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1

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Possesses an Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon ?. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741

Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario

2014-01-01

2

The Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus nsp2 Cysteine Protease Domain Possesses both trans- and cis-Cleavage Activities?  

PubMed Central

The N terminus of the replicase nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains a putative cysteine protease domain (PL2). Previously, we demonstrated that deletion of either the PL2 core domain (amino acids [aa] 47 to 180) or the immediate downstream region (aa 181 to 323) is lethal to the virus. In this study, the PL2 domain was found to encode an active enzyme that mediates efficient processing of nsp2-3 in CHO cells. The PL2 protease possessed both trans- and cis-cleavage activities, which were distinguished by individual point mutations in the protease domain. The minimal size required to maintain these two enzymatic activities included nsp2 aa 47 to 240 (Tyr47 to Cys240) and aa 47 to 323 (Tyr47 to Leu323), respectively. Introduction of targeted amino acid mutations in the protease domain confirmed the importance of the putative Cys55- His124 catalytic motif for nsp2/3 proteolysis in vitro, as were three additional conserved cysteine residues (Cys111, Cys142, and Cys147). The conserved aspartic acids (e.g., Asp89) were essential for the PL2 protease trans-cleavage activity. Reverse genetics revealed that the PL2 trans-cleavage activity played an important role in the PRRSV replication cycle in that mutations that impaired the PL2 protease trans function, but not the cis activity, were detrimental to viral viability. Lastly, the potential nsp2/3 cleavage site was probed. Mutations with the largest impact on in vitro cleavage were at or near the G1196|G1197 dipeptide. PMID:19587037

Han, Jun; Rutherford, Mark S.; Faaberg, Kay S.

2009-01-01

3

The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties  

SciTech Connect

The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-{delta}E-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-{delta}E virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-{delta}E virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm.

Lee, Changhee [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Yoo, Dongwan [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

2006-11-10

4

A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity?  

PubMed Central

C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand binding specificity for mannose. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that LvCTL1 mRNA was specifically expressed in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Recombinant LvCTL1 (rLvCTL1) had hemagglutinating activity and ligand binding specificity for mannose and glucose. rLvCTL1 also had a strong affinity for WSSV and interacted with several envelope proteins of WSSV. Furthermore, we showed that the binding of rLvCTL1 to WSSV could protect shrimps from viral infection and prolong the survival of shrimps against WSSV infection. Our results suggest that LvCTL1 is a mannose-binding C-type lectin that binds to envelope proteins of WSSV to exert its antiviral activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a shrimp C-type lectin that has direct anti-WSSV activity. PMID:18945787

Zhao, Zhi-Ying; Yin, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xiao-Peng; Weng, Shao-Ping; Rao, Xia-Yu; Dai, Zong-Xian; Luo, Yong-Wen; Yang, Gan; Li, Zong-Sheng; Guan, Hao-Ji; Li, Se-Dong; Chan, Siu-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2009-01-01

5

Tourette's syndrome: from demonic possession and psychoanalysis to the discovery of gene.  

PubMed

In this paper we make a brief historical review of the hypothesis concerning the etiology of Tourette's syndrome (TS), focusing on varying trends over time: at first, its presumed relation to witchcraft and demonic possessions, followed by the psychoanalytical theory, which attributed TS to a masturbatory equivalent. Then, progressing to modern time, to the immunological theory and finally the advent of genetics and their role in the etiology of TS. PMID:22836463

Germiniani, Francisco M B; Miranda, Anna Paula P; Ferenczy, Peter; Munhoz, Renato P; Teive, Hélio A G

2012-07-01

6

Lead optimization of an acylhydrazone scaffold possessing antiviral activity against Lassa virus.  

PubMed

Previously we reported the optimization of antiviral scaffolds containing benzimidazole and related heterocycles possessing activity against a variety of arenaviruses. These series of compounds were discovered through an HTS campaign of a 400,000 small molecule library using lentivirus-based pseudotypes incorporated with the Lassa virus envelope glycoprotein (LASV GP). This screening also uncovered an alternate series of very potent arenavirus inhibitors based upon an acylhydrazone scaffold. Subsequent SAR analysis of this chemical series involved various substitutions throughout the chemical framework along with assessment of the preferred stereochemistry. These studies led to an optimized analog (ST-161) possessing subnanomolar activity against LASV and submicromolar activity against a number of other viruses in the Arenaviridae family. PMID:24064500

Burgeson, James R; Gharaibeh, Dima N; Moore, Amy L; Larson, Ryan A; Amberg, Sean M; Bolken, Tove' C; Hruby, Dennis E; Dai, Dongcheng

2013-11-01

7

Review article White spot syndrome virus: an overview  

E-print Network

Review article White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern Arturo SA´ NCHEZ´xico (Received 23 June 2009; accepted 24 February 2010) Abstract ­ Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

Vaccination trials with Penaeus japonicus to induce resistance to white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crustaceans do not possess an adaptive immune response with immunoglobulins; however, recently, “quasi-immune response” has been reported by which kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) surviving from natural or experimental white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections possess a resistance against challenge with WSSV. In this study, efficacy of vaccines made of inactivated WSSV with or without immunostimulants (?-1,3-glucan or killed Vibrio penaeicida)

Atsushi Namikoshi; Jin Lu Wu; Takayoshi Yamashita; Toyohiko Nishizawa; Toyohiro Nishioka; Misao Arimoto; Kiyokuni Muroga

2004-01-01

9

Host-virus interactions in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection   

E-print Network

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving virus that has significant economic and welfare implications for the pig industry. Vaccination strategies have proved largely ineffective ...

Sorensen, George Edwin Peter

2014-11-28

10

High prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To determine the type of herpes simplex virus in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus.METHODS:Herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were examined by polymerase chain reaction in intraocular specimens from 16 patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Anti–herpes simplex virus type 1 and anti–herpes simplex virus type

Norihiko Itoh; Nozomi Matsumura; Akiko Ogi; Tadayuki Nishide; Yumi Imai; Hikaru Kanai; Shigeaki Ohno

2000-01-01

11

Plant virus incorporated hydrogels as scaffolds for tissue engineering possess low immunogenicity in vivo.  

PubMed

Viruses are no longer recognized purely for being ubiquitous pathogens, but have served as building blocks for material chemistry and nanotechnology. Thousands of coat protein subunits of a viral particle can be modified chemically and/or genetically. We have previously shown that the three-dimensional porous hydrogels can easily be functionalized by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a rod-like plant virus, using its mutant, RGD-TMV. RGD-TMV hosted bioadhesive peptide (RGD) in the hydrogel, which was shown to enhance cell attachment and promote osteogenic differentiation of cultured stem cell. To translate this technology to potential clinical applications, we sought to study the biocompatibility of the hydrogel. In this paper, the hydrogels were implanted in vivo and assessed for their immunogenicity, toxicity, and biodegradability. Immune response for TMV substantially decreased when incorporated in the hydrogel implants. The implanted TMV hydrogels exhibited no apparent toxicity and were degradable in mice. The results highlighted the feasibility of using TMV incorporated hydrogels as scaffolding materials for regenerative medicine in terms of biocompatibility and biodegradability. PMID:24829052

Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Lee, L Andrew; You, Shaojin; Yang, Xiaoming; Wang, Qian

2015-03-01

12

Frozen Commodity Shrimp: Potential Avenue for Introduction of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Yellow Head Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1992, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) have caused mortalities in cultured shrimp throughout Asia. By 1995, WSSV was detected in Texas and South Carolina, and the virus has also been recently reported in Central and South America (Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador). The importation of live infected shrimp is the principal

S. V. Durand; K. F. J. Tang; D. V. Lightner

2000-01-01

13

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: a persistent infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was shown in experimentally infected pigs by isolation of virus from oropharyngeal samples for up to 157 days after challenge. Four 4 week old, conventional, PRRSV antibody-negative pigs were intranasally inoculated with PRRSV (ATCC VR-2402). Serum samples were collected every 2 to 3 days until day 42 post inoculation (PI),

R. W. Wills; J. J. Zimmerman; K.-J. Yoon; S. L. Swenson; M. J. McGinley; H. T. Hill; K. B. Platt; J. Christopher-Hennings; E. A. Nelson

1997-01-01

14

Genetic variation among isolates of White spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), member of a new virus family called Nimaviridae, is a major scourge in worldwide shrimp cultivation. Geographical isolates of WSSV identified so far are very similar in morphology and proteome, and show little difference in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern. We have mapped the genomic differences between three completely sequenced WSSV isolates, originating

H. Marks; R. W. Goldbach; J. M. Vlak; M. C. W. van Hulten

2004-01-01

15

Molecular evolution and antigenic variation of European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV).  

PubMed

European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) is the aetiological agent of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS), a disease affecting Lepus europaeus and Lepus timidus first diagnosed in Sweden in 1980. To characterize EBHSV evolution we studied hare samples collected in Sweden between 1982 and 2008. Our molecular clock dating is compatible with EBHSV emergence in the 1970s. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two lineages: Group A persisted until 1989 when it apparently suffered extinction; Group B emerged in the mid-1980s and contains the most recent strains. Antigenic differences exist between groups, with loss of reactivity of some MAbs over time, which are associated with amino acid substitutions in recognized epitopes. A role for immune selection is also supported by the presence of positively selected codons in exposed regions of the capsid. Hence, EBHSV evolution is characterized by replacement of Group A by Group B viruses, suggesting that the latter possess a selective advantage. PMID:25155199

Lopes, Ana M; Capucci, Lorenzo; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Brocchi, Emiliana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Quéméner, Agnès; Le Pendu, Jacques; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Holmes, Edward C; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana

2014-11-01

16

Genetic reassortment among viruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.  

PubMed

In order to determine the frequency and characteristics of reassortment among viruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), mixed infections were initiated in tissue culture by using two closely related strains of Sin Nombre virus, CC107 (from eastern California) and NMR11 (from New Mexico), which share the same species of rodent host in nature, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Potential reassortant virus plaques were screened by multiplex RT-PCR, using primers specific for individual genome segments of each strain. Reassortant viruses involving the M and S segments and, to a lesser extent, the L segment were detected in 8.5% of 294 progeny plaques tested. In addition, approximately 30% of the progeny virus plaques appeared to contain S or M segments originating from both parental virus strains, i.e., they were diploid. Most of these diploid virus genotypes were not stable, becoming either reassortant or parental virus strains upon plaque-to-plaque virus passage. In contrast to the results above, only one virus reassortant and four diploids were observed among 163 progeny virus plaques from mixed infections between Sin Nombre virus NMR11 and the genetically more distant Black Creek Canal virus, an HPS-causing virus from Florida, which has the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) as its natural host. PMID:9501041

Rodriguez, L L; Owens, J H; Peters, C J; Nichol, S T

1998-03-01

17

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integration Protein Expressed in Escherichia Coli Possesses Selective DNA Cleaving Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integration protein, a potential target for selective antiviral therapy, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein, free of detectable contaminating endonucleases, selectively cleaved double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides that mimic the U3 and the U5 termini of linear HIV DNA. Two nucleotides were removed from the 3' ends of both the U5 plus strand and the U3 minus strand; in both cases, cleavage was adjacent to a conserved CA dinucleotide. The reaction was metal-ion dependent, with a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Reaction selectivity was further demonstrated by the lack of cleavage of an HIV U5 substrate on the complementary (minus) strand, an analogous substrate that mimics the U3 terminus of an avian retrovirus, and an HIV U5 substrate in which the conserved CA dinucleotide was replaced with a TA dinucleotide. Such an integration protein-mediated cleavage reaction is expected to occur as part of the integration event in the retroviral life cycle, in which a double-stranded DNA copy of the viral RNA genome is inserted into the host cell DNA.

Sherman, Paula A.; Fyfe, James A.

1990-07-01

18

Borna disease virus possesses an NF-?B inhibitory sequence in the nucleoprotein gene.  

PubMed

Borna disease virus (BDV) has a non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA genome and causes persistent infection in many animal species. Previous study has shown that the activation of the I?B kinase (IKK)/NF-?B pathway is reduced by BDV infection even in cells expressing constitutively active mutant IKK. This result suggests that BDV directly interferes with the IKK/NF-?B pathway. To elucidate the mechanism for the inhibition of NF-?B activation by BDV infection, we evaluated the cross-talk between BDV infection and the NF-?B pathway. Using Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation analysis, we found that the nucleoproteins of BDV (BDV-N) and NF-?B1 share a common ankyrin-like motif. When THP1-CD14 cells were pre-treated with the identified peptide, NF-?B activation by Toll-like receptor ligands was suppressed. The 20S proteasome assay showed that BDV-N and BDV-N-derived peptide inhibited the processing of NF-?B1 p105 into p50. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assays showed that BDV-N interacted with NF-?B1 but not with NF-?B2, which shares no common motif with BDV-N. These results suggest BDV-N inhibits NF-?B1 processing by the 20S proteasome through its ankyrin-like peptide sequence, resulting in the suppression of IKK/NF-?B pathway activation. This inhibitory effect of BDV on the induction of the host innate immunity might provide benefits against persistent BDV infection. PMID:25733193

Makino, Akiko; Fujino, Kan; Parrish, Nicholas F; Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

2015-01-01

19

Establishment of Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Replicating Cell Lines Possessing Ribavirin-Resistant Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background Ribavirin (RBV) is a potential partner of interferon-based therapy and recently approved therapy using direct acting antivirals for patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, the precise mechanisms underlying RBV action against hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication are not yet understood. To clarify this point, we attempted to develop RBV-resistant cells from RBV-sensitive HCV RNA-replicating cells. Methodology/Principal Findings By repetitive RBV (100 ?M) treatment (10 weeks) of 3.5-year-cultured OL8 cells, in which genome-length HCV RNA (O strain of genotype 1b) efficiently replicates, dozens of colonies that survived RBV treatment were obtained. These colonies were mixed together and further treated with high doses of RBV (up to 200 ?M). By such RBV treatment, we successfully established 12 RBV-survived genome-length HCV RNA-replicating cell lines. Among them, three representative cell lines were characterized. HCV RNA replication in these cells resisted RBV significantly more than that in the parental OL8 cells. Genetic analysis of HCV found several common and conserved amino acid substitutions in HCV proteins among the three RBV-resistant cell species. Furthermore, using cDNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, we identified 5 host genes whose expression levels were commonly altered by more than four-fold among these RBV-resistant cells compared with the parental cells. Moreover, to determine whether viral or host factor contributes to RBV resistance, we developed newly HCV RNA-replicating cells by introducing total RNAs isolated from RBV-sensitive parental cells or RBV-resistant cells into the HCV RNA-cured-parental or -RBV-resistant cells using an electroporation method, and evaluated the degrees of RBV resistance of these developed cells. Consequently, we found that RBV-resistant phenotype was conferred mainly by host factor and partially by viral factor. Conclusions/Significance These newly established HCV RNA-replicating cell lines should become useful tools for further understanding the anti-HCV mechanisms of RBV. PMID:25699517

Satoh, Shinya; Mori, Kyoko; Ueda, Youki; Sejima, Hiroe; Dansako, Hiromichi; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki

2015-01-01

20

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Envelope Protein Ion Channel Activity Promotes Virus Fitness and Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC) activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1? were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1? was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS-CoV virulence. PMID:24788150

Nieto-Torres, Jose L.; DeDiego, Marta L.; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M.; Regla-Nava, Jose A.; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Alcaraz, Antonio; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M.; Enjuanes, Luis

2014-01-01

21

Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6?months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4?weeks and 6?months later. PMID:25833911

Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

2015-01-01

22

Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus  

PubMed Central

During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

2014-01-01

23

The White Spot Syndrome Virus DNA Genome Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is at present a major scourge to worldwide shrimp cultivation. We have determined the entire sequence of the double-stranded, circular DNA genome of WSSV, which contains 292,967 nucleotides encompassing 184 major open reading frames (ORFs). Only 6% of the WSSV ORFs have putative homologues in databases, mainly representing genes encoding enzymes for nucleotide metabolism, DNA

Mariëlle C. W. van Hulten; Jeroen Witteveldt; Sander Peters; Nico Kloosterboer; Renato Tarchini; Mark Fiers; Hans Sandbrink; René Klein Lankhorst; Just M. Vlak

2001-01-01

24

Aminoterminal amphipathic ?-helix AH1 of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 4B possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production.  

PubMed

Nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a key organizer of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex formation. In concert with other nonstructural proteins, it induces a specific membrane rearrangement, designated as membranous web, which serves as a scaffold for the HCV replicase. The N-terminal part of NS4B comprises a predicted and a structurally resolved amphipathic ?-helix, designated as AH1 and AH2, respectively. Here, we report a detailed structure-function analysis of NS4B AH1. Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance structural analyses revealed that AH1 folds into an amphipathic ?-helix extending from NS4B amino acid 4 to 32, with positively charged residues flanking the helix. These residues are conserved among hepaciviruses. Mutagenesis and selection of pseudorevertants revealed an important role of these residues in RNA replication by affecting the biogenesis of double-membrane vesicles making up the membranous web. Moreover, alanine substitution of conserved acidic residues on the hydrophilic side of the helix reduced infectivity without significantly affecting RNA replication, indicating that AH1 is also involved in virus production. Selective membrane permeabilization and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of a functional replicon harboring an epitope tag between NS4B AH1 and AH2 revealed a dual membrane topology of the N-terminal part of NS4B during HCV RNA replication. Luminal translocation was unaffected by the mutations introduced into AH1, but was abrogated by mutations introduced into AH2. In conclusion, our study reports the three-dimensional structure of AH1 from HCV NS4B, and highlights the importance of positively charged amino acid residues flanking this amphipathic ?-helix in membranous web formation and RNA replication. In addition, we demonstrate that AH1 possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production, potentially governed by different topologies of the N-terminal part of NS4B. PMID:25392992

Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Montserret, Roland; Paul, David; Castillo, Rosa; Meister, Simon; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Moradpour, Darius

2014-10-01

25

New York 1 and Sin Nombre Viruses Are Serotypically Distinct Viruses Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

New York 1 virus (NY-1) and Sin Nombre virus (SN) are associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). NY-1 and SN are derived from unique mammalian hosts and geographic locations but have similar G1 and G2 surface proteins (93 and 97% identical, respectively). Focus reduction neutralization assays were used to define the serotypic relationship between NY-1 and SN. Sera from NY-1-positive

IRINA GAVRILOVSKAYA; RACHEL LAMONICA; MARY-ELLEN FAY; BRIAN HJELLE; CONNIE SCHMALJOHN; ROBERT SHAW; ERICH R. MACKOW

26

White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern  

PubMed Central

Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies. PMID:20181325

Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

2010-01-01

27

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome associated with Monongahela virus, Pennsylvania.  

PubMed Central

The first two recognized cases of rapidly fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Pennsylvania occurred within an 8-month period in 1997. Illness in the two patients was confirmed by immunohistochemical techniques on autopsy material. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of tissue from one patient and environmentally associated Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) identified the Monongahela virus variant. Physicians should be vigilant for such Monongahela virus-associated cases in the eastern United States and Canada, particularly in the Appalachian region. PMID:11076720

Rhodes, L. V.; Huang, C.; Sanchez, A. J.; Nichol, S. T.; Zaki, S. R.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Humphreys, J. G.; Freeman, J. J.; Knecht, K. R.

2000-01-01

28

Tolerance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of Macrobrachium idella, M. lamerrae and M. rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by immersion challenge, oral route and intramuscular injection. Their susceptibility to WSSV was compared with that of Penaeus indicus and P. monodon. The WSSV caused 43.3% and 53.3% mortality in M. lamerrae and M. idella, respectively, by immersion method and 53.3% and

A. S Sahul Hameed; M. Xavier Charles; M Anilkumar

2000-01-01

29

The detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Yellow Head Virus (YHV) in imported commodity shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission of exotic pathogens occurs through a variety of means, including migration with humans and animals, rapid transit by land, sea or air or through the shipment of infected frozen food products. White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Yellow Head Virus (YHV) have caused mass mortalities of cultured shrimp in Asia beginning in 1992. In 1995, these viruses appeared for

L. M Nunan; B. T Poulos; D. V Lightner

1998-01-01

30

White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

2014-09-01

31

APOSTROPHES Possessives  

E-print Network

that belong to the babies. In two months' time... In a time of two months... Irregular plural The children's mother was worried. The mother of the children... Joint possession My aunt and uncle's house (Same thing those books are theirs. Special cases By tradition: Jesus' name Moses' tablets Because of pronunciation

deYoung, Brad

32

Hepatitis B virus infection and metabolic syndrome: fact or fiction?  

PubMed

Although hepatitis C virus infection is known to be linked with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis, the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and metabolic factors remains unclear. HBV infection is a health problem worldwide, especially in endemic regions such as Asia and Africa. It induces liver decompensation, cirrhosis, hepatocellualr carcinoma, and premature mortality. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome continues to increase in parallel with the epidemic of obesity, which is closely associated with the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or even cancer. The systemic review shows that chronic HBV infection protects against instead of promotes fatty liver. The mechanism is possibly due to a lower frequency of dyslipidemia profile in patients with chronic HBV infection. The association of HBV with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and the risk of arteriosclerosis is still inconclusive. In addition, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome may accelerate the progression of liver disease in patients with chronic HBV infection and synergistically induce cirrhosis or even hepatocellualr carcinoma development. PMID:25092429

Wang, Chia-Chi; Tseng, Tai-Chung; Kao, Jia-Horng

2015-01-01

33

Viruses associated with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) of fish in south-east Asia  

E-print Network

Viruses associated with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) of fish in south-east Asia GN with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in the past decade. The heterogeneous nature of these isolates, together. birnavirus / réovirus / rhabdovirus lAsie / SUE l poisson INTRODUCTION Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

Marmoset Lymphoblastoid Cells Transformed by NPC-KT-Derived Epstein-Barr Virus Which Possesses Transforming and Superinfecting Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

New world monkey (cotton-top marmoset; CTM) lymphocytes were transformed by two different strains of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) derived from human nasopharyngeal epithelial\\/hybrid cells (NPC-KT and A2L\\/AH). M-KT cells were a CTM lymphoblastoid cell line which was transformed by EBV derived from NPC-KT cells (NPC-KT EBV). M-BA2L cells were a CTM lymphoblastoid cell line which was transformed by EBV derived from

T. Takimoto; H. Sato; H. Ogura; T. Ogura; S. Ishikawa; J. Iwawaki

1987-01-01

35

Identification of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope proteins involved in shrimp infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp pathogen causing large economic losses. In an attempt to identify the envelope proteins involved in virus infection, antisera against six WSSV envelope proteins were used in neutralization assays conducted in vivo. The results showed that the virus infection could be significantly delayed or neutralized by antibodies against three WSSV envelope proteins

Wenlin Wu; Lei Wang; Xiaobo Zhang

2005-01-01

36

Detection of new hosts for white spot syndrome virus of shrimp using nested polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp in various marine crustaceans was studied by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The incidence of the virus in non-cultured crustaceans from shrimp farms was also studied. The results indicate that wild-caught asymptomatic marine shrimp such as Metapenaeus dobsoni, Parapenaeopsis stylifera, Solenocera indica and Squilla mantis carry WSSV. This virus could

Anirban Chakraborty; Biju Joseph; S. K. Otta; Indrani Karunasagar; Iddya Karunasagar

2001-01-01

37

Similarity between the histopathology of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Yellow Head Syndrome Virus and its relevance to diagnosis of YHV disease in the Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarity of lesions, especially of the lymphoid organ (LO), caused by severe white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and those once thought to be diagnostic for yellow head virus (YHV) infection have been the cause of misdiagnosis of YHV disease at several pathology laboratories in the Americas. In order to illustrate this similarity, and to demonstrate the risk of

Carlos R Pantoja; Donald V Lightner

2003-01-01

38

Isolation of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Virus from Leukocytes of Rats and Virus Replication in Cultures of Rat and Human Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Newborn rats were inoculated intraperitoneally with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)-related virus (B-1 strain), and virus isolation from their various organs was attempted between 1 and 25 weeks after inoculation. Virus could be isolated repeatedly from lung, brain, spleen and kidney and also from peripheral blood. When virus isolation was carried out on fractionated peripheral blood cells, virus

T. Nagai; O. Tanishita; Y. Takahashi; T. Yamanouchi; K. Domae; K. Kondo; J. R. Dantas; M. Takahashi; K. Yamanishi

1985-01-01

39

West Nile Virus Encephalitis Induced Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne neurotropic single stranded RNA flavivirus with <1% developing presenting with neurological disease. Immunocompromised and elderly patients are more prone to developing WNV meningitis or encephalitis. Definitive diagnosis of WNV meningoencephalitis is a combination of clinical suspicion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serology. Forty-eight year old Caucasian female presented with a sudden onset of altered mental status after being found unresponsive. She was confused with intermittent bouts of alertness/lethargy and unintelligible responses to questioning. Her medical problems included endometrial cancer that was in remission after undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy and postoperative chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Pertinent physical examination revealed muscle strength that was significantly decreased, nuchal rigidity and +2 pitting edema of both lower extremities. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative for any intracranial pathology. CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis with all CSF serology being negative except for positive WNV antibody. A few days after being admitted she developed involuntary random movements of her eyes and generalized jerking movements (myoclonus). This was determined to be opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) induced by the WNV meningoencephalitis. She then received five consecutive days of plasmapheresis with a significant improvement in her neurological status. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder associated with chaotic multidirectional eye movements, myoclonus and less frequently cerebellar ataxia. OMS affects as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people per year. The pathogenesis is not fully understood with the majority of cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome being idiopathic. According to current medical literature there have only been two previous case reports of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome associated with WNV encephalitis. PMID:24987503

Cooper, Chad J.; Said, Sarmad

2014-01-01

40

West nile virus encephalitis induced opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne neurotropic single stranded RNA flavivirus with <1% developing presenting with neurological disease. Immunocompromised and elderly patients are more prone to developing WNV meningitis or encephalitis. Definitive diagnosis of WNV meningoencephalitis is a combination of clinical suspicion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serology. Forty-eight year old Caucasian female presented with a sudden onset of altered mental status after being found unresponsive. She was confused with intermittent bouts of alertness/lethargy and unintelligible responses to questioning. Her medical problems included endometrial cancer that was in remission after undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy and postoperative chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Pertinent physical examination revealed muscle strength that was significantly decreased, nuchal rigidity and +2 pitting edema of both lower extremities. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative for any intracranial pathology. CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis with all CSF serology being negative except for positive WNV antibody. A few days after being admitted she developed involuntary random movements of her eyes and generalized jerking movements (myoclonus). This was determined to be opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) induced by the WNV meningoencephalitis. She then received five consecutive days of plasmapheresis with a significant improvement in her neurological status. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder associated with chaotic multidirectional eye movements, myoclonus and less frequently cerebellar ataxia. OMS affects as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people per year. The pathogenesis is not fully understood with the majority of cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome being idiopathic. According to current medical literature there have only been two previous case reports of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome associated with WNV encephalitis. PMID:24987503

Cooper, Chad J; Said, Sarmad

2014-04-22

41

N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid on Human Epithelial Cells Prevents Entry of Influenza A Viruses That Possess N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid Binding Ability  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Some animal influenza A viruses (IAVs) bind not only to N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) but also to N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), which has been discussed as a virus receptor. Human cells cannot synthesize Neu5Gc due to dysfunction of the CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase (CMAH) gene, which converts CMP-Neu5Ac to CMP-Neu5Gc. However, exogenous Neu5Gc from Neu5Gc-rich dietary sources is able to be metabolically incorporated into surfaces of tissue cells and may be related to enhancement of the infectivity and severity of IAV. Here, we investigated the receptor function of Neu5Gc on IAV infection in Neu5Gc-expressing cells by transfection of the monkey CMAH gene into human cells or by incubation with human cells in the presence of N-glycolylmannosamine. Expression of Neu5Gc on human cells clearly suppressed infectivity of IAVs that possess Neu5Gc binding ability. Furthermore, there was no difference in infectivity of a transfectant virus that included the wild-type HA gene from A/Memphis/1/1971 (H3N2), which shows no Neu5Gc binding, between parent MCF7 cells and cells stably expressing the monkey CMAH gene (CMAH-MCF7 cells). On the other hand, cell entry of the transfectant virus that included the Neu5Gc-binding HA gene with a single mutation to Tyr at position Thr155 was arrested at the stage of internalization from the plasma membrane of the CMAH-MCF7 cells. These results indicate that expression of Neu5Gc on the surface of human epithelial cells suppresses infection of IAVs that possess Neu5Gc binding ability. Neu5Gc is suggested to work as a decoy receptor of Neu5Gc-binding IAVs but not a functional receptor for IAV infection. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses (IAVs) bind to the host cell surfaces through sialic acids at the terminal of glycoconjugates. For IAV binding to sialic acids, some IAVs bind not only to N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) as a receptor but also to N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc has been discussed as a receptor of human and animal IAVs. Our results showed that Neu5Gc expression on human epithelial cells suppresses infection of IAVs that possess Neu5Gc binding ability. Neu5Gc is suggested to be a “decoy receptor” of Neu5Gc-binding IAVs but not a functional receptor for IAV infection. Human cells cannot synthesize Neu5Gc because of dysfunction of the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene but can exogenously and metabolically incorporate Neu5Gc from dietary sources. The expression of Neu5Gc on human epithelial cells by taking in exogenous Neu5Gc from Neu5Gc-rich dietary sources may be related to restriction of the infection of IAVs that have acquired Neu5Gc binding ability. PMID:24829344

Takahashi, Tadanobu; Takano, Maiko; Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Masuda, Midori; Kawagishi, Sawako; Takaguchi, Masahiro; Yamanaka, Takashi; Minami, Akira; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

42

Virion packaging of multiple cleavage isoforms of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of a complex disease often resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, highly pathogenic isolates have emerged which have proven to be devastatingly effective pathogens, resulting in rapid systemic deterioration...

43

Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (<50 nm diameter) icosahedral VLPs were significantly more abundant in coral tissue taken from diseased colonies, and there was an apparent, but not statistically significant, increase in abundance of filamentous VLPs in Symbiodinium cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

2015-03-01

44

Characterization of a virus associated with head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLE) in marine angelfish  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZATION OF A VIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAD AND LATERAL LINE EROSION SYNDROME (HLLE) IN MARINE ANGELFISH A Thesis by PATRICIA WILCOX VARNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major subject: Veterinary Microbiology CHARACTERIZATION OF A VIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAD AND LATERAL LINE EROSION SYNDROME (HLLE) IN MARINE ANGELFISH A Thesis by PATRICIA WILCOX VARNER...

Varner, Patricia Wilcox

1990-01-01

45

Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

46

Genetic, geographical and temporal variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 gene sequences were generated by RT-PCR from 55 field isolates collected in Illinois and eastern Iowa. Spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation in the virus were examined on a local geographical scale in order to test the hypothesis that the genetic similarity of PRRSV isolates (measured as their percentage pairwise ORF5

Tony L. Goldberg; Edwin C. Hahn; Ronald M. Weigel; Gail Scherba

2000-01-01

47

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Comparison: Divergent Evolution on Two Continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently described arterivirus responsible for disease in swine worldwide. Comparative sequence analysis of 3*-terminal structural genes of the single- stranded RNA viral genome revealed the presence of two genotypic classes of PRRSV, represented by the proto- type North American and European strains, VR-2332 and Lelystad virus (LV), respectively. To better under-

CHRIS J. NELSEN; MICHAEL P. MURTAUGH; KAY S. FAABERG

1999-01-01

48

Progress in Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus Biology and Control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This special issue of Virus Research is focused on Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). It contains 19 reviews invited by CoEditors, Joan K. Lunney and R.R.R. Rowland, on this arterivirus, referred to as PRRS virus (PRRSV), and associated issues. It targets areas such as: phylogenet...

49

Production, characterization and reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the preparation of six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against a British isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), their characterization in terms of protein specificity and their reactivity with different PRRS viruses from Europe and the USA. Radioimmunoprecipi- tation and Western blotting studies of MAb reactivity with proteins from cell lysates of infected cells and

Trevor W. Drew; Janneke J. M. Meulenberg; Jennifer J. Sands; David J. Paton

1995-01-01

50

Identification of Two Major Virion Protein Genes of White Spot Syndrome Virus of Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus, causing considerable mortality in shrimp. Two structural proteins of WSSV were identified. WSSV virions are enveloped nucleocapsids with a bacilliform morphology with an approximate size of 275 × 120 nm, and a tail-like extension at one end. The double-stranded viral DNA has an approximate size 290 kb. WSSV virions, isolated from

Mariëlle C. W van Hulten; Marcel Westenberg; Stephen D Goodall; Just M Vlak

2000-01-01

51

Protection of Penaeus monodon against White Spot Syndrome Virus by oral vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the shrimp farming industry. No adequate treatments against this virus are available. It is generally accepted that invertebrates such as shrimp do not have an adaptive immune response system such as that present in vertebrates. As it has been demonstrated that shrimp surviving a

Jeroen Witteveldt; Carolina C. Cifuentes; J. M. Vlak; Hulten van M. C. W

2004-01-01

52

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks Collected from Humans, South Korea, 2013  

PubMed Central

We investigated the infection rate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) among ticks collected from humans during May–October 2013 in South Korea. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors. PMID:25061851

Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Ryou, Jungsang; Yang, Sung-Chan; Park, Sun-Whan; Roh, Jong Yeol; Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Chan

2014-01-01

53

Characterization of the Taura syndrome virus isolate originating from the 2004 Texas Epizootic in cultured shrimp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major viral pathogen of penaeid shrimp worldwide. A comprehensive investigation of the Texas isolate of TSV that caused epizootics in shrimp farms in Texas in 2004 (Us04Pv1) revealed that the virus was highly virulent in laboratory bioassays causing severe symptom dev...

54

Comparison of the pathogenicity of Chinese and low virulent US porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, a new strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has resulted in huge economic losses in the Chinese pig industry. We imported a cDNA clone of the rJXwn06 Chinese strain from which infectious virus was obtained to test the hypothesis that the novel Chinese PRRSV ...

55

New York 1 and Sin Nombre Viruses Are Serotypically Distinct Viruses Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

New York 1 virus (NY-1) and Sin Nombre virus (SN) are associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). NY-1 and SN are derived from unique mammalian hosts and geographic locations but have similar G1 and G2 surface proteins (93 and 97% identical, respectively). Focus reduction neutralization assays were used to define the serotypic relationship between NY-1 and SN. Sera from NY-1-positive Peromyscus leucopus neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of ?1/3,200 and ?1/400, respectively (n = 12). Conversely, SN-specific rodent sera neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of <1/400 and 1/6,400, respectively (n = 13). Acute-phase serum from a New York HPS patient neutralized NY-1 (1/640) but not SN (<1/20), while sera from HPS patients from the southwestern United States had 4- to >16-fold-lower neutralizing titers to NY-1 than to SN. Reference sera to Hantaan, Seoul, and Prospect Hill viruses also failed to neutralize NY-1. These results indicate that SN and NY-1 define unique hantavirus serotypes and implicate the presence of additional HPS-associated hantavirus serotypes in the Americas. PMID:9854075

Gavrilovskaya, Irina; LaMonica, Rachel; Fay, Mary-Ellen; Hjelle, Brian; Schmaljohn, Connie; Shaw, Robert; Mackow, Erich R.

1999-01-01

56

European brown hare syndrome virus: relationship to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and other caliciviruses.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies directed against the capsid protein of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) were used to identify field cases of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) and to distinguish between RHDV and the virus responsible for EBHS. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of liver extract of an EBHS virus (EBHSV)-infected hare revealed a single major capsid protein species of approximately 60 kDa that shared epitopes with the capsid protein of RHDV. RNA isolated from the liver of an EBHSV-infected hare contained two viral RNA species of 7.5 and 2.2 kb that comigrated with the genomic and subgenomic RNAs of RHDV and were recognized by labeled RHDV cDNA in Northern (RNA) hybridizations. The nucleotide sequence of the 3' 2.8 kb of the EBHSV genome was determined from four overlapping cDNA clones. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame that contains part of the putative RNA polymerase gene and the complete capsid protein gene. This particular genome organization is shared by RHDV but not by other known caliciviruses. The deduced amino acid sequence of the capsid protein of EBHSV was compared with the capsid protein sequences of RDDV and other caliciviruses. The amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that EBHSV is closely related to RHDV and distantly related to other caliciviruses. On the basis of their genome organization, it is suggested that caliciviruses be divided into three groups. Images PMID:7518531

Wirblich, C; Meyers, G; Ohlinger, V F; Capucci, L; Eskens, U; Haas, B; Thiel, H J

1994-01-01

57

White Spot Syndrome Virus Envelope Protein VP28 Is Involved in the Systemic Infection of Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large DNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. The virus particles contain at least five major virion proteins, of which three (VP26, VP24, and VP15) are present in the rod-shaped nucleocapsid and two (VP28 and VP19) reside in the envelope. The mode of entry and systemic infection of WSSV in the black tiger

Mariëlle C. W van Hulten; Jeroen Witteveldt; Marjolein Snippe; Just M Vlak

2001-01-01

58

Silencing shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes by siRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp pathogen causing large economic losses all over the world. So far, however, there is no efficient approach to control this virus. RNA interference (RNAi), which has been applied to silence virus genes in eukaryotic organisms. In this investigation, a specific 21bp short interfering RNA (vp28-siRNA) targeting a major envelope protein gene

Jianyang Xu; Fang Han; Xiaobo Zhang

2007-01-01

59

Fitness and virulence of an ancestral White Spot Syndrome Virus isolate from shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

White Spot Syndrome Virus, the type species of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. Genomic analysis of three completely sequenced WSSV isolates identified two major polymorphic loci, “variable region ORF14\\/15” and “variable region ORF23\\/24”. Here, we characterize a WSSV isolate originating from shrimp collected in Thailand in 1996 (TH-96-II). This isolate contains

Hendrik Marks; Josyanne J. A. van Duijse; Douwe Zuidema; Mariëlle C. W. van Hulten; Just M. Vlak

2005-01-01

60

Failure to detect Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in Chinese patients with chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent controversy has surrounded the question of whether xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To investigate the question in a Chinese population, 65 CFS patients and 85 blood donor controls were enrolled and multiplex real-time PCR or reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to analyze the XMRV infection status of

Ping Hong; Jinming Li; Yongzhe Li

2010-01-01

61

Green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, possesses the antiviral activity necessary to fight against the hepatitis B virus replication in vitro.  

