You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A. [Nebraska Center for Virology, E249A Beadle, Lincoln (United States); Hiscox, Julian A. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.a.hiscox@leeds.ac.uk

2008-08-15

197

Comparison of protein expression profiles of the hepatopancreas in Fenneropenaeus chinensis challenged with heat-inactivated Vibrio anguillarum and white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Chinese shrimp) culture industry, like other Penaeidae culture, has been seriously affected by the shrimp diseases caused by bacteria and virus. To better understand the mechanism of immune response of shrimp to different pathogens, proteome research approach was utilized in this study. Firstly, the soluble hepatopancreas protein samples in adult Chinese shrimp among control, heat-inactivated Vibrio-challenged and white spot syndrome virus-infected groups were separated by 2-DE (pH range, 4-7; sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and pH range, 3-10; tricine-SDS-PAGE). Then the differentially expressed protein spots (?1.5-fold or ?0.67-fold averagely of controls) were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Using Mascot online database searching algorithm and SEQUEST searching program, 48 and 49 differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified in response to Vibrio and white spot syndrome virus infection, respectively. Based on these results, we discussed the mechanism of immune response of the shrimp and shed light on the differences between immune response of shrimp toward Vibrio and white spot syndrome virus. This study also set a basis for further analyses of some key genes in immune response of Chinese shrimp. PMID:24057166

Jiang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Jiquan; Zhang, Jinkang; Huang, Bingxin; Yu, Yang; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-02-01

198

LSM14A inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication by activating IFN-? signaling pathway in Marc-145.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered as a significant contributor to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, one of the most economically important diseases for the pig industry worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that pattern recognition receptors play key roles in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a novel pattern recognition receptor LSM14A in regulating PRRSV replication. Results in Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) indicated that overexpression of porcine LSM14A effectively inhibited the replication of PRRSV, and knockdown of LSM14A by siRNA enhanced the replication of PRRSV. Mechanistically, LSM14A up-regulated the activities of IFN-? and ISRE promoters, enhanced the production of IFN-?, RIG-I, and ISGs, and inhibited the production of the inflammatory cytokines of TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA. Additionally, the expression pattern of LSM14A during the infection of PRRSV in Tongcheng and Large White pigs was suppressed by the PRRSV challenge. Taken together, our results suggest that LSM14A is an important PRR that inhibits PPRSV replication by inducing IFN-? signaling and restraining inflammatory responses. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LSM14A by PRRSV might represent an important mechanism by which PRRSV invades the host. Our study sheds light on the possibility of developing a new strategy to control this disease. PMID:25408553

Li, Zhenhong; Chen, Rui; Zhao, Jinhua; Qi, Ziyu; Ji, Likai; Zhen, Yueran; Liu, Bang

2015-01-01

199

Novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by an alternative ORF5 present in all arteriviruses  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus that emerged in the late 1980s in both Europe and North America as the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), now the most important disease of swine worldwide. Despite extensive characterization of PRRSV proteins by direct analysis and comparison with other arteriviruses, determinants of virulence, pathogenesis and protective immune recognition remain poorly understood. Thus, we hypothesized that additional ORFs are present in the PRRSV genome that may contribute to its biological properties, and so we screened highly purified virions of strain VR2332, the prototype type 2 PRRSV, for evidence of novel polypeptides. A 51 aa polypeptide was discovered that is encoded by an alternative ORF of the subgenomic mRNA encoding the major envelope glycoprotein, GP5, and which is incorporated into virions. The protein, referred to as ORF5a protein, is expressed in infected cells, and pigs infected with PRRSV express anti-ORF5a protein antibodies. A similar ORF is present as an alternative reading frame in all PRRSV subgenomic RNA5 genes and in all other arteriviruses, suggesting that this ORF5a protein plays a significant role in arterivirology. Its discovery also provides a new potential target for immunological and pharmacological intervention in PRRS. PMID:21307222

Johnson, Craig R.; Griggs, Theodor F.; Gnanandarajah, Josephine

2011-01-01

200

Association between the genetic similarity of the open reading frame 5 sequence of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the similarity in clinical signs of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Ontario swine herds.  

PubMed

A study of Ontario swine farms positive for Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) tested the association between genetic similarity of the virus and similarity of clinical signs reported by the herd owner. Herds were included if a positive result of polymerase chain reaction for PRRSV at the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, was found between September 2004 and August 2007. Nucleotide-sequence similarity and clinical similarity, as determined from a telephone survey, were calculated for all pairs of herds. The Mantel test indicated that clinical similarity and sequence similarity were weakly correlated for most clinical signs. The generalized additive model indicated that virus homology with 2 vaccine viruses affected the association between sequence similarity and clinical similarity. When the data for herds with vaccine-like virus were removed from the dataset there was a significant association between virus similarity and similarity of the reported presence of abortion, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and sow/boar mortality. Ownership similarity was also found to be associated with virus similarity and with similarity of the reported presence of sows being off-feed, nursery respiratory disease, nursery mortality, finisher respiratory disease, and finisher mortality. These results indicate that clinical signs of PRRS are associated with PRRSV genotype and that herd ownership is associated with both of these. PMID:25355993

Rosendal, Thomas; Dewey, Cate; Friendship, Robert; Wootton, Sarah; Young, Beth; Poljak, Zvonimir

2014-10-01

201

Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp  

SciTech Connect

Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter.

Liu Wangjing [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang Yunshiang [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wang Chunghsiung [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kou, Guang-Hsiung [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lo Chufang [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: gracelow@ntu.edu.tw

2005-04-10

202

Identification of an immunodominant epitope in the C terminus of glycoprotein 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Glycoprotein 5 (GP(5)) is the major glycoprotein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Expression of GP(5) has been improved by removing the transmembrane regions. Vectors were constructed encoding complete GP(5) plus three mutants: GP(5) Ns (residues 28--201), GP(5)[30--67] (residues 30--67) and GP(5)[30--201] (residues 30--67/130--201). The three deletion mutants were expressed at levels 20--30 times higher than complete GP(5). GP(5)[30--201] was well recognized in ELISA or immunoblotting by a collection of pig sera. All the fragments were tested for the generation of MAbs, but only the polyhistidine-tagged fragment GP(5)[30--201]H elicited an antibody response sufficient to produce MABS: The two MAbs were positive for PRRSV in ELISA and immunoblotting, but negative for virus neutralization. MAb 4BE12 reacted with residues 130--170 and MAb 3AH9 recognized residues 170--201. This region was recognized strongly in immunoblotting by a collection of infected-pig sera. These results indicate diagnostic potential for this epitope. PMID:11297674

Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Fominaya, J; Cortés, E; Sanz, A; Casal, J I

2001-05-01

203

The successful treatment of haemophagocytic syndrome in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated multi-centric Castleman's disease  

PubMed Central

Both virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) and human immunodeficiency virus-associated multi-centric Castleman's disease (HIV-MCD) induced by human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) are extremely rare. We therefore wished to investigate their occurrence together, and establish the degree of cytokine activation present. From a prospective cohort of individuals with HIV-MCD, we investigated the incidence and outcomes of HPS and measured 15 inflammatory cytokines and the plasma HHV-8 viral loads before and during follow-up. Of 44 patients with HIV-MCD with an incidence of 4·3/10 000 patient years, four individuals (9%) were diagnosed with HPS. All are in remission (range 6–28 months) following splenectomy, etoposide and rituximab-based therapy. Plasma HHV-8 levels were raised markedly at presentation (median 3 840 000 copies/ml). Histological samples from spleen, splenic hilar lymph nodes and bone marrow demonstrated increased phagocytosis by histiocytes and presence of HHV-8-infected plasmablasts outside the follicles. Surprisingly, many known inflammatory plasma cytokines were not elevated, although interleukin (IL)-8 and interferon-? were increased in all cases and IL-6 levels were raised in three of four patients. HPS in the setting of HIV-MCD is common and treatment can be successful provided the diagnosis is made appropriately. Systemic activation of cytokines was limited, suggesting that immunosuppressive therapy with steroids is not indicated in HHV-8-driven HPS. PMID:19222502

Stebbing, J; Ngan, S; Ibrahim, H; Charles, P; Nelson, M; Kelleher, P; Naresh, K N; Bower, M

2008-01-01

204

Host miR-26a suppresses replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by upregulating type I interferons.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in viral infections, especially by modulating the expression of cellular factors essential to viral replication or the host innate immune response to infection. To identify host miRNAs important to controlling porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we screened 15 miRNAs that were previously implicated in innate immunity or antiviral functions. Over-expression of the miR-26 family strongly inhibited PRRSV replication in vitro, as shown by virus titer assays, Western blotting, and qRT-PCR assays. MiR-26a inhibited the replication of both type 1 and type 2 PRRSV strains. Mutating the seed region of miR-26 restored viral titers. Luciferase reporters showed that miR-26a does not target the PRRSV genome directly but instead affects the expression of type I interferon and the IFN-stimulated genes MX1 and ISG15 during PRRSV infection. These results demonstrate the important role of miR-26a in modulating PRRSV infection and also support the possibility of using host miR-26a to achieve RNAi-mediated antiviral therapeutic strategies. PMID:25218480

Li, Liwei; Wei, Zuzhang; Zhou, Yanjun; Gao, Fei; Jiang, Yifeng; Yu, Lingxue; Zheng, Hao; Tong, Wu; Yang, Shen; Zheng, Haihong; Shan, Tongling; Liu, Fei; Xia, Tianqi; Tong, Guangzhi

2015-01-01

205

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection results in acute lung injury of the infected pigs.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) was firstly characterized in 2006 in China. The virus has caused great economic loss to the Chinese swine production during the past years. Herein, we experimentally infected SPF pigs using two strains of PRRSV with different pathogenicity and observed the lung pathological changes looking for new sights on the possible pathogenesis associated with the virulence of HP-PRRSV. The results indicated that the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs died and exhibited severe pathological changes of lungs featuring increased neutrophils, mast cells and mononuclear macrophages, compared with the pigs inoculated with low pathogenic (LP-) PRRSV. Furthermore, the pigs infected with HP-PRRSV showed the higher levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, interleukin (IL)-8 and histamine, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), platelet activation factor (PAF) in sera than those inoculated with LP-PRRSV. Additionally, the fibrosis of lung was observed in the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. At present, our findings suggest that the aberrant immune responses triggered by HP-PRRSV infection are closely related to acute lung injury (ALI), and especially the pathological changes in lung vascular system are of particular significance. These associated pathological changes of lung are in part responsible for the additional morbidity and mortality observed in HP-PRRSV infection. PMID:24472226

Han, Deping; Hu, Yanxin; Li, Limin; Tian, Haiyan; Chen, Zhi; Wang, Lin; Ma, Haiyan; Yang, Hanchun; Teng, Kedao

2014-03-14

206

GP5 expression in Marc-145 cells inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection by inducing beta interferon activity.  

PubMed

The major neutralizing epitope of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is mainly located on virus glycoprotein 5 (GP5). Immunization with exogenous GP5 or exposure to native GP5 by means of DNA immunization can provide some degree of immune protection to PRRSV infection in pigs. However, during PRRSV infection in pigs, the production of neutralization antibodies induced by GP5 is delayed or suppressed. This suggests that the synthesis of GP5 is late than some PRRSV proteins or other PRRSV proteins interfering with the function of GP5 in inducing host responses during virus infection. Here, to exclude the impacts of the other PRRSV proteins and determine the role of GP5 in the replication of PRRSV in vitro, a Marc-145 cell line stably expressing GP5 (Marc-145-GP5(Flag)) was constructed. Cell proliferation and cell apoptosis measurements indicated that the expression of GP5 in Marc-145 cells did not disturb the cells' viability. Following infection with different PRRSV strains PRRSV replication in Marc-145-GP5(Flag) cells was inhibited significantly. Type I interferon assay results showed that beta interferon (IFN-?) in the Marc-145-GP5(Flag) cells were increased at mRNA and protein levels. When siRNA was introduced into the cells to knock down IFN-? mRNA, PRRSV infectivity of these cells was recovered. These data suggest that early GP5 expression is not favorable for further infection by PRRSV, because it not only stimulates production of neutralization antibodies in pigs, but also induces IFN-? production in host cells. Therefore, GP5 is an important protein in the induction of self-protection responses from the host. PMID:25457367

Gao, Jiming; Ji, Pengchao; Zhang, Maodong; Wang, Xiangpeng; Li, Na; Wang, Chengbao; Xiao, Shuqi; Mu, Yang; Zhao, Qin; Du, Taofeng; Sun, Yani; Hiscox, Julian A; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min

2014-12-01

207

Antibodies to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) in Venezuelan populations.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 850 individuals from Venezuela were tested for the presence of antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV virus, the probable etiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). At the time of the study, none of the individuals tested had symptoms indicative of AIDS or related disorders. Viral antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) assay, using a chronically infected, HTLV-III/LAV producer cell line CEM/LAV-NIT established in our laboratory. Twenty individuals (2.5%), 8 of them (40%) female, were seropositive by IF and by confirmatory Western blotting and radioimmunoprecipitation assays. The seropositivity rate ranged from 2.4% (11 of 465) in the general healthy population, 4% (2 of 50) among patients with Chagas' disease, and up to 29.2% (7 of 24) among patients with acute malaria infection. The titers of HTLV-III/LAV antibodies ranged from 1:40 to 1:640. In addition, 2 of 36 patients with hemophilia A (5.5%) also had antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV. Two of 7 patients with acute malaria had specific antibodies both to HTLV-III/LAV and HTLV-I, as determined by IF and Western blotting. None of over 169 randomly chosen, healthy blood donors from seven major Venezuelan cities, as well as none of 99 patients with leukemia/lymphoma, had antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV. The presence of specific antibodies among various Venezuelan populations indicates that HTLV-III/LAV, or a closely related cross-reactive virus, is indigenous in Latin American subjects as was previously indicated for tropical populations of central Africa. Isolation and characterization of this virus will help to understand the origin and etiology of AIDS. PMID:3013223

Volsky, D J; Rodriguez, L; Dewhurst, S; Sinangil, F; Sakai, K; Merino, F; Esparza, B; De Salvo, L

1986-01-01

208

Safety of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Virus (MLV) vaccine strains in a young pig infection model  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the safety of all modified live virus vaccines commercially available in Europe against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose, one hundred and twenty three-week-old piglets, divided into five groups, were used. On day 0 of the experiment, nine pigs per group were removed and the remaining fifteen were vaccinated with the commercial vaccines Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Amervac PRRS, Pyrsvac-183 and Porcilis PRRS by the IM route or were mock vaccinated and used as controls. On day 3, the nine unvaccinated pigs were re-introduced into their respective groups and served as sentinel pigs. Clinical signs were recorded daily and lung lesions were determined on days 7, 14 and 21, when 5 vaccinated pigs per group were euthanized. Blood samples and swabs were taken every three days and different organs were collected at necropsy to determine the presence of PRRSV. None of the vaccines studied caused detectable clinical signs in vaccinated pigs although lung lesions were found. Altogether, these results indicate that all vaccines can be considered clinically safe. However, some differences were found in virological parameters. Thus, neither Pyrsvac-183 nor Porcilis PRRS could be detected in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cultures or in lung sections used to determine PRRSV by immunohistochemistry, indicating that these viruses might have lost their ability to replicate in PAM. This inability to replicate in PAM might be related to the lower transmission rate and the delay in the onset of viremia observed in these groups PMID:24308693

2013-01-01

209

Performance of ELISA antigens prepared from 8 isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus with homologous and heterologous antisera.  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ELISA antigens of high quality were produced using 8 different isolates of PRRSV: the European Lelystad virus (LV), the U.S. MN-1b, 89-46448, 93-44927, and 93-24025B, and the Canadian LHVA-93-3, PA-8 and GH-6 virus isolates. The performance of each of these 8 antigens and a commercial PRRSV antibody test kit (Idexx's HerdChek) were measured against antisera raised in 5 groups of 6 piglets inoculated with either LV, MN-1b, 89-46448, 93-44927, or 93-24025B. Among the 8 isolates, the 89-46448 isolate produced the broadest spectrum of antigen and resulted in earlier detection of antibodies to various North American PRRSV isolates, followed by MN-1b as the 2nd best ELISA antigen for the detection of North American PRRSV antibodies. The GH-6 and PA-8 viral antigens exhibited restricted detection of PRRSV antibodies. The LV and 89-46448 combined antigens produced the best performance for the detection of antibodies against both European and North American antigenic types of PRRSV. Using 173 panel samples collected at 11 to 60 d after intranasal inoculation with 1 of the 5 PRRSV isolates, the sensitivities of the indirect ELISA used were 73.4%, 98.3%, 90.8%, 98.3%, 83.2%, 93.1%, 77.1%, 64.2%, 98.8% and 95.9% for LV, MN-1b, LHVA-93-3, 89-46448, 93-44927, 93-24025B, PA-8, GH-6 antigens, 89-46448-LV combined antigens and Idexx's PRRSV antibody test kit, respectively. All 8 antigens gave negative results with preinfection porcine sera (n = 30); high background or nonspecific reactions were not observed with the antigens. PMID:9342455

Cho, H J; Entz, S C; Magar, R; Joo, H S

1997-01-01

210

Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

SciTech Connect

Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-alpha treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells is dependent on TGF-beta but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-alpha treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.

Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Mwangi, Waithaka [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Hernandez, Jesus, E-mail: jhdez@ciad.m [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2009-05-10

211

Resolution of the cellular proteome of the nucleocapsid protein from a highly pathogenic isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus identifies PARP-1 as a cellular target whose interaction is critical for virus biology.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major threat to the swine industry and food security worldwide. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is a major structural protein of PRRSV. The primary function of this protein is to encapsidate the viral RNA genome, and it is also thought to participate in the modulation of host cell biology and recruitment of cellular factors to facilitate virus infection. In order to the better understand these latter roles the cellular interactome of PRRSV N protein was defined using label free quantitative proteomics. This identified several cellular factors that could interact with the N protein including poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a cellular protein, which can add adenosine diphosphate ribose to a protein. Use of the PARP-1 small molecule inhibitor, 3-AB, in PRRSV infected cells demonstrated that PARP-1 was required and acted as an enhancer factor for virus biology. Serial growth of PRRSV in different concentrations of 3-AB did not yield viruses that were able to grow with wild type kinetics, suggesting that by targeting a cellular protein crucial for virus biology, resistant phenotypes did not emerge. This study provides further evidence that cellular proteins, which are critical for virus biology, can also be targeted to ablate virus growth and provide a high barrier for the emergence of drug resistance. PMID:25614100

Liu, Long; Lear, Zoe; Hughes, David J; Wu, Weining; Zhou, En-Min; Whitehouse, Adrian; Chen, Hongying; Hiscox, Julian A

2015-03-23

212

A case of secondary syphilis demonstrating nephrotic syndrome and a solitary intrahepatic mass in a human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patient.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old, human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected Japanese man was referred because of nephrotic syndrome following emergence of generalized skin rash. Serological tests for syphilis turned out to be positive within ten months of the referral. Abdominal echography incidentally revealed a solitary intrahepatic mass without a detectable blood flow in segment 7. The patient's signs and symptoms, as well as the intrahepatic mass, resolved promptly after administration of amoxicillin. We consider that, in the present case, secondary syphilis caused the nephrotic syndrome and the intrahepatic mass, both of which have rarely been reported to date. PMID:25127155

Koganemaru, Hiroshi; Hitomi, Shigemi; Kai, Hirayasu; Yamagata, Kunihiro

2015-01-01

213

One case of swine hepatitis E virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Co-infection in weaned pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Using various methods, we analyzed the cause of death among weaned pigs from a pig farm in Hebei Province, China. All 300 piglets (100% fatality) were identified as moribund, with death occurring within 1 month from the onset of clinical signs. Results A single case exhibited obvious hemorrhagic necrotic changes with massive lymphocytic infiltration in multiple organs, in particular the liver, lungs and intestines. Dysplasia and lymphocyte deterioration were common in lymphatic organs. No visible bacterial colonies from liver and spleen were observed in nutrient, MacConkey, and blood agar plates. Using polymerase chain reaction techniques for this case, we attempted to detect a number of epidemic swine viruses in spleen and liver, including PRRSV, CSF, HEV, and PCV2. We found that this sample was positive for the presence of HEV and PRRSV. Conclusions We have detected HEV and PRRSV co-infection in one piglet. Severe pathologic changes were observed. The high mortality of weaned pigs which showed the similar clinical syptom was possibly a result of HEV and PRRSV co-infection, which has rarely been reported previously. We speculated that co-infection with PRRSV and HEV might lead to more serious problems. PMID:24252365

2013-01-01

214

Human immunodeficiency virus and Guillain 'Barre' syndrome in intensive care unit patients.  

PubMed

Among 155 medical admissions to the intensive care unit during the period 1989 to 1990, 16 patients had Guillain-'Barre' Syndrome (GBS), five of whom were HIV positive. Out of the five cases, three had manifested herpes zoster and one had TB. The impact of HIV infection o GBS is discussed. PMID:1505017

Chinyanga, H M; Danha, R F

1992-02-01

215

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Correlation but not Causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseas es. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in

Peter H. Duesberg

1989-01-01

216

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Correlation but not Causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about

Peter H. Duesberg

1989-01-01

217

Co-expressing GP5 and M proteins under different promoters in recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (rMVA)-based vaccine vector enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has three major structural proteins which designated as GP5,\\u000a M, and N. Protein GP5 and M have been considered very important to arouse the humoral and cellular immune responses against\\u000a PRRSV infection and proposed to be the excellent candidate proteins in the design of PRRS bioengineering vaccine. There were\\u000a some attempts on

Qisheng Zheng; Desheng Chen; Peng Li; Zhixiang Bi; Ruibing Cao; Bin Zhou; Puyan Chen

2007-01-01

218

An Unusual Case of Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Presenting as Mononucleosis-like Syndrome and Acute Aseptic Meningoencephalitis. Report of a Case and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Clinical presentation of primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes a wide spectrum of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a symptomatic and severe illness. Central nervous system involvement should be always considered as a severe clinical form of primary HIV infection. Physicians should be aware to the broad clinical spectrum of primary HIV infection. We report a case of a female with diagnosis of mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis during primary HIV infection. PMID:25374871

Corti, Marcelo; Gilardi, Leonardo

2014-01-01

219

Recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus S protein elicits neutralizing antibodies: Implication for developing SARS vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an effective vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) remains to be a priority to prevent possible re-emergence of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We previously demonstrated that the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV S protein is a major target of neutralizing antibodies. This suggests that the RBD may serve as an ideal vaccine candidate. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has

Lanying Du; Yuxian He; Yijia Wang; Haojie Zhang; Selene Ma; Charlotte K. L. Wong; Sharon H. W. Wu; Fai Ng; Jian-Dong Huang; Kwok-Yung Yuen; Shibo Jiang; Yusen Zhou; Bo-Jian Zheng

2006-01-01

220

Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of the isolated type I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from 2007 to 2008 in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first Korean strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was isolated in 1997, and it exhibited\\u000a high similarity to strain VR-2332 (type II PRRSV; North American type). Recently, however, infection with type I PRRSV (European\\u000a type) has also been reported in Korea. To date, preliminary data about type I PRRSV prevalence in Korea have not been reported.

Chulseung Lee; Hyekwon Kim; Bokyu Kang; Minjoo Yeom; Sangyoon Han; Hyoungjoon Moon; Hyunil Kim; Daesub Song

2010-01-01

221

Toxicological Safety Evaluation of DNA Plasmid Vaccines against HIV1, Ebola, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or West Nile Virus Is Similar Despite Differing Plasmid Backbones or Gene-Inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vaccine Research Center has developed a number of vaccine candidates for different diseases\\/infectious agents (HIV- 1, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus, West Nile virus, and Ebola virus, plus a plasmid cytokine adjuvant—IL-2\\/Ig) based on a DNA plasmid vaccine platform. To support the clinical de- velopment of each of these vaccine candidates, preclinical studies were performed to screen for potential

Rebecca L. Sheets; Judith Stein; T. Scott Manetz; Charla Andrews; Robert Bailer; John Rathmann; Phillip L. Gomezjj

2006-01-01

222

Occurrence of haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against egg drop syndrome 1976 virus in broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a total of 22 broiler flocks 347 serum samples were screened by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and 114 (32·9%) were positive for antibodies to egg drop syndrome 1976 (EDS'76). The HI titres of the serum samples ranged from 2 to 9 log2 and the overall geometric mean titre was 3·9 log2. Of the serum samples 82·5% showed HI

J. K. Singh; K. C. P. Singh; C. B. Prasad

1995-01-01

223

Characterization of a virus associated with head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLE) in marine angelfish  

E-print Network

Erosion Syndrome (HLLE) in Marine Angelfish. (August 1990) Patricia Wilcox Varner, B. S. , Oklahoma State University; D. V. M. , University of Missouri Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Donald H. Lewis The biophysical and morphological characteristics... culture fluid (10 TCIDs) were applied by the drop mount procedure to carbon-coated copper grids (Pella, Redding, CA, USA) and stained with two per cent phosphotungstic acid, pH 6. 3-7 (Brenner and Horne 1959) for examination with a Phillips 301 electron...

Varner, Patricia Wilcox

1990-01-01

224

Anticardiolipin Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Characterization in Relation to Antiphospholipid Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is usually defined by the association of clinical manifestations that comprise venous and\\/or arterial thrombosis, recurrent fetal losses, and thrombocytopenia, along with the presence of anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies and\\/or lupus anticoagulant. Various infectious diseases can induce aCL; however, these antibodies are not usually associated with thrombotic events, as happens with autoimmune diseases, in which these antibodies

JOSEP ORDI-ROS; JULIETA VILLARREAL; FRANCESC MONEGAL; SILVIA SAULEDA; IGNACIO ESTEBAN; MIQUEL VILARDELL

2000-01-01

225

Isolation and characterization of a Chinese strain of Tembusu virus from Hy-Line Brown layers with acute egg-drop syndrome in Fujian, China.  

