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1

The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties  

SciTech Connect

The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. As a first step towards understanding the biological role of E protein during PRRSV replication, E gene expression was blocked in a full-length infectious clone by mutating the ATG translational initiation to GTG, such that the full-length mutant genomic clone was unable to synthesize the E protein. DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. P129-{delta}E-transfected cells however produced virion particles in the culture supernatant, and these particles contained viral genomic RNA, demonstrating that the E protein is essential for PRRSV infection but dispensable for virion assembly. Electron microscopy suggests that the P129-{delta}E virions assembled in the absence of E had a similar appearance to the wild-type particles. Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-{delta}E virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. The entry of PRRSV has been suggested to be via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and lysomotropic basic compounds and known ion-channel blocking agents both inhibited PRRSV replication effectively during the uncoating process. The expression of E protein in Escherichia coli-mediated cell growth arrests and increased the membrane permeability. Cross-linking experiments in cells infected with PRRSV or transfected with E gene showed that the E protein was able to form homo-oligomers. Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm.

Lee, Changhee [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Yoo, Dongwan [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail: dyoo@uoguelph.ca

2006-11-10

2

POSSESSION SYNDROME: AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY IN WEST KARNATAKA1  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A house to house survey was conducted for a population of 1158 in west Karnataka to determine the prevalence of possession syndrome and to study people's attitude towards the same. One year period prevalence was found to be 3.7%. 90% of the respondents believed in possession. Women more than men shared this belief. Spirit possession was reported to be troublesome but God possession as helpful. Number of God possession cases exceeded tint of spirit possession. Female sex, young age, low education appeared to predispose an individual to get possessed in such atmosphere.

Venkataramaiah, V.; Mallikarjunaiah, M.; Chandrasekhar, C. R.; Rao, C. K. Vasudeva; Reddy, G. N. Narayana

1981-01-01

3

Do individuals with Williams syndrome possess absolute pitch?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although absolute pitch (AP) is a rare skill in typical development, individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are often referred to as possessing this musical ability. However, there is paucity of research on the topic. In this article, 2 studies were conducted to evaluate AP in WS. In Study 1, seven musically trained individuals with WS, 14 musically trained typically developing

Pastora Martínez-Castilla; María Sotillo; Ruth Campos

2011-01-01

4

Discovery of drugs that possess activity against feline leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gammaretrovirus that is a significant cause of neoplastic-related disorders affecting cats worldwide. Treatment options for FeLV are limited, associated with serious side effects, and can be cost-prohibitive. The development of drugs used to treat a related retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has been rapid, leading to the approval of five drug classes. Although structural differences affect the susceptibility of gammaretroviruses to anti-HIV drugs, the similarities in mechanism of replication suggest that some anti-HIV-1 drugs may also inhibit FeLV. This study demonstrates the anti-FeLV activity of four drugs approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) at non-toxic concentrations. Of these, tenofovir and raltegravir are anti-HIV-1 drugs, while decitabine and gemcitabine are approved to treat myelodysplastic syndromes and pancreatic cancer, respectively, but also have anti-HIV-1 activity in cell culture. Our results indicate that these drugs may be useful for FeLV treatment and should be investigated for mechanism of action and suitability for veterinary use. PMID:22258856

Greggs, Willie M; Clouser, Christine L; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

2012-01-18

5

A VICTIM OF AN EPIDEMIC OF POSSESSION SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A case of young man who got possessed by a god and two spirits alternatively is reported. He was one of the four victims of an epidemic of possession by two spirits (Mohini). The epidemic occurred following the prediction that the two women who committed suicide, would become Mohinis and liaunt adult men. It appeared that the strong belief and expectation in the local culture made the index person who was otherwise well adjusted in life to get possessed. The implication of this finding is discussed.

Chandrashekar, C. R.

1981-01-01

6

A replication-incompetent virus possessing an uncleavable hemagglutinin as an influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

Vaccination is one of the most effective measures to protect against influenza virus infection. Inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines are available; however, their efficacy is suboptimal. To develop a safe and more immunogenic vaccine, we produced a novel replication-incompetent influenza virus that possesses uncleavable hemagglutinin (HA) and tested its vaccine potential. The uncleavable HA was engineered by substituting the arginine at the C-terminus of HA1 with threonine, which prevents cleavage of HA into its HA1 and HA2 subunits, preventing fusion between the host and viral membranes. Although this fusion-deficient HA influenza virus that possesses uncleavable HA (uncleavable HA virus) could undergo multiple cycles of replication in only wild-type HA-expressing cells, it could infect normal cells and express viral proteins in infected cells, but could not generate infectious virus from infected cells due to the uncleavable HA. When C57BL/6 mice were intranasally immunized with the uncleavable HA virus, influenza-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in nasal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage samples and in serum. In addition, influenza-specific CD8(+) T cells accumulated in the lungs of these mice. Moreover, mice immunized with the uncleavable HA virus were protected against a challenge of lethal doses of influenza virus, unlike mice immunized with a formalin-inactivated virus. These findings demonstrate that this fusion-deficient virus, which possesses uncleavable HA, is a suitable influenza vaccine candidate. PMID:22867723

Katsura, Hiroaki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinji; Sakabe, Saori; Hatta, Yasuko; Murakami, Shin; Shimojima, Masayuki; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2012-08-03

7

Evaluation of Nicotiana tabacum Genotypes Possessing Nicotiana africana-derived Genetic Tolerance to Potato Virus Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

New alleles infl uencing resistance to potato virus Y (PVY) would be valuable for develop- ing resistant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultivars. The fi rst objective of this research was to evaluate materials possessing an intro- gressed genomic region (Nafr) from N. africana Merx. & Buttler for their resistance against an array of nine PVY isolates. Seven near-iso- genic genotypes

R. S. Lewis

8

Lead optimization of an acylhydrazone scaffold possessing antiviral activity against Lassa virus.  

