Sample records for syndrome virus possesses

  1. A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Ying Zhao; Zhi-Xin Yin; Xiao-Peng Xu; Shao-Ping Weng; Xia-Yu Rao; Zong-Xian Dai; Yong-Wen Luo; Gan Yang; Zong-Sheng Li; Hao-Ji Guan; Se-Dong Li; Siu-Ming Chan; Xiao-Qiang Yu; Jian-Guo He

    2009-01-01

    C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand

  2. The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhee [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Yoo, Dongwan [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

    2006-11-10

    The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-{delta}E-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-{delta}E virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-{delta}E virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm.

  3. A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Ying; Yin, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xiao-Peng; Weng, Shao-Ping; Rao, Xia-Yu; Dai, Zong-Xian; Luo, Yong-Wen; Yang, Gan; Li, Zong-Sheng; Guan, Hao-Ji; Li, Se-Dong; Chan, Siu-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2009-01-01

    C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand binding specificity for mannose. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that LvCTL1 mRNA was specifically expressed in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Recombinant LvCTL1 (rLvCTL1) had hemagglutinating activity and ligand binding specificity for mannose and glucose. rLvCTL1 also had a strong affinity for WSSV and interacted with several envelope proteins of WSSV. Furthermore, we showed that the binding of rLvCTL1 to WSSV could protect shrimps from viral infection and prolong the survival of shrimps against WSSV infection. Our results suggest that LvCTL1 is a mannose-binding C-type lectin that binds to envelope proteins of WSSV to exert its antiviral activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a shrimp C-type lectin that has direct anti-WSSV activity. PMID:18945787

  4. POSSESSION SYNDROME: AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY IN WEST KARNATAKA1

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramaiah, V.; Mallikarjunaiah, M.; Chandrasekhar, C. R.; Rao, C. K. Vasudeva; Reddy, G. N. Narayana

    1981-01-01

    SUMMARY A house to house survey was conducted for a population of 1158 in west Karnataka to determine the prevalence of possession syndrome and to study people's attitude towards the same. One year period prevalence was found to be 3.7%. 90% of the respondents believed in possession. Women more than men shared this belief. Spirit possession was reported to be troublesome but God possession as helpful. Number of God possession cases exceeded tint of spirit possession. Female sex, young age, low education appeared to predispose an individual to get possessed in such atmosphere. PMID:22058541

  5. Do individuals with Williams syndrome possess absolute pitch?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Sotillo, María; Campos, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Although absolute pitch (AP) is a rare skill in typical development, individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are often referred to as possessing this musical ability. However, there is paucity of research on the topic. In this article, 2 studies were conducted to evaluate AP in WS. In Study 1, seven musically trained individuals with WS, 14 musically trained typically developing controls matched for chronological age, and 2 experienced musicians with AP completed a pitch-identification task. Although the task was a classical assessment of AP, it required participants to have musical knowledge, and the availability and accessibility of musically trained individuals with WS is very low. In Study 2, a paradigm suitable for evaluating AP in individuals without musical training was used, which made it possible to evaluate a larger group of participants with WS. A pitch memory test for isolated tones was presented to 27 individuals with WS, 54 typically developing peers matched for chronological age, and the 2 musicians with AP. Both individuals with WS and their controls obtained low results in the two studies. They showed an arbitrary pattern of response, and their performance was far from that of musicians with AP. Therefore, participants with WS did not appear to possess AP. Unlike what is usually claimed, results suggest that AP is not a remarkable ability in WS and that, as in the typically developing population, this musical ability is also rare in individuals with WS. PMID:22145764

  6. A VICTIM OF AN EPIDEMIC OF POSSESSION SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    SUMMARY A case of young man who got possessed by a god and two spirits alternatively is reported. He was one of the four victims of an epidemic of possession by two spirits (Mohini). The epidemic occurred following the prediction that the two women who committed suicide, would become Mohinis and liaunt adult men. It appeared that the strong belief and expectation in the local culture made the index person who was otherwise well adjusted in life to get possessed. The implication of this finding is discussed. PMID:22058566

  7. Lead optimization of an acylhydrazone scaffold possessing antiviral activity against Lassa virus.

    PubMed

    Burgeson, James R; Gharaibeh, Dima N; Moore, Amy L; Larson, Ryan A; Amberg, Sean M; Bolken, Tove' C; Hruby, Dennis E; Dai, Dongcheng

    2013-11-01

    Previously we reported the optimization of antiviral scaffolds containing benzimidazole and related heterocycles possessing activity against a variety of arenaviruses. These series of compounds were discovered through an HTS campaign of a 400,000 small molecule library using lentivirus-based pseudotypes incorporated with the Lassa virus envelope glycoprotein (LASV GP). This screening also uncovered an alternate series of very potent arenavirus inhibitors based upon an acylhydrazone scaffold. Subsequent SAR analysis of this chemical series involved various substitutions throughout the chemical framework along with assessment of the preferred stereochemistry. These studies led to an optimized analog (ST-161) possessing subnanomolar activity against LASV and submicromolar activity against a number of other viruses in the Arenaviridae family. PMID:24064500

  8. Duck Hepatitis A Virus Possesses a Distinct Type IV Internal Ribosome Entry Site Element of Picornavirus

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Meng; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Liu, Jinhua

    2012-01-01

    Sequence analysis of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) led to its classification as the only member of a new genus, Avihepatovirus, of the family Picornaviridae, and so was renamed duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV). The 5? untranslated region (5? UTR) plays an important role in translation initiation and RNA synthesis of the picornavirus. Here, we provide evidence that the 651-nucleotide (nt)-long 5? UTR of DHAV genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently in vitro and within BHK cells. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the 3? part of the DHAV 5? UTR is similar to the porcine teschovirus 1 (PTV-1) IRES in sequence and predicted secondary structure. Further mutational analyses of the predicted domain IIId, domain IIIe, and pseudoknot structure at the 3? end of the DHAV IRES support our predicted secondary structure. However, unlike the case for the PTV-1 IRES element, analysis of various deletion mutants demonstrated that the optimally functional DHAV IRES element with a size of approximately 420 nt is larger than that of PTV-1 and contains other peripheral domains (Id and Ie) that do not exist within the type IV IRES elements. The domain Ie, however, could be removed without significant loss of activity. Surprisingly, like the hepatitis A virus (HAV) IRES element, the activity of DHAV IRES could be eliminated by expression of enterovirus 2A protease. These findings indicate that the DHAV IRES shares common features with type IV picornavirus IRES elements, whereas it exhibits significant differences from type IV IRESs. Therefore, we propose that DHAV possesses a distinct type IV IRES element of picornavirus. PMID:22090106

  9. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Zhai, Shenyong; Wen, Hongling; Cui, Feng; Chi, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Shoufeng; Song, Yanyan; Du, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, which results in severe illness and has a high case-fatality rate, is caused by a novel bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. We found that samples from 2/237 (0.8%) healthy persons and 111/134 (83%) goats in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China, were seropositive for this virus. PMID:22608264

  10. Intracellular Synthesis, Processing, and Transport of Proteins Encoded by ORFs 5 to 7 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmi Mardassi; Bernard Massie; Serge Dea

    1996-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), a small enveloped virus containing a positive-strand RNA genome, possesses at least three major structural proteins designated N, M, and E. The N protein is considered as the major component of the nucleocapsid, whereas M and E are membrane-associated. Previous studies using peptide-specific antibodies assigned these proteins to ORFs 7, 6, and 5,

  11. Influenza B and C Virus NEP (NS2) Proteins Possess Nuclear Export Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JASON PARAGAS; JULIE TALON; R. E. O'Neill; D. KARL ANDERSON; ADOLFO GARCIA-SASTRE; PETER PALESE

    2001-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) is an essential aspect of the replication cycle for influenza A, B, and C viruses. These viruses replicate and transcribe their genomes in the nuclei of infected cells. During the late stages of infection, vRNPs must be exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm prior to transport to viral assembly sites on the cellular

  12. The Picornavirus Avian Encephalomyelitis Virus Possesses a Hepatitis C Virus-Like Internal Ribosome Entry Site Element

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehran Bakhshesh; Elisabetta Groppelli; Margaret M. Willcocks; Elizabeth Royall; Graham J. Belsham; Lisa O. Roberts

    2008-01-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) is a picornavirus that causes disease in poultry worldwide, and flocks must be vaccinated for protection. AEV is currently classified within the hepatovirus genus, since its proteins are most closely related to those of hepatitis A virus (HAV). We now provide evidence that the 494-nucleotide- long 5 untranslated region of the AEV genome contains an internal

  13. Novel rod-shaped viruses isolated from garlic, Allium sativum, possessing a unique genome organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-ichiro Sumi; Tadamitsu Tsuneyoshi; Hiroaki Furutani

    1993-01-01

    Rod-shaped flexuous viruses were partially purified from garlic plants (Allium sativum) showing typical mosaic symptoms. The genome was shown to be composed of RNA with a poly(A) tail of an estimated size of 10 kb as shown by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. We constructed cDNA libraries and screened four inde- pendent clones, which were designated GV-A, GV-B, GV-C and GV-D,

  14. Puumala virus pulmonary syndrome in a Romanian immigrant.

    PubMed

    Caramello, Pietro; Canta, Francesca; Bonino, Lodovica; Moiraghi, Corrado; Navone, Fabrizia; Lipani, Filippo; Balbiano, Rosanna; Caputo, Anna Maria; Gai, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which is comprised of Bunyavirus, Phlebovirus, Nairovirus, and Hantavirus. Euroasiatic Hantaviruses belong to two distinct subfamilies: Murinae (comprising Hantaan, Dobrava, and Seoul viruses), which are responsible for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and Arvicolinae (comprising Puumala virus), responsible for nephropathia epidemica (NE) and HFRS. On the contrary, the New World Hantavirus belongs to the Sigmodontinae subfamily and includes the North American viruses: Sin Nombre, Monongahela; New York, Bayou, Black Creek Canal, and the South American, which comprise the Andes, Oran, Lechiguanas, Laguna Negra, Juquitiba; both groups are responsible for the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). PMID:12962589

  15. The Picornavirus Avian Encephalomyelitis Virus Possesses a Hepatitis C Virus-Like Internal Ribosome Entry Site Element?

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshesh, Mehran; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Willcocks, Margaret M.; Royall, Elizabeth; Belsham, Graham J.; Roberts, Lisa O.

    2008-01-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) is a picornavirus that causes disease in poultry worldwide, and flocks must be vaccinated for protection. AEV is currently classified within the hepatovirus genus, since its proteins are most closely related to those of hepatitis A virus (HAV). We now provide evidence that the 494-nucleotide-long 5? untranslated region of the AEV genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently in vitro and in mammalian cells. Unlike the HAV IRES, the AEV IRES is relatively short and functions in the presence of cleaved eIF4G and it is also resistant to an inhibitor of eIF4A. These properties are reminiscent of the recently discovered class of IRES elements within certain other picornaviruses, such as porcine teschovirus 1 (PTV-1). Like the PTV-1 IRES, the AEV IRES shows significant similarity to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES in sequence, function, and predicted secondary structure. Furthermore, mutational analysis of the predicted pseudoknot structure at the 3? end of the AEV IRES lends support to the secondary structure we present. AEV is therefore another example of a picornavirus harboring an HCV-like IRES element within its genome, and thus, its classification within the hepatovirus genus may need to be reassessed in light of these findings. PMID:18077729

  16. Flock House Virus RNA Polymerase Initiates RNA Synthesis De Novo and Possesses a Terminal Nucleotidyl Transferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenzhe; Wang, Zhaowei; Xia, Hongjie; Liu, Yongxiang; Qiu, Yang; Liu, Yujie; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Flock House virus (FHV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a bipartite genome of RNAs, RNA1 and RNA2, and belongs to the family Nodaviridae. As the most extensively studied nodavirus, FHV has become a well-recognized model for studying various aspects of RNA virology, particularly viral RNA replication and antiviral innate immunity. FHV RNA1 encodes protein A, which is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and functions as the sole viral replicase protein responsible for RNA replication. Although the RNA replication of FHV has been studied in considerable detail, the mechanism employed by FHV protein A to initiate RNA synthesis has not been determined. In this study, we characterized the RdRP activity of FHV protein A in detail and revealed that it can initiate RNA synthesis via a de novo (primer-independent) mechanism. Moreover, we found that FHV protein A also possesses a terminal nucleotidyl transferase (TNTase) activity, which was able to restore the nucleotide loss at the 3?-end initiation site of RNA template to rescue RNA synthesis initiation in vitro, and may function as a rescue and protection mechanism to protect the 3? initiation site, and ensure the efficiency and accuracy of viral RNA synthesis. Altogether, our study establishes the de novo initiation mechanism of RdRP and the terminal rescue mechanism of TNTase for FHV protein A, and represents an important advance toward understanding FHV RNA replication. PMID:24466277

  17. Establishment of Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Replicating Cell Lines Possessing Ribavirin-Resistant Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Shinya; Mori, Kyoko; Ueda, Youki; Sejima, Hiroe; Dansako, Hiromichi; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Ribavirin (RBV) is a potential partner of interferon-based therapy and recently approved therapy using direct acting antivirals for patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, the precise mechanisms underlying RBV action against hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication are not yet understood. To clarify this point, we attempted to develop RBV-resistant cells from RBV-sensitive HCV RNA-replicating cells. Methodology/Principal Findings By repetitive RBV (100 ?M) treatment (10 weeks) of 3.5-year-cultured OL8 cells, in which genome-length HCV RNA (O strain of genotype 1b) efficiently replicates, dozens of colonies that survived RBV treatment were obtained. These colonies were mixed together and further treated with high doses of RBV (up to 200 ?M). By such RBV treatment, we successfully established 12 RBV-survived genome-length HCV RNA-replicating cell lines. Among them, three representative cell lines were characterized. HCV RNA replication in these cells resisted RBV significantly more than that in the parental OL8 cells. Genetic analysis of HCV found several common and conserved amino acid substitutions in HCV proteins among the three RBV-resistant cell species. Furthermore, using cDNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, we identified 5 host genes whose expression levels were commonly altered by more than four-fold among these RBV-resistant cells compared with the parental cells. Moreover, to determine whether viral or host factor contributes to RBV resistance, we developed newly HCV RNA-replicating cells by introducing total RNAs isolated from RBV-sensitive parental cells or RBV-resistant cells into the HCV RNA-cured-parental or -RBV-resistant cells using an electroporation method, and evaluated the degrees of RBV resistance of these developed cells. Consequently, we found that RBV-resistant phenotype was conferred mainly by host factor and partially by viral factor. Conclusions/Significance These newly established HCV RNA-replicating cell lines should become useful tools for further understanding the anti-HCV mechanisms of RBV. PMID:25699517

  18. Feline Urological Syndrome: is a virus responsible for the disease? 

    E-print Network

    Swansn, Cynthia Louise

    1984-01-01

    FELINE UROLOGICAL SYNDRDNE: IS A VIRUS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DISEASE' ? A Thesis by Cynthia Louise Swenson Subni ted to the Graduate College of Texas ASH University in par tiel r equir ements for the deqree of HA TER OF SCIENCE December 1884... Iiajor Subject: Veterinary Nicrobioloqy FELINE UROLOGICAL SYNDROME: IS A VIRUS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DISEASE? A Thesis by CYNTHIA LOUISE SWANSON Approved as to style and content by: / (C Dr. S aaart McConnell (Chairman of Comittee) r, . John...

  19. Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

  20. Malsoor virus, a novel bat phlebovirus, is closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and heartland virus.

    PubMed

    Mourya, D T; Yadav, P D; Basu, A; Shete, A; Patil, D Y; Zawar, D; Majumdar, T D; Kokate, P; Sarkale, P; Raut, C G; Jadhav, S M

    2014-03-01

    During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

  1. Reye's syndrome associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Griffin; J W Keeling; A H Tomlinson

    1979-01-01

    An upper respiratory tract infection in a 22-month-old boy was followed by rapid loss of consciousness, hypoglycaemia, uraemia, and death. Necropsy examination showed fatty change of liver and kidneys, severe cerebral oedema, bronchiolitis, and endocardial fibroelastosis affecting the left ventricle. Immunofluorescence staining showed infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The clinical and pathological findings were those of Reye's syndrome, not

  2. White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies. PMID:20181325

  3. Comprehensive characterization of viral miRNAs involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection.

    PubMed

    He, Yaodong; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2012-07-01

    Guided by miRNAs, RNAi plays an important role in virus-host interactions by fine-tuning gene expression. Many viral and cellular miRNAs are involved in virus infection, though no comprehensive general model for miRNAs derived from invertebrate DNA viruses exists for their function in eukaryotic systems, despite extensive research on miRNAs. To address this issue, the miRNAs from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a DNA virus with a 305 kb double-stranded circular DNA genome, were characterized. Based on WSSV miRNA microarray and northern blot analyses, WSSV was shown to possess the capacity to encode 40 distinct viral miRNAs, a miRNA content roughly 360 times greater than that of humans. These findings suggested that the high content of viral miRNAs might greatly contribute to viral variability in response selective pressures in the host environment. Transcription analysis revealed that 80% of WSSV miRNAs were expressed during early stages of viral infection, indicating their importance in initial infective processes. Additionally, biogenesis of viral miRNAs was demonstrated to be dependent on host Drosha and Dicer 1, mediated by Ago 1, and viral miRNAs, including WSSV-miR211 and WSSV-miR212, were required for successful WSSV infection. During WSSV infection, numerous viral genes were likely targeted by WSSV miRNAs. The current study presented the first comprehensive view of viral miRNAs encoded by an invertebrate DNA virus, providing insight into the molecular events of virus-host interactions. PMID:22832246

  4. The detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Yellow Head Virus (YHV) in imported commodity shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M Nunan; B. T Poulos; D. V Lightner

    1998-01-01

    Transmission of exotic pathogens occurs through a variety of means, including migration with humans and animals, rapid transit by land, sea or air or through the shipment of infected frozen food products. White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Yellow Head Virus (YHV) have caused mass mortalities of cultured shrimp in Asia beginning in 1992. In 1995, these viruses appeared for

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome and Ljungan virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Niklasson; Petra Rĺsten Almqvist; Birger Hörnfeldt; William Klitz

    2009-01-01

    Ljungan virus (LV) has recently been associated with perinatal death in its natural rodent reservoir and also with developmental\\u000a disorders of reproduction in laboratory mice. A strong epidemiological association has been found between small rodent abundance\\u000a in Sweden and the incidence of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) in humans. LV antigen has been detected in half of the IUFD\\u000a cases tested.

  6. Andes virus and first case report of Bermejo virus causing fatal pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Padula, Paula; Della Valle, Marcelo González; Alai, María Garcia; Cortada, Pedro; Villagra, Mario; Gianella, Alberto

    2002-04-01

    Two suspected hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases from Bolivia occurred in May and July 2000 and were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-ANDES using N-Andes recombinant antigen serology. Clot RNAs from the two patients were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. We describe two characterized cases of HPS. One was caused by infection with Bermejo virus and the other with Andes Nort viral lineage, both previously obtained from Oligoryzomys species. This is the first report of molecular identification of a human hantavirus associated with Bermejo virus. PMID:11971782

  7. Orbital apex syndrome secondary to herpes zoster virus infection.

    PubMed

    Merino-Iglesias, Alexia; Montero, Javier Antonio; Calabuig-Goena, Maria; Giraldo-Agudelo, Luisa Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A male patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) presented with left exophthalmos, external and internal ophthalmoplegia and decreased visual acuity. A CT scan revealed myositis without significant compression of the optic nerve. Intravenous acyclovir and oral steroids were started with improvement of the symptoms and eventual complete recovery.Orbital apex syndrome is a rare complication of HZO. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including a direct cytopathic effect of the virus as in the present case. Early diagnosis and therapy may lead to complete recovery of visual function. PMID:24614776

  8. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) topology and selective isoform integration in artificial membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Membrane modification of host subcellular compartments is critical to the replication of many RNA viruses. Enveloped viruses additionally require the ability to requisition cellular membranes during egress for the development of infectious progeny. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus...

  9. Experimental Inoculation of Conventional Pigs with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Circovirus 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rovira; M. Balasch; J. Segalés; L. Garcő ´; J. Plana-Durán; C. Rosell; H. Ellerbrok; A. Mankertz; M. Domingo

    2002-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a disease of nursery and fattening pigs charac- terized by growth retardation, paleness of the skin, dyspnea, and increased mortality rates. Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been demonstrated to be the cause of PMWS. However, other factors are needed for full development of the syndrome, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

  10. Role of CD151, A tetraspanin, in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumar Shanmukhappa; Jeong-Ki Kim; Sanjay Kapil

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a RNA virus causing respiratory and reproductive diseases in swine. The susceptibility for PRRSV varies between the different breeds of swine. In cell culture, PRRSV virus can be propagated in primary porcine alveolar macrophages and some African green monkey kidney cell lines, such as MARC-145 cells. Previous studies have shown that

  11. Bovine herpes virus gD protein produced in plants using a recombinant tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector possesses authentic antigenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M Pérez Filgueira; P. I Zamorano; M. G Dom??nguez; O Taboga; M. P Del Médico Zajac; M Puntel; S. A Romera; T. J Morris; M. V Borca; A. M Sadir

    2003-01-01

    A tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector was utilized for expression of a cytosolic form of the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) protein glycoprotein D (gDc). Nicotiana benthamiana plants were harvested 7 days after inoculation with RNA transcripts derived from the TMV-gDc recombinant virus. Recombinant gDc protein of expected electrophoretic mobility accumulated in inoculated leaves to a concentration of about 20?g\\/g

  12. Virion packaging of multiple cleavage isoforms of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of a complex disease often resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, highly pathogenic isolates have emerged which have proven to be devastatingly effective pathogens, resulting in rapid systemic deterioration...

  13. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus among Domesticated Animals, China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Guoyu; Li, Jiandong; Liang, Mifang; Jiang, Xiaolin; Jiang, Mei; Yin, Haiying; Wang, Zhidian; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Jin, Cong; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Xing, Zheng; Wang, Shiwen; Bi, Zhenqiang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the infections of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in domesticated animals, we sampled a total of 3,039 animals in 2 counties in Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China, from April to November 2011. SFTSV-specific antibodies were detected in 328 (69.5%) of 472 sheep, 509 (60.5%) of 842 cattle, 136 (37.9%) of 359 dogs, 26 (3.1%) of 839 pigs, and 250 (47.4%) of 527 chickens. SFTSV RNA was detected in all sampled animal species, but the prevalence was low, ranging from 1.7% to 5.3%. A cohort study in 38 sheep was conducted to determine when seroconversion to SFTSV occured. SFTSVs were isolated from sheep, cattle, and dogs and shared >95% sequence homology with human isolates from the same disease-endemic regions. These findings demonstrate that natural infections of SFTSV occur in several domesticated animal hosts in disease-endemic areas and that the virus has a wide host range. PMID:23648209

  14. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus among domesticated animals, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Guoyu; Li, Jiandong; Liang, Mifang; Jiang, Xiaolin; Jiang, Mei; Yin, Haiying; Wang, Zhidian; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Jin, Cong; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Xing, Zheng; Wang, Shiwen; Bi, Zhenqiang; Li, Dexin

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the infections of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in domesticated animals, we sampled a total of 3,039 animals in 2 counties in Shandong Province, People's Republic of China, from April to November 2011. SFTSV-specific antibodies were detected in 328 (69.5%) of 472 sheep, 509 (60.5%) of 842 cattle, 136 (37.9%) of 359 dogs, 26 (3.1%) of 839 pigs, and 250 (47.4%) of 527 chickens. SFTSV RNA was detected in all sampled animal species, but the prevalence was low, ranging from 1.7% to 5.3%. A cohort study in 38 sheep was conducted to determine when seroconversion to SFTSV occured. SFTSVs were isolated from sheep, cattle, and dogs and shared >95% sequence homology with human isolates from the same disease-endemic regions. These findings demonstrate that natural infections of SFTSV occur in several domesticated animal hosts in disease-endemic areas and that the virus has a wide host range. PMID:23648209

  15. A plant extract of Ribes nigrum folium possesses anti-influenza virus activity in vitro and in vivo by preventing virus entry to host cells.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Christina; Dudek, Sabine Eva; Holzberg, Magdalena; Urban, Sabine; Hrincius, Eike Roman; Haasbach, Emanuel; Seyer, Roman; Lapuse, Julia; Planz, Oliver; Ludwig, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Infections with influenza A viruses (IAV) are still amongst the major causes of highly contagious severe respiratory diseases not only bearing a devastating effect to human health, but also significantly impact the economy. Besides vaccination that represents the best option to protect from IAV infections, only two classes of anti-influenza drugs, inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and the neuraminidase, often causing resistant IAV variants have been approved. That is why the need for effective and amply available antivirals against IAV is of high priority. Here we introduce LADANIA067 from the leaves of the wild black currant (Ribes nigrum folium) as a potent compound against IAV infections in vitro and in vivo. LADANIA067 treatment resulted in a reduction of progeny virus titers in cell cultures infected with prototype avian and human influenza virus strains of different subtypes. At the effective dose of 100 µg/ml the extract did not exhibit apparent harming effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation. Further, viruses showed no tendency to develop resistance to LADANIA067 when compared to amantadine that resulted in the generation of resistant variants after only a few passages. On a molecular basis the protective effect of LADANIA067 appears to be mainly due to interference with virus internalisation. In the mouse infection model LADANIA067 treatment reduces progeny virus titers in the lung upon intranasal application. In conclusion, an extract from the leaves of the wild black currant might be a promising source for the development of new antiviral compounds to fight IAV infections. PMID:23717460

  16. Viral resistance in shrimp that express an antisense Taura syndrome virus coat protein gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanan Lu; Piera S. Sun

    2005-01-01

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in shrimp, and has a profound economic impact on commercial U.S. shrimp farming. This paper describes the stable expression of an antisense Taura syndrome virus-coat protein (TSV-CP) gene construct in shrimp zygotes, via transfection using jetPEI reagent, over a period of at least 236 days. The transgenic shrimp

  17. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  18. Genetic, geographical and temporal variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony L. Goldberg; Edwin C. Hahn; Ronald M. Weigel; Gail Scherba

    2000-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 gene sequences were generated by RT-PCR from 55 field isolates collected in Illinois and eastern Iowa. Spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation in the virus were examined on a local geographical scale in order to test the hypothesis that the genetic similarity of PRRSV isolates (measured as their percentage pairwise ORF5

  19. Effects of interferon-alpha on the immune response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most devastating and costly diseases to the swine industry world-wide. Overall, the adaptive immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) is weak and results in delayed elimination of virus from the host and inferior vaccine protection. PR...

  20. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks Collected from Humans, South Korea, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Ryou, Jungsang; Yang, Sung-Chan; Park, Sun-Whan; Roh, Jong Yeol; Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Chan

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the infection rate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) among ticks collected from humans during May–October 2013 in South Korea. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors. PMID:25061851

  1. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in ticks collected from humans, South Korea, 2013.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Ryou, Jungsang; Yang, Sung-Chan; Park, Sun-Whan; Roh, Jong Yeol; Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Chan; Han, Myung Guk

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the infection rate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) among ticks collected from humans during May-October 2013 in South Korea. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors. PMID:25061851

  2. Identification of Two Major Virion Protein Genes of White Spot Syndrome Virus of Shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariëlle C. W van Hulten; Marcel Westenberg; Stephen D Goodall; Just M Vlak

    2000-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus, causing considerable mortality in shrimp. Two structural proteins of WSSV were identified. WSSV virions are enveloped nucleocapsids with a bacilliform morphology with an approximate size of 275 × 120 nm, and a tail-like extension at one end. The double-stranded viral DNA has an approximate size 290 kb. WSSV virions, isolated from

  3. European brown hare syndrome virus: molecular cloning and sequencing of the genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghislaine Le Gall; S. Huguet; P. Vende; J.-F. Vautherot; D. Rasschaert

    1996-01-01

    The genome of the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV), a calicivirus related to rabbit haem- orrhagic disease virus (RHDV), was fully sequenced. It was 7442 bases long and contained two ORFs. In RHDV, the 5' large ORF (ORF1) is predicted to encode a polyprotein precursor to the non-struc- tural and capsid proteins. The small ORF (ORF2) encodes a predicted

  4. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Chinese and low virulent US porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, a new strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has resulted in huge economic losses in the Chinese pig industry. We imported a cDNA clone of the rJXwn06 Chinese strain from which infectious virus was obtained to test the hypothesis that the novel Chinese PRRSV ...

  5. White Spot Syndrome Virus Envelope Protein VP28 Is Involved in the Systemic Infection of Shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariëlle C. W van Hulten; Jeroen Witteveldt; Marjolein Snippe; Just M Vlak

    2001-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large DNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. The virus particles contain at least five major virion proteins, of which three (VP26, VP24, and VP15) are present in the rod-shaped nucleocapsid and two (VP28 and VP19) reside in the envelope. The mode of entry and systemic infection of WSSV in the black tiger

  6. Genetic identification and characterization of a novel virus related to human hepatitis E virus from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Haqshenas; H. L. Shivaprasad; P. R. Woolcock; X. J. Meng

    Hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome is an emerging disease in chickens in North America; the cause of this disease is unknown. In this study, the genetic identification and characterization of a novel virus related to human hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolated from bile samples of chickens with HS syndrome is reported. Based upon the similar genomic organization and significant sequence identity of

  7. Gammadelta lymphocyte response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Olin, Michael R; Batista, Laura; Xiao, Zhengguo; Dee, Scott A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Pijoan, Carlos C; Molitor, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be one of the most important diseases facing swine industry today. Following PRRSV infection pigs develop both humoral and cell-mediated responses following PRRSV exposure; however, the relative importance in protection and clearance of the virus is not yet completely understood. Swine contain a large percentage of gammadelta T-lymphocytes in peripheral circulation capable of responding to various pathogens in both an innate and specific immune response. The objectives of this study were to determine whether gammadelta lymphocytes functionally respond to PRRSV upon initial exposure and re-exposure. Four month old PRRSV free gilts were intranasally inoculated with a field isolate MN-30100 then assessed at various time points post infection. On day 120, pigs were re-exposed with MN-30100 PRRSV strain and subsequently were bled on days 0, 7, and 14 post re-exposure. Lymphocyte subpopulations, antigen specific proliferation, and IFN-gamma production were evaluated throughout the study. Circulating gammadelta lymphocytes in PRRSV exposed animals expanded between days 14 to 70 (d14-d70, p = 0.016); following antigen stimulation, gammadelta lymphocyte proliferated by day 14 (d0-d14, p = 0.001) continuing through day 60. gammadelta lymphocytes produced IFN-gamma by day 14 pi continuing through day 50 (d0-d50, p = 0.004). Following re-exposure both gammadelta+ and CD4+ lymphocytes increased in IFN-gamma production. These results are not fully conclusive on the role of gammadelta lymphocytes against PRRSV; the data indicate that gammadelta lymphocytes specifically respond to PRRSV. PMID:16212527

  8. Human antibody neutralizes severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, an emerging hemorrhagic Fever virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiling; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wenshuai; Chi, Ying; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Li, Xian; Qi, Xian; Jin, Qiu; Zhang, Xiao; Huang, Mingming; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yin; Bao, Changjun; Hu, Jianli; Liang, Shuyi; Bao, Lin; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Minghao; Jiao, Yongjun

    2013-09-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a newly discovered member of the Bunyaviridae family, is the causative agent of an emerging hemorrhagic fever, SFTS, in China. Currently, there are no vaccines or effective therapies against SFTS. In this study, a combinatorial human antibody library was constructed from the peripheral lymphocytes of 5 patients who had recovered from SFTS. The library was screened against purified virions for the production of single-chain variable-region fragments (ScFv). Of the 6 positive clones, one clone (monoclonal antibody [MAb] 4-5) showed neutralizing activity against SFTSV infection in Vero cells. MAb 4-5 was found to effectively neutralize all of the clinical isolates of SFTSV tested, which were isolated from patients in China from 2010 to 2012. MAb 4-5 was found to bind a linear epitope in the ectodomain of glycoprotein Gn. Its neutralizing activity is attributed to blockage of the interactions between the Gn protein and the cellular receptor, indicating that inhibition of virus-cell attachment is its main mechanism. These data suggest that MAb 4-5 can be used as a promising candidate molecule for immunotherapy against SFTSV infection. PMID:23863504

  9. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

  10. Characterization of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (isolate ATCC VR-2332).

    PubMed

    Benfield, D A; Nelson, E; Collins, J E; Harris, L; Goyal, S M; Robison, D; Christianson, W T; Morrison, R B; Gorcyca, D; Chladek, D

    1992-04-01

    The characterization of an isolate of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (ATCC VR-2332) is reported. A commercial cell line (CL2621) was used for the propagation of the virus for all assays. Laboratory studies indicate that this isolate is a fastidious, nonhemagglutinating, enveloped RNA virus. Cesium chloride-purified virions visualized by electron microscopy were spherical particles with an average diameter of 62 nm (range: 48-83 nm) and a 25-30 nm core surrounded by an envelope. Virus replication was restricted to the cytoplasm, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. The virus did not react serologically with antisera to several common porcine viruses or with antisera to known viruses in the alphavirus, rubivirus, pestivirus, and ungrouped lactic dehydrogenase virus genera of the Togaviridae. However, convalescent sow sera and rabbit hyperimmune sera neutralized the SIRS virus at titers of 1:256 and 1:512, respectively. The virus was stable at 4 and -70 C, but was labile at 37 and 56 C. The properties of this isolate of SIRS virus resemble those of the family Togaviridae but do not match the described genera. PMID:1616976

  11. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Taraphdar, D; Roy, B K; Chatterjee, S

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS) due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat. PMID:25657139

  12. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Descamps, V; Mahe, E; Houhou, N; Abramowitz, L; Rozenberg, F; Ranger-Rogez, S; Crickx, B

    2003-05-01

    Association of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with viral infection is debated. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation has been the most frequently reported infection associated with this syndrome. However, a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was recently described associated with anticonvulsant-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. We report a case of severe allopurinol-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with pancreatitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Active EBV infection was demonstrated in two consecutive serum samples by the presence of anti-EBV early antigen (EA) IgM antibodies and an increase in anti-EBV EA IgG antibodies, whereas no anti-EBV nuclear antigen IgG antibodies were detected. EBV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Reactivation of HHV-6 was suggested only by the presence of anti-HHV-6 IgM antibodies, but HHV-6 DNA was not detected by PCR in the serum. Other viral investigations showed previous infection (CMV, rubella, measles, parvovirus B19), immunization after vaccination (hepatitis B virus), or absence of previous infection (hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus). We suggest that EBV infection may participate in some cases, as do the other herpesviruses HHV-6 or CMV, in the development of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. PMID:12786838

  13. Assessment of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) as a vector of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rochon, K; Baker, R B; Almond, G W; Watson, D W

    2011-07-01

    Porcine Reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a globally significant swine disease caused by an arterivirus. The virus replicates in alveolar macrophages of infected pigs, resulting in pneumonia in growing pigs and late-term abortions in sows. Outbreaks occur on disparate farms within an area despite biosecurity measures, suggesting mechanical transport by arthropods. We investigated the vector potential of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), in the transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (family Arteriviridae, genus Arterivirus, PRRSV) under laboratory conditions. Stable flies were collected around PRRS-negative boar stud barns in North Carolina and tested for presence of the virus. Stable flies were collected on alsynite traps placed near the exhaust fan of the close-sided tunnel-ventilated buildings, suggesting blood seeking flies are attracted by olfactory cues. No flies were positive for PRRSV. We assessed transmission of the virus through an infective bite by feeding laboratory reared stable flies on blood containing virus and transferring them to naive pigs for subsequent bloodmeals. Transmission of the virus to naive pigs by infective bites failed in all attempts. The volume of blood contained within the closed mouthparts of the stable fly seems to be insufficient to deliver an infective dose of the virus. Stable flies are unlikely to transmit PRRSV from one pig to another while blood feeding. The fate of the virus after a bloodmeal remains to be determined. PMID:21845948

  14. XMRV and related viruses not confirmed in blood of healthy donors or chronic fatigue syndrome patients

    Cancer.gov

    A study supported by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services could not validate or confirm previous research findings that suggested the presence of one of several viruses in blood samples of people living with chronic fatigue syndrome. The new study also could not find the viruses in blood samples of healthy donors who were previously known to not have XMRV. The new findings suggest earlier results may have resulted from laboratory error, either contamination or false positive test results.

  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida; Brasileiro, Graziela Sgreccia; Soleiman, Luciana Novaes Campello; Silva, Cristiano Cruz; Kavaguti, Cláudio Shoki

    2010-01-01

    In view of the pandemic caused by a new virus, influenza A (H1N1), we report the case of a 56-year-old patient without relevant risk factors and with severe acute respiratory syndrome resulting from infection with this virus. We present the results of laboratory tests and the imaging findings (chest X-ray and CT scans). The evolution was favorable, and the patient was discharged after 14 days. PMID:20625677

  16. Absence of XMRV Retrovirus and Other Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ? ¶

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Clifford H.; Bateman, Lucinda; Schlaberg, Robert; Bunker, Ashley M.; Leonard, Christopher J.; Hughen, Ronald W.; Light, Alan R.; Light, Kathleen C.; Singh, Ila R.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by prolonged and severe fatigue that is not relieved by rest. Attempts to treat CFS have been largely ineffective primarily because the etiology of the disorder is unknown. Recently, CFS has been associated with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) as well as other murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related viruses, though not all studies have found these associations. We collected blood samples from 100 CFS patients and 200 self-reported healthy volunteers from the same geographical area. We analyzed these in a blind manner using molecular, serological, and viral replication assays. We also analyzed samples from patients in the original study that reported XMRV in CFS patients. We did not find XMRV or related MLVs either as viral sequences or infectious viruses, nor did we find antibodies to these viruses in any of the patient samples, including those from the original study. We show that at least some of the discrepancy with previous studies is due to the presence of trace amounts of mouse DNA in the Taq polymerase enzymes used in these previous studies. Our findings do not support an association between CFS and MLV-related viruses, including XMRV, and the off-label use of antiretrovirals for the treatment of CFS does not seem justified at present. PMID:21543496

  17. The use of epitope tags in modified porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus vaccines to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus which has been a significant cause of economic loss to the global pork industry since its emergence in the late 1980's. Despite the availability of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines since the m...

  18. Detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of Penaeus chinensis by in situ hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wen-Bin; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Hideo, Fukuda

    2000-09-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) was purified from hemolymph of infected shrimp. After nucleic acid extraction from the purified virus particles, EcoR I-digested fragments of the WSSV genome were cloned; three of these fragments were used as non-radioactive probes labeled with DIG-11-dUTP. The probes hybridized in situ, with sections located in the nuclei of all WSSV-infected tissues. The virus was detected in the gill, stomach, epidermis, and connective tissue and so on, but not detected in healthy shrimp tissues and epithelial cells of hepatopancreatic tubules of diseased shrimp.

  19. Andes Virus Antigens Are Shed in Urine of Patients with Acute Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome? ‡

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Paula; Marsac, Delphine; Stefas, Elias; Ferrer, Pablo; Tischler, Nicole D.; Pino, Karla; Ramdohr, Pablo; Vial, Pablo; Valenzuela, Pablo D. T.; Ferrés, Marcela; Veas, Francisco; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a highly pathogenic emerging disease (40% case fatality rate) caused by New World hantaviruses. Hantavirus infections are transmitted to humans mainly by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosol particles of rodent excreta and secretions. At present, there are no antiviral drugs or immunotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of hantaviral infection, and the survival rates for infected patients hinge largely on early virus recognition and hospital admission and aggressive pulmonary and hemodynamic support. In this study, we show that Andes virus (ANDV) interacts with human apolipoprotein H (ApoH) and that ApoH-coated magnetic beads or ApoH-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates can be used to capture and concentrate the virus from complex biological mixtures, such as serum and urine, allowing it to be detected by both immunological and molecular approaches. In addition, we report that ANDV-antigens and infectious virus are shed in urine of HCPS patients. PMID:19279096

  20. Specific monoclonal antibodies raised against Taura syndrome virus (TSV) capsid protein VP3 detect TSV in single and dual infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Longyant, Siwaporn; Poyoi, Piengjan; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Tejangkura, Thanawan; Sithigorngul, Weerawan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat

    2008-03-01

    The gene sequence encoding VP3 capsid protein of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. After induction, recombinant GST-VP3 (rVP3) fusion protein was obtained and further purified by electro-elution before use in immunizing Swiss mice for production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). One MAb specific to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and 6 MAb specific to VP3 were selected using dot blotting and Western blotting. MAb specific to VP3 could be used to detect natural TSV infections in farmed whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei by dot blotting and Western blotting, without cross reaction to shrimp tissues or other shrimp viruses, such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow head virus (YHV), monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). These MAb were also used together with those specific for WSSV to successfully detect TSV and WSSV in dual infections in farmed P. vannamei. PMID:18429444

  1. Antibodies against severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in healthy persons, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jimin; Yan, Jie; Lv, Huakun; Chai, Chengliang; Sun, Yi; Shao, Bin; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Zhiping; Kortekaas, Jeroen; Zhang, Yanjun

    2014-08-01

    In June 2013, a subclinical infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was detected in Zhejiang Province, China, prompting seroprevalence studies in 6 districts within the province. Of 986 healthy persons tested, 71 had IgG antibodies against SFTSV. This finding suggests that most natural infections with SFTSV are mild or subclinical. PMID:25061813

  2. Selective breeding of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) for growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad J Argue; Steve M Arce; Jeffrey M Lotz; Shaun M Moss

    2002-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, the Oceanic Institute operated a breeding program for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on a selection index weighted equally for growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV). In 1998, two separate breeding lines were established. One line was selected 100% for growth (Growth line) and a second line was selected on an index weighted 70%

  3. Epidemiological Parameters of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infections in Litopenaeus vannamei and L. setiferus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Andres Soto; Jeffrey M Lotz

    2001-01-01

    An experimental protocol based on a mathematical epidemiology model was developed to study the transmission, virulence, and recovery rates of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Two modes of transmission were compared for WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei. We compared transmission by ingestion of infected cadavers to transmission by cohabitation with infected animals. In addition, we compared the ingestion transmission of WSSV

  4. Swine immunity and genetic resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vaccines are only partially effective against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) virus infection because they elicit a weak immune response that is not fully protective. PRRS is the most economically significant disease facing the swine industry today, costing U.S. pork pro...

  5. GENETIC CONTROL OF SWINE RESPONSES TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is to uncover genetic components involved in early immune responses during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. PRRS costs U.S. swine producers >$700 million annually. We want to determine what are the most significant pathways and genes involved in early i...

  6. Proteolytic processing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus nsp2 replicase protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One critical step in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication is the proteolytic processing of the ORF1 polyprotein (replicase). The replicase polyprotein is generally believed to be processed to generate at least 12 smaller nonstructural proteins (nsps) involved in r...

  7. Biochemical, physiological and hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Penaeus indicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yoganandhan; S. Thirupathi; A. S. Sahul Hameed

    2003-01-01

    The biochemical and hematological changes provoked by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in hemolymph, hepatopancreas and muscle of Penaeus indicus were examined. Total carbohydrate, glucose, total protein, amino acids, fatty acids and hemocyanin were measured in healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp. There was a significant increase in glucose and total carbohydrate levels in the hemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp in comparison to

  8. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome: Virological and Immunopathological Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Sullivan; Bruce A. Woda; Henry G. Herrod; Gerald Koh; Fred P. RiVara; Carel Mulder

    1985-01-01

    The virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a disorder characterized by a benign. generalized histio- cytic proliferation. with marked hemophagocytosis asso- ciated with systemic viral infections. We have studied the virological and immunopathological events occurring in two children experiencing Epstein-Barr VAHS. Neither of the patients had an underlying immunodeficiency and both recovered from their disease and are completely well one year

  9. Pathogenicity and Molecular Characterization of Emerging Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Vietnam in 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the "porcine high fever disease" that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ...

  10. Proteolytic Products of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nsp2 Replicase Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nsp2 replicase protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was recently demonstrated to be processed from its precursor by the PL2 protease at or near the G1196|G1197 dipeptide in transfected CHO cells. Here, the proteolytic cleavage of PRRSV nsp2 was further investiga...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus That Emerged in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Li, Yong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2015-01-01

    A novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain with 393 nucleotide deletions in the nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) region was examined in this study. Results will help improve our understanding of the epidemiology and genetic diversity of the North American-type PRRSV in China. PMID:26159524

  12. An assessment of sanitation protocols for commercial transport vehicles contaminated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Burns, Danny; Douthit, George; Pijoan, Carlos

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid (< 2 h) sanitation protocol designed for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) positive commercial transport vehicles involving cold water washing and disinfection via fumigation using scale models of weaned pig trailers. The study consisted of 2 phases. Following experimental contamination of model trailers with PRRSV MN 30-100 (5 x 10(5)TCID50), phase 1 evaluated the presence or absence of PRRSV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on swabs collected from the trailer interiors 0, 60, and 90 min after treatment. Phase 2 consisted of evaluating the infectivity of trailers 90 min posttreatment by monitoring changes in the PRRSV-status of naive sentinel pigs housed for 2 h. Treatments included washing only (treatment 1), washing plus formaldehyde fumigation (treatment 2), washing plus fumigation with glutaraldehyde-quaternary ammonium chloride (treatment 3), and washing plus overnight drying (treatment 4). Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus RNA was detected in all trailers (20 out of 20 replicates) at 60 and 90 min following the application of treatments 1 and 2. These trailers also contained infectious PRRSV, as determined by the infection of naive pigs housed in treated trailers and the testing of organic debris collected from the interior of trailers by swine bioassay. At 90 min posttreatment, all trailers treated with glutaraldehyde-quaternary ammonium chloride were PCR-negative, non-infectious to sentinel pigs, and swine bioassay negative. Similar results were observed in trailers allowed to dry for 8 h. Under the conditions of this study, it appears certain disinfectants may possess different levels of efficacy against PRRSV and PRRSV-positive models may be effectively sanitized in the absence of overnight drying. PMID:15352546

  13. Immune response of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after a concurrent infection with white spot syndrome virus and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinn-Pyng Yeh; Ying-Nan Chen; Shu-Ling Hsieh; Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated immunological changes in viral-infected white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. White shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or co-infected with WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The complete (100%) mortality rate of shrimp was caused by viral infection due to immune parameters being

  14. Identification of two severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus strains originating from reassortment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nai-Zheng; Luo, Zhi-Fei; Niu, Dan-Dan; Ji, Wei; Kang, Xiu-Han; Cai, Si-Si; Xu, Dong-Shuai; Wang, Qiu-Wen; He, Cheng-Qiang

    2013-12-26

    Recently, a novel bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), was isolated in central China. The virus can cause multi-clinical symptoms: severe fever, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, with a mortality rate of ~10%. Several studies show that SFTSV could undergo rapid evolution via gene mutation and homologous recombination. However, as an important evolutionary force for segmented-genome viruses, reassortment has not been reported in SFTSV. In this study, we identified two SFTSV strains of which the S segment has different origin from M and L, suggesting that reassortment might be potential force driving rapid change of SFTSV. This result might shed new light on the evolutionary behavior of the novel virus. PMID:24055465

  15. The role of quail bronchitis virus as a possible precipitating factor in "air sac syndrome" of chickens 

    E-print Network

    Payne, Jerry Bob

    1965-01-01

    THE ROLE OF QUAIL BRONCHITIS VIRUS AS A POSSIBLE PRECIPITATING FACTOR IN "AIR SAC SYNDROME" OF CHICKENS A Thesis By JERRY BOB PAYNE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partfal fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1965 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology THE ROLE OF QUAIL BRONCHITIS VIRUS AS A POSSIBLE PRECIPITATING FACTOR IN "AIR SAC SYNDROME" OF CHICKENS A Thesis By JERRY BOB PAYNE Approved as to style and dontent...

  16. Incidence of respiratory viruses among travelers with a febrile syndrome returning from tropical and subtropical areas.

    PubMed

    Camps, M; Vilella, A; Marcos, M A; Letang, E; Muńoz, J; Salvadó, E; González, A; Gascón, J; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Pumarola, T

    2008-04-01

    Fifty million people are estimated to travel from industrial countries to the tropics annually. In spite of exhaustive studies and widely different diagnosis among returned patients, some cases of febrile illnesses remain without an etiological diagnosis, suggesting that these cases could be due to viral respiratory tract infections. From August 2005 to October 2006, 118 febrile patients without a specific diagnosis in their first visit at the Center for International Health of the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona were included. In all of them, in order to study respiratory viruses, a nasopharyngeal swab was collected. Clinical and radiological features and epidemiological data, as well as other samples for microbiologic studies, were also collected during consultation. Based on the physician's judgment at the time of consultation, patients were classified into four groups: respiratory symptoms (62%), febrile syndrome with nonspecific symptoms (24%), digestive symptoms (10%), and patients presenting both respiratory and digestive symptoms (4%). A pathogen microorganism was detected in 61 patients (52%). Respiratory viruses were detected in 44 out of 118 (37%) travelers included in the study, representing 56% of the patients with respiratory symptoms. The most frequently viruses detected were influenza virus (38%), rhinovirus (23%), adenovirus (9%), and respiratory syncytial virus (9%). Respiratory viruses have been shown to play an important role in imported fever. In light of the fact that international tourism is an increasing phenomenon, new strategies to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses should be considered, specially for influenza when a vaccine is available. PMID:18297697

  17. BK virus in solid organ transplant recipients: an emerging syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, E; Goes, N; Rubin, R H; Cosimi, A B; Colvin, R B; Fishman, J A

    2001-11-27

    BK virus is a human polyomavirus associated with a range of clinical presentations from asymptomatic viruria with pyuria to ureteral ulceration with ureteral stenosis in renal transplant patients or hemorrhagic cystitis in bone marrow transplant recipients. Infection of renal allografts has been associated with diminished graft function in some individuals. Fortunately, however, the majority of patients with BK virus infections are asymptomatic. The type, duration, and intensity of immunosuppression are major contributors to susceptibility to the activation of BK virus infection. Histopathology is required for the demonstration of renal parenchymal involvement; urine cytology and viral polymerase chain reaction methods are useful adjunctive diagnostic tools. Current, treatment of immunosuppressed patients with polyomavirus viruria is largely supportive and directed toward minimizing immunosuppression. Improved diagnostic tools and antiviral therapies are needed for polyomavirus infections. PMID:11726814

  18. Person-to-person asymptomatic infection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus through blood contact.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Deng, Baocheng; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Wei; Yao, Wenqing; Liu, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease recently discovered in northeastern and central China that is caused by a novel bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). Humans are primarily infected through tick bites. Four previous reports have discussed SFTS infection from person to person, all cases of which were symptomatic. In this report, we analysed the epidemiological and clinical data for a cluster of cases, including one case of secondary-asymptomatic infection, and review the literature regarding SFTSV transmission from person to person. We conclude that SFTSV caused the asymptomatic infections via person-to-person contact with infected blood. PMID:24739616

  19. Alice in Wonderland syndrome as an initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cinbis, M; Aysun, S

    1992-05-01

    We present a patient with serologically confirmed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection who had illusions of size, shape, and colour of objects but none of the typical symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious mononucleosis (IM) except sore throat which developed 2 weeks after the initial visual disturbances. The bizarre feelings about the images of body and objects are called the 'Alice in Wonderland syndrome' due to the similarity with Alice's dreams. The same symptomatology including visual metamorphosia is defined in patients with migraine, epilepsy, intoxication due to hallucinogenic drugs, schizophrenia, hyperpyrexia, and cerebral lesions. Alice in Wonderland syndrome has also been reported in the course of IM. PMID:1390519

  20. Alice in Wonderland syndrome as an initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Cinbis, M; Aysun, S

    1992-01-01

    We present a patient with serologically confirmed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection who had illusions of size, shape, and colour of objects but none of the typical symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious mononucleosis (IM) except sore throat which developed 2 weeks after the initial visual disturbances. The bizarre feelings about the images of body and objects are called the 'Alice in Wonderland syndrome' due to the similarity with Alice's dreams. The same symptomatology including visual metamorphosia is defined in patients with migraine, epilepsy, intoxication due to hallucinogenic drugs, schizophrenia, hyperpyrexia, and cerebral lesions. Alice in Wonderland syndrome has also been reported in the course of IM. PMID:1390519

  1. Challenges and opportunities for the control and elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rowland, R R R; Morrison, R B

    2012-03-01

    The control and elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represent two of the most challenging tasks facing the pig industry worldwide. Several factors related to the biology of the virus make disease detection and elimination difficult. Efforts are further hampered by the lack of vaccines that can protect naďve herds from infection. With this in mind, elimination efforts are being initiated which incorporate existing tools and knowledge. A new approach extends herd control strategies to the level of a region. One example of success in PRRSV regional elimination is the Stevens County project in Minnesota. PMID:25471243

  2. Meningitis-Retention Syndrome as a Presentation of West Nile Virus Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Laengvejkal, Pavis; Argueta, Erwin; Limsuwat, Chok; Nugent, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old previously healthy man presented with fever, urinary retention, nuchal rigidity, and hyperreflexia but with a clear sensorium. His initial spinal fluid results were consistent with aseptic meningitis from West Nile virus infection, and this was confirmed by serological studies on blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were unremarkable. He received supportive care and urinary catheterization to prevent bladder injury from overdistension. He was discharged home without recurrence of urinary retention after five days of hospitalization. Therefore, this case report describes the first case of West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with the meningitis-retention syndrome. PMID:23983716

  3. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara efficiently induces virus-neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Fux, Robert; Provacia, Lisette B; Volz, Asisa; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Haagmans, Bart L; Sutter, Gerd

    2013-11-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic stability and growth characteristics of MVA-MERS-S make it a suitable candidate vaccine for clinical testing. Vaccinated mice produced high levels of serum antibodies neutralizing MERS-CoV. Thus, MVA-MERS-S may serve for further development of an emergency vaccine against MERS-CoV. PMID:23986586

  4. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) interaction with crayfish haemocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Siripavee Sricharoen; Irene Söderhäll; Kenneth Söderhäll

    2006-01-01

    WSSV particles were detected in separated granular cells (GCs) and semigranular cells (SGCs) by in situ hybridisation from WSSV-infected crayfish and the prevalence of WSSV-infected GCs was 5%, whereas it was 22% in SGCs. This indicates that SGCs are more susceptible to WSSV and that this virus replicated more rapidly in SGCs than in GCs and as a result the

  5. Attenuation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain MN184 using chimeric construction with vaccine sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two genetically distinct infectious recombinant virus clones (pMLV, constructed from Ingelvac(R) PRRS MLV and pMN184, constructed from virulent strain MN184) were developed to study attenuation of contemporary porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain MN184. Two reciprocal c...