PubMed

Tembusu virus (TMUV) has been a causative agent of an acute egg-drop syndrome found in Chinese duck populations since at least 2010. In this paper, we report the characterization of a TMUV-like flavivirus (named CJD05) isolated from naturally infected egg-laying fowl. The virus was identified and then isolated from hens suffering from severe egg drop and fever in Fujian Province, China. The virus replicated well in MDEF and CEF cells, and its cytopathogenic effect (CPE) was apparent. Hemagglutinating activity (HA) was negative for this virus using erythrocytes from both chickens and pigeons. Viral particles were enveloped and approximately 45 nm in diameter, as observed by electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length nucleotide sequence of CJD05 indicated that this virus is closely related to the duck-origin TMUV, belonging to Ntaya group of flavivirus. Most importantly, pathogenicity studies showed that CJD05 is highly virulent in 1-day-old chicks, 1-day-old Muscovy ducks, egg-laying chickens and shelducks. Our research highlights the increase in epidemic disease caused by avian TMUV, and subsequent outbreaks are becoming more complicated to treat. The pathogenic mechanisms of the virus are still not fully understood, further research is needed. PMID:24297489

Chen, Shilong; Wang, Shao; Li, Zhaolong; Lin, Fengqiang; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Xiaoli; Wang, Jingxiang; Chen, Shaoying; Huang, Meiqing; Zheng, Min

2014-05-01

226

Structure of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Complex with Suramin Reveals Therapeutic Potential  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV). Lack of vaccines and inadequate therapeutic treatments have made the spread of the virus a global concern. Viral nucleocapsid protein (N) is essential for its transcription and replication. Here, we present the crystal structures of N from SFTSV and its homologs from Buenaventura (BUE) and Granada (GRA) viruses. The structures reveal that phleboviral N folds into a compact core domain and an extended N-terminal arm that mediates oligomerization, such as tetramer, pentamer, and hexamer of N assemblies. Structural superimposition indicates that phleboviral N adopts a conserved architecture and uses a similar RNA encapsidation strategy as that of RVFV-N. The RNA binding cavity runs along the inner edge of the ring-like assembly. A triple mutant of SFTSV-N, R64D/K67D/K74D, almost lost its ability to bind RNA in vitro, is deficient in its ability to transcribe and replicate. Structural studies of the mutant reveal that both alterations in quaternary assembly and the charge distribution contribute to the loss of RNA binding. In the screening of inhibitors Suramin was identified to bind phleboviral N specifically. The complex crystal structure of SFTSV-N with Suramin was refined to a 2.30-Å resolution. Suramin was found sitting in the putative RNA binding cavity of SFTSV-N. The inhibitory effect of Suramin on SFTSV replication was confirmed in Vero cells. Therefore, a common Suramin-based therapeutic approach targeting SFTSV-N and its homologs could be developed for containing phleboviral outbreaks. PMID:23576501

Jiao, Lianying; Ouyang, Songying; Liang, Mifang; Niu, Fengfeng; Shaw, Neil; Wu, Wei; Ding, Wei; Jin, Cong; Peng, Yao; Zhu, Yanping; Zhang, Fushun; Wang, Tao; Li, Chuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Luan, Chi-Hao; Li, Dexin

2013-01-01

227

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in an HIV-1 infected patient with disseminated varicella zoster virus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon pathology characterized by the acute onset of headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, seizures and focal neurological deficits. It was initially described in the setting of hypertension, uremia and immunosuppression. In the last decade there have been emerging reports of PRES in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection in the presence of hypertension, dialysis, hypercalcaemia and two opportunistic infections: blastomycosis and tuberculosis (TB). Case presentation Here we present the case of a 54 year old male being treated for disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) and vasculopathy in the setting of HIV infection who acutely deteriorated to the point of requiring intubation. His clinicoradiological diagnosis was of PRES and he subsequently improved within 72 h with supportive management. Serial neuroimaging correlated with the clinical findings. The pathogenesis of PRES is poorly understood but is thought to stem from vasogenic oedema either as a result of loss of endothelial integrity and transudate of fluid across the blood–brain barrier, or secondary to vasospasm resulting in tissue oedema in the absence of infarction. How HIV infection impacts on this model is unclear. It is possible the HIV infection causes endothelial dysfunction and disruption of the blood–brain barrier that may be further exacerbated by infections in the central nervous system. Conclusion The phenomenon of PRES in advanced HIV is an important clinical entity for both physicians and critical care doctors to recognize firstly given its potential mortality but also because of its favourable prognosis and reversibility with supportive care and treatment of underlying causes. PMID:23981526

2013-01-01

228

Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control) L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10?5) against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes) were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:23469011

Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Peng, Min; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaohan

2013-01-01

229

Expression of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in soybean seed yields an immunogenic antigenic protein.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a serious disease of swine and contributes to severe worldwide economic losses in swine production. Current vaccines against PRRS rely on the use of an attenuated-live virus; however, these are unreliable. Thus, alternative effective vaccines against PRRS are needed. Plant-based subunit vaccines offer viable, safe, and environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional vaccines. In this study, efforts have been undertaken to develop a soybean-based vaccine against PRRSV. A construct carrying a synthesized PRRSV-ORF7 antigen, nucleocapsid N protein of PRRSV, has been introduced into soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. cvs. Jack and Kunitz, using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants carrying the sORF7 transgene have been successfully generated. Molecular analyses of T(0) plants confirmed integration of the transgene and transcription of the PRRSV-ORF7. Presence of a 15-kDa protein in seeds of T(1) transgenic lines was confirmed by Western blot analysis using PRRSV-ORF7 antisera. The amount of the antigenic protein accumulating in seeds of these transgenic lines was up to 0.65% of the total soluble protein (TSP). A significant induction of a specific immune response, both humoral and mucosal, against PRRSV-ORF7 was observed following intragastric immunization of BALB/c female mice with transgenic soybean seeds. These findings provide a 'proof of concept', and serve as a critical step in the development of a subunit plant-based vaccine against PRRS. PMID:21971995

Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Gasic, Ksenija; Soria-Guerra, Ruth; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Korban, Schuyler S

2012-03-01

230

In vivo effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) naturally contaminated feed on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.  

PubMed

Deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as vomitoxin, is the most prevalent type B trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide. Pigs show a great sensitivity to DON, and because of the high proportion of grains in their diets, they are frequently exposed to this mycotoxin. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of DON naturally contaminated feed on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, the most important porcine viral pathogen in swine. Experimental infections were performed with 30 animals. Piglets were randomly divided into three groups of 10 animals based on DON content of diets (0, 2.5 and 3.5mg/kg DON). All experimental groups were further divided into subgroups of 6 pigs and were inoculated with PRRSV. The remaining pigs (control) were sham-inoculated with PBS. Pigs were daily monitored for temperature, weight and clinical signs for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and tested for PRRSV RNA and for virus specific antibodies. Results of PRRSV infection showed that ingestion of diet highly contaminated with DON greatly increases the effect of PRRSV infection on weight gain, lung lesions and mortality, without increasing significantly viral replication, for which the tendency is rather directed toward a decrease of replication. These results suggest that PRRSV infection could exacerbate anorectic effect of DON, when ingested in large doses. Results also demonstrate a DON negative effect on PRRSV-specific humoral responses. This study demonstrate that high concentrations of DON naturally contaminated feed decreased the immune response against PRRSV and influenced the course of PRRSV infection in pigs. PMID:25465662

Savard, Christian; Pinilla, Vicente; Provost, Chantale; Gagnon, Carl A; Chorfi, Younes

2014-12-01

231

Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Sahul Hameed, A.S. [OIE Expert, OIE Reference Laboratory for WTD, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509 (India); Kwang, Jimmy, E-mail: kwang@tll.org.s [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

2009-09-01

232

Highly Divergent Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Incorporate Multiple Isoforms of Nonstructural Protein 2 into Virions  

PubMed Central

Viral structural proteins form the critical intermediary between viral infection cycles within and between hosts, function to initiate entry, participate in immediate early viral replication steps, and are major targets for the host adaptive immune response. We report the identification of nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) as a novel structural component of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) particle. A set of custom ?-nsp2 antibodies targeting conserved epitopes within four distinct regions of nsp2 (the PLP2 protease domain [OTU], the hypervariable domain [HV], the putative transmembrane domain [TM], and the C-terminal region [C]) were obtained commercially and validated in PRRSV-infected cells. Highly purified cell-free virions of several PRRSV strains were isolated through multiple rounds of differential density gradient centrifugation and analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) and Western blot assays using the ?-nsp2 antibodies. Purified viral preparations were found to contain pleomorphic, predominantly spherical virions of uniform size (57.9 nm ± 8.1 nm diameter; n = 50), consistent with the expected size of PRRSV particles. Analysis by IEM indicated the presence of nsp2 associated with the viral particle of diverse strains of PRRSV. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of nsp2 in purified viral samples and revealed that multiple nsp2 isoforms were associated with the virion. Finally, a recombinant PRRSV genome containing a myc-tagged nsp2 was used to generate purified virus, and these particles were also shown to harbor myc-tagged nsp2 isoforms. Together, these data identify nsp2 as a virion-associated structural PRRSV protein and reveal that nsp2 exists in or on viral particles as multiple isoforms. PMID:24089566

Kappes, Matthew A.; Miller, Cathy L.

2013-01-01

233

Emergence and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) characterized by high fever, high morbidity, and high mortality in pigs of all ages emerged in China in 2006 and spread rapidly throughout Southeast Asia. In July 2010, a highly contagious swine disease with clinical signs similar to those of HP-PRRS was observed in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). A field investigation covering 8 pig farms and 1 slaughterhouse in 7 different districts in the capital city of Vientiane was conducted to identify the disease. Total mortality rates ranged from 6.02% in boars to 91.28% in piglets (mean 54.15%) across the farms investigated. Emergence of the HP-PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) in Lao PDR was confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as virus isolation and identification. An animal inoculation study was performed to characterize the HP-PRRSV responsible for this outbreak. Isolate Laos 1.13 was inoculated into 70-day-old specific pathogen-free pigs to study pathogenicity. Clinical signs of high fever, rubefaction, respiratory distress, nervous symptoms, and diarrhea were observed in inoculated pigs, as well as pathological hemorrhagic lesions consolidated in the lungs. Morbidity and mortality were 100% and 60%, respectively, in inoculated pigs. HP-PRRSV was re-isolated from the inoculated pigs. Results suggested that the newly emerged HP-PRRSV was responsible for recent outbreaks of the swine disease in Lao PDR. The current report highlights the importance of continuous surveillance in neighboring countries to prevent introduction of PRRS to new regions. PMID:22379051

Ni, Jianqiang; Yang, Shibiao; Bounlom, Douangngeun; Yu, Xiuling; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Jianling; Khamphouth, Vongxay; Vatthana, Theppannga; Tian, Kegong

2012-03-01

234

Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and healthy controls in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence of XMRV infection by using serologic and molecular assays. Blinded PCR and serologic testing were performed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and at two additional laboratories. Results Archived blood specimens were tested from persons with CFS defined by the 1994 international research case definition and matched healthy controls from Wichita, Kansas and metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia populations. Serologic testing at CDC utilized a Western blot (WB) assay that showed excellent sensitivity to MuLV and XMRV polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, and no reactivity on sera from 121 US blood donors or 26 HTLV-and HIV-infected sera. Plasma from 51 CFS cases and plasma from 53 controls were all WB negative. Additional blinded screening of the 51 cases and 53 controls at the Robert Koch Institute using an ELISA employing recombinant Gag and Env XMRV proteins identified weak seroreactivity in one CFS case and a healthy control, which was not confirmed by immunofluorescence. PCR testing at CDC employed a gag and a pol nested PCR assay with a detection threshold of 10 copies in 1 ug of human DNA. DNA specimens from 50 CFS patients and 56 controls and 41 US blood donors were all PCR-negative. Blinded testing by a second nested gag PCR assay at the Blood Systems Research Institute was also negative for DNA specimens from the 50 CFS cases and 56 controls. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of infection with XMRV in our U.S. study population of CFS patients or healthy controls by using multiple molecular and serologic assays. These data do not support an association of XMRV with CFS. PMID:20594299

2010-01-01

235

Cardiomyopathy Syndrome of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Is Caused by a Double-Stranded RNA Virus of the Totiviridae Family?  

PubMed Central

Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is a disease of yet unknown etiology characterized by a necrotizing myocarditis involving the atrium and the spongious part of the heart ventricle. Here, we report the identification of a double-stranded RNA virus likely belonging to the family Totiviridae as the causative agent of the disease. The proposed name of the virus is piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV). On the basis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequence, PMCV grouped with Giardia lamblia virus and infectious myonecrosis virus of penaeid shrimp. The genome size of PMCV is 6,688 bp, with three open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 likely encodes the major capsid protein, while ORF2 encodes the RdRp, possibly expressed as a fusion protein with the ORF1 product. ORF3 seems to be translated as a separate protein not described for any previous members of the family Totiviridae. Following experimental challenge with cell culture-grown virus, histopathological changes are observed in heart tissue by 6 weeks postchallenge (p.c.), with peak severity by 9 weeks p.c. Viral genome levels detected by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR peak earlier at 6 to 7 weeks p.c. The virus genome is detected by in situ hybridization in degenerate cardiomyocytes from clinical cases of CMS. Virus genome levels in the hearts from clinical field cases correlate well with the severity of histopathological changes in heart tissue. The identification of the causative agent for CMS is important for improved disease surveillance and disease control and will serve as a basis for vaccine development against the disease. PMID:21411528

Haugland, Øyvind; Mikalsen, Aase B.; Nilsen, Pål; Lindmo, Karine; Thu, Beate J.; Eliassen, Trygve M.; Roos, Norbert; Rode, Marit; Evensen, Øystein

2011-01-01

236

Alpha interferon (2b) in combination with zidovudine for the treatment of presymptomatic feline leukemia virus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic efficacies of human recombinant alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IFN-alpha plus zidovudine (AZT), and AZT alone were evaluated in presymptomatic cats with established feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (FAIDS) infection and high levels of persistent antigenemia. Subcutaneous injection of 1.6 x 10(6) U of human recombinant IFN-alpha 2b per kg delivered peak concentrations in plasma of 3,600 U/ml at 2 h postadministration with a half-life of elimination of 2.9 h. This dosage of IFN-alpha could be delivered to cats for up to 12 weeks without significant clinical toxicity. Oral administration of AZT (20 mg/kg three times daily) resulted in peak concentrations in plasma of 3 micrograms/ml at 2 h with a half-life of elimination of approximately 1.60 h. Treatment of FeLV-FAIDS-infected cats with IFN-alpha, either alone or in combination with orally administered AZT, resulted in significant decreases in circulating p27 core antigen beginning 2 weeks after the initiation of therapy. AZT alone had no effect on circulating virus antigen. Depending upon whether high (1.6 x 10(6) U/kg)- or low (1.6 x 10(4) to 1.6 x 10(5) U/kg)-dosage IFN-alpha was used, cats became refractory to therapy 3 or 7 weeks after the beginning of treatment. At these times, IFN-alpha-treated animals developed antibodies to IFN-alpha that were neutralizing, specific for human recombinant IFN-alpha, and dose dependent in magnitude. The results of this study indicate that human recombinant IFN-alpha is effective in reducing circulating virus antigenic load in cats persistently infected with FeLV-FAIDS. However, the continued efficacy of IFN-alpha therapy appeared to be limited by the formation of cytokine-specific neutralizing antibodies. Images PMID:2178336

Zeidner, N S; Myles, M H; Mathiason-DuBard, C K; Dreitz, M J; Mullins, J I; Hoover, E A

1990-01-01

237

A Phase 1 clinical trial of Hantaan virus and Puumala virus M-segment DNA vaccines for haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome delivered by intramuscular electroporation.  

PubMed

Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is endemic in Asia, Europe and Scandinavia, and is caused by infection with the hantaviruses Hantaan (HTNV), Seoul (SEOV), Puumala (PUUV), or Dobrava (DOBV) viruses. We developed candidate DNA vaccines for HFRS expressing the Gn and Gc genes of HTNV or PUUV and evaluated them in an open-label, single-centre Phase 1 study. Three groups of nine participants each were vaccinated on days 0, 28 and 56 with the DNA vaccines for HTNV, PUUV, or a mixture of both vaccines using the Ichor Medical Systems TriGrid Intramuscular Delivery System. All vaccinations consisted of a total dose of 2.0 mg DNA in an injected volume of 1 mL saline. For the combined vaccine, the mixture contained equal amounts (1.0 mg) of each DNA vaccine. There were no study-related serious adverse events. Neutralizing antibody responses were measured by a plaque reduction neutralization test. Neutralizing antibody responses were detected in five of nine and seven of nine individuals who completed all three vaccinations with the HTNV or PUUV DNA vaccines, respectively. In the combined vaccine group, seven of the nine volunteers receiving all three vaccinations developed neutralizing antibodies to PUUV. The three strongest responders to the PUUV vaccine also had strong neutralizing antibody responses to HTNV. These results demonstrate that the HTNV and PUUV DNA vaccines delivered by electroporation separately or as a mixture are safe. In addition, both vaccines were immunogenic, although when mixed together, more participants responded to the PUUV than to the HTNV DNA vaccine. PMID:24447183

Hooper, J W; Moon, J E; Paolino, K M; Newcomer, R; McLain, D E; Josleyn, M; Hannaman, D; Schmaljohn, C

2014-05-01

238

Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors  

PubMed Central

We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 ?m long and 850-485 ?m wide constructed from 8 ?m thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody-coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label-free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label-free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100 virions (nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions (nucleocapsids)/100?l, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label-free, in-situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation. PMID:20863681

Capobianco, Joseph; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.

2011-01-01

239

Shrimp Taura syndrome virus detection by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows rapid amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions using four sets of specially designed primers that recognize six distinct target sequences with high specificity and sensitivity. In this report, a 60-min reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) method for amplification of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) cDNA using biotin-labeled primer was combined with a chromatographic lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for rapid and simple visual detection of TSV-specific amplicons. The LFD process involved a 5-min post RT-LAMP step for specific hybridization of cDNA with an FITC-labeled DNA probe that confirmed the presence of specific, biotin-labeled TSV amplicons. The resulting DNA duplexes could be visualized trapped at the LFD strip test line within 5min of sample exposure. Using the combined RT-LAMP and LFD system, the total assay interval was approximately 70min, excluding RNA extraction time. Detection sensitivity was comparable to other commonly used methods for nested RT-PCR detection of TSV. In addition to reduced assay time when compared to electrophoresis, combination of RT-LAMP with LFD confirms amplicon identity by hybridization and eliminates the need to handle carcinogenic ethidium bromide. PMID:18662723

Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Arunrut, Narong; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Flegel, T W

2008-11-01

240

Immune modulations and protection by translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in Fenneropenaeus indicus harboring white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

Fenneropenaeus indicus translationally controlled tumor protein (Fi-TCTP) was cloned and expressed using pET 100a-D-TOPO in prokaryotic expression system and it exhibited putative antioxidant activity as assessed in vitro by enhanced growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The protective efficacy of recombinant Fi-TCTP (rFi-TCTP) was evaluated in F. indicus by intramuscular and oral administration. Intramuscular injection of rFi-TCTP to shrimps, on subsequent white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection exhibited 42% relative percent survival. To understand the mechanism of protection, immunological parameters such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), phenoloxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed in early (24h) and late (60h) stages of infection. rFi-TCTP pretreatment significantly lowers the WSSV induced ROS generation and respiratory burst during early and late stages of infection. Further, WSSV induced apoptotic changes such as reduced haemocyte count, loss in MMP and DNA fragmentation were significantly reduced during early and late stage of infection upon rFi-TCTP administration. Hence, the immunomodulatory studies suggest that protective effect of rFi-TCTP in treated shrimps, might be due to the reduction in ROS and apoptosis, following decreased mitochondrial damage together with reduced phenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst. PMID:24837973

Rajesh, S; Kamalakannan, V; Narayanan, R B

2014-07-01

241

Sodium alginate from Sargassum wightii retards mortalities in Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii (16.35 ± 1.42%, mean [±SD] yield from 5 extractions) was prepared as a powder or beads and used to enrich Artemia nauplii at concentrations of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg l-1. The alginate-enriched nauplii were fed to Penaeus monodon shrimp postlarvae (PL) stage 15 (PL15, i.e. 15 d old) for 20 d. Mean weight gain and specific growth rate over this period were 0.24 g and 15.8%, respectively, in PL groups not fed alginate, and 0.20-0.28 g and 14.7-16.5%, respectively, in PL groups fed alginate. Amongst PL35 then challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by immersion, all PL not fed alginate died within 9 d. However, amongst PL fed the 4 concentrations of alginate powder or beads, mortality rates reduced with increasing alginate concentration, and between 25 and 32% PL remained alive when the bioassay was terminated on Day 21. Amongst alginate-fed PL groups compared with the control group, mortality was reduced by 26.5 to 58.4%. Nested PCR detection of WSSV revealed sodium alginate concentration-dependent reductions in infection loads. The data indicate that sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed and fed to P. monodon can retard progression of WSSV disease. PMID:22832717

Immanuel, Grasian; Sivagnanavelmurugan, Madasasmy; Balasubramanian, Varatharajan; Palavesam, Arunachalam

2012-07-25

242

Grade 4 febrile neutropenia and Fournier's Syndrome associated with triple therapy for hepatitis C virus: A case report.  

PubMed

The use of triple therapy for hepatitis C not only increases the rate of sustained virological responses compared with the use of only interferon and ribavirin (RBV) but also leads to an increased number of side effects. The subject of this study was a 53-year-old male who was cirrhotic with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 A and was a previous null non-responder. We initially attempted retreatment with boceprevir (BOC), Peg-interferon and RBV, and a decrease in viral load was observed in the 8(th) week. In week 12, he presented with disorientation, flapping, fever, tachypnea, arterial hypotension and tachycardia. He also exhibited leucopenia with neutropenia. Cefepime and filgrastim were initiated, and treatment for hepatitis C was suspended. A myelogram revealed hypoplasia, cytotoxicity and maturational retardation. After 48 h, he developed bilateral inguinal erythema that evolved throughout the perineal area to the root of the thighs, with exulcerations and an outflow of seropurulent secretions. Because we hypothesized that he was suffering from Fournier's Syndrome, treatment was replaced with the antibiotics imipenem, linezolid and clindamycin. After this new treatment paradigm was initiated, his lesions regressed without requiring surgical debridement. Triple therapy requires knowledge regarding the management of adverse effects and drug interactions; it also requires an understanding of the importance of respecting the guidelines for the withdrawal of treatment. In this case report, we observed an adverse event that had not been previously reported in the literature with the use of BOC. PMID:25018856

Oliveira, Kelly Cristhian Lima; Cardoso, Emili de Oliveira Bortolon; de Souza, Suzana Carla Pereira; Machado, Flávia Souza; Zangirolami, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Moreira, Alecsandro; Silva, Giovanni Faria; de Oliveira, Cássio Vieira

2014-06-27

243

Interleukin-18 and interferon-gamma polymorphisms in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients presenting with lipodystrophy syndrome.  

PubMed

Cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of lipodystrophy syndrome (LS). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -607(C/A) and -137(C/G) in the promoter region of the interleukin-18 (IL-18) gene and at position +874(T/A) of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) gene are related to the expression of these cytokines. To examine whether IL-18 and IFN-gamma polymorphisms are associated with LS, these SNPs were genotyped in 88 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients presenting LS, 79 HIV-infected without LS, and 133 healthy controls. The -607A allele, -607AA genotype, and -137G/-607A and -137C/-607A haplotypes in the IL-18 gene were over-represented in HIV patients presenting LS. The -137G/-607C haplotype was associated with protection against LS. These results indicate that the -607(C/A) SNP is associated with LS development in HIV-infected patients. PMID:20331838

Castelar, L; Silva, M M; Castelli, E C; Deghaide, N H S; Mendes-Junior, C T; Machado, A A; Donadi, E A; Fernandes, A P M

2010-08-01

244

Identification of apoptotic cells in the thymus of piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an immunosuppressive disease that is characterized by respiratory distress and poor growth in piglets and by severe reproductive failure in sows. PRRS was first recognized in the 1990s in Europe and the United States. In 2006, highly pathogenic (HP)-PRRS caused enormous economic losses in China. Our previous studies demonstrated that the HP-PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) induced the apoptosis of numerous thymocytes in infected piglets, leading to severe thymus atrophy. To further identify the subset of apoptotic cells in thymus of HP-PRRSV-infected piglets, different cell types, apoptotic cells, and HP-PRRSV were marked with the corresponding markers. Results of the colocalization demonstrated that the apoptotic cells were not infected by HP-PRRSV, and most of them were CD3(+) T cells. No apoptosis was observed in the epithelial cells, and only few CD14(+) cells were apoptotic. HP-PRRSV was only found in CD14(+) cells, and epithelial cells and CD3(+) cells were not infected by HP-PRRSV. This is the first study to report the apoptotic and infected cells in the thymuses of HP-PRRSV-infected piglets. PMID:24787009

Li, Yuming; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yonggang; Tu, Yabin; He, Yuli; Wang, Zhiyan; Han, Zifeng; Li, Li; Li, Aidong; Tao, Ye; Cai, Xuehui

2014-08-30

245

Phylogeny-Based Evolutionary, Demographical, and Geographical Dissection of North American Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses?  

PubMed Central

Type 2 (or North American-like) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was first recorded in 1987 in the United States and now occurs in most commercial swine industries throughout the world. In this study, we investigated the epidemiological and evolutionary behaviors of type 2 PRRSV. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 8,624 ORF5 sequences, we described a comprehensive picture of the diversity of type 2 PRRSVs and systematically classified all available sequences into lineages and sublineages, including a number of previously undescribed lineages. With the rapid growth of sequence deposition into the databases, it would be technically difficult for veterinary researchers to genotype their sequences by reanalyzing all sequences in the databases. To this end, a set of reference sequences was established based on our classification system, which represents the principal diversity of all available sequences and can readily be used for further genotyping studies. In addition, we further investigated the demographic histories of these lineages and sublineages by using Bayesian coalescence analyses, providing evolutionary insights into several important epidemiological events of type 2 PRRSV. Moreover, by using a phylogeographic approach, we were able to estimate the transmission frequencies between the pig-producing states in the United States and identified several states as the major sources of viral spread, i.e., “transmission centers.” In summary, this study represents the most extensive phylogenetic analyses of type 2 PRRSV to date, providing a basis for future genotyping studies and dissecting the epidemiology of type 2 PRRSV from phylogenetic perspectives. PMID:20554771

Shi, Mang; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Hon, Chung-Chau; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Davies, Peter R.; Hui, Raymond Kin-Hei; Li, Jun; Wong, Lina Tik-Wim; Yip, Chi-Wai; Jiang, Jin-Wai; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

2010-01-01

246

An investigation into occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus outbreak in traditional paddy cum prawn fields in India.  