PubMed

Previously we reported the optimization of antiviral scaffolds containing benzimidazole and related heterocycles possessing activity against a variety of arenaviruses. These series of compounds were discovered through an HTS campaign of a 400,000 small molecule library using lentivirus-based pseudotypes incorporated with the Lassa virus envelope glycoprotein (LASV GP). This screening also uncovered an alternate series of very potent arenavirus inhibitors based upon an acylhydrazone scaffold. Subsequent SAR analysis of this chemical series involved various substitutions throughout the chemical framework along with assessment of the preferred stereochemistry. These studies led to an optimized analog (ST-161) possessing subnanomolar activity against LASV and submicromolar activity against a number of other viruses in the Arenaviridae family. PMID:24064500

Burgeson, James R; Gharaibeh, Dima N; Moore, Amy L; Larson, Ryan A; Amberg, Sean M; Bolken, Tove' C; Hruby, Dennis E; Dai, Dongcheng

2013-09-05

9

Tourette's syndrome: from demonic possession and psychoanalysis to the discovery of gene.  

PubMed

In this paper we make a brief historical review of the hypothesis concerning the etiology of Tourette's syndrome (TS), focusing on varying trends over time: at first, its presumed relation to witchcraft and demonic possessions, followed by the psychoanalytical theory, which attributed TS to a masturbatory equivalent. Then, progressing to modern time, to the immunological theory and finally the advent of genetics and their role in the etiology of TS. PMID:22836463

Germiniani, Francisco M B; Miranda, Anna Paula P; Ferenczy, Peter; Munhoz, Renato P; Teive, Hélio A G

2012-07-01

10

Bunyamwera virus possesses a distinct nucleocapsid protein to facilitate genome encapsidation.  

PubMed

Bunyamwera virus (BUNV), which belongs to the genus Orthobunyavirus, is the prototypical virus of the Bunyaviridae family. Similar to other negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, bunyaviruses possess a nucleocapsid protein (NP) to facilitate genomic RNA encapsidation and virus replication. The structures of two NPs of members of different genera within the Bunyaviridae family have been reported. However, their structures, RNA-binding features, and functions beyond RNA binding significantly differ from one another. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BUNV NP-RNA complex. The polypeptide of the BUNV NP was found to possess a distinct fold among viral NPs. An N-terminal arm and a C-terminal tail were found to interact with neighboring NP protomers to form a tetrameric ring-shaped organization. Each protomer bound a 10-nt RNA molecule, which was acquired from the expression host, in the positively charged crevice between the N and C lobes. Inhomogeneous oligomerization was observed for the recombinant BUNV NP-RNA complex, which was similar to the Rift Valley fever virus NP-RNA complex. This result suggested that the flexibility of one NP protomer with adjacent protomers underlies the BUNV ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) formation. Electron microscopy revealed that the monomer-sized NP-RNA complex was the building block of the natural BUNV RNP. Combined with previous results indicating that mutagenesis of the interprotomer or protein-RNA interface affects BUNV replication, our structure provides a great potential for understanding the mechanism underlying negative-sense single-stranded RNA RNP formation and enables the development of antiviral therapies targeting BUNV RNP formation. PMID:23569257

Li, Baobin; Wang, Quan; Pan, Xijiang; Fernández de Castro, Isabel; Sun, Yuna; Guo, Yu; Tao, Xinwei; Risco, Cristina; Sui, Sen-Fang; Lou, Zhiyong

2013-04-08

11

Duck Hepatitis A Virus Possesses a Distinct Type IV Internal Ribosome Entry Site Element of Picornavirus  

PubMed Central

Sequence analysis of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) led to its classification as the only member of a new genus, Avihepatovirus, of the family Picornaviridae, and so was renamed duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV). The 5? untranslated region (5? UTR) plays an important role in translation initiation and RNA synthesis of the picornavirus. Here, we provide evidence that the 651-nucleotide (nt)-long 5? UTR of DHAV genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently in vitro and within BHK cells. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the 3? part of the DHAV 5? UTR is similar to the porcine teschovirus 1 (PTV-1) IRES in sequence and predicted secondary structure. Further mutational analyses of the predicted domain IIId, domain IIIe, and pseudoknot structure at the 3? end of the DHAV IRES support our predicted secondary structure. However, unlike the case for the PTV-1 IRES element, analysis of various deletion mutants demonstrated that the optimally functional DHAV IRES element with a size of approximately 420 nt is larger than that of PTV-1 and contains other peripheral domains (Id and Ie) that do not exist within the type IV IRES elements. The domain Ie, however, could be removed without significant loss of activity. Surprisingly, like the hepatitis A virus (HAV) IRES element, the activity of DHAV IRES could be eliminated by expression of enterovirus 2A protease. These findings indicate that the DHAV IRES shares common features with type IV picornavirus IRES elements, whereas it exhibits significant differences from type IV IRESs. Therefore, we propose that DHAV possesses a distinct type IV IRES element of picornavirus.