  6. Kinetics of humoral immune response to the major structural proteins of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Loemba; S. Mounir; H. Mardassi; D. Archambault; S. Dea

    1996-01-01

    Summary The kinetics of appearance of antibodies directed to the major structural proteins N, M and E of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was followed in pigs naturally- and experimentally-exposed to the virus. Specific IgM antibody titers were first detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) at the end of the first week of PRRSV infection, peaked by day 14

  7. Efficacy of Formalin for the Control of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sutep Suwannahong; Niti Chuchird; Chalor Limsuwan

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a virus found in invertebrates which is one of the leading causes of disease in commercially raised shrimp. The main method of controlling the disease is to prevent infections. This study found that formalin was effective in controlling WSSV in water. Concentrations of 100, 150 and 200 ppm of formalin could reduce the infection

  8. Assembly of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus RNA Packaging Signal into Virus-Like Particles Is Nucleocapsid Dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping-Kun Hsieh; Shin C. Chang; Chu-Chun Huang; Ting-Ting Lee; Ching-Wen Hsiao; Yi-Hen Kou; I-Yin Chen; Chung-Ke Chang; Tai-Huang Huang; Ming-Fu Chang

    2005-01-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was recently identified as the etiology of SARS. The virus particle consists of four structural proteins: spike (S), small envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N). Recognition of a specific sequence, termed the packaging signal (PS), by a virus N protein is often the first step in the assembly of viral RNA, but

  9. Close Phylogenetic Relationship between Egg Drop Syndrome Virus, Bovine Adenovirus Serotype 7, and Ovine Adenovirus Strain 287

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balázs Harrach; Brian M Meehan; Mária Benkö; Brian M Adair; Daniel Todd

    1997-01-01

    A cloned egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus genomic DNA fragment containing the protease gene has been identified and the complete nucleotide sequence of the protease and partial nucleotide sequence of the hexon genes has been determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the protease gene has revealed EDS virus to be genetically more closely related to bovine adenovirus type 7 (BAV-7) and ovine

  10. Viral resistance in shrimp that express an antisense Taura syndrome virus coat protein gene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuanan; Sun, Piera S

    2005-09-01

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in shrimp, and has a profound economic impact on commercial U.S. shrimp farming. This paper describes the stable expression of an antisense Taura syndrome virus-coat protein (TSV-CP) gene construct in shrimp zygotes, via transfection using jetPEI reagent, over a period of at least 236 days. The transgenic shrimp showed no statistically significant difference from normal control shrimp in terms of weight gain or their appearance, morphology, swimming and eating activities. When challenged with live TSV, the transgenic shrimp exhibited increased resistance to the TSV infection (83% survival rate) as compared to control animals (44% survival rate). This work demonstrates that transgenic shrimp, which stably express an antisense transcript from the TSV-CP gene, are partially resistant to TSV infection. These data may have an important implication for commercial shrimp farming. PMID:16129499

  11. A two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of four hemorrhagic fever viruses: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, Hantaan virus, Seoul virus, and dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifeng; Qi, Xian; Zhou, Minghao; Bao, Changjun; Hu, Jianli; Wu, Bin; Wang, Shenjiao; Tan, Zhongmin; Fu, Jianguang; Shan, Jun; Zhu, Yefei; Tang, Fenyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and identification of four viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) pathogens, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), and dengue virus (DENV), from human clinical samples. The two-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay we developed has a sensitivity of 10 copies/?L for each of the targets, and the performance was linear within the range of at least 10(7) transcript copies. Moreover, we evaluated the specificity of the assay using other virus RNA as template, and found no cross-reactivity. This new assay is able to detect SFTSV, HTNV, SEOV and DENV in two reactions and brings a cost of 40 % compared to separate reactions. Evaluation of this assay with clinical serum samples from laboratory-confirmed patients and healthy donors showed 100 % clinical diagnostic sensitivity and over 99 % specificity. The assay was applied for scanning 346 clinical samples collected from patients admitted to the hospital with suspected VHF and compared with virus isolation and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The assay indentified 59 SFTSV-, 12 HTNV-, 11 SEOV- and 9 DENV-positive samples and showed higher sensitivity. This assay thus provides a reliable and cost-effective screening tool for early clinical diagnosis of SFTSV, HTNV, SEOV and DENV in the acute phase. PMID:23532380

  12. Identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in ticks collected from patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengmei; Zuo, Jinjing; Hu, Ke

    2014-12-01

    The cases of two patients (a husband and wife) with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) are reported herein. Both patients had a history of recent tick bite and displayed typical clinical SFTS symptoms including fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. The diagnosis was laboratory-confirmed by the provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The husband died while the wife survived. SFTS virus was eventually identified in ticks collected from the couple. PMID:25448336

  13. Haemolymph parameters of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) infected with Taura syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen-Ling Song; Chun-I Yu; Tzu-Wen Lien; Chih-Cheng Huang; Min-Nan Lin

    2003-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were injected with Taura syndrome virus (TSV) to assess shrimp immune responses and survival. TSV-infected shrimp suffered high mortality, but mock-infected and untreated shrimp experienced no mortality. Moribund shrimp were a pale, reddish colour and were lethargic and soft-shelled. Their haemolymph was clear red and coagulated poorly. In TSV-infected shrimp, the total haemocyte count (THC),

  14. Identification of an envelope protein (VP39) gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-B. Zhu; H.-Y. Li; F. Yang

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was purified from the tissues of experimentally infected crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) with high yield. Based on SDS-PAGE of purified WSSV and mass spectrometry analysis, a protein with the molecular mass of 39?kDa was identified to match an open reading frame (ORF), WSV339, of WSSV genome. This ORF was 849?bp in length, encoding a 283 amino

  15. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shouming Feng; Wenbin Zhan; Jing Xing; Jun Li; Kai Yang; Jing Wang

    2008-01-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV\\u000a (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection,\\u000a feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those\\u000a in

  16. Baculovirus-mediated promoter assay and transcriptional analysis of white spot syndrome virus orf427 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liqun Lu; Hai Wang; Ivanus Manopo; Li Yu; Jimmy Kwang

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important pathogen of the penaeid shrimp with high mortalities. In previous reports, Orf427 of WSSV is characterized as one of the three major latency-associated genes of WSSV. Here, we were interested to analyze the promoter of orf427 and its expression during viral pathogenesis. RESULTS: in situ hybridization revealed that orf427 was transcribed

  17. The role of Pm–fortilin in protecting shrimp from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moltira Tonganunt; Benjamas Nupan; Manasawan Saengsakda; Sawitree Suklour; Warapond Wanna; Saengchan Senapin; Wilaiwan Chotigeat; Amornrat Phongdara

    2008-01-01

    Crustacean fortilin or the product of the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene isolated from Penaeus monodon, is well conserved and has a Ca++ binding domain. Pm–fortilin has anti-apoptotic properties and is present at high levels during the onset of viral infections in P. monodon. The possibility of using rFortilin to protect against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection was

  18. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein expressed by attenuated vaccinia virus protectively immunizes mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Himani Bisht; Anjeanette Roberts; Leatrice Vogel; Alexander Bukreyev; Peter L. Collins; Brian R. Murphy; Kanta Subbarao; Bernard Moss

    2004-01-01

    The spike protein (S), a membrane component of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is anticipated to be an important component of candidate vaccines. We constructed recombinant forms of the highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) containing the gene encoding full-length SARS-CoV S with and without a C-terminal epitope tag called MVA\\/S-HA and MVA\\/S, respectively. Cells infected with MVA\\/Sor

  19. Fresh Pork and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Factors Related to the Risk of Disease Transmission.

    PubMed

    Hall, W; Neumann, E

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS) is a highly infectious virus. Experimentally, the disease can be induced in naďve pigs by the oral, intranasal and intramuscular routes. Depending on the virulence of the strain of the virus and the age of the pig, peak viremia can occur within 7 days of infection, and live virus can be isolated from blood or lymph nodes for several months post-infection. Young pigs tend to develop higher titres of viremia than older pigs infected by the same route and dose with the same strain of virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus survives in pork harvested from infected pigs for extended periods at temperatures of -20 or -70°C. In experimentally infected pigs, survival of PRRS virus in muscle held at 4°C has been demonstrated for at least 7 days, and infectivity of the virus in these samples was confirmed by bioassay. The optimal pH range for the survival of PRRS virus is thought to be 6.0 to 7.5. The elevated pH of non-meat tissues (generally one pH unit higher) is likely to favour extended survival of PRRS virus in pig carcasses from which all superficial and deep lymph nodes have not been removed. It is likely that exsanguinated carcasses held at 4°C retain sufficient blood or lymph tissue to contain infective doses of PRRS virus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is rapidly inactivated by heat, providing a predictable method to ensure that pork tissues are free of viable virus and feeding of cooked swill or garbage should not constitute a risk to pigs. While the probability of viable PRRS virus being present in a pig carcass may be low, the risk is not zero. The importation of raw pork into countries where PRRS is not endemic represents a hazard with potentially severe economic consequences. PMID:24016101

  20. Studies of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection in avian species.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, J J; Yoon, K J; Pirtle, E C; Wills, R W; Sanderson, T J; McGinley, M J

    1997-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently recognized virus of swine. As a newly emerging virus, much of the basic information regarding PRRSV is in the process of discovery. We report three experiments with PRRSV in birds, and a fourth experiment to evaluate the infectivity and transmissibility of avian-derived PRRSV in swine. Experiment 1 compared the susceptibility of Muscovy ducks, Mallard ducks, guinea fowl, and chickens to PRRSV. Birds were exposed to PRRSV (ATCC VR-2402) in drinking water and virus isolation was attempted from feces collected from cages. Based on the duration of fecal shedding of the virus, this experiment showed that Mallard ducks were particularly susceptible to PRRSV. Experiment 2 was done in mallards to corroborate and augment the observations of experiment 1. Virus was isolated from pooled mallard feces up to 25 days post exposure (PE) and from the intestinal contents of 8 of 20 birds euthanized on day 38 PE. No gross or microscopic lesions were observed in ducks collected between 0 and 15 days PE. Experiment 3 evaluated the infectivity and transmissibility of mallard-derived PRRSV in mallards. A cage of mallards orally exposed to PRRSV shed the virus in feces. Exposure of a second cage of mallards to feces from the first cage resulted in fecal shedding of PRRSV by birds in cage two. In turn, exposure to feces from the second cage led to fecal shedding by mallards in a third cage. Experiment 4 assessed the infectivity and transmissibility of mallard-derived virus in swine. Pigs intranasally exposed to PRRSV isolaed from mallard feces in experiment 2 became viremic, seroconverted by ELISA, and transmitted the virus to sentinel swine. Collectively, these studies show that the possibility exists for avian species to be involved in the epidemiology of PRRSV. This is the first report of PRRSV infection in a species other than swine. PMID:9220630

  1. No detection of severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus from ixodid ticks collected in seoul.

    PubMed

    Ham, Heejin; Jo, Sukju; Jang, Jungim; Choi, Sungmin

    2014-04-01

    Larvae, nymphs, and adult stages of 3 species of ixodid ticks were collected by tick drag methods in Seoul during June-October 2013, and their infection status with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus was examined using RT-PCR. During the period, 732 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 62 Haemaphysalis flava, and 2 Ixodes nipponensis specimens were collected. Among the specimens of H. longicornis, the number of female adults, male adults, nymphs, and larvae were 53, 11, 240, and 446, respectively. Ticks were grouped into 63 pools according to the collection site, species, and developmental stage, and assayed for SFTS virus. None of the pools of ticks were found to be positive for SFTS virus gene. PMID:24850970

  2. No Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Ixodid Ticks Collected in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Sukju; Jang, Jungim; Choi, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    Larvae, nymphs, and adult stages of 3 species of ixodid ticks were collected by tick drag methods in Seoul during June-October 2013, and their infection status with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus was examined using RT-PCR. During the period, 732 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 62 Haemaphysalis flava, and 2 Ixodes nipponensis specimens were collected. Among the specimens of H. longicornis, the number of female adults, male adults, nymphs, and larvae were 53, 11, 240, and 446, respectively. Ticks were grouped into 63 pools according to the collection site, species, and developmental stage, and assayed for SFTS virus. None of the pools of ticks were found to be positive for SFTS virus gene. PMID:24850970

  3. Pathogenicity of swine influenza viruses possessing an avian or swine-origin PB2 polymerase gene evaluated in mouse and pig models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A viruses isolated from birds normally contain a PB2 polymerase gene with the avian-signature glutamic acid (E) at position 627, while those isolated from humans contain the mammalian-signature lysine (K) at this position. This residue has been shown to be a determinant of host range and c...

  4. Peptide nanofiber hydrogel adjuvanted live virus vaccine enhances cross-protective immunity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangdong; Galliher-Beckley, Amy; Huang, Hongzhou; Sun, Xiuzhi; Shi, Jishu

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is prevalent in swine farms worldwide and is a major source of economic loss and animal suffering. Rapid genetic variation of PRRSV makes it difficult for current vaccines to confer protection against newly emerging strains. We recently demonstrated that a novel peptide nanofiber hydrogel (H9e) could act as a potent adjuvant for killed H1N1 vaccines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate H9e as an adjuvant for PRRSV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines. Pigs were vaccinated with Ingelvac PRRSV MLV with or without H9e adjuvant before being challenged with the VR-2332 (parental vaccine strain) or MN184A (genetically diverse strain) PRRSV. Pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had higher levels of circulating vaccine virus. More importantly, pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had improved protection against challenge by both PRRSV strains, as demonstrated by reduced challenge-induced viremia compared with pigs vaccinated with MLV alone. Pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had lower frequency of T-regulatory cells and IL-10 production but higher frequency of Th/memory cells and IFN-? secretion than that in pigs vaccinated with MLV alone. Taken together, our studies suggest that the peptide nanofiber hydrogel H9e, when combined with the PRRSV MLV vaccine, can enhance vaccine efficacy against two different PRRSV strains by modulating both host humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:23933333

  5. Primary EBV Infection Induces an Expression Profile Distinct from Other Viruses but Similar to Hemophagocytic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Samantha K.; Odumade, Oludare A.; Porter, Jean L.; Reyes-Genere, Juan; Schmeling, David O.; Bilgic, Hatice; Fan, Danhua; Baechler, Emily C.; Balfour, Henry H.; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV), and Dengue fever virus (DENV), revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans. PMID:24465555

  6. Multimers of the Bluetongue Virus Nonstructural Protein, NS2, Possess Nucleotidyl Phosphatase Activity: Similarities between NS2 and Rotavirus NSP2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zenobia F. Taraporewala; Dayue Chen; John T. Patton

    2001-01-01

    The nonstructural protein, NS2, of bluetongue virus is a nonspecific single- stranded RNA-binding protein that forms large homomultimers and accumulates in viral inclusion bodies of infected cells. NS2 shares these features with the nonstructural protein, NSP2, of rotavirus, which like BTV is a member of the family Reoviridae. Recently, NSP2 was shown to have an NTPase activity and an autokinase

  7. Hijacking of host calreticulin is required for the white spot syndrome virus replication cycle.

    PubMed

    Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Guo, Enen; Tharntada, Sirinit; Lo, Chu-Fang; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2014-07-01

    We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope of purified WSSV virions. CRT was also found to be of high importance for proper oligomerization of the viral structural proteins VP26 and VP28, and when CRT glycosylation was blocked with tunicamycin, a significant decrease in both viral replication and assembly was detected. Together, these findings suggest that CRT confers several advantages to WSSV, from the initial steps of WSSV infection to the assembly of virions. Therefore, CRT is required as a "vital factor" and is hijacked by WSSV for its replication cycle. Importance: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and the cause of a serious disease in a wide range of crustaceans that often leads to high mortality rates. We have previously shown that the protein calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell, is important in the host response to the virus. In this report, we show that the virus uses this host protein to enter the cell and to make the host produce new viral structural proteins. Through its interaction with two viral proteins, the virus "hijacks" host calreticulin and uses it for its own needs. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between a large DNA virus and the host protein CRT and may help in understanding the viral infection process in general. PMID:24807724

  8. Hijacking of Host Calreticulin Is Required for the White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Guo, Enen; Tharntada, Sirinit; Lo, Chu-Fang; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope of purified WSSV virions. CRT was also found to be of high importance for proper oligomerization of the viral structural proteins VP26 and VP28, and when CRT glycosylation was blocked with tunicamycin, a significant decrease in both viral replication and assembly was detected. Together, these findings suggest that CRT confers several advantages to WSSV, from the initial steps of WSSV infection to the assembly of virions. Therefore, CRT is required as a “vital factor” and is hijacked by WSSV for its replication cycle. IMPORTANCE White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and the cause of a serious disease in a wide range of crustaceans that often leads to high mortality rates. We have previously shown that the protein calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell, is important in the host response to the virus. In this report, we show that the virus uses this host protein to enter the cell and to make the host produce new viral structural proteins. Through its interaction with two viral proteins, the virus “hijacks” host calreticulin and uses it for its own needs. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between a large DNA virus and the host protein CRT and may help in understanding the viral infection process in general. PMID:24807724

  9. Hepatitis E virus chronic infection of swine co-infected with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    PubMed

    Salines, Morgane; Barnaud, Elodie; Andraud, Mathieu; Eono, Florent; Renson, Patricia; Bourry, Olivier; Pavio, Nicole; Rose, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, most of hepatitis E human cases are of zoonotic origin. Swine is a major hepatitis E virus (HEV) reservoir and foodborne transmissions after pork product consumption have been described. The risk for HEV-containing pig livers at slaughter time is related to the age at infection and to the virus shedding duration. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is a virus that impairs the immune response; it is highly prevalent in pig production areas and suspected to influence HEV infection dynamics. The impact of PRRSV on the features of HEV infections was studied through an experimental HEV/PRRSV co-infection of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. The follow-up of the co-infected animals showed that HEV shedding was delayed by a factor of 1.9 in co-infected pigs compared to HEV-only infected pigs and specific immune response was delayed by a factor of 1.6. HEV shedding was significantly increased with co-infection and dramatically extended (48.6 versus 9.7 days for HEV only). The long-term HEV shedding was significantly correlated with the delayed humoral response in co-infected pigs. Direct transmission rate was estimated to be 4.7 times higher in case of co-infection than in HEV only infected pigs (0.70 and 0.15 per day respectively). HEV infection susceptibility was increased by a factor of 3.3, showing the major impact of PRRSV infection on HEV dynamics. Finally, HEV/PRRSV co-infection - frequently observed in pig herds - may lead to chronic HEV infection which may dramatically increase the risk of pig livers containing HEV at slaughter time. PMID:26048774

  10. [Alice in Wonderland syndrome due to Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    PubMed

    Pérez Méndez, C; Martín Mardomingo, M; Otero Martínez, B; Lagunilla Herrero, L; Fernández Zurita, C

    2001-06-01

    The Alice in Wonderland syndrome refers to distortions in body image and in the apparent sizes, shapes, and spatial relations of objects seen. The syndrome is usually associated with migraine headaches and has also been reported in several viral infections. We report a 6-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department complaining of several episodes in which the ceiling, the objects and the people around him seemed very small and far away. The child presented no alteration in the level of consciousness. The episodes provoked great fear in the child. Physical examination revealed no abnormalities except pharyngoamygdalitis. Serologic studies (IgM antibodies to viral capsid antigen) confirmed Epstein-Barr virus infection. The child's symptoms resolved spontaneously within 48 hours and he continued to be asymptomatic after a 4 -month follow-up. We consider that all children presenting a clinical picture consistent with the Alice in Wonderland syndrome should undergo serological testing for Epstein Barr virus infection. Diagnosis would enable physicians to reassure the family of the temporary and benign nature of this alarming condition. PMID:11412412

  11. Molecular virus screening to detect novel viruses from turkey flocks affected by Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) is an economically important, infectious enteric disease of young turkeys. The disease is characterized by decreased weight gain, increased morbidity and mortality, and increased production costs due to poor feed conversions. PEMS is considered to be a multi...

  12. Suppression of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus proliferation by glycyrrhizin.

    PubMed

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Ma, Jun; Luo, Jingyi; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Kui; Xiao, Shaobo

    2015-08-01

    Glycyrrhizin is a natural component extracted from the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of glycyrrhizin against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. Our results showed that treatment with glycyrrhizin significantly reduced PRRSV proliferation and PRRSV-encoded protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, glycyrrhizin mainly inhibits the penetration stage, and has little effect on the steps of adsorption or release of PRRSV in its life cycle. Furthermore, we were able to exclude a direct inhibitory action of glycyrrhizin on PRRSV particles. Given these results, glycyrrhizin may be a candidate component for a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) control strategy. PMID:26055123

  13. [Human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS-associated immune reconstitution syndrome. State of the art].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Corcho, Andrés; Bouza-Jiménez, Yadira

    2010-02-01

    Since the arrival of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) has become an increasingly more frequent complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This article presents a review of the available evidence on this subject, indexed in MEDLINE-PUBMED, BVS-BIREME, and BioMed Central. The review covers the definition, epidemiology, classification, and diagnostic criteria related to IRS. In addition, the clinical particularities of the most frequent etiologies are described, and a proposal for a therapeutic approach is formulated. The prognosis and future implications of this syndrome in the epidemiology of some infectious illnesses in the HIV-positive population are included. Several unresolved aspects are mentioned, such as those related to the pathophysiology of the condition, use of biomarkers for the diagnosis, and the need for evidence-based therapeutic algorithms to enable standardization of treatment for these patients. PMID:19632745

  14. Guillain-Barré syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a patient with severe chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koji; Kunishige, Makoto; Shinohara, Masayuki; Kubo, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Hideo; Yoshino, Hiide; Asano, Atsuko; Honda, Souichi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Mitsui, Takao

    2005-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection causes a wide range of neurologic and hematologic manifestations. We report a 72-year-old Japanese male patient with severe chronic active EBV infection syndrome (SCAEBV) who presented with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) several months after the onset of GBS. He showed acute onset of distal muscle weakness, ophthalmoplegia and bulbar palsy. Results of nerve conduction study revealed acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN). His serum was positive for anti-LM1 IgG and anti-GM1b IgM. Titers of antibodies to EBV-related antigens indicated chronic reactivated EBV infection. Treatment with IVIg resolved the acute ophthalmoplegia, but there was no notable improvement in the AMSAN and bulbar palsy despite repeated. Finally, he developed refractory HLH resulting in a fatal outcome. In the present patient, it seems that SCAEBV was associated with the development of GBS and fatal HLH via parainfectious autoimmunity and direct infectious immune mechanisms, respectively. PMID:16311154

  15. Evaluation of alternative respiratory syndromes for specific syndromic surveillance of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus: a time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Syndromic surveillance is increasingly being evaluated for its potential for early warning of increased disease activity in the population. However, interpretation is hampered by the difficulty of attributing a causative pathogen. We described the temporal relationship between laboratory counts of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection and alternative groupings of Emergency Department (ED) respiratory diagnoses. Methods ED and laboratory data were obtained for the south-eastern area of Sydney, NSW for the period 1 June 2001 - 1 December 2006. Counts of ED visits and laboratory confirmed positive RSV and influenza cases were aggregated by week. Semi-parametric generalized additive models (GAM) were used to determine the association between the incidence of RSV and influenza and the incidence of respiratory syndrome ED presentations while controlling for temporal confounders. Results For every additional RSV laboratory count, ED diagnoses of bronchiolitis increased by 3.1% (95%CI: 2.7%-3.5%) in the same week. For every additional influenza laboratory count, ED diagnoses of influenza-like illness increased by 4.7% (95%CI: 4.2%-5.2%) one week earlier. Conclusion In this study, large increases in ED diagnoses of bronchiolitis and influenza-like illness were independent and proxy indicators for RSV and influenza activity, respectively. PMID:19943970

  16. Studies of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine boca-like virus and torque teno virus indicate the presence of multiple viral infections in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Lie Blomström; Sándor Belák; Caroline Fossum; Lisbeth Fuxler; Per Wallgren; Mikael Berg

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, using random amplification and large-scale sequencing technology, we identified a novel porcine parvovirus belonging to the genus Bocavirus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) in Swedish pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In addition to bocavirus we demonstrated the presence of torque teno virus (TTV) genogroups 1 and 2 in these cases

  17. Potential Role of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Structural Protein GP2 in Apoptosis Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Pujhari, Sujit; Baig, Tayyba T.; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a serious threat to the pork industry, and its pathogenesis needs further investigations. To study the role of two structural proteins of PRRSV in virus-host cells interactions, two stable cell lines (MARC-2a and MARC-N) expressing GP2 and N proteins, respectively, were established. We induced apoptosis in these cells by treating them with staurosporine and found a significant reduction in the number of apoptotic cells in MARC-2a as compared to MARC-N and MARC-145 cells. In addition, we found significantly higher activities of transcriptional factors (NF-?B and AP-1) in both cell lines as compared to MARC-145 (parent cells). Overall, our data suggest that, although both stable cell lines activate NF-?B and AP-1, GP2 triggers the antiapoptotic process through an intermediate step that needs to be further investigated. PMID:24511529

  18. Mild Clinical Course of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in an Elderly Japanese Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ohagi, Yuko; Nakamoto, Chiaki; Nakamoto, Hiromichi; Saijo, Masayuki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Nakano, Yoshio; Fujimoto, Tokuzo

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious and hemorrhagic disease recently described in China and western Japan. A 71-year-old healthy Japanese woman noticed a tick biting her after harvesting in an orchard and removed it herself. She developed diarrhea, anorexia, and chills eight days later. Because these symptoms continued, she visited a primary care physician 6 days after the onset. Laboratory data revealed thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was then referred to our hospital. Although not completely fulfilling the diagnostic criteria used in a retrospective study in Japan, SFTS was suspected, and we detected SFTS virus in the patient's blood using RT-PCR. However, she recovered without intensive treatment and severe complications 13 days after the onset. In this report, we present a mild clinical course of SFTS virus infection in Japan in detail. PMID:25574405

  19. Transcription and identification of an envelope protein gene (p22) from shrimp white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Huang, Canhua; Xu, Xun; Hew, Choy L

    2002-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most virulent pathogens causing high mortality in shrimp. In the present study, an open reading frame (termed the p22 gene) was revealed from a WSSV cDNA library. The gene was expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli and purified. Specific antibody was raised using the purified fusion protein (GST-P22). Temporal analysis showed that the p22 gene was a late gene. After binding between purified WSSV virions and anti-GST-P22 IgG followed by labelling with gold-labelled secondary antibody, the gold particles, under a transmission electron microscope, could be found along the outer envelope of WSSV virions. This experiment suggests that the p22 gene encodes an envelope protein of the virus. PMID:11807241

  20. The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

  1. Host-pathogen interactions during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 infection of piglets.

    PubMed

    Salguero, Francisco J; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Rebel, Johanna M J; Stadejek, Tomasz; Morgan, Sophie B; Graham, Simon P; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-04-16

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a major disease affecting pigs worldwide and resulting in considerable economic losses. While PRRS is a global phenomenon, the causative viruses PRRSV-1 (first detected in Europe) and PRRSV-2 (isolated in North America) are genetically and biologically distinct. In addition, the disease outcome is directly linked to co-infections associated with the porcine respiratory disease complex and the host response is variable between different breeds of pigs. It is therefore warranted when studying the pathogenesis of PRRS to consider each viral genotype separately and apply careful consideration to the disease model studied. We here review the respiratory pig model for PRRSV-1, with a focus on a recent set of studies conducted with carefully selected virus strains and pigs, which may serve as both a baseline and benchmark for future investigation. PMID:25559070

  2. Broadly neutralizing antibodies against the rapidly evolving porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sally R; Li, Juan; Nelson, Eric A; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2015-05-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are a critical part of the immune armory for defense against viruses, and the mechanism by which many effective vaccines work to protect against viral infections. However, infections by rapidly evolving and genetically diverse viruses are often characterized by ineffective neutralizing antibody responses. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a highly genetically diverse RNA virus that causes PRRS, the most significant disease of pigs worldwide. The prevailing view of immunity to PRRSV is characterized by delayed and ineffectual production of neutralizing antibodies lacking cross-reactivity that is necessary for vaccine efficacy. Using an ELISA-based neutralizing assay developed to analyze PRRSV growth in porcine alveolar macrophages, the naturally permissive cell of PRRSV, we showed that sera from previously infected commercial sows had high levels of neutralizing activity against diverse PRRSV strains, including across distinct genotypes of PRRSV. Fifty percent cross-neutralization titers in excess of 1/1024 were observed. Neutralizing activity was dose-dependent and was maintained in the immunoglobulin fraction. Presence of high-titer, anti-PRRSV antibody activity that cross-neutralizes diverse strains of virus has prompted reevaluation of the role of neutralizing antibodies for cross-protection against PRRSV under field conditions. Understanding conditions that favor development of cross-neutralizing activity will be crucial for improved strategies to enhance cross-protection against PRRSV. More detailed studies are expected to elucidate mechanisms of neutralizing antibody production and maturation and to investigate conserved epitope targets of cross-neutralization in this rapidly evolving virus. PMID:25845944

  3. Application of GP5 protein to develop monoclonal antibody against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Tian; Yan Cheng; Jin-yang Wu; Jian-hui He; You-jun Shang; Xiang-tao Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(PRRSV),\\u000a named as 8C9 and4B4, were produced by fusing SP2\\/0 myeloma cells and spleen cells of BALB\\/c mice immunized with the PRRSV\\u000a (TCID50=5.5), screened by the indirect ELISA and subjected to several limiting dilutions. mAbs were then identified by biological\\u000a characterization. Among the two fusion

  4. Emerging infections and pregnancy: West Nile virus, monkeypox, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Denise J; Jernigan, Daniel B; Ellis, Jane E; Treadwell, Tracee A

    2005-09-01

    As new infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus, monkeypox, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are recognized in the United States, there are critical questions about how these infectious diseases will affect pregnant women and their infants. In addition, the implications of bioterrorist attacks for exposed pregnant women need to be considered. In this article, the authors address the following questions for a number of infectious disease threats: (1) does pregnancy affect the clinical course of these novel infectious diseases?, (2) what are the implications for prophylaxis and treatment of exposed or infected pregnant women?, and (3) are these novel infectious diseases transmitted during pregnancy, labor and delivery, or breastfeeding? PMID:16085032

  5. Silencing shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes by siRNA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianyang; Han, Fang; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2007-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp pathogen causing large economic losses all over the world. So far, however, there is no efficient approach to control this virus. RNA interference (RNAi), which has been applied to silence virus genes in eukaryotic organisms. In this investigation, a specific 21bp short interfering RNA (vp28-siRNA) targeting a major envelope protein gene (vp28) of WSSV was used to induce gene silencing in vivo in Penaeus japonicus shrimp. It was found that the transcription and expression of vp28 gene were silenced by the sequence-specific vp28-siRNA. However, the RNAi effect disappeared or significantly weakened even if one-nucleotide mutation existed in the vp28-siRNA. As revealed by quantitative PCR, the vp28-siRNA caused a significant reduction in viral DNA production of WSSV-infected shrimp. When treated with the vp28-siRNA, WSSV-infected shrimp had a reduced mortality rate. After three injections of the vp28-siRNA, the virus was completely eradicated from WSSV-infected shrimp. These findings suggest that RNAi is capable of silencing sequence-specific genes of WSSV and might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:17011052

  6. Transactivation, Dimerization, and DNA-Binding Activity of White Spot Syndrome Virus Immediate-Early Protein IE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang-Jing Liu; Yun-Shiang Chang; Hao-Ching Wang; Jiann-Horng Leu; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Chu-Fang Lo

    2008-01-01

    Immediate-early proteins from many viruses function as transcriptional regulators and exhibit transacti- vation activity, DNA binding activity, and dimerization. In this study, we investigated these characteristics in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early protein 1 (IE1) and attempted to map the corresponding functional domains. Transactivation was investigated by transiently expressing a protein consisting of the DNA binding domain of the

  7. Development of a non-radioactive gene probe by PCR for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M. Nunan; Donald V. Lightner

    1997-01-01

    Combining primers created from the sequence information of two baculo-like viruses of penaeid shrimp, Baculovirus penaei (BP) and Monodon baculovirus (MBV), produced a 750 bp band on a 0.8% agarose gel using White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), from Penaeus monodon, as the DNA template. The PCR fragment was ligated to a plasmid vector, (pGEM-T) and transformed, creating a 3.7 Kbp

  8. Profiling of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus-resistant shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Ying Zhao; Zhi-Xin Yin; Shao-Ping Weng; Hao-Ji Guan; Se-Dong Li; Ke Xing; Siu-Ming Chan; Jian-Guo He

    2007-01-01

    In order to find immune-relevant factors responsible for virus resistance and response to the virus infection, the suppression subtractive hybridisation method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes and their expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistant and susceptible Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Two forward subtractive libraries (at 0 and 48h time point)

  9. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

  10. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    PubMed

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. PMID:25779823

  11. An Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Switzerland Following Import of Boar Semen.

    PubMed

    Nathues, C; Perler, L; Bruhn, S; Suter, D; Eichhorn, L; Hofmann, M; Nathues, H; Baechlein, C; Ritzmann, M; Palzer, A; Grossmann, K; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Thür, B

    2014-09-11

    An outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in November 2012 in Switzerland (CH), traditionally PRRSV-free. It was detected after a German boar stud informed a semen importer about the detection of PRRSV during routine monitoring. Tracing of semen deliveries revealed 26 Swiss sow herds that had used semen from this stud after its last negative routine monitoring and 62 further contact herds. All herds were put under movement restrictions and examined serologically and virologically. As a first measure, 59 sows from five herds that had previously been inseminated with suspicious semen were slaughtered and tested immediately. Investigations in the stud resulted in 8 positive boars with recent semen deliveries to CH (Seven with antibodies and virus, one with antibodies only). In one boar out of six tested, virus was detected in semen. Of the 59 slaughtered sows, five from three herds were virus-positive. In one herd, the virus had spread, and all pigs were slaughtered or non-marketable animals euthanized. In the remaining herds, no further infections were detected. After confirmatory testings in all herds 3 weeks after the first examination gave negative results, restrictions were lifted in January 2013, and Switzerland regained its PRRSV-free status. The events demonstrate that import of semen from non-PRRS-free countries - even from negative studs - poses a risk, because monitoring protocols in boar studs are often insufficient to timely detect an infection, and infections of sows/herds occur even with low numbers of semen doses. The outbreak was eradicated successfully mainly due to the high disease awareness of the importer and because immediate actions were taken before clinical or laboratory diagnosis of a single case in the country was made. To minimize the risk of an introduction of PRRSV in the future, stricter import guidelines for boar semen have been implemented. PMID:25209832

  12. Silencing VP28 Gene of White Spot Syndrome Virus of Shrimp by Bacterially Expressed dsRNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sarathi; Martin C. Simon; V. P. Ishaq Ahmed; S. Rajesh Kumar; A. S. Sahul Hameed

    2008-01-01

    An in vivo expression system to produce large amounts of virus-derived dsRNAs in bacteria to provide a practical control of\\u000a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp was developed. The bacterially synthesized dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of WSSV\\u000a promoted gene-specific interference with the WSSV infection in shrimp. Virus infectivity was significantly reduced in WSSV-challenged\\u000a shrimp injected with VP28-dsRNA and

  13. Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-04-01

    Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-?-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (?-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%). PMID:25555812

  14. Risks and prevention of severe RS virus infection among children with immunodeficiency and Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masaaki; Morio, Tomohiro; Ito, Shuichi; Morimoto, Akira; Ota, Setsuo; Mizuta, Koichi; Iwata, Tsutomu; Hara, Toshiro; Saji, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    By the age of two years, almost all infants are infected with the Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). One of the main causes of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis and pneumonia at this age is RSV infection. In addition to well-known risks for severe RSV disease, such as prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and congenital heart disease, immunodeficiencies, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome or neuromuscular diseases have also been identified as risks. While the medical needs for RSV prevention in these risk groups are high, clinical evidence to support this is limited. Palivizumab was recently approved in Japan for prophylaxis in children with immunodeficiency or Down's syndrome. A clinical guidance protocol for the prevention of RSV infection using Palivizumab in these risk groups is provided here on the basis of a review of the available literature and on expert opinion. Thus, the present article reviews the published literature related to RSV infections in infants and children with immunodeficiencies or Down's syndrome in order to outline the risks, pathology and physiology of severe RSV disease in these patient groups. The purpose of this article is to facilitate understanding of the medical scientific bases for the clinical guidance. PMID:24929631

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp. PMID:23991181

  16. Application of GP5 protein to develop monoclonal antibody against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong; Cheng, Yan; Wu, Jin-yang; He, Jian-hui; Shang, You-jun; Liu, Xiang-tao

    2011-08-01

    In this study, a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(PRRSV), named as 8C9 and4B4, were produced by fusing SP2/0 myeloma cells and spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with the PRRSV (TCID(50)=5.5), screened by the indirect ELISA and subjected to several limiting dilutions. mAbs were then identified by biological characterization. Among the two fusion cell strains, 8C9 belonged to the IgG1 subclass and 4B4 belonged to the IgG2a subclass. The titers in cell culture supernatant and abdomen liquor reached to 1:10(4)and 1:10(5), respectively. The specificity test indicated that the two cells had specific reactions for the PRRSV and GP5 protein respectively, and no reaction with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) or Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). The molecular weights of the heavy chain and light chain were about 45.0 kDa and 25.0 kDa, respectively. In neutralization activity tests, the results showed that the prepared mAb 4B4 can protect 50% of cells with no CPE in dilution up to 1:512, but mAB 8C9 has no neutralization activities to PRRSV. PMID:21847758

  17. Per os challenge of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae and Farfantepenaeus duorarum juveniles with six geographic isolates of white spot syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiong Wang; Brenda L White; Rita M Redman; Donald V Lightner

    1999-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important pathogens of penaeid shrimp. It is widely distributed in most Asian countries where penaeid shrimp are cultured, as well as in the Gulf of Mexico and SE USA. The virulence of six geographic isolates of WSSV was compared using Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae and Farfantepenaeus duorarum juveniles. The six geographic

  18. Effect of water temperature on the immune response and infectivity pattern of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in freshwater crayfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Kenneth Söderhäll; Irene Söderhäll

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of two species of freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Astacus astacus, to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by intramuscular injection was compared and the results show that both species are susceptible to WSSV. The effect of water temperature on the development of white spot disease in crayfish was also studied. Crayfish were exposed to different temperatures after WSSV

  19. Antilipopolysaccharide Factor Interferes with White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo in the Crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haipeng Liu; Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Irene Soderhall; Lage Cerenius; Kenneth Soderhall

    2006-01-01

    Received 30 May 2006\\/Accepted 3 August 2006 In a study of genes expressed differentially in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus infected experimentally with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), one protein, known as antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), was chosen, among those whose transcript levels increased upon viral infection, for further studies. ALF RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in whole animals and in

  20. AN INVESTIGATION OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS BETWEEN TWO GENETICALLY DIVERSE COMMERCIAL LINES OF PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if host genetics plays a role in susceptibility to the respiratory disease in growing pigs caused by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Based on a previous study, two genetically diverse commercial lines of pigs that were als...

  1. The vOTU domain of highly-pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus displays a differential substrate preference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arterivirus genus member Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes an economically devastating disease that presents global concerns to the pork industry, which have been exacerbated by the emergence of a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (HP-PRRSV) in China and Southeast Asia....

  2. White spot syndrome virus infection in cultured Penaeus vannamei (Boone) in Ecuador with emphasis on histopathology and ultrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Rodriguez; B Bayot; Y Amano; F Panchana; I de Blas; V Alday; J Calderon

    2003-01-01

    Mortalities of cultured shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Boone), induced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) have occurred in Ecuador since May 1999. Three epidemiological surveys in Ecuadorian farms were carried out and showed an apparent associ- ation between lower temperature and increased mortality rates in commercial ponds. Infected ani- mals showed a reddish discolouration and lethargy and occasionally, white spots in

  3. Pathogenicity of three type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The present study, a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSv strains in a reproductive model, was used as a pilot study...

  4. Differential immunity in pigs with high and low responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred Hampshire by Duroc crossbred pigs (HD) and 100 NE Index line pigs (I) were infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and evaluated for resistance/susceptibility. Controls (100/line) were uninfected littermates to infected pigs. Viremia (V), weight change (...

  5. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  6. Validation of a Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal H. Ferrin; Ying Fang; Craig R. Johnson; Michael P. Murtaugh; Dale D. Polson; Montserrat Torremorell; Marie L. Gramer; Eric A. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be one of the most significant diseases of swine. IDEXX HerdChek PRRS, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has become the industry standard for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus (PRRSV). The need to accurately determine the PRRSV serostatus of herds and individual animals has prompted the development of several

  7. Current knowledge on the structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus: comparison of the North American and European isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dea; C. A. Gagnon; H. Mardassi; B. Pirzadeh; D. Rogan

    2000-01-01

    Summary.  ?Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) belongs to the recently recognized Arteriviridae family within the genus Arterivirus, order Nidovirales, which also includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever\\u000a virus (SHFV). Mature viral particles are composed of an envelope 50–72?nm in diameter, with an isometric core about 20–30?nm\\u000a enclosing a linear positive-stranded RNA genome

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in Jiangsu Province, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuyi; Bao, Changjun; Zhou, Minghao; Hu, Jianli; Tang, Fenyang; Guo, Xiling; Jiao, Yongjun; Zhang, Wenshuai; Luo, Peilin; Li, Luxun; Zhu, Kuanyuan; Tan, Wenwen; Lu, Qimei; Ge, Hengming; Chen, Abao

    2014-02-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), which is caused by a novel bunyavirus, is an emerging infectious disease in China. In 2011, this new virus was designated as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of SFTSV infection. The investigation was conducted among the general population in Jiangsu Province, China in 2011. A total of 2,510 serum samples were collected. Testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of SFTSV infection. Result showed that the overall seroprevalence of SFTSV infection was 0.44% (11 of 2,510) in seven counties in Jiangsu Province. Multiple variable logistic regression analysis showed that raising goats, farming, and grazing were risk factors for SFTSV infection. Raising goats, farming, and grazing might be important risk factors for virus exposure, and appropriate health education could be useful in preventing infections. PMID:24343883

  9. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of the emergent severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Liu, Wei; Bowden, Thomas A; Cui, Ning; Zhuang, Lu; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Cao, Wu-Chun; Pybus, Oliver G

    2013-03-01

    In 2009, a novel Bunyavirus, called severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was identified in the vicinity of Huaiyangshan, China. Clinical symptoms of this zoonotic virus included severe fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with a mortality rate of ~10%. By the end of 2011 the disease associated with this pathogen had been reported from eleven Chinese provinces and human-to-human transmission suspected. However, current understanding of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of SFTSV before and after its identification is limited. To address this we undertake phylogenetic, evolutionary and structural analyses of all available SFTSV genetic sequences, including a new SFTSV complete genome isolated from a patient from Henan in 2011. Our discovery of a mosaic L segment sequence, which is descended from two major circulating lineages of SFTSV in China, represents the first evidence that homologous recombination plays a role in SFTSV evolution. Selection analyses indicate that negative selection is predominant in SFTSV genes, yet differences in selective forces among genes are consistent between Phlebovirus species. Further analysis reveals structural conservation between SFTSV and Rift Valley fever virus in the residues of their nucleocapsids that are responsible for oligomerisation and RNA-binding, suggesting the viruses share similar modes of higher-order assembly. We reconstruct the epidemic history of SFTSV using molecular clock and coalescent-based methods, revealing that the extant SFTSV lineages originated 50-150 years ago, and that the viral population experienced a recent growth phase that concurs with and extends the earliest serological reports of SFTSV infection. Taken together, our combined structural and phylogenetic analyses shed light into the evolutionary behaviour of SFTSV in the context of other, better-known, pathogenic Phleboviruses. PMID:23438426

  10. Evolutionary and molecular analysis of the emergent severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Liu, Wei; Bowden, Thomas A.; Cui, Ning; Zhuang, Lu; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Cao, Wu-Chun; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a novel Bunyavirus, called severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was identified in the vicinity of Huaiyangshan, China. Clinical symptoms of this zoonotic virus included severe fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with a mortality rate of ?10%. By the end of 2011 the disease associated with this pathogen had been reported from eleven Chinese provinces and human-to-human transmission suspected. However, current understanding of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of SFTSV before and after its identification is limited. To address this we undertake phylogenetic, evolutionary and structural analyses of all available SFTSV genetic sequences, including a new SFTSV complete genome isolated from a patient from Henan in 2011. Our discovery of a mosaic L segment sequence, which is descended from two major circulating lineages of SFTSV in China, represents the first evidence that homologous recombination plays a role in SFTSV evolution. Selection analyses indicate that negative selection is predominant in SFTSV genes, yet differences in selective forces among genes are consistent between Phlebovirus species. Further analysis reveals structural conservation between SFTSV and Rift Valley fever virus in the residues of their nucleocapsids that are responsible for oligomerisation and RNA-binding, suggesting the viruses share similar modes of higher-order assembly. We reconstruct the epidemic history of SFTSV using molecular clock and coalescent-based methods, revealing that the extant SFTSV lineages originated 50–150 years ago, and that the viral population experienced a recent growth phase that concurs with and extends the earliest serological reports of SFTSV infection. Taken together, our combined structural and phylogenetic analyses shed light into the evolutionary behaviour of SFTSV in the context of other, better-known, pathogenic Phleboviruses. PMID:23438426

  11. Experimental transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from crabs to shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Kanchanaphum, P; Wongteerasupaya, C; Sitidilokratana, N; Boonsaeng, V; Panyim, S; Tassanakajon, A; Withyachumnarnkul, B; Flegel, T W

    1998-09-11

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon is a recently discovered baculo-like virus disease which is currently the cause of very serious and widespread losses in the shrimp industry in Thailand and elsewhere in Asia. Three suspected crab carriers of this virus commonly found in shrimp-rearing areas were investigated. These were Sesarma sp., Scylla serrata and Uca pugilator. All these crabs could be infected with WSSV by injection and they sustained heavy viral infections for up to 45 d (confirmed by normal histology, specific in situ DNA hybridization and PCR amplification) without visible signs of disease or mortality. All of them also transferred the disease to P. monodon via water while physically separated in aquarium cohabitation tests. Transfer of the virus to the shrimp was monitored using in situ DNA hybridization and PCR assay at 12 h intervals after cohabitation began. With U. pugilator, WSSV could be detected in the shrimp cohabitants after 24 h using PCR amplification and after 60 h using in situ hybridization. With S. serrata, the shrimp were positive for WSSV after 36 h using PCR and after 60 h using DNA in situ hybridization. With Sesarma sp. they were positive after 48 h using PCR and 72 h using in situ hybridization. These laboratory studies demonstrated that crab carriers of WSSV may pose a real threat to cultivated shrimp. However, the studies were carried out in containers with a small volume and with relatively clean sea water as compared to shrimp cultivation ponds. Pond-based studies are now needed to determine whether factors such as pond volume, pond water quality and shrimp and crab behavior can influence the rate and success of transfer. PMID:9789973

  12. Pathology and virus dispersion in cynomolgus monkeys experimentally infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus via different inoculation routes.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Noriyo; Iwata, Naoko; Hasegawa, Hideki; Sato, Yuko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki; Itamura, Shigeyuki; Saito, Takehiko; Ami, Yasushi; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2007-12-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes SARS. The pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV remain poorly understood. Six cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with the HKU39849 isolate of SARS-CoV via four routes. After intranasal inoculation, the virus was isolated from respiratory swabs on days 2-7 postinoculation (p.i.) and virus genome was detected in intestinal tissues on day 7 p.i. Virus was not detected after intragastric inoculation. After intravenous inoculation, infectious virus was isolated from rectal swabs, and virus antigen was detected in intestinal cells on day 14 p.i. After intratracheal (i.t.) inoculation, virus antigen-positive alveolar cells and macrophages were found in lung and infectious virus was detected in lymphoid and intestinal tissues. The peribronchial lymph nodes showed evidence of an immune response. Lung tissue and/or fluid and/or the peribronchial lymph node of the intratracheally inoculated animals had high TNF-alpha, IL-8 and IL-12 levels. SARS lung lesions are only generated in monkeys by i.t. inoculation. The virus appears to spread into and perhaps via the intestinal and lymphatic systems. It has been suggested previously that viraemia may cause intestinal infections in SARS patients. PMID:18039277

  13. Identification of a collagen-like protein gene from white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Chen, Y; Yang, F

    2004-02-01

    The most unique feature of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the presence of a collagen-like protein (termed as WSSV-CLP). In this report, the N-terminal fragment of WSSV-CLP (CLPn) was expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli and purified. Specific antibody was then raised against the purified fusion protein (GST-CLPn). Temporal analysis showed that the WSSV collagen gene was an early viral gene. Immunogold localization using specific antibody revealed that the gold particles, under a transmission electron microscope, were presented along the outer envelope of WSSV virions. This experiment suggested that the collagen gene encoded an envelope protein of WSSV. Using immuno-affinity chromatography, the WSSV-CLP was purified from crudely purified WSSV virions. The WSSV-CLP was N-glycosylated, as indicated by the increased migration in SDS-PAGE after treatment with N-linked glycosidase F. PMID:14745591

  14. Characterization of white spot syndrome virus VP52B and its interaction with VP26.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fanyu; Jie, Zuliang; Hou, Luhong; Li, Fang; Yang, Feng

    2015-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens of cultured shrimp. Identification of envelope protein interactions has become a central issue for the understanding of WSSV assembly. In this paper, WSSV envelope protein VP52B was fused with GST-tag and expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3). Immunogold-electron microscopy revealed that VP52B was located on the outside surface of WSSV virions. Far-Western blotting analysis suggested that VP52B might directly interact with a major viral envelope protein VP26, and their interaction was confirmed by GST pull-down assay. Further investigation showed that the VP52B binding domain was located between residues 135-170 of VP26. These findings will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of WSSV morphogenesis. PMID:25331340

  15. Blue crabs Callinectes sapidus as potential biological reservoirs for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Powell, James W B; Browdy, Craig L; Burge, Erin J

    2015-03-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen of cultured shrimp and was first detected in farms in South Carolina (USA) in 1997 and subsequently in wild shrimp in 1999. We screened groups of 1808 wild Atlantic white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and 300 blue crabs Callinectes sapidus collected from South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida for the presence of WSSV using the Shrimple® immunoassay-strip test, with all positives and random subsets of negatives tested by TaqMan real-time PCR and in infectivity bioassays. Of 87 shrimp and 11 crabs that tested positive using the Shrimple® test, only a single C. sapidus was confirmed to be infected with WSSV by PCR and the infectivity bioassay. The data indicate that the prevalence of WSSV in these species is low in these southeastern US regions, but that C. sapidus may serve as a biological reservoir. PMID:25751859

  16. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Shumei; Yanga, Feng

    2005-07-01

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa. PMID:15913698

  17. Crassostrea gigas oysters as a shrimp farm bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Boucard, C; Escobedo-Fregoso, C; Duran-Avelar, Ma de J; Mercier, L; Llera-Herrera, R; Escobedo-Bonilla, C; Vibanco-Perez, N

    2012-04-26

    This study explored whether Crassostrea gigas oysters can be used as a bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp farm water canals. Bioassays showed that C. gigas can accumulate WSSV in their gills and digestive glands but do not become infected, either by exposure to seawater containing WSSV or by cohabitation with infected shrimp. The use of a WSSV nested PCR to screen oysters placed in water canals at the entry of a shrimp farm allowed WSSV to be detected 16 d prior to the disease occurring. The finding that C. gigas can concentrate small amounts of WSSV present in seawater without being harmed makes it an ideal sentinel species at shrimp farms. PMID:22535870

  18. Antagonizing Interferon-Mediated Immune Response by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Yan-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are important components in innate immunity involved in the first line of defense to protect host against viral infection. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leads to severe economic losses for swine industry since being first identified in early 1990s. PRRSV interplays with host IFN production and IFN-activated signaling, which may contribute to the delayed onset and low level of neutralizing antibodies, as well as weak cell-mediated immune response in infected pigs. PRRSV encodes several proteins that act as antagonists for the IFN signaling. In this review, we summarized the various strategies used by PRRSV to antagonize IFN production and thwart IFN-activated antiviral signaling, as well as the variable interference with IFN-mediated immune response by different PRRSV strains. Thorough understanding of the interaction between PRRSV and host innate immune response will facilitate elucidation of PRRSV pathogenesis and development of a better strategy to control PRRS. PMID:25101271

  19. Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy L.