PubMed

A yearlong (September 2009-August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8 mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds. PMID:22593673

Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K M; Mohamed Hatha, A A

2012-01-01

247

Interactome Profile of the Host Cellular Proteins and the Nonstructural Protein 2 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

The nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) is considered to be one of crucial viral proteins in the replication and pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In the present study, the host cellular proteins that interact with the NSP2 of PRRSV were immunoprecipitated with anti-Myc antibody from the MARC-145 cells infected by a recombinant PRRSV with 3xMyc tag insertion in its NSP2-coding region, and then 285 cellular proteins interacting with NSP2 were identified by LC-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology and enriched KEGG Pathway bioinformatics analyses indicated that the identified proteins could be assigned to different subcellular locations and functional classes. Functional analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with infectious disease, translation, immune system, nervous system and signal transduction. Two interested cellular proteins–BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6) and apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) which may involve in transporting of NSP2 to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or PRRSV-driven apoptosis were validated by Western blot. The interactome data between PRRSV NSP2 and cellular proteins contribute to the understanding of the roles of NSP2 in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV, and also provide novel cellular target proteins for elucidating the associated molecular mechanisms of the interaction of host cellular proteins with viral proteins in regulating the viral replication. PMID:24901321

Zhang, Han; Li, Yan; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yu, Kangzhen; Yang, Hanchun

2014-01-01

248

New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS. PMID:22157244

Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

2013-04-01

249

Serological examination and egg production of progeny of fowl experimentally infected with Egg Drop Syndrome 1976 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following EDS'76 virus (BC14 virus) infection of breeder chickens by the conjunctival route, vertical transmission occurred in the first week after infection. In the progeny which had been infected with EDS'76 virus by the vertical route, increasing haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) litres to BC14 virus and increasing numbers of birds with HI litres were observed from 3 weeks to 15 weeks

J. H. H. van Eck

1982-01-01

250

A novel Sin Nombre virus DNA vaccine and its inclusion in a candidate pan-hantavirus vaccine against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).  

PubMed

Sin Nombre virus (SNV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) causes a hemorrhagic fever known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. There have been approximately 200 fatal cases of HPS in the United States since 1993, predominantly in healthy working-age males (case fatality rate 35%). There are no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat HPS. Previously, we reported that hantavirus vaccines based on the full-length M gene segment of Andes virus (ANDV) for HPS in South America, and Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, all elicited high-titer neutralizing antibodies in animal models. HFRS is more prevalent than HPS (>20,000 cases per year) but less pathogenic (case fatality rate 1-15%). Here, we report the construction and testing of a SNV full-length M gene-based DNA vaccine to prevent HPS. Rabbits vaccinated with the SNV DNA vaccine by muscle electroporation (mEP) developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated three times with the SNV DNA vaccine using a gene gun were completely protected against SNV infection. This is the first vaccine of any kind that specifically elicits high-titer neutralizing antibodies against SNV. To test the possibility of producing a pan-hantavirus vaccine, rabbits were vaccinated by mEP with an HPS mix (ANDV and SNV plasmids), or HFRS mix (HTNV and PUUV plasmids), or HPS/HFRS mix (all four plasmids). The HPS mix and HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies predominantly against ANDV/SNV and HTNV/PUUV, respectively. Furthermore, the HPS/HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies against all four viruses. These findings demonstrate a pan-hantavirus vaccine using a mixed-plasmid DNA vaccine approach is feasible and warrants further development. PMID:23892100

Hooper, Jay W; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Brocato, Rebecca

2013-09-13

251

Experimental inoculation of late term pregnant sows with a field isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vaccine-derived virus.  

PubMed

The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foetuses, stillborn pigs, and dead piglets, indicating that the live vaccine spread from vaccinated piglets to non-vaccinated sows, and that the virus might be implicated in the severe reproductive problems observed. In the present study, one such VDV isolate was used to experimentally infect pregnant sows in the last trimester. The chosen isolate, which had more than 99.6% identity to the attenuated vaccine virus, originated from the lungs of a stillborn pig from a swine herd with a sudden high level of stillborn pigs and increased piglet mortality in the nursing period. Intranasal inoculation of sows with the virus isolate resulted in congenital infection, foetal death, and preweaning pig mortality. As such, the present study showed that vaccine-derived PRRSV can cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS. PMID:11731155

Nielsen, J; Bøtner, A; Bille-Hansen, V; Oleksiewicz, M B; Storgaard, T

2002-01-01

252

Genomic and antigenic characterization of the newly emerging Chinese duck egg-drop syndrome flavivirus: genomic comparison with Tembusu and Sitiawan viruses.  

PubMed

Duck egg-drop syndrome virus (DEDSV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus causing avian diseases in China. The infection occurs in laying ducks characterized by a severe drop in egg production with a fatality rate of 5-15?%. The virus was found to be most closely related to Tembusu virus (TMUV), an isolate from mosquitoes in South-east Asia. Here, we have sequenced and characterized the full-length genomes of seven DEDSV strains, including the 5'- and 3'-non-coding regions (NCRs). We also report for the first time the ORF sequences of TMUV and Sitiawan virus (STWV), another closely related flavivirus isolated from diseased chickens. We analysed the phylogenetic and antigenic relationships of DEDSV in relation to the Asian viruses TMUV and STWV, and other representative flaviviruses. Our results confirm the close relationship between DEDSV and TMUV/STWV and we discuss their probable evolutionary origins. We have also characterized the cleavage sites, potential glycosylation sites and unique motifs/modules of these viruses. Additionally, conserved sequences in both 5'- and 3'-NCRs were identified and the predicted secondary structures of the terminal sequences were studied. Antigenic cross-reactivity comparisons of DEDSV with related pathogenic flaviviruses identified a surprisingly close relationship with dengue virus (DENV) and raised the question of whether or not DEDSV may have a potential infectious threat to man. Importantly, DEDSV can be efficiently recognized by a broadly cross-reactive flavivirus mAb, 2A10G6, derived against DENV. The significance of these studies is discussed in the context of the emergence, evolution, epidemiology, antigenicity and pathogenicity of the newly emergent DEDSV. PMID:22764316

Liu, Peipei; Lu, Hao; Li, Shuang; Moureau, Gregory; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Yongyue; Zhang, Lijiao; Jiang, Tao; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Gould, Ernest A; Su, Jingliang; Gao, George F

2012-10-01

253

Antigenic determinants in influenza virus hemagglutinin.  

PubMed Central

Three antigenic determinants were revealed in H3 hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 1975. One of them was common for all viruses, and two others specified differences between the viruses possessing H3 hemagglutinin. PMID:89090

Rovnova, Z I; Kosyakov, P N; Berezina, O N; Isayeva, E I; Zhdanov, V M

1979-01-01

254

Isolation of a cytopathogenic virus from a case of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and its characterization as parainfluenza virus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?From a lung of a fetus of a breeding sow showing PRRS-like symptoms a viral agent could be isolated. It was characterized\\u000a as an enveloped, hemag-glutinating RNA virus. Ultrastructural examination of purified virus revealed paramyxovirus-like pleomorphic\\u000a virions of approx. 200?nm in diameter. The helical nucleocapsids were about 18?nm in diameter. The virus was found to be antigenically\\u000a related to simian

E. Heinen; W. Herbst; N. Schmeer

1998-01-01

255

Systemic Epstein-Barr virus positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood with hemophagocytic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) are commonly derived from B-cells, however, it is becoming more and more apparently that EBV can also infect T-lymphocytes. Systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood is rare and characterized by an extremely aggressive course and poor prognosis. Here, we report a 22-year-old female of systemic EBV positive TLPD with acute EBV infection and review the clinical features of this disorder. A 22-year-old previously healthy female without immunocompromised status presented with persisting coach and fever resistant to conventional therapies. Physical examination showed hemorrhage and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examinations revealed severe pancytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulopathy (DIC), and anti-EBV-IgM positivity. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow investigation identified a number of atypical lymphocytes. Flow cytometry (FCM) did not show any significant evidence of leukemia or lymphoma. The lymph node biopsy showed apparent infiltration of lymphocytes, which expressed CD2+, CD3+, CD7+ and TIA1+. There was no CD20+ or CD56+ cells. EBV early RNA (EBER) was positive. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement revealed a polyclonal pattern. The patient received prednisolone and IVIG therapy with a transient good condition, and then died of multiorgan failure one week after diagnosis. PMID:25400806

Chen, Guoshu; Chen, Li; Qin, Xiaohua; Huang, Zhuoya; Xie, Xiaoling; Li, Guowei; Xu, Bing

2014-01-01

256

Systemic lymphadenopathic histology in human immunodeficiency virus-1-seropositive drug addicts without apparent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

We examined lymph nodes from multiple sites in 50 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) who died accidentally of drug overdoses and in whom there was no evidence of opportunistic infection. The size, histologic pattern, presence of Warthin-Finkeldey-type giant cells, and estimation of CD4 cell count of these lymph nodes were compared with those of 13 seronegative drug addicts (controls). Lymph nodes from seropositive individuals were slightly but significantly larger than those of controls. Lymph nodes from seropositive cases were much more likely to contain secondary follicles (90%) than were those from controls (20%). Unlike follicles in control nodes, most secondary follicles in the seropositive cases were in various stages of fragmentation and involution. As follicular changes progressed, there was a decrease in CD4 cells and an increase in intrafollicular and paracortical plasma cells. Plasmacytosis was much more prevalent in lymph nodes from seropositive individuals than in controls. Warthin-Finkeldey-type giant cells were present in at least one node in 29 of 50 seropositive cases, were most numerous in those showing follicular hyperplasia with fragmentation (45% of cases), and were especially numerous in Peyer's patches (61% of cases). There was generally good concordance of HIV-1-associated follicular morphology among diverse lymph node groups. There is prolonged generalized, mild hyperplastic lymphadenopathy with frequent syncytial cells in intravenous drug addicts with asymptomatic HIV-1 infection. PMID:8150456

Burke, A P; Anderson, D; Mannan, P; Ribas, J L; Liang, Y H; Smialek, J; Virmani, R

1994-03-01

257

High risk of false positive results in a widely used diagnostic test for detection of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).  

PubMed

During 2003 and 2004, increasing numbers of positive PRRSV RT-PCR results were reported from herds negative for PRRSV infection. Interestingly, three herds represent nucleus herds with no animal contacts from outside and without clinical symptoms of PRRS until now. Since these positive results that were obtained using a PCR protocol adapted to routine laboratory conditions could not be reproduced with other PRRSV specific RT-PCRs, controlled negative and positive samples were used to examine this phenomenon. A RT-PCR assay for detection and differential diagnosis of the European and North American genotypes of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) according to the method previously published by Oleksiewicz et al. [Oleksiewicz, M.B., Botner, A., Madsen, K.G., Storgaard, T., 1998. Sensitive detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by RT-PCR amplification of whole viral genes. Vet. Microbiol. 64, 7-22] was investigated in parallel to another recently published method [Pesch, S., 2003. Etablierung einer Nachweismethode für die zwei Genotypen von dem porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) und ein Beitrag zu seiner molekularen Epidemiologie. Thesis, Institute of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig]. A panel of 228 clinical samples sent in for PRRSV routine diagnostics served as test panel. It was found that both methods have similar analytical sensitivity. However, the primers published by Oleksiewicz were shown to yield a very high proportion of false positive results under routine diagnostic laboratory conditions, i.e. they resulted in RT-PCR products with non-PRRSV sequences, that were indistinguishable from truly positive reagents in standard gel electrophoresis settings. The reason for and possible implications of this finding as well as the risk of modifying published methods without control are discussed. PMID:16458457

Fetzer, C; Pesch, S; Ohlinger, V F

2006-06-15

258

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge among high school students in K?r?kkale province of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess the existing level of knowledge of high school children about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the sources of their information. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two high schools in Kirikkale, Turkey and data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample. Results: Four hundred and seventy three participants; 230 males and 243 females were analyzed. Their ages ranged from 15 to 19 years with a mean age of 16.81 ± 1.27. 92.2% of the students claimed to have heard about HIV/AIDS prior to the study with slightly more females than males. Although with some misconceptions, majority of the participants knew that HIV is not transmitted by sharing meals, casual contact, and sleeping in the same room and using the same bathroom. 93.4% identi?ed HIV/AIDS as a life-threatening disease and 27% believe that there is a cure for AIDS. 64% and 22.8% respectively believed that the people can protect themselves by using condoms and by avoiding sexual contact. Internet was preponderantly claimed as the most important source of information about HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that the students have a fairly high knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This is not without some misconceptions about the prognosis of the disease. Internet was the major source of HIV/AIDS information. PMID:23633840

Ayl?kç?, Bahad?r U?ur; Bamise, Cornelius Tokunbo; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa; Turkal, Mustafa; Çolak, Hakan

2013-01-01

259

Effects on boar semen quality after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: a case report  

PubMed Central

The effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on semen quality was examined in a group of 11 spontaneously infected boars in a commercial boar stud. Semen samples were collected 4 weeks prior to 4 weeks post-infection (wpi). Infection with PRRSV of the European genotype subtype 1 (EU-1) was verified by specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 36% of the serum samples. All boars seroconverted before 4 wpi and remained in normal condition throughout the study. Comparison of the percentage of morphologically intact spermatozoa revealed an increase of acrosome-defective spermatozoa (P = 0.012) between ?4 and 4 wpi. Significant deleterious effects on semen quality were detected for membrane integrity when semen had been stored for 2 days after sampling. Analysis of sperm subpopulations in a thermoresistance test on day 7 after sampling revealed alterations in the percentage of circular, progressively motile spermatozoa (P = 0.013), in the percentage of non-linear, progressively motile spermatozoa (P = 0.01), and on the amplitude of lateral sperm head displacement (P = 0.047). There was no difference in the incidence of mitochondrially active spermatozoa (P = 0.075). Investigation of routine production data between pre- and post-infection status showed no differences on ejaculate volume (P = 0.417), sperm concentration (P = 0.788), and percentage of motile spermatozoa (P = 0.321). This case report provides insights into a potential control strategy for PRRSV outbreaks in boar studs. PMID:23442207

2013-01-01

260

Susceptibility of juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii to different doses of high and low virulence strains of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

As some literature on the susceptibility of different life stages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is conflicting, the pathogenesis, infectivity and pathogenicity of 2 WSSV strains (Thai-1 and Viet) were investigated here in juveniles using conditions standardized for Penaeus vannamei. As with P. vannamei, juvenile M. rosenbergii (2 to 5 g) injected with a low dose of WSSV-Thai-1 or a high dose of WSSV-Viet developed comparable clinical pathology and numbers of infected cells within 1 to 2 d post-infection. In contrast, a low dose of WSSV-Viet capable of causing mortality in P. vannamei resulted in no detectable infection in M. rosenbergii. Mean prawn infectious dose 50% endpoints (PID?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii were in the order of 100-fold higher for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.3 ± 0.4 PID?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (103.2 ± 0.2 PID?? ml?¹), with each of these being about 20-fold and 400-fold lower, respectively, than found previously in P. vannamei. The median lethal dose (LD?? ml?¹) determined in M. rosenbergii was also far higher (~1000-fold) for WSSV-Thai-1 (105.4 ± 0.4 LD?? ml?¹) than for WSSV-Viet (102.3 ± 0.3 LD?? ml?¹). Based on these data, it is clear that juvenile M. rosenbergii are susceptible to WSSV infection, disease and mortality. In comparison to P. vannamei, however, juvenile M. rosenbergii appear more capable of resisting infection and disease, particularly in the case of a WSSV strain with lower apparent virulence. PMID:22968789

Corteel, Mathias; Dantas-Lima, João J; Tuan, Vo Van; Thuong, Khuong Van; Wille, Mathieu; Alday-Sanz, Victoria; Pensaert, Maurice B; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Nauwynck, Hans J

2012-09-12

261

Epitope mapping of the nucleocapsid protein of European and North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Two major genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been described, which correspond to the European and North American isolates. PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein has been identified as the most immunodominant viral protein. The N genes from two PRRSV isolates, Olot/91 (European) and Québec 807/94 (North American), were cloned and expressed in: (i) baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter and (ii) Escherichia coli using the pET3x system. The N protein from both isolates was expressed much more efficiently in E. coli as a fusion protein than in baculovirus. The antigenicity of the protein was similar in both systems and it was recognized by a collection of 48 PRRSV-positive pig sera. The antigenic structure of the PRRSV N protein was investigated using seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and overlapping fragments of the protein expressed in E. coli. Four MAbs recognized two discontinuous epitopes that were present in the partially folded protein, or at least a large fragment comprising the first 78 residues. The other three MAbs revealed the presence of a common antigenic site localized in the central region of the protein (amino acids 50-66). This region is well conserved among different isolates of European and North American origin and is the most hydrophilic region of the protein. However, this epitope, although recognized by the MAbs and many pig sera, is not useful for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, none of the N protein fragments were able to mimic the antigenicity of the entire protein. PMID:9292014

Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Garcia, J; Sanz, A; Plana-Durán, J; Ignacio Casal, J

1997-09-01

262

Evaluation of 4 intervention strategies to prevent the mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Four intervention strategies were tested for their ability to prevent the mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): the use of disposable plastic boots to prevent contamination of personal footwear, the use of boot baths to disinfect PRRSV-contaminated plastic boots, the use of plastic slatted (Polygrate) flooring in the anteroom to prevent PRRSV contamination of incoming personal footwear, and the use of bag-in-a-box shipping methods to prevent PRRSV contamination of the contents of a container destined for a swine farm. Ten PRRSV-positive replicates and 10 PRRSV-negative (sham-inoculated) replicates were used for each strategy. Swabs were collected from selected sites and tested by TaqMan polymerase chain reaction for PRRSV RNA and by swine bioassay to confirm the presence of infectious PRRSV. Results indicated that the use of disposable boots, bleach boot baths or bag-in-a-box shipping methods was highly efficacious in preventing mechanical transmission of PRRSV. In contrast, the use of Polygrate flooring in the anteroom did not prevent contamination of personal footwear. The numbers of PRRSV-positive samples from the Polygrate surface and the soles of incoming footwear placed directly on the Polygrate surface were not significantly different (P = 0.24) from those of footwear that directly contacted the floor of the contaminated anteroom. Although these results are promising, this study should be considered a pilot project and the intervention strategies not considered biosecurity protocols. The model used may or may not represent field conditions. Therefore, the information should be used to develop larger experimental studies, with sufficient statistical power, in combination with field-based epidemiologic studies to better assess the role of mechanical transmission of PRRSV under field conditions. PMID:14979431

2004-01-01

263

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.  

PubMed

Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results). PMID:22247377

Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

2012-01-01

264

PmRab7 Is a VP28-Binding Protein Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to isolate and characterize white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-binding proteins from shrimp. After a blot of shrimp hemocyte membrane proteins was overlaid with a recombinant WSSV envelope protein (rVP28), the reactive bands on the blot were detected using anti-VP28 antibody. Among three membrane-associated molecules identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, there was a 25-kDa protein that bound to both rVP28 and WSSV. Since it had a primary structure with high homology to the small GTP-binding protein Rab7, we named it Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7). The full-length PmRab7 cDNA was obtained, and results from a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay confirmed specific binding to rVP28. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed PmRab7 expression in many tissues, and real-time PCR analysis revealed that expression was constitutive. Binding of PmRab7 to rVP28 or WSSV occurred in a dose-dependent manner and was inhibited by anti-Rab7 antibody. In an in vivo neutralization assay, the number of dead shrimp after challenge with WSSV plus PmRab7 (15%) or WSSV plus anti-Rab7 antibody (5%) was significantly lower than after challenge with WSSV alone (95%). In contrast to the WSSV-injected group, shrimp injected with WSSV plus PmRab7 or WSSV plus anti-Rab7 showed no WSSV-type histopathology. We conclude that PmRab7 is involved in WSSV infection in shrimp. This is the first study to identify a shrimp protein that binds directly to a major viral envelope protein of WSSV. PMID:17041224

Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Wannapapho, Wanphen; Lo, Chu Fang; Flegel, Timothy W.

2006-01-01

265

Orchitis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected cells in reproductive tissues from men with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms underlying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the male reproductive tract and the sexual transmission of HIV-1 through semen are poorly understood. To address these issues, the authors performed morphologic and immunocytochemical analyses of reproductive tissues obtained at autopsy from 43 male acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing different subpopulations of white blood cells were used to detect leukocyte infiltration and map the location of potential lymphocytic/monocytic HIV-1 host cells and immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques were used to detect HIV-1-infected cells in the testis, excurrent ducts, and prostate. Distinct pathologic changes were observed in a majority of testes of AIDS patients that included azoospermia, hyalinization of the boundary wall of seminiferous tubules, and lymphocytic infiltration of the interstitium. The reproductive excurrent ducts and prostate appeared morphologically normal except for the presence of focal accumulations of white blood cells in the connective tissue stroma. In the testis many white blood cells were shown to be CD4+, indicating the presence of abundant host cells (T-helper/inducer lymphocytes and macrophages) for HIV-1. Furthermore macrophages and cells of lymphocytic morphology were observed migrating across the boundary walls of hyalinized seminiferous in tubules to enter the lumen. In 9 of the 23 cases tested for HIV-1 protein expression by immunocytochemistry. HIV-1 + cells of lymphocytic/monocytic morphology were found in the seminiferous tubules and interstitium of the testis, epididymal epithelium, and connective tissue of the epididymis and prostate. One patient with epididymal blockage had accumulations of HIV-1-antigen-positive cells of macrophages morphology in the distended lumen of the efferent ducts. There was no evidence of active HIV-1 infection in germ cells or Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules or other epithelial cells lining the excurrent ducts or prostatic glands. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1853930

Pudney, J.; Anderson, D.

1991-01-01

266

Full-length genome sequence analysis of a Hungarian porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated from a pig with severe respiratory disease.  

PubMed

Here, we report the isolation of a type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain from a clinical outbreak of severe respiratory problems and high fever. Next-generation sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequence of the isolate (9625/2012). The virus belongs to a new branch within subtype 1, clade D, and shows the highest similarity to PRRSV Olot/1991 and to the Amervac vaccine strain. Mutation analysis of 9625/2012 revealed no evidence of recombination but did show a high proportion of amino acid substitutions in the putative neutralizing epitopes, suggesting an important role of selective immune pressure in the evolution of PRRSV 9625/2012. PMID:25361819

Bálint, Ádám; Balka, Gyula; Horváth, Péter; Kecskeméti, Sándor; Dán, Ádám; Farsang, Attila; Szeredi, Levente; Bányai, Krisztián; Bartha, Dániel; Olasz, Ferenc; Belák, Sándor; Zádori, Zoltán

2015-02-01

267

High infection rate of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) with Puumala virus is associated with a winter outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Croatia.  

PubMed

An outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) started on Medvednica mountain near Zagreb in January 2012. In order to detect the aetiological agent of the disease in small rodents and to make the link with the human outbreak, rodents were trapped at four different altitudes. Using nested RT-PCR, Puumala virus (PUUV) RNA was detected in 41/53 (77·4%) bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) RNA was found in 6/61 (9·8%) yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). Sequence analysis of a 341-nucleotide region of the PUUV S segment, obtained from all infected bank voles and five HFRS patients, showed 98·8-100% sequence similarity, indicating that the patients were probably exposed to PUUV on Medvednica mountain. A very large bank-vole population combined with an extremely high infection rate of PUUV was responsible for this unusual winter outbreak of HFRS in Croatia. PMID:24800636

Tadin, A; Bjedov, L; Margaletic, J; Zibrat, B; Krajinovic, L Cvetko; Svoboda, P; Kurolt, I C; Majetic, Z Stritof; Turk, N; Rode, O Dakovic; Civljak, R; Kuzman, I; Markotic, A

2014-09-01

268

Role of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathways in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication.  

PubMed

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome virus that has become a major infection in swine, exerting huge economic losses to the industry worldwide. Detailed knowledge concerning the molecular mechanisms by which the virus manipulates the host cell signals transduction machinery is not only critical to further our understanding of viral replication and pathogenesis, but also guides our efforts to design new and improved therapeutic strategies. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) are major host cell signalling pathways that regulate protein synthesis, cell growth, proliferation, migration and survival. It is also established that many viruses exploit these signalling cascades for their own benefit, driving viral protein expression, replication, as well as the suppression of the host's antiviral activities. In this article, we will review the role of these signalling pathways during PRRSV replication, and discuss some of our recent findings implicating mTOR. PMID:25304692

Pujhari, Sujit; Kryworuchko, Marko; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N

2014-12-19

269

Re-emerging of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (lineage 3) and increased pathogenicity after genomic recombination with vaccine variant.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was first reported in China since late 1995 and several variants were further reported in subsequence years, causing huge economic losses to the Chinese swine industry. To date, three major lineages (lineage 3, 5.1 and 8.7) of Type 2 PRRSV were reported in China based on our global genotyping. The present study provides the epidemiology of the PRRSV in South China based on the isolates collected during 2009-2012, indicating three lineages (lineage 3, 5.1 and 8.7) of Type 2 PRRSV were still circulating in this area. Our phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that lineage 3 re-emerged in 2010 formed a huge cluster with closely related to the 2004 isolates from Hong Kong. Furthermore, the inter-lineage genomic recombination between MLV vaccine strain (lineage 5) and a recently re-emerged lineage 3 virus (QYYZ) has also been found in a farm practicing MLV vaccination. Our in vivo experiment comparing the pathogenicity and clinical presentations among currently isolated viruses indicated that pigs infected with recombinant lineage 3 virus (GM2) showed persistent higher fever compared to pigs infected by its wild counterpart (QYYZ). This study enhanced our understanding on potential importance of the recombination of PRRSV along with their evolution. PMID:25529828

Lu, Wen Hui; Tun, Hein Min; Sun, Bao Li; Mo, JianYui; Zhou, Qing Feng; Deng, Yu Xiu; Xie, Qing Mei; Bi, Ying Zuo; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Ma, Jing Yun

2015-02-25

270

A pilot metabolic profiling study in hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei with white spot syndrome virus based on (1)H NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus, which was a pathogen first found in 1992, had emerged globally affecting shrimp populations in aquaculture. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the metabolic changes of hepatopancreas from Litopenaeus vannamei which were infected with white spot syndrome virus by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Through the NOESYPR1D spectrum combined with multi-variate pattern recognition analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models, significantly metabolic changes were observed in WSSV-infected groups compared with the control groups. In the first 48h, ?-glucose and ?-glucose were higher in the WSSV-infected group. Meanwhile, acetate, lactate, N-acetyl glycoprotein signals, lysine, tyrosine and lipid were significantly decreased in the WSSV-infected group. These results suggest that WSSV caused absorption inhibition of amino acids and disturbed protein metabolism as well as cell metabolism in favor of its replication. Our findings could also contribute to further understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:25450952

Liu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Qing-Hui; Wu, Yin; Jie, Huang

2015-01-01

271

The 30-Amino-Acid Deletion in the Nsp2 of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Emerging in China Is Not Related to Its Virulence?  