Pan, Meng; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Liu, Jinhua

2012-01-01

12

Most Virus-specific Polypeptides in Cells Productively Infected with Marek's Disease Virus or Herpesvirus of Turkeys Possess Cross-reactive Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Most virus-specific polypeptides in cells productively infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV) or herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) possess cross-reactive antigenic determinants, although the two viruses have very little DNA homology. The cross- reactivity appeared to be more evident when (35S)methionine-labelled polypeptides were immunoprecipitated than when the (3H)glucosamine-labeUed polypeptides were immunoprecipitated, suggesting that the glycoproteins of MDV and HVT may

KAZUYOSHI IKUTA; SHIGEHARU UEDA; SHIRO KATO; KANJI HIRAI

1983-01-01

13

Human Cytomegalovirus Inhibitor AL18 Also Possesses Activity against Influenza A and B Viruses  

PubMed Central

AL18, an inhibitor of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase, was serendipitously found to also block the interaction between the PB1 and PA polymerase subunits of influenza A virus. Furthermore, AL18 effectively inhibited influenza A virus polymerase activity and the overall replication of influenza A and B viruses. A molecular model to explain the binding of AL18 to both cytomegalovirus and influenza targets is proposed. Thus, AL18 represents an interesting lead for the development of new antivirals.

Muratore, Giulia; Mercorelli, Beatrice; Goracci, Laura; Cruciani, Gabriele; Digard, Paul

2012-01-01

14

Influenza B and C Virus NEP (NS2) Proteins Possess Nuclear Export Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) is an essential aspect of the replication cycle for influenza A, B, and C viruses. These viruses replicate and transcribe their genomes in the nuclei of infected cells. During the late stages of infection, vRNPs must be exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm prior to transport to viral assembly sites on the cellular

JASON PARAGAS; JULIE TALON; R. E. O'Neill; D. KARL ANDERSON; ADOLFO GARCIA-SASTRE; PETER PALESE

2001-01-01

15

Measles Viruses Possessing the Polymerase Protein Genes of the Edmonston Vaccine Strain Exhibit Attenuated Gene Expression and Growth in Cultured Cells and SLAM Knock-In Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live attenuated vaccines against measles have been developed through adaptation of clinical isolates of measles virus (MV) in various cultured cells. Analyses using recombinant MVs with chimeric genomes between wild-type and Edmonston vaccine strains indicated that viruses possessing the polymerase protein genes of the Edmonston strain exhibited attenuated viral gene expression and growth in cultured cells as well as in

Makoto Takeda; Shinji Ohno; Maino Tahara; Hiroki Takeuchi; Yuta Shirogane; Hirofumi Ohmura; Takafumi Nakamura; Yusuke Yanagi

2008-01-01

16

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integration Protein Expressed in Escherichia Coli Possesses Selective DNA Cleaving Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integration protein, a potential target for selective antiviral therapy, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein, free of detectable contaminating endonucleases, selectively cleaved double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides that mimic the U3 and the U5 termini of linear HIV DNA. Two nucleotides were removed from the 3' ends of both the U5 plus strand and the U3 minus strand; in both cases, cleavage was adjacent to a conserved CA dinucleotide. The reaction was metal-ion dependent, with a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Reaction selectivity was further demonstrated by the lack of cleavage of an HIV U5 substrate on the complementary (minus) strand, an analogous substrate that mimics the U3 terminus of an avian retrovirus, and an HIV U5 substrate in which the conserved CA dinucleotide was replaced with a TA dinucleotide. Such an integration protein-mediated cleavage reaction is expected to occur as part of the integration event in the retroviral life cycle, in which a double-stranded DNA copy of the viral RNA genome is inserted into the host cell DNA.

Sherman, Paula A.; Fyfe, James A.

1990-07-01

17

Intracellular Synthesis, Processing, and Transport of Proteins Encoded by ORFs 5 to 7 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), a small enveloped virus containing a positive-strand RNA genome, possesses at least three major structural proteins designated N, M, and E. The N protein is considered as the major component of the nucleocapsid, whereas M and E are membrane-associated. Previous studies using peptide-specific antibodies assigned these proteins to ORFs 7, 6, and 5,

Helmi Mardassi; Bernard Massie; Serge Dea

1996-01-01

18

Measles viruses possessing the polymerase protein genes of the Edmonston vaccine strain exhibit attenuated gene expression and growth in cultured cells and SLAM knock-in mice.  

PubMed

Live attenuated vaccines against measles have been developed through adaptation of clinical isolates of measles virus (MV) in various cultured cells. Analyses using recombinant MVs with chimeric genomes between wild-type and Edmonston vaccine strains indicated that viruses possessing the polymerase protein genes of the Edmonston strain exhibited attenuated viral gene expression and growth in cultured cells as well as in mice expressing an MV receptor, signaling lymphocyte activation molecule, regardless of whether the virus genome had the wild-type or vaccine-type promoter sequence. These data demonstrate that the polymerase protein genes of the Edmonston strain contribute to its attenuated phenotype. PMID:18799577

Takeda, Makoto; Ohno, Shinji; Tahara, Maino; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Shirogane, Yuta; Ohmura, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Takafumi; Yanagi, Yusuke

2008-09-17

19

Identification of Host Genes Linked with the Survivability of Chickens Infected with Recombinant Viruses Possessing H5N1 Surface Antigens from a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Seventeen recombinant viruses were generated by a reverse genetic technique to elucidate the pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in chickens. The recombinant viruses generated possessed hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from an HPAIV. Other segments were combinations of the genes from an HPAIV and two low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) derived from chicken (LP) and wild bird (WB). Exchange of whole internal genes from an HPAIV with those of an LPAIV resulted in a significant extension of the survival time following intranasal infection of the chickens with the recombinants. Survival analysis demonstrated that the exchange of a gene segment affected survivability of the chickens with statistical significance. The analysis revealed three groups of recombinants with various gene constellations that depended upon the survivability of the infected chickens. Recombinants where the PA gene was exchanged from LP to WB in the LP gene background, LP (W/PA), did not kill any chickens. LP (W/PA) replicated less efficiently both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the intrinsic replication ability of LP (W/PA) affects pathogenicity; however, such a correlation was not seen for the other recombinants. Microarray analysis of the infected chicken lungs indicated that the expression of 7 genes, CD274, RNF19B, OASL, AC3HAV1, PLA2G6, GCH1, and USP18, correlated with the survivability of the chickens infected (P < 0.01). Further analysis of the functions of these genes in chickens would aid in the understanding of host gene responses following fatal infections by HPAIVs.