PubMed

Although several antiviral drugs and vaccines are available for use against hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis caused by HBV remains a major public health problem worldwide, which has not yet been resolved, and new anti-HBV drugs are in great demand. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-HBV activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural-origin compound, in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. The antiviral activity of EGCG was examined by detecting the levels of HBsAg and HBeAg in the supernatant and extracellular HBV DNA. EGCG effectively suppressed the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg from HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it showed stronger effects at the level of 0.11-0.44 ?mol/ml (50-200 ?g/ml) than lamivudine (3TC) at 0.87 ?mol/ml (200 ?g/ml). EGCG also suppressed the amount of extracellular HBV DNA. The data indicated that EGCG possessed anti-HBV activity and suggested the potential of EGCG as an effective anti-HBV agent with low toxicity. PMID:24903990

Pang, Jing-yao; Zhao, Kui-jun; Wang, Jia-bo; Ma, Zhi-jie; Xiao, Xiao-he

2014-06-01

62

Human Antibody Neutralizes Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, an Emerging Hemorrhagic Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a newly discovered member of the Bunyaviridae family, is the causative agent of an emerging hemorrhagic fever, SFTS, in China. Currently, there are no vaccines or effective therapies against SFTS. In this study, a combinatorial human antibody library was constructed from the peripheral lymphocytes of 5 patients who had recovered from SFTS. The library was screened against purified virions for the production of single-chain variable-region fragments (ScFv). Of the 6 positive clones, one clone (monoclonal antibody [MAb] 4-5) showed neutralizing activity against SFTSV infection in Vero cells. MAb 4-5 was found to effectively neutralize all of the clinical isolates of SFTSV tested, which were isolated from patients in China from 2010 to 2012. MAb 4-5 was found to bind a linear epitope in the ectodomain of glycoprotein Gn. Its neutralizing activity is attributed to blockage of the interactions between the Gn protein and the cellular receptor, indicating that inhibition of virus-cell attachment is its main mechanism. These data suggest that MAb 4-5 can be used as a promising candidate molecule for immunotherapy against SFTSV infection. PMID:23863504

Guo, Xiling; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wenshuai; Chi, Ying; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Li, Xian; Qi, Xian; Jin, Qiu; Zhang, Xiao; Huang, Mingming; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yin; Bao, Changjun; Hu, Jianli; Liang, Shuyi; Bao, Lin; Wu, Tao

2013-01-01

63

Quantitative assay for measuring the Taura syndrome virus and yellow head virus load in shrimp by real-time RT-PCR using SYBR Green chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the two RNA viruses infecting penaeid shrimp (Penaeus sp.) that have caused major economic losses to shrimp aquaculture. A rapid and highly sensitive detection and quantification method for TSV and YHV was developed using the GeneAmp® 5700 Sequence Detection System and SYBR Green chemistry. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

Arun K. Dhar; Michelle M. Roux; Kurt R. Klimpel

2002-01-01

64

[Pneumonia and the acute respiratory distress syndrome due to influenza A (H1N1) virus].  

PubMed

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) are part of a devastating syndrome characterized by acute onset, hypoxemia, and bilateral infiltrates on chest x-rays. ALI/ARDS is the response of the lung to a local or systemic aggression, resulting in local inflammation and coagulation disorders, which lead to increased inflammatory pulmonary edema. ARDS is a major cause of morbidity, death, and cost in intensive care units. The most common cause is sepsis. We present a case of ARDS secondary to infection with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. The influenza A (H1N1) virus caused a global pandemia 91 years ago, with sporadic outbreaks afterward. The new influenza A pandemia was transmitted from swine to humans. Infection by the influenza A (H1N1) virus can cause severe respiratory illness, the acute respiratory distress syndrome, and secondary infections among healthcare workers. PMID:19854543

López, C de Haro; Roca, R Ferrer; Daunis, J Vallés

2009-12-01

65

Suppression of Shrimp Melanization during White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection.  

PubMed

The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2015-03-01

66

Turkey rhinotracheitis virus isolated from broiler chicken with swollen head syndrome in Japan.  

PubMed

Turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) virus was first isolated from a commercial broiler chicken with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in Japan. At the same time, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian reovirus (ARV), Escherichia coli (E.coli), Morganella morganii, and Proteus mirabilis were also isolated from the same broiler chicken. The presence of antibodies to TRT virus was confirmed in the sera of 34-day-old chickens of the flock with SHS, however the antibodies to TRT virus were undetectable in the sera of 17-day-old chickens. In this investigation, we confirmed avian pneumovirus infection in chickens in Japan, and the virus and other agents may be considered as a cause of SHS. PMID:8593307

Tanaka, M; Takuma, H; Kokumai, N; Oishi, E; Obi, T; Hiramatsu, K; Shimizu, Y

1995-10-01

67

Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS) due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat. PMID:25657139

Taraphdar, D; Roy, B K; Chatterjee, S

2015-02-01

68

Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome After Vaccination for Human Papilloma Virus and Meningococcus.  

PubMed

Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome is a rare chorioretinopathy causing transitory vision loss, usually in females and generally in one eye. In 2007, widespread vaccination of older children against human papilloma virus and meningococcus was recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A 17-year-old girl presented with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome 1 month after receiving these two vaccinations. PMID:19645392

Cohen, Steven M

2009-06-25

69

Characterization of a Virus Associated with Head and Lateral Line Erosion Syndrome in Marine Angelfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological and biophysical characteristics were determined for a previously unreported angelfish reovirus isolated from a moribund angelfish Pomacanthus semicirculatus exhibiting clinical signs associated with head and lateral line erosion syndrome. Viral particles were nonenveloped, possessed a segmented double-stranded RNA genome enclosed by a double nucleocapsid, and were resistant to inactivation by ether and low pH. Electrophoretic and serologic characteristics

Patricia W. Varner; Donald H. Lewis

1991-01-01

70

A Newly Recognized Virus Associated with a Fatal Case of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis of virus detected in autopsy tissues of a fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-like case in Louisianarevealedthepresenceofapreviouslyunrecognizedhantavirus.NucleotidesequenceanalysisofPCR fragments of the complete S and M segments of the virus amplified from RNA extracted from the tissues showedthevirustobenovel,differingfromtheclosestrelatedhantavirus,SinNombrevirus,byapproximately 30%. Both genome segments were unique, and there was no evidence of genetic reassortment with previously characterized hantaviruses. The primary rodent reservoir of Sin

SERGEY P. MORZUNOV; HEINZ FELDMANN; CHRISTINA F. SPIROPOULOU; VERA A. SEMENOVA

71

Interaction of white spot syndrome virus VP26 protein with actin  

Microsoft Academic Search

VP26 protein, the product of the WSV311 gene of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), is one of major structural proteins of virus. In this study, when purified virions were treated with Triton X-100 detergent, VP26 protein was present in both the envelope and the nucleocapsid fraction. We have rationalized this finding by suggesting that VP26 protein might be located in

Xixian Xie; Feng Yang

2005-01-01

72

Identification and localization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the important challenges to shrimp aquaculture worldwide are the diseases caused by viruses, in particular by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which has a genome estimated to contain 305 kb. By analysis and comparison of the WSSV genomic DNA and cDNA libraries, an ORF (vp28 gene) was identified. The gene, encoding a novel 204-amino-acid protein, was expressed in Escherichia

Xiaobo Zhang; Canhua Huang; Xun Xu; Choy L. Hew

2002-01-01

73

Gene-expression profiling of White spot syndrome virus in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus, type species of the genus Whispovirus in the family Nimaviridae, is a large, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus that infects crustaceans. The genome of the completely sequenced isolate WSSV-TH encodes 184 putative open reading frames (ORFs), the functions of which are largely unknown. To study the transcription of these ORFs, a DNA microarray was constructed, containing probes

Hendrik Marks; Oscar Vorst; Houwelingen van A. M. M. L; Hulten van M. C. W; Just M. Vlak

2005-01-01

74

XMRV and related viruses not confirmed in blood of healthy donors or chronic fatigue syndrome patients  

Cancer.gov

A study supported by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services could not validate or confirm previous research findings that suggested the presence of one of several viruses in blood samples of people living with chronic fatigue syndrome. The new study also could not find the viruses in blood samples of healthy donors who were previously known to not have XMRV. The new findings suggest earlier results may have resulted from laboratory error, either contamination or false positive test results.

75

Absence of XMRV Retrovirus and Other Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ? ¶  

PubMed Central

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by prolonged and severe fatigue that is not relieved by rest. Attempts to treat CFS have been largely ineffective primarily because the etiology of the disorder is unknown. Recently, CFS has been associated with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) as well as other murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related viruses, though not all studies have found these associations. We collected blood samples from 100 CFS patients and 200 self-reported healthy volunteers from the same geographical area. We analyzed these in a blind manner using molecular, serological, and viral replication assays. We also analyzed samples from patients in the original study that reported XMRV in CFS patients. We did not find XMRV or related MLVs either as viral sequences or infectious viruses, nor did we find antibodies to these viruses in any of the patient samples, including those from the original study. We show that at least some of the discrepancy with previous studies is due to the presence of trace amounts of mouse DNA in the Taq polymerase enzymes used in these previous studies. Our findings do not support an association between CFS and MLV-related viruses, including XMRV, and the off-label use of antiretrovirals for the treatment of CFS does not seem justified at present. PMID:21543496

Shin, Clifford H.; Bateman, Lucinda; Schlaberg, Robert; Bunker, Ashley M.; Leonard, Christopher J.; Hughen, Ronald W.; Light, Alan R.; Light, Kathleen C.; Singh, Ila R.

2011-01-01

76

Complete Genome Sequence of European Genotype Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain LNEU12 in Northern China  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of a European genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated from swine in northern China in 2012. Genome alignment revealed that the virus (LNEU12) strain shares 90.1% nucleotide identity with the European prototype Lelystad virus. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of LNEU12. PMID:25301644

Gao, Shenyang; Zhou, Tiezhong; Liu, Xiaogang; Lu, He; Feng, Fangzhou

2014-01-01

77

Detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of Penaeus chinensis by in situ hybridization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) was purified from hemolymph of infected shrimp. After nucleic acid extraction from the purified virus particles, EcoR I-digested fragments of the WSSV genome were cloned; three of these fragments were used as non-radioactive probes labeled with DIG-11-dUTP. The probes hybridized in situ, with sections located in the nuclei of all WSSV-infected tissues. The virus was detected in the gill, stomach, epidermis, and connective tissue and so on, but not detected in healthy shrimp tissues and epithelial cells of hepatopancreatic tubules of diseased shrimp.

Zhan, Wen-Bin; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Hideo, Fukuda

2000-09-01

78

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Case of Cortical Apex Syndrome Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus  

PubMed Central

We present a case of orbital apex syndrome that developed after a re-activation of varicella zoster virus. The magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of a diffuse inflammation of the ipsilateral orbital cavity, external ocular muscles and optic nerve. Pattern visually evoked cortical potentials were non-recordable by stimulating the affected eye. PMID:19517035

Shirato, Suguru; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Hanawa, Katsuhiro; Adachi-Usami, Emiko

2008-01-01

79

GENETIC CONTROL OF SWINE RESPONSES TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our goal is to uncover genetic components involved in early immune responses during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. PRRS costs U.S. swine producers >$700 million annually. We want to determine what are the most significant pathways and genes involved in early i...

80

Genetic variation in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in the midwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequence of a 3266 bp region encom- passing open reading frames (ORFs) 2 through 7 of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was determined for 10 isolates recovered from the midwestern United States. Pairwise comparisons showed that genetic distances between isolates ranged from 2.5 % to 7.9 % (mean 5.8 % + 0.2 %) whereas the

V. Kapur; M. R. Elam; T. M. Pawlovich; M. P. Murtaugh

1996-01-01

81

TYPE I INTERFERON RESPONSES TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes highly significant losses to the swine industry worldwide. Productive infection occurs almost exclusively in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage both in vitro and in vivo, predominantly in alveolar macrophages of the lung. Thu...

82

Swine immunity and resistance to persistent Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) elicits a weak immune response that is not fully protective and that results in persistent infection in a subset of pigs. Despite substantial research efforts the exact components of a protective anti-PRRSV immune response ar...

83

Proteomic Analysis of the Major Envelope and Nucleocapsid Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 10 July 2006\\/Accepted 16 August 2006 White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) virions were purified from the tissues of infected Procambarus clarkii (crayfish) isolates. Pure WSSV preparations were subjected to Triton X-100 treatment to separate into the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions, which were subsequently separated by 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The major envelope and nucleocapsid proteins were

Xixian Xie; Limei Xu; Feng Yang

2006-01-01

84

Hyperthermia reduces viral load of white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that white spot syndrome virus-infected Penaeus van- namei (also called Litopenaeus vannamei) maintained at 32°C show higher survival rates and a sig- nificant increase in number of apoptotic cells when compared to infected shrimp kept at 26°C. As apoptosis plays an important part in the antiviral response of invertebrates, we hypothesized that this process would reduce

Clarissa B. Granja; Oscar M. Vidal; Gustavo Parra; Marcela Salazar

2006-01-01

85

The efficacy of recombinant vaccines against white spot syndrome virus in Procambarus clarkii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of oral, mock-, and immersion vaccination was investigated against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in crayfish. The most exposed WSSV envelope proteins VP19 and VP28 were used in different compositions and with different modes of applications. In experiment 1 crayfish were fed recombinant protein coated food pellets for 25 days, in experiment 2 the purified proteins were directly

Rajeev Kumar Jha; Zi Rong Xu; Jian Shen; Shi Juan Bai; Jian Yu Sun; Wei Fen Li

2006-01-01

86

Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus using a WSSV subunit vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response, the potential to vaccinate Penaeus monodon shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the WSSV envelope proteins VP19 and VP28 was evaluated. Both structural WSSV proteins were N-terminally fused to the maltose binding protein (MBP) and purified after expression in bacteria. Shrimp were vaccinated by intramuscular injection of the purified WSSV

Jeroen Witteveldt; Just M. Vlak; Mariëlle C. W. van Hulten

2004-01-01

87

Epidemiological Parameters of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infections in Litopenaeus vannamei and L. setiferus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental protocol based on a mathematical epidemiology model was developed to study the transmission, virulence, and recovery rates of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Two modes of transmission were compared for WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei. We compared transmission by ingestion of infected cadavers to transmission by cohabitation with infected animals. In addition, we compared the ingestion transmission of WSSV

M. Andres Soto; Jeffrey M Lotz

2001-01-01

88

Detection of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp by loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method is a novel, sensitive and rapid technique which can be applied for disease diagnosis in aquaculture. Using the LAMP method, a highly specific and sensitive diagnostic system for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) detection was designed. A set of four primers, two outer and two inner primers, were designed from WSSV genome DNA. Reaction time

Tomoya Kono; Ram Savan; Masahiro Sakai; Toshiaki Itami

2004-01-01

89

Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Thirty-Nine Structural Proteins of Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) virions were purified from the hemolymph of experimentally infected crayfish Procambarus clarkii, and their proteins were separated by 8 to 18% gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to give a protein profile. The visible bands were then excised from the gel, and following trypsin digestion of the reduced and alkylated WSSV proteins in

Jyh-Ming Tsai; Han-Ching Wang; Jiann-Horng Leu; He-Hsuan Hsiao; Andrew H.-J. Wang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Chu-Fang Lo

2004-01-01

90

Comparative study on immune response of Fenneropenaeus indicus to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to examine the histopathological and immunological changes in Vibrio alginolyticus-injected or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-injected shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus. The results obtained were compared with healthy shrimp. After the injection of WSSV or V. alginolyticus in the shrimp F. indicus showed mild to extensive hemocytic infiltration in the muscle and were often accompanied by

M. Sarathi; V. P. Ishaq Ahmed; C. Venkatesan; G. Balasubramanian; J. Prabavathy; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2007-01-01

91

Transcriptional Analysis of the DNA Polymerase Gene of Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white spot syndrome virus DNA polymerase (DNA pol) gene (WSSV dnapol) has already been tentatively identified based on the presence of highly conserved motifs, but it shows low overall homology with other DNA pols and is also much larger (2351 amino acid residues vs 913-1244 aa). In the present study we perform a transcriptional analysis of the WSSV dnapol

Li-Li Chen; Han-Ching Wang; Chiu-Jung Huang; Shao-En Peng; Yen-Gu Chen; Shin-Jen Lin; Wei-Yu Chen; Chang-Feng Dai; Hon-Tsen Yu; Chung-Hsiung Wang; Chu-Fang Lo; Guang-Hsiung Kou

2002-01-01

92

White spot syndrome virus infection decreases the activity of antioxidant enzymes in Fenneropenaeus indicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the causative agent of White Spot disease of shrimp, causing mass mortalities in aquaculture. WSSV infection causes oxidative stress by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are toxic to the cells. The antioxidant enzymes associated with oxidative stress during the process of pathogenesis of WSSV in the infected tissues (hemolymph, hepatopancreas, gills

K. Mohankumar; P. Ramasamy

2006-01-01

93

Duration of homologous porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunity in pregnant swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) homologous immunity was tested in this study and found to last for at least 604 days post experimental exposure to field PRRSV. Eleven gilts (group A) received a primary exposure to field PRRSV by either an oronasal (n = 6) or an intrauterine (n = 5) route. The gilts were

K. M. Lager; W. L. Mengeling; S. L. Brockmeier

1997-01-01

94

Transcriptional Analysis of the Ribonucleotide Reductase Genes of Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) is a large double-stranded DNA virus, WSSV, which is probably a representative of a new genus, provisionally called Whispovirus. From previously constructed WSSV genomic libraries of a Taiwan WSSV isolate, clones with open reading frames (ORFs) that encode proteins with significant homology to the class I ribonucleotide reductase large (RR1) and small

Meng-Feng Tsai; Chu-Fang Lo; Mariëlle C. W. van Hulten; Huey-Fen Tzeng; Chih-Ming Chou; Chang-Jen Huang; Chung-Hsiung Wang; Jung-Yaw Lin; Just M. Vlak; Guang-Hsiung Kou

2000-01-01

95

Comparison of PCR testing methods for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in penaeid shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, several PCR-based methods are used by private and public service laboratories for the detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in penaeid shrimp post larvae (PL) before they are stocked in rearing ponds. Conflicting test results for similar samples sent to two service laboratories has decreased confidence in PCR testing. Thus, we compared the sensitivity of several

Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; Jiraporn Srisala; Kenneth McColl; Linda Nielsen; Timothy W. Flegel

2006-01-01

96

Pathogenicity and Molecular Characterization of Emerging Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Vietnam in 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the "porcine high fever disease" that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ...

97

Swine immunity and genetic resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current vaccines are only partially effective against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) virus infection because they elicit a weak immune response that is not fully protective. PRRS is the most economically significant disease facing the swine industry today, costing U.S. pork pro...

98

A time-course study on the resistance of Penaeus japonicus induced by artificial infection with white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The onset and duration of resistance in experimental survivors of Penaeus japonicus produced by an intramuscular injection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were surveyed by re-challenge tests with the virus conducted at weeks 1–4 and months 1–3 post initial exposure (PIE) to the virus. Virus neutralising activity in the survivors' plasma was also examined. Plasma-treated WSSV was separated from

J. L. Wu; T. Nishioka; K. Mori; T. Nishizawa; K. Muroga

2002-01-01

99

Vaccine efficacy and immune response to swine influenza virus challenge in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at the time of SIV-vaccination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of concurrent infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on the efficacy of an inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine. Eight groups of pigs were used in the study. One group was infected with a virulent PR...

100

The role of quail bronchitis virus as a possible precipitating factor in "air sac syndrome" of chickens  

E-print Network

THE ROLE OF QUAIL BRONCHITIS VIRUS AS A POSSIBLE PRECIPITATING FACTOR IN "AIR SAC SYNDROME" OF CHICKENS A Thesis By JERRY BOB PAYNE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partfal fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1965 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology THE ROLE OF QUAIL BRONCHITIS VIRUS AS A POSSIBLE PRECIPITATING FACTOR IN "AIR SAC SYNDROME" OF CHICKENS A Thesis By JERRY BOB PAYNE Approved as to style and dontent...

Payne, Jerry Bob

1965-01-01

101

Analysis of a genomic segment of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp containing ribonucleotide reductase genes and repeat regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome is a worldwide disease of penaeid shrimp. The disease agent is a bacilliform, enveloped virus, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), with a double-stranded DNA genome that probably contains well over 200 kb. Analysis of a 12?3 kb segment of WSSV DNA revealed eight open reading frames (ORFs), including the genes for the large (RR1) and small (RR2)

Hulten van M. C. W; Meng-feng Tsai; Christel A. Schipper; Chu-fang Lo; Guang-hsiung Kou; Just M. Vlak

2000-01-01

102

Challenges and opportunities for the control and elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The control and elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represent two of the most challenging tasks facing the pig industry worldwide. Several factors related to the biology of the virus make disease detection and elimination difficult. Efforts are further hampered by the lack of vaccines that can protect naïve herds from infection. With this in mind, elimination efforts are being initiated which incorporate existing tools and knowledge. A new approach extends herd control strategies to the level of a region. One example of success in PRRSV regional elimination is the Stevens County project in Minnesota. PMID:25471243

Rowland, R R R; Morrison, R B

2012-03-01

103

Ramsay Hunt syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Hunt syndrome; Herpes oticus ... The varicella zoster virus that causes Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the same virus that causes chickenpox and shingles. In people with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, the virus is believed to infect the ...

104

Small molecule inhibitors of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) possess antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian and human pandemic influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are activated in course of many viral infections. Here we analyzed the activity of JNK inhibitors on influenza A virus (IAV) amplification. Human lung epithelial cells were infected with either the highly pathogenic avian virus strain A/FPV/Bratislava/79 (H7N7) or the pandemic swine-origin influenza virus A/Hamburg/4/09 (H1N1v). The application of the JNK inhibitors SP600125 and AS601245 reduced IAV amplification by suppressing viral protein and RNA synthesis. Although AS601245 appeared to generally block the transcription of newly introduced genes, SP600125 specifically affected viral RNA synthesis. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of SEK/MKK4 and siRNA-mediated suppression of JNK2 expression confirmed that specific manipulation of the JNK pathway attenuates virus propagation. An IAV minigenome replication assay revealed that SP600125 did not directly affect the activity of the viral RNA polymerase complex but seems to suppress an anti-influenza nonstructural protein 1-mediated virus supportive function. Finally, when H7N7- or H1N1v-infected mice were treated with SP600125, the viral load is reduced in lungs of treated compared with untreated mice. Our data suggest that this class of ATP competitive inhibitors once optimized for antiviral action potentially represent novel drugs for antiviral intervention. PMID:22628315

Nacken, Wolfgang; Ehrhardt, Christina; Ludwig, Stephan

2012-05-01

105

Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in Sjögren's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by severe dryness of the eyes and mouth, resulting from lymphocytic infiltration of the lacrimal and salivary glands. SS may exist as a primary condition (primary SS, 1° SS) or as a secondary condition (2° SS) in association with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or progressive systemic sclerosis. In some 1°

Robert I. Fox; Mario Luppi; Ho-Il Kang; Pavel Pisa

1991-01-01

106

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein Delivered by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Efficiently Induces Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic stability and growth characteristics of MVA-MERS-S make it a suitable candidate vaccine for clinical testing. Vaccinated mice produced high levels of serum antibodies neutralizing MERS-CoV. Thus, MVA-MERS-S may serve for further development of an emergency vaccine against MERS-CoV. PMID:23986586

Song, Fei; Fux, Robert; Provacia, Lisette B.; Volz, Asisa; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Haagmans, Bart L.

2013-01-01

107

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara efficiently induces virus-neutralizing antibodies.  

PubMed

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic stability and growth characteristics of MVA-MERS-S make it a suitable candidate vaccine for clinical testing. Vaccinated mice produced high levels of serum antibodies neutralizing MERS-CoV. Thus, MVA-MERS-S may serve for further development of an emergency vaccine against MERS-CoV. PMID:23986586

Song, Fei; Fux, Robert; Provacia, Lisette B; Volz, Asisa; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Haagmans, Bart L; Sutter, Gerd

2013-11-01

108

Attenuation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain MN184 using chimeric construction with vaccine sequence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two genetically distinct infectious recombinant virus clones (pMLV, constructed from Ingelvac(R) PRRS MLV and pMN184, constructed from virulent strain MN184) were developed to study attenuation of contemporary porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain MN184. Two reciprocal c...

109

Infection of United States swine with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess the pathogenic effects of Type 2 highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) on healthy 10-week old commercial swine in the United States, viral kinetics and resultant disease caused by intranasal inoculation of such virus rescued from an infectious clo...

110

siRNA injection induces sequence-independent protection in Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major disease in crustaceans, particularly shrimp, due to the current intensity of aquaculture practices. Novel strategies including vaccination to control this virus would be highly desirable. However, invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response system and seem to rely on various innate immune responses. An alternative and more specific approach to counteract WSSV

Marcel Westenberg; Bas Heinhuis; Douwe Zuidema; Just M. Vlak

2005-01-01

111

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infects Mature Porcine Dendritic Cells and Up-Regulates Interleukin10 Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the Arteriviridae family (15). PRRSV is responsible for significant economic losses and is the cause of the most important infectious disease affecting swine production worldwide. PRRSV infects pigs of different ages, and cells supporting PRRSV replication are located in different or- gans and tissues, with

Lilian Flores-Mendoza; Erika Silva-Campa; Monica Resendiz; Fernando A. Osorio; Jesus Hernandez

2008-01-01

112

Mutations within the nuclear localization signal of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein attenuate virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm, but the nucleocapsid (N) protein is specifically localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in virus-infected cells. A 'pat7' motif of 41-PGKK(N/S)KK has previously been identified in the N protein as the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS); however, the biological consequences of N protein nuclear localization are unknown. In the present study, the role of N protein nuclear localization during infection was investigated in pigs using an NLS-null mutant virus. When two lysines at 43 and 44 at the NLS locus were substituted to glycines, the modified NLS with 41-PGGGNKK restricted the N protein to the cytoplasm. This NLS-null mutation was introduced into a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. Upon transfection of cells, the NLS-null full-length clone induced cytopathic effects and produced infectious progeny. The NLS-null virus grew to a titer 100-fold lower than that of wild-type virus. To examine the response to NLS-null PRRSV in the natural host, three groups of pigs, consisting of seven animals per group, were intranasally inoculated with wild-type, placebo, or NLS-null virus, and the animals were maintained for 4 weeks. The NLS-null-infected pigs had a significantly shorter mean duration of viremia than wild-type-infected pigs but developed significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Mutations occurred at the NLS locus in one pig during viremia, and four types of mutations were identified: 41-PGRGNKK, 41-PGGRNKK, and 41-PGRRNKK, and 41-PGKKSKK. Both wild-type and NLS-null viruses persisted in the tonsils for at least 4 weeks, and the NLS-null virus persisting in the tonsils was found to be mutated to either 41-PGRGNKK or 41-PGGRNKK in all pigs. No other mutation was found in the N gene. All types of reversions which occurred during viremia and persistence were able to translocate the mutated N proteins to the nucleus, indicating a strong selection pressure for reversion at the NLS locus of the N protein in vivo. Reversions from NLS-null to functional NLS in the tonsils suggest a possible correlation of viral persistence with N protein nuclear localization. These results show that N protein nuclear localization is non-essential for PRRSV multiplication but may play an important role in viral attenuation and in pathogenesis in vivo.

Lee, Changhee [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Hodgins, Douglas [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Calvert, Jay G. [Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 (United States); Welch, Siao-Kun W. [Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 (United States); Jolie, Rika [Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

2006-03-01

113

Characterization of a homologous-region-binding protein from white spot syndrome virus by phage display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homologous regions (hrs) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) might serve as origins of DNA replication or be involved in transcriptional regulation. To characterize the interaction between hrs of WSSV and the viral proteins, in this investigation, phage display technology was used. WSSV genomic DNA was sheared by sonication to generate fragments in lengths between 0.5 and 2.0kb. Then these

Yanbing Zhu; Qi Ding; Feng Yang

2007-01-01

114

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and Objective: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by avian influenza H5N1 viral infection has been reported in many humans since this virus was found to infect hu- mans in Hong Kong in 1997, but no studies regarding an animal model of ARDS with H5N1 viral infection have been found in the literature. Here we present a mouse

Tong Xu; Jian Qiao; Lihong Zhao; Guirong Wang; Guimei He; Kai Li; Yong Tian; Mingyu Gao; Jianlin Wang; Huiyu Wang; Changgui Dong

2006-01-01

115

Quantification of white spot syndrome virus DNA through a competitive polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for quantification of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome was developed. A pair of WSSV primers, designated WSSV341F\\/R, was selected to amplify a 341-bp DNA fragment from the WSSV genome. For a competitive internal standard, we constructed and cloned a 289-bp DNA fragment, the result of a 52-bp deletion from the 341-bp amplicon.

Kathy F. J. Tang; Donald V. Lightner

2000-01-01

116

Protein expression profiling of the shrimp cellular response to white spot syndrome virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the pathogenesis of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and to determine which cell pathways might be affected after WSSV infection, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to produce protein expression profiles from samples taken at 48h post-infection (hpi) from the stomachs of Litopenaeus vannamei (also called Penaeus vannamei) that were either specific pathogen free or else infected

Hao-Ching Wang; Han-Ching Wang; Jiann-Horng Leu; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Andrew H.-J. Wang; Chu-Fang Lo

2007-01-01

117

Maternal transmission of immunity to white spot syndrome associated virus (WSSV) in shrimp ( Penaeus monodon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-1,3-1,6-glucan, derived from bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was used in the present study to investigate the extent to which glucan is able to protect spawners from white spot syndrome associated virus (WSSV), and whether this protection (if any) can be passed on to hatchlings via maternal transmission of immunity. Results showed that fewer spawners in the glucan-injected groups showed the

Chih-Cheng Huang; Yen-Ling Song

1999-01-01

118

Protein analysis of geographic isolates of shrimp white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Six geographic isolates of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of penaeid shrimp, from China, India, Thailand, South Carolina,\\u000a Texas, as well as from crayfish kept at the US National Zoo in Washington D. C, were compared by electron microscopy and sodium\\u000a sulfate polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Amino acid compositions of four of the major structural polypeptides\\u000a of the South

Q. Wang; B. T. Poulos; D. V. Lightner

2000-01-01

119

Transcription and identification of an envelope protein gene (p22) from shrimp white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most virulent pathogens causing high mortality in shrimp. In the present study, an open reading frame (termed the p22 gene) was revealed from a WSSV cDNA library. The gene was expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli and purified. Specific antibody was raised using the purified

Xiaobo Zhang; Canhua Huang; Xun Xu; Choy L. Hew

2002-01-01

120

Homologous challenge of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus immunity in pregnant swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical consequences of single or multiple exposure of pregnant gilts to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) at various stages of gestation were determined. Thirty-three pregnant gilts were allotted to 6 experimental groups (5 to 7 gilts\\/group). Gilts of groups 1 to 5 were exposed to strain NADC-8 of PRRSV at the following times: group 1, gestation day

K. M. Lager; W. L. Mengeling; S. L. Brockmeier

1997-01-01

121

Development of an immunochromatographic test to detect White Spot Syndrome Virus of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, single step, sensitive and specific immunochromatographic test (ICT) is described for detecting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using anti-WSSV monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 2E6 and 2A3, labeled with colloidal gold as a detection reagent and anti-WSSV MAb 1D5 as a capture antibody immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane (NCM). The test process was completed within 10min without incubation or any other

Xiaojie Wang; Wenbin Zhan

2006-01-01

122

The leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA devoid of Watson–Crick secondary structure possesses a cooperatively melted, compact conformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 5?-untranslated region (5?-UTR) of RNA of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), called omega sequence, is known as an mRNA leader promoting efficient initiation of translation. The central part of the sequence consists of many CAA repeats, which were reported to be mainly responsible for the enhancing activity of the omega leader. In this work we synthesized the polyribonucleotides containing either

Alexey A. Kovtun; Nikolay E. Shirokikh; Anatoly T. Gudkov; Alexander S. Spirin

2007-01-01

123

Pathogenicity of swine influenza viruses possessing an avian or swine-origin PB2 polymerase gene evaluated in mouse and pig models  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Influenza A viruses isolated from birds normally contain a PB2 polymerase gene with the avian-signature glutamic acid (E) at position 627, while those isolated from humans contain the mammalian-signature lysine (K) at this position. This residue has been shown to be a determinant of host range and c...

124

Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Korea.  

PubMed

The high genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been an obstacle to developing an effective vaccine for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). This study was performed to assess the degree of genetic diversity among PRRSVs from Korean pig farms where wasting and respiratory syndrome was observed from 2005 to 2009. Samples from 786 farms were tested for the presence of PRRSV using reverse transcription PCR protocol. A total of 117 farms were positive for type 1 PRRSV while 198 farms were positive for type 2. Nucleotide sequences encoding the open reading frame (ORF) 5 were analyzed and compared to those of various published PRRSV isolates obtained worldwide. Sequence identity of the ORF 5 in the isolates was 81.6˜100% for type 1 viruses and 81.4˜100% for type 2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the ORF 5 sequences showed that types 1 and 2 PRRSVs from Korea were mainly classified into three and four clusters, respectively. The analyzed isolates were distributed throughout the clusters independent of the isolation year or geographical origin. In conclusion, our results indicated that the genetic diversity of PRRSVs from Korean pig farms is high and has been increasing over time. PMID:23628658

Choi, Eun-Jin; Lee, Chang-Hee; Song, Jae-Young; Song, Hee-Jong; Park, Choi-Kyu; Kim, Byounghan; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

2013-01-01

125

Antibody production and blastogenic response in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed Central

Seven five-week piglets were infected intranasally with 10(5) TCID50 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus strain IAF.exp91. All virus-exposed pigs developed fever, labored abdominal breathing, conjunctivitis, and lymph node enlargement within the first 96 h postexposure (PE), which continued to d 10 to 14 PE. Two pigs that were necropsied at d 7 and 10 PE had diffuse interstitial pneumonitis, cardiopathy and lymphadenopathy. All 5 remaining pigs produced serum IgM and IgG antibodies against PRRS virus by 7 or 14 days PE, as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. This corresponded with the capability of isolating the virus from serum d 7 to d 49 or d 63 PE. Low serum neutralizing antibody titers were detected in 3 of the virus-exposed pigs by 35 days PE. A transient episode of diminished proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) was observed in the virus-exposed pigs at d 3 PE. However, in vitro spontaneous uptake of [3H]-thymidine was significantly increased in lymphocyte cultures of the same pigs at d 7 or d 14 PE. These results suggest polyclonal activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:8785726

Vézina, S A; Loemba, H; Fournier, M; Dea, S; Archambault, D

1996-01-01

126

DISPATCHES Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Down Syndrome Patients  

E-print Network

We compared prevalence of hospitalization, endotracheal intubation, and death among case-patients with and without Down syndrome during pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Mexico. Likelihoods of hospitalization, intubation, and death were 16-fold, 8-fold, and 335-fold greater, respectively, for patients with Down syndrome. Vaccination and early antiviral drug treatment are recommended during such epidemics. Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality in persons worldwide; prevalence is ?1/1,000 live births (1). It is characterized by a variety of dysmorphic features, congenital malformations, and other health problems. Several risk factors for influenza also occur in Down syndrome patients (2): congenital heart disease in one half of patients (3), childhood obesity or excess weight in the majority (4), and a 8 × higher prevalence of type 1 diabetes than in an age-matched control population (5). In addition, specific alterations in immune response are frequently present, including leukopenia, chemotactic defects (6), decreased immunoglobulin G levels (7), and 4 T- and B-cell abnormalities (7,8) with reduced B lymphocytes (9). Patients with Down syndrome have an increased need for hospitalization because of lower respiratory tract disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (10) and other respiratory infections (11) as well as reduced access to healthcare (12). An increased proportion of patients with Down syndrome have pneumonia as cause of death (13). However, respiratory infections have not been associated with congenital heart disease (14). Although persons with Down syndrome are likely at increased risk for complications, these patients are not explicitly listed in groups that should receive priority vaccination or for early treatment of influenza. The objective of the study was to determine whether Down syndrome was associated

127

Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 elicits mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses in mice  

PubMed Central

Currently, killed-virus and modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines are used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. However, both types of vaccines have inherent drawbacks; accordingly, the development of novel PRRSV vaccines is urgently needed. Previous studies have suggested that yeast possesses adjuvant activities, and it has been used as an expression vehicle to elicit immune responses to foreign antigens. In this report, recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing GP5 of HP-PRRSV (Yeast-GP5) was generated and immune responses to this construct were analyzed in mice. Intestinal mucosal PRRSV-specific sIgA antibody and higher levels of IFN-? in spleen CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were induced by oral administration of Yeast-GP5. Additionally, Yeast-GP5 administered subcutaneously evoked vigorous cell-mediated immunity, and PRRSV-specific lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-? secretion were detected in the splenocytes of mice. These results suggest that Yeast-GP5 has the potential for use as a vaccine for PRRSV in the future. PMID:24378591

Zhao, Haiyan; Wang, Yalan; Ma, Zhitao; Wang, Yongqiang

2014-01-01

128

Hepatitis C virus infection in a child with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 is a rare disorder. Its prevalence in western populations has been reported as 1.5 to 4.5/100,000. On the other hand, its prevalence in Egypt is unknown. It is characterized by the association of autoimmune Addison’s disease with thyroid autoimmune diseases and/or type I diabetes mellitus. Hepatitis C virus infection is an important public health issue worldwide. Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection of any country in the world. It is estimated to be 8% in urban and 25% in rural areas. We present the case of an Egyptian child with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 associated with chronic hepatitis C infection. Case presentation A 14-year-old Egyptian boy with type 1 diabetes mellitus was referred to our institution for an evaluation of recurrent attacks of hypoglycemia of two months duration. The initial clinical examination revealed hypotension as well as vitiligo of the skin. He had high potassium, low sodium, low cortisol, high adrenocorticotropic hormone, slightly high thyroid stimulating levels with strong positivity of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies. The hepatitis C antibody and hepatitis C virus–polymerase chain reaction were positive. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 with chronic hepatitis C was made. He was started on hydrocortisone (10mg twice daily), fludrocortisone (0.1mg twice daily) and multiple daily doses of insulin. He showed great?improvement of his symptoms on the prescribed treatment. Conclusions The importance of the early diagnosis of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 and the possibility of its association with chronic hepatitis C infection should be considered in order to implement the proper management of such cases. PMID:22839422

2012-01-01

129

Production and Evaluation of Virus-Like Particles Displaying Immunogenic Epitopes of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV).  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV) have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present the antigens in a more veritable conformation and are readily recognized by the immune system. Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has been successfully used as a carrier for more than 100 viral sequences. In this study, hybrid HBcAg VLPs were generated by fusion of the conserved protective epitopes of PRRSV and expressed in E. coli. An optimized purification protocol was developed to obtain hybrid HBcAg VLP protein from the inclusion bodies. This hybrid HBcAg VLP protein self-assembled to 23-nm VLPs that were shown to block virus infection of susceptible cells when tested on MARC 145 cells. Together with the safety of non-infectious and non-replicable VLPs and the low cost of production through E. coli fermentation, this hybrid VLP could be a promising vaccine candidate for PRRS. PMID:25874763

Murthy, Ambika Mosale Venkatesh; Ni, Yanyan; Meng, Xiangjin; Zhang, Chenming

2015-01-01

130

Peptide nanofiber hydrogel adjuvanted live virus vaccine enhances cross-protective immunity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is prevalent in swine farms worldwide and is a major source of economic loss and animal suffering. Rapid genetic variation of PRRSV makes it difficult for current vaccines to confer protection against newly emerging strains. We recently demonstrated that a novel peptide nanofiber hydrogel (H9e) could act as a potent adjuvant for killed H1N1 vaccines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate H9e as an adjuvant for PRRSV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines. Pigs were vaccinated with Ingelvac PRRSV MLV with or without H9e adjuvant before being challenged with the VR-2332 (parental vaccine strain) or MN184A (genetically diverse strain) PRRSV. Pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had higher levels of circulating vaccine virus. More importantly, pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had improved protection against challenge by both PRRSV strains, as demonstrated by reduced challenge-induced viremia compared with pigs vaccinated with MLV alone. Pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had lower frequency of T-regulatory cells and IL-10 production but higher frequency of Th/memory cells and IFN-? secretion than that in pigs vaccinated with MLV alone. Taken together, our studies suggest that the peptide nanofiber hydrogel H9e, when combined with the PRRSV MLV vaccine, can enhance vaccine efficacy against two different PRRSV strains by modulating both host humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:23933333