PubMed Central

During the past 2 years, an atypical clinical outbreak, caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with a unique 30-amino-acid deletion in its Nsp2-coding region, was pandemic in China. In this study, we generated four full-length infectious cDNA clones: a clone of the highly virulent PRRSV strain JXwn06 (pWSK-JXwn), a clone of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-HB-1/3.9), a chimeric clone in which the Nsp2 region containing the 30-amino-acid deletion was replaced by the corresponding region of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-JXwn-HB1nsp2), and a mutated HB-1/3.9 clone with the same deletion in Nsp2 as JXwn06 (pWSK-HB1-ND30). We also investigated the pathogenicities of the rescued viruses (designated RvJXwn, RvJXwn-HB1nsp2, RvHB-1/3.9, and RvHB1-ND30, respectively) in specific-pathogen-free piglets in order to determine the role of the 30-amino-acid deletion in the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV. All the rescued viruses could replicate stably in MARC-145 cells. Our findings indicated that RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 retained high virulence for piglets, like RvJXwn and the parental virus JXwn06, although the survival time of piglets infected with RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 was obviously prolonged. RvHB1-ND30 exhibited low virulence for piglets, like RvHB-1/3.9 and the parental virus HB-1/3.9. Therefore, we conclude that the 30-amino-acid deletion is not related to the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV emerging in China. PMID:19244318

Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jialong; Zeng, Jingwen; Yin, Shuoyan; Li, Yanhua; Zheng, Linying; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Yang, Hanchun

2009-01-01

272

Genome-wide association and genomic prediction for host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background Host genetics has been shown to play a role in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is the most economically important disease in the swine industry. A region on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 4 has been previously reported to have a strong association with serum viremia and weight gain in pigs experimentally infected with the PRRS virus (PRRSV). The objective here was to identify haplotypes associated with the favorable phenotype, investigate additional genomic regions associated with host response to PRRSV, and to determine the predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) based on the SSC4 region and based on the rest of the genome. Phenotypic data and 60 K SNP genotypes from eight trials of ~200 pigs from different commercial crosses were used to address these objectives. Results Across the eight trials, heritability estimates were 0.44 and 0.29 for viral load (VL, area under the curve of log-transformed serum viremia from 0 to 21 days post infection) and weight gain to 42 days post infection (WG), respectively. Genomic regions associated with VL were identified on chromosomes 4, X, and 1. Genomic regions associated with WG were identified on chromosomes 4, 5, and 7. Apart from the SSC4 region, the regions associated with these two traits each explained less than 3% of the genetic variance. Due to the strong linkage disequilibrium in the SSC4 region, only 19 unique haplotypes were identified across all populations, of which four were associated with the favorable phenotype. Through cross-validation, accuracies of EBV based on the SSC4 region were high (0.55), while the rest of the genome had little predictive ability across populations (0.09). Conclusions Traits associated with response to PRRSV infection in growing pigs are largely controlled by genomic regions with relatively small effects, with the exception of SSC4. Accuracies of EBV based on the SSC4 region were high compared to the rest of the genome. These results show that selection for the SSC4 region could potentially reduce the effects of PRRS in growing pigs, ultimately reducing the economic impact of this disease. PMID:24592976

2014-01-01

273

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

274

Use of tissue swabbing as an alternative to tissue dissection and lysis prior to nucleic acid extraction and real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The use of swabbing to sample tissue samples, prior to nucleic acid extraction and performance of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, was investigated for the detection of the viral pathogens Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The tissue swabbing method involved swabbing recently cut tissues, eluting the swabbed material, and extracting nucleic acid from the eluate prior to PCR amplification. Parallel testing of this method with traditional nucleic acid extraction from tissues, where small pieces of tissue are dissected and digested (typically overnight) in lysis buffer prior to nucleic acid extraction, was carried out for 50 samples for each virus. The results demonstrated that equivalent PCR results were obtained with both methods. It was also shown on a smaller number of samples that equivalent PCR results were also obtained when the lysis step of the swabbing method was reduced to only 2 hr. The ability to remove the overnight step typically associated with processing tissue samples for PCR analysis offers the potential for same-day testing of tissue. Although the current study is preliminary in nature and further validation will be required before adoption for routine use, the results show that tissue swabbing is a promising approach. It offers a convenient, simpler, and less time-consuming alternative to tissue dissection and lysis and has potential advantages for routine laboratory operation and outbreak testing, including easier pooling and sampling of large areas of tissue and carcasses. PMID:24788238

Errington, Jane; Jones, Rebecca M; Sawyer, Jason

2014-04-30

275

Evaluation of the Efficacy of an Attenuated Live Vaccine against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Young Pigs  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (105.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. PMID:22695163

Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang

2012-01-01

276

Possession and Morality in Early Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the moment children say "mine!" by two years of age, objects of possession change progressively from being experienced as primarily unalienable property (i.e., something that is absolute or nonnegotiable), to being alienable (i.e., something that is negotiable in reciprocal exchanges). As possession begins to be experienced as alienable, the…

Rochat, Philippe

2011-01-01

277

Discriminating between serological responses to European-genotype live vaccine and European-genotype field strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) by peptide ELISA.  

PubMed

A peptide ELISA was developed based on an immunodominant and hypervariable epitope in the ORF4 envelope glycoprotein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The peptide sequence was derived from the Porcilis live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine strain (genotype 1, European). Antibodies induced by the field PRRSVs currently circulating in Poland were not detected by the Porcilis ORF4 peptide ELISA. In contrast, Porcilis-vaccinated animals seroconverted in the ORF4 peptide ELISA at 21 days post-vaccination. Maximal titers were seen 30-92 days post-vaccination; most sera had endpoint titers between 1:1000 and 1:100,000. In a paired format, where sera were assayed in two separate ELISAs using ORF4 peptides derived from the genetically very closely related Porcilis and Lelystad PRRSV strains, it was possible to differentiate between antibodies induced by these two viruses. The Porcilis and Lelystad ORF4 peptide ELISAs had sensitivities of 89 and 100%, respectively. Thus, ORF4 peptide ELISA afforded specific detection of antibodies induced by an European-genotype live-attenuated vaccine PRRSV strain (Porcilis). The results suggest that specific ORF4 peptide ELISAs can be custom-made for European-genotype PRRSV strains, using general peptide design criteria described in this work. Thus, ORF4 ELISAs may be generally useful, to monitor safety and operational aspects of European-genotype live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine virus use in populations with circulating field European-genotype PRRSVs. PMID:15992937

Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Stadejek, Tomasz; Ma?kiewicz, Zbigniew; Porowski, Marian; Pejsak, Zygmunt

2005-11-01

278

Comparison of viremia of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in naturally infected pigs by zip nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a RNA virus with high genetic variation. This virus causes significant economic losses in most pig-producing countries. The clinical presentation of PRRSV ranges from asymptomatic to devastating. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific zip nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR assay to evaluate the viremia of natural PRRSV-infected pigs in Taiwan. Serum samples were collected from 577 pigs aged 5–12 weeks. These include 444 clinically healthy pigs and 133 symptomatic pigs were confirmed to have porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Results Viremia was quantified in 79 of the 444 (17.8%) clinically healthy pigs and in 112 of the 133 (84.2%) PRDC cases. Viremias were significantly more common in pigs with PRDC compared with the clinically healthy pigs (P <0.0001). These results suggest that a high viral load is a major feature of PRRSV-affected pigs. Conclusions ZNA probe-based real-time PCR can be a useful tool to diagnose symptomatic and asymptomatic PRRSV-infected pigs. The presence of this marker in a sample of animals with high PRRSV loads (>104.2 PRRSV genomes/?l of serum) seems to indicate that it correlates with the presence of PRDC in pigs. PMID:24028493

2013-01-01

279

Phylogeny-Directed Search for Murine Leukemia Virus-Like Retroviruses in Vertebrate Genomes and in Patients Suffering from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) like retroviruses (MLLVs) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs)) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect “stealth” infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered. PMID:22315600

Blomberg, Jonas; Sheikholvaezin, Ali; Elfaitouri, Amal; Blomberg, Fredrik; Sjösten, Anna; Mattson Ulfstedt, Johan; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Källander, Clas; Öhrmalm, Christina; Sperber, Göran

2011-01-01

280

Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

281

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: An update on an emerging and re-emerging viral disease of swine.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recognized in the late 1980’s in North America and Europe the syndrome that caused reproductive and respiratory problems in swine was initially called “Mystery Swine Disease” and is now termed “Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)”. In the early 1990’s an arterivirus, referred to as ...

282

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein confers ability to efficiently produce virus-like particles when substituted for the human immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We replaced the HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) domain with different N-coding sequences to test SARS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) self-interaction\\u000a capacity, and determined the capabilities of each chimera to direct virus-like particle (VLP) assembly. Analysis results indicate\\u000a that the replacement of NC with the carboxyl-terminal half of the SARS-CoV N resulted in the production of wild type (wt)-level\\u000a virus-like particles (VLPs) with the

Shui-Mei Wang; Yu-Fen Chang; Yi-Ming Arthur Chen; Chin-Tien Wang

2008-01-01

283

In vivo titration of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei by intramuscular and oral routes.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a devastating pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. Standardized challenge procedures using a known amount of infectious virus would assist in evaluating strategies to reduce its impact. In this study, the shrimp infectious dose 50% endpoint (SID50 ml(-1)) of a Thai isolate of WSSV was determined by intramuscular inoculation (i.m.) in 60 and 135 d old specific pathogen-free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Also, the lethal dose 50% endpoint (LD50 ml(-1)) was determined from the proportion of dead shrimp. The median virus infection titers in 60 and 135 d old juveniles were 10(6.8) and 10(6.5) SID50 ml(-1), respectively. These titers were not significantly different (p > or = 0.05). The titration of the WSSV stock by oral intubation in 80 d old juveniles resulted in approximately 10-fold reduction in virus titer compared to i.m. inoculation. This lower titer is probably the result of physical and chemical barriers in the digestive tract of shrimp that hinder WSSV infectivity. The titers determined by infection were identical to the titers determined by mortality in all experiments using both i.m. and oral routes at 120 h post inoculation (hpi), indicating that every infected shrimp died. The determination of WSSV titers for dilutions administered by i.m. and oral routes constitutes the first step towards the standardization of challenge procedures to evaluate strategies to reduce WSSV infection. PMID:16231643

Escobedo-Bonilla, C M; Wille, M; Sanz, V Alday; Sorgeloos, P; Pensaert, M B; Nauwynck, H J

2005-09-01

284

An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-? secreting CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system. PMID:24711701

Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

2014-01-01

285

50 CFR 648.25 - Possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Possession... once on any calendar day. (d) Butterfish . (1) During a closure of the directed fishery for butterfish that occurs prior to October 1,...

2011-10-01

286

50 CFR 648.25 - Possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Possession... once on any calendar day. (d) Butterfish . (1) During a closure of the directed fishery for butterfish that occurs prior to October 1,...

2010-10-01

287

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Working Case Definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome is a poorly defined symptom complex characterized primarily by chronic or recurrent debilitating fatigue and various combinations of other symptoms, including sore throat, lymph node pain and tenderness, headache, myalgia, and arthralgias. Although the syndrome has received recent attention, and has been diagnosed in many patients, the chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome has not been defined

GARY P. HOLMES; JONATHAN E. KAPLAN; NELSON M. GANTZ; ANTHONY L KOMAROFF; LAWRENCE B. SCHONBERGER; STEPHEN E. STRAUS; JAMES F. JONES; RICHARD E. DUBOIS; CHARLOTTE CUNNINGHAM-RUNDLES; SAVITA PAHWA; GIOVANNA TOSATO; LEONARD S. ZEGANS; DAVID T. PURTILO; NATHANIEL BROWN; ROBERT T. SCHOOLEY; IRENA BRUS; Georgia Atlanta

1988-01-01

288

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, or virus reactivation with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient with HIV?  

PubMed

We report a case of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) in a patient with HIV receiving antitoxoplasmic drugs (adiazine and pyrimethamine) and levetiracetam along with highly active antiretroviral therapy (tenofovir-emtricitabine, darunavir and ritonavir). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was reactivated in the 7 weeks before the development of DRESS but was successfully treated with ganciclovir and corticosteroids. DRESS flare was concomitant with another CMV reactivation after the withdrawal of ganciclovir. This case report is an example of DRESS that may be considered real DRESS or virus reactivation with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (VRESS) as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. The case confirms that herpesvirus reactivation precedes DRESS or VRESS, and suggests the need to monitor herpesvirus infection in patients at risk for the infection or after the initiation of culprit drugs. PMID:24773172

Almudimeegh, A; Rioux, C; Ferrand, H; Crickx, B; Yazdanpanah, Y; Descamps, V

2014-10-01

289

Application of a SYBR® Green One Step Real-time RT-PCR Assay to Detect Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The emergence in Japan of field isolates of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggests problems with control. We therefore developed a one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with improved sensitivity that detects as little as 1 × 10?2 TCID50/ml of viral RNA. We tested serum samples collected in January and September 2008, October 2009 and January 2011 from a farm with an outbreak and found infected pigs between January and September 2008, but not in January 2011. Further, between 2008 and 2011, we did not detect infection in pigs at 8 nearby farms or in 2,052 serum samples collected from pigs from 74 farms in 12 prefectures. This assay should help prevent future outbreaks. PMID:25047905

ISEKI, Hiroshi; TAKAGI, Michihiro; KURODA, Yoshiko; KATSUDA, Ken; MIKAMI, Osamu; TSUNEMITSU, Hiroshi; YAMAKAWA, Makoto

2014-01-01

290

Validation of a Commercial Insulated Isothermal PCR-based POCKIT Test for Rapid and Easy Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61–95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31–98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei. PMID:24625894

Tsai, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Tang-Nelson, Kathy; Lightner, Donald; Ou, Bor-Rung; Hour, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Yen, Cheng-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu

2014-01-01

291

Role of the Spike Glycoprotein of Human Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Virus Entry and Syncytia Formation  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the biology of the emerging human group c betacoronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Because coronavirus spike glycoproteins (S) mediate virus entry, affect viral host range, and elicit neutralizing antibodies, analyzing the functions of MERS-CoV S protein is a high research priority. MERS-CoV S on lentivirus pseudovirions mediated entry into a variety of cell types including embryo cells from New World Eptesicus fuscus bats. Surprisingly, a polyclonal antibody to the S protein of MHV, a group a murine betacoronavirus, cross-reacted in immunoblots with the S2 domain of group c MERS-CoV spike protein. MERS pseudovirions released from 293T cells contained only uncleaved S, and pseudovirus entry was blocked by lysosomotropic reagents NH4Cl and bafilomycin and inhibitors of cathepsin L. However, when MERS pseudovirions with uncleaved S protein were adsorbed at 4°C to Vero E6 cells, brief trypsin treatment at neutral pH triggered virus entry at the plasma membrane and syncytia formation. When 293T cells producing MERS pseudotypes co-expressed serine proteases TMPRSS-2 or -4, large syncytia formed at neutral pH, and the pseudovirions produced were non-infectious and deficient in S protein. These experiments show that if S protein on MERS pseudovirions is uncleaved, then viruses enter by endocytosis in a cathepsin L-dependent manner, but if MERS-CoV S is cleaved, either during virus maturation by serine proteases or on pseudovirions by trypsin in extracellular fluids, then viruses enter at the plasma membrane at neutral pH and cause massive syncytia formation even in cells that express little or no MERS-CoV receptor. Thus, whether MERS-CoV enters cells within endosomes or at the plasma membrane depends upon the host cell type and tissue, and is determined by the location of host proteases that cleave the viral spike glycoprotein and activate membrane fusion. PMID:24098509

Qian, Zhaohui; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Holmes, Kathryn V.

2013-01-01

292

Role of the spike glycoprotein of human Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in virus entry and syncytia formation.  

PubMed

Little is known about the biology of the emerging human group c betacoronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Because coronavirus spike glycoproteins (S) mediate virus entry, affect viral host range, and elicit neutralizing antibodies, analyzing the functions of MERS-CoV S protein is a high research priority. MERS-CoV S on lentivirus pseudovirions mediated entry into a variety of cell types including embryo cells from New World Eptesicus fuscus bats. Surprisingly, a polyclonal antibody to the S protein of MHV, a group a murine betacoronavirus, cross-reacted in immunoblots with the S2 domain of group c MERS-CoV spike protein. MERS pseudovirions released from 293T cells contained only uncleaved S, and pseudovirus entry was blocked by lysosomotropic reagents NH4Cl and bafilomycin and inhibitors of cathepsin L. However, when MERS pseudovirions with uncleaved S protein were adsorbed at 4°C to Vero E6 cells, brief trypsin treatment at neutral pH triggered virus entry at the plasma membrane and syncytia formation. When 293T cells producing MERS pseudotypes co-expressed serine proteases TMPRSS-2 or -4, large syncytia formed at neutral pH, and the pseudovirions produced were non-infectious and deficient in S protein. These experiments show that if S protein on MERS pseudovirions is uncleaved, then viruses enter by endocytosis in a cathepsin L-dependent manner, but if MERS-CoV S is cleaved, either during virus maturation by serine proteases or on pseudovirions by trypsin in extracellular fluids, then viruses enter at the plasma membrane at neutral pH and cause massive syncytia formation even in cells that express little or no MERS-CoV receptor. Thus, whether MERS-CoV enters cells within endosomes or at the plasma membrane depends upon the host cell type and tissue, and is determined by the location of host proteases that cleave the viral spike glycoprotein and activate membrane fusion. PMID:24098509

Qian, Zhaohui; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V

2013-01-01

293

Molecular Characterization of Transcriptome-wide Interactions between Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Alveolar Macrophages in vivo  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects mainly the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Previous studies have analyzed the global gene expression profiles of lung tissue in vivo and PAMs in vitro following infection with PRRSV, however, transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PAMs in vivo has not yet been established. In this study, we employed Affymetrix microarrays to investigate the gene expression patterns of PAMs isolated from Tongcheng piglets (a Chinese indigenous breed) after infection with HP-PRRSV. During the infection, Tongcheng piglets exhibited typical clinical signs, e.g. fever, asthma, coughing, anorexia, lethargy and convulsion, but displayed mild regional lung damage at 5 and 7 dpi. Microarray analysis revealed that HP-PRRSV infection has affected PAMs in expression of the important genes involved in cytoskeleton and exocytosis organization, protein degradation and folding, intracellular calcium and zinc homeostasis. Several potential antiviral strategies might be employed in PAMs, including upregulating IFN-induced genes and increasing intracellular zinc ion concentration. And inhibition of the complement system likely attenuated the lung damage during HP-PRRSV infection. Transcriptomic analysis of PAMs in vivo could lead to a better understanding of the HP-PRRSV-host interaction, and to the identification of novel antiviral therapies and genetic components of swine tolerance/susceptibility to HP-PRRS. PMID:21850204

Zhou, Ping; Zhai, Shanli; Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Ping; Jiang, Tengfei; Hu, Xueying; Jiang, Yunbo; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qingde; Xu, Xuewen; Li, Jin-ping; Liu, Bang

2011-01-01

294

Antiviral activity of bis(2-methylheptyl)phthalate isolated from Pongamia pinnata leaves against White Spot Syndrome Virus of Penaeus monodon Fabricius.  

PubMed

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an extremely virulent, contagious, causative agent of the White spot syndrome of shrimp and causes high mortality and affects most of the commercially important cultured marine crustacean species globally. Oral administration of ethanolic extract and purified compound from the leaves of Pongamia pinnata, an indigenious Indian "medicinal plant" "has increased the survival of WSSV infected Penaeus monodon". Pelletized feed impregnated with ethanolic extract of the leaves of P. pinnata was fed to shrimp prior and after WSSV infection at 200 and 300 microg/g of body weight of shrimp/day. The survival rate for the WSSV-infected shrimp that were fed with 200 and 300 microg extract/g were 40% and 80%, respectively. The active WSSV antiviral compound 1 that was isolated from the leaves of P. pinnata was identified as bis(2-methylheptyl)phthalate. Thus, the present work revealed that oral administration of the crude and purified compound from the leaves of P. pinnata effectively inhibited WSSV pathogenesis and reduced the mortality of infected shrimp. PMID:17328984

Rameshthangam, P; Ramasamy, P

2007-06-01

295

Detection of a novel porcine boca-like virus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.  

PubMed

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been found to be the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). However, PCV-2 is a ubiquitous virus in the swine population and a majority of pigs infected with PCV-2 do not develop the disease. Different factors such as age, maintenance, the genetics of PCV-2, other pathogens, etc. have been suggested to contribute to the development of PMWS. However, so far no proven connection between any of these factors and the disease development has been found. In this study we explored the possible presence of other so far unknown DNA containing infectious agents in lymph nodes collected from Swedish pigs with confirmed PMWS through random amplification and high-throughput sequencing. Although the vast majority of the amplified genetic sequences belonged to PCV-2, we also found genome sequences of Torque Teno virus (TTV) and of a novel parvovirus. The detection of TTV was expected since like PCV-2, TTV has been found to have high prevalence in pigs around the world. We were able to amplify a longer region of the parvovirus genome, consisting of the entire NP1 and partial VP1/2. By comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic studies we propose that this is a novel porcine parvovirus, with genetic relationship to bocaviruses. PMID:19748534

Blomström, Anne-Lie; Belák, Sandor; Fossum, Caroline; McKillen, John; Allan, Gordon; Wallgren, Per; Berg, Mikael

2009-12-01

296

The relative abundance of deer mice with antibody to Sin Nombre virus corresponds to the occurrence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in nearby humans.  

PubMed

Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the principal cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the United States and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are its principal rodent host, and thus the natural cycle of the virus is related to the occurrence of HPS. Prevalence of rodent infection appears to be associated with fluctuations in deer mouse populations and, indirectly, with timing and amount of precipitation, a complex of biologic events. Given that rodent population abundances fluctuate, often acutely, it is not unreasonable to assume a direct correlation between the numbers of infected rodents and the number of human infections, unless confounding factors are involved. During a 13-year longitudinal study at a site in southwestern Colorado, we accumulated data regarding deer mice and antibody to SNV and therefore had the opportunity to compare dynamics of deer mouse populations, seroprevalence of antibody to SNV in the rodents, and numbers of HPS cases in Durango and in the State of Colorado as a whole. If abundances of deer mouse populations are directly correlated with occurrence of HPS, it is reasonable to assume that low densities of deer mice and low prevalences of antibody to SNV would lead to fewer human cases than would high densities and high prevalences. Our results substantiate such an assumption and suggest that the risk of acquisition of HPS is likely related to both high numbers of infected deer mice and human activities, rather than being strictly related to prevalence of SNV in the host rodent. PMID:20954865

Calisher, Charles H; Mills, James N; Root, Jon Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B; Beaty, Barry J

2011-05-01

297

Infection dynamics and clinical manifestations following experimental inoculation of gilts at 90 days of gestation with a low dose of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Understanding the dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vertical transmission is important to enhance the accuracy of monitoring protocols for endemically infected breeding herds. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PRRSV within infected litters, to quantify viremia, and to identify specific attributes of infected individuals. Eight gilts were intramuscularly inoculated with 101 TCID50 of a mildly virulent PRRSV strain (MN-30100) at 90 d of gestation. All inoculated gilts transmitted the virus in utero. The proportion of PRRSV PCR-positive piglets and the level of viremia in the piglets were higher at 4 d of age than at birth or at weaning. No specific attributes were associated with PRRSV infection in the piglets. This is the first report, that we are aware of, documenting the efficient in utero transmission of an extremely low dose of a mildly virulent strain of PRRSV. The results support the sampling of piglets late during lactation as a tool to monitor PRRSV shedding from sow-herds. PMID:20046633

Cano, Jean Paul; Dee, Scott A.; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Rovira, Albert; Morrison, Robert B.

2009-01-01

298

The Minor Envelope Glycoproteins GP2a and GP4 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Interact with the Receptor CD163 ?  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains the major glycoprotein, GP5, as well as three other minor glycoproteins, namely, GP2a, GP3, and GP4, on the virion envelope, all of which are required for generation of infectious virions. To study their interactions with each other and with the cellular receptor for PRRSV, we have cloned each of the viral glycoproteins and CD163 receptor in expression vectors and examined their expression and interaction with each other in transfected cells by coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay using monospecific antibodies. Our results show that a strong interaction exists between the GP4 and GP5 proteins, although weak interactions among the other minor envelope glycoproteins and GP5 have been detected. Both GP2a and GP4 proteins were found to interact with all the other GPs, resulting in the formation of multiprotein complex. Our results further show that the GP2a and GP4 proteins also specifically interact with the CD163 molecule. The carboxy-terminal 223 residues of the CD163 molecule are not required for interactions with either the GP2a or the GP4 protein, although these residues are required for conferring susceptibility to PRRSV infection in BHK-21 cells. Overall, we conclude that the GP4 protein is critical for mediating interglycoprotein interactions and, along with GP2a, serves as the viral attachment protein that is responsible for mediating interactions with CD163 for virus entry into susceptible host cell. PMID:19939927

Das, Phani B.; Dinh, Phat X.; Ansari, Israrul H.; de Lima, Marcelo; Osorio, Fernando A.; Pattnaik, Asit K.

2010-01-01

299

Protection against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection through Passive Transfer of PRRSV-Neutralizing Antibodies Is Dose Dependent? †  

PubMed Central

Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that passive transfer of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-neutralizing antibodies (NA) protected pregnant sows against reproductive failure and conferred sterilizing immunity in sows and offspring. We report here on the dose requirement for protection by passive transfer with NA in young weaned pigs. The presence of a 1:8 titer of PRRSV-NA in serum consistently protected pigs against viremia. Nevertheless, their lungs, tonsils, buffy coat cells, and peripheral lymph nodes contained replicating PRRSV similar to the infected control group. Likewise, these animals excreted infectious virus to sentinels similar to the infectivity control animals. In an attempt to reach complete protective immunity equivalent to that previously observed in sows, the pigs were transferred with a higher titer of PRRSV-NA (1:32), and even then apparent sterilizing immunity was attained in only 50% of the animals. In conclusion, the presence of anti-PRRSV-NA in serum with a titer of 1:8 is enough to block viremia but not peripheral tissue seeding and transmission to contact animals. While a relatively low level of NA in blood is capable of conferring sterilizing immunity against PRRSV in sows, the amount of NA necessary to obtain full protection of a young weaned pig would be significantly higher, suggesting that differences exist in the PRRSV pathogenesis between both age groups. In addition, the titer of NA could be a helpful parameter of protection in the assessment of PRRSV vaccines. PMID:17215336

Lopez, O. J.; Oliveira, M. F.; Garcia, E. Alvarez; Kwon, B. J.; Doster, A.; Osorio, F. A.