Uchida, Yuko; Watanabe, Chiaki; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Oka, Takehiko; Ito, Toshihiro

2012-01-01

20

Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Detection of a retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV), has recently been reported in 67% of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. We have studied a total of 170 samples from chronic fatigue syndrome patients from two UK cohorts and 395 controls for evidence of XMRV infection by looking either for the presence of viral nucleic acids using quantitative

Harriet C. T. Groom; Virginie C. Boucherit; Kerry Makinson; Edward Randal; Sarah Baptista; Suzanne Hagan; John W. Gow; Frank M. Mattes; Judith Breuer; Jonathan R Kerr; Jonathan P Stoye; Kate N Bishop

2010-01-01

21

Differentiation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus N protein using a virus-based ELISA.  

PubMed

The bacterially expressed nucleocapsid (N) protein of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was used as immunogen to generate a rabbit-derived polyclonal antibody. The immunoreactivity of the protein to the antibody was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Using PRRSV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, pseudorabies virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus as coating antigens, a virus-based ELISA was established. The polyclonal antibody against PRRSV N protein used as a diagnostic agent was capable of differentiating PRRSV from the other viruses. PMID:21529294

Li, Guangxing; Ren, Xiaofeng

2011-04-01

22

Frozen Commodity Shrimp: Potential Avenue for Introduction of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Yellow Head Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1992, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) have caused mortalities in cultured shrimp throughout Asia. By 1995, WSSV was detected in Texas and South Carolina, and the virus has also been recently reported in Central and South America (Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador). The importation of live infected shrimp is the principal

S. V. Durand; K. F. J. Tang; D. V. Lightner

2000-01-01

23

[Hemophagocytic syndrome due to Herpes simplex virus after hysteroscopy].  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic syndrome is an uncommon but life-threatening complication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2 infection. Diagnosis is difficult to establish given the low specificity of clinical and biological signs. PMID:22958898

Désidéri-Vaillant, C; Exbrayat, S; Sapin-Lory, J; Lambrechts, D; Rouxel, M; Nicolas, X

2012-09-05

24

Genomics and transcriptomics of White spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped DNA virus that infects shrimp and other crustaceans. The virions are approximately 275 x 120 nm in size and have an ovoid to bacilliform shape and a tail-like appendage at one end. Sequencing revealed that the circular, double stranded (ds) DNA genome of WSSV ranges between 293 and 307 kb in

Hendrik Marks

2005-01-01

25

Heterogeneity in Nsp2 of European-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses isolated in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that possess nucleotide sequences similar to European isolates have been reported in United States herds. The origin, diversity and prevalence of European-like North American PRRSV isolates in the U.S. remain unknown. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 12kb ORF1 of a North American isolate, SDPRRS 01-08 (01-08), showed 93.7% identity with

Ying Fang; Dal-Young Kim; Susan Ropp; Pam Steen; Jane Christopher-Hennings; Eric A. Nelson; Raymond R. R. Rowland

2004-01-01

26

APOPTOSIS AND PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite numerous studies examining the possible induction of apoptosis in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) -infected cells, it remains unclear if PRRSV infection results in direct apoptotic induction. There is clear evidence that apoptotic cells are present in tissues fro...

27

The duck hepatitis virus 5'-UTR possesses HCV-like IRES activity that is independent of eIF4F complex and modulated by downstream coding sequences  

PubMed Central

Duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) is a worldwide distributed picornavirus that causes acute and fatal disease in young ducklings. Recently, the complete genome of DHV-1 has been determined and comparative sequence analysis has shown that possesses the typical picornavirus organization but exhibits several unique features. For the first time, we provide evidence that the 626-nucleotide-long 5'-UTR of the DHV-1 genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently both in vitro and in mammalian cells. The prediction of the secondary structure of the DHV-1 IRES shows significant similarity to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES. Moreover, similarly to HCV IRES, DHV-1 IRES can direct translation initiation in the absence of a functional eIF4F complex. We also demonstrate that the activity of the DHV-1 IRES is modulated by a viral coding sequence located downstream of the DHV-1 5'-UTR, which enhances DHV-1 IRES activity both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, mutational analysis of the predicted pseudo-knot structures at the 3'-end of the putative DHV-1 IRES supported the presence of conserved domains II and III and, as it has been previously described for other picornaviruses, these structures are essential for keeping the normal internal initiation of translation of DHV-1.

2011-01-01

28

The duck hepatitis virus 5'-UTR possesses HCV-like IRES activity that is independent of eIF4F complex and modulated by downstream coding sequences.  