Li, Xiangdong; Galliher-Beckley, Amy; Huang, Hongzhou; Sun, Xiuzhi; Shi, Jishu

2013-01-01

131

Coincidence of Varicella-Zoster Virus Anterior Uveitis in a Patient with Chandler's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose We report a patient who, based on the clinical manifestations, was originally diagnosed as having Chandler's syndrome and later developed varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA-positive anterior uveitis. Methods The patient with Chandler's syndrome who manifested anterior uveitis underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the viral DNA in the aqueous humor to determine the cause of the intraocular inflammation. Results Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed focal iris atrophy and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS); specular microscopy of the corneal endothelium disclosed the hammered-silver appearance. Based on these clinical findings, we diagnosed this patient as having Chandler's syndrome. During the follow-up period, however, the inflammatory cells suddenly appeared in the anterior chamber with formation of keratic precipitates and an increased intraocular pressure (IOP). VZV DNA was displayed in the aqueous humor by PCR. Based upon the diagnosis of VZV anterior uveitis, corticosteroids and acyclovir were given topically and systemically. The inflammation subsided with these medications; however, trabeculectomy was finally needed to control the IOP due to PAS progression. Conclusion The coincidence of VZV anterior uveitis with Chandler's syndrome may constitute an implication for the possible viral etiology of iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. PMID:24474927

Joko, Takeshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Masaaki; Hara, Yuko; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi

2013-01-01

132

A multicenter blinded analysis indicates no association between chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis and either xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus or polytropic murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

The disabling disorder known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been linked in two independent studies to infection with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV). Although the associations were not confirmed in subsequent studies by other investigators, patients continue to question the consensus of the scientific community in rejecting the validity of the association. Here we report blinded analysis of peripheral blood from a rigorously characterized, geographically diverse population of 147 patients with CFS/ME and 146 healthy subjects by the investigators describing the original association. This analysis reveals no evidence of either XMRV or pMLV infection. IMPORTANCE Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis has an estimated prevalence of 42/10,000 in the United States, with annual direct medical costs of $7 billion. Here, the original investigators who found XMRV and pMLV (polytropic murine leukemia virus) in blood of subjects with this disorder report that this association is not confirmed in a blinded analysis of samples from rigorously characterized subjects. The increasing frequency with which molecular methods are used for pathogen discovery poses new challenges to public health and support of science. It is imperative that strategies be developed to rapidly and coherently address discoveries so that they can be carried forward for translation to clinical medicine or abandoned to focus resource investment more productively. Our study provides a paradigm for pathogen dediscovery that may be helpful to others working in this field. PMID:22991430

Alter, Harvey J; Mikovits, Judy A; Switzer, William M; Ruscetti, Francis W; Lo, Shyh-Ching; Klimas, Nancy; Komaroff, Anthony L; Montoya, Jose G; Bateman, Lucinda; Levine, Susan; Peterson, Daniel; Levin, Bruce; Hanson, Maureen R; Genfi, Afia; Bhat, Meera; Zheng, HaoQiang; Wang, Richard; Li, Bingjie; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lee, Li Ling; Sameroff, Stephen; Heneine, Walid; Coffin, John; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W Ian

2012-01-01

133

Temporal localization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in reproductive tissues of experimentally infected boars.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to be shed in the semen of infected boars. To determine whether the reproductive tissues could be a persistent source of virus and the possible origin of PRRSV found in semen of infected boars, 20 PRRSV-seronegative boars were intranasally inoculated with 5 x 10(6) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of PRRSV and necropsied at different times post-inoculation (p.i.) from Day 2 to Day 37 p.i. Blood samples were collected before experimental inoculation, at necropsy and at different times p.i. At necropsy, epididymal semen and reproductive tissues were collected and the presence of the virus determined by virus isolation. The infection of the boars was demonstrated by the isolation of the virus from the sera of all inoculated boars and by seroconversion. PRRSV was detected in serum samples from Day 2 to Day 23 p.i., although the viremic period was largely dependent on the individual response to infection. Viral replication was proven within different reproductive tissues from Day 2 to Day 23 p.i., being most consistently found in the epididymus. In addition, PRRSV was isolated in semen from Day 4 to Day 10 p.i. The correlation of a diminished viremia and the inability to isolate PRRSV from semen or reproductive tissues may be due to one of two possibilities. First, viremia is responsible for most of the virus isolated from reproductive tissues due to the movement of PRRSV-infected cells out of the blood and into the tissues. Second, viremia may initially seed the reproductive tissues with PRRSV, and then the virus is produced into the reproductive tract and shed into semen at low levels. PMID:14519471

Prieto, Cinta; García, Carlos; Simarro, Isabel; Castro, José M

2003-11-01

134

Hijacking of host calreticulin is required for the white spot syndrome virus replication cycle.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope of purified WSSV virions. CRT was also found to be of high importance for proper oligomerization of the viral structural proteins VP26 and VP28, and when CRT glycosylation was blocked with tunicamycin, a significant decrease in both viral replication and assembly was detected. Together, these findings suggest that CRT confers several advantages to WSSV, from the initial steps of WSSV infection to the assembly of virions. Therefore, CRT is required as a "vital factor" and is hijacked by WSSV for its replication cycle. Importance: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and the cause of a serious disease in a wide range of crustaceans that often leads to high mortality rates. We have previously shown that the protein calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell, is important in the host response to the virus. In this report, we show that the virus uses this host protein to enter the cell and to make the host produce new viral structural proteins. Through its interaction with two viral proteins, the virus "hijacks" host calreticulin and uses it for its own needs. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between a large DNA virus and the host protein CRT and may help in understanding the viral infection process in general. PMID:24807724

Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Guo, Enen; Tharntada, Sirinit; Lo, Chu-Fang; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

2014-07-01

135

Hijacking of Host Calreticulin Is Required for the White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication Cycle  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope of purified WSSV virions. CRT was also found to be of high importance for proper oligomerization of the viral structural proteins VP26 and VP28, and when CRT glycosylation was blocked with tunicamycin, a significant decrease in both viral replication and assembly was detected. Together, these findings suggest that CRT confers several advantages to WSSV, from the initial steps of WSSV infection to the assembly of virions. Therefore, CRT is required as a “vital factor” and is hijacked by WSSV for its replication cycle. IMPORTANCE White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and the cause of a serious disease in a wide range of crustaceans that often leads to high mortality rates. We have previously shown that the protein calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell, is important in the host response to the virus. In this report, we show that the virus uses this host protein to enter the cell and to make the host produce new viral structural proteins. Through its interaction with two viral proteins, the virus “hijacks” host calreticulin and uses it for its own needs. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between a large DNA virus and the host protein CRT and may help in understanding the viral infection process in general. PMID:24807724

Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Guo, Enen; Tharntada, Sirinit; Lo, Chu-Fang; Söderhäll, Kenneth

2014-01-01

136

RNAi-based inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in transgenic pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating viral disease causing heavy losses to the swine industry worldwide. Many studies have shown that transient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or adenovirus-mediated RNA interfere (RNAi) could potentially inhibit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication in vivo and in vitro. Here, we applied RNAi to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed PRRSV-specific siRNA derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). First, we evaluated siRNA expression in the founding and F1 generation pigs and confirmed stable transmission. Then, we detected the expression of IFN-? and protein kinase R (PKR) and found no difference among TG, non-transgenic (NTG), and wild-type pigs. Lastly, the F1 generation pigs, including TG and NTG piglets, were challenged with 3×10?·? TCID?? of JXA1, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). Our results showed that the in vivo siRNA expression substantially reduced the serum HP-PRRSV titers and increased survival time by 3 days when TG pigs were compared with the NTG controls. These data suggested that RNAi-based genetic modification might be used to breed viral-resistant livestock with stable siRNA expression with no complications of siRNA toxicity. PMID:24333125

Li, Li; Li, Qiuyan; Bao, Yonghua; Li, Jinxiu; Chen, Zhisheng; Yu, Xiuling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

2014-02-10

137

Carnitine in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

There is an increasing body of evidence that subgroups of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 possess carnitine deficiency. Secondary carnitine deficiencies in these individuals may result from nutritional deficiencies, gastrointestinal disturbances, renal losses, or shifts in metabolic pathways. However, tissue depletion precipitated by drug toxicities, particularly zidovudine, is a major etiology and concern. Carnitine deficiency may impact on energy and lipid metabolism, causing mitochondrial and immune dysfunction. There are convincing laboratory data showing the in vitro ameliorative effects of L-carnitine supplementation of zidovudine-induced myopathies and lymphocyte function. Studies measuring the impact of L-carnitine supplementation on clinical characteristics are ongoing. PMID:8576568

Mintz, M

1995-11-01

138

Lymphoid tissue tropism of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication during persistent infection of pigs originally exposed to virus in utero.  

PubMed

The ability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to establish a persistent infection is the principal contributing factor to the world-wide spread of the disease. Several studies have documented the course of viral infection in postnatally infected pigs; however, very little is known regarding sites of virus replication during persistent infection of pigs exposed to PRRSV in utero. In this study, virus replication and PRRSV-specific antibody were followed for several hundred days in a group of pigs derived from three sows infected at 90 days of gestation with PRRSV isolate VR-2332. Eighty-four percent of pigs were born viremic with a mortality of 54% within 21 days after birth. At approximately 60 days sera from pigs were negative for virus by virus isolation. Analysis of virus replication in the tissues of pigs randomly sacrificed between 63 and 132 days showed no evidence of virus in lung and other non-lymphoid organs. However, virus was easily recovered from tonsil and lymph nodes and in situ hybridization identified these tissues as sites of virus replication. Even though replication was at a low level, virus was easily transmitted to sentinel pigs. By 260 days pigs became seronegative and did not transmit virus to sentinel pigs. Sacrifice of remaining pigs after 300 days showed no evidence of virus in blood and tissues. This study shows that congenital PRRSV-infected pigs can support virus replication for an extended period during which virus replication is primarily restricted to tonsil and lymph nodes. PMID:14559170

Rowland, Raymond R R; Lawson, Steven; Rossow, Kurt; Benfield, David A

2003-10-30

139

Molecular virus screening to detect novel viruses from turkey flocks affected by Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) is an economically important, infectious enteric disease of young turkeys. The disease is characterized by decreased weight gain, increased morbidity and mortality, and increased production costs due to poor feed conversions. PEMS is considered to be a multi...

140

Dental and research transmission of acquired immune deficiency syndrome? Or, is there any evidence that human immunodeficiency virus is sufficient to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unpublished report of three laboratory workers exposed to concentrated human immunodeficiency virus cultures and one anomalous case of putative dental transmission to six patients represent the only evidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome developing in the absence of immunologic cofactors such as exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, drugs, malnutrition, and alloantigens. A review of the Centers for Disease Control

R. S. Root-Bernstein

1996-01-01

141

[Marginal zone lymphoma associated with Sjögren's syndrome and hepatitis C virus infection].  

PubMed

A 64-year-old female was admitted in May 1997, because of salivary gland swelling. Histology of the right parotid gland revealed malignant lymphoma, diffuse medium-sized B-cell type, and she was treated with local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. She was rehospitalized in April 1998, because of recurrence of lymphoma in the stomach and the sigmoid colon. She had splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy (neck and inguinal). Laboratory findings revealed marked elevation of rheumatoid factor and RNA of hepatitis C virus. A diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome was made by dryness and the histological findings of labial biopsy. Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma mainly consisted of centrocyte-like cells and lymphoepithelial lesions, and CD 20 and IgM-kappa were positive with immunohistochemical staining. Lymphoma involved the gut and spleen. We discuss the correlation of malignant lymphoma with Sjogren's syndrome and HCV infection. PMID:16578967

Ebata, K; Masaki, Y; Karasawa, H; Okada, J; Kim, C G; Tsuka, M; Ogawa, N; Wano, Y; Hirose, Y; Sugai, S

2001-08-01

142

Mild Clinical Course of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in an Elderly Japanese Patient  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious and hemorrhagic disease recently described in China and western Japan. A 71-year-old healthy Japanese woman noticed a tick biting her after harvesting in an orchard and removed it herself. She developed diarrhea, anorexia, and chills eight days later. Because these symptoms continued, she visited a primary care physician 6 days after the onset. Laboratory data revealed thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was then referred to our hospital. Although not completely fulfilling the diagnostic criteria used in a retrospective study in Japan, SFTS was suspected, and we detected SFTS virus in the patient's blood using RT-PCR. However, she recovered without intensive treatment and severe complications 13 days after the onset. In this report, we present a mild clinical course of SFTS virus infection in Japan in detail. PMID:25574405

Ohagi, Yuko; Nakamoto, Chiaki; Nakamoto, Hiromichi; Saijo, Masayuki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Nakano, Yoshio; Fujimoto, Tokuzo

2014-01-01

143

Rapid Detection of Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus by Real Time, Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41±0.17 min at 39°C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics. PMID:25121957

Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

2014-01-01

144

Potential Role of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Structural Protein GP2 in Apoptosis Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a serious threat to the pork industry, and its pathogenesis needs further investigations. To study the role of two structural proteins of PRRSV in virus-host cells interactions, two stable cell lines (MARC-2a and MARC-N) expressing GP2 and N proteins, respectively, were established. We induced apoptosis in these cells by treating them with staurosporine and found a significant reduction in the number of apoptotic cells in MARC-2a as compared to MARC-N and MARC-145 cells. In addition, we found significantly higher activities of transcriptional factors (NF-?B and AP-1) in both cell lines as compared to MARC-145 (parent cells). Overall, our data suggest that, although both stable cell lines activate NF-?B and AP-1, GP2 triggers the antiapoptotic process through an intermediate step that needs to be further investigated. PMID:24511529

Pujhari, Sujit; Baig, Tayyba T.; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N.

2014-01-01

145

Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration. PMID:25835092

García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

2015-05-01

146

Rapid detection of shrimp white spot syndrome virus by real time, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41 ± 0.17 min at 39 °C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics. PMID:25121957

Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

2014-01-01

147

The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

2014-06-01

148

DNA condensates organized by the capsid protein VP15 in White Spot Syndrome Virus  

SciTech Connect

The White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has a large circular double-stranded DNA genome of around 300 kb and it replicates in the nucleus of the host cells. The machinery of how the viral DNA is packaged has been remained unclear. VP15, a highly basic protein, is one of the major capsid proteins found in the virus. Previously, it was shown to be a DNA binding protein and was hypothesized to participate in the viral DNA packaging process. Using Atomic Force Microscopy imaging, we show that the viral DNA is associated with a (or more) capsid proteins. The organized viral DNA qualitatively resembles the conformations of VP15 induced DNA condensates in vitro. Furthermore, single-DNA manipulation experiments revealed that VP15 is able to condense single DNA against forces of a few pico Newtons. Our results suggest that VP15 may aid in the viral DNA packaging process by directly condensing DNA.

Liu Yingjie, E-mail: phyyj@nus.edu.s [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Wu Jinlu [Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chen Hu [Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Hew, Choy Leong, E-mail: dbshewcl@nus.edu.s [Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Yan Jie [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Centre for Bioimaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

2010-12-20

149

Identification of radically different variants of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Eastern Europe: towards a common ancestor for European and American viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined 22 partial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 sequences, representing pathogenic field strains mainly from Poland and Lithuania, and two currently available European-type live PRRSV vaccines. Also, the complete ORF7 of two Lithuanian and two Polish strains was sequenced. We found that Polish, and in particular Lithuanian, PRRSV sequences were exceptionally different from the European prototype,

T. Stadejek; A. Stankevicius; T. Storgaard; M. B. Oleksiewicz; S. Bela; T. W. Drew; Z. Pejsak

150

PASSIVE TRANSFER OF VIRUS-SPECIFIC NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES CONFERS PROTECTION AGAINST REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE INDUCED BY A VIRULENT STRAIN OF PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS & ESTABLISHES STERILIZING IMMUNITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Immune mechanisms mediating protective immunity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) are not well understood. The PRRSV-specific humoral immune response has been dismissed as being ineffective and perhaps deleterious for the host. The function of PRRSV-neutralizing a...

151

Cryptoporus volvatus extract inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important arterivirus that can cause significant losses in swine industry. At present, there are no adequate control strategies against PRRSV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment regimens that have efficacious antiviral activity to compensate for vaccines. Cryptoporus volvatus commonly serves as an anti-infective agent in Tradational Chinese Medicines. In this report, we exploited whether the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus had the potential to inhibit PRRSV infection. Our results showed that the extract significantly inhibited PRRSV infection by repressing virus entry, viral RNA expression, and possibly viral protein synthesis, cell-to-cell spread, and releasing of virus particles. However, it did not block PRRSV binding to cells. Further studies confirmed that the extract directly inhibited PRRSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, thus interfering with PRRSV RNA and protein synthesis. More importantly, the extract efficiently inhibited highly pathologic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection in vivo, reduced virus load in serum, and increased the survival rate of pigs inoculated with HP-PRRSV strain. Collectively, our findings imply that the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapies. PMID:23704937

Gao, Li; Zhang, Weiwei; Sun, Yipeng; Yang, Qian; Ren, Jie; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Hexiang; Feng, Wen-Hai

2013-01-01

152

Cryptoporus volvatus Extract Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important arterivirus that can cause significant losses in swine industry. At present, there are no adequate control strategies against PRRSV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment regimens that have efficacious antiviral activity to compensate for vaccines. Cryptoporus volvatus commonly serves as an anti-infective agent in Tradational Chinese Medicines. In this report, we exploited whether the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus had the potential to inhibit PRRSV infection. Our results showed that the extract significantly inhibited PRRSV infection by repressing virus entry, viral RNA expression, and possibly viral protein synthesis, cell-to-cell spread, and releasing of virus particles. However, it did not block PRRSV binding to cells. Further studies confirmed that the extract directly inhibited PRRSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, thus interfering with PRRSV RNA and protein synthesis. More importantly, the extract efficiently inhibited highly pathologic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection in vivo, reduced virus load in serum, and increased the survival rate of pigs inoculated with HP-PRRSV strain. Collectively, our findings imply that the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapies. PMID:23704937

Gao, Li; Zhang, Weiwei; Sun, Yipeng; Yang, Qian; Ren, Jie; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Hexiang; Feng, Wen-hai

2013-01-01

153

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater. PMID:24658782

Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

2014-09-01

154

Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome (WSS) is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (nr) database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO) scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at . Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:17506900

Leu, Jiann-Horng; Chang, Chih-Chin; Wu, Jin-Lu; Hsu, Chun-Wei; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lo, Chu-Fang; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng

2007-01-01

155

The red clover necrotic mosaic virus capsid protein N-terminal amino acids possess specific RNA binding activity and are required for stable virion assembly.  

PubMed

The red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) bipartite RNA genome is packaged into two virion populations containing either RNA-1 and RNA-2 or multiple copies of RNA-2 only. To understand this distinctive packaging scheme, we investigated the RNA-binding properties of the RCNMV capsid protein (CP). Maltose binding protein-CP fusions exhibited the highest binding affinities for RNA probes containing the RNA-2 trans-activator or the 3' non-coding region from RNA-1. Other viral and non-viral RNA probes displayed CP binding but to a much lower degree. Deletion of the highly basic N-terminal 50 residues abolished CP binding to viral RNA transcripts. In planta studies of select CP deletion mutants within this N-terminal region revealed that it was indispensable for stable virion formation and the region spanning CP residues 5-15 is required for systemic movement. Thus, the N-terminal region of the CP is involved in both producing two virion populations due to its RNA binding properties and virion stability. PMID:23747688

Park, Sang-Ho; Sit, Tim L; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Lommel, Steven A

2013-09-01

156

Enhanced replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in a homogeneous subpopulation of MA104 cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two different cell populations, high- (MARC-145) and low-permissive cell clones (L-1) to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus, were derived from MA-104 cell line (parent cell: P) by cell cloning. Maximum virus yields in MARC-145, P, and L-1 cell clones were 108.5, 103.5, and 102.5 tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50)\\/0.1 ml, respectively. The MARC-145 cell clone supported

H. S. Kim; J. Kwang; I. J. Yoon; H. S. Joo; M. L. Frey

1993-01-01

157

Impact of genetic diversity of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains on vaccine efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to find out how efficiently pigs that are vaccinated with an attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine based on a virus from the Lelystad cluster are protected against a European wild-type strain from the same or another genetic cluster. Two experiments were performed. In each experiment, 5-week-old PRRSV-seronegative pigs were vaccinated

G. Labarque; K. Van Reeth; H. Nauwynck; C. Drexler; S. Van Gucht; M. Pensaert

2004-01-01

158

Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the 3'-terminal genomic RNA of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomic RNA of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolate from the U.S.A., VR 2385 (ATCC), was copied into cDNA after priming with oligo(dT) and cloned into phage lambda. The eDNA clones representing the T-terminal genomic RNA of the virus were isolated and sequenced. The genome is a positive-stranded, polyadenylated RNA with an estimated size of 15

Xiang-Jin Meng; Prem S. Paul; Patrick G. Halbur

1994-01-01

159

Development of a non-radioactive gene probe by PCR for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining primers created from the sequence information of two baculo-like viruses of penaeid shrimp, Baculovirus penaei (BP) and Monodon baculovirus (MBV), produced a 750 bp band on a 0.8% agarose gel using White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), from Penaeus monodon, as the DNA template. The PCR fragment was ligated to a plasmid vector, (pGEM-T) and transformed, creating a 3.7 Kbp

Linda M. Nunan; Donald V. Lightner

1997-01-01

160

Prevalence of white spot syndrome virus infection detected by one-step and nested PCR in selected tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon ) hatcheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome (WSS) is considered as a great threat to commercial farming of the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The causal agent of WSS is a DNA virus called white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The prevalence of this dreadful virus infection\\u000a has been studied in five randomly selected hatcheries located in the Cox’s Bazar district of Bangladesh. Both one-step and

Farhana Ayub

2008-01-01

161

Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are members of family Arteriviridae; they share many biological properties but differ significantly in cellular tropism. Using an infectious cDNA clone of EAV, we engineered a panel of six chimeric viruses b...

162

Profiling of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus-resistant shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find immune-relevant factors responsible for virus resistance and response to the virus infection, the suppression subtractive hybridisation method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes and their expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistant and susceptible Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Two forward subtractive libraries (at 0 and 48h time point)

Zhi-Ying Zhao; Zhi-Xin Yin; Shao-Ping Weng; Hao-Ji Guan; Se-Dong Li; Ke Xing; Siu-Ming Chan; Jian-Guo He

2007-01-01

163

Susceptible cell lines for the production of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by stable transfection of sialoadhesin and CD163  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes major economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. In vivo, the virus infects a subpopulation of tissue macrophages. In vitro, PRRSV only replicates in primary pig macrophages and African green monkey kidney derived cells, such as Marc-145. The latter is currently used for vaccine production. However, since virus entry in Marc-145

Iris Delrue; Hanne Van Gorp; Jan Van Doorsselaere; Peter L Delputte; Hans J Nauwynck

2010-01-01

164

Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.  

PubMed

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. PMID:25402810

Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

2015-02-01

165

Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in recognition of beta-integrin.  

PubMed

The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that beta-integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of beta-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed that envelope proteins VP26, VP31, VP37, VP90 and nucleocapsid protein VP136 interacted with LvInt. RGD-, YGL- and LDV-related peptide functioned as motifs of WSSV proteins binding with beta-integrin. The beta-integrin ligand of RGDT had better blocking effect compared with that of YGL- and LDV-related peptides. In vivo assay indicated that RGD-, LDV- and YGL-related peptides could partially block WSSV infection. These data collectively indicate that multiple proteins were involved in recognition of beta-integrin. Identification of proteins in WSSV that are associated with beta-integrin will assist development of new agents for effective control of the white spot syndrome. PMID:24845502

Zhang, Jing-Yan; Liu, Qing-Hui; Huang, Jie

2014-06-01

166

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

167

Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.  

PubMed

Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. PMID:25779823

Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

2015-06-15

168

Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.  

PubMed

Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-?-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (?-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%). PMID:25555812

Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

2015-04-01

169

Immunological features of the non-structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is currently one of the most important viruses affecting the swine industry worldwide. Despite the large number of papers published each year, the participation of non-structural proteins (nsps) in the immune response is not completely clear. nsps have been involved in the host innate immune response, specifically, nsp1?/?, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp11 have been associated with the immunomodulation capability of the virus. To date, only participation by nsp1, nsp2, nsp4 and nsp7 in the humoral immune response has been reported, with the role of other nsps being overlooked. Furthermore, nsp1, nsp2, nsp5, nsp7 nsp9, nsp10, nsp11 have been implicated in the induction of IFN-? and probably in the development of the cell-mediated immune response. This review discusses recent reports involving the participation of nsps in the modulation of the innate immune response and their role in the induction of both the humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:25719944

Rascón-Castelo, Edgar; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Mateu, Enric; Hernández, Jesús

2015-03-01

170

Purification of white spot syndrome virus by iodixanol density gradient centrifugation.  

PubMed

Up to now, only a few brief procedures for purifying white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) have been described. They were mainly based on sucrose, NaBr and CsCl density gradient centrifugation. This work describes for the first time the purification of WSSV through iodixanol density gradients, using virus isolated from infected tissues and haemolymph of Penaeus vannamei (Boone). The purification from tissues included a concentration step by centrifugation (2.5 h at 60,000 g) onto a 50% iodixanol cushion and a purification step by centrifugation (3 h at 80,000 g) through a discontinuous iodixanol gradient (phosphate-buffered saline, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). The purification from infected haemolymph enclosed a dialysis step with a membrane of 1,000 kDa (18 h) and a purification step through the earlier iodixanol gradient. The gradients were collected in fractions and analysed. The number of particles, infectivity titre (in vivo), total protein and viral protein content were evaluated. The purification from infected tissues gave WSSV suspensions with a very high infectivity and an acceptable purity, while virus purified from haemolymph had a high infectivity and a very high purity. Additionally, it was observed that WSSV has an unusually low buoyant density and that it is very sensitive to high external pressures. PMID:23384051

Dantas-Lima, J J; Corteel, M; Cornelissen, M; Bossier, P; Sorgeloos, P; Nauwynck, H J

2013-10-01

171

Transcriptional analysis of the white spot syndrome virus major virion protein genes.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a member of a new virus family (Nimaviridae) infecting crustaceans. The regulation of transcription of WSSV genes is largely unknown. Transcription of the major WSSV structural virion protein genes, vp28, vp26, vp24, vp19 and vp15, was studied to search for common promoter motifs for coordinate expression. The temporal expression of these genes and both 5' and 3' ends of the mRNA were determined, using infected crayfish gill tissue as a RNA source. RT-PCR showed that all five genes are expressed late in infection compared to the early ribonucleotide reductase large subunit gene. 5' RACE studies revealed a consensus late transcription initiation motif for only two of the five major virion protein genes. This motif was only found in one other upstream region of the putative translational start site of a gene with unknown function (ORF 158). No other conserved sequence motifs could be detected in the sequences surrounding the transcriptional start sites of the five major virion protein genes. All 5' ends were located about 25 nt downstream of an A/T rich sequence, including the consensus TATA-box sequence for vp15. The absence of a consensus motif is distinct from gene regulation of other large dsDNA viruses and suggests a unique regulation of WSSV transcription, in line with its unique taxonomic position. PMID:12771421

Marks, Hendrik; Mennens, Melanie; Vlak, Just M; van Hulten, Mariëlle C W

2003-06-01

172

N-glycosylation profiling of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus envelope glycoprotein 5.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-sense ssRNA virus whose envelope contains four glycoproteins and three nonglycosylated proteins. Glycans of major envelope glycoprotein 5 (GP5) are proposed as important for virus assembly and entry into permissive cells. Structural characterization of GP5 glycans would facilitate the mechanistic understanding of these processes. Thus, we purified the PRRSV type 2 prototype strain, VR2332, and analyzed the virion-associated glycans by both biochemical and mass spectrometric methods. Endoglycosidase digestion showed that GP5 was the primary protein substrate, and that the carbohydrate moieties were primarily complex-type N-glycans. Mass spectrometric analysis (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) of GP5 N-glycans revealed an abundance of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) oligomers in addition to sialic acids. GlcNAc and LacNAc accessibility to ligands was confirmed by lectin co-precipitation. Our findings help to explain PRRSV infection of cells lacking sialoadhesin and provide a glycan database to facilitate molecular structural studies of PRRSV. PMID:25726973

Li, Juan; Tao, Shujuan; Orlando, Ron; Murtaugh, Michael P

2015-04-01

173

In Depth Global Analysis of Transcript Abundance Levels Following Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Infection of the primary target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not under...

174

Full-genome sequences of severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, isolated from South Korea in 2014.  

PubMed

Here, we present the full-length genome sequencing of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus, isolated from South Korea in 2014. The five Korean strains were compared by phylogenetic analysis with full SFTS genome sequences of two neighboring nations, China and Japan. PMID:25883276

Yun, Mi-Ran; Park, Sun-Whan; Kwon, TaeSoo; Lee, SangHyun; Yoo, Won Gi; Choi, WooYoung; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Dae-Won

2015-01-01

175

Antilipopolysaccharide Factor Interferes with White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo in the Crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 30 May 2006\\/Accepted 3 August 2006 In a study of genes expressed differentially in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus infected experimentally with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), one protein, known as antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), was chosen, among those whose transcript levels increased upon viral infection, for further studies. ALF RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in whole animals and in

Haipeng Liu; Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Irene Soderhall; Lage Cerenius; Kenneth Soderhall

2006-01-01

176

Quantitation of Varicella-Zoster Virus DNA in Patients with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome and Zoster Sine Herpete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation causes facial nerve palsy in Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) and zoster sine herpete (ZSH) with and without zoster rash, respectively. In the present study, we analyzed the VZV DNA copy number in saliva samples from 25 patients with RHS and 31 patients with ZSH using a TaqMan PCR assay to determine differences in the viral load

YASUSHI FURUTA; FUMIO OHTANI; HIROFUMI SAWA; SATOSHI FUKUDA; YUKIO INUYAMA

2001-01-01

177

THE IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MACROPHAGES TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS VARIES BETWEEN GENETICALLY DIVERSE LINES OF PIGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be responsible for financial losses in the swine industry worldwide. It remains undetermined whether genetic variability of the host in susceptibility to PRRSV exists and if this variability can be exploited to help control thi...

178

Clinical and pathological responses of pigs from two genetically diverse commercial lines to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The response to infection from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) for two genetically diverse commercial pig lines was investigated. Seventy two pigs from each line, aged 6 weeks, were challenged with PRRSV VR-2385, and 66 littermates served as control. The clinical response...

179

Heterogeneity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: implications for current vaccine efficacy and future vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a major problem to the pork industry worldwide. Increasing data indicate that PRRSV strains differ in virulence in infected pigs and are biologically, antigenically, and genetically heterogeneous. It is evident that the current vaccines, based on a single PRRSV strain, are not effective in protecting against infections with the genetically

X. J Meng

2000-01-01

180

Differential immunity in pigs with high and low responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred Hampshire by Duroc crossbred pigs (HD) and 100 NE Index line pigs (I) were infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and evaluated for resistance/susceptibility. Controls (100/line) were uninfected littermates to infected pigs. Viremia (V), weight change (...

181

What High School Students Who Are Mildly Mentally Retarded Know about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alabama high school students (N=309) with mild mental retardation completed a questionnaire concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and sources of information about human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Students demonstrated some basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and expressed some concern about getting AIDS. They…

Cobb, Hazel B.; Horn, Charles J., Jr.

182

An investigation of Artemia as a possible vector for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission to Penaeus indicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenicity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) for different developmental stages of Artemia was carried out by immersion challenge and oral route in order to investigate the possibility of Artemia acting as a reservoir or carrier of WSSV to marine shrimp. The WSSV failed to infect the developmental stages of Artemia; there were no differences in mortality between control

A. S Sahul Hameed; B. L. M Murthi; M Rasheed; S Sathish; K Yoganandhan; V Murugan; Kunthala Jayaraman

2002-01-01

183

Purification and characterization of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) produced in an alternate host: crayfish, Cambarus clarkii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeid shrimp is the natural host of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) that can cause high mortality in the infected hosts. Attempts to obtain sufficient amounts of purified intact WSSV for characterization have been unsuccessful. Using crayfish, Cambarus clarkii as a proliferation system, a large amount of infectious WSSV was reproduced and intact WSSV viral particles were purified with a

Can-hua Huang; Li-ren Zhang; Jian-hong Zhang; Lian-chun Xiao; Qing-jiang Wu; Di-hua Chen; Joseph K.-K. Li

2001-01-01

184

Effect of water temperature on the immune response and infectivity pattern of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in freshwater crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of two species of freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Astacus astacus, to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by intramuscular injection was compared and the results show that both species are susceptible to WSSV. The effect of water temperature on the development of white spot disease in crayfish was also studied. Crayfish were exposed to different temperatures after WSSV

Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Kenneth Söderhäll; Irene Söderhäll

2004-01-01

185

Per os challenge of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae and Farfantepenaeus duorarum juveniles with six geographic isolates of white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important pathogens of penaeid shrimp. It is widely distributed in most Asian countries where penaeid shrimp are cultured, as well as in the Gulf of Mexico and SE USA. The virulence of six geographic isolates of WSSV was compared using Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae and Farfantepenaeus duorarum juveniles. The six geographic

Qiong Wang; Brenda L White; Rita M Redman; Donald V Lightner

1999-01-01

186

White spot syndrome virus infection in cultured Penaeus vannamei (Boone) in Ecuador with emphasis on histopathology and ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortalities of cultured shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Boone), induced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) have occurred in Ecuador since May 1999. Three epidemiological surveys in Ecuadorian farms were carried out and showed an apparent associ- ation between lower temperature and increased mortality rates in commercial ponds. Infected ani- mals showed a reddish discolouration and lethargy and occasionally, white spots in

J Rodriguez; B Bayot; Y Amano; F Panchana; I de Blas; V Alday; J Calderon

2003-01-01

187

Strain specificity of the immune response of pigs following vaccination with various strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the study was to determine strain specificity of the immune response of pigs following vaccination with selected strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The experimental design included five groups (I through V, six pigs per group) free of antibody for PRRSV at the beginning of the experiment (day 0). On day 0, groups

William L Mengeling; Kelly M Lager; Ann C Vorwald; Kenneth J Koehler

2003-01-01

188

Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Infection as a Possible Cause of Ogilvie's Syndrome in an Immunocompromised Host  

PubMed Central

We describe an immunodeficient adult with Ogilvie's syndrome preceding a disseminated papulovesicular skin rash in whom varicella-zoster virus infection was demonstrated by PCR assay in cutaneous and colonic biopsy specimens. In view of the significant morbidity and mortality that this condition carries, early and accurate molecular diagnosis and timely treatment are strongly recommended. PMID:24808241

Salcines-Caviedes, José R.; Román, Javier Gómez; Cano-Hoz, Marta; Fernández-Ayala, Marta; Casuso-Sáenz, Elena; Abascal-Carrera, Ismael; Campo-Ruiz, Ana; Martín, Marta Cobo; Díaz-Pérez, Ainhoa; González-Gutiérrez, Pablo; Aguado, José M.

2014-01-01

189

AN INVESTIGATION OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS BETWEEN TWO GENETICALLY DIVERSE COMMERCIAL LINES OF PIGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine if host genetics plays a role in susceptibility to the respiratory disease in growing pigs caused by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Based on a previous study, two genetically diverse commercial lines of pigs that were als...

190

First report of White spot syndrome virus in farmed and wild penaeid shrimp from lagoa dos patos estuary, southern brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, we detected White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild Farfantepenaeus paulensis collected in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary and cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei. This is the first report of WSSV in F. paulensis from Lagoa dos Patos and farmed L. vannamei shrimps in Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:24031739

Cavalli, Lissandra Souto; Romano, Luis Alberto; Marins, Luis Fernando; Abreu, Paulo César

2011-07-01

191

First report of White spot syndrome virus in farmed and wild penaeid shrimp from lagoa dos patos estuary, southern brazil  

PubMed Central

In this study, we detected White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild Farfantepenaeus paulensis collected in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary and cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei. This is the first report of WSSV in F. paulensis from Lagoa dos Patos and farmed L. vannamei shrimps in Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:24031739

Cavalli, Lissandra Souto; Romano, Luis Alberto; Marins, Luis Fernando; Abreu, Paulo César

2011-01-01

192

Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

2011-01-01

193

Blue crabs Callinectes sapidus as potential biological reservoirs for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen of cultured shrimp and was first detected in farms in South Carolina (USA) in 1997 and subsequently in wild shrimp in 1999. We screened groups of 1808 wild Atlantic white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and 300 blue crabs Callinectes sapidus collected from South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida for the presence of WSSV using the Shrimple® immunoassay-strip test, with all positives and random subsets of negatives tested by TaqMan real-time PCR and in infectivity bioassays. Of 87 shrimp and 11 crabs that tested positive using the Shrimple® test, only a single C. sapidus was confirmed to be infected with WSSV by PCR and the infectivity bioassay. The data indicate that the prevalence of WSSV in these species is low in these southeastern US regions, but that C. sapidus may serve as a biological reservoir. PMID:25751859

Powell, James W B; Browdy, Craig L; Burge, Erin J

2015-03-01

194

White spot syndrome virus strains of different virulence induce distinct immune response in Cherax quadricarinatus.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified three white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains (WSSV-CN01, WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03) with significant differences in virulence. Among them, WSSV-CN01 caused significant higher and earlier mortality in redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, thus was determined as high-virulent, while WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03 were moderate-virulent and low-virulent. By investigating the total number of the circulating haemocytes and the activity of immune relative enzymes, we demonstrated that the different virulent WSSV strains induced distinct immune response in the host. Notably, a dramatic reduction of circulating haemocytes was observed in the crayfish infected with WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 but not WSSV-CN03. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 might be responsible for the decrease of circulating haemocytes. PMID:24795080

Gao, Meiling; Li, Fang; Xu, Limei; Zhu, Xiaoming

2014-07-01

195

Isolation and identification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in cell cultures.  

PubMed

Three strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated in porcine lung macrophage (PLM) cultures from three swine herds. This has been the first successful isolation of PRRSV in the Czech Republic and the strains received the designations CAPM V-501, CAPM V-502 and CAPM V-503, respectively. All the three isolates in PLM were identified by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests and the strain CAPM V-502 also by electron microscopy using the ultrathin section technique. The strain CAPM V-502 has been adapted to the cell line MARC-145. Viral RNA in PLM cultures infected with any of the isolated PRRSV strains was demonstrated by RT-PCR targeted to the more conserved ORF 7 genomic region encoding the nucleocapsid protein. The assessment of PCR products in agarose gel revealed a uniform size of 394 bp in all the three isolates and the European prototype strain Lelystad used as positive control. PMID:9416008

Valícek, L; Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Kubalíková, R; Kosinová, E

1997-10-01

196

Characterization of white spot syndrome virus VP52B and its interaction with VP26.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens of cultured shrimp. Identification of envelope protein interactions has become a central issue for the understanding of WSSV assembly. In this paper, WSSV envelope protein VP52B was fused with GST-tag and expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3). Immunogold-electron microscopy revealed that VP52B was located on the outside surface of WSSV virions. Far-Western blotting analysis suggested that VP52B might directly interact with a major viral envelope protein VP26, and their interaction was confirmed by GST pull-down assay. Further investigation showed that the VP52B binding domain was located between residues 135-170 of VP26. These findings will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of WSSV morphogenesis. PMID:25331340

Lin, Fanyu; Jie, Zuliang; Hou, Luhong; Li, Fang; Yang, Feng

2015-02-01

197

Binding of white spot syndrome virus to Artemia sp. cell membranes.  