    2006-01-01

    The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His6 tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion against mother liquor containing 2?M sodium acetate, 100?mM MES pH 6.3, 25?mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7?d and diffracted to 2.2?Ĺ; they belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98?Ĺ and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labelled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3?Ĺ. PMID:16880562

  20. The SI Strain of Measles Virus Derived from a Patient with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Possesses Typical Genome Alterations and Unique Amino Acid Changes That Modulate Receptor Specificity and Reduce Membrane Fusion Activity ? ‡

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Fumio; Yamada, Kentaro; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Okamura, Koji; Yanagi, Yusuke; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal sequela associated with measles and is caused by persistent infection of the brain with measles virus (MV). The SI strain was isolated in 1976 from a patient with SSPE and shows neurovirulence in animals. Genome nucleotide sequence analyses showed that the SI strain genome possesses typical genome alterations for SSPE-derived strains, namely, accumulated amino acid substitutions in the M protein and cytoplasmic tail truncation of the F protein. Through the establishment of an efficient reverse genetics system, a recombinant SI strain expressing a green fluorescent protein (rSI-AcGFP) was generated. The infection of various cell types with rSI-AcGFP was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. rSI-AcGFP exhibited limited syncytium-forming activity and spread poorly in cells. Analyses using a recombinant MV possessing a chimeric genome between those of the SI strain and a wild-type MV strain indicated that the membrane-associated protein genes (M, F, and H) were responsible for the altered growth phenotype of the SI strain. Functional analyses of viral glycoproteins showed that the F protein of the SI strain exhibited reduced fusion activity because of an E300G substitution and that the H protein of the SI strain used CD46 efficiently but used the original MV receptors on immune and epithelial cells poorly because of L482F, S546G, and F555L substitutions. The data obtained in the present study provide a new platform for analyses of SSPE-derived strains as well as a clear example of an SSPE-derived strain that exhibits altered receptor specificity and limited fusion activity. PMID:21917959

  1. The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Joshua C.; Nanau, Radu M.; Neuman, Manuela G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. There are challenges in the clinical diagnosis of drug-induced injury and in obtaining information on the reactivation of human herpes viruses (HHV) during idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. Objectives. (i) To develop a unified list of drugs incriminated in drug-induced hepatotoxicity and severe cutaneous reactions, in which drug hypersensitivity leads to HHV-6 reactivation and further complication of therapy and recovery and (ii) to supplement the already available data on reporting frequencies of liver- or skin-induced cases with knowledge of individual case reports, including HHV-6 reactivation and briefly introducing chromosomally integrated HHV-6. Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i) idiosyncratic reactions, (ii) drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii) human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy. PMID:22666603

  2. Prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Whan; Song, Bong Gu; Shin, E-Hyun; Yun, Seok-Min; Han, Myung-Guk; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Ryou, Jungsang

    2014-10-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis a vector that harbors severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a major species of tick in South Korea. To investigate the existence and prevalence of SFTSV in Korea, we collected ticks from nine provinces in South Korea for detecting SFTSV. In all, we collected 13,053 ticks, and H. longicornis (90.8%, 11,856/13,053) was the most abundant among them. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in H. longicornis was 0.46% (55 pools). SFTSV was detected in ticks during all the developmental stages, showing MIR in larvae (2/350, 0.57%), nymphs (38/10,436, 0.36%), males (2/221, 0.90%), and females (13/849, 1.53%), respectively. Viruses were detected in ticks collected between April and September. A higher MIR was detected in ticks from the southern part of the country. We amplified the M and S segment partial genes from a sample and analyzed the nucleotide sequence. The results showed a 93-98% homology to Chinese and Japanese strains registered in Genbank. In this study, we confirmed the existence of SFTSV for the first time in South Korea. The SFTSV prevalence data from the studies are essential for raising the awareness of SFTS in South Korea. PMID:25164614

  3. Pathogenesis of emerging severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in C57/BL6 mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Cong; Liang, Mifang; Ning, Junyu; Gu, Wen; Jiang, Hong; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Fushun; Zhang, Quanfu; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Ting; Han, Ying; Zhang, Weilun; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Qin; Sun, Lina; Liu, Qinzhi; Wang, Tao; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Ying; Qin, Chuan; Li, Dexin

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of an emerging viral disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), has prompted the need to understand pathogenesis of SFTSV. We are unique in establishing an infectious model of SFTS in C57/BL6 mice, resulting in hallmark symptoms of thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia. Viral RNA and histopathological changes were identified in the spleen, liver, and kidney. However, viral replication was only found in the spleen, which suggested the spleen to be the principle target organ of SFTSV. Moreover, the number of macrophages and platelets were largely increased in the spleen, and SFTSV colocalized with platelets in cytoplasm of macrophages in the red pulp of the spleen. In vitro cellular assays further revealed that SFTSV adhered to mouse platelets and facilitated the phagocytosis of platelets by mouse primary macrophages, which in combination with in vivo findings, suggests that SFTSV-induced thrombocytopenia is caused by clearance of circulating virus-bound platelets by splenic macrophages. Thus, this study has elucidated the pathogenic mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in a mouse model resembling human SFTS disease. PMID:22665769

  4. Pathogenesis of emerging severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in C57/BL6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cong; Liang, Mifang; Ning, Junyu; Gu, Wen; Jiang, Hong; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Fushun; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Ting; Han, Ying; Zhang, Weilun; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Qin; Sun, Lina; Liu, Qinzhi; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Tao; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Ying; Qin, Chuan; Li, Dexin

    2012-06-19

    The discovery of an emerging viral disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), has prompted the need to understand pathogenesis of SFTSV. We are unique in establishing an infectious model of SFTS in C57/BL6 mice, resulting in hallmark symptoms of thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia. Viral RNA and histopathological changes were identified in the spleen, liver, and kidney. However, viral replication was only found in the spleen, which suggested the spleen to be the principle target organ of SFTSV. Moreover, the number of macrophages and platelets were largely increased in the spleen, and SFTSV colocalized with platelets in cytoplasm of macrophages in the red pulp of the spleen. In vitro cellular assays further revealed that SFTSV adhered to mouse platelets and facilitated the phagocytosis of platelets by mouse primary macrophages, which in combination with in vivo findings, suggests that SFTSV-induced thrombocytopenia is caused by clearance of circulating virus-bound platelets by splenic macrophages. Thus, this study has elucidated the pathogenic mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in a mouse model resembling human SFTS disease. PMID:22665769

  5. Effects of ribavirin on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Tani, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Fukuma, Aiko; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Suda, Yuto; Maeda, Ken; Takahashi, Toru; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a disease with a high case fatality rate that is caused by infection with the recently identified tick-borne SFTS virus (SFTSV), for which there are no specific countermeasures. We examined the effects of ribavirin and mizoribine, which are nucleoside analogue drugs with broad antiviral activities, on SFTSV proliferation in vitro. When 3 cell lines were treated with these drugs before and during infection with a Chinese SFTSV strain, the 99% effective concentrations (EC99) of ribavirin were 19-64 ?g/ml (78-262 ?M); in contrast, the EC99 of mizoribine was >500 ?g/ml (1,929 ?M). Similar levels of inhibitory effects of ribavirin were observed with 4 Japanese SFTSV strains. However, when Vero cells were treated with ribavirin 3 days after inoculation, the inhibitory effect was dramatically decreased, indicating that ribavirin did not effectively reduce virus production in pre-infected cells. These results suggest that ribavirin could be used as post-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of SFTS. PMID:25410555

  6. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Penaeus vannamei hemocytes upon Taura syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Chongsatja, Phattara-Orn; Bourchookarn, Apichai; Lo, Chu Fang; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Krittanai, Chartchai

    2007-10-01

    To understand molecular responses of crustacean hemocytes to virus infection, we applied 2-DE proteomics approach to investigate altered proteins in hemocytes of Penaeus vannamei during Taura syndrome virus (TSV) infection. At 24 h postinfection, quantitative intensity analysis and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS revealed 11 forms of 8 proteins that were significantly up-regulated, whereas 9 forms of 5 proteins were significantly down-regulated in the infected shrimps. These altered proteins play important roles in host defense (hemocyanin, catalase, carboxylesterase, transglutaminase, and glutathione transferase), signal transduction (14-3-3 zeta), carbohydrate metabolism (acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase), cellular structure and integrity (beta-tubulin, beta-actin, tropomyosin, and myosin), and ER-stress response (protein disulfide isomerase). Semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed the upregulation of 14-3-3 at both mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, several altered protein spots were identified as fragments of hemocyanin. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the hemocyanin spots at acidic and basic regions represented the C- and N-terminal hemocyanin fragments, respectively. As three-quarters of C-terminal fragments were up-regulated, whereas two-thirds of N-terminal hemocyanin fragments were down-regulated, we therefore hypothesize that C- and N-terminal hemocyanin fragments may have differential roles in hemocytes. Further investigation of these data may lead to better understanding of the molecular responses of crustacean hemocytes to TSV infection. PMID:17722205

  7. Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

    2015-07-01

    Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed. PMID:24953507

  8. Experimental Inoculation of Conventional Pigs with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Circovirus 2

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, A.; Balasch, M.; Segalés, J.; García, L.; Plana-Durán, J.; Rosell, C.; Ellerbrok, H.; Mankertz, A.; Domingo, M.

    2002-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a disease of nursery and fattening pigs characterized by growth retardation, paleness of the skin, dyspnea, and increased mortality rates. Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been demonstrated to be the cause of PMWS. However, other factors are needed for full development of the syndrome, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection has been suggested to be one of them. Twenty-four conventional 5-week-old pigs were distributed in four groups: control (n = 5), PRRSV inoculated (n = 5), PCV2 inoculated (n = 7), and PRRSV and PCV2 inoculated (n = 7). The two groups inoculated with PRRSV showed growth retardation. Pigs inoculated with both PRRSV and PCV2 had increased rectal temperature. One of these pigs developed wasting, had severe respiratory distress, and died. The most important microscopic lesion in pigs inoculated with PCV2 was lymphocyte depletion with histiocytic infiltration of the lymphoid organs, more severe and in a wider range of tissues in doubly inoculated pigs. Interstitial pneumonia was observed in the three inoculated groups. PCV2 nucleic acid was found by in situ hybridization in larger amounts and in a wider range of lymphoid tissues in PRRSV- and PCV2-inoculated than in PCV2-inoculated pigs. TaqMan PCR was performed to quantify the PCV2 loads in serum during the experiment. PCV2 loads were higher in doubly inoculated pigs than in pigs inoculated with PCV2 alone. These findings indicate that severe disease can be reproduced in conventional 5-week-old pigs by inoculation of PRRSV and PCV2. Moreover, these results support the hypothesis that PRRSV infection enhances PCV2 replication. PMID:11884547

  9. Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Fetal Susceptibility to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ladinig, Andrea; Foxcroft, George; Ashley, Carolyn; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing). The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although ?? T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection. PMID:25275491

  10. Suppression of the interferon and NF-?B responses by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Qu, Bingqian; Qi, Xian; Wu, Xiaodong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J; Xu, Wayne; Tang, Fenyang; Li, Zhifeng; Wu, Bing; Powell, Kira; Wegner, Marta; Li, Dexin; Xing, Zheng

    2012-08-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, multiorgan dysfunction, and a high fatality rate between 12 and 30%. It is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel Phlebovirus in family Bunyaviridae. Although the viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown, hemopoietic cells appear to be targeted by the virus. In this study we report that human monocytes were susceptible to SFTSV, which replicated efficiently, as shown by an immunofluorescence assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. We examined host responses in the infected cells and found that antiviral interferon (IFN) and IFN-inducible proteins were induced upon infection. However, our data also indicated that downregulation of key molecules such as mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) or weakened activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and NF-?B responses may contribute to a restricted innate immunity against the infection. NSs, the nonstructural protein encoded by the S segment, suppressed the beta interferon (IFN-?) and NF-?B promoter activities, although NF-?B activation appears to facilitate SFTSV replication in human monocytes. NSs was found to be associated with TBK1 and may inhibit the activation of downstream IRF and NF-?B signaling through this interaction. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the nucleoprotein (N), also encoded by the S segment, exhibited a suppressive effect on the activation of IFN-? and NF-?B signaling as well. Infected monocytes, mainly intact and free of apoptosis, may likely be implicated in persistent viral infection, spreading the virus to the circulation and causing primary viremia. Our findings provide the first evidence in dissecting the host responses in monocytes and understanding viral pathogenesis in humans infected with a novel deadly Bunyavirus. PMID:22623799

  11. Suppression of the Interferon and NF-?B Responses by Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Bingqian; Qi, Xian; Wu, Xiaodong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J.; Xu, Wayne; Tang, Fenyang; Li, Zhifeng; Wu, Bing; Powell, Kira; Wegner, Marta; Li, Dexin

    2012-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, multiorgan dysfunction, and a high fatality rate between 12 and 30%. It is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel Phlebovirus in family Bunyaviridae. Although the viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown, hemopoietic cells appear to be targeted by the virus. In this study we report that human monocytes were susceptible to SFTSV, which replicated efficiently, as shown by an immunofluorescence assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. We examined host responses in the infected cells and found that antiviral interferon (IFN) and IFN-inducible proteins were induced upon infection. However, our data also indicated that downregulation of key molecules such as mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) or weakened activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and NF-?B responses may contribute to a restricted innate immunity against the infection. NSs, the nonstructural protein encoded by the S segment, suppressed the beta interferon (IFN-?) and NF-?B promoter activities, although NF-?B activation appears to facilitate SFTSV replication in human monocytes. NSs was found to be associated with TBK1 and may inhibit the activation of downstream IRF and NF-?B signaling through this interaction. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the nucleoprotein (N), also encoded by the S segment, exhibited a suppressive effect on the activation of IFN-? and NF-?B signaling as well. Infected monocytes, mainly intact and free of apoptosis, may likely be implicated in persistent viral infection, spreading the virus to the circulation and causing primary viremia. Our findings provide the first evidence in dissecting the host responses in monocytes and understanding viral pathogenesis in humans infected with a novel deadly Bunyavirus. PMID:22623799

  12. Gene-expression profiling of White spot syndrome virus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marks, Hendrik; Vorst, Oscar; van Houwelingen, Adčle M M L; van Hulten, Mariëlle C W; Vlak, Just M

    2005-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus, type species of the genus Whispovirus in the family Nimaviridae, is a large, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus that infects crustaceans. The genome of the completely sequenced isolate WSSV-TH encodes 184 putative open reading frames (ORFs), the functions of which are largely unknown. To study the transcription of these ORFs, a DNA microarray was constructed, containing probes corresponding to nearly all putative WSSV-TH ORFs. Transcripts of 79 % of these ORFs could be detected in the gills of WSSV-infected shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Clustering of the transcription profiles of the individual genes during infection showed two major classes of genes: the first class reached maximal expression at 20 h post-infection (p.i.) (putative early) and the other class at 2 days p.i. (putative late). Nearly all major and minor structural virion-protein genes clustered in the latter group. These data provide evidence that, similar to other large, dsDNA viruses, the WSSV genes at large are expressed in a coordinated and cascaded fashion. Furthermore, the transcriptomes of the WSSV isolates WSSV-TH and TH-96-II, which have differential virulence, were compared at 2 days p.i. The TH-96-II genome encodes 10 ORFs that are not present in WSSV-TH, of which at least seven were expressed in P. monodon as well as in crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus), suggesting a functional but not essential role for these genes during infection. Expression levels of most other ORFs shared by both isolates were similar. Evaluation of transcription profiles by using a genome-wide approach provides a better understanding of WSSV transcription regulation and a new tool to study WSSV gene function. PMID:15958687

  13. Asociación entre anticuerpos contra el virus del síndrome disgenésico y respiratorio porcino y anticuerpos contra otros patógenos Association between antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and other pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Diosdado Vargas; Dolores González-Vega; Luis Pedro Moles-Cervantes; Antonio Morilla González

    In order to investigate a possible association between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and other viral and bacterial pathogenic agents found in swine, a serological model was followed. For this study, 3600, 4 to 6 month-old fi nishers were bled and tested for antibodies against various infectious agents. The specifi c antibodies against PRRSV, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV),

  14. Immunodominant epitopes in nsp2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus are dispensable for replication but play an important role in viral pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the largest protein of the virus. Besides its crucial role in viral replication, recent studies indicated its involvement in modulating host immunity. In this study, each of the six identified immu...

  15. Differential profile of genes expressed in hemocytes of White Spot Syndrome Virus-resistant shrimp ( Penaeus japonicus) by combining suppression subtractive hybridization and differential hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanhai He; Qiwei Qin; Xun Xu

    2005-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is the major viral pathogen of culture shrimp. Although remarkable progress has been made in characterizing the WSSV genome, information concerning the antiviral process of host is still limited. To identify the genes differentially expressed along with their expression profile in the hemocytes of the virus-resistant shrimp, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and differential hybridization (DH)

  16. Efficiency and sensitivity determination of Shrimple®, an immunochromatographic assay for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), using quantitative real-time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. B. Powell; Erin J. Burge; Craig L. Browdy; Eleanor F. Shepard

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a prevalent and virulent pathogen affecting both wild and cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Molecular diagnostic tools have made detection of the virus increasingly accurate. However, these techniques are often not readily available for rapid diagnosis in the field or in shrimp production facilities. Shrimple®, an immunochromatographic detection assay for WSSV, was designed specifically for

  17. Genetic (co)variation in resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and harvest weight in Penaeus ( Litopenaeus) vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gitterle; Ragnar Salte; Bjarne Gjerde; James Cock; Harry Johansen; Marcela Salazar; Carlos Lozano; Morten Rye

    2005-01-01

    A total of 339 full-sib families (representing 143 paternal half-sib families) and 337 full-sib families (representing 145 paternal half-sib families) were respectively challenged with White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in a controlled environment and tested for growth performance under commercial growing conditions. The families were derived from two selected lines. The estimates of heritability (h2±SE) for the two lines were

  18. Studies on structural and immunogenic polypeptides of hydropericardium syndrome virus by SDS-PAGE and western blotting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Kumar; Rajesh Chandra

    2004-01-01

    The polypeptide pattern of a local isolate of a virus causing hydropericardium syndrome was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A total of 12 polypeptides ranging in molecular weight between 13.8 and 110.0 kDa were observed. Western blot analysis of structural polypeptides revealed seven immunogenic polypeptides ranging in molecular weight between 15.8 and 110.0 kDa.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to the ORF5 product of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus define linear neutralizing determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boroushan Pirzadeh; Serge Dea

    Complementary DNA encoding the ORF5 gene of a Quebec reference isolate (IAF-Klop) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vectors pGEX-4T and pET21a to produce ORF5- glutathione S-transferase and ORF5-polyhistidine fusion proteins. Five hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the 25 kDa viral envelope glycoprotein (GP5) were obtained from BALB\\/c mice

  20. Antigenic Importance of the Carboxy-Terminal Beta-Strand of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SARAH WOOTTON; GABRIELLA KOLJESAR; LIUZHAN YANG; KYOUNG-JIN YOON; DONGWAN YOO

    2001-01-01

    Five domains of antigenic importance were previously mapped on the nucleocapsid protein (N) of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and a domain comprised of the 11 C-terminal-most amino acids (residues 112 to 123) was shown to be essential for binding of N-specific conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In the present study, the importance of individual residues within this

  1. Characterization of white spot syndrome virus replication in in vitro-cultured haematopoietic stem cells of freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Kenneth Soderhall

    2006-01-01

    Replication of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in haematopoietic cells (hpt cells) derived from haematopoietic tissue (hpt) of freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Temperatureandtypeofinoculumforvirusreplicationwerestudied.Thecellcultureremainedviable at awide range of temperatures ranging from 4 to 25 6C.WSSV replicated incells, as evidenced by in situ hybridization, RT-PCR and by the presence of virions visualized with an electron microscope. Moreover, the results showed

  2. Collaboration between a soluble C-type lectin and calreticulin facilitates white spot syndrome virus infection in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Wei; Xu, Yi-Hui; Xu, Ji-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2014-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) mainly infects crustaceans through the digestive tract. Whether C-type lectins (CLs), which are important receptors for many viruses, participate in WSSV infection in the shrimp stomach remains unknown. In this study, we orally infected kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus to model the natural transmission of WSSV and identified a CL (designated as M. japonicus stomach virus-associated CL [MjsvCL]) that was significantly induced by virus infection in the stomach. Knockdown of MjsvCL expression by RNA interference suppressed the virus replication, whereas exogenous MjsvCL enhanced it. Further analysis by GST pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation showed that MjsvCL could bind to viral protein 28, the most abundant and functionally relevant envelope protein of WSSV. Furthermore, cell-surface calreticulin was identified as a receptor of MjsvCL, and the interaction between these proteins was a determinant for the viral infection-promoting activity of MjsvCL. The MjsvCL-calreticulin pathway facilitated virus entry likely in a cholesterol-dependent manner. This study provides insights into a mechanism by which soluble CLs capture and present virions to the cell-surface receptor to facilitate viral infection. PMID:25070855

  3. A Lethal Disease Model for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters Infected with Sin Nombre Virus

    PubMed Central

    Brocato, Rebecca L.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Bell, Todd M.; Wells, Jay B.; Queen, Laurie A.

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model. PMID:24198421

  4. Detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus by reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification coupled with vertical flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lunbiao; Ge, Yiyue; Qi, Xian; Xu, Gaolian; Li, Haijing; Zhao, Kangchen; Wu, Bin; Shi, Zhiyang; Guo, Xiling; Hu, Lin; You, Qimin; Zhang, Li-Hong; Freiberg, Alexander N; Yu, Xuejie; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Minghao; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2012-12-01

    A virus known as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was recently identified as the etiological agent of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in China. Reliable laboratory detection and identification of this virus are likely to become clinically and epidemiologically desirable. We developed a nearly instrument-free, simple molecular method which incorporates reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification (RT-CPA) coupled with a vertical flow (VF) visualization strip for rapid detection of SFTSV. The RT-CPA-VF assay targets a conserved region of the M segment of the SFTSV genome and has a limit of detection of 100 copies per reaction, with no cross-reaction with other vector-borne bunyaviruses and bacterial pathogens. The performance of the RT-CPA-VF assay was determined with 175 human plasma specimens collected from 89 clinically suspected SFTS patients and 86 healthy donors. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 94.1% and 100.0%, respectively, compared with a combination of virus culture and real-time RT-PCR. The entire procedure, from specimen processing to result reporting, can be completed within 2 h. The simplicity and nearly instrument-free platform of the RT-CPA-VF assay make it practical for point-of-care testing. PMID:22993179

  5. Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    DeFreitas, E.; Hilliard, B.; Cheney, P.R.; Bell, D.S.; Kiggundu, E.; Sankey, D.; Wroblewska, Z.; Palladino, M.; Woodward, J.P.; Koprowski, H. (Wistar Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) is a recently recognized illness characterized by debilitating fatigue as well as immunological and neurological abnormalities. Once thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, it is now thought to have a different but unknown etiology. The authors evaluted 30 adult and pediatric CFIDS patients from six eastern states for the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II by Western immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of blood samples. The majority of patients were positive for HTLV antibodies by Western blotting and for HTLV-II gag sequences by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Twenty nonexposure healthy controls were negative in all assays. These data support an association between an HTLV-II-like virus and CFIDS.

  6. [Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging in a child with Alice in Wonderland syndrome following Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    PubMed

    Kamei, Atsushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Akasaka, Manami; Chida, Shoichi

    2002-07-01

    Characteristic pathologic changes of cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have never been reported in "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome (AIWS) caused by Epstein-Barr (EB) virus infection. We present here a 10-year-old girl with AIWS with an abnormal MR finding. During the course of serologically confirmed EB virus encephalopathy, she had distortion of the body image, visual hallucinations and depersonalization characteristic of AIWS. MRI demonstrated transient T2 prolongation and swelling of the cerebral cortex, especially at the bilateral temporal lobes, bilateral cingulate gyrus, right upper frontal gyrus, bilateral caudate nucleus, and bilateral putamen, whereas CT showed no abnormalities. Transient MRI lesions were occasionally reported in patients with EB virus encephalopathy/encephalitis who presented visual illusions and psychotic reactions, although the diagnosis of AIWS was not described. We consider that any patient with symptoms of AIWS should have MRI because the abnormal MRI findings may disappear in a short period. PMID:12134688

  7. Characterization of homologous and heterologous adaptive immune responses in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The present study characterized the homologous and heterologous immune response in type-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Two experiments were conducted: in experiment 1, eight pigs were inoculated with PRRSV strain 3262 and 84?days post-inoculation (dpi) they were challenged with either strain 3262 or strain 3267 and followed for the next 14?days (98 dpi). In experiment 2, eight pigs were inoculated with strain 3267 and challenged at 84 dpi as above. Clinical course, viremia, humoral response (neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, NA) and virus-specific IFN-? responses (ELISPOT) were evaluated all throughout the study. Serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and TGF-? were determined (ELISA) after the second challenge. In experiment 1 primo-inoculation with strain 3262 induced viremia of???28?days, low titres of homologous NA but strong IFN-? responses. In contrast, strain 3267 induced longer viremias (up to 56?days), higher NA titres (? 6 log2) and lower IFN-? responses. Inoculation with 3267 produced higher serum IL-8 levels. After the re-challenge at 84 dpi, pigs in experiment 1 developed mostly a one week viremia regardless of the strain used. In experiment 2, neither the homologous nor the heterologous challenge resulted in detectable viremia although PRRSV was present in tonsils of some animals. Homologous re-inoculation with 3267 produced elevated TGF-? levels in serum for 7–14?days but this did not occur with the heterologous re-inoculation. In conclusion, inoculation with different PRRSV strains result in different virological and immunological outcomes and in different degrees of homologous and heterologous protection. PMID:22515169

  8. Penaeus monodon Thioredoxin Restores the DNA Binding Activity of Oxidized White Spot Syndrome Virus IE1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiun-Yan; Liu, Wang-Jing; Wang, Han-Ching; Lee, Der-Yen; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Wang, Hao-Ching; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Kang, Shih-Ting; Chen, I-Tung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: In this study we identified viral gene targets of the important redox regulator thioredoxin (Trx), and explored in depth how Trx interacts with the immediate early gene #1 (IE1) of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Results: In a pull-down assay, we found that recombinant Trx bound to IE1 under oxidizing conditions, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that Trx bound to WSSV IE1 when the transfected cells were subjected to oxidative stress. A pull-down assay with Trx mutants showed that no IE1 binding occurred when cysteine 62 was replaced by serine. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that the DNA binding activity of WSSV IE1 was downregulated under oxidative conditions, and that Penaeus monodon Trx (PmTrx) restored the DNA binding activity of the inactivated, oxidized WSSV IE1. Another EMSA experiment showed that IE1's Cys-X-X-Cys motif and cysteine residue 55 were necessary for DNA binding. Measurement of the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in WSSV-infected shrimp showed that oxidative stress was significantly increased at 48?h postinfection. The biological significance of Trx was also demonstrated in a double-strand RNA Trx knockdown experiment where suppression of shrimp Trx led to significant decreases in mortality and viral copy numbers. Innovation and Conclusion: WSSV's pathogenicity is enhanced by the virus' use of host Trx to rescue the DNA binding activity of WSSV IE1 under oxidizing conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 914–926. PMID:22332765

  9. Comparison of specimens for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in boar studs.

    PubMed

    Pepin, B J; Kittawornrat, A; Liu, F; Gauger, P C; Harmon, K; Abate, S; Main, R; Garton, C; Hargrove, J; Rademacher, C; Ramirez, A; Zimmerman, J

    2015-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-contaminated semen from boars is a route of transmission to females, and early detection of PRRSV infection in boars is a key component in sow farm biosecurity. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum diagnostic specimen(s) for the detection of acute PRRSV infection in boars. Individually housed boars (n = 15) were trained for semen and oral fluid collection and then vaccinated with a commercial PRRSV modified live virus vaccine. Starting on the day of vaccination and for 14 days thereafter, oral fluid specimens were collected daily from all boars. The 15 boars were subdivided into three groups of 5, and serum, blood swabs and 'frothy saliva' were collected at the time of semen collection on a 3-day rotation. Frothy saliva, derived from the submandibular salivary gland, is produced by aroused boars. Semen was centrifuged, and semen supernatant and cell fractions were tested separately. All samples were randomly ordered and then tested by PRRSV real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (rRT-PCR) and PRRSV antibody ELISA. In this study, a comparison of serum, blood swab, and oral fluid rRT-PCR results found no statistically significant differences in the onset of detection or proportion of positives, but serum was numerically superior to oral fluids for early detection. Serum and oral fluid provided identical rRT-PCR results at ?5 day post-vaccination. Likewise, the onset of detection of PRRSV antibody in serum, oral fluid and frothy saliva was statistically equivalent, with serum results again showing a numerical advantage. These results showed that the highest assurance of providing PRRSV-negative semen to sow farms should be based on rRT-PCR testing of serum collected at the time of semen collection. This approach can be augmented with oral fluid sampling from a random selection of uncollected boars to provide for statistically valid surveillance of the boar stud. PMID:23895185

  10. Epstein-Barr virus and the lacrimal gland pathology of Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pflugfelder, S. C.; Crouse, C. A.; Monroy, D.; Yen, M.; Rowe, M.; Atherton, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    The lacrimal gland (LG) immunopathology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) consists of a proliferation of B and CD4 lymphocytes surrounding epithelial structures (Pepose JS, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:1599-1605). Based on the detection of EBV genomes in a greater percentage of SS than normal LG biopsies, we previously postulated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a risk factor for LG lymphoproliferation in SS (Pflugfelder SC, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:976-984). The purpose of this study was to determine the cellular site(s) of infection, virus type, and antigen expression of EBV infecting normal and SS LGs. EBV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in intraductal epithelia in 13-33% of lobules in 21% of normal LGs and in cells in areas of B lymphoproliferation as well as the majority of epithelia in 86% of SS LGs. EBV genomic sequences were amplified from 36% of normal and 88% of SS LG biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. Only type 1 EBV sequences were amplified in SS LGs; in contrast EBV nuclear antigen 2-deleted but not type 1 sequences were amplified in normal LGs. Immunohistochemistry with EBV-specific monoclonal antibodies was performed on normal and SS LGs. No EBV antigens were detected in normal LGs. In contrast, latent antigens (latent membrane protein, EBV nuclear antigen 2) were detected in lymphocytes in areas of B lymphoproliferation, and early and late lytic cycle antigens were observed in epithelia in SS LGs. These studies suggest that EBV may play a role in the LG B lymphoproliferation and epithelial pathologic changes observed in SS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8391219

  11. A possible strategy to produce pigs resistant to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Biping; Ju, Shiqiang; Wang, Bin; Rui, Rong

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the production of transgenic cloned embryos with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) shRNA expression cassettes. To construct transgenic vector with expression targeting against PRRSV, PRRSV shRNA expression cassettes were inserted into pEGFP-N1 and the ability of resulting recombinant plasmid pEGFP-G1 inhibiting virus replication was examined in Marc-145 cells. Results showed that PRRSV replication could be significantly inhibited by pEGFP-G1 in Marc-145 cells compared with the control. The pEGFP-G1 plasmid was used to deliver a transgene expressing EGFP and the PRRSV shRNA into porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFF). Fluorescent-positive cells were used as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce shRNA-EGFP transgenic cloned embryos. The effects of trichostatin A (TSA) on production of transgenic cloned embryos were investigated. Reconstructed embryos were designed into 4 groups: Donor cells of Group A were treated with 50nM TSA for 24h before SCNT. Reconstructed embryos of Group B were treated with 50nM TSA for 24h after activation. Both donor cells and reconstructed embryos in Group C were treated with TSA and Group D were the control without TSA treatment. The results showed no difference (p>0.05) in cleavage rates among the 4 groups; however, blastocyst developmental rates of Group B and C (30.9% and 42.0%, respectively) were higher than for Group A and D (21.2% and 22.1%, respectively) with Group C highest among groups (p<0.05). Interestingly, EGFP expression intensity of transgenic cloned blastocysts of Group A was the highest. Our results provide promising evidence toward a new approach for production of transgenic cloned pigs with resistance to PRRSV and possibly a wide variety of other porcine diseases. PMID:23732571

  12. Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-A; Kim, Yun-Mi; Hyun, Pung-Mi; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Park, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV) is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-? and IL-12) were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs. PMID:26008237

  13. Pathogenic characteristics of three genotype II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses isolated from China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined differences in pathogenicity in pigs from China that had been experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Methods We compared pathogenic characteristics of a field isolate (GX-1/2008F), two PRRSV isolates (HN-1/2008, YN-1/2008) propagated in cells, and GX-1/2008F that had been propagated in cells (GX-1/2008). The clinical courses, along with humoral and cell-mediated responses, were monitored for 21 days post-infection (DPI). Animals were sacrificed and tissue samples used for gross pathological, histopathological and ultrastructure examination. Results At 2–3 DPI, animals infected with cell-propagated viruses exhibited signs of coughing, anorexia and fever. However their rectal temperature did not exceed 40.5°C. Viremia was detectable as early as 3 DPI in animals infected with HN-1/2008 and YN-1/2008. Animals inoculated with GX-1/2008F displayed clinical signs at 6 DPI; the rectal temperature of two animals in this group exceeded 41.0°C, with viremia first detected at 7 DPI. Seroconversion for all challenged pigs, except those infected with GX-1/2008, was seen as early as 7 DPI. All of these pigs had fully seroconverted by 11 DPI. All animals challenged with GX-1/2008 remained seronegative until the end of the experiment. Innate immunity was inhibited, with levels of IFN-? and IL-1 not significantly different between control and infected animals. The cytokines IFN-? and IL-6 transiently increased during acute infection. All virus strains caused gross lesions including multifocal interstitial pneumonia and hyperplasia of lymph nodes. Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine was also observed. Lesions in the group infected with GX-1/2008F were more serious than in other groups. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that alveolar macrophages, plasmacytes and lymphocytes had fractured cytomembranes, and hepatocytes had disrupted organelles and swollen mitochondria. Conclusions The pathogenicity of the PRRSV field isolate became attenuated when propagated in MARC-145 cells. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic strains prevailing in China was altered compared with classical PRRSV strains. The observed damage to immune cells and modulation of cytokine production could be mechanisms that PRRSV employs to evade host immune responses. PMID:23282224

  14. Studies of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine boca-like virus and torque teno virus indicate the presence of multiple viral infections in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome pigs.

    PubMed

    Blomström, Anne-Lie; Belák, Sándor; Fossum, Caroline; Fuxler, Lisbeth; Wallgren, Per; Berg, Mikael

    2010-09-01

    In a previous study, using random amplification and large-scale sequencing technology, we identified a novel porcine parvovirus belonging to the genus Bocavirus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) in Swedish pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In addition to bocavirus we demonstrated the presence of torque teno virus (TTV) genogroups 1 and 2 in these cases of PMWS, indicating the simultaneous presence of several viruses in this disease complex. In the present study, 34 PMWS-affected animals and 24 pigs without PMWS were screened by PCR for the presence of PCV-2, TTV-1, TTV-2 and porcine boca-like virus (Pbo-likeV). The studies revealed the following infection rates in the PMWS-affected pigs: PCV-2 100%, TTV-1 77%, TTV-2 94% and Pbo-likeV 88%. In comparison, the pigs without PMWS had the following rates: PCV-2 80%, TTV-1 79%, TTV-2 83% and Pbo-likeV 46%. The sequence identity between the different Swedish Pbo-likeV sequences ranged between 98% and 100%. By checking co-infection, it was found that 71% of the PMWS-affected pigs harbor simultaneously all these viruses. As a contrast, in the group without PMWS only 33% of the animals were positive simultaneously for these viruses. These observations indicate a multiple viral infection in PMWS-affected pigs. It has to be studied further if the clinical manifestation of PMWS might be due to synergistic effects of different viruses acting together. PMID:20542066

  15. [Development of human antibodies against the Gn protein of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus].

    PubMed

    Chen, Suhua; Sun, Lina; Liu, Yang; Li, Chuan; Liu, Lin; Liang, Mifang; Qiu, Peihong

    2015-01-01

    To obtain human antibodies against the Gn protein of Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) with phage display technology, this study aimed to screen anti-Gn protein antibodies from an anti-SFTSV Fab human phage display library. Antibody genes were identified by sequence analysis and the specificity of antibodies was confirmed by ELISA. The Fab antibody genes were cloned into the HL51-14 vector and expressed in a mammalian cell expression system. IgG antibodies were then purified by protein A affinity chromatography,and the results were further confirmed by ELISA,IFA,western blotting assays and micro-neutralization tests. The results showed that, after three rounds of panning, there were 390 human Fab antibodies against SFTSV particles, of which 364 were specific for nucleoprotein. Coated with the Gn protein, eight different Fab antibodies specific for Gn protein were obtained after the determination of the subtype and subclass of antibodies by gene sequencing; five of these antibodies were from the Lambda library and three were from the Kappa library. The eight IgG antibodies could specifically bind to Gn protein according to the ELISA, IFA and Western blotting assays. The micro-neutralization test showed that these eight antibodies had no neutralizing activity,but they could still provide a reference for research in human monoclonal antibodies against SFTSV. PMID:25997326

  16. Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in Patients with Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Baocheng; Zhang, Shujun; Geng, Yingzhi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuncheng; Yao, Wenqing; Wen, Ying; Cui, Wei; Zhou, Ying; Gu, Qiuhong; Wang, Wen; Wang, Yu; Shao, Zhen; Wang, Yanli; Li, Chengbo; Wang, Donglei; Zhao, Yitong; Liu, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), which can cause hemorrhagic fever–like illness, is a newly discovered bunyavirus in China. The pathogenesis of SFTSV infection is poorly understood. However, it has been suggested that immune mechanisms, including cytokines and chemokines, play an important role in disease pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated host cytokine and chemokine profiles in serum samples of patients with SFTSV infection from Northeast China and explored a possible correlation between cytokine levels and disease severity. Methods and Principal Findings Acute phase serum samples from 40 patients, diagnosed with SFTSV infection were included. Patients were divided into two groups – severe or non-severe – based on disease severity. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, interleukin-6, interferon (IFN)-?, IFN- ?-induced protein (IP)-10 and RANTES were measured in the serum samples with commercial ELISAs. Statistical analysis showed that increases in TNF-?, IP-10 and IFN-? were associated with disease severity. Conclusions We suggest that a cytokine-mediated inflammatory response, characterized by cytokine and chemokine production imbalance, might be in part responsible for the disease progression of patients with SFTSV infection. PMID:22911786

  17. Person-to-person transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Qun; Hu, Wanfu; Wu, Jiabin; Wang, Yubi; Mei, Ling; Walker, David H; Ren, Jun; Wang, Yu; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2012-02-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a newly discovered bunyavirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV), and causes high fatality (12% on average and as high as 30%). The objective of this study was to determine whether SFTSV could be transmitted from person to person. We analyzed sera of 13 patients from two clusters of unknown infectious diseases that occurred between September and November of 2006 in Anhui Province of China for SFTSV antibody by indirect immunofluorescence assay and for SFTSV RNA by RT-PCR. We found that all patients (n=14) had typical clinical symptoms of SFTS including fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia and all secondary patients in both clusters got sick at 6-13 days after contacting or exposing to blood of index patients. We demonstrated that all patients in cluster 1 including the index patient and nine secondary patients and all three secondary patients in cluster 2 had seroconversion or fourfold increases in antibody titer to SFTSV and/or by RT-PCR amplification of SFTSV RNA from the acute serum. The index patient in cluster 2 was not analyzed because of lack of serum. No person who contacted the index patient during the same period, but were not exposed to the index patient blood, had got illness. We concluded that SFTSV can be transmitted from person to person through contacting patient's blood. PMID:21955213

  18. Identification of genes involved in taura syndrome virus resistance in litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Boube, I; Lotz, J M; Pozhitkov, A E; Li, S; Griffitt, R J

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The goal of the present research was to identify the genes that are differentially expressed between two lineages of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei displaying different susceptibilities to Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and to understand the molecular pathways involved in resistance to the disease. An oligonucleotide microarray was constructed and used to identify several genes that were differentially expressed in the two L. vannamei lineages following infection with TSV. Individual L. vannamei from either resistant or susceptible lineages were exposed via injection to TSV. Individuals were removed at 6 and 24 h postinfection, and gene expression was assessed with the in-house microarray. The microarray data resulted in the selection of a set of 397 genes that were altered by TSV exposure between the different lineages. Significantly differentially expressed genes were subjected to hierarchical clustering and revealed a lineage-dependent clustering at 24 h postinoculation, but not at 6 h postinoculation. Discriminant analysis resulted in the identification of a set of 11 genes that were able to correctly classify Pacific white shrimp as resistant or susceptible based on gene expression data. Received June 21, 2013; accepted October 24, 2013. PMID:25229483

  19. Identification of a novel envelope protein (VP187) gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Zhu, Yanbing; Xie, Xixian; Yang, Feng

    2006-01-01

    A novel protein from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was identified to match an open reading frame (wsv209) of WSSV genome by combining SDS-PAGE with mass spectrometry. This ORF contained 4,818 bp, encoding 1,606 aa. The apparent molecular mass of the protein from WSSV virions on SDS-PAGE gel is 187 kDa, so it was named VP187 and its gene was termed vp187. Temporal transcription analysis revealed that vp187 was a late gene. To characterize VP187, a segment of the vp187 gene (vp187p) was cloned into pET-GST vector and expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Specific antibody was raised using the purified fusion protein (GST-VP187P). Western blot analysis showed that the mouse anti-GST-VP187P serum reacted specifically with VP187 present either in the WSSV virions or in the viral envelopes, and did not react with fractions of the viral nucleocapsids. VP187 was proved to locate in the WSSV virions as an envelope protein using immunoelectron microscopy. PMID:16139383

  20. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Cardiometabolic Syndrome in the Developing World: An African Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mutimura, Eugene; Crowther, Nigel J.; Stewart, Aimee; Cade, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS into a manageable chronic disorder. Clinical care, however, needs to address the metabolic, anthropometric, and cardiovascular changes associated with HIV infection and HAART. Studies in developing countries suggest an increasing incidence of HIV-associated cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), especially in urban settings. Predictions indicate that the greatest increase in the prevalence of diabetes will occur in Africa over the next 2 decades due to lifestyle changes. This, coupled with increased access to HAART, may exponentially increase the prevalence of CMS in developing countries, where HIV infection is prevalent. Appropriate evaluation and intervention programs need to be implemented in the developing world, especially sub-Saharan Africa, to curtail HIV-related CMS. This should include routine cardiovascular risk assessments, management of HIV infection with more “metabolically friendly” HAART, and encouragment of lifestyle modifications, particularly smoking cessation, weight management, regular exercise, and adherence to a healthy diet. PMID:18453811

  1. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  2. The tidepool shrimp, Palaemon ritteri Holmes, constitutes a novel host to the white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Paz, A; Terán-Díaz, B; Enríquez-Espinoza, T; Encinas-Garcia, T; Vázquez-Sánchez, I; Mendoza-Cano, F

    2015-07-01

    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal and contagious pathogen for penaeid shrimp and a growing number of other crustacean species. To date, there are no effective prophylactic or therapeutic treatments commercially available to interfere with the occurrence and spread of the disease. In addition, the significance of alternative vectors on the dispersal of this disease has been largely ignored and therefore the ecological dynamics of the WSSV is still poorly understood and difficult to ascertain. Thus, an important issue that should be considered in sanitary programmes and management strategies is the identification of species susceptible to infection by WSSV. The results obtained provide the first direct evidence of ongoing WSSV replication in experimentally infected specimens of the tidepool shrimp Palaemon ritteri. Viral replication was detected using a validated set of primers for the amplification by RT-PCR of a 141 bp fragment of the transcript encoding the viral protein VP28. It is therefore conceivable that this shrimp may play a significant role in the dispersal of WSSV. PMID:24953350

  3. Preparation of transgenic Dunaliella salina for immunization against white spot syndrome virus in crayfish.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuying; Feng, Wenpo; Zhao, Ling; Gu, Huihui; Li, Qinghua; Shi, Ke; Guo, Sanxing; Zhang, Nannan

    2014-03-01

    Although a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) subunit vaccine could significantly enhance the immune response and benefit the shrimp host, its practical application is currently not feasible because of drawbacks in existing expression systems. We generated a transgenic Dunaliella salina (D. salina) strain by introducing the WSSV VP28 gene to produce a novel oral WSSV subunit vaccine. Following transformation of D. salina, VP28 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and western blot analysis. The RT-PCR results indicated that the VP28 gene was successfully expressed in D. salina cells. The presence of recombinant VP28 proteins with natural bioactivity was confirmed by western blot analysis and ELISA. Animal vaccination experiments indicated that transgenic D. salina can induce protection against WSSV by oral delivery in crayfish. Our findings indicate that the VP28 gene can be successfully expressed in transgenic D. salina and can be applied as an oral vaccine to protect crayfish against WSSV. We have demonstrated that it is feasible to produce an oral vaccine using D. salina, and thereby provide a new method for controlling other viral diseases in crustaceans. PMID:24081826

  4. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

  5. Detection of white spot syndrome virus by polymerase chain reaction performed under insulated isothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yun-Long; Lin, Yu-Chan; Chou, Pin-Hsing; Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu

    2012-04-01

    Aiming to develop a rapid, low-cost, and user-friendly system for the diagnosis of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a PCR assay performed in capillary tubes under insulated isothermal conditions (iiPCR assay) was established on the basis of Rayleigh-Benard convection. WSSV amplicons were generated reproducibly within 30 min from a target sequence-containing plasmid in an iiPCR device, in which a special polycarbonate capillary tube (R-tube™) was heated isothermally by a copper ring attached to its bottom and shielded by a thermal baffle around its upper half. Furthermore, WSSV-specific amplicons were produced from nucleic acid extracts of WSSV-infected Penaeus vannamei in the WSSV iiPCR assay, with sensitivity comparable to that of an OIE-certified commercial nested PCR kit (IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Prevention System). Specificity of the WSSV iiPCR assay was demonstrated as no amplicons were generated from shrimp genomic DNA, and IHHNV, MBV, and HPV DNA. iiPCR has a potential as a low-cost method for sensitive, specific and rapid detection of pathogens. PMID:22326658

  6. Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV. PMID:23116484

  7. Effect of the host cell line on the vaccine efficacy of an attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Calzada-Nova, Gabriela; Husmann, Robert J; Schnitzlein, William M; Zuckermann, Federico A

    2012-07-15

    The abilities of the modified-live Prime Pac (PP) strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), propagated in either traditional simian cells (MARC-145) or in a novel porcine alveolar macrophage cell line (ZMAC), to confer pigs protection against subsequent PRRSV challenge were compared. Eight week-old pigs were injected with PP virus grown in one of the two cell types and then exposed 4 weeks later to the "atypical" PRRSV isolate NADC-20. Control animals were similarly challenged or remained PRRSV-naďve. While the average adjusted body weight (aabw) of the strict control group increased 22% by 10 days post challenge (pc), this value for the non-vaccinated, challenged group dropped 4%. In contrast, prior immunization with PP virus, regardless of its host cell source, ameliorated this effect by affording a >9% rise in aabw. Likewise, nearly equivalent protection was extended to both groups of vaccinates in regards to the temporal elimination of their pc clinical distress and viremia. However, the PP virus propagated in ZMAC cells appeared to be more efficacious since four of the six pigs receiving this biologic cleared the challenge virus from the their lungs by 10 days pc as compared to only one member of the other vaccinated group. Notably, the predominant quasispecies in the ZMAC cell-prepared PP virus stock contained a highly conserved N-glycosylation site at position 184 in its glycoprotein 2 while this entity was underrepresented in the MARC-145 cell grown biologic. Since glycoprotein 2 is involved in infectivity, such additional glycosylation may enhance virus replication in porcine alveolar macrophages. PMID:22648044

  8. Successful vaccination strategies that protect aged mice from lethal challenge from influenza virus and heterologous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Timothy; Whitmore, Alan; Long, Kristin; Ferris, Martin; Rockx, Barry; Funkhouser, William; Donaldson, Eric; Gralinski, Lisa; Collier, Martha; Heise, Mark; Davis, Nancy; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph S

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP(3014)) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP(3000)) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP(3000)-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP(3014)-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP(3000)-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP(3000) vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP(3014) platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future. PMID:20980507

  9. Successful Vaccination Strategies That Protect Aged Mice from Lethal Challenge from Influenza Virus and Heterologous Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ?

    PubMed Central

    Sheahan, Timothy; Whitmore, Alan; Long, Kristin; Ferris, Martin; Rockx, Barry; Funkhouser, William; Donaldson, Eric; Gralinski, Lisa; Collier, Martha; Heise, Mark; Davis, Nancy; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph S.

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP3014) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP3000) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP3000-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP3014-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP3000-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP3000 vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP3014 platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future. PMID:20980507

  10. Purification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from cell culture using ultrafiltration and heparin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianzhong; Ni, Yanyan; Dryman, Barbara A; Meng, X J; Zhang, Chenming

    2010-05-21

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus is the causative agent of the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Density gradient ultracentrifugation remains the most commonly used method for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) purification. However, this technique has notable drawbacks including long processing time and limited processing volume in each run. To overcome these limitations, a scalable process was developed. PRRSV propagated in MARC-145 was released by three freeze/thaw cycles. After a low speed centrifugation step, the virus particles in the supernatant were concentrated twice by an ultrafiltration step. The ultrafiltration step concentrated the virions effectively with no detectable loss while some cultural/cellular proteins were removed. The virions in the ultrafiltration retentate were then applied to a heparin affinity column on a fast performance liquid chromatography unit. The combined ultrafiltration and heparin affinity chromatography process removed more than 96% of cellular and medium proteins. During a stepwise elution strategy, the viral particles were eluted at two separate peaks recovering 27.5% and 25.4% of viral particles loaded onto the column with a purity of 194 and 3917 particles/microg protein, respectively. PMID:20371065

  11. Polarisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex II Host Genotype with Pathogenesis of European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Iacovakis, Christos; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A.; Touloudi, Antonia; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Valiakos, George; Giannoulis, Themis; Stamatis, Costas; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Kantere, Maria; Asferg, Tommy; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Salomonsen, Charlotte M.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Birtsas, Periklis; Petrovska, Liljana; Hannant, Duncan; Billinis, Charalambos

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of European Brown Hare Syndrome virus (EBHSV) in Denmark and possible relation between disease pathogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) host genotype. Liver samples were examined from 170 brown hares (hunted, found sick or dead), collected between 2004 and 2009. Macroscopical and histopathological findings consistent with EBHS were detected in 24 (14.1%) hares; 35 (20.6%) had liver lesions not typical of the syndrome, 50 (29.4%) had lesions in other tissues and 61 (35.9%) had no lesions. Sixty five (38.2%) of 170 samples were found to be EBHSV-positive (RT-PCR, VP60 gene). In order to investigate associations between viral pathogenesis and host genotype, variation within the exon 2 DQA gene of MHC was assessed. DQA exon 2 analysis revealed the occurrence of seven different alleles in Denmark. Consistent with other populations examined so far in Europe, observed heterozygosity of DQA (Ho?=?0.1180) was lower than expected (He?=?0.5835). The overall variation for both nucleotide and amino acid differences (2.9% and 14.9%, respectively) were lower in Denmark than those assessed in other European countries (8.3% and 16.9%, respectively). Within the peptide binding region codons the number of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) was much higher than synonymous substitutions (dS), which would be expected for MHC alleles under balancing selection. Allele frequencies did not significantly differ between EBHSV-positive and -negative hares. However, allele Leeu-DQA*30 was detected in significantly higher (P?=?0.000006) frequency among the positive hares found dead with severe histopathological lesions than among those found sick or apparently healthy. In contrast, the latter group was characterized by a higher frequency of the allele Leeu-DQA*14 as well as the proportion of heterozygous individuals (P?=?0.000006 and P?=?0.027). These data reveal a polarisation between EBHSV pathogenesis and MHC class II genotype within the European brown hare in Denmark. PMID:24069299

  12. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:24780624

  13. Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-02-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:25083808

  14. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Japanese encephalitis virus infection in China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jing-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Huang, Jie; Zhao, Yu-Wu

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is preceded by an infection in about two-thirds of patients. However, the infectious organism is often not identified. GBS secondary to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection has been reported only in India. Herein, we report a case of GBS preceded by JEV infection in China. A 23-year-old male had generalized weakness, numbness in the extremities, and bilateral facial nerve paralysis. One week prior, he had a high fever with headache, and several days later, he developed facial diplegia and sensory disturbances. Physical examination revealed facial diplegia and a weak gag reflex, quadriparesis more pronounced distally, generalized hyporeflexia, and no Babinski sign. JEV IgM and hepatitis B surface antibody (HbsAb) tests were positive. Other tests for hepatitis B infection were negative. Nerve electrophysiology suggested an acute demyelinating sensorimotor polyradiculoneuropathy. His cerebrospinal fluid was clear, the leukocyte count was 5 × 10(6)/L (normal range: 0-5 × 10(6)/L), protein 0.62?g/L (normal range: 0.15-0.45?g/L), and JEV IgM was weakly positive. He was diagnosed with GBS associated with a recent JEV infection. Intravenous (IV) immunoglobulins combined with IV methylprednisone was administered for 5 days, and at the 3-month follow-up, a complete neurological recovery was noted. GBS may be associated with JEV infection. GBS exhibits a good response to intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange and has a good prognosis making prompt diagnosis important. PMID:25140441

  15. Evolutionary Trajectory of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Genome Shrinkage during Spread in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hemerik, Lia; Vlak, Just M.