PubMed

Duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) is a worldwide distributed picornavirus that causes acute and fatal disease in young ducklings. Recently, the complete genome of DHV-1 has been determined and comparative sequence analysis has shown that possesses the typical picornavirus organization but exhibits several unique features. For the first time, we provide evidence that the 626-nucleotide-long 5'-UTR of the DHV-1 genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently both in vitro and in mammalian cells. The prediction of the secondary structure of the DHV-1 IRES shows significant similarity to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES. Moreover, similarly to HCV IRES, DHV-1 IRES can direct translation initiation in the absence of a functional eIF4F complex. We also demonstrate that the activity of the DHV-1 IRES is modulated by a viral coding sequence located downstream of the DHV-1 5'-UTR, which enhances DHV-1 IRES activity both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, mutational analysis of the predicted pseudo-knot structures at the 3'-end of the putative DHV-1 IRES supported the presence of conserved domains II and III and, as it has been previously described for other picornaviruses, these structures are essential for keeping the normal internal initiation of translation of DHV-1. PMID:21450110

Liu, Guangqing; Yángüez, Emilio; Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng

2011-03-31

29

White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern  

PubMed Central

Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies.

Sanchez-Paz, Arturo

2010-01-01

30

Low prevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis C virus among patients with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon basin.  

PubMed

Comorbidities in human immunodeficiency virus infection are of great interest due to their association with unfavorable outcomes and failure of antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the prevalence of coinfection by human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in an endemic area for hepatitis B in the Western Amazon basin. Serological markers for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis D virus were tested in a consecutive sample of all patients referred for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The variables sex, age, origin and exposure category were obtained from medical records and from the sexually transmitted diseases and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance database. Among 704 subjects, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B carriage was 6.4% and past infection 40.2%. The presence of hepatitis B was associated with birth in hyperendemic areas of the Amazon basin, male sex and illegal drug use. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C was 5% and was associated with illegal drug use. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C among human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in the Western Amazon basin was lower than seen elsewhere and is probably associated with the local epidemiology of these viruses and the degree of overlap of their shared risk factors. An opportunity presents itself to evaluate the prevention of hepatitis C through harm reduction policies and hepatitis B through vaccination programs among human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. PMID:17308694

Braga, Wornei Silva Miranda; da Costa Castilho, Márcia; dos Santos, Isabelle Cristina Vale; Moura, Marco Antônio Sabóia; Segurado, Aluisio Cotrim

31

Metabolic Syndromes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with marked disturbance of metabolism affecting the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. In the first decade of clinical experience of HIV, the primary clinical manifestation of such disturbed metabolism was wasting. Such wasting was often severe and contributed significantly to the morbidity and mortality of AIDS. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that in

Derek C. Macallan

2001-01-01

32

The detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Yellow Head Virus (YHV) in imported commodity shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission of exotic pathogens occurs through a variety of means, including migration with humans and animals, rapid transit by land, sea or air or through the shipment of infected frozen food products. White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Yellow Head Virus (YHV) have caused mass mortalities of cultured shrimp in Asia beginning in 1992. In 1995, these viruses appeared for

L. M Nunan; B. T Poulos; D. V Lightner

1998-01-01

33

Virus Aetiology for Down's Syndrome (Mongolism)  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR many years now, we have been working on the epidemiology of Down's syndrome (mongolism) in the State of Victoria, Australia, and have charted its occurrences during 1942-64. Peaks of incidence, of 2-year duration have been recorded at 5-7 year intervals from 1942 until 1957 and, as a result of this, a further peak of occurrence for this congenital anomaly

Alan Stoller; R. D. Collmann

1965-01-01

34

Control and elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) can have a significant economic impact on swine herds due to reproductive failure, preweaning mortality and reduced performance in growing pigs. Control at the farm level is pursued through different management procedures (e.g. pig flow, gilt acclimation, vaccination). PRRSv is commonly eliminated from sow herds by a procedure called herd closure whereby the herd is closed to new introductions for a period of time during which resident virus dies out. However, despite thorough application of biosecurity procedures, many herds become re-infected from virus that is present in the area. Consequently, some producers and veterinarians are considering a voluntary regional program to involve all herds present within an area. Such a program was initiated in Stevens County in west central Minnesota in 2004. PRRSv has been eliminated from most sites within the region and the area involved has expanded to include adjacent counties. The program has been relatively successful and reflects local leadership, a cooperative spirit, and a will to eliminate virus from the region. PMID:20837071

Corzo, Cesar A; Mondaca, Enrique; Wayne, Spencer; Torremorell, Montserrat; Dee, Scott; Davies, Peter; Morrison, Robert B

2010-09-17

35

Characterization of the carrier state in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection results in clinically normal, but persistently infected animals. An understanding of the carrier state is necessary for prevention, control and\\/or elimination of PRRS virus. The objective of this experiment was to estimate the proportion of PRRS virus carriers over time and determine which combination of sample and diagnostic assay could most effectively

Dennis C Horter; Roman M Pogranichniy; Chih-Cheng Chang; Richard B Evans; Kyoung-Jin Yoon; Jeffrey J Zimmerman

2002-01-01

36

Functional Properties of the Predicted Helicase of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a member of the positive-strand RNA virus family Arteriviridae. Although considerable research has focused on this important pathogen, little is known about the function of most PRRSV proteins. To examine characteristics of putative nonstructural proteins (nsp) encoded in ORF1b, which have been identified by nucleotide similarity to domains of equine arteritis virus,

Elida M. Bautista; Kay S. Faaberg; Dan Mickelson; Edward D. McGruder

2002-01-01

37

Profiling of cellular proteins in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus virions by proteomics analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped virus, bearing severe economic consequences to the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies on enveloped viruses have shown that many incorporated cellular proteins associated with the virion's membranes that might play important roles in viral infectivity. In this study, we sought to proteomically profile the cellular proteins incorporated into or

Chengwen Zhang; Chunyi Xue; Yan Li; Qingming Kong; Xiangpeng Ren; Xiaoming Li; Dingming Shu; Yingzuo Bi; Yongchang Cao