2007-01-01

300

Specific detection of reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification amplicons for Taura syndrome virus by colorimetric dot-blot hybridization.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to develop a field diagnosis system based on isothermal reverse transcription-loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) for shrimp Taura syndrome virus (TSV), placing emphasis on specific and simple detection of the LAMP amplicons. After a single-tube RT-LAMP reaction for TSV was established, colorimetric dot-blot hybridization (DBH) was adopted to detect signals only from the target-derived amplicons. The results showed that the modified DBH offered unambiguous and sensitive detection of the TSV RT-LAMP amplicons without the UV cross-linking and denaturation steps. Together, TSV RT-LAMP-DBH assay reached the same dilution point as reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction-agarose gel electrophoresis (RT-nPCR-AGE) for TSV detection. Specificity of the assay was demonstrated by the absence of DBH signal from yeast tRNA and various shrimp viruses. TSV RT-LAMP-DBH was applied to 125 Penaeus vannamei and demonstrated a very good concordance (kappa value, 0.823) with RT-nPCR-AGE assay in detection efficiency. Furthermore, a one-step guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN) homogenization method was established to provide RNA extraction efficiency comparable to that of the TRIzol Reagent for RT-LAMP. Requiring simply a heating apparatus, the GuSCN RNA extraction-isothermal RT-LAMP-DBH protocol has the potential for further development for diagnosis of diseases in the field. PMID:17868915

Teng, Ping-Hua; Chen, Chu-Liang; Sung, Ping-Feng; Lee, Fu-Chun; Ou, Bor-Rung; Lee, Pei-Yu

2007-12-01

301

Identification of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus matrix protein in BALB/c mice  

PubMed Central

Twenty-seven nanopeptides derived from the matrix (M) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were screened for their ability to elicit a recall interferon-? (IFN-?) response from the splenocytes of BALB/c mice following DNA vaccination and a booster vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus rWR-PRRSV-M. We identified two peptides (amino acid residues K93FITSRCRL and F57GYMTFVHF) as CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. These peptides elicited significant numbers of IFN-? secreting cells, compared with other M nonapeptides and one irrelevant nonapeptide. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the former is an H-2Kd-restricted CTL epitope, and the latter is an H-2Dd-restricted CTL epitope. Multiple amino acid sequence alignment among different PRRSV M sequences submitted to GenBank indicated that these two CTL epitopes are strongly conserved, and they should therefore be considered for further research on the mechanisms of cellular immune responses to PRRSV. PMID:21619712

2011-01-01

302

PmTBC1D20, a Rab GTPase-activating protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, is involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

TBC (TRE2/BUB2/CDC16) domain proteins contain an ? 200-amino-acid motif and function as Rab GTPase-activating proteins that are required for regulating the activity of Rab proteins, and so, in turn, endocytic membrane trafficking in cells. TBC domain family member 20 (TBC1D20) has recently been reported to mediate Hepatitis C virus replication. Herein, PmTBC1D20 identified from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was characterized and evaluated for its role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmTBC1D20 contains 2003 bp with a predicted 1443 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced 480 amino acid protein. Its transcript levels were significantly up-regulated at 24 and 48 h by ? 2.3- and 2.1-fold, respectively, after systemic infection with WSSV. In addition, depletion of PmTBC1D20 transcript in shrimps by double stranded RNA interference led to a decrease in the level of transcripts of three WSSV genes (VP28, ie1 and wsv477). This suggests the importance of PmTBC1D20 in WSSV infection. This is the first report of TBC1D20 in a crustacean and reveals the possible mechanism used by WSSV to modulate the activity of the host protein, PmTBC1D20, for its benefit in viral trafficking and replication. PMID:24076066

Yingvilasprasert, Wanchart; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2014-02-01

303

Detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp by means of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to an envelope protein (28 kDa).  

PubMed

The vp28 gene encoding an envelope protein (28 kDa) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was amplified from WSSV-infected tiger shrimp that originated from Malaysia. Recombinant VP28 protein (r-28) was expressed in Escherichia coli and used as an antigen for preparation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Three murine MAbs (6F6, 6H4 and 9C10) that were screened by r-28 antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were also able to recognize viral VP28 protein as well as r-28 on Western blot. Three non-overlapping epitopes of VP28 protein were determined using the MAbs in competitive ELISA; thus, an antigen-capture ELISA (Ac-ELISA) was developed by virtue of these MAbs. Ac-ELISA can differentiate WSSV-infected shrimp from uninfected shrimp and was further confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot. Approximately 400 pg of purified WSSV sample and 20 pg of r-28 could be detected by Ac-ELISA, which is comparable in sensitivity to PCR assay but more sensitive than Western blot in the detection of purified virus. Hemolymph and tissue homogenate samples collected from a shrimp farm in Malaysia during December 2000 and July 2001 were also detected by Ac-ELISA and PCR with corroborating results. PMID:12093036

Liu, W; Wang, Y T; Tian, D S; Yin, Z C; Kwang, J

2002-04-24

304

Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays.  

PubMed

Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose phosphate broth (2.95 gl?¹), 20% FBS, N-phenylthiourea (0.2 mM), 0.06 ?g ml?¹ chloramphenicol, 100 ?g ml?¹ streptomycin and 100 IU ml?¹ penicillin and hemolymph drawn from shrimp grown under a bio-secured recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this medium the hemocytes remained viable up to 8 days. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay revealed its incorporation in 22 ± 7% of cells at 24h. Susceptibility of the cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay using a monoclonal antibody against 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. A convenient method for determining virus titer as MTT(50)/ml was standardized employing the primary hemocyte culture. Expression of viral genes and cellular immune genes were also investigated. The cell culture could be demonstrated for determining toxicity of a management chemical (benzalkonium chloride) by determining its IC(50). The primary hemocyte culture could serve as a model for WSSV titration and viral and cellular immune related gene expression and also for investigations on cytotoxicity of aquaculture drugs and chemicals. PMID:20807537

Jose, Seena; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

2010-11-01

305

Development and Validation of an Assay To Detect Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Titers in Pig Oral Fluid Samples  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA) are important for clearing the virus. Pen-based pig oral fluid samples for disease surveillance are gaining in importance due to the ease of collection and low cost. The aim of this study was to develop a PRRSV-specific NA assay to determine NA titers in pig oral fluid samples. At first, we standardized the PRRSV NA assay using pen-based pig oral fluid samples collected over a period of 3 months from a herd of swine that received a PRRSV modified live vaccine (PRRS-MLV), and we also used oral fluid and serum samples collected from individual boars that were vaccinated with PRRS-MLV or infected with a virulent PRRSV strain. Our results suggest that a PRRSV NA titer of >8 in oral fluid samples is virus specific and can be detected beginning at 28 days after vaccination or infection. To validate the assay, we used 104 pen-based pig oral fluid and five representative serum samples from each pen of unknown history, as well as 100 serum samples from repeatedly vaccinated sows and oral fluid samples of their respective litters belonging to four different swine-breeding farms. Our results demonstrated that PRRSV NA titers in oral fluid samples are correlated with serum sample titers, and maternally derived PRRSV-specific NA titers could be detected in litters at the time of weaning. In conclusion, we have standardized and validated the pig oral fluid-based PRRSV NA assay, which has 94.3% specificity and 90.5% repeatability. The assay can be used to monitor herd immunity against PRRSV in vaccinated and infected herds of swine. PMID:23784856

Ouyang, Kang; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Olsen, Chris; Hiremath, Jagadish; Elkalifa, Nadia; Schleappi, Rose; Wu, Jianmin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

306

Development of primary cell cultures from mud crab, Scylla serrata, and their potential as an in vitro model for the replication of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Primary cell cultures were developed from haemocytes and testis of Scylla serrata. Haemocytes were collected from live animals and cultured in double-strength L-15 medium (2× L-15) prepared in crab saline, supplemented with 5% foetal bovine serum and antibiotic-antimycotic solution (penicillin 100 U/mL, streptomycin 100 ?g/mL and amphotericin B 0.25 ?g/mL) with osmolality adjusted to 894 mOsm/kg. The haemocytes adhered within 2 h after seeding and showed proliferation up to 72 h. The disaggregated testis tissue fragments were seeded in 3× L-15 supplemented with non-essential amino acid mixture, lipid concentrate and antibiotic-antimycotic solution, with osmolality adjusted to 1,035 mOsm/kg with crab saline. Cells from the testis could be subcultured and maintained up to 21 d as suspension culture. Different dilutions of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) inoculum (known virus copy number) prepared from infected Penaeus monodon were inoculated in the cultured cells, and the cytopathic effects like detachment, rounding of cells and clear areas of depleted cells were observed after 48 h in haemocyte cultures. However, WSSV-exposed testis cells did not show any obvious change until 72 h post-infection. WSSV was detected in both haemocyte and testis cultures at different time-points of infection by conventional and real-time PCR using WSSV-specific primers. The transcripts of WSSV were found to be much higher in haemocytes than in testis culture. The virus harvested from the cultured haemocytes after three passages could infect healthy P. monodon. The present study showed that mud crab haemocyte culture can support WSSV replication, and it can be used as an in vitro tool for WSSV replication. PMID:24357036

Deepika, A; Makesh, M; Rajendran, K V

2014-05-01

307

Biodistribution of DNA Plasmid Vaccines against HIV-1, Ebola, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or West Nile Virus Is Similar, without Integration, despite Differing Plasmid Backbones or Gene Inserts  

PubMed Central

The Vaccine Research Center has developed a number of vaccine candidates for different diseases/infectious agents (HIV-1, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus, West Nile virus, and Ebola virus, plus a plasmid cytokine adjuvant—IL-2/Ig) based on a DNA plasmid vaccine platform. To support the clinical development of each of these vaccine candidates, preclinical studies have been performed in mice or rabbits to determine where in the body these plasmid vaccines would biodistribute and how rapidly they would clear. In the course of these studies, it has been observed that regardless of the gene insert (expressing the vaccine immunogen or cytokine adjuvant) and regardless of the promoter used to drive expression of the gene insert in the plasmid backbone, the plasmid vaccines do not biodistribute widely and remain essentially in the site of injection, in the muscle and overlying subcutis. Even though ? 1014 molecules are inoculated in the studies in rabbits, by day 8 or 9(? 1 week postinoculation), already all but on the order of 104?106 molecules per microgram of DNA extracted from tissue have been cleared at the injection site. Over the course of 2 months, the plasmid clears from the site of injection with only a small percentage of animals (generally 10?20%) retaining a small number of copies (generally around 100 copies) in the muscle at the injection site. This pattern of biodistribution (confined to the injection site) and clearance (within 2 months) is consistent regardless of differences in the promoter in the plasmid backbone or differences in the gene insert being expressed by the plasmid vaccine. In addition, integration has not been observed with plasmid vaccine candidates inoculated i.m. by Biojector 2000 or by needle and syringe. These data build on the repeated-dose toxicology studies performed (see companion article, Sheets et al., 2006) to demonstrate the safety and suitability for investigational human use of DNA plasmid vaccine candidates for a variety of infectious disease prevention indications. PMID:16569729

Sheets, Rebecca L.; Stein, Judith; Manetz, T. Scott; Duffy, Chris; Nason, Martha; Andrews, Charla; Kong, Wing-Pui; Nabel, Gary J.; Gomez, Phillip L.

2008-01-01

308

Adjuvanted poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine elicits cross-protective immune response in pigs  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is an economically devastating disease, causing daily losses of approximately $3 million to the US pork industry. Current vaccines have failed to completely prevent PRRS outbreaks. Recently, we have shown that poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated PRRSV vaccine (NP-KAg) induces a cross-protective immune response in pigs. To further improve its cross-protective efficacy, the NP-KAg vaccine formulation was slightly modified, and pigs were coadministered the vaccine twice intranasally with a potent adjuvant: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate. In vaccinated virulent heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs, the immune correlates in the blood were as follows: 1) enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody response with enhanced avidity of both immunoglobulin (Ig)-G and IgA isotypes, associated with augmented virus-neutralizing antibody titers; 2) comparable and increased levels of virus-specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody subtypes and production of high levels of both T-helper (Th)-1 and Th2 cytokines, indicative of a balanced Th1–Th2 response; 3) suppressed immunosuppressive cytokine response; 4) increased frequency of interferon-?+ lymphocyte subsets and expanded population of antigen-presenting cells; and most importantly 5) complete clearance of detectable replicating challenged heterologous PRRSV and close to threefold reduction in viral ribonucleic acid load detected in the blood. In conclusion, intranasal delivery of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation to growing pigs elicited a broadly cross-protective immune response, showing the potential of this innovative vaccination strategy to prevent PRRS outbreaks in pigs. A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible. PMID:24493925

Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Wu, Yun; Lee, Ly James; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

2014-01-01

309

Expression of envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus by an insect virus vector.  

PubMed Central

The envelope gene of human immunodeficiency virus was inserted into the genome of an insect virus vector (Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus). Upon infection of tissue culture cells, this recombinant virus produced immunoreactive polypeptides related to the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus. Serological survey indicates such polypeptides would be of value as antigens in diagnostics for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images PMID:3312636

Hu, S I; Kosowski, S G; Schaaf, K F

1987-01-01

310

Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

2012-01-01

311

Is it schizophrenia or spirit possession?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the question of whether spirit possession, a concept with a religious\\/spiritual base, is, in fact, more accurately defined as a major symptom of a mental disorder, such as schizophrenia, and according to the Eurocentric tradition, should be treated with psychotropic medication and psychotherapy. On the other hand, should this culturally determined phenomenon and such alternative curative interventions

Miriam Azaunce

1995-01-01

312

50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...one person, the violation shall be deemed to have been committed by the owner and operator. (d) Owners or operators of otter trawl vessels issued a moratorium permit under § 648.4 (a)(7) and fishing with, or possessing on board, nets or...

2010-10-01

313

50 CFR 648.105 - Possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...one person, the violation shall be deemed to have been committed by the owner and operator. (d) Owners and operators of otter trawl vessels issued a permit under § 648.4(a)(3) that fish with or possess nets or pieces of net on board that...

2011-10-01

314

50 CFR 648.105 - Possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...one person, the violation shall be deemed to have been committed by the owner and operator. (d) Owners and operators of otter trawl vessels issued a permit under § 648.4(a)(3) that fish with or possess nets or pieces of net on board that...

2010-10-01

315

Genomic analysis and pathogenic characteristics of Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 deletion strains isolated in Korea.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a globally ubiquitous swine virus that exhibits genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity among isolates. The present study was conducted to determine the complete genome sequence and pathogenicity of two Korean type 2 PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) deletion mutants, CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4. The full-length genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 were determined to be 15,018 and 15,019 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, respectively, which were 393- or 392-nucleotide shorter than that of the type 2 NA prototype strain VR-2332 due to the presence of notable large deletions within the nsp2 gene. The genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 consisted of a 189- or 190-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 14,677-nucleotide protein-coding region, and a 151-nucleotide 3' UTR. Whole genome evaluation revealed that the nucleotide sequences of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 are most similar to each other (10.7% sequence divergence), and then to the Korean strain CA-1 (11.3% sequence divergence) and the US strain MN184C (13.1% sequence divergence), respectively. To evaluate the in vitro immunity of nsp2 deletion variants, we sought to explore alteration of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in PAM-pCD163 cells infected with each virus strain using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytokine genes including IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-?, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and RANTES were found to be significantly elevated in nsp2 deletion virus-infected PAM cells. In contrast, expression of interferons (IFN-?, ?, and ?) and antiviral genes including ISG-15, -54, and -56 were unchanged or down-regulated in PAM cells infected with the nsp2 deletion mutants. Animal studies to assess the pathogenicity of nsp2 deletion PRRSVs demonstrated that both CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 strains notably produce weight loss in infected pigs. Furthermore, the nsp2 deletion mutants replicated well in pigs with significantly increased and prolonged viremia kinetics. Taken together, our results indicate that, among the three isolates, the outcome of in vitro and in vivo infection by CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 is comparable, suggesting that the large nsp2 deletion may be one of the viral genetic determinants contributing to PRRSV pathogenicity. PMID:24646599

Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Lee, Yoo Jin; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Chul; Yoon, In-Joong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Shien-Young; Choi, Young-Ki; Lee, Changhee

2014-06-01

316

“Some of the things I understand but not all of it”. A group of deaf adolescents’ sources of knowledge and concerns regarding the adequacy of their level of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS) pandemic in South Africa and the world, adolescents need to be acutely aware of the risks and consequences of HIV\\/AIDS. However, information campaigns may not always convey that information to adolescents successfully, especially deaf adolescents who may not have access to auditory information and may have limited access to

Victor de Andrade; Bontle Baloyi

2011-01-01

317

Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Indian Isolates of Egg Drop Syndrome 1976 Virus Recovered from Chicken, Duck and Quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg drop syndrome 1976 (EDS-76) is caused by a haemagglutinating adenovirus belonging to group III of the genus Aviadenovirus in the family Adenoviridae. All isolates are serologically identical, but have been divided into three groups based on restriction endonuclease (RE) analysis. In this study the viral DNA of various Indian EDS-76 viral isolates (CEDS-A, CEDS-B, EDS-M, EDS-ML, EDS-1\\/AD\\/86, EDS-KC and

N. Senthilkumar; J. M. Kataria; Madhuri Koti; K. Dhama; B. B. Dash

2004-01-01

318

The human oncogenic viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

1986-01-01

319

Tumorigenic DNA viruses  

SciTech Connect

The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

Klein, G.

1989-01-01

320

The role of quail bronchitis virus as a possible precipitating factor in "air sac syndrome" of chickens  

E-print Network

by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Me er) (Member) January 1965 497707 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to express sincere gratitude and appreciation to the following people: Dr. A. I. Flowers for serving as the chairman... described CRD as a specific disease entity and cultivated the causative agent in embryonated chicken eggs. Since the agent failed to grow on the available bacterial media, it was thought to be a virus. 26 Markham and Wong placed the agent of CRD...

Payne, Jerry Bob

1965-01-01

321

Tracking the actions and possessions of agents.  

PubMed

We propose that there is a powerful human disposition to track the actions and possessions of agents. In two experiments, 3-year-olds and adults viewed sets of objects, learned a new fact about one of the objects in each set (either that it belonged to the participant, or that it possessed a particular label), and were queried about either the taught fact or an unrelated dimension (preference) immediately after a spatiotemporal transformation, and after a delay. Adults uniformly tracked object identity under all conditions, whereas children tracked identity more when taught ownership versus labeling information, and only regarding the taught fact (not the unrelated dimension). These findings suggest that the special attention that children and adults pay to agents readily extends to include inanimate objects. That young children track an object's history, despite their reliance on surface features on many cognitive tasks, suggests that unobservable historical features are foundational in human cognition. PMID:25111732

Gelman, Susan A; Noles, Nicholaus S; Stilwell, Sarah

2014-10-01

322

Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome as a major contributor to death in patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection  

PubMed Central

Introduction Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a severe complication of various viral infections often resulting in multiorgan failure and death. The purpose of this study was to describe baseline characteristics, development of VAHS, related treatments and associated mortality rate of consecutive critically ill patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection and respiratory failure. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of 25 critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection at a single-center intensive care unit in Germany between 5 October 2009 and 4 January 2010. Demographic data, comorbidities, diagnosis of VAHS, illness progression, treatments and survival data were collected. The primary outcome measure was the development of VAHS and related mortality. Secondary outcome variables included duration of mechanical ventilation, support of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and duration of viral shedding. Results VAHS developed in 9 (36%) of 25 critically ill patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection, and 8 (89%) of them died. In contrast, the mortality rate in the remaining 16 patients without VAHS was 25% (P = 0.004 for the survival difference in patients with or without VAHS by log-rank analysis). The patients were relatively young (median age, 45 years; interquartile range (IQR), 35 to 56 years of age); however, 18 patients (72%) presented with one or more risk factors for a severe course of illness. All 25 patients received mechanical ventilation for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory hypoxemia, with a median duration of mechanical ventilation of 19 days (IQR, 13 to 26 days). An additional 17 patients (68%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for a median of 10 days (IQR, 6 to 19 days). Conclusions The findings of this study raise the possibility that VAHS may be a frequent complication of severe 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection and represents an important contributor to multiorgan failure and death. PMID:21366922

2011-01-01

323

RNA-Sequence Analysis of Primary Alveolar Macrophages after In Vitro Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strains of Differing Virulence  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) mainly infects porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), resulting in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in pigs. Most of the transcriptomic studies on PAMs infected with PRRSV conducted thus far have made use of microarray technology. Here, we investigated the transcriptome of PAMs in vitro at 12 h post-infection with two European PRRSV strains characterized by low (Lelystad, LV) and high (Lena) virulence through RNA-Seq. The expression levels of genes, isoforms, alternative transcription start sites (TSS) and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation upon infection with the two strains. Gene ontology analysis confirmed that infection of PAMs with both the Lena and LV strains affected signaling pathways directly linked to the innate immune response, including interferon regulatory factors (IRF), RIG1-like receptors, TLRs and PKR pathways. The results confirmed that interferon signaling is crucial for transcriptional regulation during PAM infection. IFN-?1 and IFN-??, but not IFN-?, were up-regulated following infection with either the LV or Lena strain. The down-regulation of canonical pathways, such as the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune responses, cell death and TLR3/TLR7 signaling, was observed for both strains, but Lena triggered a stronger down-regulation than LV. This analysis contributes to a better understanding of the interactions between PRRSV and PAMs and outlines the differences in the responses of PAMs to strains with different levels of virulence, which may lead to the development of new PRRSV control strategies. PMID:24643046

Badaoui, Bouabid; Rutigliano, Teresa; Anselmo, Anna; Vanhee, Merijn; Nauwynck, Hans; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Botti, Sara

2014-01-01

324

Analysis of the swine tracheobronchial lymph node transcriptomic response to infection with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative investigation into the host transcriptome response in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 13 days post-infection with HP-PRRSV rJXwn06, PRRSV strain VR-2332 or sham inocula. RNA from each was prepared for next-generation sequencing. Amplified library constructs were directly sequenced and a list of sequence transcripts and counts was generated using an RNAseq analysis pipeline to determine differential gene expression. Transcripts were annotated and relative abundance was calculated based upon the number of times a given transcript was represented in the library. Results Major changes in transcript abundance occurred in response to infection with either PRRSV strain, each with over 630 differentially expressed transcripts. The largest increase in transcript level for either virus versus sham-inoculated controls were three serum amyloid A2 acute-phase isoforms. However, the degree of up or down-regulation of transcripts following infection with HP-PRRSV rJXwn06 was greater than transcript changes observed with US PRRSV VR-2332. Also, of 632 significantly altered transcripts within the HP-PRRSV rJXwn06 library 55 were up-regulated and 69 were down-regulated more than 3-fold, whilst in the US PRRSV VR-2332 library only 4 transcripts were up-regulated and 116 were down-regulated more than 3-fold. Conclusions The magnitude of differentially expressed gene profiles detected in HP-PRRSV rJXwn06 infected pigs as compared to VR-2332 infected pigs was consistent with the increased pathogenicity of the HP-PRRSV in vivo. PMID:23110781

2012-01-01

325

Cellular Poly(C) Binding Proteins 1 and 2 Interact with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nonstructural Protein 1? and Support Viral Replication ?  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection of swine results in substantial economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Identification of cellular factors involved in PRRSV life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of virus biology but also has the potential for the development of antiviral therapeutics. The PRRSV nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) has been shown to be involved in at least two important functions in the infected hosts: (i) mediation of viral subgenomic (sg) mRNA transcription and (ii) suppression of the host's innate immune response mechanisms. To further our understanding of the role of the viral nsp1 in these processes, using nsp1?, a proteolytically processed functional product of nsp1 as bait, we have identified the cellular poly(C)-binding proteins 1 and 2 (PCBP1 and PCBP2) as two of its interaction partners. The interactions of PCBP1 and PCBP2 with nsp1? were confirmed both by coimmunoprecipitation in infected cells and/or in plasmid-transfected cells and also by in vitro binding assays. During PRRSV infection of MARC-145 cells, the cytoplasmic PCBP1 and PCBP2 partially colocalize to the viral replication-transcription complexes. Furthermore, recombinant purified PCBP1 and PCBP2 were found to bind the viral 5? untranslated region (5?UTR). Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of PCBP1 and PCBP2 in cells resulted in significantly reduced PRRSV genome replication and transcription without adverse effect on initial polyprotein synthesis. Overall, the results presented here point toward an important role for PCBP1 and PCBP2 in regulating PRRSV RNA synthesis. PMID:21976648

Beura, Lalit K.; Dinh, Phat X.; Osorio, Fernando A.; Pattnaik, Asit K.