PubMed

Using differential velocity centrifugation, cell membranes of Artemia sp. were prepared, and their binding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was analyzed in vitro. The results indicated that WSSV can specifically bind to Artemia cell membranes, and that WSSV receptor very likely existed in this membrane, which suggested that Artemia sp. may be a reservoir of WSSV. This study investigated the specific WSSV binding site by performing competitive inhibition experiments using shrimp gill cell membranes to bind WSSV to Artemia cell membranes. The results showed that shrimp gill cell membranes had a distinct inhibition effect on the specific binding of Artemia cell membranes to WSSV. Thus, potentially similar WSSV receptors or binding sites existed on Artemia sp. cell membranes and shrimp gill cell membranes. Taken together, these findings may provide experimental basis for the development of an effective approach to controlling WSSV, and theoretical basis for the study of WSSV receptors. PMID:23711885

Feng, Shuying; Li, Guangda; Feng, Wenpo; Huang, Jie

2013-10-01

198

Meningitis and stridor in advanced Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 37-year-old female presented confused with a preceding history of severe headache. After clinical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (including central nervous system involvement), and Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Her hospital stay was complicated. She developed stridor and a cerebrovascular accident with left hemiplegia. She died approximately 2 weeks after admission. The potential causes of her stridor included a mediastinal mass or a central mechanism secondary to tuberculosis meningitis. Limited resources precluded definitive imaging of the chest to rule out a mediastinal mass. Further, an autopsy was not done. Despite these limitations, this case is unique because it reports the presence of both stridor and tuberculosis meningitis in an adult patient. PMID:24049455

Naidoo, P; Pillay, D; Saman, S

2013-01-01

199

Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus  

SciTech Connect

The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa.

Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lin Shumei [School of life science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yanga Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

2005-07-05

200

Cytokine profiles in pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. Cytokine responses have been exhaustively studied in nursery pigs and show contradictory results. Since no detailed reports on cytokine respons...

201

Overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome and Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis associated with Epstein Barr virus  

PubMed Central

A flaccid tetraparesis in Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is presumed to be a sign of overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In addition, BBE and Fisher syndrome, which are clinically similar and are both associated with the presence of the immunoglobulin G anti-GQ1b antibody, represent a specific autoimmune disease with a wide spectrum of symptoms that include ophthalmoplegia and ataxia. A 2-year-old boy presented with rapidly progressive ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, hyporeflexia, weakness of the lower extremities, and, subsequently, disturbance of consciousness. He experienced bronchitis with watery diarrhea and had laboratory evidence of recent infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). He was diagnosed as having overlapping GBS and BBE associated with EBV and received treatment with a combination of immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone, as well as acyclovir, and had recovered completely after 3 months. In addition, he has not experienced any relapse over the past year. We suggest that combinations of symptoms and signs of central lesions (disturbance of consciousness) and peripheral lesions (ophthalmoplegia, facial weakness, limb weakness, and areflexia) are supportive of a diagnosis of overlapping GBS and BBE and can be helpful in achieving an early diagnosis, as well as for the administration of appropriate treatments. PMID:25379047

2014-01-01

202

Overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome and Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis associated with Epstein Barr virus.  

PubMed

A flaccid tetraparesis in Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is presumed to be a sign of overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In addition, BBE and Fisher syndrome, which are clinically similar and are both associated with the presence of the immunoglobulin G anti-GQ1b antibody, represent a specific autoimmune disease with a wide spectrum of symptoms that include ophthalmoplegia and ataxia. A 2-year-old boy presented with rapidly progressive ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, hyporeflexia, weakness of the lower extremities, and, subsequently, disturbance of consciousness. He experienced bronchitis with watery diarrhea and had laboratory evidence of recent infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). He was diagnosed as having overlapping GBS and BBE associated with EBV and received treatment with a combination of immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone, as well as acyclovir, and had recovered completely after 3 months. In addition, he has not experienced any relapse over the past year. We suggest that combinations of symptoms and signs of central lesions (disturbance of consciousness) and peripheral lesions (ophthalmoplegia, facial weakness, limb weakness, and areflexia) are supportive of a diagnosis of overlapping GBS and BBE and can be helpful in achieving an early diagnosis, as well as for the administration of appropriate treatments. PMID:25379047

Rho, Young Il

2014-10-01

203

Crayfish hematopoietic tissue cells but not hemocytes are permissive for white spot syndrome virus replication.  

PubMed

Hemocytes are the major immune cells of crustaceans which are believed to be essential for the pathogenesis of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Crayfish hemocytes and hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cells have been found to be susceptible to WSSV infection, but the procedure of WSSV infection to both cell types has not yet been carefully investigated. In this study, we analyzed the infection and proliferation of WSSV in crayfish hemocytes as well as HPT cells in detail through transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The results showed that WSSV could enter both hemocytes and HPT cells through endocytosis, but the production of progeny virus was only achieved in HPT cells. Further investigation demonstrated that although WSSV could transcribe its genes in both cell types, viral genome replication and structural protein expression were unsuccessful in hemocytes, which may be responsible for the failure of progeny production. Therefore, we propose that both hemocytes and HPT cells are susceptible to WSSV infection but only HPT cells are permissive to WSSV replication. These findings will extend our knowledge of the interaction between WSSV and the host immune system. PMID:25541079

Wu, Junjun; Li, Fang; Huang, Jiajun; Xu, Limei; Yang, Feng

2015-03-01

204

Characterization and Interactome Study of White Spot Syndrome Virus Envelope Protein VP11  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV viral particle consists of three structural layers that surround its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. Here we characterize the WSSV structural protein VP11 (WSSV394, GenBank accession number AF440570), and use an interactome approach to analyze the possible associations between this protein and an array of other WSSV and host proteins. Temporal transcription analysis showed that vp11 is an early gene. Western blot hybridization of the intact viral particles and fractionation of the viral components, and immunoelectron microscopy showed that VP11 is an envelope protein. Membrane topology software predicted VP11 to be a type of transmembrane protein with a highly hydrophobic transmembrane domain at its N-terminal. Based on an immunofluorescence assay performed on VP11-transfected Sf9 cells and a trypsin digestion analysis of the virion, we conclude that, contrary to topology software prediction, the C-terminal of this protein is in fact inside the virion. Yeast two-hybrid screening combined with co-immunoprecipitation assays found that VP11 directly interacted with at least 12 other WSSV structural proteins as well as itself. An oligomerization assay further showed that VP11 could form dimers. VP11 is also the first reported WSSV structural protein to interact with the major nucleocapsid protein VP664. PMID:24465701

Liu, Wang-Jing; Shiung, Hui-Jui; Lo, Chu-Fang; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lai, Ying-Jang; Lee, Tai-Lin; Huang, Wei-Tung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Chang, Yun-Shiang

2014-01-01

205

Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.  

PubMed

Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds. PMID:24716813

Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

2015-05-01

206

Effects of ribavirin on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in vitro.  

PubMed

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a disease with a high case fatality rate that is caused by infection with the recently identified tick-borne SFTS virus (SFTSV), for which there are no specific countermeasures. We examined the effects of ribavirin and mizoribine, which are nucleoside analogue drugs with broad antiviral activities, on SFTSV proliferation in vitro. When 3 cell lines were treated with these drugs before and during infection with a Chinese SFTSV strain, the 99% effective concentrations (EC99) of ribavirin were 19-64 ?g/ml (78-262 ?M); in contrast, the EC99 of mizoribine was >500 ?g/ml (1,929 ?M). Similar levels of inhibitory effects of ribavirin were observed with 4 Japanese SFTSV strains. However, when Vero cells were treated with ribavirin 3 days after inoculation, the inhibitory effect was dramatically decreased, indicating that ribavirin did not effectively reduce virus production in pre-infected cells. These results suggest that ribavirin could be used as post-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of SFTS. PMID:25410555

Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Tani, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Fukuma, Aiko; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Suda, Yuto; Maeda, Ken; Takahashi, Toru; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

2014-01-01

207

Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.  

PubMed

Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed. PMID:24953507

Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

2014-06-23

208

Sampling and evaluation of white spot syndrome virus in commercially important Atlantic penaeid shrimp stocks.  

PubMed

In 1997, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was discovered in shrimp culture facilities in South Carolina, USA. This disease was known to cause devastating mortalities in cultured populations in Southeast Asia and prompted concern for the health of wild populations in the USA. Our study surveyed wild shrimp populations for the presence of WSSV by utilizing molecular diagnostics and bioassay techniques. A total of 1150 individuals (586 Litopenaeus setiferus, 477 Farfantepenaeus aztecus and 87 F. dourarum) were examined for the presence of WSSV DNA by PCR. A total of 32 individuals tested positive and were used in a bioassay to examine the transmission of disease to healthy individuals of the culture species L. vannamei. DNA sequencing of PCR products from a positive individual confirmed that the positive individuals carried WSSV DNA. Significant mortalities were seen in test shrimp injected with tissue extracts from heavily infected wild shrimp. These data confirm the existence of WSSV in wild shrimp stocks along the Atlantic Coast and that the virus can cause mortalities in cultured stocks. PMID:15264713

Chapman, Robert W; Browdy, Craig L; Savin, Suzanne; Prior, Sarah; Wenner, Elizabeth

2004-06-11

209

Construction and Application of a Protein Interaction Map for White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)*  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is currently the most serious global threat for cultured shrimp production. Although its large, double-stranded DNA genome has been completely characterized, most putative protein functions remain obscure. To provide more informative knowledge about this virus, a proteomic-scale network of WSSV-WSSV protein interactions was carried out using a comprehensive yeast two-hybrid analysis. An array of yeast transformants containing each WSSV open reading frame fused with GAL4 DNA binding domain and GAL4 activation domain was constructed yielding 187 bait and 182 prey constructs, respectively. On screening of ?28,000 pairwise combinations, 710 interactions were obtained from 143 baits. An independent coimmunoprecipitation assay (co-IP) was performed to validate the selected protein interaction pairs identified from the yeast two-hybrid approach. The program Cytoscape was employed to create a WSSV protein–protein interaction (PPI) network. The topology of the WSSV PPI network was based on the Barabási-Albert model and consisted of a scale-free network that resembled other established viral protein interaction networks. Using the RNA interference approach, knocking down either of two candidate hub proteins gave shrimp more protection against WSSV than knocking down a nonhub gene. The WSSV protein interaction map established in this study provides novel guidance for further studies on shrimp viral pathogenesis, host-viral protein interaction and potential targets for therapeutic and preventative antiviral strategies in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:24217020

Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Chu, Yu-Fei; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Meemetta, Watcharachai; Senapin, Saengchan; Huang, Wei-Pang; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Flegel, Timothy W.; Lo, Chu-Fang

2014-01-01

210

DRACO inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in vitro.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to cause substantial economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Current vaccination strategies and antiviral drugs against PRRSV are still inadequate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antiviral strategies to control PRRSV. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO) is a synthetic construct consisting of a dsRNA detection domain, an apoptosis induction domain, and a transduction tag. It has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity, but there have been no reports regarding its effect on PRRSV. Here, we demonstrate that DRACO exhibits robust antiviral activity against PRRSV infection by suppressing virus RNA and protein synthesis in both Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). In addition, DRACO still exhibited strong anti-PRRSV activity when viral replication was enhanced by knockdown of interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3) in Marc-145 cells. Furthermore, in PAMs, DRACO was capable of inducing IL-6 expression and reducing Hsp70 expression, which might contribute to the inhibition of PRRSV infection. Collectively, our results imply that DRACO holds promise as a novel anti-PRRSV therapeutic drug. PMID:25772577

Guo, Chunhe; Chen, Luxi; Mo, Delin; Chen, Yaosheng; Liu, Xiaohong

2015-05-01

211

Protection of Penaeus monodon against White Spot Syndrome Virus by Oral Vaccination  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the shrimp farming industry. No adequate treatments against this virus are available. It is generally accepted that invertebrates such as shrimp do not have an adaptive immune response system such as that present in vertebrates. As it has been demonstrated that shrimp surviving a WSSV infection have higher survival rates upon subsequent rechallenge, we investigated the potential of oral vaccination of shrimp with subunit vaccines consisting of WSSV virion envelope proteins. Penaeus monodon shrimp were fed food pellets coated with inactivated bacteria overexpressing two WSSV envelope proteins, VP19 and VP28. Vaccination with VP28 showed a significant lower cumulative mortality compared to vaccination with bacteria expressing the empty vectors after challenge via immersion (relative survival, 61%), while vaccination with VP19 provided no protection. To determine the onset and duration of protection, challenges were subsequently performed 3, 7, and 21 days after vaccination. A significantly higher survival was observed both 3 and 7 days postvaccination (relative survival, 64% and 77%, respectively), but the protection was reduced 21 days after the vaccination (relative survival, 29%). This suggests that contrary to current assumptions that invertebrates do not have a true adaptive immune system, a specific immune response and protection can be induced in P. monodon. These experiments open up new ways to benefit the WSSV-hampered shrimp farming industry. PMID:14747570

Witteveldt, Jeroen; Cifuentes, Carolina C.; Vlak, Just M.; van Hulten, Mariëlle C. W.

2004-01-01

212

The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation  

PubMed Central

Background. There are challenges in the clinical diagnosis of drug-induced injury and in obtaining information on the reactivation of human herpes viruses (HHV) during idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. Objectives. (i) To develop a unified list of drugs incriminated in drug-induced hepatotoxicity and severe cutaneous reactions, in which drug hypersensitivity leads to HHV-6 reactivation and further complication of therapy and recovery and (ii) to supplement the already available data on reporting frequencies of liver- or skin-induced cases with knowledge of individual case reports, including HHV-6 reactivation and briefly introducing chromosomally integrated HHV-6. Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i) idiosyncratic reactions, (ii) drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii) human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy. PMID:22666603

Pritchett, Joshua C.; Nanau, Radu M.; Neuman, Manuela G.

2012-01-01

213

Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Fetal Susceptibility to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing). The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although ?? T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection. PMID:25275491

Ladinig, Andrea; Foxcroft, George; Ashley, Carolyn; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

2014-01-01

214

Comparative analysis of complete nucleotide sequence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in Thailand (US and EU genotypes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of the selected two Thai PRRSV isolates, EU (01CB1) and US (01NP1) genotypes were determined since both isolates are the Thai prototypes. RESULTS: 01CB1 and 01NP1 contain 14,943 and 15,412 nucleotides, respectively. The viruses

Alongkorn Amonsin; Roongtham Kedkovid; Suphasawatt Puranaveja; Piya Wongyanin; Sanipa Suradhat; Roongroje Thanawongnuwech

2009-01-01

215

Schizophrenia or possession?  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is typically a life-long condition characterized by acute symptom exacerbations and widely varying degrees of functional disability. Some of its symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, produce great subjective psychological pain. The most common delusion types are as follows: "My feelings and movements are controlled by others in a certain way" and "They put thoughts in my head that are not mine." Hallucinatory experiences are generally voices talking to the patient or among themselves. Hallucinations are a cardinal positive symptom of schizophrenia which deserves careful study in the hope it will give information about the pathophysiology of the disorder. We thought that many so-called hallucinations in schizophrenia are really illusions related to a real environmental stimulus. One approach to this hallucination problem is to consider the possibility of a demonic world. Demons are unseen creatures that are believed to exist in all major religions and have the power to possess humans and control their body. Demonic possession can manifest with a range of bizarre behaviors which could be interpreted as a number of different psychotic disorders with delusions and hallucinations. The hallucination in schizophrenia may therefore be an illusion-a false interpretation of a real sensory image formed by demons. A local faith healer in our region helps the patients with schizophrenia. His method of treatment seems to be successful because his patients become symptom free after 3 months. Therefore, it would be useful for medical professions to work together with faith healers to define better treatment pathways for schizophrenia. PMID:23269538

Irmak, M Kemal

2014-06-01

216

A Molecular Clock Dates the Common Ancestor of European-type Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus at More Than 10 Years before the Emergence of Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) emerged independently and almost simultaneously in Europe (1990) and North America (1987). The original reservoir of the virus and the date it entered the pig populations is not known. In this study, we demonstrate an accurate molecular clock for the European PRRSV ORF 3 gene, place the root in

Roald Forsberg; Martin B. Oleksiewicz; Anne-Mette Krabbe Petersen; Jotun Hein; Anette Bøtner; Torben Storgaard

2001-01-01

217

Presence of interferon-alpha delays viral replication and reduces disease signs in pigs challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Compared to other viruses that infect the respiratory system, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) appears to induce only modest levels of interferon-alpha (IFNA). However, IFNA has been shown to inhibit PRRSV replication in vitro, and indirectly to inhibit replication in viv...

218

Differential profile of genes expressed in hemocytes of White Spot Syndrome Virus-resistant shrimp ( Penaeus japonicus) by combining suppression subtractive hybridization and differential hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is the major viral pathogen of culture shrimp. Although remarkable progress has been made in characterizing the WSSV genome, information concerning the antiviral process of host is still limited. To identify the genes differentially expressed along with their expression profile in the hemocytes of the virus-resistant shrimp, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and differential hybridization (DH)

Nanhai He; Qiwei Qin; Xun Xu

2005-01-01

219

Efficiency and sensitivity determination of Shrimple®, an immunochromatographic assay for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), using quantitative real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a prevalent and virulent pathogen affecting both wild and cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Molecular diagnostic tools have made detection of the virus increasingly accurate. However, these techniques are often not readily available for rapid diagnosis in the field or in shrimp production facilities. Shrimple®, an immunochromatographic detection assay for WSSV, was designed specifically for

James W. B. Powell; Erin J. Burge; Craig L. Browdy; Eleanor F. Shepard

2006-01-01

220

Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection of porcine alveolar macrophages on Toll-like receptors elicitation of type I interferon responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of virus replication initially depends on rapid activation of the innate immune responses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are potent inducers of innate immunity against viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) initiates infection in pulmonary alveolar m...

221

DETECTION OF PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS IN SEMEN AND SERUM OF BOARS DURING THE FIRST SIX DAYS AFTER INOCULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the number one disease problem faced by pork producers in the US. It is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and this virus can be shed in the semen of infected boars. Transmission of PRRSV by way of contaminated semen is a significant problem fo...

222

Anti-hepatitis C virus seropositivity is not associated with metabolic syndrome irrespective of age, gender and fibrosis.  

PubMed

Although many studies have tried to clarify the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and metabolic syndrome, few studies have comprehensively assessed their relationship stratified by different demographic characteristics. We aimed to investigate the correlation between metabolic syndrome and anti-HCV seropositivity in Taiwan. This study enrolled consecutive subjects who had received health check-up services at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention. Among the 30616 subjects enrolled in this study, the prevalence of positive anti-HCV serology was 2.7%, and 28.8% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. By multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with higher body mass index, older age, male sex, a higher level of alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, platelet count and the presence of fatty liver whereas anti-HCV seropositivity was not an independent variable for metabolic syndrome. Further stratifying the subjects by age and sex, and there was still no significant difference in HCV status between those with and without metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the stage of liver fibrosis represented by aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index was also not correlated with metabolic syndrome in the subjects with anti-HCV seropositivity. In conclusion, although subjects with anti-HCV seropositivity had higher fasting glucose levels and lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to those with negative anti-HCV test, anti-HCV seropositivity was not associated with metabolic syndrome based on the current diagnostic criteria irrespective of age, gender and the stage of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:25671827

Cheng, Yuan-Lung; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Huo, Teh-Ia; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Su, Chien-Wei; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Lee, Shou-Dong

2015-01-01

223

Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently

Wang-Jing Liu; Yun-Shiang Chang; Chung-Hsiung Wang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Chu-Fang Lo

2005-01-01

224

Characterization of white spot syndrome virus replication in in vitro-cultured haematopoietic stem cells of freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in haematopoietic cells (hpt cells) derived from haematopoietic tissue (hpt) of freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Temperatureandtypeofinoculumforvirusreplicationwerestudied.Thecellcultureremainedviable at awide range of temperatures ranging from 4 to 25 6C.WSSV replicated incells, as evidenced by in situ hybridization, RT-PCR and by the presence of virions visualized with an electron microscope. Moreover, the results showed

Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Kenneth Soderhall

2006-01-01

225

Oral Administration of Bacterially Expressed VP28dsRNA to Protect Penaeus monodon from White Spot Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the possibility of protecting Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection via interference RNA technology by oral administration of bacterially\\u000a expressed WSSV VP28dsRNA. Shrimp were given dsRNA orally via two methods. In the first method, pellet feed was coated with\\u000a inactivated bacteria containing overexpressed dsRNA of the WSSV VP28 gene, and in the second method, pellet

M. Sarathi; Martin C. Simon; C. Venkatesan; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2008-01-01

226

Rapid detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid detection assay based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed for detecting porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The RT-LAMP assay utilized a set of six primers to amplify the open reading frame 6 (ORF6) of the PRRSV. The amplified products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis or visualized by colorimetric method. The results

Qiang Li; Qing-feng Zhou; Chun-yi Xue; Jing-yun Ma; Dao-zhong Zhu; Yong-chang Cao

2009-01-01

227

Construction and characterization of a novel recombinant single-chain variable fragment antibody against White Spot Syndrome Virus from shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

An antibody phage display library against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) was constructed. After four rounds of panning against WSSV, 192 out of 480 clones displayed WSSV binding activity. One of the positive clones, designated A1, had relatively higher activity specifically binding to WSSV. A1-soluble, single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody has an affinity constant (Kaff) of 2.02±0.42×109 M?1. Dot blot

Heping Dai; Hong Gao; Xinyan Zhao; Linfen Dai; Xiankong Zhang; Nan Xiao; Ruohong Zhao; Sean M Hemmingsen

2003-01-01

228

Identification of differentially expressed genes in shrimp ( Penaeus stylirostris ) infected with White spot syndrome virus by cDNA microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is currently the most important viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made in characterizing the WSSV genome and developing detection methods, information pertaining to host genes involved in WSSV pathogenesis is limited. We examined the potential of cDNA microarray analysis to study gene expression in WSSV-infected shrimp. Shrimp cDNAs

A. K. Dhar; A. Dettori; M. M. Roux; K. R. Klimpel; B. Read

2003-01-01

229

Characterization of a novel envelope protein (VP281) of shrimp white spot syndrome virus by mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary structure of a novel envelope protein from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was characterized using a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. The resulting amino acid sequence matched an open reading frame (ORF), ORF1050, of the WSSV genome ORF database. ORF1050 contained 843 nt, encoding 281 aa, and was termed the vp281 gene. Computer-assisted analysis showed that

Canhua Huang; Xiaobo Zhang; Qingsong Lin; Xun Xu; L. Hew

2002-01-01

230

Genetic (co)variation in resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and harvest weight in Penaeus ( Litopenaeus) vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 339 full-sib families (representing 143 paternal half-sib families) and 337 full-sib families (representing 145 paternal half-sib families) were respectively challenged with White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in a controlled environment and tested for growth performance under commercial growing conditions. The families were derived from two selected lines. The estimates of heritability (h2±SE) for the two lines were

Thomas Gitterle; Ragnar Salte; Bjarne Gjerde; James Cock; Harry Johansen; Marcela Salazar; Carlos Lozano; Morten Rye

2005-01-01

231

Screening the organs for early detection of white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus indicus by histopathology and PCR techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR and histopathological observations were carried out at different time intervals to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp samples obtained from time-course experiments. Histopathological observations revealed the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in gill tissue, eyestalk, appendages and connective tissue at 36 h post-infection (p.i.) and in heart and stomach at 48 h p.i. The PCR analysis showed

K Yoganandhan; S Sathish; V Murugan; R. B Narayanan; A. S Sahul Hameed

2003-01-01

232

Immunological responses of Penaeus monodon to DNA vaccine and its efficacy to protect shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot disease is an important viral disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and is responsible for huge economic losses in the shrimp culture industry worldwide. The VP28 gene encoding the most dominant envelope protein of WSSV was used to construct a DNA vaccine. The VP28 gene was cloned in the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1 and the construct

S. Rajesh Kumar; V. P. Ishaq Ahamed; M. Sarathi; A. Nazeer Basha; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2008-01-01

233

Dietary ?-1,3-glucan effectively improves immunity and survival of Penaeus monodon challenged with white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of dietary ?-1,3-glucan (BG), derived from Schizophyllum commune, in modulating the non-specific immunity of the grass prawn Penaeus monodon and its resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were investigated. Juvenile P. monodon (6.5±0.4g) were fed for 20 days on a series of test diets containing graded levels of BG (0, 1, 2, 10, 20gkg?1diet) and were then

Cheng-Fang Chang; Mao-Sen Su; Houng-Yung Chen; I-Chiu Liao

2003-01-01

234

Protection of shrimp ( Penaeus chinensis) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge by double-stranded RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether Penaeus chinensis can be protected against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection by intramuscular injection with long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) as in other shrimp species and whether the protection degree by WSSV-specific dsRNAs is correlated with the roles of viral genes, P. chinensis juveniles were intramuscularly injected with long dsRNAs corresponding to VP28, VP281, protein kinase genes

Chun Soo Kim; Zenke Kosuke; Yoon Kwon Nam; Sung Koo Kim; Ki Hong Kim

2007-01-01

235

White Spot Syndrome Virus Annexes a Shrimp STAT To Enhance Expression of the Immediate-Early Gene ie1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 30 August 2006\\/Accepted 12 October 2006 Although the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway is part of the antiviral response in arthropods such as Drosophila, here we show that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) uses a shrimp STAT as a transcription factor to enhance viral gene expression in host cells. In a series of deletion

Wang-Jing Liu; Yun-Shiang Chang; Andrew H.-J. Wang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Chu-Fang Lo

2007-01-01

236

PmRab7 Is a VP28Binding Protein Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to isolate and characterize white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-binding proteins from shrimp. After a blot of shrimp hemocyte membrane proteins was overlaid with a recombinant WSSV envelope protein (rVP28), the reactive bands on the blot were detected using anti-VP28 antibody. Among three membrane- associated molecules identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, there was a 25-kDa protein that

Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; W. Wannapapho; C. F. Lo; T. W. Flegel

2006-01-01

237

The structure and function of a gene encoding a basic peptide from prawn white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prawn white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the major pathogen responsible for the high mortality of cultured prawns. A gene (termed as p6.8) encoding a basic peptide was found by screening the cDNA and DNA libraries of WSSV. The peptide was highly homologous with proteins rich in arginine and lysine. A fusion protein containing the p6.8 and green fluorescent protein

Xiaobo Zhang; Xun Xu; Choy Leong Hew

2001-01-01

238

Cloning, Characterization, and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Gene That Encodes a Protein Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 715-amino-acid polypeptide was found in an 8421-bp EcoRI fragment of the shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome. The polypeptide shows significant homology to eukaryotic serine\\/threonine protein kinase (PK) and contains the major conserved subdomains for eukaryotic protein kinases. Coupled in vitro transcription and translation generated a protein having an apparent molecular

Wang-Jing Liu; Hon-Tsen Yu; Shao-En Peng; Yun-Shiang Chang; Hsiu-Wen Pien; Ching-Ju Lin; Chiu-Jung Huang; Meng-Feng Tsai; Chang-Jen Huang; Chung-Hsiung Wang; Jung-Yaw Lin; Chu-Fang Lo; Guang-Hsiung Kou

2001-01-01

239

Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A

Li Li; Xixian Xie; Feng Yang

2005-01-01

240

Cytokine profiles and phenotype regulation of antigen presenting cells by genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the immunological response of antigen presenting cells (APC) to genotype-I isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection by analysing the cytokine profile induced and evaluating the changes taking place upon infection on immunologically relevant cell markers (MHCI, MHCII, CD80\\/86, CD14, CD16, CD163, CD172a, SWC9). Several types of APC were infected with 39 PRRSV

Mariona Gimeno; Laila Darwich; Ivan Diaz; Eugenia de la Torre; Joan Pujols; Marga Martín; Shigeki Inumaru; Esmeralda Cano; Mariano Domingo; Maria Montoya; Enric Mateu

2011-01-01

241

Possible transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection from an elite controller to a patient who progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, exhibit persistent virus replication and declining CD4+ cell numbers, and progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome within 10?years of infection. Elite controllers are rare individuals with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection who can maintain undetectable plasma virus levels and remain asymptomatic without antiretroviral therapy. It has been proposed that elite controllers benefit from being infected with attenuated human immunodeficiency virus-1 variants. Case presentation A 31-year-old African woman presented with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection during pregnancy and was diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Subsequently, her husband, a 31-year-old African man, was tested and found to be seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus-1. His plasma human immunodeficiency virus-1 ribonucleic acid level was found to be below the limit of detection of the clinical assay. Conclusion This report provides evidence for the first described case of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection possibly transmitted from an elite controller to a patient who progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This observation strengthens the case against avirulence as a mechanism that protects elite controllers. PMID:22967353

2012-01-01

242

Collaboration between a soluble C-type lectin and calreticulin facilitates white spot syndrome virus infection in shrimp.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) mainly infects crustaceans through the digestive tract. Whether C-type lectins (CLs), which are important receptors for many viruses, participate in WSSV infection in the shrimp stomach remains unknown. In this study, we orally infected kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus to model the natural transmission of WSSV and identified a CL (designated as M. japonicus stomach virus-associated CL [MjsvCL]) that was significantly induced by virus infection in the stomach. Knockdown of MjsvCL expression by RNA interference suppressed the virus replication, whereas exogenous MjsvCL enhanced it. Further analysis by GST pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation showed that MjsvCL could bind to viral protein 28, the most abundant and functionally relevant envelope protein of WSSV. Furthermore, cell-surface calreticulin was identified as a receptor of MjsvCL, and the interaction between these proteins was a determinant for the viral infection-promoting activity of MjsvCL. The MjsvCL-calreticulin pathway facilitated virus entry likely in a cholesterol-dependent manner. This study provides insights into a mechanism by which soluble CLs capture and present virions to the cell-surface receptor to facilitate viral infection. PMID:25070855

Wang, Xian-Wei; Xu, Yi-Hui; Xu, Ji-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2014-09-01

243

Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.  

PubMed

This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome. PMID:7258407

Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

1981-01-01

244

A Lethal Disease Model for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters Infected with Sin Nombre Virus  

PubMed Central

Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model. PMID:24198421

Brocato, Rebecca L.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Bell, Todd M.; Wells, Jay B.; Queen, Laurie A.

2014-01-01

245

Characterization of homologous and heterologous adaptive immune responses in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection  

PubMed Central

The present study characterized the homologous and heterologous immune response in type-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Two experiments were conducted: in experiment 1, eight pigs were inoculated with PRRSV strain 3262 and 84?days post-inoculation (dpi) they were challenged with either strain 3262 or strain 3267 and followed for the next 14?days (98 dpi). In experiment 2, eight pigs were inoculated with strain 3267 and challenged at 84 dpi as above. Clinical course, viremia, humoral response (neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, NA) and virus-specific IFN-? responses (ELISPOT) were evaluated all throughout the study. Serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and TGF-? were determined (ELISA) after the second challenge. In experiment 1 primo-inoculation with strain 3262 induced viremia of???28?days, low titres of homologous NA but strong IFN-? responses. In contrast, strain 3267 induced longer viremias (up to 56?days), higher NA titres (? 6 log2) and lower IFN-? responses. Inoculation with 3267 produced higher serum IL-8 levels. After the re-challenge at 84 dpi, pigs in experiment 1 developed mostly a one week viremia regardless of the strain used. In experiment 2, neither the homologous nor the heterologous challenge resulted in detectable viremia although PRRSV was present in tonsils of some animals. Homologous re-inoculation with 3267 produced elevated TGF-? levels in serum for 7–14?days but this did not occur with the heterologous re-inoculation. In conclusion, inoculation with different PRRSV strains result in different virological and immunological outcomes and in different degrees of homologous and heterologous protection. PMID:22515169

2012-01-01

246

Penaeus monodon Thioredoxin Restores the DNA Binding Activity of Oxidized White Spot Syndrome Virus IE1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: In this study we identified viral gene targets of the important redox regulator thioredoxin (Trx), and explored in depth how Trx interacts with the immediate early gene #1 (IE1) of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Results: In a pull-down assay, we found that recombinant Trx bound to IE1 under oxidizing conditions, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that Trx bound to WSSV IE1 when the transfected cells were subjected to oxidative stress. A pull-down assay with Trx mutants showed that no IE1 binding occurred when cysteine 62 was replaced by serine. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that the DNA binding activity of WSSV IE1 was downregulated under oxidative conditions, and that Penaeus monodon Trx (PmTrx) restored the DNA binding activity of the inactivated, oxidized WSSV IE1. Another EMSA experiment showed that IE1's Cys-X-X-Cys motif and cysteine residue 55 were necessary for DNA binding. Measurement of the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in WSSV-infected shrimp showed that oxidative stress was significantly increased at 48?h postinfection. The biological significance of Trx was also demonstrated in a double-strand RNA Trx knockdown experiment where suppression of shrimp Trx led to significant decreases in mortality and viral copy numbers. Innovation and Conclusion: WSSV's pathogenicity is enhanced by the virus' use of host Trx to rescue the DNA binding activity of WSSV IE1 under oxidizing conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 914–926. PMID:22332765

Huang, Jiun-Yan; Liu, Wang-Jing; Wang, Han-Ching; Lee, Der-Yen; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Wang, Hao-Ching; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Kang, Shih-Ting; Chen, I-Tung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung

2012-01-01

247

Epstein-Barr virus and the lacrimal gland pathology of Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland (LG) immunopathology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) consists of a proliferation of B and CD4 lymphocytes surrounding epithelial structures (Pepose JS, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:1599-1605). Based on the detection of EBV genomes in a greater percentage of SS than normal LG biopsies, we previously postulated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a risk factor for LG lymphoproliferation in SS (Pflugfelder SC, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:976-984). The purpose of this study was to determine the cellular site(s) of infection, virus type, and antigen expression of EBV infecting normal and SS LGs. EBV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in intraductal epithelia in 13-33% of lobules in 21% of normal LGs and in cells in areas of B lymphoproliferation as well as the majority of epithelia in 86% of SS LGs. EBV genomic sequences were amplified from 36% of normal and 88% of SS LG biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. Only type 1 EBV sequences were amplified in SS LGs; in contrast EBV nuclear antigen 2-deleted but not type 1 sequences were amplified in normal LGs. Immunohistochemistry with EBV-specific monoclonal antibodies was performed on normal and SS LGs. No EBV antigens were detected in normal LGs. In contrast, latent antigens (latent membrane protein, EBV nuclear antigen 2) were detected in lymphocytes in areas of B lymphoproliferation, and early and late lytic cycle antigens were observed in epithelia in SS LGs. These studies suggest that EBV may play a role in the LG B lymphoproliferation and epithelial pathologic changes observed in SS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8391219

Pflugfelder, S. C.; Crouse, C. A.; Monroy, D.; Yen, M.; Rowe, M.; Atherton, S. S.

1993-01-01

248

Persistence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in intensive farrow-to-finish pig herds.  

PubMed Central

An epidemiological study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) within pig herds was conducted in 8 intensive farrow-to-finish pig farms. Persistence of PRRS virus (PRRSV) in pig herds was demonstrated by regular postmortem examination on 2 farms for a period of 2 y. Virus isolation and serum neutralization (SN) tests were performed on the sera collected from 9 groups of pigs (10 pigs/group) of various ages on 8 pig farms. Except for 1 farm, isolation rates of PRRSV reached the highest level of 70 to 100% of pigs 6 to 8 wk of age, which coincided with the lowest levels of maternal immunity. In 1 pig herd, sows (39 in total) with SN titers of < or = 1:2, 1:4-1:8, and > or = 1:16 were designated as groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Sera were obtained from their progeny (3 pigs randomly selected from each litter) at various ages from 0 to 22 weeks. A positive correlation (r = 0.377, P < 0.001) between the SN titers of sows and those of their progeny (1-week-old piglets) was observed. Pigs at the age of 6 wk, only 7.9% of group 1 pigs compared to 72.4% of group 3 pigs were seropositive. A significant difference (P < 0.01) in the percentage of pigs with PRRSV viremia among the 3 groups was observed, with the lowest level found in group 3 pigs. The isolation rates of PRRSV from serum reached the maximum at the age of 9 wk for all 3 groups. The results indicated that passively acquired serum antibodies conferred a protective effect for piglets; however, loss of passive immunity at various ages of pigs produced susceptible pigs that resulted in PRRSV persistence in the pig herds. Pigs 6 to 9 weeks old were the major reservoir for PRRSV in farrow-to-finish pig herds. PMID:9342454

Chung, W B; Lin, M W; Chang, W F; Hsu, M; Yang, P C

1997-01-01

249

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Review article PRRSV, the virus Janneke J.M. MEULENBERG Department of Virology, Institute Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virusDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

Chronic fatigue syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

CFS; Fatigue - chronic; Immune dysfunction syndrome; Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) ... The exact cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is unknown. Some theories suggest CFS may be due to: Epstein-Barr virus or human herpes virus-6 (HHV- ...

251

Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus  

PubMed Central

Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg) was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg) prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route. PMID:24217424

Ogg, Monica; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Hooper, Jay W.

2013-01-01

252

Preparation of transgenic Dunaliella salina for immunization against white spot syndrome virus in crayfish.  

PubMed

Although a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) subunit vaccine could significantly enhance the immune response and benefit the shrimp host, its practical application is currently not feasible because of drawbacks in existing expression systems. We generated a transgenic Dunaliella salina (D. salina) strain by introducing the WSSV VP28 gene to produce a novel oral WSSV subunit vaccine. Following transformation of D. salina, VP28 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and western blot analysis. The RT-PCR results indicated that the VP28 gene was successfully expressed in D. salina cells. The presence of recombinant VP28 proteins with natural bioactivity was confirmed by western blot analysis and ELISA. Animal vaccination experiments indicated that transgenic D. salina can induce protection against WSSV by oral delivery in crayfish. Our findings indicate that the VP28 gene can be successfully expressed in transgenic D. salina and can be applied as an oral vaccine to protect crayfish against WSSV. We have demonstrated that it is feasible to produce an oral vaccine using D. salina, and thereby provide a new method for controlling other viral diseases in crustaceans. PMID:24081826

Feng, Shuying; Feng, Wenpo; Zhao, Ling; Gu, Huihui; Li, Qinghua; Shi, Ke; Guo, Sanxing; Zhang, Nannan

2014-03-01

253

Molecular immune response of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) to the White Spot Syndrome Virus.  