2010-01-01

38

Studies of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection in avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently recognized virus of swine. As a newly emerging virus, much of the basic information regarding PRRSV is in the process of discovery. We report three experiments with PRRSV in birds, and a fourth experiment to evaluate the infectivity and transmissibility of avian-derived PRRSV in swine. Experiment 1 compared the susceptibility

J. J. Zimmerman; K.-J. Yoon; E. C. Pirtle; R. W. Wills; T. J. Sanderson; M. J. McGinley

1997-01-01

39

Expression of a Foreign Epitope by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as a viral vector was explored by the insertion of a sequence encoding a foreign antigen into the infectious cDNA clone of the Lelystad virus isolate. An epitope of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of human influenza A virus was introduced at the 5? end and at the 3? end of

M. H. Groot Bramel-Verheije; P. J. M. Rottier; J. J. M. Meulenberg

2000-01-01

40

No association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus with prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background The involvement of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is disputed as its reported prevalence ranges from 0% to 25% in PC cases and from 0% to more than 80% in CFS cases. To evaluate the risk of XMRV infection during blood transfusion in Japan, we screened three populations--healthy donors (n = 500), patients with PC (n = 67), and patients with CFS (n = 100)--for antibodies against XMRV proteins in freshly collected blood samples. We also examined blood samples of viral antibody-positive patients with PC and all (both antibody-positive and antibody-negative) patients with CFS for XMRV DNA. Results Antibody screening by immunoblot analysis showed that a fraction of the cases (1.6-3.0%) possessed anti-Gag antibodies regardless of their gender or disease condition. Most of these antibodies were highly specific to XMRV Gag capsid protein, but none of the individuals in the three tested populations retained strong antibody responses to multiple XMRV proteins. In the viral antibody-positive PC patients, we occasionally detected XMRV genes in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells but failed to isolate an infectious or full-length XMRV. Further, all CFS patients tested negative for XMRV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Our data show no solid evidence of XMRV infection in any of the three populations tested, implying that there is no association between the onset of PC or CFS and XMRV infection in Japan. However, the lack of adequate human specimens as a positive control in Ab screening and the limited sample size do not allow us to draw a firm conclusion.

2011-01-01

41

Dual infections of feeder pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus followed by porcine respiratory coronavirus or swine influenza virus: a clinical and virological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual infections of pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) followed by a second common respiratory virus, either porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) or swine influenza virus (SIV), were studied. The aim was to determine if dual infections, as compared to single virus infections, result in enhanced clinical manifestations. It was also examined if PRRSV replication affects replication of

Kristien Van Reeth; Hans Nauwynck; Maurice Pensaert

1996-01-01

42

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus among domesticated animals, China.  

PubMed

To investigate the infections of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in domesticated animals, we sampled a total of 3,039 animals in 2 counties in Shandong Province, People's Republic of China, from April to November 2011. SFTSV-specific antibodies were detected in 328 (69.5%) of 472 sheep, 509 (60.5%) of 842 cattle, 136 (37.9%) of 359 dogs, 26 (3.1%) of 839 pigs, and 250 (47.4%) of 527 chickens. SFTSV RNA was detected in all sampled animal species, but the prevalence was low, ranging from 1.7% to 5.3%. A cohort study in 38 sheep was conducted to determine when seroconversion to SFTSV occured. SFTSVs were isolated from sheep, cattle, and dogs and shared >95% sequence homology with human isolates from the same disease-endemic regions. These findings demonstrate that natural infections of SFTSV occur in several domesticated animal hosts in disease-endemic areas and that the virus has a wide host range. PMID:23648209

Niu, Guoyu; Li, Jiandong; Liang, Mifang; Jiang, Xiaolin; Jiang, Mei; Yin, Haiying; Wang, Zhidian; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Jin, Cong; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Xing, Zheng; Wang, Shiwen; Bi, Zhenqiang; Li, Dexin

2013-05-01

43

Cell Line Producing AIDS (Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome) Viral Antigens Without Producing Infectious Virus Particles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is related to a virus which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). More particularly, the present invention is related to obtaining a cell line capable of safely generating large quantities of the AIDS viral proteins with...

T. M. Folks D. M. Powell M. A. Martin

1986-01-01

44

Small molecule inhibitors of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) possess antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian and human pandemic influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are activated in course of many viral infections. Here we analyzed the activity of JNK inhibitors on influenza A virus (IAV) amplification. Human lung epithelial cells were infected with either the highly pathogenic avian virus strain A/FPV/Bratislava/79 (H7N7) or the pandemic swine-origin influenza virus A/Hamburg/4/09 (H1N1v). The application of the JNK inhibitors SP600125 and AS601245 reduced IAV amplification by suppressing viral protein and RNA synthesis. Although AS601245 appeared to generally block the transcription of newly introduced genes, SP600125 specifically affected viral RNA synthesis. Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of SEK/MKK4 and siRNA-mediated suppression of JNK2 expression confirmed that specific manipulation of the JNK pathway attenuates virus propagation. An IAV minigenome replication assay revealed that SP600125 did not directly affect the activity of the viral RNA polymerase complex but seems to suppress an anti-influenza nonstructural protein 1-mediated virus supportive function. Finally, when H7N7- or H1N1v-infected mice were treated with SP600125, the viral load is reduced in lungs of treated compared with untreated mice. Our data suggest that this class of ATP competitive inhibitors once optimized for antiviral action potentially represent novel drugs for antiviral intervention. PMID:22628315

Nacken, Wolfgang; Ehrhardt, Christina; Ludwig, Stephan

2012-05-01

45

Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect further into Central- and South-America. In cultured shrimp WSSV infection can reach a cumulative mortality of up to

Hulten van M. C. W

2001-01-01

46

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Is Needed for Vaccinia Virus Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallpox, caused by variola virus, was a devastating disease in humans, but how the virus evolved a strategy to spread to tissue remains unknown. Through the use of microarrays, we identified the gene encoding the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), one of the five known WASP family members, which has been induced in the course of infection of human cells with

Susana Guerra; Miguel Aracil; Raquel Conde; Antonio Bernad; Mariano Esteban

2005-01-01

47

Monitoring of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in boars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major concern exists on transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) via semen and effect of vaccination on PRRSV shedding in semen. Recent reports suggest that the virus can be transmitted by semen from boars infected experimentally or from natural sources. Seminal shedding, viremia, and changes in semen quality in boars with or without vaccination were examined.