2011-01-01

326

Phylogenetic comparison of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains detected in domestic pigs until 2008 and in 2012 in Croatia  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been present for the last 2 decades in Croatia, causing large economical losses in the pig production. The clinical features of the infections are mostly manifested by the development of respiratory problems, weight loss and poor growth performance, as well as reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Even though the infections are continuously recognized in some regions in Croatia, the heterogeneity of the detected viral strains from 2012 has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to compare virus strains of PCV2 and PRRSV detected until 2008 in Croatia with strains isolated in 2012 to gain a better epidemiological understanding of these two infections. Results PCV2 and PRRSV strains detected in 2012 in fattening pigs from regions where these two diseases have been previously described were compared to strains that have been detected in the same regions within the past two decades. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the circulating PCV2 and PRRSV strains are distantly related to the previously described Croatian viral strains. However, when compared to known isolates from the GenBank a high genetic identity of PRRSV isolates with isolates from Hungary, Denmark and the Netherlands was found. Conclusion The results of this study reveal that even though PCV2 and PRRSV are constantly present in the investigated regions in Croatia, the viral strains found in 2012 genetically differ from those detected in earlier years. This indicates that new entries into the pig population appeared with regard to both infections, probably as a result of pig trade. PMID:24839544

2014-01-01

327

Prevalence of cryptococcal meningitis among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Southern Odisha, India  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) caused by encapsulated opportunistic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLHAs). Early diagnosis of such patients is the key to their therapeutic success. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the clinical features, laboratory findings, and prevalence of CM among hospitalized PLHAs in a tertiary care setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 clinically diagnosed CM patients were subjected to cerebrospinal fluid analysis and tests for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies by the standard laboratory operating procedures. Results: Out of 112, 16 showed a definite diagnosis of C. neoformans with the prevalence of 14.3%. Males in the age group of 21-40 years were most commonly affected than females. The clinical manifestations observed were fever and headache (100%), followed by altered sensorium (93.7%), neck stiffness (75%), and vomiting (62.5%). Overall, Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T-lymphocytes count was <100 cells/?l except 1 case in which the CD4 T-lymphocytes count was 137 cells/?l. No concomitant cryptococcal and tubercular meningitis case was detected. All 16 patients responded initially to induction therapy of IV amphotericin B 1 mg/kg and fluconazole 800 mg daily for 2 weeks. Subsequently, 4 (25%) patients were lost for follow-up and 2 (12.5%) patients expired during their hospital stay. Conclusion: As the clinical and radiological pictures of CM are often non-pointing, routine mycological evaluation is necessary for early definite diagnosis and subsequent initiation of appropriate therapy as the majority of patients respond well to treatment if started early. PMID:25097408

Dash, Muktikesh; Padhi, Sanghamitra; Sahu, Rani; Turuk, Jyotirmayee; Pattanaik, Swetalona; Misra, Pooja

2014-01-01

328

An evaluation of disinfectants for the sanitation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-contaminated transport vehicles at cold temperatures.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of commercially available disinfectants to sanitize porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contaminated trailer models in cold climates (-20 degrees C and 4 degrees C). Disinfectants evaluated included Synergize, Aseptol 2000, Biophene, Sentramax, Virkon, Tek Trol, and DC&R. All products were applied to trailers via fumigation at 4 degrees C. Following experimental contamination of model trailers with PRRSV MN 30-100 (5 x 10(5) TCID50), models were tested for the presence or absence of PRRSV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on swabs collected 0, 30, and 60 min after treatment. Treatments included washing only, washing plus disinfectant fumigation, washing plus fumigation, and washing plus overnight drying. The PRRSV-RNA detected across trailers ranged from 0/12 replicates in trailers treated with Synergize or allowed to dry for 8 h. These trailers were also negative for the presence of infectious PRRSV, based on the lack of sentinel pig infection (0/4 replicates). In contrast, the detection of PRRSV-positive swabs by PCR ranged from 3/12 (Aseptol) to 10/12 (Biophene). Based on these results, the efficacy of Synergize was evaluated at -20 degrees C. In an attempt to reduce the impact of freezing on disinfectant activity, 30 mL of disinfectant was added to a 3840 mL of a 40% methanol solution, a 10% propylene glycol (PG) solution, or water alone. The PRRSV-contaminated trailers were treated with 1 of 3 disinfectant mixtures via fumigation, stored for 8 h at -20 degrees C, allowed to thaw, and sampled as described. Trailers treated with 40% methanol or 10% PG did not freeze and were negative for PRRSV-RNA and infectious virus following thawing. In contrast, trailers treated with disinfectant and water were frozen within 60 min at -20 degrees C, and decontamination was not successful. PMID:15745225

Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Burns, Danny; Douthit, George; Pijoan, Carlos

2005-01-01

329

Nonmuscle Myosin Heavy Chain IIA Is a Critical Factor Contributing to the Efficiency of Early Infection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. Most patients infected by SFTSV present with fever and thrombocytopenia, and up to 30% die due to multiple-organ dysfunction. The mechanisms by which SFTSV enters multiple cell types are unknown. SFTSV contains two species of envelope glycoproteins, Gn (44.2 kDa) and Gc (56 kDa), both of which are encoded by the M segment and are cleaved from a precursor polypeptide (about 116 kDa) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Gn fused with an immunoglobulin Fc tag at its C terminus (Gn-Fc) bound to multiple cells susceptible to the infection of SFTSV and blocked viral infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Immunoprecipitation assays following mass spectrometry analysis showed that Gn binds to nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA), a cellular protein with surface expression in multiple cell types. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of NMMHC-IIA, but not the closely related NMMHC-IIB or NMMHC-IIC, reduced SFTSV infection, and NMMHC-IIA specific antibody blocked infection by SFTSV but not other control viruses. Overexpression of NMMHC-IIA in HeLa cells, which show limited susceptivity to SFTSV, markedly enhanced SFTSV infection of the cells. These results show that NMMHC-IIA is critical for the cellular entry of SFTSV. As NMMHC-IIA is essential for the normal functions of platelets and human vascular endothelial cells, it is conceivable that NMMHC-IIA directly contributes to the pathogenesis of SFTSV and may be a useful target for antiviral interventions against the viral infection. PMID:24155382

Qi, Yonghe; Liu, Chenxuan; Gao, Wenqing; Chen, Pan; Fu, Liran; Peng, Bo; Wang, Haimin; Jing, Zhiyi; Zhong, Guocai

2014-01-01

330

Inhibition of replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by hemin is highly dependent on heme oxygenase-1, but independent of iron in MARC-145 cells.  

PubMed

Current vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have failed to provide sustainable disease control, and development of new antiviral strategies is of great importance. The present study investigated the mechanism of the antiviral effect of hemin during PRRSV infection in MARC-145 cells. Hemin, a commercial preparation of heme, is used as an iron donor or heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inducer, and has been shown to provide antiviral activity in many studies. In the current study, the anti-PRRSV activity of hemin was identified through suppressing PRRSV propagation. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of hemin antiviral activity was estimated to be 32?M, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of hemin was found to be higher than 125?M. Further study showed that the antiviral activity of hemin is independent of iron. In addition, after treatment with Protoporphyrin IX zinc (II) (ZnPP) or Sn (IV) Protoporphyrin IX dichloride (SnPP), inhibitors of HO-1, the inhibition of viral replication by hemin was partially reversed. Additionally, it was confirmed that hemin and N-acetyl cysteine were able to significantly reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MARC-145 cells infected with virus. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), however, did not produce a reduction in viral load or promote expression of HO-1. Taken together, these data indicate that the effect of hemin on the inhibition of PRRSV propagation via HO-1 induction, as well as the antiviral mechanism of HO-1, is not dependent on decreased levels of ROS. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that hemin had antiviral activity against PRRSV and may serve as a useful antiviral agent inhibiting PRRSV replication. PMID:24583029

Wang, Liangliang; Xiao, Shuqi; Gao, Jintao; Liu, Meirui; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Ming; Zhao, Guangyin; Mo, Delin; Liu, Xiaohong; Chen, Yaosheng

2014-05-01

331

50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.39 Section...ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.39 Bag and possession limits. (a) Applicability. (1) The bag and possession limits apply for...

2011-10-01

332

50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.39 Section...ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.39 Bag and possession limits. (a) Applicability. (1) The bag and possession limits apply for...

2010-10-01

333

50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20.38 Wildlife...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird...

2013-10-01

334

50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20.38 Wildlife...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird...

2010-10-01

335

50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20.38 Wildlife...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird...

2012-10-01

336

50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20.38 Wildlife...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird...

2011-10-01

337

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

338

Identification of a new cell line permissive to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and replication which is phenotypically distinct from MARC-145 cell line  

PubMed Central

Background Airborne transmitted pathogens, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), need to interact with host cells of the respiratory tract in order to be able to enter and disseminate in the host organism. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) and MA104 derived monkey kidney MARC-145 cells are known to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication and are the most studied cells in the literature. More recently, new cell lines developed to study PRRSV have been genetically modified to make them permissive to the virus. The SJPL cell line origin was initially reported to be epithelial cells of the respiratory tract of swine. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine if SJPL cells could support PRRSV infection and replication in vitro. Results The SJPL cell growth was significantly slower than MARC-145 cell growth. The SJPL cells were found to express the CD151 protein but not the CD163 and neither the sialoadhesin PRRSV receptors. During the course of the present study, the SJPL cells have been reported to be of monkey origin. Nevertheless, SJPL cells were found to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication even if the development of the cytopathic effect was delayed compared to PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells. Following PRRSV replication, the amount of infectious viral particles produced in SJPL and MARC-145 infected cells was similar. The SJPL cells allowed the replication of several PRRSV North American strains and were almost efficient as MARC-145 cells for virus isolation. Interestingly, PRRSV is 8 to 16 times more sensitive to IFN? antiviral effect in SJPL cell in comparison to that in MARC-145 cells. PRRSV induced an increase in IFN? mRNA and no up regulation of IFN? mRNA in both infected cell types. In addition, PRRSV induced an up regulation of IFN? and TNF-? mRNAs only in infected MARC-145 cells. Conclusions In conclusion, the SJPL cells are permissive to PRRSV. In addition, they are phenotypically different from MARC-145 cells and are an additional tool that could be used to study PRRSV pathogenesis mechanisms in vitro. PMID:23148668

2012-01-01

339

Biodistribution of DNA plasmid vaccines against HIV-1, Ebola, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or West Nile virus is similar, without integration, despite differing plasmid backbones or gene inserts.  

PubMed

The Vaccine Research Center has developed a number of vaccine candidates for different diseases/infectious agents (HIV-1, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus, West Nile virus, and Ebola virus, plus a plasmid cytokine adjuvant-IL-2/Ig) based on a DNA plasmid vaccine platform. To support the clinical development of each of these vaccine candidates, preclinical studies have been performed in mice or rabbits to determine where in the body these plasmid vaccines would biodistribute and how rapidly they would clear. In the course of these studies, it has been observed that regardless of the gene insert (expressing the vaccine immunogen or cytokine adjuvant) and regardless of the promoter used to drive expression of the gene insert in the plasmid backbone, the plasmid vaccines do not biodistribute widely and remain essentially in the site of injection, in the muscle and overlying subcutis. Even though approximately 10(14) molecules are inoculated in the studies in rabbits, by day 8 or 9 ( approximately 1 week postinoculation), already all but on the order of 10(4)-10(6) molecules per microgram of DNA extracted from tissue have been cleared at the injection site. Over the course of 2 months, the plasmid clears from the site of injection with only a small percentage of animals (generally 10-20%) retaining a small number of copies (generally around 100 copies) in the muscle at the injection site. This pattern of biodistribution (confined to the injection site) and clearance (within 2 months) is consistent regardless of differences in the promoter in the plasmid backbone or differences in the gene insert being expressed by the plasmid vaccine. In addition, integration has not been observed with plasmid vaccine candidates inoculated i.m. by Biojector 2000 or by needle and syringe. These data build on the repeated-dose toxicology studies performed (see companion article, Sheets et al., 2006) to demonstrate the safety and suitability for investigational human use of DNA plasmid vaccine candidates for a variety of infectious disease prevention indications. PMID:16569729

Sheets, Rebecca L; Stein, Judith; Manetz, T Scott; Duffy, Chris; Nason, Martha; Andrews, Charla; Kong, Wing-Pui; Nabel, Gary J; Gomez, Phillip L

2006-06-01

340

Phenotypic characterization of patient dengue virus isolates in BALB/c mice differentiates dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever from dengue shock syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue virus (DENV) infection is the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man and there are approximately 100 million infections annually. Despite the global burden of DENV infections many important questions regarding DENV pathogenesis remain unaddressed due to the lack of appropriate animal models of infection and disease. A major problem is the fact that no non-human species naturally develop disease similar to human dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Apart from other risk factors for severe dengue such as host genetics and secondary infection with a heterologous DENV, virus virulence is a risk factor that is not well characterized. Results Three clinical DENV-1 isolates from Cambodian patients experiencing the various forms of dengue disease (DF, DHF, and DSS) were inoculated in BALB/c mice at three different concentrations. The DENV-1 isolates had different organ and cell tropism and replication kinetics. The DENV-1 isolate from a DSS patient infected the largest number of mice and was primarily neurotropic. In contrast, the DENV-1 isolates from milder clinical dengue cases infected predominantly lungs and liver, and to a lesser extent brain. In addition, infection with the DENV isolate derived from a DSS patient persisted for more than two weeks in a majority of mice compared to the other DENV-1 isolates that peaked during the first week. Conclusions These results confirm the in vitro findings of the same DENV-1 isolates, that showed that the isolate derived from a DSS patient can be distinguished based on phenotypic characteristics that differ from the isolates derived from a DF and DHF case [1]. We observed in this study that the DSS virus isolate persist longer in vivo with extensive neuroinvasion in contrast to the other DENV-1 isolates originating in milder human cases. Genomic characterization of the three clinical isolates identified six amino acid substitutions unique for the DSS isolates that were located both in structural genes (M and E) and in non-structural genes (NS1, NS3, and NS5). The characterization of these clinically distinct DENV-1 isolates highlight that DENVs within the same genotype may have different in vivo phenotypes. Highlights • Clinical DENV-1 isolates have different organ tropism in BALB/c mice. • The isolate from a DSS patient is primarily neurotropic compared to the other isolates. • The DENV-1 isolates have different in vivo replication kinetics. • The isolate from a DSS patient persists longer compared to the other isolates. • These phenotypic differences confirm our earlier in vitro findings with the same DENV-1 isolates. Thus, DENVs within the same serotype and genotype may differ enough to affect clinical conditions in vivo. PMID:21835036

2011-01-01

341

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...possession with the rest of the personal effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4) Perishable items. (c) The consular officer should in his or her discretion take appropriate...

2010-04-01

342

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...possession with the rest of the personal effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4) Perishable items. (c) The consular officer should in his or her discretion take appropriate...

2012-04-01

343

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...possession with the rest of the personal effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4) Perishable items. (c) The consular officer should in his or her discretion take appropriate...

2011-04-01

344

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...possession with the rest of the personal effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4) Perishable items. (c) The consular officer should in his or her discretion take appropriate...

2013-04-01

345

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...possession with the rest of the personal effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4) Perishable items. (c) The consular officer should in his or her discretion take appropriate...

2014-04-01

346

Development and preliminary application of an immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in swine.  

PubMed

A "strip test" to detect porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was established using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2D7 conjugated with colloidal gold. Two MAbs binding to protein N at different epitopes, 2D7 and 1G7 were obtained. In the test, samples of PRRSV bound to colloidal gold-conjugated MAb 2D7. The complex was then captured by MAb 1G7 at the test line (T) on the nitrocellulose membrane, presenting a purple band. If the sample did not contain PRRSV or if the quantity of PRRSV was less than that required for the kit, only the control line (C), in which goat anti-mouse antibody was added as the capture antibody, was present. Results from the sensitivity test of the kit demonstrated that the lowest detected quantity of PRRSV is 2.9 × 10(3)TCID(50)/ml. In clinical trials, the specificity and the sensitivity of this kit are 98.1% and 88.4%, respectively, compared with RT-PCR. Furthermore, this kit was found to be efficient in three areas of China and appears to have better results in practical applications than in empirical studies. In summary, this kit has not only high rates of specificity and sensitivity but also has the beneficial features such as efficiency, convenience and speed. PMID:21663767

Li, Xue-song; Fu, Fang; Lang, Yue-kun; Li, Hai-zhong; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xin; Tian, Hua-bin; Zhou, Yan-jun; Tong, Guang-zhi; Li, Xi

2011-09-01

347

The economic burden of illness for households in developing countries: a review of studies focusing on malaria, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

Ill-health contributes to impoverishment, a process brought into sharper focus by the impact of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. This paper reviews studies that have measured the economic costs and consequences of illness for households, focusing on malaria, tuberculosis (TB), and HIV/AIDS. It finds that in resource-poor settings illness imposed high and regressive cost burdens on patients and their families. Direct and indirect costs of illness for malaria were less than 10% of the household income, but still significant when combined with the costs of other illnesses. The costs of TB and HIV/AIDS were catastrophic for households (more than 10% of the income). Health service weaknesses in many countries, including low coverage, user charges, and poor quality of care, contributed to high costs. Poor households in developing countries with a member with TB or HIV/AIDS struggled to cope, highlighting the urgent need for a substantial increase in health sector investment to expand access to preventive and curative health services. Government and non-governmental interventions should also be broadened to encompass measures that reduce the substantial indirect costs associated with diseases such as malaria, TB, and HIV/AIDS. PMID:15331831

Russell, Steven

2004-08-01

348

Identification of a Novel Nonstructural Protein, VP9, from White Spot Syndrome Virus: Its Structure Reveals a Ferredoxin Fold with Specific Metal Binding Sites  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a major mRNA species. The structure of full-length VP9 was determined by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is the first structure to be reported for WSSV proteins. The crystal structure of VP9 revealed a ferredoxin fold with divalent metal ion binding sites. Cadmium sulfate was found to be essential for crystallization. The Cd2+ ions were bound between the monomer interfaces of the homodimer. Various divalent metal ions have been titrated against VP9, and their interactions were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. The titration data indicated that VP9 binds with both Zn2+ and Cd2+. VP9 adopts a similar fold as the DNA binding domain of the papillomavirus E2 protein. Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells.

Liu,Y.; Wu, J.; Song, J.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

2006-01-01

349

Effects of North American Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)-Based Modified Live Vaccines on Preimmunized Sows Artificially Inseminated with European PRRSV-Spiked Semen  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to determine if the European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be transmitted via spiked semen to preimmunized sows and induce reproductive failure. Sows were immunized with the North American PRRSV-based modified live vaccine (Ingelvac PRRS MLV; Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, St. Joseph, MO) and were artificially inseminated. The sows were randomly divided into three groups. The vaccinated (group 2) and nonvaccinated (group 3) sows developed a PRRSV viremia at 7 to 28 days postinsemination with the European PRRSV-spiked semen. The number of genomic copies of the European PRRSV in serum samples was not significantly different between vaccinated and nonvaccinated sows. All negative-control sows in group 1 farrowed at the expected date. The sows in groups 2 and 3 farrowed between 103 and 110 days after the first insemination. European PRRSV RNA was detected in the lungs of 8 out of 11 live-born piglets and 46 out of 54 stillborn fetuses. In addition, PRRSV RNA was detected using in situ hybridization in other tissues from vaccinated sows that had been inseminated with European PRRSV-spiked semen (group 2). The present study has demonstrated that vaccinating sows with the North American PRRSV-based modified live vaccine does not prevent reproductive failure after insemination with European PRRSV-spiked semen. PMID:22237898

Han, Kiwon; Seo, Hwi Won; Oh, Yeonsu; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Changhoon

2012-01-01

350

In Vitro Evaluation of the Antiviral Activity of the Synthetic Epigallocatechin Gallate Analog-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Palmitate against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) palmitate was synthesized and its anti-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) activity was studied. Specifically, EGCG palmitate was evaluated for its ability to inhibit PRRSV infection in MARC-145 cells when administered as pre-, post-, or co-treatment. EGCG and ribavirin were used as controls. The results showed that a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of EGCG, EGCG palmitate, and ribavirin was achieved at 2,359.71, 431.42, and 94.06 ?M, respectively. All three drugs inhibited PRRSV in a dose-dependent manner regardless of the treatment protocol. EGCG palmitate exhibited higher cytotoxicity than EGCG, but lower cytotoxicity than ribavirin. EGCG palmitate anti-PRRSV activity was significantly higher than that of EGCG and ribavirin, both as pre-treatment and post-treatment. Under the former conditions and a tissue culture infectious dose of 10 and 100, the selectivity index (SI) of EGCG palmitate in the inhibition of PRRSV was 3.8 and 2.9 times higher than that of ribavirin when administered as a pre-treatment, while the SI of EGCG palmitate in the inhibition of PRRSV was 3.0 and 1.9 times higher than ribavirin when administered as a post-treatment. Therefore, EGCG palmitate is potentially effective as an anti-PRRSV agent and thus of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24566281

Zhao, Chunjian; Liu, Shuaihua; Li, Chunying; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang

2014-01-01

351

Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a major White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) envelope protein VP24 expressed in Escherichia coli against WSSV.  

PubMed

The study reports cloning, expression and characterization of immunogenic activity of VP24, a major envelope protein of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). His-tagged VP24 was expressed as truncated protein and purified from inclusion bodies by metal affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. The ability to confer protection from WSSV by oral administration of recombinant viral protein (rVP24) was examined in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) juveniles (advanced post larvae). Animals were fed with rVP24 for 10 days, orally challenged with WSSV and assayed for expression of viral genes and shrimp immune genes on the 2nd, 5th and 8th days of challenge. The survival of juvenile shrimps in the vaccinated and challenged group was significantly higher compared to the unvaccinated and challenged group with lesser viral gene expression (DNA polymerase, latency 1 and vp28). Analysis of immune gene expression showed upregulation of syntenin and down regulation of STAT, Rab 7 and caspase during the experimental period. This study points to the feasibility of using rVP24 as candidate vaccine in P. monodon against WSSV. PMID:25218401

Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Viswanathan, Karthik; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

2014-11-01

352

Generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to study structure-function of envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus from shrimp  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP28 is one of the most important envelope proteins of WSSV. In this study, a recombinant antibody library, as single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format, displayed on phage was constructed using mRNA from spleen cells of mice immunized with full-length VP28 expressed in Escherichia coli. After several rounds of panning, six scFv antibodies specifically binding to the epitopes in the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions of VP28, respectively, were isolated from the library. Using these scFv antibodies as tools, the epitopes in VP28 were located on the envelope of the virion by immuno-electron microscopy. Neutralization assay with these antibodies in vitro suggested that these epitopes may not be the attachment site of WSSV to host cell receptor. This study provides a new way to investigate the structure and function of the envelope proteins of WSSV.

Wang Yuzhen [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Road 19A, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang Xiaohua; Yuan Li [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Xu Tao; Rao Yu; Li Jia [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Road 19A, Beijing 100039 (China); Dai Heping [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)], E-mail: hpdai@ihb.ac.cn

2008-08-08

353

Expression profile of Toll-like receptor mRNA in pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2.  

PubMed

Field and experimental studies have shown that co-infection of pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) increases the severity of the disease. The present study investigates the mRNA expression profile of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in pigs co-infected with PRRSV and PCV2. SPF pigs were infected with PRRSV, PCV2 or in a combination of both. The mRNA expression levels of TLRs and related cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of pigs were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA expression profiles of TLRs by PBMCs from pigs co-infected with PRRSV and PCV2 displayed two distinct patterns: an increased expression profile for TLRs2, 4 and 8, and a decreased expression profile for TLRs3, 7 and 9. An up-regulated expression of IL-1? and IL-10 mRNA and a down-regulated expression of INF-? and TNF-? mRNA in PBMCs of co-infected pigs were also observed. PMID:25555603

Tu, Pang-Yan; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Liu, Po-Cheng; Chang, Hsiu-Luan; Kuo, Tsun-Yung; Chung, Wen-Bin

2015-02-01

354

Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome.  

PubMed

In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant females infected with type 2 PRRSv (NVSL 97-7895) and to analyze potential relationships with viral load and fetal mortality rate. PRRSv infection caused a massive, acute drop in total leukocyte counts affecting all PBMC populations by two days post infection. Except for B cells, cell counts started to rebound by day six post infection. Our data also show a greater decrease of naïve B cells, T-helper cells and cytolytic T cells than their respective effector or memory counterparts. Absolute numbers of T cells and ?? T cells were negatively associated with PRRSv RNA concentration in gilt serum over time. Additionally, absolute numbers of T helper cells may be predictive of fetal mortality rate. The preceding three leukocyte populations may therefore be predictive of PRRSv-related pathological outcomes in pregnant gilts. Although many questions regarding the immune responses remain unanswered, these findings provide insight and clues that may help reduce the impact of PRRSv in pregnant gilts. PMID:25497114

Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John C S

2014-01-01

355

Dynamics and evolution of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus following its introduction into a herd concurrently infected with both types 1 and 2.  

PubMed

Since its first emergence in Thailand in late 2010, highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has caused sporadic outbreaks on Thai swine farms. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamics and evolution of PRRSV in a herd experiencing an HP-PRRSV outbreak. Following its introduction, HP-PRRSV caused severe outbreaks and subsequently established persistent infection in the herd, resulting in the emergence of a novel cluster of type 2 (North American, NA) isolates. HP-PRRSV co-existed with type 1 (European, EU) isolates without influencing their development. In contrast, HP-PRRSV influenced the evolution of the type 2 (NA) isolates by increasing diversity through the addition of a novel cluster and influencing the evolution of other viral clusters previously existing in the herd. Recombination between the endemic and emerging isolates was observed. The recombinants, however, disappeared and were not able to survive in the herd. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of HP-PRRSV to a herd results in an increased diversity of genetically related isolates and persistent HP-PRRSV infection. PMID:25557456

Chaikhumwang, Puwich; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Tripipat, Thitima; Tipsombatboon, Pavita; Piriyapongsa, Jittima; Nilubol, Dachrit

2015-03-01

356

PmVRP15, a Novel Viral Responsive Protein from the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon, Promoted White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, PmVRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed 9410–fold up-regulated level at 48 h post WSSV injection. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PmVRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. The full-length cDNA of PmVRP15 transcript was obtained and showed no significant similarity to any known gene in the GenBank database. The predicted open reading frame of PmVRP15 encodes for a deduced 137 amino acid protein containing a putative transmembrane helix. Immunofluorescent localization of the PmVRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Double-stranded RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of PmVRP15 in P. monodon significantly decreased WSSV propagation compared to the control shrimps (injected with GFP dsRNA). The significant decrease in cumulative mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp following PmVRP15 knockdown was observed. These results suggest that PmVRP15 is likely to be a nuclear membrane protein and that it acts as a part of WSSV propagation pathway. PMID:24637711

Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Jaree, Phattarunda; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2014-01-01

357

Identification of a common antigenic site in the nucleocapsid protein of European and North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein has been identified as the most immunodominant viral protein. The N protein genes from two PRRSV isolates Olot/91 (European) and Quebec 807/94 (North American) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using the pET3x system. The antigenic structure of the PRRSV N protein was dissected using seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and overlapping fragments of the protein expressed in E.coli. Three antigenic sites were found. Four MAbs recognized two discontinuous epitopes that were present in the partially folded protein or at least a large fragment comprising the first 78 residues, respectively. The other three MAbs revealed the presence of a common antigenic site localized in the central region of the protein (amino acids 50 to 66). This hydrophillic region is well conserved among different isolates of European and North American origin. However, since this epitope is not recognized by many pig sera, it is not adequate for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, none of the N protein fragments were able to mimic the antigenicity of the entire N protein. PMID:9782317

Casal, J I; Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Garcia, J; Plana-Duran, J; Sanz, A

1998-01-01

358

A novel double recognition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the nucleocapsid protein for early detection of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

Precise and rapid detection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in swine farms is critical. Improvement of control procedures, such as testing incoming gilt and surveillance of seronegative herds requires more rapid and sensitive methods. However, standard serological techniques detect mainly IgG antibodies. A double recognition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DR-ELISA) was developed for detection of antibodies specific to European PRRSV. This new assay can recognize both IgM and IgG antibodies to PRSSV which might be useful for detecting in routine surveillance assays pigs that are in the very early stages of infection and missed by conventional assays detecting only IgG antibodies. DR-ELISA is based on the double recognition of antigen by antibody. In this study, the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (N) of PRRSV was used both as the coating and the enzyme-conjugated antigen. To evaluate the sensitivity of the assay at early stages of the infection, sera from 69 pigs infected with PRRSV were collected during successive days post infection (pi) and tested. While standard methods showed low sensitivity rates before day 14 pi, DR-ELISA detected 88.4% seropositive samples at day 7 showing greater sensitivity at early stages of the infection. Further studies were carried out to assess the efficiency of the new assay, and the results showed DR-ELISA to be a sensitive and accurate method for early diagnosis of EU-PRRSV infection. PMID:22342444

Venteo, A; Rebollo, B; Sarraseca, J; Rodriguez, M J; Sanz, A

2012-04-01

359

Taura syndrome virus IRES initiates translation by binding its tRNA-mRNA–like structural element in the ribosomal decoding center  

PubMed Central

In cap-dependent translation initiation, the open reading frame (ORF) of mRNA is established by the placement of the AUG start codon and initiator tRNA in the ribosomal peptidyl (P) site. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) promote translation of mRNAs in a cap-independent manner. We report two structures of the ribosome-bound Taura syndrome virus (TSV) IRES belonging to the family of Dicistroviridae intergenic IRESs. Intersubunit rotational states differ in these structures, suggesting that ribosome dynamics play a role in IRES translocation. Pseudoknot I of the IRES occupies the ribosomal decoding center at the aminoacyl (A) site in a manner resembling that of the tRNA anticodon-mRNA codon. The structures reveal that the TSV IRES initiates translation by a previously unseen mechanism, which is conceptually distinct from initiator tRNA-dependent mechanisms. Specifically, the ORF of the IRES-driven mRNA is established by the placement of the preceding tRNA-mRNA–like structure in the A site, whereas the 40S P site remains unoccupied during this initial step. PMID:24927574

Koh, Cha San; Brilot, Axel F.; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Korostelev, Andrei A.