    2010-01-01

    Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the sole member of the novel Nimaviridae family, and the source of major economic problems in shrimp aquaculture. WSSV appears to have rapidly spread worldwide after the first reported outbreak in the early 1990s. Genomic deletions of various sizes occur at two loci in the WSSV genome, the ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 variable regions, and these have been used as molecular markers to study patterns of viral spread over space and time. We describe the dynamics underlying the process of WSSV genome shrinkage using empirical data and a simple mathematical model. Methodology/Principal Findings We genotyped new WSSV isolates from five Asian countries, and analyzed this information together with published data. Genome size appears to stabilize over time, and deletion size in the ORF23/24 variable region was significantly related to the time of the first WSSV outbreak in a particular country. Parameter estimates derived from fitting a simple mathematical model of genome shrinkage to the data support a geometric progression (k<1) of the genomic deletions, with k?=?0.371±0.150. Conclusions/Significance The data suggest that the rate of genome shrinkage decreases over time before attenuating. Bioassay data provided support for a link between genome size and WSSV fitness in an aquaculture setting. Differences in genomic deletions between geographic WSSV isolates suggest that WSSV spread did not follow a smooth pattern of geographic radiation, suggesting spread of WSSV over long distances by commercial activities. We discuss two hypotheses for genome shrinkage, an adaptive and a neutral one. We argue in favor of the adaptive hypothesis, given that there is support for a link between WSSV genome size and fitness. PMID:20976239

  16. Evaluation of systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare 3 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, low-cost filtration, and ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. The HEPA-filtration system involved a pre-filter screen, a bag filter (EU8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mosquito netting (pre-filter), a fiberglass furnace filter, and an electrostatic furnace filter. For UV irradiation, a lamp emitted UVC radiation at 253.7 nm. No form of intervention was used in the control group. The experimental facilities consisted of 2 chambers connected by a 1.3-m-long duct. Recipient pigs, housed in chamber 2, were exposed to artificial aerosols created by a mechanically operated mister containing modified live PRRSV vaccine located in chamber 1. Aerosol transmission of PRRSV occurred in 9 of the 10 control replicates, 8 of the 10 UVC-irradiation replicates, 4 of the 10 low-cost-filtration replicates, and 0 of the 10 HEPA-filtration replicates. When compared with no intervention, HEPA filtration and low-cost filtration significantly reduced PRRSV transmission (P < 0.0005 and = 0.0286, respectively), whereas UV irradiation had no effect (P = 0.5). However, low-cost filtration and UV irradiation were significantly less effective (P = 0.043 and P < 0.0005, respectively) than HEPA filtration. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, HEPA filtration was significantly more effective at reducing aerosol transmission of PRRSV than the other methods evaluated. PMID:16548329

  17. Expression, purification and crystallization of two major envelope proteins from white spot syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuhua; Hew, Choy Leong

    2007-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-­terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1?M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0?M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2?M calcium acetate, 0.1?M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2?Ĺ resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31?Ĺ. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37?Ĺ, and diffracts to 2.0?Ĺ resolution. PMID:17620728

  18. Pattern of infection with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on swine farms in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Houben, S; van Reeth, K; Pensaert, M B

    1995-06-01

    On four closed breeding-fattening farms, 17 sows and their litters were examined for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibodies in the blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On each farm, the pigs were born within the same week and remained together for 12 weeks. The pigs were followed serologically to determine the antibody profile with the purpose of establishing the infection pattern of PRRSV. A total of 13 sows had antibodies and a positive correlation existed between their titre and the maternal antibody titre of their litters at 2 weeks of age. The maternal antibodies were detectable until 4-10 weeks of age. On two farms, no infection occurred during the time of the experiment as no seroconversion was observed in the eight litters. On the two other farms, infection was observed in eight of the nine litters between 4 and 12 weeks of age while one litter became infected during the fattening period. In some litters, a few pigs seroconverted between 6 and 8 weeks, others between 8 and 10 weeks and still others between 10 and 12 weeks. This observation indicated a rather slow spreading pattern of PRRSV. At the time of entry on four commercial fattening farms, which is 10-11 weeks of age, 15%, 50%, 75% and 60%, respectively, of the pigs had antibodies to PRRSV. Based on the rate of decline of maternal antibodies as determined by the studies on the closed breeding-fattening farms, it was indicated that these positive pigs had already been infected on the farm of origin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8546019

  19. Characterization of a small round virus associated with the poult enteritis and mortality syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yu, M; Tang, Y; Guo, M; Zhang, Q; Saif, Y M

    2000-01-01

    A small round virus (SRV) identified and isolated in our laboratory from intestinal samples of poults affected with the poult enteritis and mortality syndrome was further characterized. The SRV was propagated in turkey embryos and purified by differential and isopycnic ultracentrifugation. The size of the SRV was 30-32 nm in diameter. The buoyant density of the SRV in cesium chloride was between 1.34 and 1.36 g/cm3. It was resistant to chloroform treatment, stable at pH 3.0, and resistant to heat treatment. Attempts to propagate the SRV in turkey embryo kidney, turkey kidney, Caco-2, Vero, and BGM-70 cells were unsuccessful. Analysis of the SRV capsid proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed three polypeptides with molecular weights of 34.5, 31, and 28 kD. Genome analysis of the SRV showed that the SRV had a single-strand RNA genome about 7500 nucleotides in length. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) with primers specific to conserved sequences of enteroviruses yielded products with expected sizes. However, sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products showed that there was no similarity between the sequences and that of enteroviruses. RT-PCR with primers specific to the 3' end of a SRV RNA genome yielded products with expected sizes. These products were sequenced and found to contain 669 nucleotides, excluding the polyadenylated tail. Sequence analysis indicated that the SRV shared 38.18% amino acid identity in the C-terminal capsid precursor protein and 41.26% nucleotide identity of the 3' end of turkey astrovirus RNA genome (Genbank accession no. Y15936). We concluded that the SRV is a member of the astrovirus family. PMID:11007007

  20. A rare case of orbital apex syndrome with herpes zoster ophthalmicus in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rohit; Phuljhele, Swati; Aalok, Lalit; Sinha, Ankur; Menon, Vimla; Sharma, Pradeep; Mohan, Anant

    2010-01-01

    We report a rare instance of favorable outcome in orbital apex syndrome secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient. The patient complained of pain and decrease in vision in one eye (20/640) for 2 weeks accompanied with swelling, inability to open eye, and rashes around the periocular area and forehead. The presence of complete ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, relative afferent pupillary defect, and anterior uveitis with decreased corneal sensation prompted a diagnosis of HZO with orbital apex syndrome. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test and a low CD4 count confirmed HIV. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), systemic acyclovir, and systemic steroids were started. Visual acuity and uveitis improved within 10 days. By the end of the fourth week, ocular motility also recovered and the final visual acuity was 20/25. We highlight the role of HAART, used in conjunction with systemic steroid and acyclovir therapy, in improving the outcome. PMID:20952840

  1. Functional analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus N-glycans in infection of permissive cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    The role of envelope protein-linked N-glycans in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection of permissive cells was examined. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) oligomer-specific lectins bound to PRRSV and blocked virus attachment, resulting in reduced viral infection. However, addition of GlcNAc oligomers and LacNAc to cell culture together with PRRSV did not block infection. Removal or alteration of envelope protein-linked N-glycans also did not affect virus infection, indicating that PRRSV N-glycans are not required for virus infection. These findings show that steric hindrance of glycans on the PRRSV envelope by lectins or, presumably, other space-filling molecules, may interfere nonspecifically with infection by blocking protein interactions with cell surface receptors. Glycans themselves appear not to be required for infection of permissive cells, but may have important roles in avoidance of host immunity and in protein structure, intracellular virion growth and assembly. PMID:25662311

  2. Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Allan; F. McNeilly; J. Ellis; S. Krakowka; B. Meehan; I. McNair; I. Walker; S. Kennedy

    2000-01-01

    Summary.  ?Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs with a combined inoculum of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine\\u000a reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiated the replication and distribution of PCV2 virus, when compared\\u000a with pigs inoculated with PCV2 alone. The replication and distribution of PRRSV in dually infected pigs was not enhanced,\\u000a when compared to pigs inoculated with PRRSV alone.

  3. Detection of RNA Sequences in Cultures of a Stealth Virus Isolated from the Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Health Care Worker with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Martin

    1997-01-01

    A cytopathic stealth virus was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid of a nurse with chronic fatigue syndrome. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on the patient’s culture yielded positive results with primer sets based on sequences of a previously isolated African green monkey simian-cytomegalovirus-derived stealth virus. The same primer sets did not yield PCR products when tested directly on DNA

  4. The major envelope protein, GP(5), of a European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus contains a neutralization epitope in its N-terminal ectodomain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. J. Wissink; Wijk van H. A. R; M. V. Kroese; E. Weiland; J. J. M. Meulenberg; P. J. M. Rottier; Rijn van P. A

    2003-01-01

    A set of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the GP5 protein of European type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been produced previously (Weiland et al., 1999). This set reacted with a plaque-purified virus (PPV) subpopulation of Dutch isolate Intervet-10 (I-10), but not with the European prototype PRRSV LV. In order to map the neutralization epitope in

  5. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus is not associated with chronic fatigue syndrome in patients from different areas of the us in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was reported in 67% of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to 4% of controls. Since then numerous reports failed to detect XMRV in other cohorts of CFS patients, and some studies suggested that XMRV sequences in human samples might be due to contamination of these samples with mouse DNA. Results We determined the prevalence of XMRV in patients with CFS from similar areas in the United States as the original 2009 study, along with patients with chronic inflammatory disorders and healthy persons. Using quantitative PCR, we initially detected very low level signals for XMRV DNA in 15% of patients with CFS; however, the frequency of PCR positivity was no different between patients with CFS and controls. Repeated attempts to isolate PCR products from these reactions were unsuccessful. These findings were supported by our observations that PHA and IL-2 stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with apparently low levels of XMRV, which induced virus replication in the 2009 report, resulted in the disappearance of the signal for XMRV DNA in the cells. Immunoprecipitation of XMRV-infected cell lysates using serum from patients from whom we initially detected low levels of XMRV DNA followed by immunoblotting with antibodies to XMRV gp70 protein failed to detect antibody in the patients, although one control had a weak level of reactivity. Diverse murine leukemia virus (MLV) sequences were obtained by nested PCR with a similar frequency in CFS patients and controls. Finally, we did not detect XMRV sequences in patients with several chronic inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, Bechet's disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Conclusions We found no definitive evidence for XMRV DNA sequences or antibody in our cohort of CFS patients, which like the original 2009 study, included patients from diverse regions of the United States. In addition, XMRV was not detected in a cohort of patients with chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:21943244

  6. Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Syndrome After Nonadherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Patient With Chronic HIV Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong K.; Graber, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) syndrome in a patient with chronic HIV infection with acute illness indistinguishable from acute retroviral syndrome. The patient presented with an acute febrile mononucleosis-like illness after increasing nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy. A marked increase in HIV RNA level of 1 220 000 copies/mL from less than 20 copies/mL occurred within 3 weeks. The diagnosis of acute HIV syndrome was made after alternative causes of illness were ruled out. PMID:25734180

  7. The nucleoprotein of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus processes a stable hexameric ring to facilitate RNA encapsidation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Honggang; Sun, Yuna; Wang, Ying; Liu, Min; Liu, Chao; Wang, Wenming; Liu, Xiang; Li, Le; Deng, Fei; Wang, Hualin; Guo, Yu; Lou, Zhiyong

    2013-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a member of the Phlebovirus genus from the Bunyaviridae family endemic to China, is the causative agent of life-threatening severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), which features high fever and hemorrhage. Similar to other negative-sense RNA viruses, SFTSV encodes a nucleocapsid protein (NP) that is essential for viral replication. NP facilitates viral RNA encapsidation and is responsible for the formation of ribonucleoprotein complex. However, recent studies have indicated that NP from Phlebovirus members behaves in inhomogeneous oligomerization states. In the present study, we report the crystal structure of SFTSV NP at 2.8 Ĺ resolution and demonstrate the mechanism by which it processes a ringshaped hexameric form to accomplish RNA encapsidation. Key residues essential for oligomerization are identified through mutational analysis and identified to have a significant impact on RNA binding, which suggests that correct formation of highly ordered oligomers is a critical step in RNA encapsidation. The findings of this work provide new insights into the discovery of new antiviral reagents for Phlebovirus infection. PMID:23702688

  8. A pilot metabolic profiling study in hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei with white spot syndrome virus based on ąH NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng-fei; Liu, Qing-hui; Wu, Yin; Jie, Huang

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus, which was a pathogen first found in 1992, had emerged globally affecting shrimp populations in aquaculture. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the metabolic changes of hepatopancreas from Litopenaeus vannamei which were infected with white spot syndrome virus by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Through the NOESYPR1D spectrum combined with multi-variate pattern recognition analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models, significantly metabolic changes were observed in WSSV-infected groups compared with the control groups. In the first 48 h, ?-glucose and ?-glucose were higher in the WSSV-infected group. Meanwhile, acetate, lactate, N-acetyl glycoprotein signals, lysine, tyrosine and lipid were significantly decreased in the WSSV-infected group. These results suggest that WSSV caused absorption inhibition of amino acids and disturbed protein metabolism as well as cell metabolism in favor of its replication. Our findings could also contribute to further understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:25450952

  9. Targeting Membrane-Bound Viral RNA Synthesis Reveals Potent Inhibition of Diverse Coronaviruses Including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Tomas; Kann, Nina; Adamiak, Beata; Hannoun, Charles; Kindler, Eveline; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Muth, Doreen; Kint, Joeri; Forlenza, Maria; Müller, Marcel A.; Drosten, Christian; Thiel, Volker; Trybala, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS–CoV), and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections. PMID:24874215

  10. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  11. Detection and differentiation by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus- and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retroviruslike clinical isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, J R; Pedersen, N C; Carlson, J R

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies can be used in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure viral antigens. Such an assay was developed to detect the core protein, p24, of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus, etiologic agents of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Another AIDS-associated virus, AIDS-associated retrovirus type 2 (ARV-2) could not be detected in this assay because of the low affinity of one of the monoclonal antibodies to ARV-2 p24. Detection of ARV-2 was accomplished with a monoclonal antibody-rabbit polyclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These two assays were used to efficiently detect AIDS-related viruses in lymphocyte cell cultures and to distinguish strains of the viruses. Images PMID:2428827

  12. Detection of viruses in Penaeus monodon from India showing signs of slow growth syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praveen Rai; Balakrishnan Pradeep; Iddya Karunasagar; Indrani Karunasagar

    2009-01-01

    The presence of viruses implicated in slow growth of Penaeus monodon, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and Laem–Singh virus (LSNV) was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 72 P. monodon samples, which showed slow growth rate. The prevalence of IHHNV was highest 18\\/72 (25%) followed by HPV 5\\/72 (6.9%), LSNV 3\\/72

  13. Revisión de patogénesis y estrategias moleculares contra el virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca en camarones peneidos A review of pathogenesis and molecular strategies against white spot syndrome virus of penaeid shrimp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin I. Bustillo-Ruiz; César M. Escobedo-Bonilla; Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo

    2009-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality to farmed shrimp and serious economic losses. Its unique sequence and genome structure has placed WSSV in its own new family Nimaviridae. Recently, high performance molecular techniques have made it possible to identify and characterize several WSSV structural proteins. These include 'shotgun' sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ).

  14. Genomic Sequencing Reveals Mutations Potentially Related to the Overattenuation of a Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiuling; Chen, Nanhua; Deng, Xiaoyu; Cao, Zhen; Han, Wei; Hu, Dongmei; Wu, Jiajun; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Baoyue; Gu, Xiaoxue

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) continues to evolve when serially passaged in Marc-145 cells. In this study, we analyzed the genomic and antigenic variants of HP-PRRSV strain JXA1 during in vitro passage. Protective efficacies of JXA1 from passages 100, 110, 120, 140, and 170 against the high-virulence parental virus were evaluated by inoculating pigs with each of these viruses and then challenging with JXA1 from passage 5 at 28 days postimmunization. We found that the antigenicities of JXA1 from passages after 110 were significantly reduced. Inoculation with JXA1 from passages after 110 provided only insufficient protection against the parental strain challenge, indicating that the immunogenicity of JXA1 is significantly decreased when it is in vitro passaged for 110 times and more. To identify the genomic variants that emerged during the overattenuation, eight complete genomes of highly passaged JXA1 were sequenced. One guanine deletion in the 5? untranslated region (UTR), two nucleotide substitutions in the 3? UTR, and 65 amino acid mutations in nonstructural and structural proteins that accompanied with the attenuation and overattenuation were determined. Genomic sequencing of in vitro serially passaged HP-PRRSV first identified the mutations potentially correlated with the overattenuation of a HP-PRRSV strain. These results facilitate the research aimed at elucidating the mechanisms for PRRSV genomic and antigenic changes and may also contribute to developing a safe and effective PRRSV vaccine. PMID:23408525

  15. Development of a non-radioactive gene probe by PCR for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Nunan, L M; Lightner, D V

    1997-01-01

    Combining primers created from the sequence information of two baculo-like viruses of penaeid shrimp, Baculovirus penaei (BP) and Monodon baculovirus (MBV), produced a 750 bp band on a 0.8% agarose gel using White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), from Penaeus monodon, as the DNA template. The PCR fragment was ligated to a plasmid vector, (pGEM-T) and transformed, creating a 3.7 Kbp clone. The DNA insert was sequenced, and the original primer pair was located. Using restriction enzymes, the insert was isolated, excised and non-radioactively labeled. This cloned labeled fragment was tested by in situ hybridization for specificity and reactivity with BP, MBV and WSSV-infected shrimp tissues. The major advantage of this novel method of gene probe development is that no DNA sequence information of the targeted infectious agent needed to be known or available. In addition, tedious viral isolation and purification was circumvented. In this study, knowledge of the possible viral strain was important in limiting the PCR primer pairs investigated. The use of arbitrary primers designed for PCR assays from two other possibly related shrimp viruses, increased the likelihood that a generated PCR product would be specific for WSSV. PMID:9015290

  16. Genetic parameters and accuracy of selection for resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei using different statistical models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gitterle; Jřrgen Řdegĺrd; Bjarne Gjerde; Morten Rye; Ragnar Salte

    2006-01-01

    Genetic parameters for resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in the shrimp species Penaeus vannamei were estimated by using five different statistical models to analyze challenge test data. Data were recorded on the offspring of 338 full-sib families experimentally infected with WSSV, corresponding to four consecutive generations. Both the linear model (LBM) and the threshold model (TBM) defined disease

  17. Identification of nonessential regions of the nsp2 replicase protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain VR-2332 for replication in cell culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a multi-domain protein and has been shown to undergo remarkable genetic variation, primarily in its middle region, while exhibiting high conservation in the N-terminal putative protease domain and th...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Pathogenic Genotype 1 Subtype 3 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Strain SU1-Bel) from Pig Primary Tissue.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zen H; Wilson, Alison D; Wang, Xinglong; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Stadejek, Tomasz; Archibald, Alan L; Ait-Ali, Tahar

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome of the pathogenic eastern European subtype 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain SU1-Bel, sequenced directly from a pig lymph node. While sharing substantial sequence similarity with other subtype 3 strains, SU1-Bel is found to harbor unique indels and contain putative novel subgenomic RNAs. PMID:25999564

  19. Analysis of the swine tracheobronchial lymphnode transcriptomic response to infection with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative investigation into the host transcriptome response in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 14...

  20. RECOMBINANT SWINE INTERFERON BETA PROTECTS SWINE ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES AND MARC 145 CELLS FROM INFECTION WITH PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine interferon beta (swIFN beta) produced in 293 cells infected with a recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) encoding the swIFN beta gene was tested for antiviral activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Marc145 cells were incubated overni...

  1. Adenovirus-Mediated Expression of Interferon-Alpha Delays Viral Replication and Reduces Disease Signs in Swine Challenged with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, pigs were injected with a nonreplicating human adenovirus type 5 vector expressing porcine interferon-alpha (Ad5-pIFNa) and then challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to determine whether the presence of increased levels of IFNa would decrease vir...

  2. Oral administration of antiviral plant extract of Cynodon dactylon on a large scale production against White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Penaeus monodon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Balasubramanian; M. Sarathi; C. Venkatesan; John Thomas; A. S. Sahul Hameed

    2008-01-01

    White spot disease (WSD) has been reported to cause severe mortality in farmed shrimp especially black tiger shrimp in many countries. WSSV is responsible for huge economic loss in the shrimp culture industry worldwide. The present study was carried out to examine the antiviral activity of a large scale produced plant extract of Cynodon dactylon on white spot syndrome virus

  3. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replicase - Isoforms of Nonstructural Protein 2 and Interaction with Heat Shock 70kDa Protein 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nsp2 replicase protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), when expressed independently, was recently demonstrated to be processed from its precursor by the PL2 protease at or near the G**1196|G**1197 dipeptide in transfected CHO cells. The proteolytic cleavage of nsp...

  4. Validation of a major quantitative trait locus associated with host response to experimental infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious diseases are costly to the swine industry and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most devastating. In earlier work, a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV was identified on Sus scrofa chromosome 4 (SSC4) using ~560 exp...

  5. Effect of maternal CD4 + cell count, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and viral load on disease progression in infants with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Genevieve Lambert; Donald M. Thea; Vadim Pliner; Richard W. Steketee; Elaine J. Abrams; Pamela Matheson; Pauline A. Thomas; Barbara Greenberg; Teresa M. Brown; Marukh Bamji; Marcia L. Kalish

    1997-01-01

    Among a cohort of 152 infants perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and their mothers, we correlated infant outcome with maternal CD4 + lymphocyte count and the presence of maternal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome near delivery. In a subset of 50 mother-infant pairs, we also correlated infant outcome with maternal quantitative viral burden as measured by the nucleic acid

  6. Development of a genome copy specific RT qPCR assay for divergent strains of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) became a significant pathogen of swine upon its emergence in the late 1980’s and since then has exemplified a rapidly evolving, constantly reemerging pathogen. In addition to the challenges faced in development of vaccines and diagnostics, ...

  7. Effects of endosulfan exposure and Taura Syndrome virus infection on the survival and molting of the marine penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laxminath Tumburu; Eleanor F. Shepard; Allan E. Strand; Craig L. Browdy

    Molting in crustaceans is an important endocrine-controlled biological process that plays a critical role in growth and reproduction. Many factors can affect this physiological cycle in crustaceans including environmental stressors and disease agents. For example the pathology of Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) of shrimp is closely related to molting cycle. Similarly, endosulfan, a commonly used pesticide is a potential endocrine

  8. Detection of monodon baculovirus and white spot syndrome virus in apparently healthy Penaeus monodon postlarvae from India by polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Otta; Indrani Karunasagar; Iddya Karunasagar

    2003-01-01

    The simultaneous presence of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in apparently healthy postlarvae of Penaeus monodon from different hatcheries in India was studied by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MBV could be detected in 54% of the samples. However, only 15% of samples were positive by non-nested reaction. WSSV could be detected in 75% of samples,

  9. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) subverts normal development of adaptive immunity by proliferation of germline-encoded B cells with hydrophobic HCDR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolator piglets infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) develop severe hypergammaglobulinemia, lymph node adenopathy and autoimmune disease. The expanded B cell clones in this disease are unusual in bearing hydrophobic HCDR3 regions and these are disseminated to mo...

  10. A novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vector system that stably expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein as a separate transcription unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the rescue of a recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene as a separate transcription unit. A copy of the transcription regulatory sequence for ORF6 (TRS6) was inserted between the N protein and 3?-UTR to drive the transcription of the EGFP gene and yield a general purpose expression vector. Successful recovery of PRRSV was obtained using an RNA polymerase II promoter to drive transcription of the full-length virus genome, which was assembled in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The recombinant virus showed growth replication characteristics similar to those of the wild-type virus in the infected cells. In addition, the recombinant virus stably expressed EGFP for at least 10 passages. EGFP expression was detected at approximately 10 h post infection by live-cell imaging to follow the virus spread in real time and the infection of neighbouring cells occurred predominantly through cell-to-cell-contact. Finally, the recombinant virus generated was found to be an excellent tool for neutralising antibodies and antiviral compound screening. The newly established reverse genetics system for PRRSV could be a useful tool not only to monitor virus spread and screen for neutralising antibodies and antiviral compounds, but also for fundamental research on the biology of the virus. PMID:24176053

  11. Avian influenza virus, Streptococcus suis serotype 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and beyond: molecular epidemiology, ecology and the situation in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Di; Gao, George F.

    2009-01-01

    The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and the subsequent identification of its animal origin study have heightened the world's awareness of animal-borne or zoonotic pathogens. In addition to SARS, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, and the lower pathogenicity H9N2 AIV have expanded their host ranges to infect human beings and other mammalian species as well as birds. Even the ‘well-known’ reservoir animals for influenza virus, migratory birds, became victims of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Not only the viruses, but bacteria can also expand their host range: a new disease, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, caused by human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection, has been observed in China with 52 human fatalities in two separate outbreaks (1998 and 2005, respectively). Additionally, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection has increased worldwide with severe disease. Several outbreaks and sporadic isolations of this pathogen in China have made it an important target for disease control. A new highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been isolated in both China and Vietnam recently; although PRRSV is not a zoonotic human pathogen, its severe outbreaks have implications for food safety. All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China. PMID:19687041

  12. An entero?like virus associated with the runting syndrome in broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. McNulty; G. M. Allan; T. J. Connor; J. B. McFerran; R. M. McCracken

    1984-01-01

    A small round unenveloped virus, 31 nm in diameter, and with no obvious surface structure, was identified during the first week of life in the gut contents of broiler chickens which later developed runting. This virus grew in the cytoplasm of the villous epithelial cells of the small intestine, with a predilection for the mid small intestine. Broilers orally infected

  13. The Evolutionary History and Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukocytopenia Syndrome Virus (FTLSV) in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weili; Wang, Haifeng; Su, Jia; Tang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2007, a novel bunyavirus was found in Henan Province, China and named fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia syndrome virus (FTLSV); since then, FTLSV has been found in ticks and animals in many Chinese provinces. Human-to-human transmission has been documented, indicating that FTLSV should be considered a potential public health threat. Determining the historical spread of FTLSV could help curtail its spread and prevent future movement of this virus. Method/Principal Findings To examine the pattern of FTLSV evolution and the origin of outbreak strains, as well to examine the rate of evolution, the genome of 12 FTLSV strains were sequenced and a phylogenetic and Bayesian phylogeographic analysis of all available FTLSV sequences in China were performed. Analysis based on the FTLSV L segment suggests that the virus likely originated somewhere in Huaiyangshan circa 1790 (95% highest probability density interval: 1756–1817) and began spreading around 1806 (95% highest probability density interval: 1773–1834). Analysis also indicates that when FTLSV arrived in Jiangsu province from Huaiyangshan, Jiangsu Province became another source for the spread of the disease. Bayesian factor test analysis identified three major transmission routes: Huaiyangshan to Jiangsu, Jiangsu to Liaoning, and Jiangsu to Shandong. The speed of FTLSV movement has increased in recent decades, likely facilitated by modern human activity and ecosystem changes. In addition, evidence of RNA segment reassortment was found in FTLSV; purifying selection appears to have been the dominant force in the evolution of this virus. Conclusion Results presented in the manuscript suggest that the Huaiyangshan area is likely be the origin of FTLSV in China and identified probable viral migration routes. These results provide new insights into the origin and spread of FTLSV in China, and provide a foundation for future virological surveillance and control. PMID:25329580

  14. Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size?=?520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24204661

  15. A newly identified protein complex that mediates white spot syndrome virus infection via chitin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Yu; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Chen, Li-Li

    2014-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped virus which has caused severe mortality and huge economic losses in the shrimp farming industry. The enveloped virus must be combined with the receptors of the host cell membrane by the virus envelope proteins. In the case of WSSV, binding of envelope proteins with receptors of the host cell membrane was discovered in a number of previous studies, such as VP53A and 10 other proteins with chitin-binding protein (CBP), VP28 with Penaeus monodon Rab7, VP187 with ?-integrin, and so on. WSSV envelope proteins were also considered capable of forming a protein complex dubbed an 'infectome'. In this study, the research was focused on the role of CBP in the WSSV infection process, and the relationship between CBP and the envelope proteins VP24, VP28, VP31, VP32 VP39B, VP53A and VP56. The results of the reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that CBP existed in a variety of shrimp. The speed of WSSV infection could be slowed down by inhibiting CBP gene expression. Far-Western blot analysis and His pull-down assays were conducted, and a protein complex was found that appeared to be composed of a 'linker' protein consisting of VP31, VP32 and VP39B together with four envelope proteins, including VP24, VP28, VP53A and VP56. This protein complex was possibly another part of the infectome and the possible binding region with CBP. The findings of this study may have identified certain points for further WSSV research. PMID:24836670

  16. Synergistic effects of sequential infection with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. Coinfection with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PCV2 in the field has recently become extensive in some Asian countries. A synergistic pathogenicity between PRRSV and PCV2 infections has previously been reported. However, the consequences of the sequential infection of pigs with these two viruses are unknown. Methods Thirty 35-day-old piglets were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5 each): HP-PRRSV/PCV2 (group 1, inoculated with HP-PRRSV, then inoculated with PCV2 one week later), PCV2/HP-PRRSV (group 2, inoculated with PCV2, then inoculated with HP-PRRSV one week later), HP-PRRSV+PCV2 (group 3, inoculated with HP-PRRSV and PCV2 concurrently), HP-PRRSV (group 4, inoculated with HP-PRRSV), PCV2 (group 5, inoculated with PCV2), and the control (group 6, uninfected). This experiment lasted 28 days. Clinical symptoms and rectal temperatures were recorded each day after inoculation, body weight was recorded weekly, and serum samples were obtained for viral nucleic acid quantification and antibody titration. Variations in CD3+, CD4+ CD8–, CD3+, CD4–, and CD8+ cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and mononuclear cells were determined by flow cytometry. The serum concentrations of interferon ? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and macrophage granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were determined. Pathological changes in different tissues from the experimentally infected pigs were recorded. Results The piglets in group 1 had the highest viral loads, the lowest antibody titers, the most-severe clinical signs, and the highest mortality (3/5, 60%; the mortality in the other groups was 0%), and interstitial pneumonia was more severe in this group compare to the other HP-PRRSV infected groups. The serum levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, and GM-CSF varied (increased or decreased) most widely in group 1, as did each immunocyte subgroup. Conclusions HP-PRRSV infection followed by PCV2 infection enhanced the replication of both viruses in the experimental piglets and led to more-severe clinical signs and lesions, indicating greater synergistic effects during the sequential infection of piglets with HP-PRRSV and then PCV2. PMID:23971711

  17. Virus-Specific Memory CD8 T Cells Provide Substantial Protection from Lethal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Fett, Craig; Zhao, Jincun; Meyerholz, David K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused an acute human respiratory illness with high morbidity and mortality in 2002-2003. Several studies have demonstrated the role of neutralizing antibodies induced by the spike (S) glycoprotein in protecting susceptible hosts from lethal infection. However, the anti-SARS-CoV antibody response is short-lived in patients who have recovered from SARS, making it critical to develop additional vaccine strategies. SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells persisted for up to 6 years after SARS-CoV infection, a time at which memory B cells and antivirus antibodies were undetectable in individuals who had recovered from SARS. In this study, we assessed the ability of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells to mediate protection against infection in the absence of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD4 T or B cells. We demonstrate that memory CD8 T cells specific for a single immunodominant epitope (S436 or S525) substantially protected 8- to 10-month-old mice from lethal SARS-CoV infection. Intravenous immunization with peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) followed by intranasal boosting with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding S436 or S525 resulted in accumulation of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), lungs, and spleen. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of SARS-CoV, virus-specific memory CD8 T cells efficiently produced multiple effector cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-?], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], and interleukin 2 [IL-2]) and cytolytic molecules (granzyme B) and reduced lung viral loads. Overall, our results show that SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells protect susceptible hosts from lethal SARS-CoV infection, but they also suggest that SARS-CoV-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses are necessary for complete protection. IMPORTANCE Virus-specific CD8 T cells are required for pathogen clearance following primary SARS-CoV infection. However, the role of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells in mediating protection after SARS-CoV challenge has not been previously investigated. In this study, using a prime-boost immunization approach, we showed that virus-specific CD8 T cells protect susceptible 8- to 10-month-old mice from lethal SARS-CoV challenge. Thus, future vaccines against emerging coronaviruses should emphasize the generation of a memory CD8 T cell response for optimal protection. PMID:25056892

  18. A major QTL associated with host response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes severely decreased reproductive performance in breeding animals and increased respiratory problems and morbidity in growing animals, ultimately resulting in great economic losses in the swine industry. Vaccination has not generally been eff...

  19. Cytokine profiles and phenotype regulation of antigen presenting cells by genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the immunological response of antigen presenting cells (APC) to genotype-I isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection by analysing the cytokine profile induced and evaluating the changes taking place upon infection on immunologically relevant cell markers (MHCI, MHCII, CD80/86, CD14, CD16, CD163, CD172a, SWC9). Several types of APC were infected with 39 PRRSV isolates. The results show that different isolates were able to induce different patterns of IL-10 and TNF-?. The four possible phenotypes based on the ability to induce IL-10 and/or TNF-? were observed, although different cell types seemed to have different capabilities. In addition, isolates inducing different cytokine-release profiles on APC could induce different expression of cell markers. PMID:21314968

  20. Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xie, Xixian; Yang, Feng

    2005-09-15

    Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity. PMID:16023692

  1. Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31

    SciTech Connect

    Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Xie Xixian [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Yang Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-09-15

    Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity.

  2. In Vitro Virucidal and Virustatic Properties of the Crude Extract of Cynodon dactylon against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Khonghiran, Oapkun; Kunanoppadol, Suchaya; Potha, Teerapong; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro virustatic and virucidal tests of the crude extract of Cynodon dactylon against infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a cause of major devastating pig disease, were described. Crude extract of C. dactylon was prepared for cytotoxicity on tissue-culture cells that were used to measure virustatic and virucidal activities against PRRSV. Crude extract of C. dactylon at 0.78?mg/mL showed no cytotoxicity on the cell line, and at that concentration significantly inhibited replication of PRRSV as early as 24 hours post infection (hpi). C. dactylon also inactivated PRRSV as determined by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) compared to the control experiments. In summary, the present study may be among the earliest studies to describe virustatic and virucidal activities of C. dactylon crude extract against PRRSV in vitro. Extracts of C. dactylon may be useful for PRRSV control and prevention on pig farms. PMID:24744959

  3. Identification of the interaction domains of white spot syndrome virus envelope proteins VP28 and VP24.

    PubMed

    Li, Zaipeng; Chen, Weiyu; Xu, Limei; Li, Fang; Yang, Feng

    2015-03-16

    VP28 and VP24 are two major envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The direct interaction between VP28 and VP24 has been described in previous studies. In this study, we confirmed this interaction and mapped the interaction domains of VP28 and VP24 by constructing a series of deletion mutants. By co-immunoprecipitation, two VP28-binding domains of VP24 were located at amino acid residues 46-61 and 148-160, while VP24-binding domain of VP28 was located at amino acid residues 31-45. These binding domains were further corroborated by peptide blocking assay, in which synthetic peptides spanning the binding domains were able to inhibit VP28-VP24 interaction, whereas same-size control peptides from non-binging regions did not. PMID:25637460

  4. Construction and immunogenicity of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing GP5 and M protein of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Reginaldo G; Dellagostin, Odir A; Barletta, Raúl G; Doster, Allan R; Nelson, Eric; Osorio, Fernando A

    2002-11-22

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG was used to express a truncated form of GP5 (lacking the first 30 NH(2)-terminal residues) and M protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The PRRSV proteins were expressed in BCG under control of the mycobacterial hsp60 gene promoter either in the mycobacterial cytoplasm (BCGGP5cyt and BCGMcyt) or as MT19-fusion proteins on the mycobacterial surface (BCGGP5surf and BCGMsurf). Mice inoculated with BCGGP5surf and BCGMsurf developed antibodies against the viral proteins at 30 days post-inoculation (dpi) as detected by ELISA and Western blot. By 60 dpi, the animals developed titer of neutralizing antibodies of 8. A PRRSV-specific gamma interferon response was also detected in splenocytes of recombinant BCG-inoculated mice at 60 and 90 dpi. These results indicate that BCG was able to express antigens of PRRSV and elicit an immune response against the viral proteins in mice. PMID:12443659

  5. Comparison of protein expression profiles of the hepatopancreas in Fenneropenaeus chinensis challenged with heat-inactivated Vibrio anguillarum and white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Jiquan; Zhang, Jinkang; Huang, Bingxin; Yu, Yang; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-02-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Chinese shrimp) culture industry, like other Penaeidae culture, has been seriously affected by the shrimp diseases caused by bacteria and virus. To better understand the mechanism of immune response of shrimp to different pathogens, proteome research approach was utilized in this study. Firstly, the soluble hepatopancreas protein samples in adult Chinese shrimp among control, heat-inactivated Vibrio-challenged and white spot syndrome virus-infected groups were separated by 2-DE (pH range, 4-7; sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and pH range, 3-10; tricine-SDS-PAGE). Then the differentially expressed protein spots (?1.5-fold or ?0.67-fold averagely of controls) were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Using Mascot online database searching algorithm and SEQUEST searching program, 48 and 49 differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified in response to Vibrio and white spot syndrome virus infection, respectively. Based on these results, we discussed the mechanism of immune response of the shrimp and shed light on the differences between immune response of shrimp toward Vibrio and white spot syndrome virus. This study also set a basis for further analyses of some key genes in immune response of Chinese shrimp. PMID:24057166

  6. A simple and rapid immunochromatographic strip test for detecting antibody to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shangjin; Zhou, Shenghua; Chen, Changmu; Qi, Ting; Zhang, Chaofan; Oh, JinSik

    2008-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is rapidly gaining worldwide importance as one of the most economically significant diseases of swine. The antibody of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is detected currently by the combined use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, serum neutralization test, immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. These methods are time-consuming and require specialized equipment operated by trained technicians. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simple strip assay (based on a chromatographic and immunogold system) for specific detection of PRRSV antibody in swine sera. This "immunochromatographic strip" test uses Escherichia coli-expressed viral recombinant membrane protein antigen in combination with recombinant nucleocapsid protein as capture protein for detecting antibodies against PRRSV. In this study, the performance of this assay was evaluated with sera from both clinical samples and experimentally infected piglets. Detection by immunochromatographic strip test was compared with detection by a standard, available commercially, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The immunochromatographic test strip detected antibodies in sera known to contain antibodies to PRRSV in 95.7% sensitivity of samples from pigs infected experimentally and 98.6% sensitivity of clinical serum samples. For sera that did not contain antibodies to PRRSV, the specificity was 97.8% and 98.2% for clinical and experimental serum samples, respectively. PMID:18619681

  7. Acute Interstitial Nephritis Proteinuria and Herpes Simplex Virus Hepatitis in Pregnancy Mimic HELLP Syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets)

    PubMed Central

    White, Wendy M.; Tran, Diana; Garovic, Vesna D.; Brost, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Elevated transaminases, hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia in pregnancy are most often caused by a preeclampsia variant—HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets). In atypical cases, it is important to consider other causes, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)-induced proteinuria can make distinguishing HELLP from its mimics more difficult. A 43-year-old G4P3 gestational carrier at 28 weeks had abnormal laboratory findings consistent with HELLP, including proteinuria. However, she was normotensive and febrile, prompting an investigation into other possible causes of her signs and symptoms. She ultimately was diagnosed with disseminated HSV infection, started on definitive therapy, and allowed to continue her pregnancy to term. The proteinuria was attributed to AIN. AIN can cause proteinuria in the critically ill pregnant patient. When mimics of HELLP syndrome, such as disseminated HSV infection, are the cause of critical illness, the presence of AIN-induced proteinuria may falsely implicate a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, resulting in iatrogenic premature delivery of the fetus and failure to initiate definitive potential lifesaving treatment. PMID:23705099

  8. Novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by an alternative ORF5 present in all arteriviruses

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Craig R.; Griggs, Theodor F.; Gnanandarajah, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus that emerged in the late 1980s in both Europe and North America as the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), now the most important disease of swine worldwide. Despite extensive characterization of PRRSV proteins by direct analysis and comparison with other arteriviruses, determinants of virulence, pathogenesis and protective immune recognition remain poorly understood. Thus, we hypothesized that additional ORFs are present in the PRRSV genome that may contribute to its biological properties, and so we screened highly purified virions of strain VR2332, the prototype type 2 PRRSV, for evidence of novel polypeptides. A 51 aa polypeptide was discovered that is encoded by an alternative ORF of the subgenomic mRNA encoding the major envelope glycoprotein, GP5, and which is incorporated into virions. The protein, referred to as ORF5a protein, is expressed in infected cells, and pigs infected with PRRSV express anti-ORF5a protein antibodies. A similar ORF is present as an alternative reading frame in all PRRSV subgenomic RNA5 genes and in all other arteriviruses, suggesting that this ORF5a protein plays a significant role in arterivirology. Its discovery also provides a new potential target for immunological and pharmacological intervention in PRRS. PMID:21307222

  9. Identification of an immunodominant epitope in the C terminus of glycoprotein 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Fominaya, J; Cortés, E; Sanz, A; Casal, J I

    2001-05-01

    Glycoprotein 5 (GP(5)) is the major glycoprotein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Expression of GP(5) has been improved by removing the transmembrane regions. Vectors were constructed encoding complete GP(5) plus three mutants: GP(5) Ns (residues 28--201), GP(5)[30--67] (residues 30--67) and GP(5)[30--201] (residues 30--67/130--201). The three deletion mutants were expressed at levels 20--30 times higher than complete GP(5). GP(5)[30--201] was well recognized in ELISA or immunoblotting by a collection of pig sera. All the fragments were tested for the generation of MAbs, but only the polyhistidine-tagged fragment GP(5)[30--201]H elicited an antibody response sufficient to produce MABS: The two MAbs were positive for PRRSV in ELISA and immunoblotting, but negative for virus neutralization. MAb 4BE12 reacted with residues 130--170 and MAb 3AH9 recognized residues 170--201. This region was recognized strongly in immunoblotting by a collection of infected-pig sera. These results indicate diagnostic potential for this epitope. PMID:11297674

  10. Improved immunodetection of Taura syndrome virus using a monoclonal antibody specific for heterologously expressed VP1 capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Hajimasalaeh, Warunee; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2013-01-01

    vp1, a gene encoding one of the capsid proteins of Taura syndrome virus, was cloned into the pGEX-6P-1 expression vector, and the resulting construct was then used to transform E. coli strain BL21. After induction, an N-terminally glutathione-S-transferase-tagged VP1 (GST-VP1) protein with a molecular mass of 80 kDa was obtained. This protein was purified by SDS-PAGE and used for immunization of Swiss mice for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. Three MAbs specific for the VP1 protein were selected that were suitable for detecting natural TSV infection in Penaeus vannamei by dot blotting, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. This detection occurs without cross-reaction to other shrimp tissues or other common shrimp viruses. As determined by dot blotting, the detection sensitivity of the MAbs was approximately 2 fmole/spot of the GST-VP1. These MAbs showed detection sensitivity comparable to that of MAbs specific for VP2, but they exhibited stronger immunoreactivity than previously studied MAbs specific for VP3. Although the sensitivity of the MAbs to VP1 was 1,000 times lower than one-step RT-PCR, they could be used in various types of antibody-based assays to confirm and enhance the detection sensitivity of TSV infection in shrimp. PMID:22972680

  11. Improvement of immunodetection of white spot syndrome virus using a monoclonal antibody specific for heterologously expressed icp11.

    PubMed

    Siriwattanarat, Ruthairat; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Wangman, Pradit; Vaniksampanna, Akapon; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2013-05-01

    The icp11 gene encoding the highly abundant DNA mimic protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was cloned into the pTYB1 and pGEX-6P-1 expression vectors and introduced into E. coli by transformation. After induction, C-terminally intein-tagged ICP11 (ICP11-intein) and N-terminally glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged ICP11 (GST-ICP11) proteins with molecular masses of 64 and 35 kDa were obtained. These proteins were purified by SDS-PAGE and used for immunization of Swiss mice for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production. Two MAbs specific for ICP11 were selected; these MAbs can be used to detect natural WSSV infection in Penaeus vannamei by dot blotting, western blotting or immunohistochemistry without cross-reaction with other shrimp tissues or other common shrimp viruses. The detection sensitivity of the MAbs was approximately 0.7 fmole/spot of GST-ICP11 as determined by dot blotting. These MAbs showed stronger immunoreactivity than other MAbs from previous studies that are specific for VP28 and VP19. A combination of MAbs specific for ICP11, VP28 and VP19 increased the detection sensitivity of WSSV during early infection to a sensitivity 250 times lower than that of one-step PCR. Therefore, the MAbs specific for ICP11 could be used to confirm and enhance the detection sensitivity for WSSV infection in shrimp using various types of antibody-based assays. PMID:23242776

  12. A sensitive and specific hyperbranched rolling circle amplification assay and test strip for white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Ran; Yin, Wei-Li; Yue, Zhi-Qin; Li, Ba-Fang

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a global threat to the prawn industry, and there is no simple method for field-based testing of this virus. We designed a padlock probe and primers to the capsid protein gene VP28 of WSSV, and established a hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) assay and a corresponding strip-based test. The assay and the test strip both had similar high accuracy and specificity, and their sensitivity was about 10 copies/?L, which is 100 times higher than conventional PCR. In this study, 68 batches of prawns were tested for WSSV with the HRCA assay and test strip, and the results were compared with the PCR assay. The results indicated that both the assay and test strip had accuracy similar to each other and to the PCR results. However, the assay and strip were more sensitive and user-friendly than PCR. Establishment of this method will provide a rapid detection of WSSV and also a basis for field-based detection of animal disease. PMID:25902992

  13. An immediate-early protein of white spot syndrome virus modulates the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huasong; Ruan, Lingwei; Xu, Xun

    2011-10-25

    WSSV interacts with integrin during infection of shrimps and modulate the focal adhesion kinase which is known as a regulator of several downstream signaling pathways. Viral protein kinases are thought to be important for virus infection by regulating the host signaling pathways. WSV083 is an immediate-early gene of white spot syndrome virus that contains a Ser/Thr protein kinase domain. So, does WSSV modulate FAK phosphorylation via the WSV083 molecule? In this study, co-transfection of WSV083 and MjFAK genes proceeded in insect cells revealed that the MjFAK phosphorylation and cell adhesion activity could be inhibited by the expression of WSV083. Kinase domain mutants of WSV083 lost its ability of inhibiting FAK phosphorylation. Moreover, silencing of FAK gene through RNAi accelerated the shrimp death rate upon WSSV challenge. These results demonstrate for the first time that modulation of FAK phosphorylation by WSV083 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of WSSV infection. PMID:21908012

  14. Antilipopolysaccharide factor interferes with white spot syndrome virus replication in vitro and in vivo in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haipeng; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Cerenius, Lage; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2006-11-01

    In a study of genes expressed differentially in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus infected experimentally with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), one protein, known as antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), was chosen, among those whose transcript levels increased upon viral infection, for further studies. ALF RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in whole animals and in cell cultures indicated that ALF can protect against WSSV infection, since knockdown of ALF by RNAi specifically resulted in higher rates of viral propagation. In a cell culture of hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) from P. leniusculus, quantitative PCR showed that knockdown of ALF by RNAi resulted into WSSV levels that were about 10-fold higher than those treated with control double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In addition, RNAi experiments with other crayfish genes that had been found to be up-regulated by a WSSV infection did not result in any changes of viral loads. Thus, the cell culture does not respond to dsRNA in a similar manner, as shown earlier for dsRNA injected into shrimp, which gave a higher degree of resistance to WSSV infection. If ALF transcription in whole animals was stimulated by the administration of UV-treated WSSV, a partial protection against a subsequent challenge with the active virus was conferred to the host. This is the first crustacean gene product identified with the capacity to interfere with replication of this important pathogen. PMID:17041217

  15. Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wangjing [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang Yunshiang [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wang Chunghsiung [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kou, Guang-Hsiung [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lo Chufang [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: gracelow@ntu.edu.tw

    2005-04-10

    Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter.

  16. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection Induced Apoptosis and Autophagy in Thymi of Infected Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yabin; Tong, Jie; Liu, Yonggang; Zhang, Chong; Chang, Yafei; Wang, Shujie; Jiang, Chenggang; Zhou, En-Min; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) HuN4 strain causes obvious thymic atrophy and thymocytes apoptosis in infected piglets after birth, which is more severe than that induced by classical PRRSV. In this study, we investigated apoptosis and autophagy in the thymus of piglets infected with the HP-PRRSV HuN4 strain, and found that both apoptosis and autophagy occurred in the thymus of piglets infected with HP-PRRSV. In addition to a few virus-infected cells, CD14+ cells, the main autophagic cells in the thymus were thymic epithelial cells. These findings demonstrated that HP-PRRSV induces apoptosis in bystander cells, and induces autophagy in both infected and bystander cells in the thymus of infected piglets. Herein, we first present new data on the thymic lesions induced by HP-PRRSV, and show that apoptosis and autophagy are key mechanisms involved in cell survival and determinants of the severity of thymic atrophy in infected piglets. Finally, future studies of the mechanism underlying immune responses are proposed based on our current understanding of PRRSV-host interactions. PMID:26046751

  17. The DNA Virus White Spot Syndrome Virus Uses an Internal Ribosome Entry Site for Translation of the Highly Expressed Nonstructural Protein ICP35

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shih-Ting; Wang, Han-Ching; Yang, Yi-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Although shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus (?300 kbp), it expresses many polycistronic mRNAs that are likely to use internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements for translation. A polycistronic mRNA encodes the gene of the highly expressed nonstructural protein ICP35, and here we use a dual-luciferase assay to demonstrate that this protein is translated cap independently by an IRES element located in the 5? untranslated region of icp35. A deletion analysis of this region showed that IRES activity was due to stem-loops VII and VIII. A promoterless assay, a reverse transcription-PCR together with quantitative real-time PCR analysis, and a stable stem-loop insertion upstream of the Renilla luciferase open reading frame were used, respectively, to rule out the possibility that cryptic promoter activity, abnormal splicing, or read-through was contributing to the IRES activity. In addition, a Northern blot analysis was used to confirm that only a single bicistronic mRNA was expressed. The importance of ICP35 to viral replication was demonstrated in a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) interference knockdown experiment in which the mortality of the icp35 dsRNA group was significantly reduced. Tunicamycin was used to show that the ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is required for icp35 IRES activity. We also found that the intercalating drug quinacrine significantly inhibited icp35 IRES activity in vitro and reduced the mortality rate and viral copy number in WSSV-challenged shrimp. Lastly, in Sf9 insect cells, we found that knockdown of the gene for the Spodoptera frugiperda 40S ribosomal protein RPS10 decreased icp35 IRES-regulated firefly luciferase activity but had no effect on cap-dependent translation. PMID:24089551

  18. Molecular evolution of primate immunodeficiency viruses and hepatitis delta virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Samuilovna Krushkal

    1996-01-01

    Primate immunodeficiency viruses, or lentiviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV), and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are RNA viruses characterized by rapid evolution. Infection by primate immunodeficiency viruses usually results in the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans and AIDS-like illnesses in Asian macaques. Similarly, hepatitis delta virus infection causes hepatitis and liver cancer in humans. These viruses are heterogeneous

  19. Roles of viroplasm-like structures formed by nonstructural protein NSs in infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaodong; Qi, Xian; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Cardona, Carol J; Li, Dexin; Xing, Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus is an emerging bunyavirus that causes a hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. The virus is likely tick-borne and replicates primarily in hemopoietic cells, which may lead to disregulation of proinflammatory cytokine induction and loss of leukocytes and platelets. The viral genome contains L, M, and S segments encoding a viral RNA polymerase, glycoproteins G(n) and G(c), nucleoprotein (NP), and a nonstructural S segment (NSs) protein. NSs protein is involved in the regulation of host innate immune responses and suppression of IFN?-promoter activities. In this article, we demonstrate that NSs protein can form viroplasm-like structures (VLSs) in infected and transfected cells. NSs protein molecules interact with one another, interact with NP, and were associated with viral RNA in infected cells, suggesting that NSs protein may be involved in viral replication. Furthermore, we observed that NSs-formed VLS colocalized with lipid droplets and that inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis decreased VLS formation or viral replication in transfected and infected cells. Finally, we have demonstrated that viral dsRNAs were also localized in VLS in infected cells, suggesting that NSs-formed VLS may be implicated in the replication of SFTS bunyavirus. These findings identify a novel function of nonstructural NSs in SFTSV-infected cells where it is a scaffolding component in a VLS functioning as a virus replication factory. This function is in addition to the role of NSs protein in modulating host responses that will broaden our understanding of viral pathogenesis of phleboviruses. PMID:24599967

  20. Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Mwangi, Waithaka [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Hernandez, Jesus, E-mail: jhdez@ciad.m [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2009-05-10

    Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-alpha treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells is dependent on TGF-beta but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-alpha treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.