Jinho Shin; Jerry Torrison; Chang S. Choi; Segundo M. Gonzalez; Bo G. Crabo; Thomas W. Molitor

1997-01-01

48

Genetic, geographical and temporal variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 gene sequences were generated by RT-PCR from 55 field isolates collected in Illinois and eastern Iowa. Spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation in the virus were examined on a local geographical scale in order to test the hypothesis that the genetic similarity of PRRSV isolates (measured as their percentage pairwise ORF5

Tony L. Goldberg; Edwin C. Hahn; Ronald M. Weigel; Gail Scherba

2000-01-01

49

Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus Infection of a Blood Donor-Recipient Pair with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrovirus isolated from three patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States was morphologically and antigenically identical to lymphadenopathy associated virus isolated in France. Two of these isolates were from a blood donor--recipient pair, each of whom developed AIDS. Lymphadenopathy associated virus was isolated from the blood donor's lymphocytes 12 months after his onset of AIDS

P. M. Feorino; V. S. Kalyanaraman; H. W. Haverkos; C. D. Cabradilla; D. T. Warfield; H. W. Jaffe; A. K. Harrison; M. S. Gottlieb; D. Goldfinger; J.-C. Chermann; F. Barre-Sinoussi; T. T. Spira; J. S. McDougal; J. W. Curran; L. Montagnier; F. A. Murphy; D. P. Francis

1984-01-01

50

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Comparison: Divergent Evolution on Two Continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently described arterivirus responsible for disease in swine worldwide. Comparative sequence analysis of 3*-terminal structural genes of the single- stranded RNA viral genome revealed the presence of two genotypic classes of PRRSV, represented by the proto- type North American and European strains, VR-2332 and Lelystad virus (LV), respectively. To better under-

CHRIS J. NELSEN; MICHAEL P. MURTAUGH; KAY S. FAABERG

1999-01-01

51

Identification of Two Major Virion Protein Genes of White Spot Syndrome Virus of Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus, causing considerable mortality in shrimp. Two structural proteins of WSSV were identified. WSSV virions are enveloped nucleocapsids with a bacilliform morphology with an approximate size of 275 × 120 nm, and a tail-like extension at one end. The double-stranded viral DNA has an approximate size 290 kb. WSSV virions, isolated from

Mariëlle C. W van Hulten; Marcel Westenberg; Stephen D Goodall; Just M Vlak

2000-01-01

52

Genomic sequence and virulence comparison of four type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a ubiquitous and costly virus that exhibits substantial sequence and virulence disparity among diverse isolates. In this study, we compared the whole genomic sequence and virulence of 4 North American Type 2 PRRSV isolates. Among the 4 i...

53

Failure to detect Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in Chinese patients with chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent controversy has surrounded the question of whether xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To investigate the question in a Chinese population, 65 CFS patients and 85 blood donor controls were enrolled and multiplex real-time PCR or reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to analyze the XMRV infection status of

Ping Hong; Jinming Li; Yongzhe Li

2010-01-01

54

No association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus with prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The involvement of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome\\u000a (CFS) is disputed as its reported prevalence ranges from 0% to 25% in PC cases and from 0% to more than 80% in CFS cases.\\u000a To evaluate the risk of XMRV infection during blood transfusion in Japan, we screened three populations--healthy donors (n

Rika A Furuta; Takayuki Miyazawa; Takeki Sugiyama; Hirohiko Kuratsune; Yasuhiro Ikeda; Eiji Sato; Naoko Misawa; Yasuhito Nakatomi; Ryuta Sakuma; Kazuta Yasui; Kouzi Yamaguti; Fumiya Hirayama

2011-01-01

55

A case of Lemierre's syndrome following Epstein–Barr virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemierre's syndrome, or necrobacillosis, is a life-threatening septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. The causative organism is Fusobacterium necrophorum. Here we report a case of Lemierre's syndrome in a young male and describe the clinical presentations and treatment. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was a suspected predisposing factor in this case.

G. A. Boz; S. Iskender; R. Caylan; K. Aydin; I. Koksal

2005-01-01

56

White Spot Syndrome Virus Envelope Protein VP28 Is Involved in the Systemic Infection of Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large DNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. The virus particles contain at least five major virion proteins, of which three (VP26, VP24, and VP15) are present in the rod-shaped nucleocapsid and two (VP28 and VP19) reside in the envelope. The mode of entry and systemic infection of WSSV in the black tiger

Mariëlle C. W van Hulten; Jeroen Witteveldt; Marjolein Snippe; Just M Vlak

2001-01-01

57

Pathogenicity of swine influenza viruses possessing an avian or swine-origin PB2 polymerase gene evaluated in mouse and pig models  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Influenza A viruses isolated from birds normally contain a PB2 polymerase gene with the avian-signature glutamic acid (E) at position 627, while those isolated from humans contain the mammalian-signature lysine (K) at this position. This residue has been shown to be a determinant of host range and c...