2014-01-01

360

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Induces IL-1? Production Depending on TLR4/MyD88 Pathway and NLRP3 Inflammasome in Primary Porcine Alveolar Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. Previous studies have reported that PRRSV infection induced the production of IL-1?. However, the cellular sensors and signaling pathways involved in this process have not been elucidated yet. Here, we studied the mechanisms responsible for the production of IL-1? in response to highly pathogenic PRRSV. Upon PRRSV infection of primary porcine alveolar macrophages, both mRNA expression and secretion of IL-1? were significantly increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We also investigated the role of several pattern-recognition receptors and adaptor molecules in this response and showed that the TLR4/MyD88 pathway and its downstream signaling molecules, NF-?B, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPKs, were involved in IL-1? production during PRRSV infection. Treatment with specific inhibitors or siRNA knockdown assays demonstrated that components of the NLRP3 inflammasome were crucial for IL-1? secretion but not for IL-1? mRNA expression. Furthermore, TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway was involved in PRRSV-induced expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components. Together, our results deciphered the pathways leading from recognition of PRRSV to the production and release of IL-1?, providing a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of PRRSV-induced inflammation responses. PMID:24966466

Bi, Jing; Song, Shuang; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Jing, Huiyuan; Gao, Li; Cai, Yidong; Luo, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

2014-01-01

361

An Intact Sialoadhesin (Sn/SIGLEC1/CD169) Is Not Required for Attachment/Internalization of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Surface expression of SIGLEC1, also known as sialoadhesin or CD169, is considered a primary determinant of the permissiveness of porcine alveolar macrophages for infection by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In vitro, the attachment and internalization of PRRSV are dependent on the interaction between sialic acid on the virion surface and the sialic acid binding domain of the SIGLEC1 gene. To test the role of SIGLEC1 in PRRSV infection, a SIGLEC1 gene knockout pig was created by removing part of exon 1 and all of exons 2 and 3 of the SIGLEC1 gene. The resulting knockout ablated SIGLEC1 expression on the surface of alveolar macrophages but had no effect on the expression of CD163, a coreceptor for PRRSV. After infection, PRRSV viremia in SIGLEC1?/? pigs followed the same course as in SIGLEC1?/+ and SIGLEC1+/+ littermates. The absence of SIGLEC1 had no measurable effect on other aspects of PRRSV infection, including clinical disease course and histopathology. The results demonstrate that the expression of the SIGLEC1 gene is not required for infection of pigs with PRRSV and that the absence of SIGLEC1 does not contribute to the pathogenesis of acute disease. PMID:23785195

Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Ewen, Catherine; Trible, Benjamin; Kerrigan, Maureen; Bawa, Bhupinder; Teson, Jennifer M.; Mao, Jiude; Lee, Kiho; Samuel, Melissa S.; Whitworth, Kristin M.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Egen, Tina; Green, Jonathan A.

2013-01-01

362

The promoter of the white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene WSSV108 is activated by the cellular KLF transcription factor.  

PubMed

A series of deletion and mutation assays of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early gene WSSV108 promoter showed that a Krüppel-like factor (KLF) binding site located from -504 to -495 (relative to the transcription start site) is important for the overall level of WSSV108 promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays further showed that overexpressed recombinant Penaeus monodon KLF (rPmKLF) formed a specific protein-DNA complex with the (32)P-labeled KLF binding site of the WSSV108 promoter, and that higher levels of Litopenaeus vannamei KLF (LvKLF) were expressed in WSSV-infected shrimp. A transactivation assay indicated that the WSSV108 promoter was strongly activated by rPmKLF in a dose-dependent manner. Lastly, we found that specific silencing of LvKLF expression in vivo by dsRNA injection dramatically reduced both WSSV108 expression and WSSV replication. We conclude that shrimp KLF is important for WSSV genome replication and gene expression, and that it binds to the WSSV108 promoter to enhance the expression of this immediate-early gene. PMID:25445906

Liu, Wang-Jing; Lo, Chu-Fang; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chang, Li-Kwan; Chang, Yun-Shiang

2015-03-01

363

Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and anti-stigma interventions in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Qualitative data gathering methods, including indepth key-informant interviews, community interviews and consensus group sessions, were utilized. Delphi methods and the strategic options development analysis technique were used to synthesize qualitative data. Key findings are that stigma enacted by the general public might be declining in tandem with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique, but there is likely excessive residual fear of HIV disease and community attitudes that sustain high levels of perceived stigma. HIV-positive women accessing maternal and child health services appear to shoulder a disproportionate burden of stigma. Unintentional biases among healthcare providers are currently the critical frontier of stigmatization, but there are few interventions designed to address them. Culturally sensitive psychotherapies are needed to address psychological distress associated with internalized stigma and these interventions should complement current supports for voluntary counseling and testing. While advantageous for defining stakeholder priorities for stigma reduction efforts, confirmatory quantitative studies of these consensus positions are needed before the launch of specific interventions. PMID:24527744

Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E.

2014-01-01

364

In vitro evaluation of the antiviral activity of the synthetic epigallocatechin gallate analog-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) palmitate against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) palmitate was synthesized and its anti-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) activity was studied. Specifically, EGCG palmitate was evaluated for its ability to inhibit PRRSV infection in MARC-145 cells when administered as pre-, post-, or co-treatment. EGCG and ribavirin were used as controls. The results showed that a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of EGCG, EGCG palmitate, and ribavirin was achieved at 2,359.71, 431.42, and 94.06 ?M, respectively. All three drugs inhibited PRRSV in a dose-dependent manner regardless of the treatment protocol. EGCG palmitate exhibited higher cytotoxicity than EGCG, but lower cytotoxicity than ribavirin. EGCG palmitate anti-PRRSV activity was significantly higher than that of EGCG and ribavirin, both as pre-treatment and post-treatment. Under the former conditions and a tissue culture infectious dose of 10 and 100, the selectivity index (SI) of EGCG palmitate in the inhibition of PRRSV was 3.8 and 2.9 times higher than that of ribavirin when administered as a pre-treatment, while the SI of EGCG palmitate in the inhibition of PRRSV was 3.0 and 1.9 times higher than ribavirin when administered as a post-treatment. Therefore, EGCG palmitate is potentially effective as an anti-PRRSV agent and thus of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24566281

Zhao, Chunjian; Liu, Shuaihua; Li, Chunying; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang

2014-02-01

365

Comparative analysis of apoptotic changes in peripheral immune organs and lungs following experimental infection of piglets with highly pathogenic and classical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies have demonstrated that piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) may develop significant thymus atrophy, which related to thymocytes apoptosis. However, apart from that detected in the thymus, there are no reports describing cell apoptosis induced by HP-PRRSV infection. In this study, we analyzed comparatively the pathological changes, cell apoptosis and viral load in peripheral immune organs including tonsil, inguinal lymph nodes (ILNs) and spleen and lungs following experimental infection of piglets with HP-PRRSV HuN4 and classical PRRSV CH-1a. Findings HP-PRRSV HuN4 exhibited much stronger cell tropism than CH-1a in immune organs and lungs of piglets. HuN4 infection led to the serious injuries in tonsils, ILNs, spleens and lungs, especially apoptosis in these organs was significant. Conclusions HuN4 infection induced severe lesions (gross pathology, histopathology and cell apoptosis) in the peripheral immune organs and lungs of infected piglets. Large numbers of apoptotic cells in immune organs and lung induced by HuN4 may play a role in the pathogenesis of the HP-PRRS and the distinct injuries caused by HuN4 infection may be associated with the high mortality rate of HP-PRRS in pigs. PMID:24393149

2014-01-01

366

Helper T-cell antigenic site identification in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus gp120 envelope protein and induction of immunity in mice to the native protein using a 16-residue synthetic peptide.  

PubMed Central

Much effort has been devoted to the analysis of antibodies to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus antigens, but no studies, to our knowledge, have defined antigenic sites of this virus that elicit T-cell immunity, even though such immunity is important in protection against many other viruses. T cells tend to recognize only a limited number of discrete sites on a protein antigen. Analysis of immunodominant helper T-cell sites has suggested that such sites tend to form amphipathic helices. An algorithm based on this model was used to identify two candidate T-cell sites, env T1 and env T2, in the envelope protein of human T-lymphotropic virus type IIIB that were conserved in other human immunodeficiency virus isolates. Corresponding peptides were synthesized and studied in genetically defined inbred and F1 mice for induction of lymph node proliferation. After immunization with a 426-residue recombinant envelope protein fragment, significant responses to native gp 120, as well as to each peptide, were observed in both F1 combinations studied. Conversely, immunization with env T1 peptide induced T-cell immunity to the native gp 120 envelope protein. The genetics of the response to env T1 peptide were further examined and revealed a significant response in three of four independent major histocompatibility haplotypes tested, an indication of high frequency responsiveness in the population. Identification of helper T-cell sites should facilitate development of a highly immunogenic, carrier-free vaccine that induces T-cell and B-cell immunity. The ability to elicit T-cell immunity to the native viral protein by immunization with a 16-residue peptide suggests that such sites represent potentially important components of an effective vaccine for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images PMID:2438696

Cease, K B; Margalit, H; Cornette, J L; Putney, S D; Robey, W G; Ouyang, C; Streicher, H Z; Fischinger, P J; Gallo, R C; DeLisi, C

1987-01-01

367

Cherished Possessions and Adaptation of Older People to Nursing Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined cherished possessions and adaptation to nursing home of 100 nursing home residents. Findings showed those with possessions were better adapted; possessions served functions of historical continuity, comfort, and belongingness; and more women than men had cherished possessions. (Author/PVV)

Wapner, Seymour; And Others

1990-01-01

368

Role of Marsupenaeus japonicus crustin-like peptide against Vibrio penaeicida and white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

Crustins are important AMP that has been identified in crustaceans. In this study, the role of Marsupenaeus japonicus crustin-like peptide (MjCRS) was examined in vivo by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Tissue expression analysis revealed that MjCRS transcripts are expressed in different tissues tested with the highest expression observed in hemocytes. Treatment with double-stranded RNA specific to MjCRS led to a significant reduction of MjCRS transcripts within the hemocytes. When MjCRS was silenced and subsequently infected with Vibrio penaeicida final mortality was significantly higher compared with PBS and dsGFP treated groups. On the other hand, final mortalities of MjCRS silenced and PBS injected groups were not significantly different after infection with white spot virus, however, both are significantly higher compared with dsGFP treated group. V. penaeicida infection significantly decreased MjCRS expression at 3, 6, 12 and 24h followed by significant increase at 48 h post-infection. On the contrary, white spot infection significantly increased MjCRS expression at 6 and 12h and decreased at 48 h post-infection. dsRNA treatment alone decreased total hemocyte counts (THCs) and subsequent V. penaeicida or white spot virus infection further decreased THCs. VP28 gene expression was both similarly increased in PBS injected group and MjCRS silenced group at 24 and 48 h-post infection. Results suggest that MjCRS is involved in antibacterial defense and might not have critical function against viral infection. PMID:24929027

Hipolito, Sheryll Grospe; Shitara, Aiko; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

2014-10-01

369

Research Projects in Ly's & Liang's Labs How virus-host interactions affect Lassa and Influenza virus  

E-print Network

Guanarito (BSL4) Sabia (BSL4) Chapare (BSL4) Lujo (BSL4) Rift Valley Fever (BSL3) (BSL4) Yellow Fever (BSL and Influenza virus replication, virulence and pathogenesis? I fl iLassa fever virus Influenza virus #12;Lassa Virus Causes Lethal Hemorrhagic Fever · Severe multisystem syndrome · Damage to overall vascular system

Blanchette, Robert A.

370

Bacterial predators possess unique membrane lipid structures.  

PubMed

Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALO) are a phylogenetically diverse group of predatory prokaryotes that consists of the two families Bdellovibrionaceae and Bacteriovoracaceae. We investigated the phospholipid composition of the three important BALO strains Bacteriovorax stolpii (DSM 12778), Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 (DSM 50701) and Peredibacter starrii (DSM 17039). We confirmed the presence of sphingophosphonolipids in B. stolpii, while we characterized sphingophosphonolipids with a 2-amino-3-phosphonopropanate head group for the first time. In B. bacteriovorus HD100 phosphatidylthreonines were found and, thus, B. bacteriovorus is the second prokaryote investigated so far possessing this rare lipid class. In the third analyzed organism, P. starrii, we observed phosphatidylethanolamine structures with an additional N-glutamyl residue, which form the first reported class of amino acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamines. PMID:21984111

Müller, Frederic D; Beck, Sebastian; Strauch, Eckhard; Linscheid, Michael W

2011-12-01

371

Viruses in Antarctic lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

372

Positive effects of porcine IL-2 and IL-4 on virus-specific immune responses induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 DNA vaccine in swine  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of porcine interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 genes on enhancing the immunogenicity of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5 DNA vaccine in piglets. Eukaryotic expression plasmids pcDNA-ORF5, pcDNA-IL-2, and pcDNA-IL-4 were constructed and then expressed in Marc-145 cells. The effects of these genes were detected using an indirect immunofluorescent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Characteristic fluorescence was observed at different times after pcDNA-ORF5 was expressed in the Marc-145 cells, and PCR products corresponding to ORF5, IL-2, and IL-4 genes were detected at 48 h. Based on these data, healthy piglets were injected intramuscularly with different combinations of the purified plasmids: pcDNA-ORF5 alone, pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNA-IL-2, pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNA-IL-4, and pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNAIL-4 + pcDNA-IL-2. The ensuing humoral immune responses, percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, proliferation indices, and interferon-? expression were analyzed. Results revealed that the piglets co-immunized with pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNA-IL-4 + pcDNA-IL-2 plasmids developed significantly higher antibody titers and neutralizing antibody levels, had significantly increased levels of specific T lymphocyte proliferation, elevated percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and significantly higher IFN-? production than the other inoculated pigs (p < 0.05). PMID:24136204

Liu, Jian; Li, Chunyan; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Ping; Luo, Xianfeng; Zeng, Zhiyong; Hong, Nining; Liu, Xia; Wang, Bin; Wang, Feng; Gan, Zhenlei; Hao, Fei

2014-01-01

373

Vaccination with a genotype 1 modified live vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus significantly reduces viremia, viral shedding and transmission of the virus in a quasi-natural experimental model.  

PubMed

The present study assessed the efficacy of vaccination against genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in terms of reduction of the transmission. Ninety-eight 3-week-old piglets were divided in two groups: V (n=40) and NV (n=58) that were housed separately. V animals were vaccinated with a commercial genotype 1 PRRSV vaccine while NV were kept as controls. On day 35 post-vaccination, 14 NV pigs were separated and inoculated intranasally with 2ml of a heterologous genotype 1 PRRSV isolate ("seeder" pigs, SP). The other V and NV animals were distributed in groups of 5 pigs each. Two days later, one SP was introduced into each pen to expose V and NV to PRRSV. Sentinel pigs were allocated in adjacent pens. Follow-up was of 21 days. All NV (30/30) became viremic after contact with SP while only 53% of V pigs were detected so (21/40, p<0.05). Vaccination shortened viremia (12.2±4 versus 3.7±3.4 days in NV and V pigs, respectively, p<0.01). The 50% survival time for becoming infected (Kaplan-Meier) for V was 21 days (CI95%=14.1-27.9) compared to 7 days (CI95%=5.2-8.7) for NV animals (p<0.01). These differences were reflected in the R value as well: 2.78 (CI95%=2.13-3.43) for NV and 0.53 (CI95%=0.19-0.76) for V pigs (p<0.05). All sentinel pigs (10/10) in pens adjacent to NV+SP pens got infected compared to 1/4 sentinel pigs allocated contiguous to a V+SP pen. These data show that vaccination of piglets significantly decrease parameters related to PRRSV transmission. PMID:25439650

Pileri, Emanuela; Gibert, Elisa; Soldevila, Ferran; García-Saenz, Ariadna; Pujols, Joan; Diaz, Ivan; Darwich, Laila; Casal, Jordi; Martín, Marga; Mateu, Enric

2015-01-30

374

TaqMan real-time PCR assay for relative quantification of white spot syndrome virus infection in Penaeus monodon Fabricius exposed to ammonia.  

PubMed

White spot disease is caused by a highly virulent pathogen, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The disease is usually triggered by changes in environmental parameters causing severe losses to the shrimp industry. This study was undertaken to quantify the relative WSSV load in shrimp exposed to ammonia, using a TaqMan-based real-time PCR, and their subsequent susceptibility to WSSV. Shrimp were exposed to different levels of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (8.1, 3.8 and 1.1 mg L?¹) for 10 days and challenged with WSSV by feeding WSSV-positive shrimp. WSSV was detected simultaneously in haemolymph, gills and pereopods at four hours post-infection. The TaqMan real-time PCR assay showed a highly dynamic detection limit that spanned over 6 log?? concentrations of DNA and high reproducibility (standard deviation 0.33-1.42) and small correlation of variability (CV) (1.89-3.85%). Shrimp exposed to ammonia had significantly higher (P < 0.01) WSSV load compared to the positive control, which was not exposed to ammonia. Shrimp exposed to 8.1 mg L?¹ of TAN had the highest (P < 0.01) WSSV load in all three organs in comparison with those exposed to 3.8 and 1.1 mg L?¹ of TAN. However, haemolymph had significantly higher (P < 0.01) viral load compared to the gills and pereopods. Results showed that shrimp exposed to ammonia levels as low as 1.1 mg L?¹ (TAN) had increased susceptibility to WSSV. PMID:21091720

Fouzi, M; Shariff, M; Omar, A R; Yusoff, F Md; Tan, S W

2010-12-01

375

Molecular cloning and characterizations of porcine SAMHD1 and its roles in replication of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The sterile alpha motif and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1) protein is a novel innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. Here, we cloned the full-length SAMHD1 complementary DNA (cDNA) from porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes. The porcine SAMHD1 cDNA was of 3951?bp with an open reading frame of 1884?bp, encoding a polypeptide of 627 amino acids. Porcine SAMHD1 mRNA was detected in all swine tissues examined, with the higher expression in the tonsil, lung, liver, and lymph node tissues. The SAMHD1 protein was localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of SAMHD1 blocked the proliferation of HuN4, a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV), in MARC-145 cells, by inhibiting the synthesis of the HuN4 complement RNA. The antiviral effects of the simian SAMHD1 protein were nearly equivalent to those of porcine SAMHD1 in the HuN4-infected MARC-145 cells. Phosphorylation analysis of SAMHD1 showed that overexpressed SAMHD1 protein was in primarily an unphosphorylated state. SAMHD1 overexpression increased the transcript abundance of IFN-stimulated genes ISG15 and ISG56. The mRNA levels of SAMHD1 and ISGs were significantly increased in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 protein level was also elevated, and the protein was not phosphorylated during infection. Collectively, our data indicate that SAMHDI inhibits HP-PRRSV proliferation through inhibiting the replication of HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 might be the protein participating in the IFN signaling and is thus an important immunoregulatory protein in innate immunity. PMID:25106914

Yang, Shen; Shan, Tongling; Zhou, Yanjun; Jiang, Yifeng; Tong, Wu; Liu, Fei; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Qingzhan; Tong, Guangzhi

2014-12-01

376

Immunogenic and protective properties of GP5 and M structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressed from replicating but nondisseminating adenovectors  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for significant economic losses in the porcine industry. Currently available commercial vaccines do not allow optimal and safe protection. In this study, replicating but nondisseminating adenovectors (rAdV) were used for the first time in pigs for vaccinal purposes. They were expressing the PRRSV matrix M protein in fusion with either the envelope GP5 wild-type protein (M-GP5) which carries the major neutralizing antibody (NAb)-inducing epitope or a mutant form of GP5 (M-GP5m) developed to theoretically increase the NAb immune response. Three groups of fourteen piglets were immunized both intramuscularly and intranasally at 3-week intervals with rAdV expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP, used as a negative control), M-GP5 or M-GP5m. Two additional groups of pigs were primed with M-GP5m-expressing rAdV followed by a boost with bacterially-expressed recombinant wild-type GP5 or were immunized twice with a PRRSV inactivated commercial vaccine. The results show that the rAdV expressing the fusion proteins of interest induced systemic and mucosal PRRSV GP5-specific antibody response as determined in an ELISA. Moreover the prime with M-GP5m-expressing rAdV and boost with recombinant GP5 showed the highest antibody response against GP5. Following PRRSV experimental challenge, pigs immunized twice with rAdV expressing either M-GP5 or M-GP5m developed partial protection as shown by a decrease in viremia overtime. The lowest viremia levels and/or percentages of macroscopic lung lesions were obtained in pigs immunized twice with either the rAdV expressing M-GP5m or the PRRSV inactivated commercial vaccine. PMID:23497101

2013-01-01

377

Genetic Diversity of the ORF5 Gene of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates in Southwest China from 2007 to 2009  

PubMed Central

To gain insight into the molecular epidemiology and possible mechanisms of genetic variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in Yunnan Province of China, the ORF5 gene of 32 PRRSV isolates from clinical samples collected from 2007 to 2009 were sequenced and analyzed. Nucleotide and amino acid analyses were carried out on 32 isolates and representative strains of the North American genotype, European genotype and two representative Chinese isolates. Results revealed that these isolates share 86.9–99.0% nucleotide and 87.5–98.0% amino acid identity with VR-2332 the prototypical North American PRRSV, 61.7–62.9% and 54.3–57.8% with Lelystad virus (LV) the representative strain of European genotype, 91.2–95.4% and 90.0–94.5% with CH-1a that was isolated in mainland China in 1996, 88.1–99.3% and 85.5–99.0% with JX-A1 the representative strain of High pathogenic PRRSV in China, and 86.2–99.8% and 85.5–100.0% between isolated strains of different years, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 32 PRRSV isolates belonged to the North American genotype and were further divided into two different subgenotypes. Subgenotype 1 comprised twenty two Yunnan isolates which divided into two branches. Subgenotype 2 comprised ten isolates which closely related to the RespPRRS vaccine and its parent strain VR-2332. The functional domains of GP5 such as the signal peptide, ectodomain, transmembrane regions and endodomain were identified and some motifs in GP5 with known functions, such as primary neutralizing epitope (PNE) and decoy epitope were also further analyzed. Our study shown the great genetic diversity of PRRSV in southwest China, rendering the guide for control and prevention of this disease. PMID:22448272

Yin, Gefen; Gao, Libo; Shu, Xianghua; Yang, Guishu; Guo, Shuhao; Li, Wengui

2012-01-01

378

Transcription analysis on response of porcine alveolar macrophages to co-infection of the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.  

PubMed

Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is of great concern economically, for swine producers worldwide. Co-infections with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are considered the major causative agents of PRDC, and responsible for mass mortality in pigs. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying the host factors involved in pathogenesis and persistent infection have not been clearly established because of a lack of information regarding host responses following co-infection. In the current study, high throughput cDNA microarray assays were employed to evaluate host responses of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) to co-infection with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and Mhp. A total of 2152 and 1760 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between the control group and PRRSV+Mhp co-infected group at 6 and 15h post infection, respectively. The DE genes were involved in many vital functional classes, including inflammatory response, immune response, apoptosis, defense response, signal transduction. The pathway analysis demonstrated that the most significant pathways were associated with chemokine signaling pathway, cytokine, TLR, RLR and NLR signaling pathways and Jak-STAT signaling pathway. STRING analysis demonstrated that IL-1? is an integral gene in co-infections with PRRSV and Mhp. The present study is the first to document the response of PAMs to co-infection with HP-PRRSV and Mhp. The observed gene expression profile could help with the screening of potential host agents for reducing the prevalence of co-infections, and to further develop our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis associated with PRRSV and Mhp co-infection in pigs. PMID:25445346

Li, Bin; Du, Luping; Xu, Xiangwei; Sun, Bing; Yu, Zhengyu; Feng, Zhixin; Liu, Maojun; Wei, Yanna; Wang, Haiyan; Shao, Guoqing; He, Kongwang

2015-01-22

379

The novel white spot syndrome virus-induced gene, PmERP15, encodes an ER stress-responsive protein in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

By microarray screening, we identified a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-strongly induced novel gene in gills of Penaeus monodon. The gene, PmERP15, encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 15?kDa, which only showed some degree of similarity (54-59%) to several unknown insect proteins, but had no hits to shrimp proteins. RT-PCR showed that PmERP15 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, heart and lymphoid organs, and that WSSV-induced strong expression of PmERP15 was evident in all tissues examined. Western blot analysis likewise showed that WSSV strongly up-regulated PmERP15 protein levels. In WSSV-infected hemocytes, immunofluorescence staining showed that PmERP15 protein was colocalized with an ER enzyme, protein disulfide isomerase, and in Sf9 insect cells, PmERP15-EGFP fusion protein colocalized with ER -Tracker™ Red dye as well. GRP78, an ER stress marker, was found to be up-regulated in WSSV-infected P.?monodon, and both PmERP15 and GRP78 were up-regulated in shrimp injected with ER stress inducers tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Silencing experiments showed that although PmERP15 dsRNA-injected shrimp succumbed to WSSV infection more rapidly, the WSSV copy number had no significant changes. These results suggest that PmERP15 is an ER stress-induced, ER resident protein, and its induction in WSSV-infected shrimp is caused by the ER stress triggered by WSSV infection. Furthermore, although PmERP15 has no role in WSSV multiplication, its presence is essential for the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp. PMID:25499032

Leu, Jiann-Horng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Bin; Lin, Chung-Yen; Lo, Chu-Fang

2015-04-01

380

The DEAD-box RNA helicase 5 positively regulates the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by interacting with viral Nsp9 in vitro.  