PubMed

The adult American lobster (Homarus americanus) is susceptible to few naturally occurring pathogens, and no viral pathogen is known to exist. Despite this, relatively little is known about the H. americanus immune system and nothing is known about its potential viral immune response. Hundreds of rural communities in Atlantic Canada rely on the lobster fishery for their economic sustainability and could be devastated by large-scale pathogen-mediated mortality events. The White Spot Syndrome Virus is the most economically devastating viral pathogen to global shrimp aquaculture production and has been proposed to be capable of infecting all decapod crustaceans including the European Lobster. An in vivo WSSV injection challenge was conducted in H. americanus and WSSV was found to be capable of infecting and replicating within lobsters held at 20°C. The in vivo WSSV challenge also generated the first viral disease model of H. americanus and allowed for the high-throughput examination of transcriptomic changes that occur during viral infection. Microarray analysis found 136 differentially expressed genes and the expression of a subset of these genes was verified using RT-qPCR. Anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms and acute phase serum amyloid protein A expression did not change during WSSV infection, contrary to previous findings during bacterial and parasitic infection of H. americanus. This, along with the differential gene expression of thioredoxin and trypsin isoforms, provides compelling evidence that H. americanus is capable of mounting an immune response specific to infection by different pathogen classes. PMID:24045127

Clark, K Fraser; Greenwood, Spencer J; Acorn, Adam R; Byrne, Philip J

2013-11-01

254

Observation of high recombination occurrence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in field condition.  

PubMed

Recombination in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is a well-documented phenomenon. A high recombination frequency has been reported in experimental conditions both in vitro and in vivo, and its role in driving viral evolution has been postulated by several authors. However field evidences are rare, mainly obtained from large-scale sampling and typically represented by single sequences rather than by groups of circulating "recombinant progenies". The present work was aimed to investigate the gray area between experimental studies and large-scale epidemiological investigations. The study was performed on ORF5, ORF7 and concatenated sequences obtained in our laboratory or available in GenBank collected between 2009 and 2012 in northern Italy. Six independent recombinant strains out of 66 concatenated sequences (?9%) were found, demonstrating a high recombination frequency respect to previous field studies but comparable to in vitro experiments. In silico analysis let speculate that this new strain displayed physicochemical features diverse enough to potentially alter its immunological properties. Taken altogether, the results of our study support previous experimental evidences that depict PRRSV to be extremely prone to recombination. The limited temporal and geographical spread of recombinant strains however states in favor of a limited fitness of the recombinant progeny compared to parental strains and the marginal role of this phenomenon in PRRSV evolution. PMID:25150757

Franzo, Giovanni; Cecchinato, Mattia; Martini, Marco; Ceglie, Letizia; Gigli, Alessandra; Drigo, Michele

2014-12-19

255

Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

2008-08-01

256

The tidepool shrimp, Palaemon ritteri Holmes, constitutes a novel host to the white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal and contagious pathogen for penaeid shrimp and a growing number of other crustacean species. To date, there are no effective prophylactic or therapeutic treatments commercially available to interfere with the occurrence and spread of the disease. In addition, the significance of alternative vectors on the dispersal of this disease has been largely ignored and therefore the ecological dynamics of the WSSV is still poorly understood and difficult to ascertain. Thus, an important issue that should be considered in sanitary programmes and management strategies is the identification of species susceptible to infection by WSSV. The results obtained provide the first direct evidence of ongoing WSSV replication in experimentally infected specimens of the tidepool shrimp Palaemon ritteri. Viral replication was detected using a validated set of primers for the amplification by RT-PCR of a 141 bp fragment of the transcript encoding the viral protein VP28. It is therefore conceivable that this shrimp may play a significant role in the dispersal of WSSV. PMID:24953350

Sánchez-Paz, A; Terán-Díaz, B; Enríquez-Espinoza, T; Encinas-Garcia, T; Vázquez-Sánchez, I; Mendoza-Cano, F

2014-06-23

257

Vanishing bile duct syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) is a group of rare disorders characterized by ductopenia, the progressive destruction and disappearance of intrahepatic bile ducts leading to cholestasis. Described in association with medications, autoimmune disorders, cancer, transplantation, and infections, the specific mechanisms of disease are not known. To date, only 4 cases of VBDS have been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. We report 2 additional cases of HIV-associated VBDS and review the features common to the HIV-associated cases. Presentation includes hyperbilirubinemia, normal liver imaging, and negative viral and autoimmune hepatitis studies. In HIV-infected subjects, VBDS occurred at a range of CD4+ T-cell counts, in some cases following initiation or change in antiretroviral therapy. Lymphoma was associated with two cases; nevirapine, antibiotics, and viral co-infection were suggested as etiologies in the other cases. In HIV-positive patients with progressive cholestasis, early identification of VBDS and referral for transplantation may improve outcomes. PMID:23326172

Oppenheimer, Ana Paula; Koh, Christopher; McLaughlin, Mary; Williamson, John C; Norton, Thomas D; Laudadio, Jennifer; Heller, Theo; Kleiner, David E; High, Kevin P; Morse, Caryn G

2013-01-01

258

Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

Ocular complications are known to occur as a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. They can be severe leading to ocular morbidity and visual handicap. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Though posterior segment lesions can be more vision-threatening, there are varied anterior segment manifestations which can also lead to ocular morbidity and more so can affect the quality of life of a HIV-positive person. Effective antiretroviral therapy and improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections have led to an increase in the survival of an individual afflicted with AIDS. This in turn has led to an increase in the prevalence of anterior segment and adnexal disorders. Common lesions include relatively benign conditions such as blepharitis and dry eye, to infections such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus and molluscum contagiosum and malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi?s sarcoma. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a new phenomenon known as immune recovery uveitis which presents with increased inflammation, has been noted to be on the rise. Several drugs used in the management of AIDS such as nevirapine or indinavir can themselves lead to severe inflammation in the anterior segment and adnexa of the eye. This article is a comprehensive update of the important anterior segment and adnexal manifestations in HIV-positive patients with special reference to their prevalence in the Indian population. PMID:18711264

Sudharshan, S

2008-01-01

259

Vanishing bile duct syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults: A report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) is a group of rare disorders characterized by ductopenia, the progressive destruction and disappearance of intrahepatic bile ducts leading to cholestasis. Described in association with medications, autoimmune disorders, cancer, transplantation, and infections, the specific mechanisms of disease are not known. To date, only 4 cases of VBDS have been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. We report 2 additional cases of HIV-associated VBDS and review the features common to the HIV-associated cases. Presentation includes hyperbilirubinemia, normal liver imaging, and negative viral and autoimmune hepatitis studies. In HIV-infected subjects, VBDS occurred at a range of CD4+ T-cell counts, in some cases following initiation or change in antiretroviral therapy. Lymphoma was associated with two cases; nevirapine, antibiotics, and viral co-infection were suggested as etiologies in the other cases. In HIV-positive patients with progressive cholestasis, early identification of VBDS and referral for transplantation may improve outcomes. PMID:23326172

Oppenheimer, Ana Paula; Koh, Christopher; McLaughlin, Mary; Williamson, John C; Norton, Thomas D; Laudadio, Jennifer; Heller, Theo; Kleiner, David E; High, Kevin P; Morse, Caryn G

2013-01-01

260

Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV. PMID:23116484

Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

2013-04-01

261

[Two cases of symptomatic West syndrome suffering from severe respiratory syncytial virus-induced bronchiolitis].  

PubMed

We report two cases of symptomatic West syndrome with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis: one was a 9-month-old boy who was hospitalized for shock, and the other was a 15-month-old boy in pre-shock condition. Both cases needed mechanical ventilation for approximately 2 weeks. Seizures from the primary disease worsened in both patients during the infection, and both needed long periods of hospitalization, which resulted in a considerable reduction in their quality of life and that of their families. According to a one-year epidemiological survey of RSV infection conducted in 2004-2005 in Nagano prefecture, 7 of 238 hospitalized RSV cases were found to have basic neuromuscular disorders. Compared to patients with chronic lung disease or other primary diseases, they were older, had higher incidence of mechanical ventilation, and required longer hospitalization. Neuromuscular disorders may thus be an important risk factor for severe forms of RSV infection. Although children with such disorders should be protected from RSV, they are currently excluded from the indication for palivizumab administration as passive immunization against RSV in Japan. PMID:21077358

Higuchi, Tsukasa; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Misawa, Yuka; Arai, Fumi; Inaba, Yuji

2010-11-01

262

Proteomic Analysis of the Major Envelope and Nucleocapsid Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus?  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) virions were purified from the tissues of infected Procambarus clarkii (crayfish) isolates. Pure WSSV preparations were subjected to Triton X-100 treatment to separate into the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions, which were subsequently separated by 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The major envelope and nucleocapsid proteins were identified by either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry or defined antibody. A total of 30 structural proteins of WSSV were identified in this study; 22 of these were detected in the envelope fraction, 7 in the nucleocapsid fraction, and 1 in both the envelope and the nucleocapsid fractions. With the aid of specific antibodies, the localizations of eight proteins were further studied. The analysis of posttranslational modifications revealed that none of the WSSV structural proteins was glycosylated and that VP28 and VP19 were threonine phosphorylated. In addition, far-Western and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that VP28 interacted with both VP26 and VP24. In summary, the data obtained in this study should provide an important reference for future molecular studies of WSSV morphogenesis. PMID:16928742

Xie, Xixian; Xu, Limei; Yang, Feng

2006-01-01

263

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

264

White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. PMID:24111694

Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

2013-12-01

265

Significance of parvoviruses, entero-like viruses and reoviruses in the aetiology of the chicken malabsorption syndrome.  

PubMed

Specific-pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens and commercial broilers were inoculated orally at 1 day of age with different intestinal preparations containing a chicken parvovirus, an entero-like virus associated with a reovirus from field materials, or the entero-like viruses and reovirus alone. Despite viral multiplication in inoculated birds, no clinical signs or growth retardation were observed in SPF and broiler chickens infected with the reo or parvoviruses. Abnormal faeces and reduction in weight gains were observed after infection with the field materials and the entero-like viruses. Some easily sedimentable particles could be involved with the entero-like virus in the aetiology of runting syndrome. Proventriculitis was present in chickens inoculated with one of the field materials and with the entero-like virus isolated from that material. Specific-pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens were as susceptible as commercial broiler chickens to weight gain depression after oral inoculation with crude homogenates at 1 day of age. PMID:18766578

Decaesstecker, M; Charlier, G; Meulemans, G

1986-01-01

266

New DNA viruses identified in patients with acute viral infection syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequence-independent PCR amplification method was used to identify viral nucleic acids in the plasma samples of 25 individuals presenting with symptoms of acute viral infection following high-risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus was identified in three individuals and hepatitis B virus in one individual. Three previously undescribed DNA viruses were also

Morris S. Jones; Amit Kapoor; Vladimir V. Lukashov; Peter Simmonds; Frederick Hecht; Eric Delwart

2005-01-01

267

Features of circulation of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) virus among small mammals in the European U.S.S.R.  

PubMed

The use of indirect fluorescent antibody testing (IFAT) and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) procedures allowed the hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) virus antigen to be detected not only in the known reservoir host, Clethrionomys glareolus, but also in 7 other species of small mammals in European foci of the U.S.S.R. Marked viscerotropism of HFRS virus and the participation of brown fat in maintaining the infection in rodents were demonstrated. The frequency of detection of circulating antigen and antibody to HFRS virus in rodents is indicative of the high level of activity of the virus in its epizootic foci. PMID:6220688

Gavrilovskaya, I N; Apekina, N S; Myasnikov YuA; Bernshtein, A D; Ryltseva, E V; Gorbachkova, E A; Chumakov, M P

1983-01-01

268

Generation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by in vitro assembly of viral genomic cDNA fragments.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent for a swine disease affecting the pig industry worldwide. Infection with PRRSV leads to reproductive complications, respiratory illness, and weak immunity to secondary infections. To better control PRRSV infection, novel approaches for generating control measures are critically needed. Here, in vitro Gibson assembly (GA) of viral genomic cDNA fragments was tested for its use as a quick and simple method to recover infectious PRRSV in cell culture. GA involves the activities of T5-exonuclease, Phusion polymerase, and Taq ligase to join overlapping cDNA fragments in an isothermal condition. Four overlapping cDNA fragments covering the entire PRRSV genome and one vector fragment were used to create a plasmid capable of expressing the PRRSV genome. The assembled product was used to transfect a co-culture of 293T and MARC-145 cells. Supernatants from the transfected cells were then passaged onto MARC-145 cells to rescue infectious virus particles. Verification and characterization of the recovered virus confirmed that the GA protocol generated infectious PRRSV that had similar characteristics to the parental virus. This approach was then tested for the generation of a chimeric virus. By replacing one of the four genomic fragments with that of another virus strain, a chimeric virus was successfully recovered via GA. In conclusion, this study describes for the first time the use of GA as a simple, yet powerful tool for generating infectious PRRSV needed for studying PRRSV biology and developing novel vaccines. PMID:25300804

Suhardiman, Maman; Kramyu, Jarin; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Jongkaewwattana, Anan; Wanasen, Nanchaya

2015-01-01

269

Polarisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex II Host Genotype with Pathogenesis of European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of European Brown Hare Syndrome virus (EBHSV) in Denmark and possible relation between disease pathogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) host genotype. Liver samples were examined from 170 brown hares (hunted, found sick or dead), collected between 2004 and 2009. Macroscopical and histopathological findings consistent with EBHS were detected in 24 (14.1%) hares; 35 (20.6%) had liver lesions not typical of the syndrome, 50 (29.4%) had lesions in other tissues and 61 (35.9%) had no lesions. Sixty five (38.2%) of 170 samples were found to be EBHSV-positive (RT-PCR, VP60 gene). In order to investigate associations between viral pathogenesis and host genotype, variation within the exon 2 DQA gene of MHC was assessed. DQA exon 2 analysis revealed the occurrence of seven different alleles in Denmark. Consistent with other populations examined so far in Europe, observed heterozygosity of DQA (Ho?=?0.1180) was lower than expected (He?=?0.5835). The overall variation for both nucleotide and amino acid differences (2.9% and 14.9%, respectively) were lower in Denmark than those assessed in other European countries (8.3% and 16.9%, respectively). Within the peptide binding region codons the number of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) was much higher than synonymous substitutions (dS), which would be expected for MHC alleles under balancing selection. Allele frequencies did not significantly differ between EBHSV-positive and -negative hares. However, allele Leeu-DQA*30 was detected in significantly higher (P?=?0.000006) frequency among the positive hares found dead with severe histopathological lesions than among those found sick or apparently healthy. In contrast, the latter group was characterized by a higher frequency of the allele Leeu-DQA*14 as well as the proportion of heterozygous individuals (P?=?0.000006 and P?=?0.027). These data reveal a polarisation between EBHSV pathogenesis and MHC class II genotype within the European brown hare in Denmark. PMID:24069299

Iacovakis, Christos; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A.; Touloudi, Antonia; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Valiakos, George; Giannoulis, Themis; Stamatis, Costas; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Kantere, Maria; Asferg, Tommy; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Salomonsen, Charlotte M.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Birtsas, Periklis; Petrovska, Liljana; Hannant, Duncan; Billinis, Charalambos

2013-01-01

270

Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Fenneropenaeus chinensis Hemocytes upon White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

To elucidate molecular responses of shrimp hemocytes to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was applied to investigate differentially expressed proteins in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) at 24 h post infection (hpi). Approximately 580 protein spots were detected in hemocytes of healthy and WSSV-infected shrimps. Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 26 protein spots were significantly up-regulated, and 19 spots were significantly down-regulated. By mass spectrometry, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) 1, cytosolic MnSOD, triosephosphate isomerase, tubulin alpha-1 chain, microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1, nuclear receptor E75 protein, vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B L form, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, arginine kinase, etc., amounting to 33 differentially modulated proteins were identified successfully. According to Gene Ontology annotation, the identified proteins were classified into nine categories, consisting of immune related proteins, stimulus response proteins, proteins involved in glucose metabolic process, cytoskeleton proteins, DNA or protein binding proteins, proteins involved in steroid hormone mediated signal pathway, ATP synthases, proteins involved in transmembrane transport and ungrouped proteins. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of three up-regulated proteins (SUMO, heat shock protein 70, and arginine kinase) and one down-regulated protein (prophenoloxidase) were further analyzed by real-time RT-PCR at the transcription level after WSSV infection. The results showed that SUMO and heat shock protein 70 were significantly up-regulated at each sampling time point, while arginine kinase was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 hpi. In contrast, prophenoloxidase was significantly down-regulated at each sampling time point. The results of this work provided preliminary data on proteins in shrimp hemocytes involved in WSSV infection. PMID:24587154

Li, Wei; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

2014-01-01

271

Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:24780624

Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

2014-10-01

272

Expression, Purification, Crystallization of Two Major Envelope Proteins from White Spot Syndrome Virus  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 {angstrom}. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 {angstrom}, and diffracts to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution.

Tang,X.; Hew, C.

2007-01-01

273

Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".  

PubMed

Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:25083808

Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

2015-02-01

274

Genomic and proteomic analysis of thirty-nine structural proteins of shrimp white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) virions were purified from the hemolymph of experimentally infected crayfish Procambarus clarkii, and their proteins were separated by 8 to 18% gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to give a protein profile. The visible bands were then excised from the gel, and following trypsin digestion of the reduced and alkylated WSSV proteins in the bands, the peptide sequence of each fragment was determined by liquid chromatography-nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-nanoESI-MS/MS) using a quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Comparison of the resulting peptide sequence data against the nonredundant database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information identified 33 WSSV structural genes, 20 of which are reported here for the first time. Since there were six other known WSSV structural proteins that could not be identified from the SDS-PAGE bands, there must therefore be a total of at least 39 (33 + 6) WSSV structural protein genes. Only 61.5% of the WSSV structural genes have a polyadenylation signal, and preliminary analysis by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends suggested that some structural protein genes produced mRNA without a poly(A) tail. Microarray analysis showed that gene expression started at 2, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hpi for 7, 1, 4, 12, 9, 5, and 1 of the genes, respectively. Based on similarities in their time course expression patterns, a clustering algorithm was used to group the WSSV structural genes into four clusters. Genes that putatively had common or similar roles in the viral infection cycle tended to appear in the same cluster. PMID:15452257

Tsai, Jyh-Ming; Wang, Han-Ching; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Hsiao, He-Hsuan; Wang, Andrew H-J; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

2004-10-01

275

Gp96 enhances the immunogenicity of subunit vaccine of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Currently available commercial vaccines provide limited protection due to delayed and weak cell-mediated immunity and neutralizing antibody production, thus the immunomodulators should be considered in order to improve the efficacy of PRRSV vaccines. Heat shock protein gp96 may be used as a modulator to enhance both innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, two multi-epitope subunit vaccines, named as Cp1 and Cp2, were designed based on the conserved B cell epitopes of viral proteins with the N-terminal 22-370 amino acids (aa) of porcine gp96 (Gp96N) chosen as the adjuvant. Immune responses elicited by the different combinations of Cp1/Cp2 and Gp96N were examined in mice and piglets. The results indicated that the group of Cp1/Cp2-Gp96N (CG) combination induced 3-4-fold higher titers of Cp1/Cp2-ELISA antibodies and neutralizing antibodies (NAs) in mice than the groups which received Cp1/Cp2 immunization alone or with Freund's adjuvant. Additionally, Gp96N significantly enhanced the levels of lymphocyte proliferative responses of splenocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccinated mice or piglets. The production of IFN-? in mice splenocytes, TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-12 in sera of piglets were also remarkably increased with the treatment of Gp96N, while IL-4 was reduced by half and IL-10 was decreased to an undetectable level. These results suggest that the porcine Gp96N could effectively enhance the innate and adaptive immune responses of Cp1/Cp2 with a Th1-type bias. Therefore, the multi-epitope subunit vaccine Cp1/Cp2 co-administered with porcine Gp96N might potentially be a promising candidate vaccine for the prevention and control of PRRSV in pigs. PMID:22561908

Chen, Caiwei; Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai; Jia, Xiaojuan; Meng, Songdong; Sun, Lei; Liu, Wenjun

2012-08-01

276

Reactomes of Porcine Alveolar Macrophages Infected with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV), which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) libraries derived from 0 hour mock-infected and 6, 12, 16 and 24 hours PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) produced a total 643,255 sequenced tags with 91,807 unique tags. Differentially expressed (DE) tags were then detected using the Bayesian framework followed by gene/mRNA assignment, arbitrary selection and manual annotation, which determined 699 DE genes for reactome analysis. The DAVID, KEGG and REACTOME databases assigned 573 of the DE genes into six biological systems, 60 functional categories and 504 pathways. The six systems are: cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, metabolism, organismal systems and human diseases as defined by KEGG with modification. Self-organizing map (SOM) analysis further grouped these 699 DE genes into ten clusters, reflecting their expression trends along these five time points. Based on the number one functional category in each system, cell growth and death, transcription processes, signal transductions, energy metabolism, immune system and infectious diseases formed the major reactomes of PAMs responding to PRRSV infection. Our investigation also focused on dominant pathways that had at least 20 DE genes identified, multi-pathway genes that were involved in 10 or more pathways and exclusively-expressed genes that were included in one system. Overall, our present study reported a large set of DE genes, compiled a comprehensive coverage of pathways, and revealed system-based reactomes of PAMs infected with PRRSV. We believe that our reactome data provides new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in host genetic complexity of antiviral activities against PRRSV and lays a strong foundation for vaccine development to control PRRS incidence in pigs. PMID:23527143

Jiang, Zhihua; Zhou, Xiang; Michal, Jennifer J.; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Lifan; Zhang, Ming; Ding, Bo; Liu, Bang; Manoranjan, Valipuram S.; Neill, John D.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Kehrli, Marcus E.; Miller, Laura C.

2013-01-01

277

A rare case of orbital apex syndrome with herpes zoster ophthalmicus in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient  

PubMed Central

We report a rare instance of favorable outcome in orbital apex syndrome secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient. The patient complained of pain and decrease in vision in one eye (20/640) for 2 weeks accompanied with swelling, inability to open eye, and rashes around the periocular area and forehead. The presence of complete ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, relative afferent pupillary defect, and anterior uveitis with decreased corneal sensation prompted a diagnosis of HZO with orbital apex syndrome. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test and a low CD4 count confirmed HIV. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), systemic acyclovir, and systemic steroids were started. Visual acuity and uveitis improved within 10 days. By the end of the fourth week, ocular motility also recovered and the final visual acuity was 20/25. We highlight the role of HAART, used in conjunction with systemic steroid and acyclovir therapy, in improving the outcome. PMID:20952840

Saxena, Rohit; Phuljhele, Swati; Aalok, Lalit; Sinha, Ankur; Menon, Vimla; Sharma, Pradeep; Mohan, Anant

2010-01-01

278

Adverse possession of subsurface minerals  

SciTech Connect

Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

Bowles, P.N.

1983-01-01

279

Successful treatment of hepatitis B virus associated nephrotic syndrome with oral Lamivudine in a Nigerian child: a case report.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus is a well described cause of nephrotic syndrome (NS) worldwide, the typical lesion being membranous glomerulonephropathy. HBV associated NS has been successfully treated with intravenous alpha interferon (IFN), an anti-viral agent. In recent times there have been reports of treatment with lamivudine, an orally administered nucleoside analogue inhibitor of HBV DNA polymerase in Caucasian children. Data is however limited and it's actual efficacy and safety in children is yet to be determined. We present the case of an 8-year-old Nigerian boy with NS and active hepatitis B virus infection. He went into remission 3 months after commencing oral lamivudine which he had for a year with no significant side effects observed. He remains in remission 3 years later. This, to our knowledge is the first report in literature of successful treatment in an African child. PMID:21624925

Ladapo, Taiwo A; Onifade, Elizabeth U; Lesi, Afolabi E; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A

2012-04-01

280

Swollen head syndrome associated with E. coli and infectious bronchitis virus in the Central Valley of California.  

PubMed

A commercial broiler flock in the Central Valley of California experienced a sudden increase in mortality due to heavy culling. Clinical signs included a snick, swollen heads and severe depression. Necropsy and histology revealed tracheitis, rhinitis, facial cellulitis, blepharitis, episcleritis, otitis media and caseous exudate within the air spaces of cranial bones. Escherichia coli serotype O78 was isolated from all lesions. Infectious bronchitis virus (Massachusetts serotype) was isolated from trachea/nasal cavity tissue pool. Adenovirus group 1 was isolated from trachea/nasal cavity and caecal tonsil tissue pools. Serum samples were positive for infectious bronchitis using ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition tests, but negative for turkey rhinotracheitis by an ELISA using the British antigen. This case suggests that swollen head syndrome can be associated with viruses other than pneumovirus. PMID:18671139

Droual, R; Woolcock, P R

1994-12-01

281

Persistent Infection of Rats with Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Virus and their Antibody Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Newborn (within 24 h after birth), 1-week-old and 6-week-old (adult) rats were inoculated with a Hantaan-related virus (B-l) and attempts were made to isolate the virus from various organs. Virus-specific antigens were detected in various organs of newborn rats. Moreover virus could be isolated from almost all their organs even 25 weeks after infection. In contrast, in rats infected

OSAMU TANISHITA; YOSHIYUKI TAKAHASHI; YOSHINOBU OKUNO; MANABU TAMURA; HIDEO ASADA; JOSE R. DANTAS; TAKAHISA YAMANOUCHI; KAYOKO DOMAE; TAKESHI KURATA; KOICHI YAMANISHI

1986-01-01

282

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: antigenic and molecular diversity of British isolates and implications for diagnosis.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an endemic disease of pigs, caused by PRRS virus, a member of the Arteriviridae family. First seen in Britain in 1991, the disease continues to be a significant economic and welfare problem for pig producers. To date, only PRRSV genotype 1 has been found in Britain. At the genetic level, a considerable increase has been reported in the diversity of PRRS viruses isolated in Britain between 2003 and 2007, versus the early 1990 s. In this study, the diversity has been shown to extend to the antigenic level too, with potential consequences for diagnostic methods. Antigenic diversity was assessed using a panel of twelve monoclonal antibodies, only one of which reacted with all isolates tested. Nine diverse viruses were compared as potential antigens in immunoperoxidase monolayer assays, where each one produced quite different results for a common panel of sera. As a single virus is used in each diagnostic assay, results must therefore be interpreted cautiously. For a real-time RT-PCR assay, published oligonucleotide primer and probe sequences were evaluated against available genetic sequences of British and European viruses, and were re-designed where considerable mismatches were found. The multiplex assay incorporating these modified primers to detect genotype 1 and 2 PRRS viruses was then validated for use with diagnostic sera and tissues. As the increasing degree of diversity exhibited by British strains is mirrored in other countries, PRRSV will continue to provide an ongoing challenge to diagnosis at a global, as well as national level. PMID:22472704

Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Fearnley, Catherine; Naidu, Brindha; Errington, Jane; Westcott, David G; Drew, Trevor W

2012-08-17

283

Human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized porcine monomyeloid cell lines for the production of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) shows highly restricted cell tropism and targets subpopulations of differentiated macrophages such as porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) in the natural host. Although primary PAM cells would be ideal for in vitro virus production, they are not only difficult and expensive for establishment but cannot be frozen reliably for long-term storage and use. Apart from PAM cells, African green monkey kidney derived Marc-145 cells are used commonly for virus propagation. However, concerns have been raised regarding a possible modification of specific epitopes associated with virus neutralization because of distinct virus entry between PAM and Marc-145 cells. In order to overcome these problems, the present study was aimed to generate immortalized porcine monocyte/macrophage cell lines and to evaluate their potential for PRRSV production. Primary PAM cells were transfected stably with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) cDNA by a retrovirus vector so that constitutive expression of the hTERT protein allows cells to proliferate indefinitely. The newly immortalized PAM clones were shown to exert functional telomerase activity, indicating sustained expression of hTERT. In addition, telomerase-immortalization of PAMs did not affect expression levels of the native CD163 receptor on their surface. It was further demonstrated that these continuous PAM cell lines are fully permissive for the efficient growth of both type 1 and 2 PRRSV strains. The findings suggest that the hTERT-immortalized PAM cell lines can enable us to facilitate the continued use of PAMs for virus isolation and production and to provide a promising tool for viral pathogenesis and immune function studies. PMID:21889956

Sagong, Mingeun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, O-Soo; Lee, Du Sik; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Lee, Changhee

2012-01-01

284

Detection of a pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) in an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS).  

PubMed

A pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) from an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) was detected and genetically characterized. The affected hedgehog had a nonsuppurative encephalitis with vacuolization of the white matter, and the brain samples yielded RNA reads highly homogeneous to PVM strain 15 (96.5% of full genomic sequence homology by analysis of next generation sequencing). PVM antigen was also detected in the brain and the lungs immunohistochemically. A PVM was strongly suggested as a causative agent of encephalitis of a hedgehog with suspected WHS. This is a first report of PVM infection in hedgehogs. PMID:25129384

Madarame, Hiroo; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kimura, Moe; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ochiai, Hideharu; Mizutani, Tetsyuya

2014-09-17

285

Fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome in a scalded child after immunization with attenuated virus (measles, mumps and rubella).  

PubMed

A fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurred in a 15-month-old child who had suffered minor scalding during the febrile response to combined attenuated virus immunization (measles, mumps and rubella [MMR]). Despite vigorous efforts the child died 26 days after the accident. It is suggested that the scalding suppressed the normal immune response to the viremia and that the latter (i.e. most likely the measles viremia) caused the lung damage which, in turn, led to the ARDS. Histologically the lung presented a peculiar change with fibroblastic nodules, vessel wall inflammation and signs as observed in ARDS. PMID:7275679

Pfenninger, J; Zimmermann, A

1981-09-01

286

Association between genetic sequence homology of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and geographic distance between pig sites  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate whether geographic distance was correlated with genetic homology among isolates of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from a single pork-producing company. We analyzed geographic distance, temporal distance, and percentage similarity in the PRRSV nucleotide sequence among 62 farms, applying the Mantel test for correlation between distance matrices and PRRSV sequencing. Genomic similarity had a significant (P < 0.01) negative (rM = ?0.217) correlation with geographic distance. These findings indicate that, under the conditions of this study, the greater the distance between farms, the less the genetic homology among PRRSV isolates. PMID:16850949

Murtaugh, Michael P.; Morrison, Robert B.

2006-01-01

287

Immunogenicity study of plant-made oral subunit vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).  

PubMed

Currently, killed-virus and modified-live PRRSV vaccines are used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome disease (PRRS). However, very limited efficacy of killed-virus vaccines and serious safety concerns for modified-live virus vaccines demand the development of novel PRRSV vaccines. In this report, we investigated the possibility of using transgenic plants as a cost-effective and scalable system for production and delivery of a viral protein as an oral subunit vaccine against PRRSV. Corn calli were genetically engineered to produce PRRSV viral envelope-associated M protein. Both serum and intestine mucosal antigen-specific antibodies were induced by oral administration of the transgenic plant tissues to mice. In addition, serum and mucosal antibodies showed virus neutralization activity. The neutralization antibody titers after the final boost reached 6.7 in serum and 3.7 in fecal extracts, respectively. A PRRSV-specific IFN-? response was also detected in splenocytes of vaccinated animals. These results demonstrate that transgenic corn plants are an efficient subunit vaccine production and oral delivery system for generation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses against PRRSV. PMID:22300722

Hu, Jianzhong; Ni, Yanyan; Dryman, Barbara A; Meng, X J; Zhang, Chenming

2012-03-01

288

Identification of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Like Virus in a Leaf-Nosed Bat in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Bats are reservoirs for emerging zoonotic viruses that can have a profound impact on human and animal health, including lyssaviruses, filoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs). In the course of a project focused on pathogen discovery in contexts where human-bat contact might facilitate more efficient interspecies transmission of viruses, we surveyed gastrointestinal tissue obtained from bats collected in caves in Nigeria that are frequented by humans. Coronavirus consensus PCR and unbiased high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed the presence of coronavirus sequences related to those of SARS-CoV in a Commerson’s leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni). Additional genomic sequencing indicated that this virus, unlike subgroup 2b CoVs, which includes SARS-CoV, is unique, comprising three overlapping open reading frames between the M and N genes and two conserved stem-loop II motifs. Phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with these features suggest that this virus represents a new subgroup within group 2 CoVs. PMID:21063474

Quan, Phenix-Lan; Firth, Cadhla; Street, Craig; Henriquez, Jose A.; Petrosov, Alexandra; Tashmukhamedova, Alla; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Egholm, Michael; Osinubi, Modupe O. V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Ogunkoya, Albert B.; Briese, Thomas; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2010-01-01

289

Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome in Renal Transplant Recipients: Report of 2 Cases from a Single Center  

PubMed Central

Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a potentially fatal complication of immunosuppression for transplantation. However, it presents with heterogeneous clinical symptoms (fever, disturbed consciousness, and hepatosplenomegaly) and laboratory findings (pancytopenia, elevated hepatic enzyme levels, abnormal coagulation, and hyperferritinemia), impeding diagnosis. Case 1: A 39-year-old female developed fever 4 years after ABO-incompatible living-related renal transplantation. Laboratory findings revealed thrombocytopenia, elevated hepatic enzymes, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA seropositivity, and hyperferritinemia. EBV-associated HPS was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration. Steroid pulse therapy and etoposide were ineffective. Disseminated intravascular coagulation resulted in multiple organ failure, and the patient died 32 days after disease onset. Case 2: A 67-year-old male was admitted with rotavirus enteritis a month after living-unrelated renal transplantation. He developed sudden-onset high fever, disturbance of consciousness, and tachypnea 8 days after admission. Laboratory findings revealed elevated hepatic enzyme levels, hyperkalemia, and hyperferritinemia. Emergency continuous hemodiafiltration ameliorated the fever, and steroid pulse therapy improved abnormal laboratory values. Varicella-zoster virus meningitis was confirmed by spinal tap. Acyclovir improved consciousness, and he was discharged 87 days after admission. Fatal virus-associated HPS may develop in organ transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Pathognomonic hyperferritinemia is useful for differential diagnosis.

Yamamoto, Takayuki; Tsujita, Makoto; Hiramitsu, Takahisa; Goto, Norihiko; Katayama, Akio; Narumi, Shunji; Kobayashi, Takaaki; Uchida, Kazuharu

2015-01-01

290

Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon. PMID:25189688

Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

2014-11-01

291

Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in renal transplant recipients: report of 2 cases from a single center.  

PubMed

Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a potentially fatal complication of immunosuppression for transplantation. However, it presents with heterogeneous clinical symptoms (fever, disturbed consciousness, and hepatosplenomegaly) and laboratory findings (pancytopenia, elevated hepatic enzyme levels, abnormal coagulation, and hyperferritinemia), impeding diagnosis. Case 1: A 39-year-old female developed fever 4 years after ABO-incompatible living-related renal transplantation. Laboratory findings revealed thrombocytopenia, elevated hepatic enzymes, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA seropositivity, and hyperferritinemia. EBV-associated HPS was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration. Steroid pulse therapy and etoposide were ineffective. Disseminated intravascular coagulation resulted in multiple organ failure, and the patient died 32 days after disease onset. Case 2: A 67-year-old male was admitted with rotavirus enteritis a month after living-unrelated renal transplantation. He developed sudden-onset high fever, disturbance of consciousness, and tachypnea 8 days after admission. Laboratory findings revealed elevated hepatic enzyme levels, hyperkalemia, and hyperferritinemia. Emergency continuous hemodiafiltration ameliorated the fever, and steroid pulse therapy improved abnormal laboratory values. Varicella-zoster virus meningitis was confirmed by spinal tap. Acyclovir improved consciousness, and he was discharged 87 days after admission. Fatal virus-associated HPS may develop in organ transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Pathognomonic hyperferritinemia is useful for differential diagnosis. PMID:25838952

Nanmoku, Koji; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Tsujita, Makoto; Hiramitsu, Takahisa; Goto, Norihiko; Katayama, Akio; Narumi, Shunji; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Takaaki; Uchida, Kazuharu

2015-01-01

292

Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs with a combined inoculum of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine\\u000a reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiated the replication and distribution of PCV2 virus, when compared\\u000a with pigs inoculated with PCV2 alone. The replication and distribution of PRRSV in dually infected pigs was not enhanced,\\u000a when compared to pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone.

G. M. Allan; F. McNeilly; J. Ellis; S. Krakowka; B. Meehan; I. McNair; I. Walker; S. Kennedy

2000-01-01

293

Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Syndrome After Nonadherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Patient With Chronic HIV Infection: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) syndrome in a patient with chronic HIV infection with acute illness indistinguishable from acute retroviral syndrome. The patient presented with an acute febrile mononucleosis-like illness after increasing nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy. A marked increase in HIV RNA level of 1 220 000 copies/mL from less than 20 copies/mL occurred within 3 weeks. The diagnosis of acute HIV syndrome was made after alternative causes of illness were ruled out. PMID:25734180

Choi, Seong K.; Graber, Christopher J.

2014-01-01

294

A pilot metabolic profiling study in hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei with white spot syndrome virus based on ¹H NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus, which was a pathogen first found in 1992, had emerged globally affecting shrimp populations in aquaculture. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the metabolic changes of hepatopancreas from Litopenaeus vannamei which were infected with white spot syndrome virus by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Through the NOESYPR1D spectrum combined with multi-variate pattern recognition analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models, significantly metabolic changes were observed in WSSV-infected groups compared with the control groups. In the first 48 h, ?-glucose and ?-glucose were higher in the WSSV-infected group. Meanwhile, acetate, lactate, N-acetyl glycoprotein signals, lysine, tyrosine and lipid were significantly decreased in the WSSV-infected group. These results suggest that WSSV caused absorption inhibition of amino acids and disturbed protein metabolism as well as cell metabolism in favor of its replication. Our findings could also contribute to further understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:25450952

Liu, Peng-fei; Liu, Qing-hui; Wu, Yin; Jie, Huang

2015-01-01

295

Targeting membrane-bound viral RNA synthesis reveals potent inhibition of diverse coronaviruses including the middle East respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections. PMID:24874215

Lundin, Anna; Dijkman, Ronald; Bergström, Tomas; Kann, Nina; Adamiak, Beata; Hannoun, Charles; Kindler, Eveline; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R; Muth, Doreen; Kint, Joeri; Forlenza, Maria; Müller, Marcel A; Drosten, Christian; Thiel, Volker; Trybala, Edward

2014-05-01

296

Targeting Membrane-Bound Viral RNA Synthesis Reveals Potent Inhibition of Diverse Coronaviruses Including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS–CoV), and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections. PMID:24874215

Bergström, Tomas; Kann, Nina; Adamiak, Beata; Hannoun, Charles; Kindler, Eveline; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Muth, Doreen; Kint, Joeri; Forlenza, Maria; Müller, Marcel A.; Drosten, Christian; Thiel, Volker; Trybala, Edward

2014-01-01

297

Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus throughout a coordinated sequence of events during cold weather  

PubMed Central

Using a field-based model, mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was assessed throughout a coordinated sequence of events that replicated common farm worker behavior during cold weather (< 0°C). The model involved fomites (boots and containers), vehicle sanitation, transport, and the movement of personnel. A field strain of PRRSV was inoculated into carriers consisting of snow and water, and carriers were adhered to the undercarriage of a vehicle. The vehicle was driven approximately 50 km to a commercial truck washing facility where the driver's boots contacted the carriers during washing, introducing the virus to the vehicle interior. The vehicle was then driven 50 km to a simulated farm site, and the driver's boots mechanically spread virus into the farm anteroom. Types of containers frequently employed in swine farms (styrofoam semen cooler, metal toolbox, plastic lunch pail, and cardboard animal health product shipping parcel) contacted drippings from footwear on the anteroom floor. The truck wash floor, vehicle cab floor mats, boot soles, anteroom floor, and the ventral surface of containers were sampled to track the virus throughout the model. Ten replicates were conducted, along with sham-inoculated controls. At multiple sampling points PRRSV nucleic acid was detected in 8 of 10 replicates. In each of the 8 PCR-positive replicates, infectious PRRSV was detected on the surfaces of containers by virus isolation or swine bioassay. All sham-inoculated controls were negative. These results indicate that mechanical transmission of PRRSV can occur during coordinated sequence of events in cold weather. PMID:12418778

Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Rossow, Kurt; Wiese, Carrie; Otake, Satoshi; Joo, Han Soo; Pijoan, Carlos

2002-01-01

298

[Possessed! Some historical, psychiatric and curent moments of demonic possession].  