  1. Pathogenicity of three type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts.

    PubMed

    Ladinig, Andrea; Detmer, Susan E; Clarke, Kyle; Ashley, Carolyn; Rowland, Raymond R R; Lunney, Joan K; Harding, John C S

    2015-05-01

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are still poorly understood. Presented herein are the results of a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSV strains in a reproductive model, from a pilot study used to develop experimental conditions and laboratory methods for a larger experiment. Pregnant gilts were experimentally infected with PRRSV at gestation day 85 or served as uninfected negative controls. After 21 days, all gilts and fetuses were necropsied. Clinical signs, litter outcome, viral load, cytokine levels, and pathology were compared from samples collected among pigs exposed to the three PRRSV strains. Based on differences in histologic lesions, and fetal weights, and numeric differences in gilt serum cytokine levels, litter outcome and virus replication in fetal tissues KS06-483 appeared less virulent than NVSL 97-7895 and KS06-72109 isolates. Levels of chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), interferon alpha (IFN?), and interferon gamma (IFN?) were increased in PPRRSV-infected compared to non-infected gilts (0.01>P<0.06). Inoculation with NVSL 97-7895 induced higher levels of all three cytokines. All three PRRSV isolates were able to induce high mean viral load in individual litters, which was closely related to the proportion of PRRSV positive fetuses in the litter. Viral load in fetal samples was also positively associated with viral load at the maternal-fetal interface. All but one dead fetus were positive for PRRSV RNA, and higher concentrations of PRRSV RNA in fetal thymus increased the odds of fetal death. Our results suggest that virus replication in fetal tissues and the maternal-fetal interface, but not in other gilt tissues, are important for the outcome of reproductive PRRS. Additionally, our data indicate that umbilical lesions decreased corresponding to the use of pentobarbital sedation prior to euthanasia of pregnant gilts by captive bolt. PMID:25796212

  2. Inhibition of Taura syndrome virus replication in Litopenaeus vannamei through silencing the LvRab7 gene using double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Ongvarrasopone, Chalermporn; Saejia, Pipop; Chanasakulniyom, Mayuree; Panyim, Sakol

    2011-07-01

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of high mortality in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Lv). Previously, silencing of Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) by injecting double-stranded RNA corresponding to PmRab7 (dsRNA-PmRab7) prevented white spot syndrome virus or yellow head virus infection. Rab7 is proposed to be involved in intracellular trafficking of the viruses. This study aimed to investigate whether knockdown of Rab7 in L. vannamei by dsRNA-PmRab7 could inhibit replication of TSV. RNA interference (RNAi) technology using dsRNA targeting the LvRab7 gene was used to silence the mRNA expression of LvRab7. The silencing of the LvRab7 gene inhibited TSV replication dramatically when compared to groups receiving dsRNA-GFP or NaCl. This is the first demonstration that dsRNA targeting the endogenous shrimp gene LvRab7 strongly reduces TSV replication. It provides further evidence that LvRab7 is involved in the endosomal trafficking pathway of viruses infecting penaeid shrimp. PMID:21347841

  3. The C-terminal region of envelope protein VP38 from white spot syndrome virus is indispensable for interaction with VP24

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuliang Jie; Limei Xu; Feng Yang

    2008-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large, rod-shaped, enveloped double-stranded DNA virus. In this study, VP38, a viral\\u000a envelope protein, was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein, and a polyclonal antibody against VP38\\u000a was obtained. Far-Western blotting and GST pull-down showed that VP38 interacted directly with VP24, a major WSSV envelope\\u000a protein. In addition, to delineate the

  4. Characterization of a virus associated with head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLE) in marine angelfish 

    E-print Network

    Varner, Patricia Wilcox

    1990-01-01

    model L-2 ultracentrifuge for 1. 5 hr using a swing-bucket type rotor (SW41 or SW28). The virus pellet was resuspended in 1 ml TNE buffer (0. 025 M Tris [Mallinckrodt, Paris, KY, USA], 0. 1 M NaCl, 1mM EDTA [Sigma Chemical Co. , St. Louis, MO, USA], p... microscope at x57, 000 magnification. Density of virions. The buoyant density of the AFRV isolate was determined by isopycnic centrifugation on cesium chloride (CsCI; Mallinckrodt, Paris, KY, USA) gradients. Purified virus (0, 5 ml in TNE buffer...

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Correlation but not Causation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Duesberg

    1989-01-01

    AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Correlation but not Causation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Duesberg

    1989-01-01

    AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseas es. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in

  7. UNDERSTANDING SWINE IMMUNITY TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS (PRRSV) INFECTION - INFORMING FUTURE VACCINE DESIGN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is the most economically significant disease facing the swine industry today, costing U.S. pork producers at least $560 million annually. This abstract describes some of the approaches we’ve tested to evaluate immunity to PRRSV. We plan to use th...

  8. State of the art: lessons learned through porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recombinant technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PRRS disease is economically devastating in many parts of the world. Much is known about the virus, including the vast amount of isolate heterogeneity related to its ability to readily undergo viral recombination contributing to an remarkable rate of evolution and its inability to induce protective ...

  9. Alice in Wonderland syndrome as an initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Cinbis; S Aysun

    1992-01-01

    We present a patient with serologically confirmed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection who had illusions of size, shape, and colour of objects but none of the typical symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious mononucleosis (IM) except sore throat which developed 2 weeks after the initial visual disturbances. The bizarre feelings about the images of body and objects are called the 'Alice

  10. In Vivo Growth of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Engineered Nsp2 Deletion Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior studies on PRRSV strain VR-2332 nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) had shown that as much as 403 amino acids could be removed from the hypervariable region without losing virus viability in vitro. We utilized selected nsp2 deletion mutants to examine in vivo growth. Young swine (4 pigs/group; 5 co...

  11. Virus Research 120 (2006) 146155 Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus

    E-print Network

    Wimley, William C.

    2006-01-01

    ; Peptide inhibitor; Murine hepatitis virus; Six-helix bundle; Anti-viral 1. Introduction Severe acute-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infectivity by peptides analogous to the viral spike protein Bruno Sainz Jr.a,, Eric C that affected Asia, North America and Europe in 2002­2003. The viral spike (S) glycoprotein is responsible

  12. Rooting the Phylogenetic Tree of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus by Characterization of a Conspecific Virus from an African Bat

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor Max; Ithete, Ndapewa Laudika; Richards, Leigh Rosanne; Schoeman, M. Corrie; Preiser, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes lethal respiratory infections mainly on the Arabian Peninsula. The evolutionary origins of MERS-CoV are unknown. We determined the full genome sequence of a CoV directly from fecal material obtained from a South African Neoromicia capensis bat (NeoCoV). NeoCoV shared essential details of genome architecture with MERS-CoV. Eighty-five percent of the NeoCoV genome was identical to MERS-CoV at the nucleotide level. Based on taxonomic criteria, NeoCoV and MERS-CoV belonged to one viral species. The presence of a genetically divergent S1 subunit within the NeoCoV spike gene indicated that intraspike recombination events may have been involved in the emergence of MERS-CoV. NeoCoV constitutes a sister taxon of MERS-CoV, placing the MERS-CoV root between a recently described virus from African camels and all other viruses. This suggests a higher level of viral diversity in camels than in humans. Together with serologic evidence for widespread MERS-CoV infection in camelids sampled up to 20 years ago in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, the genetic data indicate that camels act as sources of virus for humans rather than vice versa. The majority of camels on the Arabian Peninsula is imported from the Greater Horn of Africa, where several Neoromicia species occur. The acquisition of MERS-CoV by camels from bats might have taken place in sub-Saharan Africa. Camelids may represent mixing vessels for MERS-CoV and other mammalian CoVs. IMPORTANCE It is unclear how, when, and where the highly pathogenic MERS-CoV emerged. We characterized the full genome of an African bat virus closely related to MERS-CoV and show that human, camel, and bat viruses belong to the same viral species. The bat virus roots the phylogenetic tree of MERS-CoV, providing evidence for an evolution of MERS-CoV in camels that preceded that in humans. The revised tree suggests that humans are infected by camels rather than vice versa. Although MERS-CoV cases occur mainly on the Arabian Peninsula, the data from this study together with serologic and molecular investigations of African camels indicate that the initial host switch from bats may have taken place in Africa. The emergence of MERS-CoV likely involved exchanges of genetic elements between different viral ancestors. These exchanges may have taken place either in bat ancestors or in camels acting as mixing vessels for viruses from different hosts. PMID:25031349

  13. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease II: viral pathways in swine, small ruminants, and wildlife; myotropism, chronic syndromes, and molecular virus-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Arzt, J; Baxt, B; Grubman, M J; Jackson, T; Juleff, N; Rhyan, J; Rieder, E; Waters, R; Rodriguez, L L

    2011-08-01

    Investigation into the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has focused on the study of the disease in cattle with less emphasis on pigs, small ruminants and wildlife. 'Atypical' FMD-associated syndromes such as myocarditis, reproductive losses and chronic heat intolerance have also received little attention. Yet, all of these manifestations of FMD are reflections of distinct pathogenesis events. For example, naturally occurring porcinophilic strains and unique virus-host combinations that result in high-mortality outbreaks surely have their basis in molecular-, cellular- and tissue-level interactions between host and virus (i.e. pathogenesis). The goal of this review is to emphasize how the less commonly studied FMD syndromes and host species contribute to the overall understanding of pathogenesis and how extensive in vitro studies have contributed to our understanding of disease processes in live animals. PMID:21672184

  14. Ferritin administration effectively enhances immunity, physiological responses, and survival of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with white spot syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Hwa Ruan; Ching-Ming Kuo; Chu-Fang Lo; Min-Hsien Lee; Juang-Lin Lian; Shu-Ling Hsieh

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physiological (hemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipid) and innate non-specific immune responses (total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion, O2?) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity) to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng g?1 ferritin. Results showed that the THC, PO

  15. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of the isolated type I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from 2007 to 2008 in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chulseung Lee; Hyekwon Kim; Bokyu Kang; Minjoo Yeom; Sangyoon Han; Hyoungjoon Moon; Hyunil Kim; Daesub Song

    2010-01-01

    The first Korean strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was isolated in 1997, and it exhibited\\u000a high similarity to strain VR-2332 (type II PRRSV; North American type). Recently, however, infection with type I PRRSV (European\\u000a type) has also been reported in Korea. To date, preliminary data about type I PRRSV prevalence in Korea have not been reported.

  16. Immune responses of Fenneropenaeus chinensis against white spot syndrome virus after oral delivery of VP28 using Bacillus subtilis as vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling-Lin Fu; Jiang-Bing Shuai; Zi-Rong Xu; Jian-Rong Li; Wei-Fen Li

    2010-01-01

    The protective efficacy of oral administration of VP28 using Bacillus subtilis as vehicles (rVP28-bs) in shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, upon challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated. The calculated relative percent survival (RPS) value of rVP28-bs fed shrimp was 83.3% when challenged on the 14th day post-administration, which is significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of the group administered recombinant

  17. Identification of differentially expressed genes in haemocytes of the crayfish ( Procambarus clarkii) infected with white spot syndrome virus by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Zeng; Cheng-Ping Lu

    2009-01-01

    By using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarrays, we studied the differentially expressed genes in haemocytes of the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Thirty three differentially expressed genes were detected in which 31 were up-regulated and 2 were down-regulated. The up-regulated genes include serine protease inhibitors, chaperonin, synaptasome-associated protein of 25kD(SNAP25), tubulin, zinc-finger protein,

  18. The development of a rapid SYBR one step real-time RT-PCR for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Tian; JingYan Wu; YouJun Shang; Yan Cheng; XiangTao Liu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prompt detection of PRRSV in the field samples is important for effective PRRS control, thereby reducing the potentially serious economic damage which can result from an outbreak. In this study, a rapid SYBR-based, one step real-time RT-PCR quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has been developed for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Primers were designed

  19. Identification of major differences in the nucleocapsid protein genes of a Quebec strain and European strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmi Mardassi; Samir Mounir; Serge Dea

    1994-01-01

    The sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the genome of Qurbec reference strain IAF-expgl of porcine repro- ductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was investigated by analysis of four cDNA clones. The 3'- terminal 530 nucleotides (nt) encompassed a large open reading frame with a coding capacity of 123 amino acids (34,. 13 649). The predicted protein was extremely basic

  20. Protection of Penaeus monodon from Infection of White spot syndrome virus by DNA Construct Expressing Long Hairpin-RNA Against ICP11 Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rekha Das; Syamala Karthireddy; P. Gireesh-Babu; A. K. Reddy; Gopal Krishna; Aparna Chaudhari

    2010-01-01

    A plasmid construct (pICP11-LH) was designed to constitutively express long-hairpin RNA (lhRNA) against icp11 gene, which is reportedly the most highly expressed gene of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and likely to have an important role in viral pathogenesis. The construct was used singly and in combination with\\u000a other similar constructs designed against vp28 and vp19. A total of 6

  1. Real-time PCR for quantitation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 in naturally-infected and challenged pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Bin Chung; Wen-Hung Chan; Hso-Chi Chaung; Yi Lien; Chia-Chang Wu; Yu-Liang Huang

    2005-01-01

    Real-time PCR assays were developed for quantitative detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). The established real-time PCR for the quantitation of PRRSV cDNA and PCV2 DNA were found to be in the 9-log10 linear dynamic range with excellent linearity and reliable reproducibility. Using these techniques, the distribution and quantitation of PRRSV

  2. The Neuraminidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir Is Effective Against A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) Influenza Virus in a Mouse Model of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baranovich, Tatiana; Burnham, Andrew J.; Marathe, Bindumadhav M.; Armstrong, Jianling; Guan, Yi; Shu, Yuelong; Peiris, Joseph Malik Sriyal; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Background.?High mortality and uncertainty about the effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in humans infected with influenza A(H7N9) viruses are public health concerns. Methods.?Susceptibility of N9 viruses to NAIs was determined in a fluorescence-based assay. The NAI oseltamivir (5, 20, or 80 mg/kg/day) was administered to BALB/c mice twice daily starting 24, 48, or 72 hours after A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) virus challenge. Results.?All 12 avian N9 and 3 human H7N9 influenza viruses tested were susceptible to NAIs. Without prior adaptation, A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) caused lethal infection in mice that was restricted to the respiratory tract and resulted in pulmonary edema and acute lung injury with hyaline membrane formation, leading to decreased oxygenation, all characteristics of human acute respiratory distress syndrome. Oseltamivir at 20 and 80 mg/kg protected 80% and 88% of mice when initiated after 24 hours, and the efficacy decreased to 70% and 60%, respectively, when treatment was delayed by 48 hours. Emergence of oseltamivir-resistant variants was not detected. Conclusions.?H7N9 viruses are comparable to currently circulating influenza A viruses in susceptibility to NAIs. Based on these animal studies, early treatment is associated with improved outcomes. PMID:24133191

  3. Interaction of the European genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with sialoadhesin (CD169/Siglec-1) inhibits alveolar macrophage phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus that shows a restricted in vivo tropism for subsets of porcine macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being major target cells. The virus is associated with respiratory problems in pigs of all ages and is commonly isolated on farms with porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Due to virus-induced macrophage death early in infection, PRRSV hampers the innate defence against pathogens in the lungs. In addition, the virus might also directly affect the antimicrobial functions of macrophages. This study examined whether interaction of European genotype PRRSV with primary alveolar macrophages (PAM) affects their phagocytic capacity. Inoculation of macrophages with both subtype I PRRSV (LV) and subtype III PRRSV (Lena) showed that the virus inhibits PAM phagocytosis. Similar results were obtained using inactivated PRRSV (LV), showing that initial interaction of the virion with the cell is sufficient to reduce phagocytosis, and that no productive infection is required. When macrophages were incubated with sialoadhesin- (Sn) or CD163-specific antibodies, two entry mediators of the virus, only Sn-specific antibodies downregulated the phagocytic capacity of PAM, indicating that interaction with Sn, but not CD163, mediates the inhibitory effect of PRRSV on phagocytosis. In conclusion, this study shows that European genotype PRRSV inhibits PAM phagocytosis in vitro, through the interaction with its internalization receptor Sn. If similar events occur in vivo, this interaction may be important in the development of PRDC, as often seen in the field. PMID:22630829

  4. Smallpox vaccination and patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John G

    2003-02-15

    Smallpox vaccination strategies are evolving rapidly and have important implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Cell-mediated immunity is important for controlling both smallpox and vaccinia. For smallpox, the concern is a substantial increase in the associated mortality rate, which is 30% among healthy persons. For smallpox vaccination, the concern is progressive vaccinia, which is usually lethal but relatively uncommon. The risks associated with both smallpox and vaccinia viruses probably correlate with CD4 cell count, and, as a corollary, the best protection against infection with each is presumably immune reconstitution. It appears that all vaccinations will be voluntary, with 2 recommendations: (1) HIV-infected persons will be advised to decline preemptive vaccination, and (2) in the event of a bioterrorism attack involving smallpox, HIV-infected patients with exposures will be advised to receive vaccine. PMID:12567305

  5. Sensory neuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients: Protease inhibitorâ??mediated neurotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline A. Pettersen; Gareth Jones; Catherine Worthington; Hartmut B. Krentz; Oliver T. Keppler; Ahmet Hoke; M. John Gill; Christopher Power

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common and disabling disorder, often associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. We investigated the clinical features and associated pathogenic determinants of HIV-SN in a neurological cohort of HIV-infected patients, together with a novel model of HIV-SN. Methods: HIV-infected patients with neurological disease were investigated in terms of clinical and laboratory aspects

  6. Establishment of a novel one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid identification of RNA from the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haihong; Zhang, Lei; Shen, Guangqiang; Feng, Cen; Wang, Xinying; Yan, Jie; Zhang, Yanjun

    2013-12-01

    As an emerging infectious disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection has been found in many areas of China. Suitable laboratory diagnostic method is urgently needed in clinical detections and epidemiological investigations. In this study, a modified, low-cost and rapid visualized one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for the detection of RNA from the SFTSV has been established. In order to avoid the risk of aerosol contamination and facilitate the naked eye to observe, a microcrystalline wax-dye capsule wrapping the highly sensitive DNA fluorescence dye SYBR Green I was added to the RT-LAMP reaction tube before the initiation of the assay. The detection limit of the established RT-LAMP assay was 10 fg template RNA per reaction mixture. The RT-LAMP assay was confirmed to be high specific to SFTSV, and no cross-reaction was found with the detection of the Chikungunya fever virus, Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome virus (HFRSV), and Dengue fever virus. The assay was then applied for the detection of SFTSV RNA in 32 clinical serum samples and showed 94.4% consistence with the detection results of the real-time RT-PCR. The whole process, from sample preparation to result reporting, can be completed within 2h. This adapted, cost efficient and quick visualized RT-LAMP method is feasible for SFTSV field diagnosis in resource-limited field settings. PMID:23911296

  7. Probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection and typing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Canada.

    PubMed

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Li, Wansi May; Wernike, Kerstin; Marshall, Frank; Czub, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has tremendous impact on the pork industry in North America. The molecular diagnosis of infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) is hampered by its considerable strain diversity. In this study, 43 previously published or newly developed primers for probe-free real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were evaluated on their sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and repeatability, using a diverse panel of 36 PRRSV strains as well as other arteriviruses and unrelated porcine viruses. Three primer pairs had excellent diagnostic and analytical sensitivity on par with a probe-based reference assay, absolute specificity to virus genotype and species, as well as over 95% reproducibility and repeatability across a wide dynamic range. PMID:26130848

  8. [Detection of the human immunodeficiency virus in a lymphocyte culture from a patient from Central Africa with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Kaposi's sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, V M; Parfanovich, M I; Iaroslavtseva, N G; Kucherov, I I; Potekaev, N S

    1988-01-01

    The results of HIV virus isolation from patient A. T., resident of Central Africa, are discussed, in whom Kaposi sarcoma was diagnosed clinically and histologically, and immunological examinations revealed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cocultivation of the peripheral blood leukocytes of the patient with normal donor leukocytes yielded a leukocyte culture in which HIV virus expression was demonstrated. The HIV antigen was detected in the ultracentrifugate of the cultures by means of indirect enzyme-immunoassay using sera to the virus from the standard kits of Organon (Netherlands) and Abbot (USA). HIV antigen was also detected on the surface of lymphocytes in the culture by indirect immunofluorescence using the same sera. Besides, reverse transcriptase activity was demonstrated in ultracentrifugates of the culture fluid by exogenous reverse transcription test using poly(zA)-oligo(dT) matrix. PMID:2457989

  9. Enhanced Saquinavir Exposure in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients with Diarrhea and/or Wasting Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Trout, Hervé; Mentré, France; Panhard, Xavičre; Kodjo, Alissi; Escaut, Lélia; Pernet, Pascal; Gobert, Jean-Gérard; Vittecoq, Daniel; Knellwolf, Anne-Laure; Caulin, Charles; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    The protease inhibitor saquinavir was administered to 100 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients as a single 600-mg oral dose (hard gelatin capsules) with a standard breakfast, including 200 ml of grapefruit juice, during an open-label trial to assess whether diarrhea and/or wasting syndrome has consequences on its pharmacokinetics. Three groups of patients were enrolled: group 1, asymptomatic patients (n = 30); group 2, AIDS symptomatic patients without body weight loss or diarrhea (n = 37); and group 3, AIDS symptomatic patients with severe body weight loss and/or diarrhea (n = 33). Clinical and biological data (covariates) were collected. A population approach was performed with three blood samples per patient to estimate the mean population pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance [CL]/oral bioavailability [F], V/F, ka, and lag time) and the derived ones (kel, Cmax, Tmax, and area under the curve [AUC]). The relationships between groups, exposure (i.e., estimated individual post hoc AUCs), and covariates were explored by using multiple linear regressions. A significant increase in median AUCs (165, 349, and 705 ng?·?h?·?ml?1 for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively [P < 0.0001]) was observed. The enhancement in saquinavir exposure could be due to the destruction of the transporters in enterocytes and/or to the enlargement of their tight junctions, allowing a paracellular crossing of saquinavir as the illness spreads. Because of grapefruit juice intake by every patient, no implication of CYP3A4 could be assessed. These results strongly suggest that, despite its low intrinsic oral bioavailability, saquinavir can be considered as a relevant treatment for HIV-1-infected patients with diarrhea and/or wasting syndrome. This must be evaluated in a long-term period. PMID:14742207

  10. Structure of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein in complex with suramin reveals therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lianying; Ouyang, Songying; Liang, Mifang; Niu, Fengfeng; Shaw, Neil; Wu, Wei; Ding, Wei; Jin, Cong; Peng, Yao; Zhu, Yanping; Zhang, Fushun; Wang, Tao; Li, Chuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Luan, Chi-Hao; Li, Dexin; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2013-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV). Lack of vaccines and inadequate therapeutic treatments have made the spread of the virus a global concern. Viral nucleocapsid protein (N) is essential for its transcription and replication. Here, we present the crystal structures of N from SFTSV and its homologs from Buenaventura (BUE) and Granada (GRA) viruses. The structures reveal that phleboviral N folds into a compact core domain and an extended N-terminal arm that mediates oligomerization, such as tetramer, pentamer, and hexamer of N assemblies. Structural superimposition indicates that phleboviral N adopts a conserved architecture and uses a similar RNA encapsidation strategy as that of RVFV-N. The RNA binding cavity runs along the inner edge of the ring-like assembly. A triple mutant of SFTSV-N, R64D/K67D/K74D, almost lost its ability to bind RNA in vitro, is deficient in its ability to transcribe and replicate. Structural studies of the mutant reveal that both alterations in quaternary assembly and the charge distribution contribute to the loss of RNA binding. In the screening of inhibitors Suramin was identified to bind phleboviral N specifically. The complex crystal structure of SFTSV-N with Suramin was refined to a 2.30-Ĺ resolution. Suramin was found sitting in the putative RNA binding cavity of SFTSV-N. The inhibitory effect of Suramin on SFTSV replication was confirmed in Vero cells. Therefore, a common Suramin-based therapeutic approach targeting SFTSV-N and its homologs could be developed for containing phleboviral outbreaks. PMID:23576501

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Peng, Min; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaohan

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control) L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10?5) against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes) were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:23469011

  12. Active and Passive Vaccination against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome with Andes Virus M Genome Segment-Based DNA Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Custer, D. M.; Thompson, E.; Schmaljohn, C. S.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Hooper, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rapidly progressing human disease with one of the highest case fatality rates (30 to 50%) of any acute viral disease known. There are no vaccines, effective antiviral drugs, or immunologics to prevent or treat HPS. In an attempt to develop HPS medical countermeasures, we constructed an expression plasmid, pWRG/AND-M, that contains the full-length M genome segment of Andes virus (ANDV), a South American hantavirus. Transfection experiments in cell culture indicated that both the G1 and G2 glycoproteins are expressed from pWRG/AND-M. Rhesus macaques vaccinated by gene gun with pWRG/AND-M developed remarkably high levels of neutralizing antibodies that not only neutralized ANDV but also cross-neutralized other HPS-associated hantaviruses, including Sin Nombre virus. To determine if the antibodies elicited in the monkeys could confer protection, we performed a series of passive-transfer experiments using a recently described lethal HPS animal model (i.e., adult Syrian hamsters develop HPS and die within 10 to 15 days after challenge with ANDV). When injected into hamsters 1 day before challenge, sera from the vaccinated monkeys either provided sterile protection or delayed the onset of HPS and death. When injected on day 4 or 5 after challenge, the monkey sera protected 100% of the hamsters from lethal disease. These data provide a proof of concept for a gene-based HPS vaccine and also demonstrate the potential value of a postexposure immunoprophylactic to treat individuals after exposure, or potential exposure, to these highly lethal hantaviruses. PMID:12941899

  13. Structure of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Complex with Suramin Reveals Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Lianying; Ouyang, Songying; Liang, Mifang; Niu, Fengfeng; Shaw, Neil; Wu, Wei; Ding, Wei; Jin, Cong; Peng, Yao; Zhu, Yanping; Zhang, Fushun; Wang, Tao; Li, Chuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Luan, Chi-Hao; Li, Dexin

    2013-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV). Lack of vaccines and inadequate therapeutic treatments have made the spread of the virus a global concern. Viral nucleocapsid protein (N) is essential for its transcription and replication. Here, we present the crystal structures of N from SFTSV and its homologs from Buenaventura (BUE) and Granada (GRA) viruses. The structures reveal that phleboviral N folds into a compact core domain and an extended N-terminal arm that mediates oligomerization, such as tetramer, pentamer, and hexamer of N assemblies. Structural superimposition indicates that phleboviral N adopts a conserved architecture and uses a similar RNA encapsidation strategy as that of RVFV-N. The RNA binding cavity runs along the inner edge of the ring-like assembly. A triple mutant of SFTSV-N, R64D/K67D/K74D, almost lost its ability to bind RNA in vitro, is deficient in its ability to transcribe and replicate. Structural studies of the mutant reveal that both alterations in quaternary assembly and the charge distribution contribute to the loss of RNA binding. In the screening of inhibitors Suramin was identified to bind phleboviral N specifically. The complex crystal structure of SFTSV-N with Suramin was refined to a 2.30-Ĺ resolution. Suramin was found sitting in the putative RNA binding cavity of SFTSV-N. The inhibitory effect of Suramin on SFTSV replication was confirmed in Vero cells. Therefore, a common Suramin-based therapeutic approach targeting SFTSV-N and its homologs could be developed for containing phleboviral outbreaks. PMID:23576501

  14. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    SciTech Connect

    Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Sahul Hameed, A.S. [OIE Expert, OIE Reference Laboratory for WTD, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509 (India); Kwang, Jimmy, E-mail: kwang@tll.org.s [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  15. Transactivation, dimerization, and DNA-binding activity of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early protein IE1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wang-Jing; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Wang, Hao-Ching; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2008-11-01

    Immediate-early proteins from many viruses function as transcriptional regulators and exhibit transactivation activity, DNA binding activity, and dimerization. In this study, we investigated these characteristics in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early protein 1 (IE1) and attempted to map the corresponding functional domains. Transactivation was investigated by transiently expressing a protein consisting of the DNA binding domain of the yeast transactivator GAL4 fused to full-length IE1. This GAL4-IE1 fusion protein successfully activated the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus p35 basal promoter when five copies of the GAL4 DNA binding site were inserted upstream of the TATA box. A deletion series of GAL4-IE1 fusion proteins suggested that the transactivation domain of WSSV IE1 was carried within its first 80 amino acids. A point mutation assay further showed that all 12 of the acidic residues in this highly acidic domain were important for IE1's transactivation activity. DNA binding activity was confirmed by an electrophoresis mobility shift assay using a probe with (32)P-labeled random oligonucleotides. The DNA binding region of WSSV IE1 was located in its C-terminal end (amino acids 81 to 224), but mutation of a putative zinc finger motif in this C-terminal region suggested that this motif was not directly involved in the DNA binding activity. A homotypic interaction between IE1 molecules was demonstrated by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay and a coimmunoprecipitation analysis. A glutaraldehyde cross-linking experiment and gel filtration analysis showed that this self-interaction led to the formation of stable IE1 dimers. PMID:18768963

  16. Highly Divergent Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Incorporate Multiple Isoforms of Nonstructural Protein 2 into Virions

    PubMed Central

    Kappes, Matthew A.; Miller, Cathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Viral structural proteins form the critical intermediary between viral infection cycles within and between hosts, function to initiate entry, participate in immediate early viral replication steps, and are major targets for the host adaptive immune response. We report the identification of nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) as a novel structural component of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) particle. A set of custom ?-nsp2 antibodies targeting conserved epitopes within four distinct regions of nsp2 (the PLP2 protease domain [OTU], the hypervariable domain [HV], the putative transmembrane domain [TM], and the C-terminal region [C]) were obtained commercially and validated in PRRSV-infected cells. Highly purified cell-free virions of several PRRSV strains were isolated through multiple rounds of differential density gradient centrifugation and analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) and Western blot assays using the ?-nsp2 antibodies. Purified viral preparations were found to contain pleomorphic, predominantly spherical virions of uniform size (57.9 nm ± 8.1 nm diameter; n = 50), consistent with the expected size of PRRSV particles. Analysis by IEM indicated the presence of nsp2 associated with the viral particle of diverse strains of PRRSV. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of nsp2 in purified viral samples and revealed that multiple nsp2 isoforms were associated with the virion. Finally, a recombinant PRRSV genome containing a myc-tagged nsp2 was used to generate purified virus, and these particles were also shown to harbor myc-tagged nsp2 isoforms. Together, these data identify nsp2 as a virion-associated structural PRRSV protein and reveal that nsp2 exists in or on viral particles as multiple isoforms. PMID:24089566

  17. Cardiomyopathy Syndrome of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Is Caused by a Double-Stranded RNA Virus of the Totiviridae Family?

    PubMed Central

    Haugland, Řyvind; Mikalsen, Aase B.; Nilsen, Pĺl; Lindmo, Karine; Thu, Beate J.; Eliassen, Trygve M.; Roos, Norbert; Rode, Marit; Evensen, Řystein

    2011-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is a disease of yet unknown etiology characterized by a necrotizing myocarditis involving the atrium and the spongious part of the heart ventricle. Here, we report the identification of a double-stranded RNA virus likely belonging to the family Totiviridae as the causative agent of the disease. The proposed name of the virus is piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV). On the basis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequence, PMCV grouped with Giardia lamblia virus and infectious myonecrosis virus of penaeid shrimp. The genome size of PMCV is 6,688 bp, with three open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 likely encodes the major capsid protein, while ORF2 encodes the RdRp, possibly expressed as a fusion protein with the ORF1 product. ORF3 seems to be translated as a separate protein not described for any previous members of the family Totiviridae. Following experimental challenge with cell culture-grown virus, histopathological changes are observed in heart tissue by 6 weeks postchallenge (p.c.), with peak severity by 9 weeks p.c. Viral genome levels detected by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR peak earlier at 6 to 7 weeks p.c. The virus genome is detected by in situ hybridization in degenerate cardiomyocytes from clinical cases of CMS. Virus genome levels in the hearts from clinical field cases correlate well with the severity of histopathological changes in heart tissue. The identification of the causative agent for CMS is important for improved disease surveillance and disease control and will serve as a basis for vaccine development against the disease. PMID:21411528

  18. Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Schneeberger, Peter M.; Rozendaal, Frans W.; Broekman, Jan M.; Kemink, Stiena A. G.; Munster, Vincent; Kuiken, Thijs; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Schutten, Martin; van Doornum, Gerard J. J.; Koch, Guus; Bosman, Arnold; Koopmans, Marion; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2004-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 are the causative agents of fowl plague in poultry. Influenza A viruses of subtype H5N1 also caused severe respiratory disease in humans in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, including at least seven fatal cases, posing a serious human pandemic threat. Between the end of February and the end of May 2003, a fowl plague outbreak occurred in The Netherlands. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus of subtype H7N7, closely related to low pathogenic virus isolates obtained from wild ducks, was isolated from chickens. The same virus was detected subsequently in 86 humans who handled affected poultry and in three of their family members. Of these 89 patients, 78 presented with conjunctivitis, 5 presented with conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness, 2 presented with influenza-like illness, and 4 did not fit the case definitions. Influenza-like illnesses were generally mild, but a fatal case of pneumonia in combination with acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred also. Most virus isolates obtained from humans, including probable secondary cases, had not accumulated significant mutations. However, the virus isolated from the fatal case displayed 14 amino acid substitutions, some of which may be associated with enhanced disease in this case. Because H7N7 viruses have caused disease in mammals, including horses, seals, and humans, on several occasions in the past, they may be unusual in their zoonotic potential and, thus, form a pandemic threat to humans. PMID:14745020

  19. [The use of therapeutic play in the intensive care of a preschool child with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Hua; Feng, Jui-Ying

    2015-04-01

    Hospitalization is a stressful experience for children that increases their anxiety and fears, generates resistance and noncompliance, and, as a result, delays necessary treatments. Developing an age-appropriate intervention to reduce the hospitalization-related stress perceived by children is an important component of pediatric nursing. This case study used therapeutic play and drawing to care for a virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome preschooler who stayed in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between 11/13/2012 and 11/19/2012. Stressors faced by the patient included separation from primary caregiver, unfamiliarity with the medical environment and equipment, non-comprehension of the treatment and medication regimens, and loss of control. The patient displayed incorporative behaviors such as crying, screaming, refusing to be touched, and requesting parental accompaniment. Painting and picture books were used as developmentally appropriate interventions to understand the patient's feelings and to provide a means for him to project and release emotions. This strategy successfully assisted the child to overcome the perceived stress of hospitalization and to cooperate with healthcare providers on his treatment. PMID:25854953

  20. Molecular modeling and expression of the Litopenaeus vannamei proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after white spot syndrome virus shrimp infection

    PubMed Central

    de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A.; Islas-Osuna, Maria A.; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Brieba, Luis G.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.

    2011-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the eukaryotic sliding clamp that tethers DNA polymerase to DNA during replication. The full-length cDNA of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei PCNA (LvPCNA) was cloned and encoded a protein of 260 amino acids that is highly similar to other Crustacean PCNAs. The theoretical shrimp PCNA structure has all the domains that are necessary for its interaction with template DNA and DNA polymerase. RT-PCR analysis showed that LvPCNA is expressed mainly in muscle and hemocytes and much less in hepatopancreas and gills. LvPCNA mRNA levels are not statistically different in muscle from healthy and challenged shrimp with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In contrast, the mRNA levels of the viral DNA polymerase show a biphasic pattern with expression at 6 h post-infection and later at 24 and 48 h. These results suggest that in shrimp muscle LvPCNA levels are steadily kept to allow viral replication and that WSSV DNA polymerase (WSSV-DNApol) is more responsive towards later stages of infection. More knowledge of the DNA replication machinery would result in a better understanding of the mechanism and components of viral replication, since the WSSV genome does not have all the components required for assembly of a fully functional replisome. PMID:24371549

  1. Transcription and identification of a novel envelope protein (VP124) gene of shrimp white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbing; Xie, Xixian; Yang, Feng

    2005-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most virulent pathogens in shrimp culture worldwide. Combining SDS-PAGE with mass spectrometry, a novel envelope protein from WSSV was identified to match an open reading frame (ORF) of WSSV genome. This ORF contained 3582nt, encoding 1194 aa, and was termed the vp124 gene. One part of the whole gene (named vp124p) was cloned into pET-GST vector and expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Specific antibodies were raised using the purified fusion protein (GST-VP124P). Temporal transcription analysis revealed that the vp124 gene was a late gene. Western blot analysis showed that the mouse anti-GST-VP124P antibodies reacted specifically with VP124 present either in the WSSV virions or in the viral envelopes, and did not react with the proteins of the viral nucleocapsids. VP124 was located in the WSSV virions as an envelope protein using immunoelectron microscopy. PMID:15955586

  2. Characterization of Emerging European-Like Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ropp, Susan L.; Mahlum Wees, Carrie E.; Fang, Ying; Nelson, Eric A.; Rossow, Kurt D.; Bien, Melissa; Arndt, Bill; Preszler, Sarah; Steen, Pamela; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Collins, James E.; Benfield, David A.; Faaberg, Kay S.

    2004-01-01

    European-like field isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have recently emerged in North America. The full-length genomic sequence of an index isolate characterized in 1999, strain EuroPRRSV, served as the reference strain for further studies of the evolution and epidemiology of European-like isolates (type 1) in the United States. Strain EuroPRRSV shared 90.1 to 100% amino acid identity with the prototype European strain, Lelystad, within the structural and nonstructural open reading frames (ORFs) and 95.3% overall nucleotide identity. The 5? untranslated region and two nonstructural regions within ORF 1 were closely examined due to significant divergence from strain Lelystad. A 51-bp deletion in a region within ORF 1a, coding for nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2), was observed. Sequence analysis of the structural ORFs 2 to 7 of additional European-like isolates indicated that these isolates share 93% nucleotide identity with one another and 95 to 96% identity with the Lelystad strain but only 70% identity with the North American reference strain VR-2332. Phylogenetic analysis with published PRRSV ORF 3, 5, and 7 nucleotide sequences indicated that these newly emerging isolates form a clade with the Lelystad and United Kingdom PRRSV isolates. Detailed analysis of four of these isolates with a panel of 60 monoclonal antibodies directed against the structural proteins confirmed a recognition pattern that was more consistent with strain Lelystad than with other North American isolates. PMID:15016889

  3. Influence of acute salinity changes on biochemical, hematological and immune characteristics of Fenneropenaeus indicus during white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Ramasamy, Palaniappan; Wesley, Samuel Godwin; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the influence of salinity (5, 15, 25 and 35 g/L) on the biochemical and immune characteristics of Fenneropenaeus indicus challenged with 5. 5 × 10(4) copy number of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). F. indicus that had been reared in 25 g/L, injected with WSSV and transferred to 5, 15, 25 (control) and 35 g/L were examined after 0-120 hrs for total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) and respiratory burst (RB) activity and alkaline and acid phosphatase activities. It was concluded that F. indicus that had been transferred from 25 g/L to lower and higher salinity levels (5, 15 and 35 g/L) had poorer immune indices and decreased resistance against WSSV infection. After 120 hrs, the mortality rate in WSSV-injected F. indicus experimental groups (5 and 35 g/L) was significantly higher than for F. indicus exposed to 25 and 15 g/L salinities. During the experimental period (0-120 hrs), biochemical variables, namely total protein, carbohydrate, and lipid concentrations, were measured in hemolymph of both experimental and control groups. Acute salinity changes induced an increase in protein variations across the tested salinity ranges in shrimp. After 24 hrs, THC and PO activity decreased significantly whereas RB, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities increased in shrimps kept at the lower salinities of 5, 15 and 35 g/L. PMID:23773025

  4. Enhanced detection of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in fixed tissues by in situ hybridization following tyramide signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Trang, Nguyen Thi; Hirai, Takuya; Ngan, Pham Hong; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Fuke, Naoyuki; Toyama, Keiko; Yamamoto, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the sensitivity of biotinyl-tyramide-based in situ hybridization (TISH) method by comparison with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) methods. This study also determined the effect of fixative and fixation time on the detection of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in paraffin-embedded tissues. Lung samples were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) or 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF) for various times before paraffin embedding. Of 30 paraffin-embedded lung samples, fixed for 1 day in 4% PFA or 10% NBF, 18 (60%) were positive for PRRSV by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR). All 18 lung samples (100%) also were positive for PRRSV by TISH, but only 10 of these 18 specimens (56%) were positive for PRRSV by IHC and CISH. We demonstrated that TISH can detect PRRSV RNA in paraffin-embedded tissues after up to 90 days of fixation. PRRSV nucleic acids and antigens were better preserved in 4% PFA than in 10% NBF. Compared with CISH and IHC testing methods, TISH appeared to be more sensitive for the detection of PRRSV in paraffin-embedded tissues. PMID:25855364

  5. Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Joseph; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 ?m long and 850-485 ?m wide constructed from 8 ?m thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody-coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label-free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label-free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100 virions (nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions (nucleocapsids)/100?l, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label-free, in-situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation. PMID:20863681

  6. Grade 4 febrile neutropenia and Fournier’s Syndrome associated with triple therapy for hepatitis C virus: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Kelly Cristhian Lima; Cardoso, Emili de Oliveira Bortolon; de Souza, Suzana Carla Pereira; Machado, Flávia Souza; Zangirolami, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Moreira, Alecsandro; Silva, Giovanni Faria; de Oliveira, Cássio Vieira

    2014-01-01

    The use of triple therapy for hepatitis C not only increases the rate of sustained virological responses compared with the use of only interferon and ribavirin (RBV) but also leads to an increased number of side effects. The subject of this study was a 53-year-old male who was cirrhotic with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 A and was a previous null non-responder. We initially attempted retreatment with boceprevir (BOC), Peg-interferon and RBV, and a decrease in viral load was observed in the 8th week. In week 12, he presented with disorientation, flapping, fever, tachypnea, arterial hypotension and tachycardia. He also exhibited leucopenia with neutropenia. Cefepime and filgrastim were initiated, and treatment for hepatitis C was suspended. A myelogram revealed hypoplasia, cytotoxicity and maturational retardation. After 48 h, he developed bilateral inguinal erythema that evolved throughout the perineal area to the root of the thighs, with exulcerations and an outflow of seropurulent secretions. Because we hypothesized that he was suffering from Fournier’s Syndrome, treatment was replaced with the antibiotics imipenem, linezolid and clindamycin. After this new treatment paradigm was initiated, his lesions regressed without requiring surgical debridement. Triple therapy requires knowledge regarding the management of adverse effects and drug interactions; it also requires an understanding of the importance of respecting the guidelines for the withdrawal of treatment. In this case report, we observed an adverse event that had not been previously reported in the literature with the use of BOC. PMID:25018856

  7. Grade 4 febrile neutropenia and Fournier's Syndrome associated with triple therapy for hepatitis C virus: A case report.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Kelly Cristhian Lima; Cardoso, Emili de Oliveira Bortolon; de Souza, Suzana Carla Pereira; Machado, Flávia Souza; Zangirolami, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Moreira, Alecsandro; Silva, Giovanni Faria; de Oliveira, Cássio Vieira

    2014-06-27

    The use of triple therapy for hepatitis C not only increases the rate of sustained virological responses compared with the use of only interferon and ribavirin (RBV) but also leads to an increased number of side effects. The subject of this study was a 53-year-old male who was cirrhotic with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 A and was a previous null non-responder. We initially attempted retreatment with boceprevir (BOC), Peg-interferon and RBV, and a decrease in viral load was observed in the 8(th) week. In week 12, he presented with disorientation, flapping, fever, tachypnea, arterial hypotension and tachycardia. He also exhibited leucopenia with neutropenia. Cefepime and filgrastim were initiated, and treatment for hepatitis C was suspended. A myelogram revealed hypoplasia, cytotoxicity and maturational retardation. After 48 h, he developed bilateral inguinal erythema that evolved throughout the perineal area to the root of the thighs, with exulcerations and an outflow of seropurulent secretions. Because we hypothesized that he was suffering from Fournier's Syndrome, treatment was replaced with the antibiotics imipenem, linezolid and clindamycin. After this new treatment paradigm was initiated, his lesions regressed without requiring surgical debridement. Triple therapy requires knowledge regarding the management of adverse effects and drug interactions; it also requires an understanding of the importance of respecting the guidelines for the withdrawal of treatment. In this case report, we observed an adverse event that had not been previously reported in the literature with the use of BOC. PMID:25018856

  8. Evaluation of the aerosol transmission of a mixed infection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Fano, E; Pijoan, C; Dee, S

    2005-07-23

    To evaluate the transmission of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) by aerosol as either a single or mixed infection, 28 pigs were inoculated intratracheally with M hyopneumoniae on day 0 and infected intranasally with PRRSV on day 35; they were housed together in a barn. To assess the aerosol transmission of M hyopneumoniae as a single infection, one trailer (A) containing 10 five-week-old sentinel pigs was placed along the south side of the infected barn (1 m from the fans) on day 28. To assess the mixed infection, two trailers (B and C), each containing 10 five-week-old sentinel pigs, were placed along each side of the barn on day 42. The sentinel pigs in the three trailers were exposed to the exhaust from the fans for seven days. No M hyopneumoniae infection was detected in the sentinel pigs in trailer A, but it was detected in the sentinel pigs in trailers B and C. No PRRSV was detected in any of the sentinel pigs. PMID:16040942

  9. Immune modulations and protection by translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in Fenneropenaeus indicus harboring white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, S; Kamalakannan, V; Narayanan, R B

    2014-07-01

    Fenneropenaeus indicus translationally controlled tumor protein (Fi-TCTP) was cloned and expressed using pET 100a-D-TOPO in prokaryotic expression system and it exhibited putative antioxidant activity as assessed in vitro by enhanced growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The protective efficacy of recombinant Fi-TCTP (rFi-TCTP) was evaluated in F. indicus by intramuscular and oral administration. Intramuscular injection of rFi-TCTP to shrimps, on subsequent white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection exhibited 42% relative percent survival. To understand the mechanism of protection, immunological parameters such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), phenoloxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed in early (24h) and late (60h) stages of infection. rFi-TCTP pretreatment significantly lowers the WSSV induced ROS generation and respiratory burst during early and late stages of infection. Further, WSSV induced apoptotic changes such as reduced haemocyte count, loss in MMP and DNA fragmentation were significantly reduced during early and late stage of infection upon rFi-TCTP administration. Hence, the immunomodulatory studies suggest that protective effect of rFi-TCTP in treated shrimps, might be due to the reduction in ROS and apoptosis, following decreased mitochondrial damage together with reduced phenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst. PMID:24837973

  10. Serological characterization of dengue virus infections observed among dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome cases in upper Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, Mya Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Kurosawa, Yae; Lwin, Yee Yee; Lin, Sanda; Aye, Kay Thi; Thet Khin, Pe; Myint, Tin; Htwe, Khin; Mapua, Cynthia A; Natividad, Filipinas F; Hirayama, Kenji; Morita, Kouichi

    2013-07-01

    In Myanmar, dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children. From Pyinmana Hospital in 2004 and Mandalay Children Hospital in 2006, 160 patients diagnosed clinically to have DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were examined for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels. A focus reduction neutralization test was also used to determine primary or secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection. By using IgM-capture ELISA, 139 cases were confirmed as DENV infections. Of these IgM-positives, 94 samples were collected 7-24 days from the onset of illness, to which 13 (14%) and 81 (86%) were determined to be primary and secondary DENV infections, respectively. The 13 primary DENV infection cases were spread among the various severity groups (DHF grade I-IV and DSS) and represented age groups ranging from <1 year of age to 9 years of age. The patients in these primary infection cases showed a remarkably high IgM with a low IgG titer response compared with the secondary infection cases. No significant differences were observed in IgG titers with clinical severity. The data obtained in this study suggest that primary DENV infection cases exist certainly among DHF/DSS cases in Myanmar, and that additional mechanism(s) aside from the antibody-dependent enhancement mechanism could have influenced the clinical severity in DHF/DSS cases. PMID:23595687

  11. Preparation of armored RNA as a control for multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR detection of influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-Fen; Pan, Jing-Cao; Ye, Rong; Xiang, Hai-Qing; Kou, Yu; Huang, Zhi-Cheng

    2008-03-01

    The common respiratory viruses, including influenza A, influenza B, and newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) viruses, may cause similar clinical symptoms. Therefore, differential diagnosis of these virus pathogens is frequently required for single clinical samples. In addition, there is an urgent need for noninfectious and stable RNA standards and controls for multivirus detection. In this study, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) targeting of the RNAs of influenza A and influenza B viruses and SARS coronavirus was performed, and the resulting products were spliced into a fragment which was packaged into armored RNA for use as a noninfectious, quantifiable synthetic substitute. Furthermore, in the present study we developed a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay in which the armored RNA was used as an external positive control and the three RNA viruses could be detected simultaneously in a single reaction mix. The detection limit of the multiplex real-time PCR was 10 copies/microl of armored RNA. PMID:18160451

  12. Interaction of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein with the inhibitor of MyoD family-a domain-containing protein.