PubMed

The nonstructural protein 9 (Nsp9) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been recognized to play important roles in viral replication. The present study first screened that the DEAD-box RNA helicase 5 (DDX5) was a cellular protein interacting with the Nsp9 of PRRSV by a yeast two-hybrid method in a pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) cDNA library. Next, DDX5 was shown to interact with viral Nsp9 in the co-transfected HEK293 cells with the DDX5- and Nsp9-expressing plasmids, and the interaction between endogenous DDX5 and Nsp9 was also confirmed in MARC-145 cells infected with the Nsp9-expressing lentiviruses. Then, the interacting domains between DDX5 and Nsp9 were determined to be the DEXDc and HELICc domains in DDX5 and the RdRp domain in Nsp9, respectively. Moreover, in the HEK293 cells, MARC-145 cells and PAM cell lines co-transfected with the DDX5- and Nsp9-expressing plasmids, Nsp9 was shown to co-localize with DDX5 in the cytoplasm with a perinuclear pattern, and meanwhile in PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells and PAMs, endogenous DDX5 was also found to co-localize with Nsp9. Finally, silencing the DDX5 gene in MARC-145 cells significantly impacted the replication of PRRSV, and while the over-expression of DDX5 could slightly enhance viral replication. These findings indicate that DDX5 positively regulates the replication of PRRSV via its interaction with viral Nsp9 in vitro. PMID:25449571

Zhao, Shuangcheng; Ge, Xinna; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Aijing; Guo, Xin; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Kangzhen; Yang, Hanchun

2015-01-01

381

Nonstructural protein 1{alpha} subunit-based inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation and suppression of interferon-{beta} production by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

SciTech Connect

Induction of type I interferon (IFN-{alpha}/{beta}) is an early antiviral response of the host, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to downregulate the IFN response during infection in cells and pigs. We report that the PRRSV nonstructural protein 1{alpha} (Nsp1{alpha}) subunit of Nsp1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic protein distributed to the nucleus and contains a strong suppressive activity for IFN-{beta} production that is mediated through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway. Nsp1{alpha} suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B when stimulated with dsRNA or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B suppression was RIG-I-dependent. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B activation was associated with the poor production of IFN-{beta} during PRRSV infection. The C-terminal 14 amino acids of the Nsp1{alpha} subunit were critical in maintaining immunosuppressive activity of Nsp1{alpha} for both IFN-{beta} and NF-{kappa}B, suggesting that the newly identified zinc finger configuration comprising of Met180 may be crucial for inhibitory activities. Nsp1{alpha} inhibited I{kappa}B phosphorylation and as a consequence NF-{kappa}B translocation to the nucleus was blocked, leading to the inhibition of NF-{kappa}B stimulated gene expression. Our results suggest that PRRSV Nsp1{alpha} is a multifunctional nuclear protein participating in the modulation of the host IFN system.

Song Cheng [Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Krell, Peter [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.ed [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

2010-11-25

382

Bayesian analysis of risk factors for infection with a genotype of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario swine herds using monitoring data.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has a worldwide distribution. This economically important endemic disease causes reproductive failure in breeding stock and respiratory tract illness in young pigs. In Ontario restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) 1-18-4 has been determined as one of the most common virus genotypes. Individual-level models (ILMs) for infectious diseases, fitted in a Bayesian MCMC framework, have been used to describe both the spatial and temporal spread of diseases. They are an intuitive and flexible class of models that can take into account population heterogeneity via various individual-level covariates. The objective of this study is to identify relative importance of risk factors for the spread of the genotype 1-18-4 from monitoring data in southern Ontario using ILMs. Specifically, we explore networks through which resources are obtained or delivered, as well as the ownership structure of herds, and identify factors that may be contributing to high risk of infection. A population of 316 herds which experienced their PRRS outbreaks between September 2004 and August 2007 are included in the analyses, in which 194 (61%) are sow herds. During the study period, 45 herds (27 sow herds) experienced their first outbreak due to RFLP 1-18-4. Our results show that the three relatively most important factors for the spread of 1-18-4 genotype in Ontario swine herds were sharing the same herd ownership, gilt source and market trucks. All other networks had relatively smaller impact on spread of this PRRSV genotype. Spatial proximity could not be identified as important contributor to spread. Our findings also suggest that gilt acclimation should be practiced whenever possible and appropriate to reduce the risk for the herd and for others as it is already widely implemented and recommended in the North American swine industry. PMID:23416041

Kwong, Grace P S; Poljak, Zvonimir; Deardon, Rob; Dewey, Cate E

2013-07-01

383

IL-33/ST2 Correlates with Severity of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and Regulates the Inflammatory Response in Hantaan Virus-Infected Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Hantaan virus (HTNV) causes a severe lethal haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. Despite a limited understanding of the pathogenesis of HFRS, the importance of the abundant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been widely recognized. Interleukin 33 (IL-33) has been demonstrated to play an important role in physiological and pathological immune responses. After binding to its receptor ST2L, IL-33 stimulates the Th2-type immune response and promotes cytokine production. Depending on the disease model, IL-33 either protects against infection or exacerbates inflammatory disease, but it is unknown how the IL-33/ST2 axis regulates the immune response during HTNV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples were collected from 23 hospitalized patients and 28 healthy controls. The levels of IL-33 and soluble ST2 (sST2) in plasma were quantified by ELISA, and the relationship between IL-33, sST2 and the disease severity was analyzed. The role of IL-33/sST2 axis in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was studied on HTNV-infected endothelial cells. The results showed that the plasma IL-33 and sST2 were significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls. Spearman analysis showed that elevated IL-33 and sST2 levels were positively correlated with white blood cell count and viral load, while negatively correlated with platelet count. Furthermore, we found that IL-33 enhanced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in HTNV-infected endothelial cells through NF-?B pathway and that this process was inhibited by the recombinant sST2. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that the IL-33 acts as an initiator of the “cytokine storm” during HTNV infection, while sST2 can inhibit this process. Our findings could provide a promising immunotherapeutic target for the disease control. PMID:25658420

Zhang, Yusi; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhuang, Ran; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Yun; Yi, Jing; Yang, Angang; Jin, Boquan

2015-01-01

384

[Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome during mid-term pregnancy successfully treated with combined methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin].  

PubMed

A 32-year-old woman in the 16th week of pregnancy was admitted to our hospital because of high fever. Laboratory findings disclosed pancytopenia and extremely elevated serum LDH and ferritin levels. Coagulation tests showed disseminated intravascular coagulation. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 levels were high, but serum interferon-gamma was below the detectable limit. Reactive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was diagnosed on the basis of a high titer of IgG antibodies to the EBV capsid antigen and early antigen. EBV was demonstrated in the peripheral blood and bone marrow cells by polymerase chain reaction. Mature histiocytosis and hemophagocytosis were detected in the bone marrow. A diagnosis of EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) was made. Neither prednisolone (PSL 30 mg/day, P.O.) nor methylprednisolone (m-PSL) pulse therapy (1,000 mg/day for 3 days) induced a response. Thereafter, treatment with m-PSL pulse therapy (1,000 mg/day for 3 days) and i.v. administrations of high-dose immunoglobulin (20 g/day for 3 days) in combination with acyclovir (750 mg/day) and gabexate mesilate (2 g/day) induced remission of the disease. Maintenance therapy consisted of PSL (5 mg/day, P.O.) and camostat mesilate (600 mg/day, P.O.). The patient delivered a healthy male infant in the 35th week of pregnancy via natural birth. Reports of pregnant women with EBV-AHS are rare, and the choice of therapy has not yet been established. The present case study suggested the above combination treatment is useful and safe, and capable of changing the fulminant course of EBV-AHS during pregnancy without the use of anticancer drugs. PMID:10658479

Mihara, H; Kato, Y; Tokura, Y; Hattori, Y; Sato, A; Kobayashi, H; Imamura, A; Daimaru, O; Miwa, H; Nitta, M

1999-12-01

385

Comparative Effects of Vaccination against Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in a PCV2-PRRSV Challenge Model  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinations in an experimental PCV2-PRRSV challenge model, based on virological (viremia), immunological (neutralizing antibodies [NAs], gamma interferon-secreting cells [IFN-?-SCs], and CD4+ CD8+ double-positive cells), and pathological (lesions and antigens in lymph nodes and lungs) evaluations. A total of 72 pigs were randomly divided into 9 groups (8 pigs per group): 5 vaccinated and challenged groups, 3 nonvaccinated and challenged groups, and a negative-control group. Vaccination against PCV2 induced immunological responses (NAs and PCV2-specific IFN-?-SCs) and reduced PCV2 viremia, PCV2-induced lesions, and PCV2 antigens in the dually infected pigs. However, vaccination against PCV2 did not affect the PRRSV immunological responses (NAs and PRRSV-specific IFN-?-SCs), PRRSV viremia, PRRSV-induced lesions, or PRRSV antigens in the dually infected pigs. Vaccination against PRRSV did not induce immunological responses (PRRSV-specific IFN-?-SCs) or reduce PRRSV viremia, PRRSV-induced lesions, or PRRSV antigens in the dually infected pigs. In addition, vaccination against PRRSV increased PCV2 viremia, PCV2-induced lesions, and PCV2 antigens in the dually infected pigs. In summary, vaccination against PCV2 reduced PCV2 viremia, PCV2-induced lesions, and PCV2 antigens in the dually infected pigs. However, vaccination against PRRSV increased PCV2 viremia, PCV2-induced lesions, and PCV2 antigens in the dually infected pigs. Therefore, the PCV2 vaccine decreased the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by PRRSV in dually infected pigs. In contrast, the PRRSV vaccine alone did not decrease the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by PRRSV in dually infected pigs. PMID:23302743

Park, Changhoon; Oh, Yeonsu; Seo, Hwi Won; Han, Kiwon

2013-01-01

386

Histoplasmosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): multicenter study of outcomes and factors associated with relapse.  

PubMed

Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p < 0.0001) and 5% death (p = 0.28) in the PC group. Relapse occurred in 53% of the nonadherent patients but not in the adherent patients (p < 0.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients with initial central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis relapsed compared to 15% of patients without CNS involvement (p = 0.0004), which may be accounted for by nonadherence. In addition, patients with antigenuria above 2.0 ng/mL at 1-year follow-up were 12.82 times (95% confidence interval, 2.91-55.56) more likely to relapse compared to those with antigenuria below 2.0 ng/mL. Discontinuation of antifungal therapy was safe in adherent patients who completed at least 1 year of antifungal treatment, and had CD4 counts >150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis. PMID:24378739

Myint, Thein; Anderson, Albert M; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N; Bamberger, David M; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N; Wheat, L Joseph

2014-01-01

387

[Prevalence and association of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses, stillborn and nonviable neonatal piglets].  

PubMed

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) seems to cause reproductive failure in sows not only in experimental studies. A retrospective study was made with a total of 252 aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses, stillborn and nonviable neonatal piglets to determine the presence of PCV2, porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) by PCR. PCV2 was found in all stages of gestation in 27.1 percent of samples examined. A statistically significant association could be shown between the detection of PCV2 and PRRSV. However, no significant association was seen between the detection of PCV2 and PPV and between PPV and PRRSV. PMID:16240914

Ritzmann, M; Wilhelm, S; Zimmermann, P; Etschmann, B; Bogner, K H; Selbitz, H J; Heinritzi, K; Truyen, U

2005-09-01

388

50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

2012-10-01

389

50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

2013-10-01

390

50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

2010-10-01

391

50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

2011-10-01

392

50 CFR 622.38 - Bag and possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.38 Section...Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.38 Bag and possession limits. (a) Additional...provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. However, §...

2013-10-01

393

50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bag/possession limits. 640.23 Section...ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.23 Bag/possession limits. (a) EEZ off the...states, other than Florida. The daily bag or possession limit for spiny...

2012-10-01

394

50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bag/possession limits. 640.23 Section...ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.23 Bag/possession limits. (a) EEZ off the...states, other than Florida. The daily bag or possession limit for spiny...

2011-10-01

395

50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.277 Section...Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a)...

2013-10-01

396

50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bag/possession limits. 640.23 Section...ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.23 Bag/possession limits. (a) EEZ off the...states, other than Florida. The daily bag or possession limit for spiny...

2010-10-01

397

50 CFR 622.408 - Bag/possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bag/possession limits. 622.408 Section...Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.408 Bag/possession limits. (a) EEZ off the...states, other than Florida. The daily bag or possession limit for spiny...

2013-10-01

398

50 CFR 622.382 - Bag and possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.382 Section...Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.382 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) King...

2013-10-01

399

50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.39 Section...ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.39 Bag and possession limits. Link to an amendment... (a) Applicability. (1) The bag and possession limits apply for...

2012-10-01

400

50 CFR 622.187 - Bag and possession limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.187 Section...the South Atlantic Region § 622.187 Bag and possession limits. (a) Additional...provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. However, §...

2013-10-01

401

50 CFR 648.94 - Monkfish possession and landing restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...determined by multiplying the tail weight by 1.91. For example a vessel possessing 100 lb (45 kg) of tail weight may possess an additional 191 lb...heads only without possessing the equivalent weight of tails allowed by using the...

2012-10-01

402

THE POSSESSIVE SYNTACTICAL TYPE AND THE MALAY LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1977 I prepared a paper for the Second International Conference on Austronesian linguistics. It dealt with the possessive category, its genera'1 features, its evolution and its use in grammatical structures of Indonesian languages (Alieva, 1978). Among the problems connected with the possessive category, it is essential to discuss the problem of the possessive structure of a sentence over against

N. ALIEVA

403

[Post-polyiomyelitis syndrome].  

PubMed

Postpoliomyelitis syndrome is a clinical syndrome characterized by late progression of symptoms, neuromuscular weakness, fatigue and pain, several (more than 20) Years after acute anterior poliomyelitis. In the United States, where it has been mainly described, frequency is estimated between 20 and 30p.100 in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Although the cause is still unknown, postpoliomyelitis syndrome is likely due to degeneration and dysfunction of terminal axons of enlarged post-polio units, with a possible role of inflammatory reaction driven by persistence of the polio virus. Due to lack of specific therapy, rational therapeutic approaches are symptomatic, including exercise, reassurance and life-strategies for fatigue. PMID:15034482

Clavelou, P

2004-02-01

404

Comparative expression of Toll-like receptors and inflammatory cytokines in pigs infected with different virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is largely responsible for heavy economic losses in the swine industry worldwide because of its high mutation rate and subsequent emergence of virulent strains. However, the immunological and pathological responses of pigs to PRRSV strains with different virulence have not been completely elucidated. Methods Twenty-four piglets were divided into 4 groups (n?=?6 each) and inoculated with highly pathogenic PRRSV isolate BB0907 (HP), low pathogenic PRRSV NT0801 (LP), LP derivative strain NT0801-F70 (LP-der), and DMEM medium (control), respectively. The changes in TLR2, 3, 7, and 8 gene expression and TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IFN-?, and IL-10 secretion were evaluated using real-time PCR and ELISA at 6, 9, and 15 days post inoculation (d.p.i.). The cytokine levels were evaluated in the supernatants of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following stimulation with LTA, poly(I:C), CL097, and PRRSV individually. Results HP caused more severe clinical signs and pathological lesions in swine than LP and LP-der had almost no virulence compared with LP. The serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and IFN-? were increased in HP-infected piglets, which were greater than in those infected with LP or LP-der. The mRNA levels of TLR3, 7, and 8 were significantly up-regulated in PAMs in HP-infected pigs compared to those in groups LP and LP-der. Furthermore, TNF-? and IL-1? secretion in PAMs from group LP was statistically greater than those from the control group after stimulation with either poly(I:C) or CL097. Meanwhile, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 levels in CL097-stimulated PBMCs from HP-infected pigs were markedly higher than those from the LP- and LP-der-infected groups. Conclusions We found that HP was a stronger inducer of TLR 3, 7, and 8 expression and IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and IFN-? production compared to LP and LP-der. HP enhanced production of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in PBMCs following CL097-stimulation more than LP and LP-der, whereas LP enhanced the secretion of TNF-? and IL-1? in poly(I:C)- and CL097-stimulated PAMs. Our data regarding cellular reactivity to different isolates should be useful in the development of more efficacious vaccines. PMID:23631691

2013-01-01

405

In Utero Infection by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Is Sufficient To Increase Susceptibility of Piglets to Challenge by Streptococcus suis Type II  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) consistently elevates the frequency of disease and mortality in young pigs. Many different secondary bacterial diseases occur in PRRS virus (PRRSV)-infected pigs. However, to date, establishing a reproducible experimental model of PRRSV infection in weaned pigs, with subsequent clinical disease following secondary bacterial challenge, has been difficult. PRRSV is frequently isolated during outbreaks from weak-born piglets affected by secondary bacterial diseases. This study was performed to investigate the potential role of intrauterine PRRSV infection on piglet susceptibility to secondary bacterial infection. PRRSV-free pregnant sows were intranasally infected at 98 days of gestation with PRRSV strain SD 23983. All piglets born to the PRRSV-infected sows were viremic. Piglets were removed from the sows at birth and deprived of colostrum. Piglets from PRRSV-infected and noninfected sows were randomly assigned to Streptococcus suis challenge or control subgroups. At 5 days of age, piglets were challenged intranasally with strain MN 87555 of S. suis type II. Total and differential leukocyte counts were performed on blood samples collected at 3 days of age. The numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes were significantly reduced in the PRRSV-infected piglets. Lesions were observed in bone marrow, brain, lung, heart, spleen, lymph node, tonsil, and thymus of PRRSV-infected piglets. Thymus/body weight ratios of in utero PRRSV-infected piglets were significantly reduced compared to those of non-PRRSV-infected piglets, and thymic lesions were characterized by severe cortical depletion of thymocytes. Lesions were not observed in piglets born to PRRSV-free sows. Overall, 20 out of 22 piglets in the PRRSV-S. suis dual-infection group died within 1 week after challenge with S. suis (10 of 11 in each of two trials). This contrasts with 1 of 18 piglets in the PRRSV-infection-only group and 5 of 23 piglets in the S. suis-challenge-only group (1 of 12 in trial 1 and 4 of 11 in trial 2). No piglets died in the uninfected control groups. Most of the piglets in the PRRSV-S. suis dual-infection group developed suppurative meningitis. S. suis type II was recovered from their brains and joints. These results indicate that in utero infection by PRRSV makes piglets more susceptible to infection and disease following challenge by S. suis type II. In utero infection by PRRSV may provide a useful model to study the interaction between PRRSV and bacterial coinfections in piglets. PMID:11312360

Feng, Wen-hai; Laster, S. M.; Tompkins, M.; Brown, T.; Xu, J.-S.; Altier, C.; Gomez, W.; Benfield, D.; McCaw, M. B.

2001-01-01

406

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China  

PubMed Central

Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. Results 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. Conclusions HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in this population likely being engaged in high-risk sex. Government programs should pay more attention to public education, health promotion and intervention for the control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. PMID:24520921

2014-01-01

407

Genome-Wide Gene Expression Profiles in Lung Tissues of Pig Breeds Differing in Resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) is an infectious disease characterized by severe reproductive deficiency in pregnant sows, typical respiratory symptoms in piglets, and high mortality rate of piglets. In this study, we employed an Affymetrix microarray chip to compare the gene expression profiles of lung tissue samples from Dapulian (DPL) pigs (a Chinese indigenous pig breed) and Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY) pigs after infection with PRRSV. During infection with PRRSV, the DLY pigs exhibited a range of clinical features that typify the disease, whereas the DPL pigs showed only mild signs of the disease. Overall, the DPL group had a lower percentage of CD4+ cells and lower CD4+/CD8+ratios than the DLY group (p<0.05). For both IL-10 and TNF-?, the DLY pigs had significantly higher levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01). The DLY pigs have lower serum IFN-? levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01). The serum IgG levels increased slightly from 0 dpi to 7 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi (p<0.0001). Microarray data analysis revealed 16 differentially expressed (DE) genes in the lung tissue samples from the DLY and DPL pigs (q?5%), of which LOC100516029 and LOC100523005 were up-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs, while the other 14 genes were down-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs compared with the PRRSV-infected DLY pigs. The mRNA expression levels of 10 out of the 16 DE genes were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and their fold change was consistent with the result of microarray data analysis. We further analyzed the mRNA expression level of 8 differentially expressed genes between the DPL and DLY pigs for both uninfected and infected groups, and found that TF and USP18 genes were important in underlying porcine resistance or susceptibility to PRRSV. PMID:24465897

Zhang, Chenhua; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanping; Yang, Lijuan; Jiang, Chenglan; Zhang, Chaoyang; Wen, Changhong; Jiang, Yunliang

2014-01-01

408

Risk assessment of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) transmission via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo production using oocytes from commercial abattoirs.  

PubMed

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology has become a powerful tool for reproductive biology to preserve and propagate valuable genetics for livestock. Embryo production through SCNT involves enucleation of the oocyte and insertion of a somatic donor cell into the oocyte. These procedures lead to a few small openings on the zona pellucida that may elevate risk of viral infection for the produced SCNT embryos. The oocytes used for SCNT are mainly obtained from abattoirs where viral contamination is almost inevitable. Therefore, a systematic evaluation of risk of disease transmission through SCNT embryo production is necessary prior large scale implementation of this technology in the livestock industry. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the risk of disease transmission via SCNT embryo production and transfer by testing for the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) throughout the process of SCNT embryo production. The presence of PRRSV in each step of SCNT embryo production, from donor cells to pre-implantation SCNT embryo culture, was carefully examined using a real-time PCR assay with a sensitivity of five copies per-reaction. All 114 donor cell lines derived from pig skin tissue over a period of 7 years in our facility tested negative for PRRSV. Out of the 68 pooled follicular fluid samples collected from 736 ovaries, only four (5.9%) were positive indicating a small amount of viral molecule present in the oocyte donor population. All 801 Day 7 SCNT embryos produced in four separate trials and over 11,571 washed oocytes obtained in 67 batches over 10 months tested negative. These oocytes were collected from multiple abattoirs processing animals from areas with high density of pig population and correspond to a donor population of over 5828 individuals. These results indicate that the oocytes from abattoirs were free of PRRSV infection and therefore could be safely used for in vitro embryo production. Additionally, the established SCNT embryo production system, including donor cell testing, oocytes decontamination, and pathogen free embryo reconstruction and culturing, bears no risk of PRRSV transmission. PMID:21550737

Gregg, K; Xiang, T; Arenivas, S S; Hwang, E; Arenivas, F; Chen, S-H; Walker, S; Picou, A; Polejaeva, I

2011-05-01

409

Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background: Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: To check if a thesis resulted in a publication, we searched: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. Results: One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. Conclusion: This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals. There is also a great necessity to build capacity in scientific writing among university students in Cameroon. PMID:24971222

Munung, NS; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

2014-01-01

410

Comparative pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens of two strains of avian hepatitis E virus recovered from a chicken with Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome and from a clinically healthy chicken, respectively  

PubMed Central

Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is the primary causative agent of Hepatitis-Splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in chickens. Recently, a genetically unique strain of avian HEV, designated avian HEV-VA, was recovered from healthy chickens in Virginia. The objective of this study was to experimentally compare the pathogenicity of the prototype strain recovered from a chicken with HS syndrome and the avian HEV-VA strain in specific-pathogen-free chickens. An infectious stock of the avian HEV-VA strain was first generated and its infectivity titer determined in chickens. For the comparative pathogenesis study, fifty-four chickens of 6-week-old were assigned to 3 groups of 18 chickens each. The group 1 chickens were each intravenously inoculated with 5×102.5 50% chicken infectious dose of the prototype strain. The group 2 received the same dose of the avian HEV-VA strain, and the group 3 served as negative controls. Six chickens from each group were necropsied at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-inoculation (wpi). Most chickens in both inoculated groups seroconverted by 3 wpi, and the mean anti-avian HEV antibody titers were higher for the prototype strain group than the avian HEV-VA strain group. There was no significant difference in the patterns of viremia and fecal virus shedding. Blood analyte profiles did not differ between treatment groups except for serum creatine phosphokinase levels which were higher for prototype avian HEV group than avian HEV-VA group. The hepatic lesion score was higher for the prototype strain group than the other two groups. The results indicateded that the avian HEV-VA strain is only slightly attenuated compared to the prototype strain, suggesting that the full-spectrum of HS syndrome is likely associated with other co-factors. PMID:19570623

Billam, P.; LeRoith, T.; Pudupakam, R.S.; Pierson, F.W.; Duncan, R.B.; Meng, X.J.

2009-01-01

411

Tourette Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Tourette Syndrome Information Page Condensed from Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Tourette Syndrome? Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder ...

412

Tourette Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

What Is Tourette Syndrome? Tourette syndrome is a condition that affects a person's central nervous system and causes tics. Tics are ... few months or a year. Continue Who Gets Tourette Syndrome? Tourette syndrome can affect people of all ...

413

Wallenberg's Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Wallenberg's Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Lateral Medullary Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Wallenberg's Syndrome? Wallenberg’s syndrome is a neurological condition caused ...

414

DRESS syndrome as a complication of treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated post-inflammatory liver cirrhosis with peginterferon ?2a and ribavirin  

PubMed Central

Various skin and systemic symptoms may develop as a complication of treatment with different medications and medicinal substances. One of them is a relatively rare drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, referred to as DRESS syndrome. The morphology of skin lesions and the patient's general health can differ; the management involves withdrawal of drugs suspected of triggering DRESS syndrome, and administration of local and systemic glucocorticosteroids. In this paper we present a case of a patient with HCV associated chronic hepatitis, treated with peginterferon ?2a (PEG-IFN-?2a) and ribavirin, who developed skin lesions and systemic symptoms typical of DRESS syndrome. PMID:25610356

Pazgan-Simon, Monika; Simon, Krzysztof

2014-01-01