PubMed

Being possessed by demons or evil spirits is one of the oldest ways of explaining bodily and mental disorders. The article briefly mentions some contributions from other disciplines, but considers in particular psychiatry's and medicine's approach throughout history. During the middle ages of Europe possession (and witchcraft) was considered just one out of several causes of mental illness. Astrological theories prevailed, in addition to the humoral theories of medicine. In addition distinctions were made between eccentricity, madness and religious visions and revelations. A large number of the alleged witches and possessed persons who were burned probably had visible mental disturbances. Today's psychiatry does not refer symptoms of possession to any specific category, but usually classifies this as some kind of psychotic disturbance of thought. Exorcism of evil spirits by Jesus Christ is described often in the Gospels. Possession was the only "available" concept for a bundle of neuro-psychiatric disorders: dissociative states, psychoses and epilepsy. To day, the terminology and "diagnostic" principles have been taken over by fundamentalistic groups, who practise exorcism on persons with (probably) minor mental problems and symptoms. The author criticises this activity. PMID:9019873

Høyersten, J G

1996-12-10

299

Does varicella-zoster virus infection of the peripheral ganglia cause Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?  

PubMed

This article posits that infection of the peripheral ganglia causes at least some cases of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), with a neurotropic herpesvirus, particularly varicella-zoster virus (VZV), as the most likely cause of the infection. Virtually all CFS symptoms could be produced by an infection of the peripheral ganglia, with infection of the autonomic ganglia causing fatigue, postural hypotension, and sleep disturbances, and infection of the sensory ganglia causing sensory symptoms such as chronic pain. Furthermore, infections of the peripheral ganglia are known to cause long-term nerve dysfunction, which would help explain the chronic course of CFS. Herpesviruses have long been suspected as the cause of CFS; this theory has recently been supported by studies showing that administering antiherpes agents causes substantial improvement in some CFS patients. VZV is known to frequently reactivate in the peripheral ganglia of previously healthy adults and cause sudden, debilitating illness, making it a likely candidate as a cause of CFS. Moreover, many of the symptoms of CFS overlap with those of herpes zoster (shingles), with the exception that painful rash is not one of the symptoms of CFS. A model is therefore proposed in which CFS is one of the many manifestations of zoster sine herpete; that is, herpes zoster without rash. Furthermore, re-exposure to VZV in the form of chickenpox has become less common in the past few decades; without such re-exposure, immunity to VZV drops, which could explain the increased incidence of CFS. Co-infection with multiple herpesviruses is a possibility, as some CFS patients show signs of infection with other herpesviruses including Epstein-Barr, Cytomegalovirus, and HHV6. These three herpesviruses can attack immune cells, and may therefore promote neurotropic herpesvirus reactivation in the ganglia. The possibility of VZV as the causal agent in CFS has previously received almost no attention; the possibility that CFS involves infection of the peripheral ganglia has likewise been largely overlooked. This suggests that the search for a viral cause of CFS has been far from exhaustive. Several antiherpes drugs are available, as is a vaccine for VZV; more research into such agents as possible treatments for CFS is urgently needed. PMID:19520522

Shapiro, Judith S

2009-11-01

300

Long-term response to peginterferon in hepatitis C virus-associated nephrotic syndrome from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global public health problem. Chronic HCV infection is an important cause of chronic liver disease. Since the first reported association between HCV and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in 1993, HCV has been described with other types of glomerular diseases, although less frequently. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one such glomerular disease that has been rarely reported in association with HCV. Antiviral therapy with interferon and ribavirin has been shown to be beneficial in HCV-associated MPGN. The optimal therapy of HCV-associated FSGS is not currently known. To our knowledge, long-term response to pegylated interferon monotherapy in treatment of HCV-associated FSGS has not been reported. We report an adult patient with HCV-associated FSGS who presented with nephrotic syndrome and renal failure. Treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a monotherapy resulted in sustained virological response with a clinical remission of nephrotic syndrome and stabilization of renal function. Patient continued to remain in clinical remission of nephrotic syndrome with stable renal function, 5 years after treatment. We also briefly review the literature on HCV-associated glomerular diseases, particularly HCV-associated FSGS. PMID:23879705

Shah, Hitesh H; Patel, Chinmay

2013-09-01

301

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection spreads by cell-to-cell transfer in cultured MARC145 cells, is dependent on an intact cytoskeleton, and is suppressed by drug-targeting of cell permissiveness to virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, causing widespread chronic infections which are largely uncontrolled by currently available vaccines or other antiviral measures. Cultured monkey kidney (MARC-145) cells provide an important tool for the study of PRRSV replication. For the present study, flow cytometric and fluorescence antibody (FA) analyses of PRRSV infection of

William A Cafruny; Richard G Duman; Grace HW Wong; Suleman Said; Pam Ward-Demo; Raymond RR Rowland; Eric A Nelson

2006-01-01

302

Revisión de patogénesis y estrategias moleculares contra el virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca en camarones peneidos A review of pathogenesis and molecular strategies against white spot syndrome virus of penaeid shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality to farmed shrimp and serious economic losses. Its unique sequence and genome structure has placed WSSV in its own new family Nimaviridae. Recently, high performance molecular techniques have made it possible to identify and characterize several WSSV structural proteins. These include 'shotgun' sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ).

Martin I. Bustillo-Ruiz; César M. Escobedo-Bonilla; Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo

2009-01-01

303

50 CFR 20.33 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.33 Possession limit. No person shall possess more migratory game birds taken in the United States than the possession...

2010-10-01

304

50 CFR 20.33 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.33 Possession limit. No person shall possess more migratory game birds taken in the United States than the possession...

2011-10-01

305

50 CFR 20.33 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.33 Possession limit. No person shall possess more migratory game birds taken in the United States than the possession limit or the...

2014-10-01

306

50 CFR 20.33 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.33 Possession limit. No person shall possess more migratory game birds taken in the United States than the possession limit or the...

2012-10-01

307

Rapid detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.  

PubMed

A rapid detection assay based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed for detecting porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The RT-LAMP assay utilized a set of six primers to amplify the open reading frame 6 (ORF6) of the PRRSV. The amplified products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis or visualized by colorimetric method. The results demonstrated that the RT-LAMP assay detected all 22 different PRRSV isolates, had no cross-reaction with four other swine viruses (i.e., PCV2, SIV, CSFV, and PEDV), and obtained a 91.3% sensitivity in 23 positive clinical samples in reference to the permissive cells-based virus isolation procedure. Therefore, the RT-LAMP assay provides a specific and sensitive means for detecting PRRSV in a simple, fast, and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the RT-LAMP assay can be performed in less well-equipped laboratories as well as fields. PMID:18926852

Li, Qiang; Zhou, Qing-Feng; Xue, Chun-Yi; Ma, Jing-Yun; Zhu, Dao-Zhong; Cao, Yong-Chang

2009-01-01

308

The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods  

PubMed Central

Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P) ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN) titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p < 0.05). VN titer was significantly different in the 106 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI)-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p < 0.05). Consequently, the inactivated vaccines tested in this study provided weak memory responses with sequential challenge without any obvious active immune responses in the vaccinated pigs. Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia. PMID:21703032

2011-01-01

309

Development of a Colloidal Gold Kit for the Diagnosis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

It is critical to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection. Here, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) to detect SFTSV infection is described. The ICA uses gold nanoparticles coated with recombinant SFTSV for the simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SFTSV. The ICA was developed and evaluated by using positive sera samples of SFTSV infection (n = 245) collected from the CDC of China. The reference laboratory diagnosis of SFTSV infection was based on the “gold standard”. The results demonstrated that the positive coincidence rate and negative coincidence rate were determined to be 98.4% and 100% for IgM and 96.7% and 98.6% for IgG, respectively. The kit showed good selectivity for detection of SFTSV-specific IgG and IgM with no interference from positive sera samples of Japanese encephalitis virus infection, Dengue virus infection, Hantavirus infection, HIV infection, HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody, Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody, or RF. Based on these results, the ICS test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for SFTSV infections. PMID:24826381

Wang, Xianguo; Zhang, Quanfu; Hao, Fen; Gao, Xunian; Wu, Wei; Liang, Minyao; Liao, Zhihua; Xu, Weiwen; Li, Dexin; Wang, Shiwen

2014-01-01

310

Genetic Diversity Characterization of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates in Romania, Based on Phylogenetic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease produced by the (PRRS) virus, characterized by endemic evolution in the majority of countries, which remains in actuality being a permanent threat to health and economic free farms, as well as for those infected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Romanian PRRSV isolates from the four most important pig farms in Romania by comparing the nucleotide sequences obtained for ORF5 and ORF7 with a wide range of sequences from GenBank belonging to the main types of PRRSV; the type 1. Eighteen different sequences were obtained for ORF5 gene and 10 for ORF7 gene. One Romanian isolate (Rom3) was found in three of the four different investigated farms. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Romanian PRRSV nucleotide sequences clustered in three groups within the subtype 1 of the virus. The analysis of amino acid sequences evidenced for GP5 and N-nucleocapsid proteins confirmed that the Romanian virus belonged to type 1. PMID:23109899

Zaulet, Mihaela; Gurau, Maria Rodica; Petrovan, Vlad; Buburuzan, Laura

2012-01-01

311

Development of a colloidal gold kit for the diagnosis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

It is critical to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid diagnosis and on-site detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection. Here, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) to detect SFTSV infection is described. The ICA uses gold nanoparticles coated with recombinant SFTSV for the simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to SFTSV. The ICA was developed and evaluated by using positive sera samples of SFTSV infection (n = 245) collected from the CDC of China. The reference laboratory diagnosis of SFTSV infection was based on the "gold standard". The results demonstrated that the positive coincidence rate and negative coincidence rate were determined to be 98.4% and 100% for IgM and 96.7% and 98.6% for IgG, respectively. The kit showed good selectivity for detection of SFTSV-specific IgG and IgM with no interference from positive sera samples of Japanese encephalitis virus infection, Dengue virus infection, Hantavirus infection, HIV infection, HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody, Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibody, or RF. Based on these results, the ICS test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for SFTSV infections. PMID:24826381

Wang, Xianguo; Zhang, Quanfu; Hao, Fen; Gao, Xunian; Wu, Wei; Liang, Minyao; Liao, Zhihua; Luo, Shuhong; Xu, Weiwen; Li, Dexin; Wang, Shiwen

2014-01-01

312

Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose

Seena Jose; A. Mohandas; Rosamma Philip; I. S. Bright Singh

2010-01-01

313

Adaptation to laboratory and wild animals of the haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus present in the foci of European U.S.S.R  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Four strains of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus (HFRSV) from rodents or patients in European U.S.S.R. foci of HFRS were isolated in laboratory bredC. glareolus. The sensitivity of these animals to HFRSV was compared with that of five other laboratory and wild animals.

I. N. Gavrilovskaya; M. P. Chumakov; N. S. Apekina; E. V. Ryltseva; L. I. Martiyanova; E. A. Gorbachkova; A. D. Bernshtein; M. A. Zakharova; V. A. Boiko

1983-01-01

314

Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on porcine alveolar macrophage function as determined using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. The main target of infection is the porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM). Infection of PAM by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that a...

315

Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on porcine alveolar macrophage function as determined using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. The major target of infection is the alveolar macrophage (AM). Infection of AMs by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not...

316

Swine tracheobronchial lymph node mRNA responses in swine infected with a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative investigation into the host transcriptome response in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 14...

317

Genetic parameters and accuracy of selection for resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei using different statistical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in the shrimp species Penaeus vannamei were estimated by using five different statistical models to analyze challenge test data. Data were recorded on the offspring of 338 full-sib families experimentally infected with WSSV, corresponding to four consecutive generations. Both the linear model (LBM) and the threshold model (TBM) defined disease

Thomas Gitterle; Jørgen Ødegård; Bjarne Gjerde; Morten Rye; Ragnar Salte

2006-01-01

318

Detection of monodon baculovirus and white spot syndrome virus in apparently healthy Penaeus monodon postlarvae from India by polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous presence of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in apparently healthy postlarvae of Penaeus monodon from different hatcheries in India was studied by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MBV could be detected in 54% of the samples. However, only 15% of samples were positive by non-nested reaction. WSSV could be detected in 75% of samples,

S. K. Otta; Indrani Karunasagar; Iddya Karunasagar

2003-01-01

319

RECOMBINANT SWINE INTERFERON BETA PROTECTS SWINE ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES AND MARC 145 CELLS FROM INFECTION WITH PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Swine interferon beta (swIFN beta) produced in 293 cells infected with a recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) encoding the swIFN beta gene was tested for antiviral activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Marc145 cells were incubated overni...

320

Impact of a modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine intervention on a population of pigs infected with a heterologous isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of a therapeutic vaccine intervention with a modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine on the dynamics of a heterologous viral infection in a population of pigs, and to determine the clinical and virological response of previously exposed and vaccinated pigs against a second virulent heterologous challenge. A

Jean Paul Cano; Scott A. Dee; Michael P. Murtaugh; Carlos Pijoan

2007-01-01

321

Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, co...

322

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) subverts normal development of adaptive immunity by proliferation of germline-encoded B cells with hydrophobic HCDR3  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isolator piglets infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) develop severe hypergammaglobulinemia, lymph node adenopathy and autoimmune disease. The expanded B cell clones in this disease are unusual in bearing hydrophobic HCDR3 regions and these are disseminated to mo...

323

In depth global analysis of gene expression levels in porcine alveolar macrophages following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Infection of the preferential target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not understood. Serial Analysis of Gene Ex...

324

In depth global analysis of transcript abundance levels in porcine alveolar macrophages following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Infection of the primary target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not under...

325

A novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vector system that stably expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein as a separate transcription unit  

PubMed Central

Here we report the rescue of a recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene as a separate transcription unit. A copy of the transcription regulatory sequence for ORF6 (TRS6) was inserted between the N protein and 3?-UTR to drive the transcription of the EGFP gene and yield a general purpose expression vector. Successful recovery of PRRSV was obtained using an RNA polymerase II promoter to drive transcription of the full-length virus genome, which was assembled in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The recombinant virus showed growth replication characteristics similar to those of the wild-type virus in the infected cells. In addition, the recombinant virus stably expressed EGFP for at least 10 passages. EGFP expression was detected at approximately 10 h post infection by live-cell imaging to follow the virus spread in real time and the infection of neighbouring cells occurred predominantly through cell-to-cell-contact. Finally, the recombinant virus generated was found to be an excellent tool for neutralising antibodies and antiviral compound screening. The newly established reverse genetics system for PRRSV could be a useful tool not only to monitor virus spread and screen for neutralising antibodies and antiviral compounds, but also for fundamental research on the biology of the virus. PMID:24176053

2013-01-01

326

Avian influenza virus, Streptococcus suis serotype 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and beyond: molecular epidemiology, ecology and the situation in China.  

PubMed

The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and the subsequent identification of its animal origin study have heightened the world's awareness of animal-borne or zoonotic pathogens. In addition to SARS, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, and the lower pathogenicity H9N2 AIV have expanded their host ranges to infect human beings and other mammalian species as well as birds. Even the 'well-known' reservoir animals for influenza virus, migratory birds, became victims of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Not only the viruses, but bacteria can also expand their host range: a new disease, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, caused by human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection, has been observed in China with 52 human fatalities in two separate outbreaks (1998 and 2005, respectively). Additionally, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection has increased worldwide with severe disease. Several outbreaks and sporadic isolations of this pathogen in China have made it an important target for disease control. A new highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been isolated in both China and Vietnam recently; although PRRSV is not a zoonotic human pathogen, its severe outbreaks have implications for food safety. All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China. PMID:19687041

Ma, Ying; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Di; Gao, George F

2009-09-27

327

A newly identified protein complex that mediates white spot syndrome virus infection via chitin-binding protein.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped virus which has caused severe mortality and huge economic losses in the shrimp farming industry. The enveloped virus must be combined with the receptors of the host cell membrane by the virus envelope proteins. In the case of WSSV, binding of envelope proteins with receptors of the host cell membrane was discovered in a number of previous studies, such as VP53A and 10 other proteins with chitin-binding protein (CBP), VP28 with Penaeus monodon Rab7, VP187 with ?-integrin, and so on. WSSV envelope proteins were also considered capable of forming a protein complex dubbed an 'infectome'. In this study, the research was focused on the role of CBP in the WSSV infection process, and the relationship between CBP and the envelope proteins VP24, VP28, VP31, VP32 VP39B, VP53A and VP56. The results of the reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that CBP existed in a variety of shrimp. The speed of WSSV infection could be slowed down by inhibiting CBP gene expression. Far-Western blot analysis and His pull-down assays were conducted, and a protein complex was found that appeared to be composed of a 'linker' protein consisting of VP31, VP32 and VP39B together with four envelope proteins, including VP24, VP28, VP53A and VP56. This protein complex was possibly another part of the infectome and the possible binding region with CBP. The findings of this study may have identified certain points for further WSSV research. PMID:24836670

Huang, Po-Yu; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Chen, Li-Li

2014-08-01

328

Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size?=?520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24204661

Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

2013-01-01

329

The Evolutionary History and Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukocytopenia Syndrome Virus (FTLSV) in China  

PubMed Central

Background In 2007, a novel bunyavirus was found in Henan Province, China and named fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia syndrome virus (FTLSV); since then, FTLSV has been found in ticks and animals in many Chinese provinces. Human-to-human transmission has been documented, indicating that FTLSV should be considered a potential public health threat. Determining the historical spread of FTLSV could help curtail its spread and prevent future movement of this virus. Method/Principal Findings To examine the pattern of FTLSV evolution and the origin of outbreak strains, as well to examine the rate of evolution, the genome of 12 FTLSV strains were sequenced and a phylogenetic and Bayesian phylogeographic analysis of all available FTLSV sequences in China were performed. Analysis based on the FTLSV L segment suggests that the virus likely originated somewhere in Huaiyangshan circa 1790 (95% highest probability density interval: 1756–1817) and began spreading around 1806 (95% highest probability density interval: 1773–1834). Analysis also indicates that when FTLSV arrived in Jiangsu province from Huaiyangshan, Jiangsu Province became another source for the spread of the disease. Bayesian factor test analysis identified three major transmission routes: Huaiyangshan to Jiangsu, Jiangsu to Liaoning, and Jiangsu to Shandong. The speed of FTLSV movement has increased in recent decades, likely facilitated by modern human activity and ecosystem changes. In addition, evidence of RNA segment reassortment was found in FTLSV; purifying selection appears to have been the dominant force in the evolution of this virus. Conclusion Results presented in the manuscript suggest that the Huaiyangshan area is likely be the origin of FTLSV in China and identified probable viral migration routes. These results provide new insights into the origin and spread of FTLSV in China, and provide a foundation for future virological surveillance and control. PMID:25329580

Wu, Weili; Wang, Haifeng; Su, Jia; Tang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qi

2014-01-01

330

Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus throughout a coordinated sequence of events during warm weather  

PubMed Central

Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) throughout a coordinated sequence of events that replicated common farm worker behavior during warm weather (10°C to 16°C) was assessed using a field-based model. The model involved fomites (boots and containers), vehicle sanitation, transport, and personnel movement. In a previous study, the model successfully demonstrated mechanical transmission of PRRSV in 8 out of 10 replicates during cold weather. A field strain of PRRSV was inoculated into carriers consisting of soil samples, which were adhered to the undercarriage of a vehicle. The vehicle was driven approximately 50 km to a commercial truck washing facility where the driver's boots contacted the carriers during washing, introducing the virus to the vehicle interior. The vehicle was then driven 50 km to a simulated farm site, and the driver's boots mechanically spread virus into the farm anteroom. Types of containers frequently employed in swine farms contacted drippings from the footwear on the anteroom floor. The truck wash floor, vehicle cab floor mats, boot soles, anteroom floor, and the ventral surface of containers were sampled to track the virus throughout the model. Ten replicates were conducted, along with sham-inoculated controls, and control replicates. In 2 replicates, infectious PRRSV was detected on the anteroom floor and in 1 replicate, infectious PRRSV was detected on the surface of the container by swine bioassay. All sham-inoculated controls and protocol controls were negative. These results indicate that mechanical transmission of PRRSV throughout a coordinated sequence of events in warm weather can occur, but in contrast to data from studies conducted during cold weather, it appears to be a relatively infrequent event. PMID:12528824

Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Rossow, Kurt; Weise, Carrie; Eliason, Roger; Otake, Satoshi; Joo, Han Soo; Pijoan, Carlos

2003-01-01

331

Synergistic effects of sequential infection with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. Coinfection with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PCV2 in the field has recently become extensive in some Asian countries. A synergistic pathogenicity between PRRSV and PCV2 infections has previously been reported. However, the consequences of the sequential infection of pigs with these two viruses are unknown. Methods Thirty 35-day-old piglets were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5 each): HP-PRRSV/PCV2 (group 1, inoculated with HP-PRRSV, then inoculated with PCV2 one week later), PCV2/HP-PRRSV (group 2, inoculated with PCV2, then inoculated with HP-PRRSV one week later), HP-PRRSV+PCV2 (group 3, inoculated with HP-PRRSV and PCV2 concurrently), HP-PRRSV (group 4, inoculated with HP-PRRSV), PCV2 (group 5, inoculated with PCV2), and the control (group 6, uninfected). This experiment lasted 28 days. Clinical symptoms and rectal temperatures were recorded each day after inoculation, body weight was recorded weekly, and serum samples were obtained for viral nucleic acid quantification and antibody titration. Variations in CD3+, CD4+ CD8–, CD3+, CD4–, and CD8+ cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and mononuclear cells were determined by flow cytometry. The serum concentrations of interferon ? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and macrophage granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were determined. Pathological changes in different tissues from the experimentally infected pigs were recorded. Results The piglets in group 1 had the highest viral loads, the lowest antibody titers, the most-severe clinical signs, and the highest mortality (3/5, 60%; the mortality in the other groups was 0%), and interstitial pneumonia was more severe in this group compare to the other HP-PRRSV infected groups. The serum levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, and GM-CSF varied (increased or decreased) most widely in group 1, as did each immunocyte subgroup. Conclusions HP-PRRSV infection followed by PCV2 infection enhanced the replication of both viruses in the experimental piglets and led to more-severe clinical signs and lesions, indicating greater synergistic effects during the sequential infection of piglets with HP-PRRSV and then PCV2. PMID:23971711

2013-01-01

332

Hyperthermia does not protect Kona stock Penaeus vannamei against infection by a Taura syndrome virus isolate from Belize.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the susceptibility of Penaeus vannamei, Kona stock-line, to infection by an isolate of Taura syndrome virus from Belize (TSV-BZ) under hyperthermic conditions (32 degrees C). Shrimp exposed to the reference Hawaii-94 isolate of TSV (TSV-HI) showed resistance to infection at 32 degrees C as demonstrated by the absence of mortality, histopathological lesions and decreased viral load by qPCR. However, at 32 degrees C, shrimp were fully susceptible to the disease caused by TSV-BZ, exhibiting high mortality, severe histopathological lesions and increased viral load. This susceptibility of shrimp to TSV-BZ infection under hyperthermic conditions was independent of the route of infection (injection vs. per os) and the salinity of the water (11 vs. 28). TSV-BZ might be a temperature-permissible mutant of TSV. PMID:20225676

Côté, Isabelle; Lightner, Donald V

2010-01-25

333

Cytokine profiles and phenotype regulation of antigen presenting cells by genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates.  

PubMed

The present study examined the immunological response of antigen presenting cells (APC) to genotype-I isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection by analysing the cytokine profile induced and evaluating the changes taking place upon infection on immunologically relevant cell markers (MHCI, MHCII, CD80/86, CD14, CD16, CD163, CD172a, SWC9). Several types of APC were infected with 39 PRRSV isolates. The results show that different isolates were able to induce different patterns of IL-10 and TNF-?. The four possible phenotypes based on the ability to induce IL-10 and/or TNF-? were observed, although different cell types seemed to have different capabilities. In addition, isolates inducing different cytokine-release profiles on APC could induce different expression of cell markers. PMID:21314968

Gimeno, Mariona; Darwich, Laila; Diaz, Ivan; de la Torre, Eugenia; Pujols, Joan; Martín, Marga; Inumaru, Shigeki; Cano, Esmeralda; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, Maria; Mateu, Enric

2011-01-01

334

The signal sequence of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoprotein 3 is sufficient for endoplasmic reticulum retention  

PubMed Central

The glycoprotein 3 (GP3) of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus has the characteristic domains of a membrane protein. However, this protein has been reported to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) rather than transported to the plasma membrane of the cell. In this study, we performed confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of variants of GP3 and foundthat the signal sequence of the GP3 led to confinement of GP3 in the ER, while the functional ortransmembrane domain did not affect its localization. Based on these results, we concludedthat the signal sequence of GP3 contains the ER retention signal, which might play an important role in assembly of viral proteins. PMID:23820208

Kim, Do-Geun; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Park, Seung-Yong; Lee, Joong-Bok

2013-01-01

335

Identification of the interaction domains of white spot syndrome virus envelope proteins VP28 and VP24.  

PubMed

VP28 and VP24 are two major envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The direct interaction between VP28 and VP24 has been described in previous studies. In this study, we confirmed this interaction and mapped the interaction domains of VP28 and VP24 by constructing a series of deletion mutants. By co-immunoprecipitation, two VP28-binding domains of VP24 were located at amino acid residues 46-61 and 148-160, while VP24-binding domain of VP28 was located at amino acid residues 31-45. These binding domains were further corroborated by peptide blocking assay, in which synthetic peptides spanning the binding domains were able to inhibit VP28-VP24 interaction, whereas same-size control peptides from non-binging regions did not. PMID:25637460

Li, Zaipeng; Chen, Weiyu; Xu, Limei; Li, Fang; Yang, Feng

2015-03-16

336

Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31  

SciTech Connect

Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity.

Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Xie Xixian [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Yang Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

2005-09-15

337

A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus.

You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A. [Nebraska Center for Virology, E249A Beadle, Lincoln (United States); Hiscox, Julian A. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.a.hiscox@leeds.ac.uk

2008-08-15

338

Antilipopolysaccharide factor interferes with white spot syndrome virus replication in vitro and in vivo in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus.  

PubMed

In a study of genes expressed differentially in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus infected experimentally with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), one protein, known as antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), was chosen, among those whose transcript levels increased upon viral infection, for further studies. ALF RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in whole animals and in cell cultures indicated that ALF can protect against WSSV infection, since knockdown of ALF by RNAi specifically resulted in higher rates of viral propagation. In a cell culture of hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) from P. leniusculus, quantitative PCR showed that knockdown of ALF by RNAi resulted into WSSV levels that were about 10-fold higher than those treated with control double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In addition, RNAi experiments with other crayfish genes that had been found to be up-regulated by a WSSV infection did not result in any changes of viral loads. Thus, the cell culture does not respond to dsRNA in a similar manner, as shown earlier for dsRNA injected into shrimp, which gave a higher degree of resistance to WSSV infection. If ALF transcription in whole animals was stimulated by the administration of UV-treated WSSV, a partial protection against a subsequent challenge with the active virus was conferred to the host. This is the first crustacean gene product identified with the capacity to interfere with replication of this important pathogen. PMID:17041217

Liu, Haipeng; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Cerenius, Lage; Söderhäll, Kenneth

2006-11-01

339

A Transmembrane Serine Protease Is Linked to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Receptor and Activates Virus Entry?  

PubMed Central

Spike (S) proteins, the defining projections of the enveloped coronaviruses (CoVs), mediate cell entry by connecting viruses to plasma membrane receptors and by catalyzing subsequent virus-cell membrane fusions. The latter membrane fusion requires an S protein conformational flexibility that is facilitated by proteolytic cleavages. We hypothesized that the most relevant cellular proteases in this process are those closely linked to host cell receptors. The primary receptor for the human severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS) CoV is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 immunoprecipitation captured transmembrane protease/serine subfamily member 2 (TMPRSS2), a known human airway and alveolar protease. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 colocalized on cell surfaces and enhanced the cell entry of both SARS S-pseudotyped HIV and authentic SARS-CoV. Enhanced entry correlated with TMPRSS2-mediated proteolysis of both S and ACE2. These findings indicate that a cell surface complex comprising a primary receptor and a separate endoprotease operates as a portal for activation of SARS-CoV cell entry. PMID:21068237

Shulla, Ana; Heald-Sargent, Taylor; Subramanya, Gitanjali; Zhao, Jincun; Perlman, Stanley; Gallagher, Tom

2011-01-01

340

A Putative Cell Surface Receptor for White Spot Syndrome Virus Is a Member of a Transporter Superfamily  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a large enveloped DNA virus, can cause the most serious viral disease in shrimp and has a wide host range among crustaceans. In this study, we identified a surface protein, named glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), which could also interact with WSSV envelope protein, VP53A. Sequence analysis revealed that Glut1 is a member of a large superfamily of transporters and that it is most closely related to evolutionary branches of this superfamily, branches that function to transport this sugar. Tissue tropism analysis showed that Glut1 was constitutive and highly expressed in almost all organs. Glut1's localization in shrimp cells was further verified and so was its interaction with Penaeus monodon chitin-binding protein (PmCBP), which was itself identified to interact with an envelope protein complex formed by 11 WSSV envelope proteins. In vitro and in vivo neutralization experiments using synthetic peptide contained WSSV binding domain (WBD) showed that the WBD peptide could inhibit WSSV infection in primary cultured hemocytes and delay the mortality in shrimps challenged with WSSV. These findings have important implications for our understanding of WSSV entry. PMID:22427993

Huang, Huai-Ting; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Huang, Po-Yu; Chen, Li-Li

2012-01-01

341

Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp  

SciTech Connect

Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter.

Liu Wangjing [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang Yunshiang [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wang Chunghsiung [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kou, Guang-Hsiung [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lo Chufang [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: gracelow@ntu.edu.tw

2005-04-10

342

Development of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus replicon vector for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine  

PubMed Central

Purpose Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important global animal disease. To control FMD virus (FMDV) outbreaks, a lot of different novel approaches have been attempted. In this study, we proposed a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as a replicon vector to express FMDV structural protein. Materials and Methods PRRSV infectious clone (PRRSVK418DM) was used to develop an expression vector through the reverse genetic manipulation of PRRSV; FMDVP12A3C gene of serotype O was synthesized and used for an antigen. MARC-145 cells (African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line) were used for electroporation mediated transfection. The transfection or the expression of P12A3C and N protein of PRRSV was analyzed by either replicon containing PRRSV alone or by co-infection of helper PRRSV. Results We constructed PRRSVK418DM replicon vector containing FMDVP12A3C, and genome sequences were confirmed by subsequent sequence analysis. In vitro expression of P12A3C and PRRSV N protein was confirmed by immunofluorescence antibody assay using antibodies specific for PRRSV N protein (anti-PRRSV N MAb), FMDV-VP1 (anti-VP1 MAb). Conclusion The results indicate that PRRSV replicon vector can be a promising novel vector system to control FMDV and useful for vaccine development in the future. PMID:24427767

Jeeva, Subbiah; Lee, Jung-Ah; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo

2014-01-01

343

Impact of genotype 1 and 2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses on interferon-? responses by plasmacytoid dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) infections are characterized by prolonged viremia and viral shedding consistent with incomplete immunity. Type I interferons (IFN) are essential for mounting efficient antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses, but in a recent study, North American PRRSV genotype 2 isolates did not induce, or even strongly inhibited, IFN-? in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), representing “professional IFN-?-producing cells”. Since inhibition of IFN-? expression might initiate PRRSV pathogenesis, we further characterized PRRSV effects and host modifying factors on IFN-? responses of pDC. Surprisingly, a variety of type 1 and type 2 PRRSV directly stimulated IFN-? secretion by pDC. The effect did not require live virus and was mediated through the TLR7 pathway. Furthermore, both IFN-? and IL-4 significantly enhanced the pDC production of IFN-? in response to PRRSV exposure. PRRSV inhibition of IFN-? responses from enriched pDC stimulated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides was weak or absent. VR-2332, the prototype genotype 2 PRRSV, only suppressed the responses by 34%, and the highest level of suppression (51%) was induced by a Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV isolate. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that pDC respond to PRRSV and suggest that suppressive activities on pDC, if any, are moderate and strain-dependent. Thus, pDC may be a source of systemic IFN-? responses reported in PRRSV-infected animals, further contributing to the puzzling immunopathogenesis of PRRS. PMID:23675981

2013-01-01

344

Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in oral fluid from naturally infected pigs in a breeding herd  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the anatomic localization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in naturally infected pigs and to determine whether oral fluid could be used to detect the virus in infected animals. Two sows, seven 2-month-old grower pigs, and 70 6-month-old gilts were included in this study. PRRSV in sera and oral fluid were identified by nested reverse transcription PCR (nRT-PCR) while lung, tonsil, and tissue associated with oral cavity were subjected to nRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In sows, PRRSV was identified in oral fluid and tonsils. PRRSV was also detected in oral fluid, tonsils, salivary glands, oral mucosa, and lungs of all seven grower pigs. However, viremia was observed in only two grower pigs. Double staining revealed that PRRSV was distributed in macrophages within and adjacent to the tonsillar crypt epithelium. In gilts, the North American type PRRSV field strain was detected 3 to 8 weeks after introducing these animals onto the farm. These results confirm previous findings that PRRSV primarily replicates in tonsils and is then shed into oral fluid. Therefore, oral fluid sampling may be effective for the surveillance of PRRSV in breeding herds. PMID:24690609

Trang, Nguyen Thi; Yamamoto, Tsukasa; Matsuda, Mari; Okumura, Naoko; Giang, Nguyen Thi Huong; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

2014-01-01

345

Detection of shrimp Taura syndrome virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification using a designed portable multi-channel turbidimeter.  

PubMed

In this study, a portable turbidimetric end-point detection method was devised and tested for the detection of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) using spectroscopic measurement of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) by-product: magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg(2)P(2)O(7)). The device incorporated a heating block that maintained an optimal temperature of 63°C for the duration of the RT-LAMP reaction. Turbidity of the RT-LAMP by-product was measured when light from a light-emitting diode (LED) passed through the tube to reach a light dependent resistance (LDR) detector. Results revealed that turbidity measurement of the RT-LAMP reactions using this device provided the same detection sensitivity as the agarose gel electrophoresis detection of RT-LAMP and nested RT-PCR (IQ2000™) products. Cross reactions with other shrimp viruses were not found, indicating that the RT-LAMP-turbidity measurement was highly specific to TSV. The combination of 10 min for rapid RNA preparation with 30 min for RT-LAMP amplification followed by turbidity measurement resulted in a total assay time of less than 1h compared to 4-8h for the nested RT-PCR method. RT-LAMP plus turbidity measurement constitutes a platform for the development of more rapid and user-friendly detection of TSV in the field. PMID:21619895

Sappat, Assawapong; Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Puthawibool, Teeranart; Lomas, Tanom; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

2011-08-01

346

Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate 'vaccines', WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally intubated with the aforementioned vaccine candidates, and protein expression in the gut of immunised shrimps was profiled. The alterations in protein profiles in shrimps infected orally with live-WSSV were also examined. Seventeen of the identified proteins in the vaccine and WSSV-intubated shrimps varied significantly compared to those in the control shrimps. These proteins, classified under exoskeletal, cytoskeletal, immune-related, intracellular organelle part, intracellular calcium-binding or energy metabolism, are thought to directly or indirectly affect shrimp's immunity. The changes in the expression levels of crustacyanin, serine proteases, myosin light chain, and ER protein 57 observed in orally vaccinated shrimp may probably be linked to immunoprotective responses. On the other hand, altered expression of proteins linked to exoskeleton, calcium regulation and energy metabolism in WSSV-intubated shrimps is likely to symbolise disturbances in calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism. PMID:24782450

Kulkarni, Amod D; Kiron, Viswanath; Rombout, Jan H W M; Brinchmann, Monica F; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu S; Singh, Bright I S

2014-07-01

347

Besieged by devils--thoughts on possession and possession states.  

PubMed

Aspects of possession are reviewed in historical, cultural and clinical contexts. Consideration is given to differential diagnosis and management. It is suggested that a multi-disciplinary approach is required for a condition that stands at the boundaries of psychiatry. Two quotations from Elizabethan playwrights are relevant to the theme of this paper: 'Beware you do not conjure up a spirit you cannot lay' Ben Johnson, The New Inn (Act III, Scene ii) 'Farewell the tranquil mind: farewell content.' Shakespeare, Othello (Act III, Scene iii). PMID:1513223

Prins, H

1992-07-01

348

Relative Replication Fitness of a High-Level 3?-Azido-3?-Deoxythymidine-Resistant Variant of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Possessing an Amino Acid Deletion at Codon 67 and a Novel Substitution (Thr?Gly) at Codon 69  

PubMed Central

The combination of an amino acid deletion at codon 67 (?67) and Thr-to-Gly change at codon 69 (T69G) in the reverse transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is associated with high-level resistance to multiple RT inhibitors. To determine the relative contributions of the ?67 and T69G mutations on viral fitness, we performed a series of studies of HIV replication using recombinant variants. A high-level 3?-azido-3?-deoxythymidine (AZT)-resistant variant containing ?67 plus T69G/K70R/L74I/K103N/T215F/K219Q in RT replicated as efficiently as wild-type virus (Wt). In contrast, the construct without ?67 exhibited impaired replication (23% of growth of Wt). A competitive fitness study failed to reveal any differences in replication rates between the ?67+T69G/K70R/L74I/K103N/T215F/K219Q mutant and Wt. Evaluation of proviral DNA sequences over a 3-year period in a patient harboring the multiresistant HIV revealed that the T69G mutation emerged in the context of a D67N/K70R/T215F/K219Q mutant backbone prior to appearance of the ?67 deletion. To assess the impact of this stepwise accumulation of mutations on viral replication, a series of recombinant variants was constructed and analyzed for replication competence. The T69G mutation was found to confer 2?,3?-dideoxyinosine resistance at the expense of fitness. Subsequently, the development of the ?67 deletion led to a virus with improved replication and high-level AZT resistance. PMID:11069990

Imamichi, Tomozumi; Berg, Steve C.; Imamichi, Hiromi; Lopez, Juan C.; Metcalf, Julia A.; Falloon, Judith; Lane, H. Clifford

2000-01-01

349

Safety of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Virus (MLV) vaccine strains in a young pig infection model.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the safety of all modified live virus vaccines commercially available in Europe against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose, one hundred and twenty three-week-old piglets, divided into five groups, were used. On day 0 of the experiment, nine pigs per group were removed and the remaining fifteen were vaccinated with the commercial vaccines Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Amervac PRRS, Pyrsvac-183 and Porcilis PRRS by the IM route or were mock vaccinated and used as controls. On day 3, the nine unvaccinated pigs were re-introduced into their respective groups and served as sentinel pigs. Clinical signs were recorded daily and lung lesions were determined on days 7, 14 and 21, when 5 vaccinated pigs per group were euthanized. Blood samples and swabs were taken every three days and different organs were collected at necropsy to determine the presence of PRRSV. None of the vaccines studied caused detectable clinical signs in vaccinated pigs although lung lesions were found. Altogether, these results indicate that all vaccines can be considered clinically safe. However, some differences were found in virological parameters. Thus, neither Pyrsvac-183 nor Porcilis PRRS could be detected in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cultures or in lung sections used to determine PRRSV by immunohistochemistry, indicating that these viruses might have lost their ability to replicate in PAM. This inability to replicate in PAM might be related to the lower transmission rate and the delay in the onset of viremia observed in these groups. PMID:24308693

Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; de Lome, Laura Carrascosa; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; Segalés, Joaquim; García-Artiga, Carlos; Simarro, Isabel; Castro, José María; Prieto, Cinta

2013-01-01

350

Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

SciTech Connect

Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-alpha treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells is dependent on TGF-beta but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-alpha treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.

Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Mwangi, Waithaka [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Hernandez, Jesus, E-mail: jhdez@ciad.m [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2009-05-10

351

Safety of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Virus (MLV) vaccine strains in a young pig infection model  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the safety of all modified live virus vaccines commercially available in Europe against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose, one hundred and twenty three-week-old piglets, divided into five groups, were used. On day 0 of the experiment, nine pigs per group were removed and the remaining fifteen were vaccinated with the commercial vaccines Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Amervac PRRS, Pyrsvac-183 and Porcilis PRRS by the IM route or were mock vaccinated and used as controls. On day 3, the nine unvaccinated pigs were re-introduced into their respective groups and served as sentinel pigs. Clinical signs were recorded daily and lung lesions were determined on days 7, 14 and 21, when 5 vaccinated pigs per group were euthanized. Blood samples and swabs were taken every three days and different organs were collected at necropsy to determine the presence of PRRSV. None of the vaccines studied caused detectable clinical signs in vaccinated pigs although lung lesions were found. Altogether, these results indicate that all vaccines can be considered clinically safe. However, some differences were found in virological parameters. Thus, neither Pyrsvac-183 nor Porcilis PRRS could be detected in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cultures or in lung sections used to determine PRRSV by immunohistochemistry, indicating that these viruses might have lost their ability to replicate in PAM. This inability to replicate in PAM might be related to the lower transmission rate and the delay in the onset of viremia observed in these groups PMID:24308693

2013-01-01

352

Resolution of the cellular proteome of the nucleocapsid protein from a highly pathogenic isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus identifies PARP-1 as a cellular target whose interaction is critical for virus biology.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major threat to the swine industry and food security worldwide. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is a major structural protein of PRRSV. The primary function of this protein is to encapsidate the viral RNA genome, and it is also thought to participate in the modulation of host cell biology and recruitment of cellular factors to facilitate virus infection. In order to the better understand these latter roles the cellular interactome of PRRSV N protein was defined using label free quantitative proteomics. This identified several cellular factors that could interact with the N protein including poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a cellular protein, which can add adenosine diphosphate ribose to a protein. Use of the PARP-1 small molecule inhibitor, 3-AB, in PRRSV infected cells demonstrated that PARP-1 was required and acted as an enhancer factor for virus biology. Serial growth of PRRSV in different concentrations of 3-AB did not yield viruses that were able to grow with wild type kinetics, suggesting that by targeting a cellular protein crucial for virus biology, resistant phenotypes did not emerge. This study provides further evidence that cellular proteins, which are critical for virus biology, can also be targeted to ablate virus growth and provide a high barrier for the emergence of drug resistance. PMID:25614100

Liu, Long; Lear, Zoe; Hughes, David J; Wu, Weining; Zhou, En-Min; Whitehouse, Adrian; Chen, Hongying; Hiscox, Julian A

2015-03-23

353

UNDERSTANDING SWINE IMMUNITY TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS (PRRSV) INFECTION - INFORMING FUTURE VACCINE DESIGN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is the most economically significant disease facing the swine industry today, costing U.S. pork producers at least $560 million annually. This abstract describes some of the approaches we’ve tested to evaluate immunity to PRRSV. We plan to use th...

354

Haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) in Norway: pathology and associated virus-like particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic salmon Salmo salar pre-smolt, smolt and post-smolt, with clinical signs of haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) have been found in several locations along the Norwegian coast (Rogaland to Troms). Affected fish had pale gills and bleeding at the fin bases, but seemed to be in good physical condition with no obvious weight loss. The internal organs and body cavity showed

A. Nylund; H. Plarre; K. Hodneland; M. Devold; V. Aspehaug; M. Aarseth; C. Koren; K. Watanabe

2003-01-01

355

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Potentiation of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Induced Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental model that demonstrates a mycoplasma species acting to potentiate a viral pneumonia was developed. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic, lymphohistiocytic bronchopneumonia in pigs, was found to potentiate the severity and the duration of a virus-induced pneumonia in pigs. Pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to, simultaneously with, or 10 days after inoculation with porcine

EILEEN L. THACKER; PATRICK G. HALBUR; RICHARD F. ROSS; ROONGROJE THANAWONGNUWECH; BRAD J. THACKER

356

In Vivo Growth of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Engineered Nsp2 Deletion Mutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prior studies on PRRSV strain VR-2332 nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) had shown that as much as 403 amino acids could be removed from the hypervariable region without losing virus viability in vitro. We utilized selected nsp2 deletion mutants to examine in vivo growth. Young swine (4 pigs/group; 5 co...

357

CHARACTERIZATION OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS (BVDV) STRAIN ISOLATED FROM CATTLE WITH HEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Bovine viral Diarrhea virus takes place in numerous pathologies that range from reproductive losses to affections of little clinical significance in the bovine digestive tract. It has been reported variability among the strains of the BVDV, which is expressed by the existence of two biotypes; c...

358

A simple and efficient method for purification of intact white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new simple and efficient method for isolation of intact WSSV viral particles from infected crayfish tissues with high yield was developed. Abundant viral particles could be obtained with only a few steps of conventional differential centrifugations, while no density gradient centrifugation or ultracentrifugation was required. The concentrated virus preparations were further studied by transmission electron microscopy and polyacrylamide gel

Xixian Xie; Hongyan Li; Limei Xu; Feng Yang

2005-01-01

359

Rooting the Phylogenetic Tree of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus by Characterization of a Conspecific Virus from an African Bat  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes lethal respiratory infections mainly on the Arabian Peninsula. The evolutionary origins of MERS-CoV are unknown. We determined the full genome sequence of a CoV directly from fecal material obtained from a South African Neoromicia capensis bat (NeoCoV). NeoCoV shared essential details of genome architecture with MERS-CoV. Eighty-five percent of the NeoCoV genome was identical to MERS-CoV at the nucleotide level. Based on taxonomic criteria, NeoCoV and MERS-CoV belonged to one viral species. The presence of a genetically divergent S1 subunit within the NeoCoV spike gene indicated that intraspike recombination events may have been involved in the emergence of MERS-CoV. NeoCoV constitutes a sister taxon of MERS-CoV, placing the MERS-CoV root between a recently described virus from African camels and all other viruses. This suggests a higher level of viral diversity in camels than in humans. Together with serologic evidence for widespread MERS-CoV infection in camelids sampled up to 20 years ago in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, the genetic data indicate that camels act as sources of virus for humans rather than vice versa. The majority of camels on the Arabian Peninsula is imported from the Greater Horn of Africa, where several Neoromicia species occur. The acquisition of MERS-CoV by camels from bats might have taken place in sub-Saharan Africa. Camelids may represent mixing vessels for MERS-CoV and other mammalian CoVs. IMPORTANCE It is unclear how, when, and where the highly pathogenic MERS-CoV emerged. We characterized the full genome of an African bat virus closely related to MERS-CoV and show that human, camel, and bat viruses belong to the same viral species. The bat virus roots the phylogenetic tree of MERS-CoV, providing evidence for an evolution of MERS-CoV in camels that preceded that in humans. The revised tree suggests that humans are infected by camels rather than vice versa. Although MERS-CoV cases occur mainly on the Arabian Peninsula, the data from this study together with serologic and molecular investigations of African camels indicate that the initial host switch from bats may have taken place in Africa. The emergence of MERS-CoV likely involved exchanges of genetic elements between different viral ancestors. These exchanges may have taken place either in bat ancestors or in camels acting as mixing vessels for viruses from different hosts. PMID:25031349

Corman, Victor Max; Ithete, Ndapewa Laudika; Richards, Leigh Rosanne; Schoeman, M. Corrie; Preiser, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

360

Co-expressing GP5 and M proteins under different promoters in recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (rMVA)-based vaccine vector enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has three major structural proteins which designated as GP5,\\u000a M, and N. Protein GP5 and M have been considered very important to arouse the humoral and cellular immune responses against\\u000a PRRSV infection and proposed to be the excellent candidate proteins in the design of PRRS bioengineering vaccine. There were\\u000a some attempts on

Qisheng Zheng; Desheng Chen; Peng Li; Zhixiang Bi; Ruibing Cao; Bin Zhou; Puyan Chen

2007-01-01

361

Short Communication Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains of exceptional diversity in eastern Europe support the definition of new genetic subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 and ORF7 sequences from Belarus were found to be of the European (EU) genotype, but grouped separately from all other EU genotype sequences described so far, including live-attenuated EU genotype PRRSV vaccines and Italian EU genotype sequences, some of which have been associated with reduced vaccine efficacy. Also, the Belarusian EU-PRRSV exhibited

T. Stadejek; M. B. Oleksiewicz; D. Potapchuk; K. Podgorska

362

Putative cis-Acting Stem-Loops in the 5' Untranslated Region of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Can Substitute for Their Mouse Hepatitis Virus Counterparts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consensus covariation-based secondary structural models for the 5! 140 nucleotides of the 5! untranslated regions (5! UTRs) from mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SCoV) were developed and predicted three major helical stem-loop structures, designated stem-loop 1 (SL1), SL2, and SL4. The SCoV 5! UTR was predicted to contain a fourth stem-loop, named SL3, in which

Hyojeung Kang; Min Feng; Megan E. Schroeder; David P. Giedroc; Julian L. Leibowitz

2006-01-01

363

The M, E, and N Structural Proteins of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Are Required for Efficient Assembly, Trafficking, and Release of Virus-Like Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of virus-like particles (VLPs) constitutes a relevant and safe model to study molecular determinants of virion egress. The minimal requirement for the assembly of VLPs for the coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans (SARS-CoV) is still controversial. Recent studies have shown that SARS-CoV VLP formation depends on either M and E proteins or M and

Y. L. Siu; K. T. Teoh; J. Lo; C. M. Chan; F. Kien; N. Escriou; S. W. Tsao; J. M. Nicholls; R. Altmeyer; J. S. M. Peiris; R. Bruzzone; B. Nal

2008-01-01

364

Identification of major differences in the nucleocapsid protein genes of a Quebec strain and European strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the genome of Qurbec reference strain IAF-expgl of porcine repro- ductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was investigated by analysis of four cDNA clones. The 3'- terminal 530 nucleotides (nt) encompassed a large open reading frame with a coding capacity of 123 amino acids (34,. 13 649). The predicted protein was extremely basic

Helmi Mardassi; Samir Mounir; Serge Dea

1994-01-01

365

Identification of VP19 and VP15 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and glycosylation status of the WSSV major structural proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infects penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. The WSSV virion consists of an enveloped rod-shaped nucleocapsid enclosing a large circular double-stranded DNA genome of 293 kbp. The virion envelope contains two major proteins of 28 (VP28) and 19 kDa (VP19) and the nucleocapsid consists of three major proteins of 26 (VP26), 24 (VP24) and 15 kDa

M. C. van Hulten; Martin Reijns; Angela M. G. Vermeesch; Fokko Zandbergen; J. M. Vlak

2002-01-01

366

Discovery of the Genes in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection in Fenneropenaeus chinensis Through cDNA Microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used microarray technology to study differentially expressed genes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp.\\u000a A total of 3136 cDNA targets, including 1578 unique genes from a cephalothorax cDNA library and 1536 cDNA clones from reverse\\u000a and forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries of Fenneropenaeus chinensis, plus 14 negative and 8 blank control clones, were spotted onto a 18

Bing Wang; Fuhua Li; Bo Dong; Xiaojun Zhang; Chengsong Zhang; Jianhai Xiang

2006-01-01

367

Identification of White Spot Syndrome Virus Latency-Related Genes in Specific-Pathogen-Free Shrimps by Use of a Microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether specific-pathogen-free (SPF) shrimps are asymptomatic carriers of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), we used a WSSV-specific DNA microarray to measure WSSV gene expression in SPF and WSSV-infected shrimps. Three WSSV genes were found to be relatively highly expressed in SPF shrimps. Reverse transcription-PCR using nested primers as well as real-time detection confirmed that these genes have no

Siti Khadijah; Soek Ying Neo; M. S. Hossain; Lance D. Miller; S. Mathavan; Jimmy Kwang

2003-01-01

368

Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of 22 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) field strains based on sequence analysis of open reading frame 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains from 13 states in the United States, Guatemala and Canada\\u000a were used to compare the envelope glycoprotein gene (ORF 5) nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. The gene was the\\u000a same size, 603 nt, for all the 22 field strains. These strains had 89–94% amino acid identity compared to reference strain\\u000a VR

V. G. Andreyev; R. D. Wesley; W. L. Mengeling; A. C. Vorwald; K. M. Lager

1997-01-01

369

An Unusual Case of Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Presenting as Mononucleosis-like Syndrome and Acute Aseptic Meningoencephalitis. Report of a Case and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Clinical presentation of primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes a wide spectrum of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a symptomatic and severe illness. Central nervous system involvement should be always considered as a severe clinical form of primary HIV infection. Physicians should be aware to the broad clinical spectrum of primary HIV infection. We report a case of a female with diagnosis of mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis during primary HIV infection. PMID:25374871

Corti, Marcelo; Gilardi, Leonardo

2014-01-01

370

The role of the respiratory syncytial virus in airway syndromes in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of infants admitted to hospital in infancy with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) have been infected\\u000a with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Infants and young children experiencing RSV LRTIs experience increased respiratory\\u000a morbidity in subsequent years, although the prevalence falls rapidly in early childhood. Recent data support the suggestion\\u000a that in most subjects, this recurrent morbidity is not

Mark L. Everard

2006-01-01

371

Isolation of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several isolates of a human type-C retrovirus belonging to one group, known as human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), have previously been obtained from patients with adult T-cell leukemia or lymphoma. The T-cell tropism of HTLV and its prevalence in the Caribbean basin prompted a search for it in patients with the epidemic T-cell immune deficiency disorder known as AIDS. Peripheral

Robert C. Gallo; Prem S. Sarin; E. P. Gelmann; Marjorie Robert-Guroff; Ersell Richardson; V. S. Kalyanaraman; Dean Mann; Gurdip D. Sidhu; Rosalyn E. Stahl; Susan Zolla-Pazner; Jacque Leibowitch; Mikulas Popovic

1983-01-01

372

Independent, spontaneous mutants of adenovirus type 2-simian virus 40 hybrid Ad2+ND3 that grow efficiently in monkey cells possess indentical mutations in the adenovirus type 2 DNA-binding protein gene.  

PubMed Central

Four independent, spontaneous mutants of the adenovirus type 2-simian virus 40 hybrid Ad2+ND3 that allow efficient growth in monkey cells were isolated previously (C. W. Anderson, Virology 111:263-269, 1981). All four mutations have been mapped within the coding sequence for the adenovirus DNA-binding protein by marker rescue analysis. DNA sequence analysis of a region of ca. 1,000 base pairs shown by marker rescue to contain the host range mutations demonstrated that the host range mutant hr602 differs from its parent, Ad2+ND3, at only a single nucleotide. Mutant hr602 has a thymine in place of a cytosine at the first position of the 130th codon, as measured from the initiation site for the DNA-binding protein. This change results in the replacement of a histidine by a tyrosine in mutant hr602 DNA-binding protein. Each of the other three Ad2+ND3 host range mutants have exactly the same nucleotide alteration as does hr602. This same nucleotide change was recently reported for a similarly derived host range mutant of adenovirus 5. Images PMID:6310153

Anderson, C W; Hardy, M M; Dunn, J J; Klessig, D F

1983-01-01

373

Cytokine Polymorphisms are Associated with Poor Sleep Maintenance in Adults Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Cytokine activity and polymorphisms have been associated with sleep outcomes in prior animal and human research. The purpose of this study was to determine whether circulating plasma cytokines and cytokine polymorphisms are associated with the poor sleep maintenance commonly experienced by adults living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: HIV clinics and community sites in the San Francisco Bay area. Participants: A convenience sample of 289 adults (193 men, 73 women, and 23 transgender) living with HIV/AIDS. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: A wrist actigraph was worn for 72 h to estimate the percentage of wake after sleep onset (WASO%) and total sleep time (TST), plasma cytokines were analyzed, and genotyping was conducted for 15 candidate genes involved in cytokine signaling: interferon-gamma (IFNG), IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1), interleukins (IL1B, IL1R2, IL1R2, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, IL17A), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB1 and NFKB2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA). Controlling for demographic variables such as race and sex, and clinical variables such as CD4+ count and medications, higher WASO% was associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL1R2 rs11674595 and TNFA rs1041981 and less WASO% was associated with IL2 rs2069776. IL1R2 rs11674595 and TNFA rs1041981 were also associated with short sleep duration. Conclusions: This study strengthens the evidence for an association between inflammation and sleep maintenance problems. In this chronic illness population, cytokine polymorphisms associated with wake after sleep onset provide direction for intervention research aimed at comparing anti-inflammatory mechanisms with hypnotic agents for improving sleep maintenance and total sleep time. Citation: Lee KA; Gay C; Pullinger CR; Hennessy MD; Zak RS; Aouizerat BE. Cytokine polymorphisms are associated with poor sleep maintenance in adults living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. SLEEP 2014;37(3):453-463. PMID:24587567

Lee, Kathryn A.; Gay, Caryl; Pullinger, Clive R.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; Zak, Rochelle S.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.

2014-01-01

374

Confirmation of Choclo Virus as the Cause of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and high serum antibody prevalence in Panama  

PubMed Central

Choclo virus (CHOV) was described in sigmodontine rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, and humans during an outbreak of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in 1999 to 2000 in western Panama. Although HCPS is rare, hantavirus-specific serum antibody prevalence among the general population is high suggesting that CHOV may cause many mild or asymptomatic infections. The goals of this study were to confirm the role of CHOV in HCPS and in the frequently detected serum antibody and to established the phylogenetic relationship with other New World hantaviruses. CHOV was cultured to facilitate the sequencing of the small (S) and medium (M) segments and to perform CHOV-specific serum neutralization antibody assays. Sequences of the S and M segments found a close relationship to other Oligoryzomys-borne hantaviruses in the Americas, highly conserved terminal nucleotides, and no evidence for recombination events. The maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses of complete M segment nucleotide sequences indicate a close relationship to Maporal and Laguna Negra viruses, found at the base of the South American clade. In a focus neutralization assay acute and convalescent sera from 6 Panamanian HCPS patients neutralized CHOV in dilutions from 1:200 to 1:6400. In a sample of antibody-positive adults without a history of HCPS, 9 of 10 sera neutralized CHOV in dilutions ranging from 1:100 to 1:6400. Although cross-neutralization with other sympatric hantaviruses not yet associated with human disease is possible, CHOV appears to be the causal agent for most of the mild or asymptomatic hantavirus infections, as well as HCPS, in Panama. PMID:20648614

Nelson, Randin; Cañate, Raul; Pascale, Juan Miguel; Dragoo, Jerry W.; Armien, Blas; Armien, Anibal G.; Koster, Frederick

2010-01-01

375

Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control) L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10?5) against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes) were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:23469011

Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Peng, Min; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaohan

2013-01-01

376

Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia from 2008 to 2013.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) affects the swine industry worldwide. Annual surveillances taken from 2008 to 2013 revealed a 13.86% prevalence of PRRSVs in swine populations in Thailand. The selected positive samples were genetically characterized based on global systems and phylogenetic trees that were constructed using 967 ORF5 samples from this study, the collective sequences from Thailand and Southeast Asia and reference sequences. The results showed that both types I and II have been circulating in Thai swine and that genotype II was more prevalent than genotype I. Only type II was found in other countries in Southeast Asia. Type I PRRSVs from Thailand are clustered in subtype 1, clades A, D and H. Type II PRRSVs are topologically classified in lineage 1 and sublineages 5.1, 5.2 and 8.7, of which sublineage 8.7 was predominant, especially after 2010. PRRSVs in sublineage 8.7 are divided into two groups: classical NA and HP-PRRSV. An analysis of all HP-PRRSVs in Southeast Asia revealed four separate clades - A (SX2009-like), B (09HEN1-like), JXA1-like and GXFCH08-like - reflecting four different introductions of these viruses into Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam. HP-PRRSV first appeared in Thailand and Cambodia in 2008, 2 years before the first epidemic outbreaks. Recently, the genetics of PRRSVs in Southeast Asia have become more diverse. Thus, PRRSV genetics must be continually characterized and phylogenetically analyzed using global systematic classifications to provide annual genetic information for PRRS control and vaccine selection. PMID:25704227

Jantafong, Tippawan; Sangtong, Pradit; Saenglub, Wimontiane; Mungkundar, Chatthapon; Romlamduan, Narin; Lekchareonsuk, Chalermpol; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa

2015-04-17

377

Highly divergent strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus incorporate multiple isoforms of nonstructural protein 2 into virions.  

PubMed

Viral structural proteins form the critical intermediary between viral infection cycles within and between hosts, function to initiate entry, participate in immediate early viral replication steps, and are major targets for the host adaptive immune response. We report the identification of nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) as a novel structural component of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) particle. A set of custom ?-nsp2 antibodies targeting conserved epitopes within four distinct regions of nsp2 (the PLP2 protease domain [OTU], the hypervariable domain [HV], the putative transmembrane domain [TM], and the C-terminal region [C]) were obtained commercially and validated in PRRSV-infected cells. Highly purified cell-free virions of several PRRSV strains were isolated through multiple rounds of differential density gradient centrifugation and analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) and Western blot assays using the ?-nsp2 antibodies. Purified viral preparations were found to contain pleomorphic, predominantly spherical virions of uniform size (57.9 nm ± 8.1 nm diameter; n = 50), consistent with the expected size of PRRSV particles. Analysis by IEM indicated the presence of nsp2 associated with the viral particle of diverse strains of PRRSV. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of nsp2 in purified viral samples and revealed that multiple nsp2 isoforms were associated with the virion. Finally, a recombinant PRRSV genome containing a myc-tagged nsp2 was used to generate purified virus, and these particles were also shown to harbor myc-tagged nsp2 isoforms. Together, these data identify nsp2 as a virion-associated structural PRRSV protein and reveal that nsp2 exists in or on viral particles as multiple isoforms. PMID:24089566

Kappes, Matthew A; Miller, Cathy L; Faaberg, Kay S

2013-12-01

378

Structure of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Complex with Suramin Reveals Therapeutic Potential  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV). Lack of vaccines and inadequate therapeutic treatments have made the spread of the virus a global concern. Viral nucleocapsid protein (N) is essential for its transcription and replication. Here, we present the crystal structures of N from SFTSV and its homologs from Buenaventura (BUE) and Granada (GRA) viruses. The structures reveal that phleboviral N folds into a compact core domain and an extended N-terminal arm that mediates oligomerization, such as tetramer, pentamer, and hexamer of N assemblies. Structural superimposition indicates that phleboviral N adopts a conserved architecture and uses a similar RNA encapsidation strategy as that of RVFV-N. The RNA binding cavity runs along the inner edge of the ring-like assembly. A triple mutant of SFTSV-N, R64D/K67D/K74D, almost lost its ability to bind RNA in vitro, is deficient in its ability to transcribe and replicate. Structural studies of the mutant reveal that both alterations in quaternary assembly and the charge distribution contribute to the loss of RNA binding. In the screening of inhibitors Suramin was identified to bind phleboviral N specifically. The complex crystal structure of SFTSV-N with Suramin was refined to a 2.30-Å resolution. Suramin was found sitting in the putative RNA binding cavity of SFTSV-N. The inhibitory effect of Suramin on SFTSV replication was confirmed in Vero cells. Therefore, a common Suramin-based therapeutic approach targeting SFTSV-N and its homologs could be developed for containing phleboviral outbreaks. PMID:23576501

Jiao, Lianying; Ouyang, Songying; Liang, Mifang; Niu, Fengfeng; Shaw, Neil; Wu, Wei; Ding, Wei; Jin, Cong; Peng, Yao; Zhu, Yanping; Zhang, Fushun; Wang, Tao; Li, Chuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Luan, Chi-Hao; Li, Dexin

2013-01-01

379

Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Sahul Hameed, A.S. [OIE Expert, OIE Reference Laboratory for WTD, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509 (India); Kwang, Jimmy, E-mail: kwang@tll.org.s [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

2009-09-01

380

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in an HIV-1 infected patient with disseminated varicella zoster virus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon pathology characterized by the acute onset of headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, seizures and focal neurological deficits. It was initially described in the setting of hypertension, uremia and immunosuppression. In the last decade there have been emerging reports of PRES in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection in the presence of hypertension, dialysis, hypercalcaemia and two opportunistic infections: blastomycosis and tuberculosis (TB). Case presentation Here we present the case of a 54 year old male being treated for disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) and vasculopathy in the setting of HIV infection who acutely deteriorated to the point of requiring intubation. His clinicoradiological diagnosis was of PRES and he subsequently improved within 72 h with supportive management. Serial neuroimaging correlated with the clinical findings. The pathogenesis of PRES is poorly understood but is thought to stem from vasogenic oedema either as a result of loss of endothelial integrity and transudate of fluid across the blood–brain barrier, or secondary to vasospasm resulting in tissue oedema in the absence of infarction. How HIV infection impacts on this model is unclear. It is possible the HIV infection causes endothelial dysfunction and disruption of the blood–brain barrier that may be further exacerbated by infections in the central nervous system. Conclusion The phenomenon of PRES in advanced HIV is an important clinical entity for both physicians and critical care doctors to recognize firstly given its potential mortality but also because of its favourable prognosis and reversibility with supportive care and treatment of underlying causes. PMID:23981526

2013-01-01

381

Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

382

Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and healthy controls in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence of XMRV infection by using serologic and molecular assays. Blinded PCR and serologic testing were performed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and at two additional laboratories. Results Archived blood specimens were tested from persons with CFS defined by the 1994 international research case definition and matched healthy controls from Wichita, Kansas and metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia populations. Serologic testing at CDC utilized a Western blot (WB) assay that showed excellent sensitivity to MuLV and XMRV polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, and no reactivity on sera from 121 US blood donors or 26 HTLV-and HIV-infected sera. Plasma from 51 CFS cases and plasma from 53 controls were all WB negative. Additional blinded screening of the 51 cases and 53 controls at the Robert Koch Institute using an ELISA employing recombinant Gag and Env XMRV proteins identified weak seroreactivity in one CFS case and a healthy control, which was not confirmed by immunofluorescence. PCR testing at CDC employed a gag and a pol nested PCR assay with a detection threshold of 10 copies in 1 ug of human DNA. DNA specimens from 50 CFS patients and 56 controls and 41 US blood donors were all PCR-negative. Blinded testing by a second nested gag PCR assay at the Blood Systems Research Institute was also negative for DNA specimens from the 50 CFS cases and 56 controls. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of infection with XMRV in our U.S. study population of CFS patients or healthy controls by using multiple molecular and serologic assays. These data do not support an association of XMRV with CFS. PMID:20594299

2010-01-01

383

Domain 2 of a Kazal serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon possesses antiviral activity against WSSV.  

PubMed

A 5-domain Kazal type serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon is involved in innate immune defense against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To test which domains were involved, the 5 domains of SPIPm2 were over-expressed and tested against WSSV infection. By using hemocyte primary cell culture treated with each recombinant SPIPm2 domain along with WSSV, the expression of WSSV early genes ie1, WSV477 and late gene VP28 were substantially reduced as compared to other domains when the recombinant domain 2, rSPIPm2D2, was used. Injecting the WSSV along with rSPIPm2D2 but not with other domains caused delay in mortality rate of the infected shrimp. The results indicate that the SPIPm2D2 possesses strong antiviral activity and, hence, contributes predominantly to the antiviral activity of SPIPm2. PMID:25301720

Visetnan, Suwattana; Donpudsa, Suchao; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

2014-12-01

384

Risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and resulting challenges for effective disease surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to identify risk factors for active porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection at farm level and to assess the probability of an infected farm being detected through passive disease surveillance in England. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study on 147 farrow-to-finish farms conducted from April 2008 – April 2009. The risk factors for active PRRSV infection were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The surveillance system was evaluated using a stochastic scenario tree model. Results Evidence of PRRSV circulation was confirmed on 35.1% (95%CI: 26.8-43.4) of farms in the cross sectional study, with a higher proportion of infected farms in areas with high pig density (more than 15000 pigs within 10 km radius from the farm). Farms were more likely to have active PRRSV infection if they used the live virus vaccine-Porcilis PRRS (OR=7.5, 95%CI: 2.5-22.8), were located in high pig density areas (OR=2.9, 95%CI: 1.0-8.3) or had dead pigs collected (OR=5.6, 95%CI: 1.7-18.3). Farms that weaned pigs at 28 days of age or later had lower odds of being PRRSV positive compared to those weaning at 21-27 days (OR=0.2, 95%CI: 0.1-0.7). The probability of detecting an infected farm through passive surveillance for disease was low (mode=0.074, 5th and 95th percentiles: 0.067; 0.083 respectively). In particular farms which used live virus vaccine had lower probabilities for detection compared to those which did not. Conclusions Risk factors identified highlight the importance of biosecurity measures for the incursion of PRRSV infection. The results further indicate that a combined approach of surveillance for infection and disease diagnosis is needed to assist effective control and/or elimination of PRRSV from the pig population. PMID:23034160

2012-01-01

385

A Novel Compound from the Mushroom Cryptoporus volvatus Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a serious contagious disease in the swine industry. At present, there are no effective control strategies against PRRSV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment regimens that have efficacious antiviral activity to compensate for vaccines. The anti-infective effect of Cryptoporus volvatus has previously been demonstrated in Tradational Chinese Medicine. In this report, we expected to identify a new anti-PRRSV agent in the aqueous extract of C. volvatus, by employing a combination of modern chromatographic purification techniques and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Our results showed that C. volvatus extracts from every separation step differed in their inhibitory potency on PRRSV. One anti-PRRSV component designated as CM-H-L-5 was isolated from water-soluble fraction of C. volvatus. The inhibition induced by CM-H-L-5 occurred in a dose-dependent manner. CM-H-L-5 appeared to be a low-molecular-weight polyol fragment with amide groups and carboxylic acid groups. Collectively, our findings imply that CM-H-L-5 from the aqueous extract of C. volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapy. PMID:24260198

Ma, Zengqiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Mengjuan; Wang, Hexiang; Feng, Wen-hai; Ng, Tzi Bun

2013-01-01

386

Detection of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Brains of Cattle with a Neurological Syndrome: Pathological and Molecular Studies  

PubMed Central

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was investigated in the central nervous system (CNS) of cattle with neurological syndrome. A total of 269 CNS samples were submitted to nested-PCR (BLV env gene gp51), and the viral genotypes were identified. The nested-PCR was positive in 4.8% (13/269) CNS samples, with 2.7% (2/74) presenting at histological examination lesions of nonpurulent meningoencephalitis (NPME), whereas 5.6% (11/195) not presenting NPME (P > 0.05). No samples presented lymphosarcoma. The PCR products (437?bp) were sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis by neighbor-joining and maximum composite likelihood methods, and genotypes 1, 5, and 6 were detected, corroborating other South American studies. The genotype 6 barely described in Brazil and Argentina was more frequently detected in this study. The identity matrices showed maximum similarity (100%) among some samples of this study and one from Argentina (FJ808582), recovered from GenBank. There was no association among the genotypes and NPME lesions. PMID:23710448

D'Angelino, Rubens Henrique Ramos; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Harakava, Ricardo; Gregori, Fábio

2013-01-01

387

Quantitation of varicella-zoster virus DNA in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and zoster sine herpete.  

PubMed

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation causes facial nerve palsy in Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) and zoster sine herpete (ZSH) with and without zoster rash, respectively. In the present study, we analyzed the VZV DNA copy number in saliva samples from 25 patients with RHS and 31 patients with ZSH using a TaqMan PCR assay to determine differences in the viral load between the two diseases. VZV copy number in saliva peaked near the day of the appearance of zoster in patients with RHS. Consequently, VZV DNA was less frequently detected in patients with RHS who exhibited facial palsy several days after the appearance of zoster. These findings suggest that the VZV load in saliva samples reflects the kinetics of viral reactivation in patients with RHS. In addition, VZV DNA was equally detected in saliva from patients with RHS and ZSH, and there was no significant difference in the highest viral copy number between patients with RHS and those with ZSH. The VZV load does not appear to reflect a major difference between RHS and ZSH. PMID:11474003

Furuta, Y; Ohtani, F; Sawa, H; Fukuda, S; Inuyama, Y

2001-08-01

388

Characterization of two novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates with deletions in the GP2 gene.  

PubMed

Two newly emerged, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains (Henan-A10 and A11) were isolated from the sera of aborting sows. Interestingly, both of the isolates could replicate in primary porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells but not in MARC-145 cells. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome was constructed and the results showed that Henan-A10 and A11 were most closely related to other highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strains. However, genomic sequence analysis showed that Henan-A10 and A11 shared only 96.8-97.8% nucleotide identity with the representative HP-PRRSV strain JXA1. Notably, a 10 amino acids deletion in the GP2 endodomain was identified for the first time. A full-length, infectious cDNA clone of HuN4-F112 (attenuated strain from a HP-PRRSV) was used to construct a chimeric clone with the corresponding deletion in GP2. We found that the deletion did not affect viral growth in MARC-145 cells, indicating that the endodomain of PRRSV GP2 may be variable. PMID:25669596

Chen, Jia-Zeng; Peng, Jin-Mei; Bai, Yun; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yi-Min; Zhang, Qiu-Yue; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Wu-Chao; Zhao, Hong-Yuan; Ye, Chao; An, Tong-Qing; Cai, Xue-Hui; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Tong, Guang-Zhi

2015-04-17

389

A novel compound from the mushroom Cryptoporus volvatus inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vitro.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a serious contagious disease in the swine industry. At present, there are no effective control strategies against PRRSV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment regimens that have efficacious antiviral activity to compensate for vaccines. The anti-infective effect of Cryptoporus volvatus has previously been demonstrated in Tradational Chinese Medicine. In this report, we expected to identify a new anti-PRRSV agent in the aqueous extract of C. volvatus, by employing a combination of modern chromatographic purification techniques and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Our results showed that C. volvatus extracts from every separation step differed in their inhibitory potency on PRRSV. One anti-PRRSV component designated as CM-H-L-5 was isolated from water-soluble fraction of C. volvatus. The inhibition induced by CM-H-L-5 occurred in a dose-dependent manner. CM-H-L-5 appeared to be a low-molecular-weight polyol fragment with amide groups and carboxylic acid groups. Collectively, our findings imply that CM-H-L-5 from the aqueous extract of C. volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapy. PMID:24260198

Ma, Zengqiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Mengjuan; Wang, Hexiang; Feng, Wen-Hai; Ng, Tzi Bun

2013-01-01

390

Modulation of Intracellular Restriction Factors Contributes to Methamphetamine-Mediated Enhancement of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Virus Infection of Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of methamphetamine (METH), a sympathomimetic stimulant, is particularly common among patients infected with HIV. In vitro studies have determined that METH enhances HIV infection of CD4+ T cells, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and macrophages. In addition, animal studies have also showed that METH treatment increases brain viral load of SIV-infected monkeys and promotes HIV replication and viremia in HIV/hu-CycT1 transgenic mice. However, the mechanisms (s) of METH actions on HIV remain to be determined. In this study, we investigated the impact of METH on intracellular restriction factors against HIV and SIV. We demonstrated that METH treatment of human blood mononuclear phagocytes significantly affected the expression of anti-HIV microRNAs and several key elements (RIG-I, IRF-3/5, SOCS-2, 3 and PIAS-1, 3, X, Y) in the type I IFN pathway. The suppression of these innate restriction factors was associated with a reduced production of type I IFNs and the enhancement of HIV or SIV infection of macrophages. These findings indicate that METH use impairs intracellular innate antiviral mechanism(s) in macrophages, contributing to cell susceptibility to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus infection. PMID:22591364

Wang, Xu; Wang, Yizhong; Ye, Li; Li, Jieliang; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Sinem; Ho, Wenzhe

2014-01-01

391

Immune modulations and protection by translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in Fenneropenaeus indicus harboring white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

Fenneropenaeus indicus translationally controlled tumor protein (Fi-TCTP) was cloned and expressed using pET 100a-D-TOPO in prokaryotic expression system and it exhibited putative antioxidant activity as assessed in vitro by enhanced growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The protective efficacy of recombinant Fi-TCTP (rFi-TCTP) was evaluated in F. indicus by intramuscular and oral administration. Intramuscular injection of rFi-TCTP to shrimps, on subsequent white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection exhibited 42% relative percent survival. To understand the mechanism of protection, immunological parameters such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), phenoloxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed in early (24h) and late (60h) stages of infection. rFi-TCTP pretreatment significantly lowers the WSSV induced ROS generation and respiratory burst during early and late stages of infection. Further, WSSV induced apoptotic changes such as reduced haemocyte count, loss in MMP and DNA fragmentation were significantly reduced during early and late stage of infection upon rFi-TCTP administration. Hence, the immunomodulatory studies suggest that protective effect of rFi-TCTP in treated shrimps, might be due to the reduction in ROS and apoptosis, following decreased mitochondrial damage together with reduced phenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst. PMID:24837973

Rajesh, S; Kamalakannan, V; Narayanan, R B

2014-07-01

392

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome stability maintained over six passages through three different penaeid shrimp species.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology. PMID:25144114

Sindhupriya, M; Saravanan, P; Otta, S K; Amarnath, C Bala; Arulraj, R; Bhuvaneswari, T; Praveena, P Ezhil; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

2014-08-21

393

An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India  

PubMed Central

A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8?mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds. PMID:22593673

Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K. M.; Mohamed Hatha, A. A.

2012-01-01

394

Grade 4 febrile neutropenia and Fournier’s Syndrome associated with triple therapy for hepatitis C virus: A case report  

PubMed Central

The use of triple therapy for hepatitis C not only increases the rate of sustained virological responses compared with the use of only interferon and ribavirin (RBV) but also leads to an increased number of side effects. The subject of this study was a 53-year-old male who was cirrhotic with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 A and was a previous null non-responder. We initially attempted retreatment with boceprevir (BOC), Peg-interferon and RBV, and a decrease in viral load was observed in the 8th week. In week 12, he presented with disorientation, flapping, fever, tachypnea, arterial hypotension and tachycardia. He also exhibited leucopenia with neutropenia. Cefepime and filgrastim were initiated, and treatment for hepatitis C was suspended. A myelogram revealed hypoplasia, cytotoxicity and maturational retardation. After 48 h, he developed bilateral inguinal erythema that evolved throughout the perineal area to the root of the thighs, with exulcerations and an outflow of seropurulent secretions. Because we hypothesized that he was suffering from Fournier’s Syndrome, treatment was replaced with the antibiotics imipenem, linezolid and clindamycin. After this new treatment paradigm was initiated, his lesions regressed without requiring surgical debridement. Triple therapy requires knowledge regarding the management of adverse effects and drug interactions; it also requires an understanding of the importance of respecting the guidelines for the withdrawal of treatment. In this case report, we observed an adverse event that had not been previously reported in the literature with the use of BOC. PMID:25018856

Oliveira, Kelly Cristhian Lima; Cardoso, Emili de Oliveira Bortolon; de Souza, Suzana Carla Pereira; Machado, Flávia Souza; Zangirolami, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Moreira, Alecsandro; Silva, Giovanni Faria; de Oliveira, Cássio Vieira

2014-01-01

395

[The use of therapeutic play in the intensive care of a preschool child with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome].  