    PubMed

    Song, Cheng; Lu, Ray; Bienzle, Dorothee; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Yoo, Dongwan

    2009-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus is an RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm, but the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein localizes specifically in the nucleus and nucleolus of virus-infected cells. Nuclear localization of N is non-essential for PRRSV replication in cultured cells but has been shown to modulate the pathogenesis of virus in pigs, suggesting that N plays an accessory role in the nucleus during infection. We identified by yeast two-hybrid screening the inhibitor of MyoD family-a (I-mfa) domain-containing protein (HIC) as a cellular partner for PRRS virus (PRRSV) N protein. This protein is a homolog of human HIC, a recently identified cellular transcription factor. The specific interaction of PRRSV N with HIC was confirmed in cells by mammalian two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro by GST pull-down assay. HIC is a zinc-binding protein and confocal microscopy demonstrated co-localization of N with the HIC-p40 isomer in the nucleus and nucleolus, and in the cytoplasm with HIC-p32, which is the N-terminal truncation of HIC-p40. The porcine homolog of HIC is universally expressed in pig tissues including alveolar macrophages. The interaction of viral capsid with the cellular transcription factor implicates a possible regulation of host cell gene expression by the N protein during PRRSV infection. PMID:19090724

  13. Profiling of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus-resistant shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Ying; Yin, Zhi-Xin; Weng, Shao-Ping; Guan, Hao-Ji; Li, Se-Dong; Xing, Ke; Chan, Siu-Ming; He, Jian-Guo

    2007-05-01

    In order to find immune-relevant factors responsible for virus resistance and response to the virus infection, the suppression subtractive hybridisation method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes and their expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistant and susceptible Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Two forward subtractive libraries (at 0 and 48h time point) and two reverse subtractive libraries (at 0 and 48h time point) were constructed, and more than 1200 clones were sequenced, of which 40 differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes encode proteins corresponding to a wide range of functions, including defence-related proteins, enzymes, transcription factors, apoptotic-related proteins, intracellular components potentially related to signaling cascades, metabolic proteins, and cytoskeletal protein. Five genes (laccase, carboxypeptidase B, H(+)-transporting ATP synthase, Acyl-ConA-binding protein (ACBP), and cortical granule protein with LDL-receptor) are found for the first time in shrimp and their expressions were up-regulated in the virus-resistant shrimp. Among the 40 genes, 30 showed up-regulation in the virus-resistant shrimp comparing with susceptible shrimp, while 10 genes showed down-regulation. Haemocyanin was the most abundant gene in our forward subtractive libraries. In addition, chathepsin L, ecdysteroid regulated protein, zinc proteinase, lectin, sterol carrier protein-X, lysozyme, cortical granule protein with LDL-receptor, leucine-rich repeat LGI family, fatty acid binding protein, and preamylase all showed up-regulation in the resistant shrimp. Furthermore, a number of genes encoding apoptotic-related proteins and antioxidant enzymes were expressed at a higher level in the virus-resistant shrimp. The high expression of the immune-relevant genes in response to the virus infection provides a new insight for further study in the shrimp innate immunity. PMID:17158065

  14. Epidemiology and Evolutionary Characteristics of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in China between 2006 and 2010?†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Fang, Liurong; Guo, Xueliang; Gao, Jianfeng; Song, Tao; Bi, Jing; He, Kongwang; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, an emerging highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which causes continuous high fever and a high proportion of deaths in vaccinated pigs of all ages, broke out in mainland China and spread rapidly to neighboring countries. To examine the epidemiology and evolutionary characteristics of Chinese PRRSV after the 2006 outbreak, we tested 2,981 clinical samples collected from 2006 to 2010 in China, determined 153 Nsp2 sequences and 249 ORF5 sequences, and analyzed the epidemiology and genetic diversity of Chinese PRRSV. Our results showed that the percentage of PRRSV-positive specimens collected from sick pigs averaged 60.85% in the past 5 years and that the highly pathogenic PRRSV has become the dominant strain in China. Furthermore, a reemerging strain which apparently evolved from the highly pathogenic PRRSV strain in 2006 appeared to be widely prevalent in China from 2009 onwards. Sequence analyses revealed that the hypervariable region of Nsp2 in most of the isolates contained a discontinuous deletion equivalent to 30 amino acids, along with other types of deletions. Extensive amino acid substitutions in the GP5 sequence translated from ORF5 were found, particularly in the potential neutralization epitope and the N-glycosylation sites. Our results suggest that Chinese PRRSV has undergone rapid evolution and can circumvent immune responses induced by currently used vaccines. Information from this study will help in understanding the evolutionary characteristics of Chinese PRRSV and assist ongoing efforts to develop and use PRRSV vaccines in the future. PMID:21775536

  15. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results). PMID:22247377

  16. Epitope mapping of the nucleocapsid protein of European and North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Garcia, J; Sanz, A; Plana-Durán, J; Ignacio Casal, J

    1997-09-01

    Two major genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been described, which correspond to the European and North American isolates. PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein has been identified as the most immunodominant viral protein. The N genes from two PRRSV isolates, Olot/91 (European) and Québec 807/94 (North American), were cloned and expressed in: (i) baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter and (ii) Escherichia coli using the pET3x system. The N protein from both isolates was expressed much more efficiently in E. coli as a fusion protein than in baculovirus. The antigenicity of the protein was similar in both systems and it was recognized by a collection of 48 PRRSV-positive pig sera. The antigenic structure of the PRRSV N protein was investigated using seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and overlapping fragments of the protein expressed in E. coli. Four MAbs recognized two discontinuous epitopes that were present in the partially folded protein, or at least a large fragment comprising the first 78 residues. The other three MAbs revealed the presence of a common antigenic site localized in the central region of the protein (amino acids 50-66). This region is well conserved among different isolates of European and North American origin and is the most hydrophilic region of the protein. However, this epitope, although recognized by the MAbs and many pig sera, is not useful for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, none of the N protein fragments were able to mimic the antigenicity of the entire protein. PMID:9292014

  17. Modulation of CD163 Expression by Metalloprotease ADAM17 Regulates Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Longjun; Niu, Junwei; Yu, Haidong; Gu, Weihong; Li, Ren; Luo, Xiaolei; Huang, Mingming; Tian, Zhijun; Feng, Li

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a consequence of their effects on ectodomain shedding, members of the A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family have been implicated in the control of various cellular processes. Although ADAM family members are also involved in cancer, inflammation, and other pathologies, it is unclear whether they affect porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of ADAM17 enhances PRRSV entry in Marc-145 and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). We also demonstrate that the inhibition of ADAM17 upregulates membrane CD163 expression, a putative PRRSV receptor that is exogenously expressed in BHK-21 and endogenously expressed in Marc-145 and PAMs. Furthermore, overexpression of ADAM17 induced downregulation of CD163 expression and a reduction in PRRSV infection, whereas ablation of ADAM17 expression using specific small interfering RNA resulted in upregulation of CD163 expression with a corresponding increase in PRRSV infection. These ADAM17-mediated effects were confirmed with PRRSV nonpermissive BHK-21 cells transfected with CD163 cDNA. Overall, these findings indicate that ADAM17 downregulates CD163 expression and hinders PRRSV entry. Hence, downregulation of ADAM17 particular substrates may be an additional component of the anti-infection defenses. IMPORTANCE ADAM17 is one of the important membrane-associated metalloproteases that mediate various cellular events, as well as inflammation, cancer, and other pathologies. Here, we investigate for the first time the role of the metalloprotease ADAM17 in PRRSV infection. By using inhibitor and genetic modification methods, we demonstrate that ADAM17 negatively regulate PRRSV entry by regulating its substrate(s). More specifically, ADAM 17 mediates the downregulation of the PRRSV cellular receptor CD163. The reduction in CD163 expression represents another component of the anti-infection response initiated by ADAM17. PMID:24965453

  18. A gC1qR prevents white spot syndrome virus replication in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus.

    PubMed

    Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-10-01

    The gC1qR/p32 protein is a multiple receptor for several proteins and pathogens. We cloned a gC1qR homologue in a crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, and analyzed the expression of P. leniusculus C1qR (PlgC1qR) in various tissues. The gC1qR/p32 transcript was significantly enhanced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection 6 h after viral infection both in vitro in a hematopoietic tissue cell culture (Hpt) and in vivo compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, PlgC1qR silencing in both the Hpt cell culture and live crayfish enhanced the WSSV replication. In addition, by making a recombinant PlgC1qR protein we could show that if this recombinant protein was injected in a crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, followed by injection of WSSV, this significantly reduced viral replication in vivo. Furthermore, if the recombinant PlgC1qR was incubated with Hpt cells and then WSSV was added, this also reduced viral replication. These experiments clearly demonstrate that recombinant PlgC1qR reduce WSSV replication both in vivo and in vitro. The results from a far-Western overlay and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays showed that PlgC1qR could bind to VP15, VP26, and VP28. Altogether, these results demonstrate a role for PlgC1qR in antiviral activity against WSSV. PMID:20686021

  19. Prohibitin Interacts with Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Prevents Infection in the Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Jiang-Feng; Li, Xin-Cang; Sun, Jie-Jie; Gong, Jing; Wang, Xian-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Shi, Li-Jie; Weng, Yu-Ding; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2013-01-01

    Prohibitins (PHBs) are ubiquitously expressed conserved proteins in eukaryotes that are associated with apoptosis, cancer formation, aging, stress responses, cell proliferation, and immune regulation. However, the function of PHBs in crustacean immunity remains largely unknown. In the present study, we identified a PHB in Procambarus clarkii red swamp crayfish, which was designated PcPHB1. PcPHB1 was widely distributed in several tissues, and its expression was significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge at the mRNA level and the protein level. These observations prompted us to investigate the role of PcPHB1 in the crayfish antiviral response. Recombinant PcPHB1 (rPcPHB1) significantly reduced the amount of WSSV in crayfish and the mortality of WSSV-infected crayfish. The quantity of WSSV in PcPHB1 knockdown crayfish was increased compared with that in the controls. The effects of RNA silencing were rescued by rPcPHB1 reinjection. We further confirmed the interaction of PcPHB1 with the WSSV envelope proteins VP28, VP26, and VP24 using pulldown and far-Western overlay assays. Finally, we observed that the colloidal gold-labeled PcPHB1 was located on the outer surface of the WSSV, which suggests that PcPHB1 specifically binds to the envelope proteins of WSSV. VP28, VP26, and VP24 are structural envelope proteins and are essential for attachment and entry into crayfish cells. Therefore, PcPHB1 exerts its anti-WSSV effect by binding to VP28, VP26, and VP24, preventing viral infection. This study is the first report on the antiviral function of PHB in the innate immune system of crustaceans. PMID:24049173

  20. Evaluation of 4 intervention strategies to prevent the mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Four intervention strategies were tested for their ability to prevent the mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): the use of disposable plastic boots to prevent contamination of personal footwear, the use of boot baths to disinfect PRRSV-contaminated plastic boots, the use of plastic slatted (Polygrate) flooring in the anteroom to prevent PRRSV contamination of incoming personal footwear, and the use of bag-in-a-box shipping methods to prevent PRRSV contamination of the contents of a container destined for a swine farm. Ten PRRSV-positive replicates and 10 PRRSV-negative (sham-inoculated) replicates were used for each strategy. Swabs were collected from selected sites and tested by TaqMan polymerase chain reaction for PRRSV RNA and by swine bioassay to confirm the presence of infectious PRRSV. Results indicated that the use of disposable boots, bleach boot baths or bag-in-a-box shipping methods was highly efficacious in preventing mechanical transmission of PRRSV. In contrast, the use of Polygrate flooring in the anteroom did not prevent contamination of personal footwear. The numbers of PRRSV-positive samples from the Polygrate surface and the soles of incoming footwear placed directly on the Polygrate surface were not significantly different (P = 0.24) from those of footwear that directly contacted the floor of the contaminated anteroom. Although these results are promising, this study should be considered a pilot project and the intervention strategies not considered biosecurity protocols. The model used may or may not represent field conditions. Therefore, the information should be used to develop larger experimental studies, with sufficient statistical power, in combination with field-based epidemiologic studies to better assess the role of mechanical transmission of PRRSV under field conditions. PMID:14979431

  1. Novel, closely related, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genotypes from Madagascar, Mozambique and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Le Groumellec, Marc; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-09-24

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly pathogenic to penaeid shrimp and has caused significant economic losses in the aquaculture industry around the world. During 2010 to 2012, WSSV caused severe mortalities in cultured penaeid shrimp in Saudi Arabia, Mozambique and Madagascar. To investigate the origins of these WSSV, we performed genotyping analyses at 5 loci: the 3 open reading frames (ORFs) 125, 94 and 75, each containing a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and deletions in the 2 variable regions, VR14/15 and VR23/24. We categorized the WSSV genotype as {N125, N94, N75, ?X14/15, ?X23/24} where N is the number of repeat units in a specific ORF and ?X is the length (base pair) of deletion within the variable region. We detected 4 WSSV genotypes, which were characterized by a full-length deletion in ORF94/95, a relatively small ORF75 and one specific deletion length in each variable region. There are 2 closely related genotypes in these 3 countries: {6125, del94, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24} and {7125, del94, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24}, where del is the full-length ORF deletion. In Saudi Arabia, 2 other related types of WSSV were also found: {6125, 794, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24} and {8125, 1394, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24}. The identical patterns of 3 loci in these 4 types indicate that they have a common lineage, and this suggests that the WSSV epidemics in these 3 countries were from a common source, possibly the environment. PMID:24062547

  2. High infection rate of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) with Puumala virus is associated with a winter outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, A; Bjedov, L; Margaletic, J; Zibrat, B; Krajinovic, L Cvetko; Svoboda, P; Kurolt, I C; Majetic, Z Stritof; Turk, N; Rode, O Dakovic; Civljak, R; Kuzman, I; Markotic, A

    2014-09-01

    An outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) started on Medvednica mountain near Zagreb in January 2012. In order to detect the aetiological agent of the disease in small rodents and to make the link with the human outbreak, rodents were trapped at four different altitudes. Using nested RT-PCR, Puumala virus (PUUV) RNA was detected in 41/53 (77·4%) bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) RNA was found in 6/61 (9·8%) yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). Sequence analysis of a 341-nucleotide region of the PUUV S segment, obtained from all infected bank voles and five HFRS patients, showed 98·8-100% sequence similarity, indicating that the patients were probably exposed to PUUV on Medvednica mountain. A very large bank-vole population combined with an extremely high infection rate of PUUV was responsible for this unusual winter outbreak of HFRS in Croatia. PMID:24800636

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes in haemocytes of the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) infected with white spot syndrome virus by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yong; Lu, Cheng-Ping

    2009-04-01

    By using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarrays, we studied the differentially expressed genes in haemocytes of the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Thirty three differentially expressed genes were detected in which 31 were up-regulated and 2 were down-regulated. The up-regulated genes include serine protease inhibitors, chaperonin, synaptasome-associated protein of 25 kD(SNAP25), tubulin, zinc-finger protein, intracellular fatty acid binding protein, extracellular superoxide dismutase precursor, arginine kinase, 70 kD heat shock like protein and Bax inhibitor-1. A lot of genes including the 2 down-regulated genes are still unknown. All these immuno-related genes responding to the virus infection provide a new insight for further study in the shrimp innate immunity. PMID:19071220

  4. White Spot Syndrome Virus Open Reading Frame 222 Encodes a Viral E3 Ligase and Mediates Degradation of a Host Tumor Suppressor via Ubiquitination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang He; Beau J. Fenner; Andrew K. Godwin; Jimmy Kwang

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) RING-H2-type protein, WSSV222, which is involved in ubiquitination. WSSV222 exhibits RING-H2-dependent E3 ligase activity in vitro in the presence of the specific conjugating enzyme UbcH6. Mutations in the RING-H2 domain abolished WSSV222-dependent ubiquitination, revealing the importance of this domain in WSSV222 function. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down analyses revealed that WSSV222 interacts

  5. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Li, Kenneth S M; Huang, Yi; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Wong, Beatrice H L; Wong, Samson S Y; Leung, Suet-Yi; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2005-09-27

    Although the finding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in caged palm civets from live animal markets in China has provided evidence for interspecies transmission in the genesis of the SARS epidemic, subsequent studies suggested that the civet may have served only as an amplification host for SARS-CoV. In a surveillance study for CoV in noncaged animals from the wild areas of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region, we identified a CoV closely related to SARS-CoV (bat-SARS-CoV) from 23 (39%) of 59 anal swabs of wild Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) by using RT-PCR. Sequencing and analysis of three bat-SARS-CoV genomes from samples collected at different dates showed that bat-SARS-CoV is closely related to SARS-CoV from humans and civets. Phylogenetic analysis showed that bat-SARS-CoV formed a distinct cluster with SARS-CoV as group 2b CoV, distantly related to known group 2 CoV. Most differences between the bat-SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV genomes were observed in the spike genes, ORF 3 and ORF 8, which are the regions where most variations also were observed between human and civet SARS-CoV genomes. In addition, the presence of a 29-bp insertion in ORF 8 of bat-SARS-CoV genome, not in most human SARS-CoV genomes, suggests that it has a common ancestor with civet SARS-CoV. Antibody against recombinant bat-SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein was detected in 84% of Chinese horseshoe bats by using an enzyme immunoassay. Neutralizing antibody to human SARS-CoV also was detected in bats with lower viral loads. Precautions should be exercised in the handling of these animals. PMID:16169905

  6. Internal initiation of mRNA translation in insect cell mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2006-06-01

    Internal initiation of mRNA translation can be mediated by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements which are located mainly in RNA viruses as well as certain mammalian and insect mRNA molecules. Thus far, only one DNA virus has been discovered to contain IRES element. In this investigation, an IRES element from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a DNA virus of marine shrimp, was demonstrated to direct the efficient translation of dicistronic mRNA in Trichoplusia ni insect cells. The IRES was inserted between glutathione S-transferase (GST) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes to construct a dicistronic cassette (GST-IRES-GFP). After transfection of this dicistronic cassette in insect cell, the Northern blot indicated that only one transcript corresponding to the mRNA of GST-IRES-GFP could be detected. However, the GST and GFP genes were simultaneously translated as revealed by Western blot and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Based on sequence orientation and deletion analyses, the IRES element was 180 nucleotides (nt) in length and orientation-dependent. By comparison with that of cap-dependent initiation, the translation efficiency mediated by IRES was 98.77%. This finding promises that the WSSV IRES could be very useful to co-express two or more proteins due to its shorter length and higher translation efficiency. PMID:16631622

  7. The development of a rapid SYBR one step real-time RT-PCR for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prompt detection of PRRSV in the field samples is important for effective PRRS control, thereby reducing the potentially serious economic damage which can result from an outbreak. In this study, a rapid SYBR-based, one step real-time RT-PCR quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has been developed for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Primers were designed based on the sequence of highly conservative region of PRRSV N gene. Results The sensitivity of the real-time qRT-PCR assay was achieved through PRRSV ch-1a RNA for the generation of a standard curve. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 9.6 RNA copies per reaction mixture. This assay had excellent intra- and inter-assay reproducibility as in total 65 field samples were screened for the presence of PRRSV by conventional RT-PCR in parallel with qRT-PCR, and the detection rate increased from 60.0% to 76.9%. Moreover, the specificity result indicated that this assay could reliably differentiate PRRSV from the other swine viral diseases, such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV). Conclusion The real-time qRT-PCR assay described in this report allows the rapid, specific and sensitive laboratory detection of PRRSV in field samples. PMID:20459705

  8. Evidence for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) broodstock, in the southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Remany, M C; Daly, C; Nagaraj, S; Panda, A K; Jaideep, K; Samraj, Y C T

    2012-11-01

    A survey on the presence of the viruses of two economically significant diseases, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild-collected Penaeus monodon broodstock, was conducted during different seasons of the year in two major coastal areas of southeast India. The broodstock were collected along the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during summer, premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for three consecutive years. A total of 7905 samples were collected and subjected to MBV screening, and 6709 samples that were screened as MBV negative were diagnosed for WSSV. MBV was detected using rapid malachite green staining and WSSV by nested polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence data of the viruses were analysed using the EpiCalc 2000 program at 95% confidence interval. Samples collected from the Andhra Pradesh coast displayed a slightly higher prevalence of WSSV and MBV infection than those collected from Tamil Nadu, although this difference was not statistically significant (P > 005). In addition, it was found that the prevalence of both WSSV and MBV infections fluctuated according to season. Data on prevalence of these viruses in broodstock would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management along the southeast coast of India. PMID:22924635

  9. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions...issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area...

  10. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions...issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area...

  11. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions...issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area...

  12. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions...issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area...

  13. Chikungunya Virus, Cameroon, 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe N. Peyrefi; Dominique Rousset; Boris A. M. Pastorino; Regis Pouillot; Maël Bessaud; Fabienne Tock; Helene Mansaray; Olivier L. Merle; Aurelie M. Pascual; Christophe Paupy; Aurelia Vessiere; Patrice Imbert; Jean-Paul Durand; Hugues J. Tolou; Marc Grandadam

    2007-01-01

    We report the isolation of chikungunya virus from a pa- tient during an outbreak of a denguelike syndrome in Cam- eroon in 2006. The virus was phylogenetically grouped in the Democratic Republic of the Congo cluster, indicating a continuous circulation of a genetically similar chikungunya virus population during 6 years in Central Africa.

  14. The 30-Amino-Acid Deletion in the Nsp2 of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Emerging in China Is Not Related to Its Virulence?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jialong; Zeng, Jingwen; Yin, Shuoyan; Li, Yanhua; Zheng, Linying; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Yang, Hanchun

    2009-01-01

    During the past 2 years, an atypical clinical outbreak, caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with a unique 30-amino-acid deletion in its Nsp2-coding region, was pandemic in China. In this study, we generated four full-length infectious cDNA clones: a clone of the highly virulent PRRSV strain JXwn06 (pWSK-JXwn), a clone of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-HB-1/3.9), a chimeric clone in which the Nsp2 region containing the 30-amino-acid deletion was replaced by the corresponding region of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-JXwn-HB1nsp2), and a mutated HB-1/3.9 clone with the same deletion in Nsp2 as JXwn06 (pWSK-HB1-ND30). We also investigated the pathogenicities of the rescued viruses (designated RvJXwn, RvJXwn-HB1nsp2, RvHB-1/3.9, and RvHB1-ND30, respectively) in specific-pathogen-free piglets in order to determine the role of the 30-amino-acid deletion in the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV. All the rescued viruses could replicate stably in MARC-145 cells. Our findings indicated that RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 retained high virulence for piglets, like RvJXwn and the parental virus JXwn06, although the survival time of piglets infected with RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 was obviously prolonged. RvHB1-ND30 exhibited low virulence for piglets, like RvHB-1/3.9 and the parental virus HB-1/3.9. Therefore, we conclude that the 30-amino-acid deletion is not related to the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV emerging in China. PMID:19244318

  15. Differential profile of genes expressed in hemocytes of White Spot Syndrome Virus-resistant shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) by combining suppression subtractive hybridization and differential hybridization.

    PubMed

    He, Nanhai; Qin, Qiwei; Xu, Xun

    2005-04-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is the major viral pathogen of culture shrimp. Although remarkable progress has been made in characterizing the WSSV genome, information concerning the antiviral process of host is still limited. To identify the genes differentially expressed along with their expression profile in the hemocytes of the virus-resistant shrimp, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and differential hybridization (DH) were employed. Relying on the sequences identified in the subtractive cDNA library, 30 genes were characterized to be involved in the antiviral process as defense-relevant, among them, 22 are found for the first time in penaeid shrimp. The most interesting finding is that the interferon-like protein (IntlP) and (2'-5') oligo(A) synthetase-like protein (data not shown) known as the antiviral factors showed increased expression in virus-resistant shrimp and the non-specific antiviral activity of IntlP protein was verified by cytotoxicity experiment. A number of proteins with certain similarities to the components of the complement and cytokines system in vertebrates were also found in the subtracted library. The high expression of redox-related factors (NADH dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and transcription factor AP-1 precursor), plasma defensive protein (C-type lectin and laminin-like protein) and translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in the virus-resistant shrimp suggested that they are essential components participating in the antiviral process. Our work provides a wide array of genes differentially expressed in the virus-resistant shrimp, and a framework for further studies aimed at antiviral mechanism in shrimp. PMID:15781131

  16. Sudden death of a patient with pandemic influenza (A/H1N1pdm) virus infection by acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Akihiro; Wang, Lei; Tanino, Mishie; Kimura, Taichi; Kawagishi, Naoki; Kunieda, Yasuyuki; Katano, Harutaka; Nakajima, Noriko; Hasegawa, Hideki; Takagi, Tomoyuki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tanaka, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    We describe an autopsy case of a patient with pandemic influenza (A/H1N1pdm) virus infection in Japan, who developed rapidly progressive viral pneumonia exhibiting diffuse alveolar damage. A 41-year-old female visited our hospital with a fever of 38.7C. She was a public health nurse with no underlying disease and had had contact with a group of elementary school students who had been infected with the influenza (A/H1N1pdm) virus 1 week earlier. She was prescribed oseltamivir and returned to the hotel where she was staying alone. The next day, she was found dead in her hotel room. At autopsy, both lungs were voluminous and microscopic examination revealed acute-stage, severe diffuse alveolar damage with remarkable mononuclear cell infiltration and hyaline membrane formation in the lungs. CD8-positive T lymphocytes were dominantly observed. Immunohistochemically, influenza A viral protein was confirmed in the damaged type II pneumocytes and also in the infiltrated macrophages. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of both pre- and post-mortem pharyngeal swabs confirmed a novel influenza (A/H1N1pdm) virus infection. This is the second autopsy case of influenza (A/H1N1pdm) virus infection in Japan, and the findings indicated that the patient died due to an exceptionally rapid progression of viral pneumonia. This case indicates that patients with influenza (A/H1N1pdm) virus infection should be carefully monitor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:20093769

  17. Antigenic variation of European haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus strains characterized using bank vole monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lundkvist; A. Fatouros; B. Niklasson

    1991-01-01

    Monocloral antibodies (MAbs) against Puumala (PUU) virus, the aetiological agent of nephropathia epidemica, were produced by fusing activated spleen cells from a bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) with the mouse myeloma cell line SP2\\/0. This novel approach, utilizing the natural vector of PUU virus for hybriOoma production, proved to be highly efficient, and eight stable PUU virus-specific heterohybridomas were isolated and

  18. Immune response in pigs vaccinated with plasmid DNA encoding ORF5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boroushan Pirzadeh; Serge Dea

    1998-01-01

    The ORF5-encoded major envelope glycoprotein (GP5) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syn- drome virus (PRRSV) is one of the three major structural proteins of this virus. While some porcine convalescent sera and monoclonal antibodies directed against GP4 and GP5 have the capacity to neutralize the virus in vitro, the protein specificity of porcine neutralizing sera has not yet been estab-

  19. Yeast Surface Display of Two Proteins Previously Shown to Be Protective Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Ananphongmanee, Vorawit; Srisala, Jiraporn; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Boonchird, Chuenchit

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7) and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae ?-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1) promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7) and partial VP28 (pVP28) were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against WSSV by oral administration. PMID:26083446

  20. Yeast Surface Display of Two Proteins Previously Shown to Be Protective Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Ananphongmanee, Vorawit; Srisala, Jiraporn; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Boonchird, Chuenchit

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7) and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae ?-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1) promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7) and partial VP28 (pVP28) were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against WSSV by oral administration. PMID:26083446

  1. Genome-wide association and genomic prediction for host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Host genetics has been shown to play a role in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), which is the most economically important disease in the swine industry. A region on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 4 has been previously reported to have a strong association with serum viremia and weight gain in pigs experimentally infected with the PRRS virus (PRRSV). The objective here was to identify haplotypes associated with the favorable phenotype, investigate additional genomic regions associated with host response to PRRSV, and to determine the predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) based on the SSC4 region and based on the rest of the genome. Phenotypic data and 60 K SNP genotypes from eight trials of ~200 pigs from different commercial crosses were used to address these objectives. Results Across the eight trials, heritability estimates were 0.44 and 0.29 for viral load (VL, area under the curve of log-transformed serum viremia from 0 to 21 days post infection) and weight gain to 42 days post infection (WG), respectively. Genomic regions associated with VL were identified on chromosomes 4, X, and 1. Genomic regions associated with WG were identified on chromosomes 4, 5, and 7. Apart from the SSC4 region, the regions associated with these two traits each explained less than 3% of the genetic variance. Due to the strong linkage disequilibrium in the SSC4 region, only 19 unique haplotypes were identified across all populations, of which four were associated with the favorable phenotype. Through cross-validation, accuracies of EBV based on the SSC4 region were high (0.55), while the rest of the genome had little predictive ability across populations (0.09). Conclusions Traits associated with response to PRRSV infection in growing pigs are largely controlled by genomic regions with relatively small effects, with the exception of SSC4. Accuracies of EBV based on the SSC4 region were high compared to the rest of the genome. These results show that selection for the SSC4 region could potentially reduce the effects of PRRS in growing pigs, ultimately reducing the economic impact of this disease. PMID:24592976

  2. Evaluation of the Efficacy of an Attenuated Live Vaccine against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (105.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. PMID:22695163

  3. Real-time PCR for quantitation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 in naturally-infected and challenged pigs.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Bin; Chan, Wen-Hung; Chaung, Hso-Chi; Lien, Yi; Wu, Chia-Chang; Huang, Yu-Liang

    2005-03-01

    Real-time PCR assays were developed for quantitative detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). The established real-time PCR for the quantitation of PRRSV cDNA and PCV2 DNA were found to be in the 9-log(10) linear dynamic range with excellent linearity and reliable reproducibility. Using these techniques, the distribution and quantitation of PRRSV and PCV2 in naturally infected and challenged pigs were investigated. The viral concentrations were expressed as the mean log(10) viral DNA or cDNA copy numbers per mg or ml of tested samples. For pigs infected naturally with both viruses, the lung, spleen, tonsil and lymphoid organs had the highest viral burdens with ranges from 5.73 to 8.38 and 5.65 to 6.91 for PRRSV and PCV2, respectively. The injection of formalin-inactivated Salmonella choleraesuis emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant 1 week before and after the inoculation of both viruses resulted in PRRSV replication enhancement 2 weeks post-challenge. However, this facilitated the clearance of PRRSV 4 weeks post-challenge. Results from this study show that the established quantitative PCR could be a useful tool when applied to vaccine development and pathogenesis studies in the future. PMID:15664045

  4. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions...vessel must be issued a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from or in the EEZ from any...

  5. An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-? secreting CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system. PMID:24711701

  6. Broadening the Heterologous Cross-Neutralizing Antibody Inducing Ability of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus by Breeding the GP4 or M genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Ni, Yan-Yan; Pińeyro, Pablo; Cossaboom, Caitlin M.; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Sanford, Brenton J.; Dryman, Barbara A.; Huang, Yao-Wei; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important swine pathogens, which causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. A major hurdle to control PRRSV is the ineffectiveness of the current vaccines to confer protection against heterologous strains. Since both GP4 and M genes of PRRSV induce neutralizing antibodies, in this study we molecularly bred PRRSV through DNA shuffling of the GP4 and M genes, separately, from six genetically different strains of PRRSV in an attempt to identify chimeras with improved heterologous cross-neutralizing capability. The shuffled GP4 and M genes libraries were each cloned into the backbone of PRRSV strain VR2385 infectious clone pIR-VR2385-CA. Three GP4-shuffled chimeras and five M-shuffled chimeras, each representing sequences from all six parental strains, were selected and further characterized in vitro and in pigs. These eight chimeric viruses showed similar levels of replication with their backbone strain VR2385 both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the DNA shuffling of GP4 and M genes did not significantly impair the replication ability of these chimeras. Cross-neutralization test revealed that the GP4-shuffled chimera GP4TS14 induced significantly higher cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains FL-12 and NADC20, and similarly that the M-shuffled chimera MTS57 also induced significantly higher levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies against heterologous strains MN184B and NADC20, when compared with their backbone parental strain VR2385 in infected pigs. The results suggest that DNA shuffling of the GP4 or M genes from different parental viruses can broaden the cross-neutralizing antibody-inducing ability of the chimeric viruses against heterologous PRRSV strains. The study has important implications for future development of a broadly protective vaccine against PRRSV. PMID:23826108

  7. The Early Whole-Blood Transcriptional Signature of Dengue Virus and Features Associated with Progression to Dengue Shock Syndrome in Vietnamese Children and Young Adults? † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Long Truong; Lynn, David J.; Henn, Matt; Birren, Bruce W.; Lennon, Niall J.; Le, Phuong Thi; Duong, Kien Thi Hue; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Mai, Lanh Ngoc; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2010-01-01

    Dengue is a pantropic public health problem. In children, dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is the most common life-threatening complication. The ability to predict which patients may develop DSS may improve triage and treatment. To this end, we conducted a nested case-control comparison of the early host transcriptional features in 24 DSS patients and 56 sex-, age-, and virus serotype-matched uncomplicated (UC) dengue patients. In the first instance, we defined the “early dengue” profile. The transcriptional signature in acute rather than convalescent samples (?72 h post-illness onset) was defined by an overabundance of interferon-inducible transcripts (31% of the 551 overabundant transcripts) and canonical gene ontology terms that included the following: response to virus, immune response, innate immune response, and inflammatory response. Pathway and network analyses identified STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, IRF7, IRF9, IRF1, CEBPB, and SP1 as key transcriptional factors mediating the early response. Strikingly, the only difference in the transcriptional signatures of early DSS and UC dengue cases was the greater abundance of several neutrophil-associated transcripts in patients who progressed to DSS, a finding supported by higher plasma concentrations of several canonical proteins associated with neutrophil degranulation (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein [BPI], elastase 2 [ELA2], and defensin 1 alpha [DEF1A]). Elevated levels of neutrophil-associated transcripts were independent of the neutrophil count and also of the genotype of the infecting virus, as genome-length sequences of dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) (n = 15) and DENV-2 (n = 3) sampled from DSS patients were phylogenetically indistinguishable from those sampled from uncomplicated dengue patients (32 DENV-1 and 9 DENV-2 sequences). Collectively, these data suggest a hitherto unrecognized association between neutrophil activation, pathogenesis, and the development of DSS and point to future strategies for guiding prognosis. PMID:20943967

  8. Pathogenesis and antigenic characterization of a new East European subtype 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is divided into a European and North American genotype. East European PRRSV isolates have been found to be of the European genotype, but form different subtypes. In the present study, PRRSV was isolated from a Belarusian farm with reproductive and respiratory failure and designated "Lena". Analyses revealed that Lena is a new East European subtype 3 PRRSV isolate. The main purpose of this investigation was to study the pathogenesis and antigenic characteristics of PRRSV (Lena). Results Obvious clinical and virological differences were observed between the animals inoculated with a recent European subtype 1 PRRSV isolate (Belgium A) and animals inoculated with PRRSV (Lena). Three out of six pigs inoculated with PRRSV (Belgium A) had anorexia and low fever at 3, 4 and 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). High fever, anorexia and depression were prominent signs in most pigs inoculated with PRRSV (Lena) between 2 and 28 dpi. Four pigs out of ten died during the experiment. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from lungs of one animal that died, and Streptococcus suis was isolated from lungs of one animal that was euthanized. The difference in viral titres in sera from PRRSV (Belgium A) and PRRSV (Lena)-infected pigs was statistically significant (p < 0.05) at 7, 10, 14 and 21 dpi. The highest viral titres in sera ranged from 104.8 to 106.1 TCID50/ml for PRRSV (Lena) whereas they ranged from 103.1 to 104.8 TCID50/ml for PRRSV (Belgium A). The replication of PRRSV (Lena) was further studied in depth. Viral titres ranged from 102.5 TCID50/100 mg to 105.6 TCID50/100 mg in nasal secretions between 3 and 14 dpi and from 102.8 TCID50/100 mg to 104.6 TCID50/100 mg in tonsillar scrapings between 3 and 21 dpi. High viral titres were detected in lungs (102.3-107.7 TCID50/g tissue), tonsils (102.0-106.2 TCID50/g tissue) and inguinal lymph nodes (102.2-106.6 TCID50/g tissue) until 35, 28 and 35 dpi, respectively. To examine the antigenic heterogeneity between the East European subtype 3 isolate Lena, the European subtype 1 strain Lelystad and the North American strain US5, sets of monospecific polyclonal antisera were tested in immunoperoxidase monolayer assays (IPMAs) with homologous and heterologous viral antigens. Heterologous antibody titres were significantly lower than homologous titres (p = 0.01-0.03) for antisera against PRRSV (Lena) at all sampling time points. For antisera against PRRSV (Lelystad) and PRRSV (US5), heterologous antibody titres were significantly lower than homologous titres at 14 and 21 dpi (p = 0.01-0.03) and at 10 and 14 dpi (p = 0.04), respectively. Conclusions Lena is a highly pathogenic East European subtype 3 PRRSV, which differs from European subtype 1 Lelystad and North American US5 strains at both the genetic and antigenic level. PMID:20525333

  9. [Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleoprotein specifically binds to 60kD SSA/Ro protein in host cells].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Shuo; Li, A-Qian; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quan-Fu; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the nucleoprotein (NP) of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) can impact the cellular immunity of host cells. Gene segments that encode the NP and non-structural protein (NSs) of SFTSV were inserted into eukaryotic expression vector VR1012. Host proteins that interact with NP and affect immunity were identified with co-immunoprecipitation (IP), SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry (MS), and Western blot. Co-localization of NP and the identified host proteins was confirmed by confocal microscopy. A 60kD SSA/Ro, a protein related to immunity, interacted with NP, as found by IP and MS. Confocal microscopy showed that NP and SSA/Ro were co-localized in cytoplasm. These results indicated that SFTSV NP may specifically bind to 60kD SSA/Ro and cause a series of immune responses and clinical symptoms. PMID:25118376

  10. A cross-sectional survey of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection of domestic animals in Laizhou City, Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shujun; Yin, Haiying; Xu, Xuehua; Liu, Guosheng; Jiang, Shanxiang; Wang, Weiqing; Han, Xinqiang; Liu, Jingyu; Niu, Guoyu; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yu, Xue-jie; Wang, Xianjun

    2014-01-01

    A serosurvey of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection in domestic animals was conducted in the rural areas of Laizhou City, Shandong Province, China to determine strategies for control and prevention of SFTS. Serum samples were collected from cattle, goats, dogs, pigs, and chickens and antibodies against SFTSV were detected by double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of 641 serum samples, the SFTSV seropositive rate was 41.8% (268/641): 74.8%, 57.1%, 52.1%, 35.9%, and 0%, for goats, cattle, dogs, chickens, and pigs, respectively. We also found that the SFTSV seropositive rates were high among the aged cattle, goats, dogs, and chickens. SFTSV infections existed among cattle, goats, dogs, and chickens in Laizhou City, and goats had the highest seroprevalence. SFTSV seroprevalence increased with an increase in age among animals. To control of animal infestation with ticks may prevent human SFTSV infections. PMID:24451093

  11. Low-abundance envelope protein VP12 of white spot syndrome virus interacts with envelope protein VP150 and capsid protein VP51.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbo; Xu, Limei; Li, Fang; Yang, Feng

    2013-12-26

    VP12 and VP150 are two minor envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In our previous studies, VP12 was found to co-migrate with 53-kDa form of VP150 on two-dimensional Blue Native/SDS-PAGE, suggesting that there is an interaction between them. In this study, we confirmed the interaction by co-immunoprecipitation assay and demonstrated that the binding region with VP12 is located between residues 207 and 803 of VP150. Further studies found that VP12 can be attached to WSSV capsids by interacting with capsid protein VP51. These findings suggest that VP12 may function as a linker protein participating in the linkage between VP12/VP150 complex and viral nucleocapsid. PMID:24144859

  12. Identification of White Spot Syndrome Virus Latency-Related Genes in Specific-Pathogen-Free Shrimps by Use of a Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Khadijah, Siti; Neo, Soek Ying; Hossain, M. S.; Miller, Lance D.; Mathavan, S.; Kwang, Jimmy

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether specific-pathogen-free (SPF) shrimps are asymptomatic carriers of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), we used a WSSV-specific DNA microarray to measure WSSV gene expression in SPF and WSSV-infected shrimps. Three WSSV genes were found to be relatively highly expressed in SPF shrimps. Reverse transcription-PCR using nested primers as well as real-time detection confirmed that these genes have no detectable counterparts in GenBank; structural analysis of the putative proteins revealed helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. Viral sequences could be PCR amplified from genomic DNA of SPF shrimp, further supporting the suggestion that these shrimps are asymptomatic carriers. PMID:12941929

  13. Application of a SYBR® Green One Step Real-time RT-PCR Assay to Detect Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    ISEKI, Hiroshi; TAKAGI, Michihiro; KURODA, Yoshiko; KATSUDA, Ken; MIKAMI, Osamu; TSUNEMITSU, Hiroshi; YAMAKAWA, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emergence in Japan of field isolates of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggests problems with control. We therefore developed a one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with improved sensitivity that detects as little as 1 × 10?2 TCID50/ml of viral RNA. We tested serum samples collected in January and September 2008, October 2009 and January 2011 from a farm with an outbreak and found infected pigs between January and September 2008, but not in January 2011. Further, between 2008 and 2011, we did not detect infection in pigs at 8 nearby farms or in 2,052 serum samples collected from pigs from 74 farms in 12 prefectures. This assay should help prevent future outbreaks. PMID:25047905

  14. What skills do star fund managers possess

    E-print Network

    Chen, Li-Wen

    2010-02-17

    Kosowski, Timmermann, Wermers, and White (2006) find that certain growth-oriented fund managers have substantial skill but do not stipulate the particular skills that they possess. I use novel style timing models to ...

  15. Brown ring formation and streak mottle, two distinct syndromes in lilies associated with complex infections of lily symptomless virus and tulip breaking virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Asjes; Neeltje P. de Vos; D. H. M. van Slogteren

    1973-01-01

    Brown ring formation in bulbs of lilies, particularly of Mid-century hybrids, is described as a newly recognized disease. Symptoms of streak mottle in cultivars ofLilium speciosum Thunb., not associated with abnormalities of bulbs, are briefly described with reference to the literature. Sometimes the two syndromes occur in the same crop such as in the Mid-century hybrid ‘Enchantment’, showing brown ring

  16. Analysis of the helper virus in murine retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome: evidence for immunoselection of the dominant and subdominant CTL epitopes of the BM5 ecotropic virus.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Arti; Green, William R

    2003-01-01

    In genetically susceptible strains, such as C57BL/6 (B6) mice, LP-BM5 causes murine AIDS (MAIDS). LP-BM5 is a complex mixture of murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) that includes replication competent ecotropic (BM5eco) and mink cell focus inducing (MCF), and replication defective (BM5d) MuLV. At present, for the BM5eco virus, sequence information on only the gag region is available. In this paper, we describe for the first time the sequencing of the entire BM5eco viral genome as well as analysis of homology with two other previously sequenced and well-characterized MuLVs, Emv-11 and Emv-2, the latter constituting the parental virus for BM5eco. We propose that the detailed sequence comparisons herein provide cogent evidence that BM5eco utilizes variations in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) epitopes as an immune escape mechanism. This CTL evasion mechanism may contribute substantially to the underlying prototypic susceptibility of B6 mice to LP-BM5-induced MAIDS. PMID:12828871

  17. Role of the spike glycoprotein of human Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in virus entry and syncytia formation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhaohui; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the biology of the emerging human group c betacoronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Because coronavirus spike glycoproteins (S) mediate virus entry, affect viral host range, and elicit neutralizing antibodies, analyzing the functions of MERS-CoV S protein is a high research priority. MERS-CoV S on lentivirus pseudovirions mediated entry into a variety of cell types including embryo cells from New World Eptesicus fuscus bats. Surprisingly, a polyclonal antibody to the S protein of MHV, a group a murine betacoronavirus, cross-reacted in immunoblots with the S2 domain of group c MERS-CoV spike protein. MERS pseudovirions released from 293T cells contained only uncleaved S, and pseudovirus entry was blocked by lysosomotropic reagents NH4Cl and bafilomycin and inhibitors of cathepsin L. However, when MERS pseudovirions with uncleaved S protein were adsorbed at 4°C to Vero E6 cells, brief trypsin treatment at neutral pH triggered virus entry at the plasma membrane and syncytia formation. When 293T cells producing MERS pseudotypes co-expressed serine proteases TMPRSS-2 or -4, large syncytia formed at neutral pH, and the pseudovirions produced were non-infectious and deficient in S protein. These experiments show that if S protein on MERS pseudovirions is uncleaved, then viruses enter by endocytosis in a cathepsin L-dependent manner, but if MERS-CoV S is cleaved, either during virus maturation by serine proteases or on pseudovirions by trypsin in extracellular fluids, then viruses enter at the plasma membrane at neutral pH and cause massive syncytia formation even in cells that express little or no MERS-CoV receptor. Thus, whether MERS-CoV enters cells within endosomes or at the plasma membrane depends upon the host cell type and tissue, and is determined by the location of host proteases that cleave the viral spike glycoprotein and activate membrane fusion. PMID:24098509

  18. Interaction between Kazal serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 and viral protein WSV477 reduces the replication of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Ponprateep, Sirikwan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2013-09-01

    White spot syndrome (WSS) is a viral disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) which leads to severe mortality in cultured penaeid shrimp. In response to WSSV infection in Penaeus monodon, a Kazal serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2, normally stored in the granules of granular and semi-granular hemocytes is up-regulated and found to deter the viral replication. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we have identified a viral target protein, namely WSV477. Instead of being a proteinase, the WSV477 was reported to be a Cys2/Cys2-type zinc finger regulatory protein having ATP/GTP-binding activity. In vitro pull down assay confirmed the protein-protein interaction between rSPIPm2 and rWSV477. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the SPIPm2 and WSV477 were co-localized in the cytoplasm of shrimp hemocytes. Using RNA interference, the silencing of WSV477 resulted in down-regulated of viral late gene VP28, the same result obtained with SPIPm2. In this instance, the SPIPm2 does not function as proteinase inhibitor but inhibit the regulatory function of WSV477. PMID:23867494

  19. Review article Lelystad virus and the porcine epidemic abortion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Lelystad virus and the porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome G abortion and respiratory syndrome and porcine reproduc- tive and respiratory syndrome. The virus is a small pigs. Clinical signs of an infection with Le- lystad virus are characterized by late term abortions

  20. White Spot Syndrome Virus IE1 and WSV056 Modulate the G1/S Transition by Binding to the Host Retinoblastoma Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Xiaozhuo; Bian, Xiaofang; Ji, Yongchang; Yan, Xiumin; Yang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    DNA viruses often target cellular proteins to modulate host cell cycles and facilitate viral genome replication. However, whether proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) requires regulation of the host cell cycle remains unclear. In the present study, we show that two WSSV paralogs, IE1 and WSV056, can interact with Litopenaeus vannamei retinoblastoma (Rb)-like protein (lv-RBL) through the conserved LxCxE motif. Further investigation revealed that IE1 and WSV056 could also bind to Drosophila retinoblastoma family protein 1 (RBF1) in a manner similar to how they bind to lv-RBL. Using the Drosophila RBF-E2F pathway as a model system, we demonstrated that both IE1 and WSV056 could sequester RBF1 from Drosophila E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and subsequently activate E2F1 to stimulate the G1/S transition. Our findings provide the first evidence that WSSV may regulate cell cycle progression by targeting the Rb-E2F pathway. PMID:24027329

  1. Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Porcine Alveolar Macrophages Infected with Virulent/Attenuated Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Cheng, Qun; Yu, Ling-Xue; Wang, Ya-Xin; Yang, Shen; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu; Gao, Fei; Yu, Hai; Li, Guo-Xin; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is still a serious threat to the swine industry. However, the pathogenic mechanism of HP-PRRSV remains unclear. We infected host porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) with the virulent HuN4 strain and the attenuated HuN4-F112 strain and then utilized fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen for intracellular proteins that were differentially expressed in host cells infected with the two strains. There were 153 proteins with significant different expression (P<0.01) observed, 42 of which were subjected to mass spectrometry, and 24 proteins were identified. PAM cells infected with the virulent strain showed upregulated expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), and proteasome subunit alpha type 6 (PSMA6), which were downregulated in cells infected with the attenuated strain. The upregulation of PKM2 provides sufficient energy for viral replication, and the upregulation of HSPB1 inhibits host cell apoptosis and therefore facilitates mass replication of the virulent strain, while the upregulation of PSMA6 facilitates the evasion of immune surveillance by the virus. Studying on those molecules mentioned above may be able to help us to understand some unrevealed details of HP-PRRSV infection, and then help us to decrease its threat to the swine industry in the future. PMID:24465692

  2. Analysis of white spot syndrome virus envelope protein complexome by two-dimensional blue native/SDS PAGE combined with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Zichong; Xu, Limei; Li, Fang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Feng

    2011-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped virus, but the organization of its envelope proteins remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) and SDS-PAGE in combination with mass spectrometry to analyze the envelope protein complexome of WSSV. Our results show that the viral envelope consists of multi-protein complexes (MPCs). Within them, the envelope protein VP19 exists as a homotrimer, while another major envelope protein, VP28, mainly exists as a homotetramer. The most notable feature is that the majority of MPCs include VP26 and VP24, suggesting that these two proteins might serve as hub proteins to recruit low-abundance proteins to MPCs and play crucial roles in the process of protein complex formation. Furthermore, we found significant evidence for interactions between several low-abundance proteins, such as VP52B/VP38/VP33 and VP12/VP150. The result of this study may promote the further research on WSSV envelope assembly. PMID:21380712

  3. Comparison of Host Immune Responses to Homologous and Heterologous Type II Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Challenge in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, X.; Galliher-Beckley, A.; Pappan, L.; Trible, B.; Kerrigan, M.; Beck, A.; Hesse, R.; Blecha, F.; Nietfeld, J. C.; Rowland, R. R.; Shi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a high-consequence animal disease with current vaccines providing limited protection from infection due to the high degree of genetic variation of field PRRS virus. Therefore, understanding host immune responses elicited by different PRRSV strains will facilitate the development of more effective vaccines. Using IngelVac modified live PRRSV vaccine (MLV), its parental strain VR-2332, and the heterologous KS-06-72109 strain (a Kansas isolate of PRRSV), we compared immune responses induced by vaccination and/or PRRSV infection. Our results showed that MLV can provide complete protection from homologous virus (VR-2332) and partial protection from heterologous (KS-06) challenge. The protection was associated with the levels of PRRSV neutralizing antibodies at the time of challenge, with vaccinated pigs having higher titers to VR-2332 compared to KS-06 strain. Challenge strain did not alter the cytokine expression profiles in the serum of vaccinated pigs or subpopulations of T cells. However, higher frequencies of IFN-?-secreting PBMCs were generated from pigs challenged with heterologous PRRSV in a recall response when PBMCs were re-stimulated with PRRSV. Thus, this study indicates that serum neutralizing antibody titers are associated with PRRSV vaccination-induced protection against homologous and heterologous challenge. PMID:24719862

  4. Efficacy of a combined inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine using North American and European strains in specific pathogen free pigs.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Minjoo; Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Song, Daesub; Park, Bongkyun

    2015-05-01

    In Korea, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by European (type 1) and North American (type 2) strains of PRRS virus (PRRSV). In the present study, the efficacy of a multi-strain PRRSV vaccine inactivated with binary ethylenimine (BEI) was evaluated in pigs. The vaccine contained one type 1 strain (GCEU0907) and two type 2 strains (GC4019 and GC6262). Three vaccinated groups (four pigs per group) and three mock vaccinated groups (four pigs per group) were challenged with infectious PRRSV (strains GC4019, GC6262 or GCEU0907), then euthanased at 28 days post-infection. Mean anti-PRRSV neutralising antibody titres were significantly higher in the vaccinated groups than in the mock vaccinated groups. Mean blood virus titres in the mock vaccinated groups were significantly higher than those in the vaccinated groups from 5 to 28 days post-infection. On pathological examination, there were less severe macroscopic and microscopic lesions in vaccinated pigs compared with mock vaccinated pigs. PMID:25920759

  5. The amino acid residues at 102 and 104 in GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus regulate viral neutralization susceptibility to the porcine serum neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Fan, Baochao; Liu, Xing; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Tingjie; Zhang, Qiaoya; Jiang, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is mainly responsible for the heavy economic losses in pig industry in the world. A number of neutralizing epitopes have been identified in the viral structural proteins GP3, GP4, GP5 and M. In this study, the important amino acid (aa) residues of HP-PRRSV strain BB affecting neutralization susceptibility of antibody were examined using resistant strains generated under neutralizing antibody (NAb) pressure in MARC-145 cells, reverse genetic technique and virus neutralization assay. HP-PRRSV strain BB was passaged under the pressure of porcine NAb serum in vitro. A resistant strain BB34s with 102 and 104 aa substitutions in GP5, which have been predicted to be the positive sites for pressure selection (Delisle et al., 2012), was cloned and identified. To determine the effect of the two aa residues on neutralization, eight recombinant PRRSV strains were generated, and neutralization assay results confirmed that the aa residues 102 and 104 in GP5 played an important role in NAbs against HP-PRRSV in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Alignment of GP5 sequences revealed that the variant aa residues at 102 and 104 were frequent among type 2 PRRSV strains. It may be helpful for understanding the mechanism regulating the neutralization susceptibility of PRRSV to the NAbs and monitoring the antigen variant strains in the field. PMID:25907991

  6. Detection of a novel porcine boca-like virus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blomström, Anne-Lie; Belák, Sandor; Fossum, Caroline; McKillen, John; Allan, Gordon; Wallgren, Per; Berg, Mikael

    2009-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been found to be the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). However, PCV-2 is a ubiquitous virus in the swine population and a majority of pigs infected with PCV-2 do not develop the disease. Different factors such as age, maintenance, the genetics of PCV-2, other pathogens, etc. have been suggested to contribute to the development of PMWS. However, so far no proven connection between any of these factors and the disease development has been found. In this study we explored the possible presence of other so far unknown DNA containing infectious agents in lymph nodes collected from Swedish pigs with confirmed PMWS through random amplification and high-throughput sequencing. Although the vast majority of the amplified genetic sequences belonged to PCV-2, we also found genome sequences of Torque Teno virus (TTV) and of a novel parvovirus. The detection of TTV was expected since like PCV-2, TTV has been found to have high prevalence in pigs around the world. We were able to amplify a longer region of the parvovirus genome, consisting of the entire NP1 and partial VP1/2. By comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic studies we propose that this is a novel porcine parvovirus, with genetic relationship to bocaviruses. PMID:19748534

  7. Identification of two auto-cleavage products of nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infected cells: nsp1 function as interferon antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Lawson, S.; Sun, Z.; Zhou, X. [Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Guan, X. [Department of Pharmaceutical Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Christopher-Hennings, J.; Nelson, E.A. [Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Fang, Y., E-mail: ying.fang@sdstate.ed [Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Department of Biology/Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1 is predicted to be auto-cleaved from the replicase polyprotein into nsp1alpha and nsp1beta subunits. In infected cells, we detected the actual existence of nsp1alpha and nsp1beta. Cleavage sites between nsp1alpha/nsp1beta and nsp1beta/nsp2 were identified by protein microsequencing analysis. Time course study showed that nsp1alpha and nsp1beta mainly localize into the cell nucleus after 10 h post infection. Further analysis revealed that both proteins dramatically inhibited IFN-beta expression. The nsp1beta was observed to significantly inhibit expression from an interferon-stimulated response element promoter after Sendai virus infection or interferon treatment. It was further determined to inhibit nuclear translocation of STAT1 in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that nsp1beta has ability to inhibit both interferon synthesis and signaling, while nsp1alpha alone strongly inhibits interferon synthesis. These findings provide important insights into mechanisms of nsp1 in PRRSV pathogenesis and its impact in vaccine development.