PubMed

Hospitalization is a stressful experience for children that increases their anxiety and fears, generates resistance and noncompliance, and, as a result, delays necessary treatments. Developing an age-appropriate intervention to reduce the hospitalization-related stress perceived by children is an important component of pediatric nursing. This case study used therapeutic play and drawing to care for a virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome preschooler who stayed in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between 11/13/2012 and 11/19/2012. Stressors faced by the patient included separation from primary caregiver, unfamiliarity with the medical environment and equipment, non-comprehension of the treatment and medication regimens, and loss of control. The patient displayed incorporative behaviors such as crying, screaming, refusing to be touched, and requesting parental accompaniment. Painting and picture books were used as developmentally appropriate interventions to understand the patient's feelings and to provide a means for him to project and release emotions. This strategy successfully assisted the child to overcome the perceived stress of hospitalization and to cooperate with healthcare providers on his treatment. PMID:25854953

Hsu, Chia-Hua; Feng, Jui-Ying

2015-04-01

396

Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors  

PubMed Central

We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 ?m long and 850-485 ?m wide constructed from 8 ?m thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody-coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label-free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label-free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100 virions (nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions (nucleocapsids)/100?l, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label-free, in-situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation. PMID:20863681

Capobianco, Joseph; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.

2011-01-01

397

White-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) introduction into the Gulf of Mexico and Texas freshwater systems through imported, frozen bait-shrimp.  

PubMed

We analysed 20 boxes of, frozen imported bait-shrimp (China: Parapenaeopsis sp. and Metapenaeopsis sp.) and 8 boxes of native, frozen bait-shrimp (Gulf of Mexico: Litopenaeus setiferus and Farfantepenaeus duorarum) by RT-PCR or PCR for Taura syndrome virus (TSV), yellowhead virus/gill-associated virus (YHV/GAV), white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). All 28 boxes of shrimp were negative for TSV, YHV/GAV and IHHNV; 2 boxes of imported bait-shrimp were WSSV-positive by 3 different PCR assays. Intramuscular injection of replicate groups of SPF (specific pathogen-free) L. vannamei juveniles with 2 different tissue homogenates prepared from the 2 WSSV-positive bait boxes resulted in 100% mortality of the test shrimp within 48 to 72 h post-injection. No mortality occurred among injected negative control groups. Histological and in situ hybridization analyses of 20 moribund treatment-shrimp demonstrated severe WSSV infections in each sample. Oral exposure of SPF L. vannamei postlarvae, PL (PL 25 to 30 stage; approximately 0.02 g) to minced tissue prepared from the 2 WSSV-positive bait-lots did not induce infection, possibly because of an insufficient infectious dose and/or viral inactivation resulting from multiple freeze-thaw cycles of the bait-shrimp during PCR testing. Use of an electric drill and collection of drill-tailings (tissue from approximately 20 to 30 shrimp) from frozen blocks of shrimp was successfully employed as an alternate tissue-sampling method without thawing. Our findings indicate that imported WSSV-infected bait shrimp, originating from China, are being sold in Texas for the purpose of sport fishing and represent a potential threat to freshwater and marine crustacean fisheries, as well as to coastal US shrimp farms. PMID:16956056

Hasson, K W; Fan, Y; Reisinger, T; Venuti, J; Varner, P W

2006-07-25

398

Acute Cerebellar Syndrome in Infectious Mononucleosis: Documentation of Two Cases With Epstein-Barr Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Acute cerebellar ataxia has been described occasionally with infectious mononucleosis. Two additional cases are reported with serologic identification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. As with previously described cases, the outcome was benign, and examination and laboratory studies did not indicate diffuse neurologic involvement. Visual and brainstem auditory-evoked responses were normal. Electroencephalograms (EEG) demonstrated 14 and 6 per second positive spikes in both patients. This pattern is considered a normal variant and has been recorded from depth electrodes and reported with deep midline lesions. These cases support the prognosis of benign cerebellar involvement in infectious mononucleosis and suggest that evidence of EBV infection be sought in patients with acute ataxia. The significance of 14/sec and 6/sec positive EEG spikes is uncertain. PMID:2987517

Kramer, David S.; Smitnik, Loretta M.; John, Kuruvilla; Drake, Miles E.

1985-01-01

399

Antigenic determinants in influenza virus hemagglutinin.  

PubMed Central

Three antigenic determinants were revealed in H3 hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 1975. One of them was common for all viruses, and two others specified differences between the viruses possessing H3 hemagglutinin. PMID:89090

Rovnova, Z I; Kosyakov, P N; Berezina, O N; Isayeva, E I; Zhdanov, V M

1979-01-01

400

Induction of STAT1 phosphorylation at serine 727 and expression of proinflammatory cytokines by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a viral pathogen that causes acute respiratory illnesses in young pigs. Since 1987, PRRSV has contributed substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in PRRSV-infected pigs is thought to contribute to PRRSV pathogenesis. In this study, PRRSV VR-2385, a Type 2 strain with moderate virulence, was found to induce phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) at serine 727 (pSTAT1-S727) in MARC-145 cells. No phosphorylated STAT1 at tyrosine 701 was detected, which indicates that the pSTAT1-S727 elevation was interferon-independent. The PRRSV-induced pSTAT1-S727, however, was dose-dependent and its levels increased with infection time. IngelVac PRRS MLV strain had a minimal effect on pSTAT1-S727. Compared to MLV-infected cells, VR-2385 infection caused significantly higher level of expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) and IL-8. The VR-2385-induced pSTAT1-S727 and cytokine expression were reduced after SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or methylthioadenosine (MTA), a methyl transferase inhibitor, was added to the cells. The SB203580 and MTA-mediated inhibition suggested that the virus-induced pSTAT1-S727 was dependent on p38 MAPK pathway. In primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), VR-2385 also induced pSTAT1-S727 and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1beta, IL-8, chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10). Similarly, SB203580 treatment of PAM cells blocked the elevation of pSTAT1-S727 and cytokine expression. Overexpression of individual viral proteins showed that non-structural protein 12 (nsp12) was able to induce elevation of pSTAT1-S727 and the expression of IL-1? and IL-8. These results indicated that PRRSV VR-2385 induces pSTAT1-S727 and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which contributes to the insight of PRRSV pathogenesis. PMID:23637938

Yu, Ying; Wang, Rong; Nan, Yuchen; Zhang, Linsheng; Zhang, Yanjin

2013-01-01

401

Systemic Epstein-Barr virus positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood with hemophagocytic syndrome.  

PubMed

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) are commonly derived from B-cells, however, it is becoming more and more apparently that EBV can also infect T-lymphocytes. Systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood is rare and characterized by an extremely aggressive course and poor prognosis. Here, we report a 22-year-old female of systemic EBV positive TLPD with acute EBV infection and review the clinical features of this disorder. A 22-year-old previously healthy female without immunocompromised status presented with persisting coach and fever resistant to conventional therapies. Physical examination showed hemorrhage and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examinations revealed severe pancytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulopathy (DIC), and anti-EBV-IgM positivity. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow investigation identified a number of atypical lymphocytes. Flow cytometry (FCM) did not show any significant evidence of leukemia or lymphoma. The lymph node biopsy showed apparent infiltration of lymphocytes, which expressed CD2+, CD3+, CD7+ and TIA1+. There was no CD20+ or CD56+ cells. EBV early RNA (EBER) was positive. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement revealed a polyclonal pattern. The patient received prednisolone and IVIG therapy with a transient good condition, and then died of multiorgan failure one week after diagnosis. PMID:25400806

Chen, Guoshu; Chen, Li; Qin, Xiaohua; Huang, Zhuoya; Xie, Xiaoling; Li, Guowei; Xu, Bing

2014-01-01

402

Immunogenicity of recombinant GP5 protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressed in tobacco plant.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the ORF5-encoded major envelop glycoprotein 5 (GP5) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) expressed in tobacco plant as a potential pig oral vaccine in protection against PRRSV infection. Six-week-old PRRSV-free pigs were fed four times orally with 50g of chopped fresh GP5 transgenic tobacco leaves (GP5-T) (GP5 reaching 0.011% of total soluble protein) or wild-type tobacco leaves (W-T) each on days 0, 14, 28, and 42. Samples of serum, saliva, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected on days -1, 6, 13, 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48 after the initial oral vaccination. A similar vaccination-dependent gradual increase in the responses of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV total IgG and IgA, respectively, and in the levels of PRRSV-specific blastogenic response of PBMCs was seen in GP5-T-treated pigs; all statistically significant elevations occurred after the 2nd vaccination and were revealed after 20 days post-initial oral vaccination (DPIOV). Pigs fed on GP5-T also developed serum neutralizing antibodies to PRRSV at a titer of 1:4-1:8 after the 4th vaccination by 48 DPIOV. No detectable anti-PRRSV antibody responses and PRRSV-specific blastogenic response were seen in W-T-treated pigs. The present study has demonstrated that pigs fed on GP5-T could develop specific mucosal as well as systemic humoral and cellular immune responses against PRRSV. The results also support that transgenic plant as GP5-T can be an effective system for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs. PMID:20053461

Chia, Min-Yuan; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Chan, Hui-Ting; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling; Chang, Hui-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Chieh; Lin, Chun-Ming; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren

2010-06-15

403

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.  

PubMed

Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results). PMID:22247377

Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

2012-01-01

404

A gC1qR prevents white spot syndrome virus replication in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus.  

PubMed

The gC1qR/p32 protein is a multiple receptor for several proteins and pathogens. We cloned a gC1qR homologue in a crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, and analyzed the expression of P. leniusculus C1qR (PlgC1qR) in various tissues. The gC1qR/p32 transcript was significantly enhanced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection 6 h after viral infection both in vitro in a hematopoietic tissue cell culture (Hpt) and in vivo compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, PlgC1qR silencing in both the Hpt cell culture and live crayfish enhanced the WSSV replication. In addition, by making a recombinant PlgC1qR protein we could show that if this recombinant protein was injected in a crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, followed by injection of WSSV, this significantly reduced viral replication in vivo. Furthermore, if the recombinant PlgC1qR was incubated with Hpt cells and then WSSV was added, this also reduced viral replication. These experiments clearly demonstrate that recombinant PlgC1qR reduce WSSV replication both in vivo and in vitro. The results from a far-Western overlay and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays showed that PlgC1qR could bind to VP15, VP26, and VP28. Altogether, these results demonstrate a role for PlgC1qR in antiviral activity against WSSV. PMID:20686021

Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth

2010-10-01

405

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge among high school students in K?r?kkale province of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess the existing level of knowledge of high school children about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the sources of their information. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two high schools in Kirikkale, Turkey and data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample. Results: Four hundred and seventy three participants; 230 males and 243 females were analyzed. Their ages ranged from 15 to 19 years with a mean age of 16.81 ± 1.27. 92.2% of the students claimed to have heard about HIV/AIDS prior to the study with slightly more females than males. Although with some misconceptions, majority of the participants knew that HIV is not transmitted by sharing meals, casual contact, and sleeping in the same room and using the same bathroom. 93.4% identi?ed HIV/AIDS as a life-threatening disease and 27% believe that there is a cure for AIDS. 64% and 22.8% respectively believed that the people can protect themselves by using condoms and by avoiding sexual contact. Internet was preponderantly claimed as the most important source of information about HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that the students have a fairly high knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This is not without some misconceptions about the prognosis of the disease. Internet was the major source of HIV/AIDS information. PMID:23633840

Ayl?kç?, Bahad?r U?ur; Bamise, Cornelius Tokunbo; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa; Turkal, Mustafa; Çolak, Hakan

2013-01-01

406

Prohibitin Interacts with Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Prevents Infection in the Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii  

PubMed Central

Prohibitins (PHBs) are ubiquitously expressed conserved proteins in eukaryotes that are associated with apoptosis, cancer formation, aging, stress responses, cell proliferation, and immune regulation. However, the function of PHBs in crustacean immunity remains largely unknown. In the present study, we identified a PHB in Procambarus clarkii red swamp crayfish, which was designated PcPHB1. PcPHB1 was widely distributed in several tissues, and its expression was significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge at the mRNA level and the protein level. These observations prompted us to investigate the role of PcPHB1 in the crayfish antiviral response. Recombinant PcPHB1 (rPcPHB1) significantly reduced the amount of WSSV in crayfish and the mortality of WSSV-infected crayfish. The quantity of WSSV in PcPHB1 knockdown crayfish was increased compared with that in the controls. The effects of RNA silencing were rescued by rPcPHB1 reinjection. We further confirmed the interaction of PcPHB1 with the WSSV envelope proteins VP28, VP26, and VP24 using pulldown and far-Western overlay assays. Finally, we observed that the colloidal gold-labeled PcPHB1 was located on the outer surface of the WSSV, which suggests that PcPHB1 specifically binds to the envelope proteins of WSSV. VP28, VP26, and VP24 are structural envelope proteins and are essential for attachment and entry into crayfish cells. Therefore, PcPHB1 exerts its anti-WSSV effect by binding to VP28, VP26, and VP24, preventing viral infection. This study is the first report on the antiviral function of PHB in the innate immune system of crustaceans. PMID:24049173

Lan, Jiang-Feng; Li, Xin-Cang; Sun, Jie-Jie; Gong, Jing; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Shi, Li-Jie; Weng, Yu-Ding; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

2013-01-01

407

Effects on boar semen quality after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: a case report.  

PubMed

The effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on semen quality was examined in a group of 11 spontaneously infected boars in a commercial boar stud. Semen samples were collected 4 weeks prior to 4 weeks post-infection (wpi). Infection with PRRSV of the European genotype subtype 1 (EU-1) was verified by specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 36% of the serum samples. All boars seroconverted before 4 wpi and remained in normal condition throughout the study. Comparison of the percentage of morphologically intact spermatozoa revealed an increase of acrosome-defective spermatozoa (P = 0.012) between -4 and 4 wpi. Significant deleterious effects on semen quality were detected for membrane integrity when semen had been stored for 2 days after sampling. Analysis of sperm subpopulations in a thermoresistance test on day 7 after sampling revealed alterations in the percentage of circular, progressively motile spermatozoa (P = 0.013), in the percentage of non-linear, progressively motile spermatozoa (P = 0.01), and on the amplitude of lateral sperm head displacement (P = 0.047). There was no difference in the incidence of mitochondrially active spermatozoa (P = 0.075). Investigation of routine production data between pre- and post-infection status showed no differences on ejaculate volume (P = 0.417), sperm concentration (P = 0.788), and percentage of motile spermatozoa (P = 0.321). This case report provides insights into a potential control strategy for PRRSV outbreaks in boar studs. PMID:23442207

Schulze, Martin; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Schmoll, Friedrich; Grossfeld, Rudolf; Griessler, Alfred

2013-01-01

408

Detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome or zoster sine herpete.  

PubMed

On the basis of alterations in varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody titers, it appears that Bell's palsy in some patients could be associated with VZV reactivation, that is, zoster sine herpete. To obtain stronger evidence of this association, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect VZV DNA in auricular lesions or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Bell's palsy or Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients. VZV DNA was detected in the auricular lesions of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, in PBMCs from 2 Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients, and in 4 of 17 samples from 16 Bell's palsy patients. Three of these four positive patients were thought to have zoster sine herpete because of hearing difficulty, vertigo, and pain. VZV IgM antibodies were positive in 1 of the 2 patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and in 2 of the 17 samples from the Bell's palsy patients. VZV IgG antibody titers during the acute phase were significantly higher in the patients positive for the PCR or VZV IgM antibody than in those negative for them. These findings provide evidence that Bell's palsy in some patients could be associated with VZV reactivation. PMID:9829642

Terada, K; Niizuma, T; Kawano, S; Kataoka, N; Akisada, T; Orita, Y

1998-12-01

409

High infection rate of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) with Puumala virus is associated with a winter outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Croatia.  

PubMed

An outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) started on Medvednica mountain near Zagreb in January 2012. In order to detect the aetiological agent of the disease in small rodents and to make the link with the human outbreak, rodents were trapped at four different altitudes. Using nested RT-PCR, Puumala virus (PUUV) RNA was detected in 41/53 (77·4%) bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) RNA was found in 6/61 (9·8%) yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). Sequence analysis of a 341-nucleotide region of the PUUV S segment, obtained from all infected bank voles and five HFRS patients, showed 98·8-100% sequence similarity, indicating that the patients were probably exposed to PUUV on Medvednica mountain. A very large bank-vole population combined with an extremely high infection rate of PUUV was responsible for this unusual winter outbreak of HFRS in Croatia. PMID:24800636

Tadin, A; Bjedov, L; Margaletic, J; Zibrat, B; Krajinovic, L Cvetko; Svoboda, P; Kurolt, I C; Majetic, Z Stritof; Turk, N; Rode, O Dakovic; Civljak, R; Kuzman, I; Markotic, A

2014-09-01

410

Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome as a major contributor to death in patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a severe complication of various viral infections often resulting in multiorgan\\u000a failure and death. The purpose of this study was to describe baseline characteristics, development of VAHS, related treatments\\u000a and associated mortality rate of consecutive critically ill patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection and\\u000a respiratory failure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a prospective observational study of

Gernot Beutel; Olaf Wiesner; Matthias Eder; Carsten Hafer; Andrea S Schneider; Jan T Kielstein; Christian Kühn; Albert Heim; Tina Ganzenmüller; Hans-Heinrich Kreipe; Axel Haverich; Andreas Tecklenburg; Arnold Ganser; Tobias Welte; Marius M Hoeper

2011-01-01

411

Variation in human T lymphotropic virus III (HTLV-III) antibodies in homosexual men: decline before onset of illness related to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).  

PubMed Central

Western blot analysis was used to document the development and changes in human T lymphotropic virus III (HTLV-III) antibody among Danish homosexual men followed longitudinally over three years. Reactivity against p15, p24, and p55 appeared earliest. After seroconversion the antibody concentration fluctuated, but in one instance a steady decline in banding intensity was seen during the 18 months before onset of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and throughout the remaining eight months of his life. Images p998-a PMID:2996691

Biggar, R J; Melbye, M; Ebbesen, P; Alexander, S; Nielsen, J O; Sarin, P; Faber, V

1985-01-01

412

Possession and Morality in Early Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the moment children say "mine!" by two years of age, objects of possession change progressively from being experienced as primarily unalienable property (i.e., something that is absolute or nonnegotiable), to being alienable (i.e., something that is negotiable in reciprocal exchanges). As possession begins to be experienced as alienable, the…

Rochat, Philippe

2011-01-01

413

50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Possession...a) No person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass, in, or harvested from the...or operator of a fishing vessel issued a black sea bass moratorium permit, or is...

2010-10-01

414

The 30-Amino-Acid Deletion in the Nsp2 of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Emerging in China Is Not Related to Its Virulence?  

PubMed Central

During the past 2 years, an atypical clinical outbreak, caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with a unique 30-amino-acid deletion in its Nsp2-coding region, was pandemic in China. In this study, we generated four full-length infectious cDNA clones: a clone of the highly virulent PRRSV strain JXwn06 (pWSK-JXwn), a clone of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-HB-1/3.9), a chimeric clone in which the Nsp2 region containing the 30-amino-acid deletion was replaced by the corresponding region of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-JXwn-HB1nsp2), and a mutated HB-1/3.9 clone with the same deletion in Nsp2 as JXwn06 (pWSK-HB1-ND30). We also investigated the pathogenicities of the rescued viruses (designated RvJXwn, RvJXwn-HB1nsp2, RvHB-1/3.9, and RvHB1-ND30, respectively) in specific-pathogen-free piglets in order to determine the role of the 30-amino-acid deletion in the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV. All the rescued viruses could replicate stably in MARC-145 cells. Our findings indicated that RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 retained high virulence for piglets, like RvJXwn and the parental virus JXwn06, although the survival time of piglets infected with RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 was obviously prolonged. RvHB1-ND30 exhibited low virulence for piglets, like RvHB-1/3.9 and the parental virus HB-1/3.9. Therefore, we conclude that the 30-amino-acid deletion is not related to the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV emerging in China. PMID:19244318

Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jialong; Zeng, Jingwen; Yin, Shuoyan; Li, Yanhua; Zheng, Linying; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Yang, Hanchun

2009-01-01

415

Laem-Singh Virus: A Probable Etiological Agent Associated with Monodon Slow Growth Syndrome in Farmed Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon).  

PubMed

Among the emerging diseases in shrimp aquaculture, monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) is a major concern in South and Southeast Asia. Shrimp farming in Thailand was severely affected during 2000-2002 due to MSGS, which caused an economic loss, of about US$ 300 million. MSGS is characterized by abnormally slow growth with coefficients of size variation of >35 %, that has impacted P. monodon production in Thailand. A new shrimp virus, Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) was identified to be associated in MSGS affected shrimp. LSNV a RNA virus of about 25 nm diameter is phylogenetically related to the insect-borne viruses in the families Barnaviridae, Tymoviridae and Sobemoviridae an important histopathological observation is exclusively noticed in growth-retarded shrimp. The LSNV infections have been confirmed in various organs of infected shrimp such as lymphoid organ, gills and nervous tissues by various diagnostic techniques such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization, quantitative real-time RT-PCR and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RT-LAMP-LFD) and these tools are available for the diagnosis of LSNV. Recently, an integrase containing element has been identified in absolute association with LSNV in stunted growth shrimp. The transmission of LSNV through horizontal and vertical routes has been experimentally demonstrated. The known natural host-range of LSNV includes P. monodon and other penaeid shrimp. The putative RdRp gene involved in replication of LSNV was targeted for dsRNA-mediated gene silencing and appeared to be effective in a dose-dependent manner. Since the discovery of LSNV in 2006 in Thailand, it has been added to the list of viruses to be excluded from domesticated specific pathogen-free stocks of P. monodon and it has been recommended that shrimp farmers avoid stocking post larvae positive for LSNV to prevent MSGS in their farms. PMID:23997445

Poornima, M; Seetang-Nun, Y; Alavandi, S V; Dayal, J Syama

2012-09-01

416

Prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus among family and health care worker contacts of persons with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: lack of evidence for nosocomial transmission of Andes virus to health care workers in Chile.  

PubMed

Nosocomial transmission of Andes virus has been documented in Argentina, but has not yet been proven in Chile. We studied 215 contacts (106 family member contacts and 109 health care worker contacts) of 20 index cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Chile. The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against Andes virus was 1.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34-6.3%) among the family members and 0.0% (95% CI = 0-3.2%) among the health care workers. Our data suggest that there is no evidence for nosocomial transmission of Andes virus in region IX of Chile. PMID:15031521

Castillo, Constanza; Villagra, Eliecer; Sanhueza, Ligia; Ferres, Marcela; Mardones, Jovita; Mertz, Gregory J

2004-03-01

417

Genome-wide association and genomic prediction for host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background Host genetics has been shown to play a role in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is the most economically important disease in the swine industry. A region on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 4 has been previously reported to have a strong association with serum viremia and weight gain in pigs experimentally infected with the PRRS virus (PRRSV). The objective here was to identify haplotypes associated with the favorable phenotype, investigate additional genomic regions associated with host response to PRRSV, and to determine the predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) based on the SSC4 region and based on the rest of the genome. Phenotypic data and 60 K SNP genotypes from eight trials of ~200 pigs from different commercial crosses were used to address these objectives. Results Across the eight trials, heritability estimates were 0.44 and 0.29 for viral load (VL, area under the curve of log-transformed serum viremia from 0 to 21 days post infection) and weight gain to 42 days post infection (WG), respectively. Genomic regions associated with VL were identified on chromosomes 4, X, and 1. Genomic regions associated with WG were identified on chromosomes 4, 5, and 7. Apart from the SSC4 region, the regions associated with these two traits each explained less than 3% of the genetic variance. Due to the strong linkage disequilibrium in the SSC4 region, only 19 unique haplotypes were identified across all populations, of which four were associated with the favorable phenotype. Through cross-validation, accuracies of EBV based on the SSC4 region were high (0.55), while the rest of the genome had little predictive ability across populations (0.09). Conclusions Traits associated with response to PRRSV infection in growing pigs are largely controlled by genomic regions with relatively small effects, with the exception of SSC4. Accuracies of EBV based on the SSC4 region were high compared to the rest of the genome. These results show that selection for the SSC4 region could potentially reduce the effects of PRRS in growing pigs, ultimately reducing the economic impact of this disease. PMID:24592976

2014-01-01

418

Evaluation of the Efficacy of an Attenuated Live Vaccine against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Young Pigs  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (105.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. PMID:22695163

Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang

2012-01-01

419

Use of tissue swabbing as an alternative to tissue dissection and lysis prior to nucleic acid extraction and real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The use of swabbing to sample tissue samples, prior to nucleic acid extraction and performance of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, was investigated for the detection of the viral pathogens Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The tissue swabbing method involved swabbing recently cut tissues, eluting the swabbed material, and extracting nucleic acid from the eluate prior to PCR amplification. Parallel testing of this method with traditional nucleic acid extraction from tissues, where small pieces of tissue are dissected and digested (typically overnight) in lysis buffer prior to nucleic acid extraction, was carried out for 50 samples for each virus. The results demonstrated that equivalent PCR results were obtained with both methods. It was also shown on a smaller number of samples that equivalent PCR results were also obtained when the lysis step of the swabbing method was reduced to only 2 hr. The ability to remove the overnight step typically associated with processing tissue samples for PCR analysis offers the potential for same-day testing of tissue. Although the current study is preliminary in nature and further validation will be required before adoption for routine use, the results show that tissue swabbing is a promising approach. It offers a convenient, simpler, and less time-consuming alternative to tissue dissection and lysis and has potential advantages for routine laboratory operation and outbreak testing, including easier pooling and sampling of large areas of tissue and carcasses. PMID:24788238

Errington, Jane; Jones, Rebecca M; Sawyer, Jason

2014-04-30

420

Phylogeny-directed search for murine leukemia virus-like retroviruses in vertebrate genomes and in patients suffering from myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) like retroviruses (MLLVs) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs)) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect "stealth" infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered. PMID:22315600

Blomberg, Jonas; Sheikholvaezin, Ali; Elfaitouri, Amal; Blomberg, Fredrik; Sjösten, Anna; Mattson Ulfstedt, Johan; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Källander, Clas; Ohrmalm, Christina; Sperber, Göran

2011-01-01

421

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: An update on an emerging and re-emerging viral disease of swine.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recognized in the late 1980’s in North America and Europe the syndrome that caused reproductive and respiratory problems in swine was initially called “Mystery Swine Disease” and is now termed “Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)”. In the early 1990’s an arterivirus, referred to as ...

422

Effect of porcine circovirus type 2a or 2b on infection kinetics and pathogenicity of two genetically divergent strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the conventional pig model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to characterize the infection dynamics and pathogenicity of two heterologous type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in a conventional pig model under the influence of concurrent porcine circovirus (PCV) subtype 2a or 2b infection. ...

423

MY HAMMOCK = I HAVE A HAMMOCK Possessed nouns constituting possessive clauses in Emrillon  

E-print Network

MY HAMMOCK = I HAVE A HAMMOCK Possessed nouns constituting possessive clauses in Emérillon (Tupi that constitute by themselves possessive clauses. (1) e-kija (Couchili et al.) 1sg/II3 -hammock "my hammock" or "I have a hammock" This topic is linked to the new analysis of so-called "descriptive verbs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

What skills do star fund managers possess  

E-print Network

Kosowski, Timmermann, Wermers, and White (2006) find that certain growth-oriented fund managers have substantial skill but do not stipulate the particular skills that they possess. I use novel style timing models to ...

Chen, Li-Wen

2010-02-17

425

50 CFR 648.25 - Possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Possession restrictions. (a) Atlantic mackerel. During a...

2010-10-01

426

Social comparison of material possessions among adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' engagement in social comparison of material possessions using qualitative inquiries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 64 Chinese adolescents aged 13-17 were face-to-face interviewed. They were asked whether they engaged in social comparison of possessions with direct and vicarious role models such as media celebrities. Characteristics of role models and

Kara Chan

2008-01-01

427

Broadening the heterologous cross-neutralizing antibody inducing ability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by breeding the GP4 or M genes.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important swine pathogens, which causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. A major hurdle to control PRRSV is the ineffectiveness of the current vaccines to confer protection against heterologous strains. Since both GP4 and M genes of PRRSV induce neutralizing antibodies, in this study we molecularly bred PRRSV through DNA shuffling of the GP4 and M genes, separately, from six genetically different strains of PRRSV in an attempt to identify chimeras with improved heterologous cross-neutralizing capability. The shuffled GP4 and M genes libraries were each cloned into the backbone of PRRSV strain VR2385 infectious clone pIR-VR2385-CA. Three GP4-shuffled chimeras and five M-shuffled chimeras, each representing sequences from all six parental strains, were selected and further characterized in vitro and in pigs. These eight chimeric viruses showed similar levels of replication with their backbone strain VR2385 both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the DNA shuffling of GP4 and M genes did not significantly impair the replication ability of these chimeras. Cross-neutralization test revealed that the GP4-shuffled chimera GP4TS14 induced significantly higher cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains FL-12 and NADC20, and similarly that the M-shuffled chimera MTS57 also induced significantly higher levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains MN184B and NADC20, when compared with their backbone parental strain VR2385 in infected pigs. The results suggest that DNA shuffling of the GP4 or M genes from different parental viruses can broaden the cross-neutralizing antibody-inducing ability of the chimeric viruses against heterologous PRRSV strains. The study has important implications for future development of a broadly protective vaccine against PRRSV. PMID:23826108

Zhou, Lei; Ni, Yan-Yan; Piñeyro, Pablo; Cossaboom, Caitlin M; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Sanford, Brenton J; Dryman, Barbara A; Huang, Yao-Wei; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2013-01-01

428

An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-? secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system. PMID:24711701

Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

2014-01-01

429

Assessing the functionality of viral entry-associated domains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus during inactivation procedures, a potential tool to optimize inactivated vaccines.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes severe economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Currently, vaccines based on inactivated PRRSV provide limited protection of pigs against infection, most likely because viral epitopes associated with the induction of neutralizing antibodies are not or poorly conserved during inactivation. To analyze the effect of inactivation procedures on the interaction of PRRSV with receptors involved in virus entry, a new assay was set up in this study. Viral entry-associated domains are most likely important for the induction of neutralizing antibodies, since neutralizing antibodies block interaction of PRRSV with cellular receptors. To investigate the interaction of PRRSV with the cellular receptors upon different inactivation procedures, attachment to and internalization of inactivated PRRSV into macrophages were monitored. AT-2 could not inactivate PRRSV completely and is therefore not useful for vaccine development. PRRSV inactivated with ultraviolet light, binary ethyleneimine and gamma irradiation, which all mainly have an effect at the genomic level, showed no difference compared to control live virus at all levels of virus entry, whereas PRRSV treated with formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and pH changes, which all have a modifying effect on proteins, was not able to internalize into macrophages anymore. These results suggest that inactivation with methods with a main effect on the viral genome preserve PRRSV entry-associated domains and are useful for future development of an effective inactivated vaccine against PRRSV. Although PRRSV incubation at 37 degrees C can completely inactivate PRRSV with preservation of entry-associated domains, this method is not recommended for vaccine development, since the mechanism is yet unknown. PMID:19674538

Delrue, Iris; Delputte, Peter L; Nauwynck, Hans J

2009-01-01

430

Phylodynamic analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in Italy: Action of selective pressures and interactions between different clades.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most relevant and challenging infectious disease to affect swine breeding. Despite this, several aspects of the virus' evolution and virus-host interaction are still poorly understood and largely based on knowledge obtained through in vitro or in vivo experimental infections. Due to peculiar experimental conditions, our understanding is often contradictory and difficult to infer with respect to actual field conditions. Our phylodynamic study, based on ORF5 sequences of 141 samples collected in Italy from 1993 to 2012, explores different aspects of PRRSV epidemiology, evolution, and virus-host interaction. Two major clades, belonging to Type 1 subtype 1, were demonstrated to co-circulate while harboring a relevant intra- and inter-clade genetic diversity. Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA), evolution rates, and population dynamics were estimated using a serial coalescent-based approach, and different demographic histories were reconstructed for the two clades. Analysis of selective pressure revealed that sites subjected to diversifying selection were mainly located in the region of glycoprotein 5 (GP5) exposed to the host environment. Similarly, the vast majority of strains were highly glycosylated, confirming the proposed protective role of the glycan shield against the humoral immune response. Overall, our study reports both interactions among the viral populations as well as between virus and host, and their relevance in shaping viral evolution: different population dynamics over time seem to reflect a competition between clades. Some evidence argues in favor of the role of immune pressure in affecting GP5 evolution, including frequent changes in the region exposed to the host immune response, and preserving glycosylation profiles that can hamper humoral immunity. PMID:25660037

Franzo, Giovanni; Dotto, Giorgia; Cecchinato, Mattia; Pasotto, Daniela; Martini, Marco; Drigo, Michele

2015-04-01

431

Dietary plant extracts improve immune responses and growth efficiency of pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 3 different plant extracts on growth performance and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 64 weaned pigs (7.8 ± 0.3 kg BW), free of PRRSV, were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by initial BW. Sex and ancestry were equalized across treatments. The first factor was with or without PRRSV challenge (intranasal dose; 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose). The second factor was represented by 4 diets: a nursery basal diet (CON), 10 mg/kg capsicum oleoresin (CAP), garlic botanical (GAR), or turmeric oleoresin (TUR). Pigs were housed in disease containment chambers for 28 d [14 d before and after the inoculation (d 0)]. Blood was collected on d 0, 7, and 14 to measure the total and differential white blood cells (WBC), and serum was collected to measure viral load by quantitative PCR, PRRSV antibody titer, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), IL-1?, C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin (Hp) by ELISA. In the unchallenged group, all piglets were PRRSV negative during the overall period postinoculation. All data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. The PRRSV challenge decreased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F from d 0 to 14. Feeding TUR improved G:F of the PRRSV-infected pigs from d 0 to 14. The numbers of WBC and neutrophils were decreased (P < 0.05) by PRRSV on d 7 but increased (P < 0.05) by PRRSV on d 14, indicating the PRRSV-infected pigs undergo a stage of weak immune responses. Feeding GAR increased (P < 0.05) B cells and CD8+ T cells of PRRSV-infected pigs compared with the CON. Furthermore, the PRRSV challenge increased (P < 0.05) serum viral load, TNF-?, and IL-1? on d 7 and serum viral load, CRP, and Hp on d 14, but feeding plant extracts to PRRSV-infected pigs reversed (P < 0.05) this increase. Infection with PRRSV increased (P < 0.05) rectal temperature of pigs on d 7, 9, and 11, but PRRSV-infected pigs fed plant extracts had lower rectal temperature (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the CON, indicating feeding plant extracts delayed the fever caused by PRRSV infection. In conclusion, results indicate that supplementation with plant extracts reduces the adverse effects of PRRSV by improving the immune responses of pigs, and the 3 plant extracts tested here show different effects. Supplementation with TUR improved feed efficiency of pigs challenged with PRRSV. PMID:24126276

Liu, Y; Che, T M; Song, M; Lee, J J; Almeida, J A S; Bravo, D; Van Alstine, W G; Pettigrew, J E

2013-12-01

432

27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Possession of used liquor bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol...DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor...

2010-04-01

433

27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Possession of used liquor bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol...DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor...

2011-04-01

434

27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Possession of used liquor bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol...DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor...

2012-04-01

435

27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Possession of used liquor bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol...DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor...

2013-04-01

436

27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Possession of used liquor bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol...DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor...

2014-04-01

437

Disguising the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: creative flavor compounding and techniques, part 2.  

PubMed

Adherence to antiretrovirals for pediatric patients is challenging for a variety of reasons, many of which are quite obvious. The medication's taste and texture may contribute to a child's resistance to following their regimen. To make the problem of compliance even more complex, there are fewer pediatric-friendly formulations available and fewer alternative options for antiretrovirals when compared to formulations and alternatives available to adults. For the sake of compliance, it is vital that parents and/or caregivers be offered innovative ways to disguise the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Compounding pharmacists can play an important role in finding answers to this situation. This article provides an in-depth discussion on some of the specific flavoring and taste-masking options that are available in the effort to increase adherence in the pediatric patient population. PMID:24579293

Horace, Alexis E; Akbarian-Tefagh, Jessica

2013-01-01

438

Disguising the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: creative flavor compounding and techniques, part 1.  

PubMed

The question of how to disguise the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is common for physicians, pharmacists, and parents/caregivers. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is essential for living a long life and is imperative for the successful treatment of pediatric patients. The taste of these medications has been shown to affect adherence in this patient population. Parents/caregivers are not only tasked with remembering refills, dosages, and strengths of antiretrovirals, they have to become persuasive diplomats for the daily administration of these medications to their children. Provided in this first part of a two-part article is background information on this topic and a discussion on palatability concerns. PMID:24459785

Horace, Alexis E; Akbarian-Tefagh, Jessica

2013-01-01

439

Validation of a Commercial Insulated Isothermal PCR-based POCKIT Test for Rapid and Easy Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61–95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31–98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei. PMID:24625894

Tsai, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Tang-Nelson, Kathy; Lightner, Donald; Ou, Bor-Rung; Hour, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Yen, Cheng-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu

2014-01-01

440

DNA shuffling of the GP3 genes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) produces a chimeric virus with an improved cross-neutralizing ability against a heterologous PRRSV strain.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important swine pathogen. Here we applied the DNA shuffling approaches to molecularly breed the PRRSV GP3 gene, a neutralizing antibodies inducer, in an attempt to improve its heterologous cross-neutralizing ability. The GP3 genes of six different PRRSV strains were bred by traditional DNA shuffling. Additionally, synthetic DNA shuffling of the GP3 gene was also performed using degenerate oligonucleotides. The shuffled-GP3-libraries were cloned into the backbone of a DNA-launched PRRSV infectious clone pIR-VR2385-CA. Four traditional-shuffled chimeras each representing all 6 parental strains and four other synthetic-shuffled chimeras were successfully rescued. These chimeras displayed similar levels of replication both in vitro and in vivo, compared to the backbone parental virus, indicating that the GP3 shuffling did not impair the replication capability of the chimeras. One chimera GP3TS22 induced significantly higher levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies in pigs against a heterologous PRRSV strain FL-12. PMID:23051709

Zhou, Lei; Ni, Yan-Yan; Piñeyro, Pablo; Sanford, Brenton J; Cossaboom, Caitlin M; Dryman, Barbara A; Huang, Yao-Wei; Cao, Dian-Jun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2012-12-01