  8. The relative abundance of deer mice with antibody to Sin Nombre virus corresponds to the occurrence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in nearby humans.

    PubMed

    Calisher, Charles H; Mills, James N; Root, Jon Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B; Beaty, Barry J

    2011-05-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the principal cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the United States and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are its principal rodent host, and thus the natural cycle of the virus is related to the occurrence of HPS. Prevalence of rodent infection appears to be associated with fluctuations in deer mouse populations and, indirectly, with timing and amount of precipitation, a complex of biologic events. Given that rodent population abundances fluctuate, often acutely, it is not unreasonable to assume a direct correlation between the numbers of infected rodents and the number of human infections, unless confounding factors are involved. During a 13-year longitudinal study at a site in southwestern Colorado, we accumulated data regarding deer mice and antibody to SNV and therefore had the opportunity to compare dynamics of deer mouse populations, seroprevalence of antibody to SNV in the rodents, and numbers of HPS cases in Durango and in the State of Colorado as a whole. If abundances of deer mouse populations are directly correlated with occurrence of HPS, it is reasonable to assume that low densities of deer mice and low prevalences of antibody to SNV would lead to fewer human cases than would high densities and high prevalences. Our results substantiate such an assumption and suggest that the risk of acquisition of HPS is likely related to both high numbers of infected deer mice and human activities, rather than being strictly related to prevalence of SNV in the host rodent. PMID:20954865

  9. A one-step RT-PCR assay to detect and discriminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Keli; Li, Yanhe; Duan, Zhengying; Guo, Rui; Liu, Zewen; Zhou, Danna; Yuan, Fangyan; Tian, Yongxiang

    2013-12-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) have led to large economic losses and, subsequently, have drawn great attention to its diagnosis and prevention. To facilitate rapid discrimination of HP-PRRSV from classical PRRSV (C-PRRSV), we developed a one-step RT-PCR assay. Primer specificities were evaluated with RNA extracted from 8 viral strains and our results revealed that the primers had a high specificity for PRRSV. The assay sensitivity was 25 copies/?L for both HP-PRRSV and C-PRRSV. A total of 929 serum samples were identified, of which 20.45% were HP-PRRSV-positive and 1.51% were C-PRRSV-positive, which was completely consistent with that of immunochromatochemistry and sequencing method. The proposed assay can detect the virus 2 days prior the onset of symptoms and it can be performed in 2h, thereby providing a rapid method to discriminate HP-PRRSV from C-PRRSV for the identification and prevention of PRRSV infections. PMID:24035936

  10. Differentiation between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism of their ORFs 6 and 7 genes.

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, C A; Dea, S

    1998-01-01

    Three distinct antigenic profiles were identified by comparing the reactivities of 15 Canadian field isolates, the attenuated U.S. vaccine (Ingelvac MLV) strain and 2 European reference strains (Lelystad and Weybridge) of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) by indirect immunofluorescence with a set of 4 monoclonal antibodies to the nucleocapsid (N) protein and 2 other to the matrix (M) protein. In the present study, 9 Canadian isolates for which the sequences were determined appeared closely related to 2 U.S. reference strains (ATCC VR-2332 and ATCC VR-2385) with amino acid identities varying between 90 to 98% for the M and N proteins; substitutions in the nucleotide sequences were distributed randomly throughout the ORFs 6 and 7 genes, and most were 3rd base silent mutations. In comparison, more than 30% divergence was demonstrated with the Lelystad virus. Furthermore, differentiation between North American and European isolates, and between field isolates and the MLV strain could be achieved by cutting PCR-amplified products encompassing both ORFs 6 and 7 genes with 4 restriction endonucleases. When taken individually, BsaJI and AluI were the more appropriate restriction enzymes for distinguishing the vaccine strain from field isolates. The results obtained suggest that the restriction fragment length polymorphism of the genomic region covering the ORFs 6 and 7 genes may be a valuable tool to differentiate among PRRSV isolates. Images Figure 1. PMID:9553709

  11. The pathogenesis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in alpha/beta interferon knockout mice: insights into the pathologic mechanisms of a new viral hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Bin; Paessler, Slobodan; Walker, David H; Tesh, Robert B; Yu, Xue-jie

    2014-02-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a newly discovered Phlebovirus causing an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia, with reported case fatality rates up to 30%. Despite the high case fatality rate and large number of persons at risk of infection, the pathobiology of the disease is unknown, and no effective animal model has been available for investigating its pathogenesis. We have studied mice and hamsters as potential small-animal models of SFTSV infection following subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, or intracerebral inoculation. Animal tissues were processed for viral load determination, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopic studies. We found that immunocompetent adult mice and hamsters did not become ill after SFTSV infection. However, alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mice were highly susceptible to SFTSV infection, and all mice died within 3 to 4 days after subcutaneous inoculation of 10(6) focus-forming units of SFTSV. Histologic examination of tissues of IFNAR(-/-) mice infected with SFTSV showed no detectable lesions. In contrast, by immunohistochemistry virus antigen was found in liver, intestine, kidney, spleen, lymphoid tissue, and brain, but not in the lungs. Mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were the most heavily infected tissues. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of virus in these tissues. Confocal microscopy showed that SFTSV colocalized with reticular cells but did not colocalize with dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, or endothelium. Our results indicate that SFTSV multiplied in all organs except for lungs and that mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were the most heavily infected tissues. The major target cells of SFTSV appear to be reticular cells in lymphoid tissues of intestine and spleen. PMID:24257618

  12. Development and Validation of an Assay To Detect Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Titers in Pig Oral Fluid Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Kang; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Olsen, Chris; Hiremath, Jagadish; Elkalifa, Nadia; Schleappi, Rose; Wu, Jianmin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA) are important for clearing the virus. Pen-based pig oral fluid samples for disease surveillance are gaining in importance due to the ease of collection and low cost. The aim of this study was to develop a PRRSV-specific NA assay to determine NA titers in pig oral fluid samples. At first, we standardized the PRRSV NA assay using pen-based pig oral fluid samples collected over a period of 3 months from a herd of swine that received a PRRSV modified live vaccine (PRRS-MLV), and we also used oral fluid and serum samples collected from individual boars that were vaccinated with PRRS-MLV or infected with a virulent PRRSV strain. Our results suggest that a PRRSV NA titer of >8 in oral fluid samples is virus specific and can be detected beginning at 28 days after vaccination or infection. To validate the assay, we used 104 pen-based pig oral fluid and five representative serum samples from each pen of unknown history, as well as 100 serum samples from repeatedly vaccinated sows and oral fluid samples of their respective litters belonging to four different swine-breeding farms. Our results demonstrated that PRRSV NA titers in oral fluid samples are correlated with serum sample titers, and maternally derived PRRSV-specific NA titers could be detected in litters at the time of weaning. In conclusion, we have standardized and validated the pig oral fluid-based PRRSV NA assay, which has 94.3% specificity and 90.5% repeatability. The assay can be used to monitor herd immunity against PRRSV in vaccinated and infected herds of swine. PMID:23784856

  13. Adjuvanted poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine elicits cross-protective immune response in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Wu, Yun; Lee, Ly James; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is an economically devastating disease, causing daily losses of approximately $3 million to the US pork industry. Current vaccines have failed to completely prevent PRRS outbreaks. Recently, we have shown that poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle-entrapped inactivated PRRSV vaccine (NP-KAg) induces a cross-protective immune response in pigs. To further improve its cross-protective efficacy, the NP-KAg vaccine formulation was slightly modified, and pigs were coadministered the vaccine twice intranasally with a potent adjuvant: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate. In vaccinated virulent heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs, the immune correlates in the blood were as follows: 1) enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody response with enhanced avidity of both immunoglobulin (Ig)-G and IgA isotypes, associated with augmented virus-neutralizing antibody titers; 2) comparable and increased levels of virus-specific IgG1 and IgG2 antibody subtypes and production of high levels of both T-helper (Th)-1 and Th2 cytokines, indicative of a balanced Th1–Th2 response; 3) suppressed immunosuppressive cytokine response; 4) increased frequency of interferon-?+ lymphocyte subsets and expanded population of antigen-presenting cells; and most importantly 5) complete clearance of detectable replicating challenged heterologous PRRSV and close to threefold reduction in viral ribonucleic acid load detected in the blood. In conclusion, intranasal delivery of adjuvanted NP-KAg vaccine formulation to growing pigs elicited a broadly cross-protective immune response, showing the potential of this innovative vaccination strategy to prevent PRRS outbreaks in pigs. A similar approach to control other respiratory diseases in food animals and humans appears to be feasible. PMID:24493925

  14. Crystal Structures of Major Envelope Proteins VP26 and VP28 from White Spot Syndrome Virus Shed Light on Their Evolutionary Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuhua; Wu, Jinlu; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy Leong

    2007-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen known to infect various crustaceans. It has bacilliform morphology with a tail-like appendage at one end. The envelope consists of four major proteins. Envelope structural proteins play a crucial role in viral infection and are believed to be the first molecules to interact with the host. Here, we report the localization and crystal structure of major envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 from WSSV at resolutions of 2.2 and 2.0 Ĺ, respectively. These two proteins alone account for approximately 60% of the envelope, and their structures represent the first two structural envelope proteins of WSSV. Structural comparisons among VP26, VP28, and other viral proteins reveal an evolutionary relationship between WSSV envelope proteins and structural proteins from other viruses. Both proteins adopt ?-barrel architecture with a protruding N-terminal region. We have investigated the localization of VP26 and VP28 using immunoelectron microscopy. This study suggests that VP26 and VP28 are located on the outer surface of the virus and are observed as a surface protrusion in the WSSV envelope, and this is the first convincing observation for VP26. Based on our studies combined with the literature, we speculate that the predicted N-terminal transmembrane region of VP26 and VP28 may anchor on the viral envelope membrane, making the core ?-barrel protrude outside the envelope, possibly to interact with the host receptor or to fuse with the host cell membrane for effective transfer of the viral infection. Furthermore, it is tempting to extend this host interaction mode to other structural viral proteins of similar structures. Our finding has the potential to extend further toward drug and vaccine development against WSSV. PMID:17409146

  15. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nonstructural Protein 4 Antagonizes Beta Interferon Expression by Targeting the NF-?B Essential Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Qiong; Guo, Xue-kun; Yu, Zhi-bin; Xu, Ao-Tian; Tang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes severe diseases in pigs and great economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Type I interferons (IFNs) play a crucial role in antiviral immunity. In the present study, we demonstrated that infection with the highly pathogenic PRRSV strain JXwn06 antagonized type I IFN expression induced by poly(I·C) in both porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMo). Subsequently, we showed that the inhibition of poly(I·C)-induced IFN-? production by PRRSV was dependent on the blocking of NF-?B signaling pathways. By screening PRRSV nonstructural and structural proteins, we demonstrated that nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4), a viral 3C-like serine protease, significantly suppressed IFN-? expression. Moreover, we verified that nsp4 inhibited NF-?B activation induced by signaling molecules, including RIG-I, VISA, TRIF, and IKK?. nsp4 was shown to target the NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO) at the E349-S350 site to mediate its cleavage. Importantly, nsp4 mutants with defective protease activity abolished its ability to cleave NEMO and inhibit IFN-? production. These findings might have implications for our understanding of PRRSV pathogenesis and its mechanisms for evading the host immune response. IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major agent of respiratory diseases in pigs. Like many other viruses, PRRSV has evolved a variety of strategies to evade host antiviral innate immunity for survival and propagation. In this study, we show that PRRSV nsp4 is a novel antagonist of the NF-?B signaling pathway, which is responsible for regulating the expression of type I interferons and other crucial cytokines. We then investigated the underlying mechanism used by nsp4 to suppress NF-?B-mediated IFN-? production. We found that nsp4 interfered with the NF-?B signaling pathway through the cleavage of NEMO (a key regulator of NF-?B signaling) at the E349-S350 site, leading to the downregulation of IFN-? production induced by poly(I·C). The data presented here may help us to better understand PRRSV pathogenesis. PMID:25008936

  16. Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

    2012-01-01

    Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

  17. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    PubMed

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. PMID:26162722

  18. IHHN Virus as an Etiological Factor in Runt-Deformity Syndrome (RDS) of Juvenile Penaeus vannamei Cultured in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Kalagayan; David Godin; Roberta Kanna; Gerry Hagino; James Sweeney; James Wyban; James Brock

    1991-01-01

    Runtdeformity syndrome (RDS) is an economically significant, frequent disease problem of cultured Penaeus vannamei. RDS is characterized by variable, often greatly reduced, growth rate of up to 30% of a cultured population and many shrimp with cuticle deformities of the rostrum, anterior appendages or other parts. The cause of RDS is undetermined. Nursery trials comparing histologically IHHN-positive and histologically IHHN-negative

  19. A syndrome of acute self-limiting ulcerative esophagitis in young adults probably due to herpes simplex virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Springer; L. R. DaCosta; I. T. Beck

    1979-01-01

    Five healthy young adults developed an acute self-limiting ulcerative esophagitis. Two had definite evidence of herpes virus being present and a third one had appropriate changes in herpes simplex viral titer. All cases followed a characteristic and similar course consisting of sudden onset of odynophagia, multiple discrete small ulcers in the esophagus and herpetiform lesions elsewhere in the skin or

  20. Effect of high water temperature (33 °C) on the clinical and virological outcome of experimental infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rahman; C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla; M. Corteel; J. J. Dantas-Lima; M. Wille; V. Alday Sanz; M. B. Pensaert; P. Sorgeloos; H. J. Nauwynck

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most lethal pathogen of cultured shrimp. Previous studies done with undefined WSSV titers showed that high water temperature (32–33 °C) reduced\\/delayed mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp. This study evaluated the effect of high water temperature on the clinical and virological outcome of a WSSV infection under standardized conditions. Groups of specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei were

  1. Potent in vitro Activity of the Albumin Fusion Type 1 Interferons (Albumin-Interferon-Alpha and Albumin-Interferon-Beta) against RNA Viral Agents of Bioterrorism and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mani Subramanian; Paul A. Moore; Brian B. Gowen; Aaron L. Olsen; Dale L. Barnard; Jason Paragas; Robert J. Hogan; Robert W. Sidwell

    2008-01-01

    Background: The type 1 interferons (INF-? and INF-?) are potent antiviral agents. Albumin-INF-? and albumin-INF-? are novel recombinant proteins consisting of IFN-? or IFN-? genetically fused to human albumin. Methods: The in vitro antiviral activity of albumin-IFN-? was evaluated against representative bioterrorism viral agents and the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus. Antiviral activity was assessed using inhibition of cytopathic effect

  2. Cache Valley virus.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J F

    1994-11-01

    Cache Valley Virus (CVV) is a causative agent of a mosquito-borne disease syndrome of sheep and, possibly, of all ruminants, characterized by embryonic and fetal death, stillbirths, and multiple congenital malformations. CVV is endemic in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Several related Bunyaviruses also may play a role in syndromes of congenital malformations and embryonic losses in North America. PMID:7728634

  3. Do viral proteins possess unique biophysical features?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhiko Tokuriki; Christopher J. Oldfield; Vladimir N. Uversky; Igor N. Berezovsky; Dan S. Tawfik

    2008-01-01

    Natural selection shapes the sequence, structure and biophysical properties of proteins to fit their environ- ment. We hypothesize that highly thermostable proteins and viral proteins represent two opposing adaptation strategies. Thermostable proteins are highly compact and possess well-packed hydrophobic cores and inten- sely charged surfaces. By contrast, viral proteins, and RNA viral proteins in particular, display a high occur- rence

  4. Clinical signs and economic losses caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a large breeding farm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zygmunt Pejsak; Tomasz Stadejek; Iwona Markowska-Daniel

    1997-01-01

    In July of 1994 an acute onset of maternal reporductive failure occurred in a 2,330 sow farrow-to-finish farm. Clinical signs observed in the affected sows were typical for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). During the first 6 weeks of the epizootic 1,117 sows farrowed; 216 (19.33%) farrowed before the 110th day of gestation. The majority of piglets born before

  5. Hepatorenal syndrome: resolution of ascites by continuous renal replacement therapy in an alcoholic coinfected with hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Hansard, Paul C; Manning, Ricardo A; Haseeb, M A; Salwen, Martin J

    2006-01-01

    A 39-yr-old male with hepatorenal syndrome type 1 and refractory ascites was treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) resulting in clinical improvement. He was positive for antibodies to hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency viruses, and had a history of chronic alcohol and iv drug abuse. The patient had 4 hospital admissions during a 12-wk period. He first presented with advanced liver disease including pedal edema and a serum ammonia level of 56 micromol/L (reference range: 11 - 35 micromol/L). In subsequent admissions, he had asterixis, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, and worsening pedal edema. On his 4th admission, there was lethargy, tense ascites, decreased urinary output, bilateral edema of the lower extremities and scrotum, serum creatinine of 6.2 mg/dl (reference range: 0.6 - 1.5 mg/dl), and weight gain of 16 kg during the prior 8 wk. During the first 3 hospitalizations, he was treated with lactulose with slight improvement. On the 4th admission, he was started on low-dose dopamine (3 microg/kg/min) and 25% salt-poor albumin without clinical improvement. A pulmonary artery catheter was placed and hemofiltration by CRRT was performed for 5 days, with removal of 26.7 L of fluid and a net reduction of 11 kg of body weight. Serum creatinine decreased to 4.2 mg/dl during CRRT and was 2.2 mg/dl at hospital discharge 2 weeks later. His PaO(2) improved from 66 to 78 mmHg and his systemic vascular resistance increased from 571 to 799 dyne.sec/cm(5). CRRT was effective in relieving severe fluid retention and producing marked clinical improvement. We suggest that CRRT should be considered for the treatment of refractory ascites including that caused by hepatorenal syndrome. PMID:16501243

  6. The c-Fos and c-Jun from Litopenaeus vannamei play opposite roles in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Qian, Zhe; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence indicates that activator protein-1 (AP-1) plays a major role in stimulating the transcription of immune effector molecules in cellular response to an incredible array of stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, cellular stresses and bacterial and viral infection. Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Litopenaeus vannamei encoding the full-length c-Fos protein (named as Lvc-Fos). The predicted amino acid sequences of Lvc-Fos contained a basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which was characteristic of members of the AP-1 family. Immunoprecipitation and native-PAGE assays determined that Lvc-Fos could interact with the Lvc-Jun, a homolog of c-Jun family in L. vannamei, in a heterodimer manner. Further investigation demonstrated that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun were expressed in all tested tissues and located in the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed both Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun in gills were up-regulated during Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. In addition, reporter gene assays indicated Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could activate the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of Drosophila and shrimp, as well as WSSV immediate early (IE) genes wsv069 and wsv249, in a different manner. Knockdown of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in higher mortalities of L. vannamei after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun might play protective roles in bacterial infection. However, silencing of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun in shrimp caused lower mortalities and virus loads under WSSV infection, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could be engaged for WSSV replication and pathogenesis. In conclusion, our results provided experimental evidence and novel insight into the roles of L. vannamei AP-1 in bacterial and viral infection. PMID:25912357

  7. Sensitive and specific PCR systems for detection of both Chinese and Japanese severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus strains and prediction of patient survival based on viral load.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Tani, Hideki; Fukuma, Aiko; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Toda, Shoichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Yano, Koji; Morimitsu, Toshiharu; Ando, Katsuyuki; Yoshikawa, Akira; Kan, Miki; Kato, Nobuyuki; Motoya, Takumi; Kuzuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Nishino, Yasuhiro; Osako, Hideo; Yumisashi, Takahiro; Kida, Kouji; Suzuki, Fumie; Takimoto, Hirokazu; Kitamoto, Hiroaki; Maeda, Ken; Takahashi, Toru; Yamagishi, Takuya; Oishi, Kazunori; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki; Shimojima, Masayuki

    2014-09-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with a high case fatality risk and is caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). A retrospective study conducted after the first identification of an SFTS patient in Japan revealed that SFTS is endemic to the region, and the virus exists indigenously in Japan. Since the nucleotide sequence of Japanese SFTSV strains contains considerable differences compared with that of Chinese strains, there is an urgent need to establish a sensitive and specific method capable of detecting the Chinese and Japanese strains of SFTSV. A conventional one-step reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) (cvPCR) method and a quantitative one-step RT-PCR (qPCR) method were developed to detect the SFTSV genome. Both cvPCR and qPCR detected a Chinese SFTSV strain. Forty-one of 108 Japanese patients suspected of having SFTS showed a positive reaction by cvPCR. The results from the samples of 108 Japanese patients determined by the qPCR method were in almost complete agreement with those determined by cvPCR. The analyses of the viral copy number level in the patient blood samples at the acute phase determined by qPCR in association with the patient outcome confirmed that the SFTSV RNA load in the blood of the nonsurviving patients was significantly higher than that of the surviving patients. Therefore, the cvPCR and qPCR methods developed in this study can provide a powerful means for diagnosing SFTS. In addition, the detection of the SFTSV genome level by qPCR in the blood of the patients at the acute phase may serve as an indicator to predict the outcome of SFTS. PMID:24989600

  8. Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA is a critical factor contributing to the efficiency of early infection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinyan; Qi, Yonghe; Liu, Chenxuan; Gao, Wenqing; Chen, Pan; Fu, Liran; Peng, Bo; Wang, Haimin; Jing, Zhiyi; Zhong, Guocai; Li, Wenhui

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. Most patients infected by SFTSV present with fever and thrombocytopenia, and up to 30% die due to multiple-organ dysfunction. The mechanisms by which SFTSV enters multiple cell types are unknown. SFTSV contains two species of envelope glycoproteins, Gn (44.2 kDa) and Gc (56 kDa), both of which are encoded by the M segment and are cleaved from a precursor polypeptide (about 116 kDa) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Gn fused with an immunoglobulin Fc tag at its C terminus (Gn-Fc) bound to multiple cells susceptible to the infection of SFTSV and blocked viral infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Immunoprecipitation assays following mass spectrometry analysis showed that Gn binds to nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA), a cellular protein with surface expression in multiple cell types. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of NMMHC-IIA, but not the closely related NMMHC-IIB or NMMHC-IIC, reduced SFTSV infection, and NMMHC-IIA specific antibody blocked infection by SFTSV but not other control viruses. Overexpression of NMMHC-IIA in HeLa cells, which show limited susceptivity to SFTSV, markedly enhanced SFTSV infection of the cells. These results show that NMMHC-IIA is critical for the cellular entry of SFTSV. As NMMHC-IIA is essential for the normal functions of platelets and human vascular endothelial cells, it is conceivable that NMMHC-IIA directly contributes to the pathogenesis of SFTSV and may be a useful target for antiviral interventions against the viral infection. PMID:24155382

  9. Comparative Respiratory Pathogenicity and Dynamic Tissue Distribution of Chinese Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and its Attenuated Strain in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Zhang, W; Gong, W; Zhang, D; She, R; Xu, B; Ning, Y

    2015-07-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) in 2006 devastated the Chinese swine industry. HP-PRRS virus is still the predominant strain in mainland China, rather than the classical PRRSV strain, and the attenuated live vaccine remains the preferred choice for protecting piglets against HP-PRRSV infection. To fully evaluate the safety of strain GDr180, the 180th attenuated virus of the HP-PRRSV strain GD, we used clinicopathological, microscopical, ultrastructural, serological and molecular biological methods to assess the different clinical manifestations and respiratory characteristics of piglets inoculated with HP-PRRSV strain GD or strain GDr180. The 5-week-old piglets inoculated with strain GD displayed marked clinical signs, including fever, anorexia, dyspnoea and tachypnoea. Significant interstitial pneumonia was present, characterized by thickened alveolar septa infiltrated with mononuclear cells and cell debris. However, the piglets inoculated with strain GDr180 and the negative control piglets showed neither clinical signs nor microscopical or ultrastructural lesions. Ultrastructural observation of the piglets' tracheas and examination of the dynamic tissue distributions of PRRSV strain GD and attenuated strain GDr180, by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, confirmed significant differences in their pathogenicity and distribution in the respiratory systems of piglets. The differences in pathogenicity are attributable to the different severity of the pathological changes in the pigs inoculated with the two strains. Thus, the HP-PRRSV GDr180 strain is practically harmless to the respiratory systems of piglets and may be a safe candidate for inducing immunity against HP-PRRS. PMID:25980840

  10. Deoxynivalenol (DON) naturally contaminated feed impairs the immune response induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) live attenuated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Savard, Christian; Gagnon, Carl A; Chorfi, Younes

    2015-07-31

    Cereal commodities are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins produced by the secondary metabolism of fungal infection. Among these contaminants, deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as vomitoxin, is the most prevalent type B trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide. Pigs are very sensitive to the toxic effects of DON and are frequently exposed to naturally contaminated feed. Recently, DON naturally contaminated feed has been shown to decrease porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) specific antibody responses following experimental infection. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of DON naturally contaminated feed on the immune response generated following vaccination with PRRSV live attenuated vaccine. Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups of 6 animals based on DON content of the diets (0, 2.5 and 3.5mg DON/kg). They were fed these rations one week prior to the vaccination and for all the duration of the immune response evaluation. All pigs were vaccinated intra-muscularly with one dose of Ingelvac(®) PRRSV modified live vaccine (MLV). Blood samples were collected at day -1, 6, 13, 20, 27 and 35 post vaccination (pv) and tested for PRRSV RNA by RT-qPCR and for virus specific antibodies by ELISA. Results showed that ingestion of DON-contaminated diets significantly decreased PRRSV viremia. All pigs fed control diet were viremic while only 1 (17%) and 3 (50%) out of 6 pigs were viremic in the groups receiving 3.5 and 2.5mg of DON/kg, respectively. Subsequently, all pigs fed control diet developed PRRSV specific antibodies while only viremic pigs that were fed contaminated diets have developed PRRSV specific antibodies. These results suggest that feeding pigs with DON-contaminated diet could inhibit vaccination efficiency of PRRSV MLV by severely impairing viral replication. PMID:26117152

  11. An evaluation of disinfectants for the sanitation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-contaminated transport vehicles at cold temperatures.

    PubMed

    Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Burns, Danny; Douthit, George; Pijoan, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of commercially available disinfectants to sanitize porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contaminated trailer models in cold climates (-20 degrees C and 4 degrees C). Disinfectants evaluated included Synergize, Aseptol 2000, Biophene, Sentramax, Virkon, Tek Trol, and DC&R. All products were applied to trailers via fumigation at 4 degrees C. Following experimental contamination of model trailers with PRRSV MN 30-100 (5 x 10(5) TCID50), models were tested for the presence or absence of PRRSV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on swabs collected 0, 30, and 60 min after treatment. Treatments included washing only, washing plus disinfectant fumigation, washing plus fumigation, and washing plus overnight drying. The PRRSV-RNA detected across trailers ranged from 0/12 replicates in trailers treated with Synergize or allowed to dry for 8 h. These trailers were also negative for the presence of infectious PRRSV, based on the lack of sentinel pig infection (0/4 replicates). In contrast, the detection of PRRSV-positive swabs by PCR ranged from 3/12 (Aseptol) to 10/12 (Biophene). Based on these results, the efficacy of Synergize was evaluated at -20 degrees C. In an attempt to reduce the impact of freezing on disinfectant activity, 30 mL of disinfectant was added to a 3840 mL of a 40% methanol solution, a 10% propylene glycol (PG) solution, or water alone. The PRRSV-contaminated trailers were treated with 1 of 3 disinfectant mixtures via fumigation, stored for 8 h at -20 degrees C, allowed to thaw, and sampled as described. Trailers treated with 40% methanol or 10% PG did not freeze and were negative for PRRSV-RNA and infectious virus following thawing. In contrast, trailers treated with disinfectant and water were frozen within 60 min at -20 degrees C, and decontamination was not successful. PMID:15745225

  12. Probability of detecting Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection using pen-based swine oral fluid specimens as a function of within-pen prevalence.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Chris; Wang, Chong; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Doolittle, Kent; Harmon, Karen M; Abate, Sarah; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Lizano, Sergio; Main, Rodger; Nelson, Eric A; Otterson, Tracy; Panyasing, Yaowalak; Rademacher, Chris; Rauh, Rolf; Shah, Rohan; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    Pen-based oral fluid sampling has proven to be an efficient method for surveillance of infectious diseases in swine populations. To better interpret diagnostic results, the performance of oral fluid assays (antibody- and nucleic acid-based) must be established for pen-based oral fluid samples. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine the probability of detecting Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in pen-based oral fluid samples from pens of known PRRSV prevalence. In 1 commercial swine barn, 25 pens were assigned to 1 of 5 levels of PRRSV prevalence (0%, 4%, 12%, 20%, or 36%) by placing a fixed number (0, 1, 3, 5, or 9) of PRRSV-positive pigs (14 days post PRRSV modified live virus vaccination) in each pen. Prior to placement of the vaccinated pigs, 1 oral fluid sample was collected from each pen. Thereafter, 5 oral fluid samples were collected from each pen, for a total of 150 samples. To confirm individual pig PRRSV status, serum samples from the PRRSV-negative pigs (n = 535) and the PRRSV vaccinated pigs (n = 90) were tested for PRRSV antibodies and PRRSV RNA. The 150 pen-based oral fluid samples were assayed for PRRSV antibody and PRRSV RNA at 6 laboratories. Among the 100 samples from pens containing ?1 positive pig (?4% prevalence) and tested at the 6 laboratories, the mean positivity was 62% for PRRSV RNA and 61% for PRRSV antibody. These results support the use of pen-based oral fluid sampling for PRRSV surveillance in commercial pig populations. PMID:23536612

  13. The pathogenicity determinant of Citrus tristeza virus causing the seedling yellows syndrome maps at the 3'-terminal region of the viral genome.

    PubMed

    Albiach-Marti, Maria R; Robertson, Cecile; Gowda, Siddarame; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Belliure, Belén; Garnsey, Stephen M; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Moreno, Pedro; Dawson, William O

    2010-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) causes some of the more important viral diseases of citrus worldwide. The ability to map disease-inducing determinants of CTV is needed to develop better diagnostic and disease control procedures. A distinctive phenotype of some isolates of CTV is the ability to induce seedling yellows (SY) in sour orange, lemon and grapefruit seedlings. In Florida, the decline isolate of CTV, T36, induces SY, whereas a widely distributed mild isolate, T30, does not. To delimit the viral sequences associated with the SY syndrome, we created a number of T36/T30 hybrids by substituting T30 sequences into different regions of the 3' half of the genome of an infectious cDNA of T36. Eleven T36/T30 hybrids replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts. Five of these hybrids formed viable virions that were mechanically transmitted to Citrus macrophylla, a permissive host for CTV. All induced systemic infections, similar to that of the parental T36 clone. Tissues from these C. macrophylla source plants were then used to graft inoculate sour orange and grapefruit seedlings. Inoculation with three of the T30/T36 hybrid constructs induced SY symptoms identical to those of T36; however, two hybrids with T30 substitutions in the p23-3' nontranslated region (NTR) (nucleotides 18 394-19 296) failed to induce SY. Sour orange seedlings infected with a recombinant non-SY p23-3' NTR hybrid also remained symptomless when challenged with the parental virus (T36), demonstrating the potential feasibility of using engineered constructs of CTV to mitigate disease. PMID:20078776

  14. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Yijun [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States) [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan (China); Pattnaik, Asit K. [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (United States)] [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (United States); Song, Cheng [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States) [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 ({omega} - 2, where {omega} is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 ({omega} - 1), and M162 ({omega} + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide-anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  15. Identification of a new cell line permissive to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and replication which is phenotypically distinct from MARC-145 cell line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Airborne transmitted pathogens, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), need to interact with host cells of the respiratory tract in order to be able to enter and disseminate in the host organism. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) and MA104 derived monkey kidney MARC-145 cells are known to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication and are the most studied cells in the literature. More recently, new cell lines developed to study PRRSV have been genetically modified to make them permissive to the virus. The SJPL cell line origin was initially reported to be epithelial cells of the respiratory tract of swine. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine if SJPL cells could support PRRSV infection and replication in vitro. Results The SJPL cell growth was significantly slower than MARC-145 cell growth. The SJPL cells were found to express the CD151 protein but not the CD163 and neither the sialoadhesin PRRSV receptors. During the course of the present study, the SJPL cells have been reported to be of monkey origin. Nevertheless, SJPL cells were found to be permissive to PRRSV infection and replication even if the development of the cytopathic effect was delayed compared to PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells. Following PRRSV replication, the amount of infectious viral particles produced in SJPL and MARC-145 infected cells was similar. The SJPL cells allowed the replication of several PRRSV North American strains and were almost efficient as MARC-145 cells for virus isolation. Interestingly, PRRSV is 8 to 16 times more sensitive to IFN? antiviral effect in SJPL cell in comparison to that in MARC-145 cells. PRRSV induced an increase in IFN? mRNA and no up regulation of IFN? mRNA in both infected cell types. In addition, PRRSV induced an up regulation of IFN? and TNF-? mRNAs only in infected MARC-145 cells. Conclusions In conclusion, the SJPL cells are permissive to PRRSV. In addition, they are phenotypically different from MARC-145 cells and are an additional tool that could be used to study PRRSV pathogenesis mechanisms in vitro. PMID:23148668

  16. Construction and immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The European (EU) genotype of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (Genotype-I PRRSV) has recently emerged in China. The coexistence of Genotype-I and -II PRRSV strains could cause seriously affect PRRSV diagnosis and management. Current vaccines are not able to protect against PRRSV infection completely and have inherent drawbacks. Thus, genetically engineered vaccines, including DNA vaccine and live vector engineered vaccines, have been developed. This study aimed to determine the enhanced immune responses of mice inoculated with a DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of a Genotype-I PRRSV. Results To evaluate the immunogenicity of GP3 and GP5 proteins from European-type PRRSV, three DNA vaccines, pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5, pVAX1-EU-ORF3 and pVAX1-EU-ORF5, were constructed, which were based on a Genotype-I LV strain (GenBank ID: M96262). BALB/c mice were immunized with the DNA vaccines; delivered in the form of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles. To increase the efficiency of the vaccine, Quil A (Quillaja) was used as an adjuvant. GP3 and GP5-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN gamma) from the immunized mice sera, and other immune parameters, were examined, including T-cell proliferation responses and subgroups of spleen T-lymphocytes. The results showed that ORF3 and ORF5 proteins of Genotype-I PRRSV induced GP3 and GP5-specific antibodies that could neutralize the virus. The levels of Cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN–? of the experimental groups were significantly higher than those of control groups after booster vaccination (P?virus could stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes in mice in the experimental group. Conclusions Using Quil A as adjuvant, Genotype-I PRRSV GP3 and GP5 proteins produced good immunogenicity and reactivity. More importantly, better PRRSV-specific neutralizing antibody titers and cell-mediated immune responses were observed in mice immunized with the DNA vaccine co-expressing GP3 and GP5 proteins than in mice immunized with a DNA vaccine expressing either protein singly. The results of this study demonstrated that co-immunization with GP3 and GP5 produced a better immune response in mice. PMID:24916952

  17. The gene expression profile of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus indicates overstimulation of the innate immune system by the virus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; An, Tong-Qing; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Wei, Tian-Chao; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Peng, Jin-Mei; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Cai, Xue-Hui; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Since the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) variant emerged in 2006, it has caused death in more than 20 million pigs in China and other Southeast Asian countries, making it the most destructive swine pathogen currently in existence. To characterize the cellular responses to HP-PRRSV infection, the gene expression profile of porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells, the primary target cells of PRRSV, was analyzed in HP-PRRSV-infected and uninfected PAMs by suppression subtractive hybridization. After confirmation by Southern blot, genes that were differentially expressed in the HP-PRRSV-infected and uninfected PAMs were sequenced and annotated. Genes that were upregulated mainly in HP-PRRSV-infected PAM cells were related to immunity and cell signaling. Among the differentially expressed genes, Mx1 and HSP70 protein expression was confirmed by western blotting, and IL-8 expression was confirmed by ELISA. In PAM cells isolated from HP-PRRSV-infected piglets, the differential expression of 21 genes, including IL-16, TGF-beta type 1 receptor, epidermal growth factor, MHC-I SLA, Toll-like receptor, hepatoma-derived growth factor, FTH1, and MHC-II SLA-DRB1, was confirmed by real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate differential gene expression between HP-PRRSV-infected and uninfected PAMs in vivo. The results indicate that HP-PRRSV infection excessively stimulates genes involved in the innate immune response, including proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. PMID:25504361

  18. Identification of a common antigenic site in the nucleocapsid protein of European and North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Casal, J I; Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Garcia, J; Plana-Duran, J; Sanz, A

    1998-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein has been identified as the most immunodominant viral protein. The N protein genes from two PRRSV isolates Olot/91 (European) and Quebec 807/94 (North American) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using the pET3x system. The antigenic structure of the PRRSV N protein was dissected using seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and overlapping fragments of the protein expressed in E.coli. Three antigenic sites were found. Four MAbs recognized two discontinuous epitopes that were present in the partially folded protein or at least a large fragment comprising the first 78 residues, respectively. The other three MAbs revealed the presence of a common antigenic site localized in the central region of the protein (amino acids 50 to 66). This hydrophillic region is well conserved among different isolates of European and North American origin. However, since this epitope is not recognized by many pig sera, it is not adequate for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, none of the N protein fragments were able to mimic the antigenicity of the entire N protein. PMID:9782317

  19. A novel double recognition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the nucleocapsid protein for early detection of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Venteo, A; Rebollo, B; Sarraseca, J; Rodriguez, M J; Sanz, A

    2012-04-01

    Precise and rapid detection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in swine farms is critical. Improvement of control procedures, such as testing incoming gilt and surveillance of seronegative herds requires more rapid and sensitive methods. However, standard serological techniques detect mainly IgG antibodies. A double recognition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DR-ELISA) was developed for detection of antibodies specific to European PRRSV. This new assay can recognize both IgM and IgG antibodies to PRSSV which might be useful for detecting in routine surveillance assays pigs that are in the very early stages of infection and missed by conventional assays detecting only IgG antibodies. DR-ELISA is based on the double recognition of antigen by antibody. In this study, the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (N) of PRRSV was used both as the coating and the enzyme-conjugated antigen. To evaluate the sensitivity of the assay at early stages of the infection, sera from 69 pigs infected with PRRSV were collected during successive days post infection (pi) and tested. While standard methods showed low sensitivity rates before day 14 pi, DR-ELISA detected 88.4% seropositive samples at day 7 showing greater sensitivity at early stages of the infection. Further studies were carried out to assess the efficiency of the new assay, and the results showed DR-ELISA to be a sensitive and accurate method for early diagnosis of EU-PRRSV infection. PMID:22342444

  20. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a major White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) envelope protein VP24 expressed in Escherichia coli against WSSV.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Viswanathan, Karthik; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2014-11-01

    The study reports cloning, expression and characterization of immunogenic activity of VP24, a major envelope protein of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). His-tagged VP24 was expressed as truncated protein and purified from inclusion bodies by metal affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. The ability to confer protection from WSSV by oral administration of recombinant viral protein (rVP24) was examined in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) juveniles (advanced post larvae). Animals were fed with rVP24 for 10 days, orally challenged with WSSV and assayed for expression of viral genes and shrimp immune genes on the 2nd, 5th and 8th days of challenge. The survival of juvenile shrimps in the vaccinated and challenged group was significantly higher compared to the unvaccinated and challenged group with lesser viral gene expression (DNA polymerase, latency 1 and vp28). Analysis of immune gene expression showed upregulation of syntenin and down regulation of STAT, Rab 7 and caspase during the experimental period. This study points to the feasibility of using rVP24 as candidate vaccine in P. monodon against WSSV. PMID:25218401

  1. PmVRP15, a Novel Viral Responsive Protein from the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon, Promoted White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Jaree, Phattarunda; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, PmVRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed 9410–fold up-regulated level at 48 h post WSSV injection. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PmVRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. The full-length cDNA of PmVRP15 transcript was obtained and showed no significant similarity to any known gene in the GenBank database. The predicted open reading frame of PmVRP15 encodes for a deduced 137 amino acid protein containing a putative transmembrane helix. Immunofluorescent localization of the PmVRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Double-stranded RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of PmVRP15 in P. monodon significantly decreased WSSV propagation compared to the control shrimps (injected with GFP dsRNA). The significant decrease in cumulative mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp following PmVRP15 knockdown was observed. These results suggest that PmVRP15 is likely to be a nuclear membrane protein and that it acts as a part of WSSV propagation pathway. PMID:24637711

  2. Cellular microRNA miR-26a suppresses replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by activating innate antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaojuan; Bi, Yuhai; Li, Jing; Xie, Qing; Yang, Hanchun; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused large economic losses in the swine industry in recent years. Current PRRS vaccines fail to effectively prevent and control this disease. Consequently, there is a need to develop new antiviral strategies. MicroRNAs play critical roles in intricate host-pathogen interaction networks, but the involvement of miRNAs during PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection is not well understood. In this study, pretreatment with miR-26a induced a significant inhibition of PRRSV replication and remission of the cytopathic effect in MARC-145 cells, and this antiviral effect was sustained for at least 120?h. Luciferase reporter analysis showed that the PRRSV genome was not the target of miRNA-26a. Instead, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that miR-26a significantly up-regulated innate anti-viral responses, including activating the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway and promoting the production of IFN-stimulated genes. These findings suggest that delivery of miR-26a may provide a potential strategy for anti-PRRSV therapies. PMID:26013676

  3. Infection dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a continuous-flow population of pigs also infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fano, E; Pijoan, C; Dee, S

    2007-10-13

    Twenty-eight 10-week-old pigs were inoculated intratracheally with 1 x 10(5) colour-changing units/ml Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 232, and another 32 pigs were not inoculated but were divided into 12 direct-contact pigs and 20 indirect-contact pigs. Thirty-five days later, the inoculated pigs were inoculated intranasally with 1 x 10(2.4) tcid50 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain mn 30-100. Viraemia, seroconversion and the transmission of PRRSV in the M hyopneumoniae-infected pigs were then assessed for four months. Three groups of 10 age-matched gilts were introduced as sentinels into the experimental barn on days 28, 56 and 84 after the PRRSV infection. The persistence of PRRSV was evaluated in both the experimentally and naturally infected pigs, which were slaughtered 120, 135 and 150 days after the infection. The period of viraemia and the extent of seroconversion were similar to those observed in studies of pigs infected only with PRRSV, suggesting that under the conditions of the study M hyopneumoniae did not affect these features of the disease. A delayed pattern in the seroconversion and proportion of pcr-positive pigs was observed in the direct and indirect contact groups, and the persistence of PRRSV in tissues was confirmed by pcr at 120 and 150 days after infection only in the directly inoculated pigs and not in the direct- or indirect-contact groups of pigs. PMID:17938409

  4. Identification of a Novel Nonstructural Protein, VP9, from White Spot Syndrome Virus: Its Structure Reveals a Ferredoxin Fold with Specific Metal Binding Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,Y.; Wu, J.; Song, J.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a major mRNA species. The structure of full-length VP9 was determined by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is the first structure to be reported for WSSV proteins. The crystal structure of VP9 revealed a ferredoxin fold with divalent metal ion binding sites. Cadmium sulfate was found to be essential for crystallization. The Cd2+ ions were bound between the monomer interfaces of the homodimer. Various divalent metal ions have been titrated against VP9, and their interactions were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. The titration data indicated that VP9 binds with both Zn2+ and Cd2+. VP9 adopts a similar fold as the DNA binding domain of the papillomavirus E2 protein. Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells.

  5. Immune responses of Fenneropenaeus chinensis against white spot syndrome virus after oral delivery of VP28 using Bacillus subtilis as vehicles.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling-Lin; Shuai, Jiang-Bing; Xu, Zi-Rong; Li, Jian-Rong; Li, Wei-Fen

    2010-01-01

    The protective efficacy of oral administration of VP28 using Bacillus subtilis as vehicles (rVP28-bs) in shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, upon challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated. The calculated relative percent survival (RPS) value of rVP28-bs fed shrimp was 83.3% when challenged on the 14th day post-administration, which is significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of the group administered recombinant Escherichia coli over-expressing rVP28 (rVP28-e21). After immunization, activities of phenoloxidase (PO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hemolymph were analyzed. It was found that the supplementation of rVP28-bs into shrimp food pellets resulted in the most pronounced increase of iNOS activity (p < 0.001), but had the least influence on activities of PO and SOD. Besides, in the shrimp orally administered with rVP28-bs, the caspase-3 activity was one-fifth that of the control, though the signs of apoptosis (chromatin margination, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies) could not be observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). These results suggest that by oral delivery of rVP28-bs, shrimp showed significant resistance to WSSV and an effect on the innate immune system of shrimp. The remarkably enhanced level of iNOS after rVP28-bs administration might be responsible for antiviral defense in shrimp. PMID:19800009

  6. Comparison of Two Commercial Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Modified Live Vaccines against Heterologous Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSV Challenge in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyeon; Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two commercial type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccines against heterologous type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. Vaccination with a type 1 PRRSV vaccine reduced the level of viremia after type 1 PRRSV challenge but did not reduce the level of viremia after the type 2 PRRSV challenge in pigs. Increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) stimulated by type 2 PRRSV coincided with the low numbers of type 2 PRRSV-specific interferon gamma-secreting cells (IFN-?-SC) in vaccinated pigs after type 2 PRRSV challenge, whereas low levels of IL-10 stimulated by type 1 PRRSV coincided with high numbers of type 1 PRRSV-specific IFN-?-SC in vaccinated pigs after type 1 PRRSV challenge. Additionally, vaccination with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine effectively reduced the lung lesions and type 1 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 1 PRRSV-challenged pigs but did not reduce lung lesions and type 2 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 2 PRRSV-challenged pigs. There were no significant differences between two commercial type 1 PRRSV vaccines against type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge based on virological results, immunological responses, and pathological outcomes. This study demonstrates that vaccinating pigs with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine provides partial protection against respiratory disease with heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge but no protection with heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge. PMID:25855554

  7. Nonstructural protein 1? subunit-based inhibition of NF-?B activation and suppression of interferon-? production by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Song, Cheng; Krell, Peter; Yoo, Dongwan

    2010-11-25

    Induction of type I interferon (IFN-?/?) is an early antiviral response of the host, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to downregulate the IFN response during infection in cells and pigs. We report that the PRRSV nonstructural protein 1? (Nsp1?) subunit of Nsp1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic protein distributed to the nucleus and contains a strong suppressive activity for IFN-? production that is mediated through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway. Nsp1? suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B when stimulated with dsRNA or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and NF-?B suppression was RIG-I-dependent. The suppression of NF-?B activation was associated with the poor production of IFN-? during PRRSV infection. The C-terminal 14 amino acids of the Nsp1? subunit were critical in maintaining immunosuppressive activity of Nsp1? for both IFN-? and NF-?B, suggesting that the newly identified zinc finger configuration comprising of Met180 may be crucial for inhibitory activities. Nsp1? inhibited I?B phosphorylation and as a consequence NF-?B translocation to the nucleus was blocked, leading to the inhibition of NF-?B stimulated gene expression. Our results suggest that PRRSV Nsp1? is a multifunctional nuclear protein participating in the modulation of the host IFN system. PMID:20850164

  8. Knocking down caspase-3 by RNAi reduces mortality in Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei challenged with a low dose of white-spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rijiravanich, Anchukorn; Browdy, Craig L; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2008-03-01

    Apoptosis has long been observed in viral target organs of white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp and whether the phenomenon helps the shrimp to survive the infection or is a factor leading to mortality is still controversial. If the shrimp mortality is a result of triggered apoptosis, then inactivation of caspase-3, a key protein in the induction of apoptosis, should improve shrimp survival upon challenge with WSSV. To test this prediction, we identified and characterized a caspase-3 homologue (cap-3) from the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei and used this information to silence cap-3 expression by RNA interference prior to WSSV challenge. After confirming the efficacy of cap-3 silencing, its effects on mortality at high and low doses of WSSV were evaluated. In a high-dose WSSV challenge, cap-3 silencing had no significant effect on WSSV-induced mortality, except for a delay in mean time to death. However, at a low-dose WSSV challenge, cap-3 silencing correlated with a lower level of cumulative mortality, relative to silencing of a control gene, suggesting that apoptosis may exacerbate rather than decrease mortality in WSSV-challenged shrimp. PMID:18248799

  9. Protection of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) with ?-1,3-D-glucan-encapsulated vp28-siRNA particles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2012-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp viral pathogen responsible for large economic losses to shrimp aquaculture all over the world. The RNAi mediated by siRNA contributes a new strategy to control this viral disease. However, the efficient approach to deliver the siRNA into shrimp remains to be addressed. In this investigation, an antiviral vp28-siRNA was encapsulated in ?-1,3-D-glucan, and then the ?-1,3-D-glucan-encapsulated vp28-siRNA particles (GeRPs) were delivered into Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The results showed that the vp28-siRNA in GeRPs could be released in hemocytes of shrimp. It was found that the GeRPs containing the vp28-siRNA inhibited the replication of WSSV in vivo, which presented a better antiviral activity than the non-encapsulated vp28-siRNA. Further evidence indicated that the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp was significantly delayed by the GeRPs containing vp28-siRNA. Therefore, our study presented that the glucan-encapsulated siRNA might represent a novel potential therapeutic or preventive approach to control the shrimp disease. PMID:21590271

  10. The polymorphism analysis of CD169 and CD163 related with the risk of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

    PubMed

    Ren, Y W; Zhang, Y Y; Affara, N A; Sargent, C A; Yang, L G; Zhao, J L; Fang, L R; Wu, J J; Fang, R; Tong, Q; Xiao, J; Li, J L; Jiang, Y B; Chen, H C; Zhang, S J

    2012-11-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could infect porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM), and the CD169 and CD163 are identified as critical receptors on the surface of PAM, but whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these genes could influence the infection is remain unclear. In this study, we identified totally 6 SNPs for CD169 (G1640T, C1654A, C4175T) and CD163 (G2277A, A2552G and C2700A), and evaluated their associations with PRRSV infection using two classified methods in a 524 pig population to investigate the effects of mutations on the PRRSV receptors. The pigs with genotypes of AA of CD169-C1654A, CT of CD169-C4175T and AA of CD163-A2552G appeared to resistant to the PRRSV infection by the combination of two classified results. The results provided fundamental molecular investigation to promote pig breeding with disease resistance. However, the identification of functional changes induced by SNPs and molecular mechanism were need further research. PMID:22740140

  11. Role of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in protection from white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tharntada, Sirinit; Ponprateep, Sirikwan; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Liu, Haipeng; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2009-06-01

    The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has been shown previously to exhibit a broad spectrum of activity against various strains of bacteria and fungi. Herein, the recombinant ALFPm3 (rALFPm3) protein was examined for its role in the defence against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haematopoietic (Hpt) cell cultures of the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as in live P. monodon shrimps. Incubation of Hpt cell cultures with a mixture of WSSV and rALFPm3 resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in VP28 gene expression levels, compared with those incubated with WSSV alone, with an rALFPm3 IC50 value lower than 2.5 microM. However, pre-treatment of Hpt cells with 5 microM rALFPm3 showed no induced protection against subsequent WSSV infection, whereas the synthetic crayfish ALF peptide could protect cells at a higher concentration (10 microM). The in vivo role of ALFPm3 was examined by injection of P. monodon with WSSV pre-treated with rALFPm3 protein. The results clearly showed that rALFPm3 was able to reduce WSSV propagation and prolong the survival of shrimps. PMID:19264668

  12. Comparison of a commercial ELISA and an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay to detect antibodies directed against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Nodelijk, G; Wensvoort, G; Kroese, B; van Leengoed, L; Colijn, E; Verheijden, J

    1996-04-01

    A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was compared to an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). Serum samples used were collected from pigs experimentally infected with either the American or European antigenic type of PRRSV, and also from piglets born to sows that had been experimentally infected with the European antigenic type of PRRSV. In addition, three sets of European field sera (n = 275, n = 68, n = 349) were tested and evaluated using the IPMA as the gold standard. Results showed that both the IPMA and the ELISA were able to detect antibodies against the two antigenic types of PRRSV. When sera of experimentally infected pigs were tested, the IPMA with homologous antigen detected antibodies 2 to 3 days earlier than the ELISA, and was more sensitive in detecting maternal antibodies. The ELISA was slightly more sensitive for detecting antibodies against the American type than for the European type. When sets of field sera were tested, the relative sensitivity of the ELISA ranged between 0.68 and 0.91, and the relative specificity ranged between 0.75 and 0.97. However, in two of these sets (n = 275, n = 349) we determined that a decrease of the threshold value of ELISA (from 0.4 to 0.3) increased sensitivity without loss of specificity. We concluded that the ELISA is an easy, quick and reliable test to diagnose PRRSV infection in swine herds. PMID:8734646

  13. Evolutionary Dynamics of a Highly Pathogenic Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Analyses of Envelope Protein-Coding Genes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V G; Kim, H K; Moon, H J; Park, S J; Chung, H C; Choi, M K; Park, B K

    2015-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has long been an economically devastating swine viral disease. The recent emergence of a highly pathogenic type 2 PRRSV with high mobility and mortality in China, spreading in Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand has placed neighbouring countries at risk. This study applied a codon-based extension of the Bayesian relaxed clock model and the fixed effects maximum-likelihood method to investigate and compare the evolutionary dynamics of type 2 PRRSV for all of known structural envelope protein-coding genes. By comparing the highly pathogenic type 2 PRRSV clade against the typical type 2 PRRSV clade, this study demonstrated that the highly pathogenic clade evolved at high rates in all of the known structural genes but did not display rapid evolutionary dynamics compared with typical type 2 PRRSV. In contrast, the ORF3, ORF5 and ORF6 genes of the highly pathogenic clade evolved in a qualitatively different manner from the genes of the typical clade. At the population level, several codons of the sequence elements that were involved in viral neutralization, as well as codons that were associated with in vitro attenuation/over-attenuation, were predicted to be selected differentially between the typical clade and the highly pathogenic clade. The results of this study suggest that the multigenic factors of the envelope protein-coding genes contribute to diversifying the biological properties (virulence, antigenicity, etc.) of the highly pathogenic clade compared with the typical clade of type 2 PRRSV. PMID:23981823

  14. Poly(I:C) inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in MARC-145 cells via activation of IFIT3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Liu, Jie; Bai, Juan; Du, Yijun; Wang, Xiaoye; Liu, Xing; Jiang, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major cause of heavy economic losses in many swine-producing regions. Current vaccination strategies and antiviral drugs provide only limited protection. Interferon (IFN)-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3) has been characterized as the product of a novel antiviral gene and as an important modulator in innate immunity. However, the role of IFIT3 in PRRSV infection is scarcely understood. In this study, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) inhibited PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells, following the appearance of increased IFIT3. Overexpression of porcine IFIT3 resulted in a decrease of PRRSV. Knockdown of IFIT3 in MARC-145 cells increased PRRSV replication and impaired the antiviral activity mediated by poly(I:C). Moreover, in the presence or absence of IFIT3, poly(I:C)-induced IFN-? promoter activity was significantly boosted or crippled, respectively. IFIT3, TBK1 and phosphorylation of IRF3 were activated in poly(I:C)-transfected MARC-145 cells. It demonstrated that IFIT3 plays an important role in IFN-? induction in MARC-145 cells, and, when activated, it can inhibit PRRSV replication. PMID:23791982

  15. Cellular microRNA miR-26a suppresses replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by activating innate antiviral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaojuan; Bi, Yuhai; Li, Jing; Xie, Qing; Yang, Hanchun; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused large economic losses in the swine industry in recent years. Current PRRS vaccines fail to effectively prevent and control this disease. Consequently, there is a need to develop new antiviral strategies. MicroRNAs play critical roles in intricate host-pathogen interaction networks, but the involvement of miRNAs during PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection is not well understood. In this study, pretreatment with miR-26a induced a significant inhibition of PRRSV replication and remission of the cytopathic effect in MARC-145 cells, and this antiviral effect was sustained for at least 120?h. Luciferase reporter analysis showed that the PRRSV genome was not the target of miRNA-26a. Instead, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that miR-26a significantly up-regulated innate anti-viral responses, including activating the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway and promoting the production of IFN-stimulated genes. These findings suggest that delivery of miR-26a may provide a potential strategy for anti-PRRSV therapies. PMID:26013676

  16. Identification of a Novel Nonstructural Protein, VP9, from White Spot Syndrome Virus: Its Structure Reveals a Ferredoxin Fold with Specific Metal Binding Sites?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Jinlu; Song, Jianxing; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, Choy L.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a major mRNA species. The structure of full-length VP9 was determined by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is the first structure to be reported for WSSV proteins. The crystal structure of VP9 revealed a ferredoxin fold with divalent metal ion binding sites. Cadmium sulfate was found to be essential for crystallization. The Cd2+ ions were bound between the monomer interfaces of the homodimer. Various divalent metal ions have been titrated against VP9, and their interactions were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. The titration data indicated that VP9 binds with both Zn2+ and Cd2+. VP9 adopts a similar fold as the DNA binding domain of the papillomavirus E2 protein. Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells. PMID:16956937

  17. Generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to study structure-function of envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus from shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuzhen [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Road 19A, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang Xiaohua; Yuan Li [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Xu Tao; Rao Yu; Li Jia [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Road 19A, Beijing 100039 (China); Dai Heping [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Southern East Lake Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)], E-mail: hpdai@ihb.ac.cn

    2008-08-08

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP28 is one of the most important envelope proteins of WSSV. In this study, a recombinant antibody library, as single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format, displayed on phage was constructed using mRNA from spleen cells of mice immunized with full-length VP28 expressed in Escherichia coli. After several rounds of panning, six scFv antibodies specifically binding to the epitopes in the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions of VP28, respectively, were isolated from the library. Using these scFv antibodies as tools, the epitopes in VP28 were located on the envelope of the virion by immuno-electron microscopy. Neutralization assay with these antibodies in vitro suggested that these epitopes may not be the attachment site of WSSV to host cell receptor. This study provides a new way to investigate the structure and function of the envelope proteins of WSSV.

  18. Contribution of neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase in the early phase of fulminant acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sugamata, Ryuichi; Dobashi, Hideki; Nagao, Tomokazu; Yamamoto, Ki-Ichi; Nakajima, Noriko; Sato, Yuko; Aratani, Yasuaki; Oshima, Masamichi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kawachi, Shoji; Nakayama, Toshinori; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    Because the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by influenza virus infection remains unknown, we can only improve on existing therapeutic interventions. To approach the subject, we investigated immunological etiology focused on cytokines and an acute lung damage factor in influenza-induced ARDS by using a PR-8 (A/H1N1)-infected mouse model. The infected mouse showed fulminant severe pneumonia with leukocyte infiltration, claudin alteration on tight junctions, and formation of hyaline membranes. In addition to interferon (IFN)-?, plenty of keratinocyte-derived chemokines (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were significantly released into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the model. We focused on neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) as a potent tissue damage factor and examined its contribution in influenza pneumonia by using mice genetically lacking in MPO. The absence of MPO reduced inflammatory damage with suppression of leakage of total BALF proteins associated with alteration of claudins in the lung. MPO(-/-) mice also suppressed viral load in the lung. The present study suggests that MPO-mediated OCl(-) generation affects claudin molecules and leads to protein leakage and viral spread as a damage factor in influenza-induced ARDS. PMID:22211924

  19. Reaching Kids with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phemister, Art

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with Asperger's syndrome. This disorder has been described in terms of social deficits with cognitive skills remaining preserved in the afflicted individual. The essential characteristics of children with Asperger's Syndrome are that they possess qualitative impairment in social relationships, impairment in verbal and nonverbal…

  20. Systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis-like syndrome in a steer presumed to be persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Breshears, M A; Johnson, B J

    2008-09-01

    Unusual proliferative intravascular lesions were seen in multiple organs of a 2-year-old Corriente steer presumed to be persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), based on widespread immunohistochemical detection of BVDV antigen. Proliferations of spindle cells, which were immunohistochemically positive for von Willebrand factor-related antigen, partially-to-completely occluded vessel lumens and were supported by cells that were immunohistochemically positive for smooth muscle actin. Distribution and character of the intraluminal proliferations are strikingly similar to those described in feline systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis, a rare entity of unknown cause. The presence of occasional intravascular thrombi suggests that the proliferative vasculopathy was associated with an underlying thrombotic process with immunohistochemical similarities to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura of humans. Death of the steer was due to hemorrhage from a castration wound, which may indicate thrombocytopenia or platelet dysfunction. The role of persistent BVDV infection in the formation of the intravascular lesions is unknown. PMID:18725468

  1. Role of Marsupenaeus japonicus crustin-like peptide against Vibrio penaeicida and white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hipolito, Sheryll Grospe; Shitara, Aiko; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

    2014-10-01

    Crustins are important AMP that has been identified in crustaceans. In this study, the role of Marsupenaeus japonicus crustin-like peptide (MjCRS) was examined in vivo by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Tissue expression analysis revealed that MjCRS transcripts are expressed in different tissues tested with the highest expression observed in hemocytes. Treatment with double-stranded RNA specific to MjCRS led to a significant reduction of MjCRS transcripts within the hemocytes. When MjCRS was silenced and subsequently infected with Vibrio penaeicida final mortality was significantly higher compared with PBS and dsGFP treated groups. On the other hand, final mortalities of MjCRS silenced and PBS injected groups were not significantly different after infection with white spot virus, however, both are significantly higher compared with dsGFP treated group. V. penaeicida infection significantly decreased MjCRS expression at 3, 6, 12 and 24h followed by significant increase at 48 h post-infection. On the contrary, white spot infection significantly increased MjCRS expression at 6 and 12h and decreased at 48 h post-infection. dsRNA treatment alone decreased total hemocyte counts (THCs) and subsequent V. penaeicida or white spot virus infection further decreased THCs. VP28 gene expression was both similarly increased in PBS injected group and MjCRS silenced group at 24 and 48 h-post infection. Results suggest that MjCRS is involved in antibacterial defense and might not have critical function against viral infection. PMID:24929027

  2. Research Projects in Ly's & Liang's Labs How virus-host interactions affect Lassa and Influenza virus

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    Guanarito (BSL4) Sabia (BSL4) Chapare (BSL4) Lujo (BSL4) Rift Valley Fever (BSL3) (BSL4) Yellow Fever (BSL and Influenza virus replication, virulence and pathogenesis? I fl iLassa fever virus Influenza virus #12;Lassa Virus Causes Lethal Hemorrhagic Fever · Severe multisystem syndrome · Damage to overall vascular system

  3. Hantaviruses and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Maranhăo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.; Medeiros, Daniele B. de Almeida; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Mendes, Wellington S.; Vidigal, José R.B.; de Oliveira, Renata C.; D’Andrea, Paulo S.; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.

    2010-01-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhăo, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region. PMID:21122229

  4. Hantaviruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Maranhao, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele B; Simith, Darlene B; de Souza Pereira, Armando; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Mendes, Wellington S; Vidigal, José R B; de Oliveira, Renata C; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Cruz, Ana C R; Nunes, Márcio R T; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F

    2010-12-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhao, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region. PMID:21122229

  5. An experimental model to evaluate the role of transport vehicles as a source of transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to susceptible pigs.

    PubMed

    Dee, Scott A; Deen, John; Otake, Satoshi; Pijoan, Carlos

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in a scale-model trailer that was required to infect susceptible pigs, evaluate the potential of PRRSV-contaminated transport vehicles to infect naďve pigs and assess 4 sanitation programs for the prevention of virus spread. To maximize study power, scale models (1:150) of weaned-pig trailers were constructed that provided an animal density equal to that of an actual weaned-pig trailer capable of transporting 300 pigs. The 1st aim involved contaminating the interior of the model trailers with various concentrations (10(1) to 10(4) TCID50/mL) of PRRSV MN 30-100, then housing sentinel pigs in the trailers for 2 h. Pigs exposed to trailers contaminated with > or = 10(3) TCID50/mL became infected. The 2nd aim involved housing experimentally infected seeder pigs in trailers for 2 h, then directly introducing sentinel pigs for 2 h. Infection of sentinels was demonstrated in 3 of 4 replicates. The 3rd aim involved applying 1 of 4 sanitation procedures (treatments) to contaminated trailers. Treatment 1 consisted of manual scraping of the interior to remove soiled bedding (wood chips). Treatment 2 consisted of bedding removal, washing (80 degrees C, 20,500 kPa), and disinfecting (with 1:256 phenol; 10-min contact time). Treatment 3 consisted of treatment 2, followed by freezing and thawing. Treatment 4 consisted of bedding removal, washing, disinfecting, and drying. Ten replicates were conducted per treatment. Pretreatment swabs from all trailers tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Post-treatment swabs were PCR-positive for all trailers except those that were washed, disinfected, and dried. Infection of sentinel pigs by PRRSV was also detected by PCR after all treatments except washing, disinfecting, and drying. Under the conditions of this study, drying appeared to be an important component of a sanitation program for ensuring PRRSV biosecurity of transport vehicles. PMID:15188957

  6. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  7. Positive effects of porcine IL-2 and IL-4 on virus-specific immune responses induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 DNA vaccine in swine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Li, Chunyan; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Ping; Luo, Xianfeng; Zeng, Zhiyong; Hong, Nining; Liu, Xia; Wang, Bin; Wang, Feng; Gan, Zhenlei; Hao, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of porcine interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 genes on enhancing the immunogenicity of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5 DNA vaccine in piglets. Eukaryotic expression plasmids pcDNA-ORF5, pcDNA-IL-2, and pcDNA-IL-4 were constructed and then expressed in Marc-145 cells. The effects of these genes were detected using an indirect immunofluorescent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Characteristic fluorescence was observed at different times after pcDNA-ORF5 was expressed in the Marc-145 cells, and PCR products corresponding to ORF5, IL-2, and IL-4 genes were detected at 48 h. Based on these data, healthy piglets were injected intramuscularly with different combinations of the purified plasmids: pcDNA-ORF5 alone, pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNA-IL-2, pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNA-IL-4, and pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNAIL-4 + pcDNA-IL-2. The ensuing humoral immune responses, percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, proliferation indices, and interferon-? expression were analyzed. Results revealed that the piglets co-immunized with pcDNA-ORF5 + pcDNA-IL-4 + pcDNA-IL-2 plasmids developed significantly higher antibody titers and neutralizing antibody levels, had significantly increased levels of specific T lymphocyte proliferation, elevated percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and significantly higher IFN-? production than the other inoculated pigs (p < 0.05). PMID:24136204

  8. Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients and CD4+ Counts

    PubMed Central

    Berberi, Antoine; Noujeim, Ziad; Aoun, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was directed to evaluate the forms of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and their correlation with CD4+ cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study carried out for a 2-year period, in which quantitative data collection methods were used. 50 patients with HIV infection were evaluated. Relationship between OPC and CD4+ was investigated. Results: Five different clinical forms were noticed on examination: pseudomembranous candidiasis 20/38 (P) was the most common one (52.6%) followed by erythematous 5/38 (13.15%), angular cheilitis 5/38 (13.15%) (AC), a combination of AC and E 4/38 (10.52%) or AC, E and P 4/38 (10.52%). Candida albicans was the most frequent specie isolated in 35 cases of OPC (92%). Candida tropicalis was isolated in 2 cases (5.26%) and Candida glabrata in 1 case (2.64%). The majority of patients with OPC had cell counts 28/38 (73%) <200 cells/mm3, followed by 9/38 (23%) at CD4+ cell counts of 201-499 cells/mm3. Conclusion: Oral Candida colonization and invasive infection occur more frequently in HIV-positive patient and is significantly more common in patients with CD4+ cell counts <200 cell/mm3. PMID:25878473

  9. Bacterial predators possess unique membrane lipid structures.

    PubMed

    Müller, Frederic D; Beck, Sebastian; Strauch, Eckhard; Linscheid, Michael W

    2011-12-01

    Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALO) are a phylogenetically diverse group of predatory prokaryotes that consists of the two families Bdellovibrionaceae and Bacteriovoracaceae. We investigated the phospholipid composition of the three important BALO strains Bacteriovorax stolpii (DSM 12778), Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 (DSM 50701) and Peredibacter starrii (DSM 17039). We confirmed the presence of sphingophosphonolipids in B. stolpii, while we characterized sphingophosphonolipids with a 2-amino-3-phosphonopropanate head group for the first time. In B. bacteriovorus HD100 phosphatidylthreonines were found and, thus, B. bacteriovorus is the second prokaryote investigated so far possessing this rare lipid class. In the third analyzed organism, P. starrii, we observed phosphatidylethanolamine structures with an additional N-glutamyl residue, which form the first reported class of amino acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamines. PMID:21984111

  10. Planctomycetes do possess a peptidoglycan cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Jeske, Olga; Schüler, Margarete; Schumann, Peter; Schneider, Alexander; Boedeker, Christian; Jogler, Mareike; Bollschweiler, Daniel; Rohde, Manfred; Mayer, Christoph; Engelhardt, Harald; Spring, Stefan; Jogler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most bacteria contain a peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall, which is critical for maintenance of shape and important for cell division. In contrast, Planctomycetes have been proposed to produce a proteinaceous cell wall devoid of PG. The apparent absence of PG has been used as an argument for the putative planctomycetal ancestry of all bacterial lineages. Here we show, employing multiple bioinformatic methods, that planctomycetal genomes encode proteins required for PG synthesis. Furthermore, we biochemically demonstrate the presence of the sugar and the peptide components of PG in Planctomycetes. In addition, light and electron microscopic experiments reveal planctomycetal PG sacculi that are susceptible to lysozyme treatment. Finally, cryo-electron tomography demonstrates that Planctomycetes possess a typical PG cell wall and that their cellular architecture is thus more similar to that of other Gram-negative bacteria. Our findings shed new light on the cellular architecture and cell division of the maverick Planctomycetes. PMID:25964217

  11. Assembly and budding of influenza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debi P. Nayak; Eric Ka-Wai Hui; Subrata Barman

    2004-01-01

    Influenza viruses are causative agents of an acute febrile respiratory disease called influenza (commonly known as “flu”) and belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family. These viruses possess segmented, negative stranded RNA genomes (vRNA) and are enveloped, usually spherical and bud from the plasma membrane (more specifically, the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells). Complete virus particles, therefore, are not found

  12. Activating Transcription Factor 4 and X Box Binding Protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei Transcriptional Regulated White Spot Syndrome Virus Genes Wsv023 and Wsv083

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Pang, Li-Ran; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Chen, Yi-Hong; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4) which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase, (PERK)]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2?)] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1299 bp long that encoded a 432 amino acid protein. LvATF4 was highly expressed in gills, intestines and stomach. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvATF4 was upregulated in the gills after 3 hpi and increased by 1.9-fold (96 hpi) compared to the mock-treated group. The LvATF4 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Reporter gene assays show that LvATF4 could upregulate the expression of the WSSV gene wsv023 based on the activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3?, 5?-monophosphate response element (ATF/CRE). Another transcription factor of L. vannamei, X box binding protein 1 (designated as LvXBP1), has a significant function in [inositol-requiring enzyme-1(IRE1) – (XBP1)] pathway. This transcription factor upregulated the expression of the WSSV gene wsv083 based on the UPR element (UPRE). These results suggest that in L. vannamei UPR signaling pathway transcription factors are important for WSSV and might facilitate WSSV infection. PMID:23638122

  13. Correlations between cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, anti-ganglioside antibodies, electrodiagnostic findings and functional status in Guillain-Barré syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Pourkhanjar, Peyman; Talebi, Mahnaz; Bonyadi, Mohammadreza; Pashapour, Ali; Rikhtegar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to underlying autoimmune background of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the possible role of infectious agents cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and also due to association of anti-ganglioside antibodies with GBS, the present study aimed to investigate the associations between serum anti-ganglioside antibodies (AGA) level, type of infection and electrodiagnostic (ED) findings with the severity and three-month functional outcome of patients with GBS. Methods In a prospective study, 30 patients with GBS were selected and before starting the treatment, baseline serum samples of patients were obtained for measuring the serum AGA including the antibodies against GQ1b, GT1b, GD1a, GD1b, GM1, GM2, GM3 and strains of CMV and EBV. All the patients were precisely examined for ED findings. Functional status of patients on admission and three months after admission were recorded according to the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Results The results of patients’ serum assessment revealed that CMV IgM was positive in one patient (3.3%), CMV IgG in 29 patients (96.7%) and EBV IgG in 27 patients (90%). Anti-GM1 was found in 3 patients (10%) and anti-GM3 was found only in one patient (3.3%). However, no statistical significant association was found between the AGA and strain of the disease and ED findings. Conclusion Despite the coexistence of AGA and serum antibodies against CMV and EBV in some GBS patients, there was not clear association in this regard. However, the AGA was positive in patients who suffered from severe phase of the disease. PMID:24800041

  14. The shrimp IKK–NF-?B signaling pathway regulates antimicrobial peptide expression and may be subverted by white spot syndrome virus to facilitate viral gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Liu, Bo-Du; Huang, Xian-De; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    The I?B kinases IKK? and IKK? and the IKK-related kinases TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IKK? are the master regulators of the NF-?B signaling pathway. Although this pathway has been extensively studied in mammals, less attention has been paid in crustaceans, which have significant economic value. Here, we report the cloning and functional studies of two IKK homologs, LvIKK? and LvIKK?, from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. LvIKK? and LvIKK? mRNAs are widely expressed in different tissues and are responsive to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, LvIKK? but not LvIKK? activates the promoters of NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), such as the Penaeidins (PENs). In HEK 293T cells, both LvIKK? and LvIKK? activate an NF-?B reporter. The silencing of LvIKK? or LvIKK? using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) decreases the expression of L. vannamei AMPs, including PENs, lysozyme and crustins. Intriguingly, LvIKK?- or LvIKK?-silenced L. vannamei are resistant to WSSV infection. We hypothesized that successful infection with WSSV requires the activation of the IKK–NF-?B signaling pathway to modulate viral gene expression. We constructed luciferase reporters for 147 WSSV genes. By screening, we found that the WSV051, WSV059, WSV069, WSV083, WSV090, WSV107, WSV244, WSV303, WSV371 and WSV445 promoters can be activated by LvIKK? or LvIKK? in Drosophila S2 cells. Taken together, our results reveal that LvIKK? and LvIKK? may participate in the regulation of shrimp AMPs and that WSSV may subvert the L. vannamei IKK–NF-?B signaling pathway to facilitate viral gene expression. PMID:23954949

  15. Litopenaeus vannamei tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) responds to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and activates antimicrobial peptide genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Deng, Xie-Xiong; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key signaling adaptor protein not only for the TNFR superfamily but also for the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. To investigate TRAF6 function in invertebrate innate immune responses, Litopenaeus vannamei TRAF6 (LvTRAF6) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvTRAF6 is 2823bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 594 amino acids, including a RING-type Zinc finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, a coiled-coil region, and a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. The overall amino acid sequence identity between LvTRAF6 and other known TRAF6s is 22.2-33.3%. Dual luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila S2 cells revealed that LvTRAF6 could activate the promoters of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), including Drosophila Attacin A and Drosomycin, and shrimp Penaeidins. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that LvTRAF6 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of L. vannamei. After Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvTRAF6 was down-regulated, though with different expression patterns in the intestine compared to other tissues. After WSSV challenge, LvTRAF6 was up-regulated 2.7- and 2.3-fold over the control at 3h in gills and hepatopancreas, respectively. These results indicated that LvTRAF6 may play a crucial role in antibacterial and antiviral responses via regulation of AMP gene expression. PMID:20816892

  16. The shrimp IKK-NF-?B signaling pathway regulates antimicrobial peptide expression and may be subverted by white spot syndrome virus to facilitate viral gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Liu, Bo-Du; Huang, Xian-De; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-09-01

    The I?B kinases IKK? and IKK? and the IKK-related kinases TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IKK? are the master regulators of the NF-?B signaling pathway. Although this pathway has been extensively studied in mammals, less attention has been paid in crustaceans, which have significant economic value. Here, we report the cloning and functional studies of two IKK homologs, LvIKK? and LvIKK?, from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. LvIKK? and LvIKK? mRNAs are widely expressed in different tissues and are responsive to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, LvIKK? but not LvIKK? activates the promoters of NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), such as the Penaeidins (PENs). In HEK 293T cells, both LvIKK? and LvIKK? activate an NF-?B reporter. The silencing of LvIKK? or LvIKK? using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) decreases the expression of L. vannamei AMPs, including PENs, lysozyme and crustins. Intriguingly, LvIKK?- or LvIKK?-silenced L. vannamei are resistant to WSSV infection. We hypothesized that successful infection with WSSV requires the activation of the IKK-NF-?B signaling pathway to modulate viral gene expression. We constructed luciferase reporters for 147 WSSV genes. By screening, we found that the WSV051, WSV059, WSV069, WSV083, WSV090, WSV107, WSV244, WSV303, WSV371 and WSV445 promoters can be activated by LvIKK? or LvIKK? in Drosophila S2 cells. Taken together, our results reveal that LvIKK? and LvIKK? may participate in the regulation of shrimp AMPs and that WSSV may subvert the L. vannamei IKK-NF-?B signaling pathway to facilitate viral gene expression. PMID:23954949

  17. Molecular cloning and characterizations of porcine SAMHD1 and its roles in replication of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shen; Shan, Tongling; Zhou, Yanjun; Jiang, Yifeng; Tong, Wu; Liu, Fei; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Qingzhan; Tong, Guangzhi

    2014-12-01

    The sterile alpha motif and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1) protein is a novel innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. Here, we cloned the full-length SAMHD1 complementary DNA (cDNA) from porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes. The porcine SAMHD1 cDNA was of 3951?bp with an open reading frame of 1884?bp, encoding a polypeptide of 627 amino acids. Porcine SAMHD1 mRNA was detected in all swine tissues examined, with the higher expression in the tonsil, lung, liver, and lymph node tissues. The SAMHD1 protein was localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of SAMHD1 blocked the proliferation of HuN4, a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV), in MARC-145 cells, by inhibiting the synthesis of the HuN4 complement RNA. The antiviral effects of the simian SAMHD1 protein were nearly equivalent to those of porcine SAMHD1 in the HuN4-infected MARC-145 cells. Phosphorylation analysis of SAMHD1 showed that overexpressed SAMHD1 protein was in primarily an unphosphorylated state. SAMHD1 overexpression increased the transcript abundance of IFN-stimulated genes ISG15 and ISG56. The mRNA levels of SAMHD1 and ISGs were significantly increased in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 protein level was also elevated, and the protein was not phosphorylated during infection. Collectively, our data indicate that SAMHDI inhibits HP-PRRSV proliferation through inhibiting the replication of HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 might be the protein participating in the IFN signaling and is thus an important immunoregulatory protein in innate immunity. PMID:25106914

  18. Immunogenic and protective properties of GP5 and M structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressed from replicating but nondisseminating adenovectors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for significant economic losses in the porcine industry. Currently available commercial vaccines do not allow optimal and safe protection. In this study, replicating but nondisseminating adenovectors (rAdV) were used for the first time in pigs for vaccinal purposes. They were expressing the PRRSV matrix M protein in fusion with either the envelope GP5 wild-type protein (M-GP5) which carries the major neutralizing antibody (NAb)-inducing epitope or a mutant form of GP5 (M-GP5m) developed to theoretically increase the NAb immune response. Three groups of fourteen piglets were immunized both intramuscularly and intranasally at 3-week intervals with rAdV expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP, used as a negative control), M-GP5 or M-GP5m. Two additional groups of pigs were primed with M-GP5m-expressing rAdV followed by a boost with bacterially-expressed recombinant wild-type GP5 or were immunized twice with a PRRSV inactivated commercial vaccine. The results show that the rAdV expressing the fusion proteins of interest induced systemic and mucosal PRRSV GP5-specific antibody response as determined in an ELISA. Moreover the prime with M-GP5m-expressing rAdV and boost with recombinant GP5 showed the highest antibody response against GP5. Following PRRSV experimental challenge, pigs immunized twice with rAdV expressing either M-GP5 or M-GP5m developed partial protection as shown by a decrease in viremia overtime. The lowest viremia levels and/or percentages of macroscopic lung lesions were obtained in pigs immunized twice with either the rAdV expressing M-GP5m or the PRRSV inactivated commercial vaccine. PMID:23497101

  19. Induction of interleukin-10 is dependent on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure and respiratory illness in pigs and usually establishes a persistent infection. Previous studies suggested that interleukin-10 (IL-10) could play a critical role in PRRSV-induced immunosuppression. However, the ability of PRRSV to induce IL-10 in infected cells is controversial. In this study, we further investigated this issue using PRRSV strain CH-1a, which is the first North American genotype strain isolated in China. Results PRRSV strain CH-1a could significantly up-regulate IL-10 production both at mRNA and protein levels in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). However, up-regulation of IL-10 by PRRSV was retarded by specific inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (SB203580) and NF-?B (BAY11-7082). Additionally, p38 MAPK and NF-?B pathways but not ERK1/2 MAPK were actually activated in PRRSV-infected BMDMs as demonstrated by western blot analysis, suggesting that p38 MAPK and NF-?B pathways are involved in the induction of IL-10 by PRRSV infection. Transfection of PAMs and PAM cell line 3D4/21 (CRL-2843) with viral structural genes showed that glycoprotein5 (GP5) could significantly up-regulate IL-10 production, which was dependent on p38 MAPK and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation. We also demonstrated that a full-length glycoprotein was essential for GP5 to induce IL-10 production. Conclusions PRRSV strain CH-1a could significantly up-regulate IL-10 production through p38 MAPK activation. PMID:22909062

  20. Immune responses of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), to bacterially expressed dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Taju, G; Madan, N; Abdul Majeed, S; Kumar, T Raj; Thamizhvanan, S; Otta, S K; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2015-05-01

    In this study, dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp was synthesized in Escherichia coli in large scale and studied the immune response of shrimp to dsRNA-VP28. The haematological parameters such as clotting time and total haemocytes counts, and immunological parameters such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), superoxide anion (SOA) and malondialdehyde content, as well as the mRNA expression of ten immune-related genes were examined to estimate the effect of dsRNA-VP28 on the innate immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei. The activities of proPO, SOA and SOD significantly increased in haemocyte after dsRNA-VP28 treatment, whereas MDA content did not change significantly. Among the ten immune-related genes examined, only the mRNA expression of proPO, cMnSOD, haemocyanin, crustin, BGBP, lipopolysaccharides (LPs), lectin and lysozyme in haemocytes, gill and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei, was significantly upregulated at 12 h after dsRNA-VP28 treatment, while no significant expression changes were observed in Toll receptor and tumour receptor genes. The increase of proPO and SOD activities, and SOA level and mRNA expression level of proPO, cMnSOD, haemocyanin, crustin, BGBP, LPs, lectin and lysozyme after dsRNA-VP28 stimulation indicate that these immune-related genes were involved in dsRNA-VP28-induced innate immunity in shrimp. PMID:24917208

  1. Construction and Immunogenicity of DNA Vaccines Encoding Fusion Protein of Porcine IFN-?1 and GP5 Gene of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Du, Luping; Li, Bin; He, Kongwang; Zhang, Haibin; Huang, Kehe; Xiao, Shaobo

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been mainly responsible for the catastrophic economic losses in pig industry worldwide. The commercial vaccines only provide a limited protection against PRRSV infection. Thus, the focus and direction is to develop safer and more effective vaccines in the research field of PRRS. The immune modulators are being considered to enhance the effectiveness of PRRSV vaccines. IFN-?1 belongs to type III interferon, a new interferon family. IFN-?1 is an important cytokine with multiple functions in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, porcine IFN-?1 (PoIFN-?1) was evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunity of a DNA vaccine carrying the GP5 gene of PRRSV. Groups of mice were immunized twice at 2-week interval with 100??g of the plasmid DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1-SynORF5, pcDNA3.1-PoIFN-?1-SynORF5, and the blank vector pcDNA3.1, respectively. The results showed that pcDNA3.1-PoIFN-?1-SynORF5 can significantly enhance GP5-specific ELISA antibody, PRRSV-specific neutralizing antibody, IFN-? level, and lymphocyte proliferation rather than the responses induced by pcDNA3.1-SynORF5. Therefore, type III interferon PoIFN-?1 could enhance the immune responses of DNA vaccine of PRRSV, highlighting the potential value of PoIFN-?1 as a molecular adjuvant in the prevention of PRRSV infection. PMID:24490154

  2. Nonstructural protein 1{alpha} subunit-based inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation and suppression of interferon-{beta} production by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Song Cheng [Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Krell, Peter [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.ed [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2010-11-25

    Induction of type I interferon (IFN-{alpha}/{beta}) is an early antiviral response of the host, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to downregulate the IFN response during infection in cells and pigs. We report that the PRRSV nonstructural protein 1{alpha} (Nsp1{alpha}) subunit of Nsp1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic protein distributed to the nucleus and contains a strong suppressive activity for IFN-{beta} production that is mediated through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway. Nsp1{alpha} suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B when stimulated with dsRNA or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B suppression was RIG-I-dependent. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B activation was associated with the poor production of IFN-{beta} during PRRSV infection. The C-terminal 14 amino acids of the Nsp1{alpha} subunit were critical in maintaining immunosuppressive activity of Nsp1{alpha} for both IFN-{beta} and NF-{kappa}B, suggesting that the newly identified zinc finger configuration comprising of Met180 may be crucial for inhibitory activities. Nsp1{alpha} inhibited I{kappa}B phosphorylation and as a consequence NF-{kappa}B translocation to the nucleus was blocked, leading to the inhibition of NF-{kappa}B stimulated gene expression. Our results suggest that PRRSV Nsp1{alpha} is a multifunctional nuclear protein participating in the modulation of the host IFN system.

  3. Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Douala, Cameroon: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Luma, Henry Namme; Temfack, Elvis; Halle, Marie Patrice; Tchaleu, Benjamin Clet Nguenkam; Mapoure, Yacouba Njankouo; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) kills about half a million human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients per year, mostly in Africa. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical presentation and in-hospital outcome of CM among HIV-infected patients in Douala. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional clinical note review of 672 HIV-1 patients’ files admitted from January 1 st 2004 to December 31 st 2009 at the Internal Medicine unit of the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon was performed. Only patients diagnosed of CM by microscopy of Indian ink stained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were studied. Results: The prevalence of CM in the study was 11.2%. Mean age of patients was 36.9 ? 12.7 years. Median cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count was 23 cells/?L, (interquartile range [IQR]: 10-61) and 62.7% of CD4 cell counts were >50 cells/?L. The most prevalent symptom was headache in 97.3% of patients. In CSF, median proteins was 0.9 g/L (IQR: 0.6-1); median glucose 0.2 g/L (IQR: 0.1-0.3) and median leucocyte count 54 cells/?L (IQR: 34-76) mostly of mixed cellularity. The case fatality rate was 52% and low CD4 cell count was strongly associated with death, odd ratio 4.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-8.0, P > 0.001). Conclusion: The high case fatality of CM in Douala warrants adequate diagnostic measures and optimization of standardized treatment to reduce mortality. PMID:24083225

  4. Finslerian spaces possessing local relativistic symmetry

    E-print Network

    G. Yu. Bogoslovsky; H. F. Goenner

    1999-04-30

    It is shown that the problem of a possible violation of the Lorentz transformations at Lorentz factors $\\gamma >5\\times 10^{10} ,$ indicated by the situation which has developed in the physics of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (the absence of the GZK cutoff), has a nontrivial solution. Its essence consists in the discovery of the so-called generalized Lorentz transformations which seem to correctly link the inertial reference frames at any values of $\\gamma .$ Like the usual Lorentz transformations, the generalized ones are linear, possess group properties and lead to the Einstein law of addition of 3-velocities. However, their geometric meaning turns out to be different: they serve as relativistic symmetry transformations of a flat anisotropic Finslerian event space rather than of Minkowski space. Consideration is given to two types of Finsler spaces which generalize locally isotropic Riemannian space-time of relativity theory, e. g. Finsler spaces with a partially and entirely broken local 3D isotropy. The investigation advances arguments for the corresponding generalization of the theory of fundamental interactions and for a specific search for physical effects due to local anisotropy of space-time.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... applies to a condition known as metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome Is an Early Warning Sign Metabolic syndrome isn' ... 2 diabetes down the road. What Exactly Is Metabolic Syndrome? Metabolic syndrome is a collection of problems that ...

  6. Beals Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Boards & Staff Annual Report & Financials Contact Us Donate Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of ...

  7. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

  8. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

  9. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

  10. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States...possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per...

  11. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States...possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per...

  12. 50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

  13. 50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

  14. 50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

  15. 50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

  16. 50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...STATES Management Measures for Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught incidental to a directed fishery...Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such...

  17. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

  18. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

  19. The contextuality of the possessed values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung Suk; Jo, Sang Gyu; Choi, Sang Don; Kim, Jung Ho; Moo Jeon, Hun; Kim, Ho Il

    1999-04-01

    The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is determined by two algorithms: quantization algorithm (QUAN) which says that an observed value of an observable Q is one of the eigenvalues q of the corresponding physical operator icons/Journals/Common/hatQ" ALT="hatQ" ALIGN="TOP"/>, and the statistical algorithm (STAT) which says that the probability for the observed physical quantity vm(Q) to be q is |icons/Journals/Common/langle" ALT="langle" ALIGN="TOP"/> q|icons/Journals/Common/psi" ALT="psi" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/rangle" ALT="rangle" ALIGN="TOP"/>|2. From these two algorithms we can derive the principle of statistical function composition (SFC), Prob(vm(f(Q)) = r|icons/Journals/Common/psi" ALT="psi" ALIGN="TOP"/>) = Prob(vm(Q) = f-1(r)|icons/Journals/Common/psi" ALT="psi" ALIGN="TOP"/>). With the assumption of the principle of function composition (FC) that the algebraic relations between observables of a given physical system are identical with the algebraic relations between the values possessed by the system before the observation is made, it could be explained why the result of measurement obeys SFC. According to Bell-KS theorem, FC is not compatible with quantum theory. We analyse, in this paper, the incompatibility of FC with quantum theory in detail, focusing on the analysis of Redhead (1989 Incompleteness, Nonlocality and Realism (Oxford: Oxford University Press)). Redhead assumes the faithful measurement principle (FM) in order to construct FC. However, we show, that FC can be derived without the help of FM.

  20. No association found between the detection of either xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus or polytropic murine leukemia virus and chronic fatigue syndrome in a blinded, multi-site, prospective study by the establishment and use of the SolveCFS BioBank

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009, a retrospective study reported the detection of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in clinical isolates derived from individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS). While many efforts to confirm this observation failed, one report detected polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV), instead of XMRV. In both studies, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods were employed which could provide the basis for the development of a practical diagnostic tool. To confirm these studies, we hypothesized that the ability to detect these viruses will not only depend upon the technical details of the methods employed but also on the criteria used to diagnose CFS and the availability of well characterized clinical isolates. Methods A repository of clinical isolates from geographically distinct sites was generated by the collection of fresh blood samples from well characterized CFS and healthy subjects. Molecular techniques were used to generate assay positive controls and to determine the lower limit of detection (LLOD) for murine retroviral and Intracisternal A particle (Cell 12(4):963-72, 1977) detection methods. Results We report the establishment of a repository of well-defined, clinical isolates from five, geographically distinct regions of the US, the comparative determination of the LLODs and validation efforts for the previously reported detection methods and the results of an effort to confirm the association of these retroviral signatures in isolates from individuals with CFS in a blinded, multi-site, prospective study. We detected various, murine retroviral DNA signatures but were unable to resolve a difference in the incidence of their detection between isolates from CFS (5/72; 6.7%) and healthy (2/37; 5.4%) subjects (Fisher’s Exact Test, p-value?=?1). The observed sequences appeared to reflect the detection of endogenous murine retroviral DNA, which was not identical to either XMRV or pMLV. Conclusions We were unable to confirm a previously reported association between the detection of XMRV or pMLV sequences and CFS in a prospective, multi-site study. Murine retroviral sequences were detected at a low frequency that did not differ between CFS and control subjects. The nature of these sequences appeared to reflect the detection of pre-existing, endogenous, murine retroviral DNA in the PCR reagents employed. PMID:25092471

  1. 50 CFR 20.35 - Field possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Field possession limit. 20.35 Section...BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.35 Field possession limit. No person shall...either (a) his automobile or principal means of land transportation; or (b)...

  2. 50 CFR 648.94 - Monkfish possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...determined by multiplying the tail weight by 1.91. For example a vessel possessing 100 lb (45 kg) of tail weight may possess an additional 191 lb...heads only without possessing the equivalent weight of tails allowed by using the...

  3. 50 CFR 648.52 - Possession and landing limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...60 are prohibited from fishing for or landing per trip, or possessing at any time, scallops in excess of any sea scallop possession...south of 42°20?N. lat. at any time during a trip are prohibited from fishing for, possessing,...

  4. 50 CFR 648.52 - Possession and landing limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...60 are prohibited from fishing for or landing per trip, or possessing at any time, scallops in excess of any sea scallop possession...south of 42°20?N. lat. at any time during a trip are prohibited from fishing for, possessing,...

  5. Ferritin administration effectively enhances immunity, physiological responses, and survival of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yuan-Hwa; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Lo, Chu-Fang; Lee, Min-Hsien; Lian, Juang-Lin; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2010-04-01

    We examined the physiological (hemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipid) and innate non-specific immune responses (total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion, O(2)(-)) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity) to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin. Results showed that the THC, PO activity, and respiratory bursts of L. vannamei obviously increased (p < 0.05) 12 h after being injected with any dose of ferritin. However, the THC, PO activity, and respiratory bursts of L. vannamei that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin were significant higher than those of the other groups at 36-60, 60-72, and 36-60 h, respectively. SOD activities of L. vannamei 12 h after receiving 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin were significantly higher than those receiving saline. L. vannamei injected with ferritin at any dose maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to WSSV challenge after 12-36, 24-48, and 36-60 h, respectively. The survival of shrimp that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin was significantly higher than that of shrimp that received saline and of control shrimp after 72 h. The ferritin messenger RNA transcripts of shrimp that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin were significantly higher than that of shrimp that received saline after 36 h. It was, therefore, concluded that the immune ability and resistance against WSSV infection increased in L. vannamei that had received > 0.5 ng g(-1) ferritin. Ferritin does play important roles in the innate immunity of the white shrimp. We observed higher SOD activities of L. vannamei that had received 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng ferritin after 12 h than those that had received only saline (control), and the high SOD expression remained at the same levels even after 72 h of treatment. PMID:20045064

  6. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. Results 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. Conclusions HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in this population likely being engaged in high-risk sex. Government programs should pay more attention to public education, health promotion and intervention for the control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. PMID:24520921

  7. Protection of Penaeus monodon from Infection of White spot syndrome virus by DNA Construct Expressing Long Hairpin-RNA Against ICP11 Gene.

    PubMed

    Das, Rekha; Karthireddy, Syamala; Gireesh-Babu, P; Reddy, A K; Krishna, Gopal; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2010-10-01

    A plasmid construct (pICP11-LH) was designed to constitutively express long-hairpin RNA (lhRNA) against icp11 gene, which is reportedly the most highly expressed gene of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and likely to have an important role in viral pathogenesis. The construct was used singly and in combination with other similar constructs designed against vp28 and vp19. A total of 6 treatments, T1 (pICP11-LH; 35 ?g), T2 (pVP28-LH; 35 ?g), T3 (pVP28-LH and pVP19-LH; 17.5 ?g each), T4 (pVP28-LH and pVP19-LH; 25 ?g:10 ?g), T5 (pICP11-LH, pVP28-LH and pVP19-LH; 11.5 ?g each) and T6 (pGFP-LH; 35 ?g) were injected intramuscularly into 20 g Penaeus monodon specimens. The shrimp were challenged with WSSV 24 hpi and protection efficacy was measured in terms of survival and viral load 15 days after challenge. Appropriate negative and positive controls were used. T2 and T3 offered highest protection (75%) followed by T1 (67%) and T4 and T5 groups (58%), while T6 showed 25% protection. In all the target specific treatments, the viral load as estimated by single tube WSSV kit was kept in check (10-100 copies), whereas in the unimmunized challenged controls it progressed to severe infection (>10(5) copies). In spite of over 3 times higher expression of ICP11 compared to VP28, its knockdown by pICP11-LH did not offer any protective advantage over pVP28-LH, either singly or in combination. Moreover, none of the combinations bettered the protection efficacy of pVP28-LH administered alone. To investigate concerns about deleterious effect of plasmid persistence and constitutive expression on shrimp growth, a lab-scale 1 month growth study was conducted with 4 treatments T2, T3, T4 and T6, where no difference in specific growth rate was observed compared to controls. PMID:23637487

  8. An evaluation of thermo-assisted drying and decontamination for the elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from contaminated livestock transport vehicles.

    PubMed

    Dee, Scott; Torremorell, Montserrat; Thompson, Bob; Deen, John; Pijoan, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to validate a new protocol, the thermo-assisted drying and decontamination (TADD) system, for eliminating porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from contaminated transport vehicles. Scale models of weaned pig trailers were used. The principle of TADD is to raise the interior temperature of trailers to 71 degrees C for 30 min to promote drying and degradation of PRRSV. Trailer interiors were artificially contaminated with 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of PRRSV strain MN 30-100, then treated with 1 of 4 treatments: 1) TADD; 2) air only (no supplemental heat); 3) overnight (8 h) drying; and 4) washing only. Following treatment, swabs were collected from the trailer interiors at 0, 10, 20, and 30 min post-treatment and from the overnight group after 8 h. Swabs were tested for PRRSV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a measure of the presence of infectious PRRSV, sentinel pigs were housed in treated trailers for 2 h post-treatment and supernatants from swabs were injected IM into naive pigs (bioassay), the recipient pigs were then tested for PRRSV infection. All trailers were PRRSV positive by PCR immediately after washing, prior to treatment (pt). At 10 min pt, 7/10 swabs were positive from the TADD trailers; however, all swabs collected at 20 and 30 min pt were PRRSV negative by PCR, and trailer interiors were visibly dry. In contrast, 9/19, 6/10, and 6/10 swabs collected at 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively, from trailers treated with air only were positive and visibly wet. All swabs (10/10) collected from trailers treated with washing only were PRRSV positive by PCR and all swabs collected at 8 h of drying were PRRSV negative by PCR. All tests for the presence of infectious PRRSV were negative for trailers treated with TADD and overnight drying, while infectious PRRSV was detected in sentinel pigs and bioassay pigs in the other groups. Under the conditions of this study, the efficacy of the TADD system was equal to that of the overnight drying treatment, and it required a shorter period of time to complete its objective. PMID:15745224

  9. Further evaluation of alternative air-filtration systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Deen, John; Cano, Jean Paul; Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare 4 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, 2×-low-cost filtration, bag filtration, and use of a filter tested against particles derived from dioctylphthalate (DOP). The HEPA-filtration system used a prefilter screen, a bag filter (Eurovent [EU] 8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mosquito netting (prefilter), 2 fiberglass furnace filters, and 2 electrostatic furnace filters. Bag filtration involved the use of a filter rated EU8 and a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 14. The 95%-DOP, 0.3-?m-filtration system involved a pleat-in-pleat V-bank disposable filter with a 95% efficiency rating for particles 0.3 ?m or greater in diameter and ratings of EU9 and MERV 15. No form of intervention was used in the control group. The experimental facilities consisted of 2 chambers connected by a 1.3-m-long duct containing the treatments. Recipient pigs, housed in chamber 2, were exposed to artificial aerosols created by a mechanically operated mister containing modified live PRRSV vaccine located in chamber 1. Aerosol transmission of PRRSV occurred in 0 of the 10 HEPA-filtration replicates, 2 of the 10 bag-filtration replicates, 4 of the 10 low-cost-filtration replicates, 0 of the 10 95%-DOP, 0.3-?m-filtration replicates, and all 10 of the control replicates. Using a similar approach, we further evaluated the HEPA- and 95%-DOP, 0.3-?m-filtration systems. Infection was not observed in any of the 76 HEPA-filtration replicates but was observed in 2 of the 76 95%-DOP, 0.3-?m replicates and 42 of the 50 control replicates. Although the difference between the 95%-DOP, 0.3-?m and control replicates was significant (P < 0.0005), so was the level of failure of the 95%-DOP, 0.3-?m system (P = 0.02). In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, some methods of air filtration were significantly better than others in reducing aerosol transmission of PRRSV, and HEPA filtration was the only system that completely prevented transmission. PMID:16850938

  10. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to reduce the protein and carbohydrate levels significantly (P < 0.01) from the control diet fed groups. Moreover these diets help to decrease the coagulation time of maximum 61% from control groups and improve the total haemocyte count of maximum 51.82 × 10(5) cells ml(-1) in D4 diet fed F. indicus. Finally immunological parameters including prophenol oxidase (proPO) activity, intracellular superoxide anion production and intra-agar lysozyme activity was significantly (P ? 0.001) improved in the D-3 and D-4 fed F. indicus after WSSV challenge. PMID:25301717

  11. Severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Guan; K Y Yuen; J S M Peiris

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a previously unrecognized animal coronavirus that exploited opportunities provided by 'wet markets' in southern China to adapt to become a virus readily transmissible between humans. Hospitals and international travel proved to be 'amplifiers' that permitted a local outbreak to achieve global dimensions. In this review we will discuss the substantial scientific progress

  12. Sjögren syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Xerostomia-Sjögren syndrome; Keratoconjunctivitis sicca - Sjögren; Sicca syndrome ... in children. Primary Sjögren syndrome is defined as dry eyes and dry mouth without another autoimmune disorder. Secondary ...

  13. Clinical Outcome and Genetic Differences within a Monophyletic Dengue Virus Type 2 Population

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan; Thein, Tun Lin; Lee, Linda Kay; Lee, Kim Sung; Lye, David Chien; Ng, Lee Ching; Leo, Yee Sin

    2015-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of interplay between host and viral factors leading to severe dengue are yet to be fully understood. Even though previous studies have implicated specific genetic differences of Dengue virus (DENV) in clinical severity and virus attenuation, similar studies with large-scale, whole genome screening of monophyletic virus populations are limited. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 89 whole genomes of DENV-2 cosmopolitan clade III isolates obtained from patients diagnosed with dengue fever (DF, n = 58), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, n = 30) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS, n = 1) in Singapore between July 2010 and January 2013, in order to determine the correlation of observed viral genetic differences with clinical outcomes. Our findings showed no significant difference between the number of primary and secondary infections that progressed to DHF and DSS (p>0.05) in our study cohort. Despite being highly homogenous, study isolates possessed 39 amino acid substitutions of which 10 substitutions were fixed in three main groups of virus isolates. None of those substitutions were specifically associated with DHF and DSS. Notably, two evolutionarily unique virus groups possessing C-P43T+NS1-S103T+NS2A-V83I+NS3-R337K+ NS3-I600T+ NS5-P136S and NS2A-T119N mutations were exclusively found in patients with DF, the benign form of DENV infections. Those mutants were significantly associated with mild disease outcome. These observations indicated that disease progression into DHF and DSS within our patient population was more likely to be due to host than virus factors. We hypothesize that selection for potentially less virulent groups of DENV-2 in our study cohort may be an evolutionary adaptation of viral strains to extend their survival in the human-mosquito transmission cycle. PMID:25811657

  14. Fatal Case of Deer Tick Virus Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norma P. Tavakoli; Heng Wang; Michelle Dupuis; Rene Hull; Gregory D. Ebel; Emily J. Gilmore; Phyllis L. Faust

    2010-01-01

    Summary Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year- old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analy- ses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific

  15. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    What Is Tourette Syndrome? Tourette syndrome is a condition that affects a person's central nervous system and causes tics. Tics are ... few months or a year. Continue Who Gets Tourette Syndrome? Tourette syndrome can affect people of all ...

  16. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Tourette Syndrome Information Page Condensed from Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Tourette Syndrome? Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder ...

  17. Fanconi syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome ...

  18. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 25 NUMBER 12 DECEMBER 2007 1435 RNA interference against viruses: strike

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    C virus (HCV)8,9, hepatitis B virus (HBV)10,11, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS on RNAi-mediated inhibition of the human pathogen respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 2001 (ref. 1), many strategies to inhibit virus infections and describes viral countermeasures. Some viruses

  19. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  20. Serologic evidence for the etiologic role of Chuzan virus in an epizootic of congenital abnormalities with hydranencephaly-cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome of calves in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Y; Miura, Y; Kono, Y

    1988-12-01

    An epizootic of congenital abnormalities of calves was observed in the Kyushu district of Japan from November 1985 through April 1986. The main clinical signs of the disease were impairment of mobility and signs of impairment of the nervous system. Opisthotonos was pronounced, and almost all calves were unable to suckle by themselves. The main macroscopic pathologic changes were hydranencephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia. Although an etiologic agent was not isolated from the calves, serotest results of precolostral serum samples indicated that 128 of 139 (92%) abnormal calves had antibody for Chuzan virus, a new virus belonging to the Palyam subgroup of the Orbivirus genus; 34 healthy calves in the epizootiologic area did not have antibody for the virus. The presence of Chuzan virus in Kyushu in 1985 was confirmed serologically. PMID:3239837