58

The occurrence of enteric viruses in Light Turkey Syndrome.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to determine the role of enteric viruses in Light Turkey Syndrome (LTS), which is characterized by lower weight in market age turkeys than their standard breed character. In the surveillance study, we selected four LTS and two non-LTS turkey flocks in Minnesota and collected faecal samples at 2, 3, 5 and 8-weeks of age. Astrovirus, rotavirus, and reovirus were detected alone or in various combinations in both LTS and non-LTS flocks. No coronavirus was detected in LTS flocks and no corona- or reovirus was detected in non-LTS flocks. In the second study, 2-week-old turkey poults were divided into two groups; Group A (challenged) was inoculated orally with 10% pooled faecal suspension from LTS flocks and group B (control) was inoculated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Clinical signs of depression, huddling, and lack of uniform size were observed in the challenged group but not in the control group. diarrhoea was observed in both groups but was more severe in the challenged group than in the control group. Birds in the challenged group shed astrovirus, rotavirus and reovirus, while the control group shed only astrovirus. Virus shedding in both groups was observed for up to nine weeks of age. Significantly lower body weights were seen in the challenged group starting at seven weeks of age and lasting until 20 weeks of age. These findings suggest that viral enteritis at an early age may set up conditions for the development of LTS in adult turkeys. PMID:24066896

Mor, Sunil K; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Abin, Martha; Kromm, Michelle; Porter, Robert E; Goyal, Sagar M; Patnayak, Devi P

2013-10-01

59

Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The presence of the retrovirus xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Considering the potentially great medical and social relevance of such a discovery, we investigated whether this finding could be confirmed in an independent European cohort of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.Design Analysis of a

Frank J M van Kuppeveld; Arjan S de Jong; Kjerstin H Lanke; Gerald W Verhaegh; Willem J G Melchers; Caroline M A Swanink; Gijs Bleijenberg; Mihai G Netea; Jochem M D Galama; Jos W M van der Meer

2010-01-01

60

White spot syndrome virus VP24 interacts with VP28 and is involved in virus infection.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most virulent pathogens causing high mortality in shrimp. Herein, the characterization of VP24, a major structural protein of WSSV, is described. When purified virions were subjected to Nonidet P-40 treatment to separate the envelopes from the nucleocapsids, VP24 was found to be present exclusively in the envelope fraction. Triton X-114 extraction also indicated that VP24 behaves as an envelope protein. Immunoelectron microscopy further confirmed that VP24 is located in the virion envelope. Far-Western experiments showed that VP24 interacts with VP28, another major envelope protein of the WSSV virion. To investigate the function of VP24, WSSV was neutralized with various amounts of anti-VP24 IgG and injected into crayfish. The results showed that anti-VP24 IgG could partially attenuate infection with WSSV. It is concluded that VP24 is an envelope protein and functions at an early stage in virus infection. PMID:16760392

Xie, Xixian; Yang, Feng

2006-07-01

61

Duck Egg-Drop Syndrome Caused by BYD Virus, a New Tembusu-Related Flavivirus  

PubMed Central

Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus), with 87–91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope) proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

Yu, Xiuling; Wang, Yongyue; Liu, Peipei; Lu, Xishan; Zhang, Guozhong; Hu, Xueying; Liu, Di; Li, Xiaoxia; Su, Wenliang; Lu, Hao; Mok, Ngai Shing; Wang, Peiyi; Wang, Ming; Tian, Kegong; Gao, George F.

2011-01-01

62

Assessment of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) as a vector of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine Reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a globally significant swine disease caused by an arterivirus. The virus replicates in alveolar macrophages of infected pigs, resulting in pneumonia in growing pigs and late-term abortions in sows. Outbreaks occur on disparate farms within an area despite biosecurity measures, suggesting mechanical transport by arthropods. We investigated the vector potential of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), in the transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (family Arteriviridae, genus Arterivirus, PRRSV) under laboratory conditions. Stable flies were collected around PRRS-negative boar stud barns in North Carolina and tested for presence of the virus. Stable flies were collected on alsynite traps placed near the exhaust fan of the close-sided tunnel-ventilated buildings, suggesting blood seeking flies are attracted by olfactory cues. No flies were positive for PRRSV. We assessed transmission of the virus through an infective bite by feeding laboratory reared stable flies on blood containing virus and transferring them to naive pigs for subsequent bloodmeals. Transmission of the virus to naive pigs by infective bites failed in all attempts. The volume of blood contained within the closed mouthparts of the stable fly seems to be insufficient to deliver an infective dose of the virus. Stable flies are unlikely to transmit PRRSV from one pig to another while blood feeding. The fate of the virus after a bloodmeal remains to be determined. PMID:21845948

Rochon, K; Baker, R B; Almond, G W; Watson, D W

2011-07-01

63

A theory of virus-induced demyelination in the Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome (LGBS) is a demyelinating disorder of the peripheral nervous system frequently preceded by infection with common viruses. Most prevalent among these agents are herpesviruses, particularly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The specific role played by antecedent viral infection in the pathogenesis of the LGBS remains obscure. In this regard, recent studies of Marek's disease (MD) neuropathy,

Jay S. Pepose

1982-01-01

64

Identification and Phylogeny of a Protein Kinase Gene of White Spot Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans, which is unclassified taxonomically. A 2193 bp long open reading frame, encoding a putative protein kinase (PK), was found on a 8.4 kb EcoRI fragment of WSSV proximal to the gene for the major envelope protein (VP28). The identified PK shows a high degree of homology to

Mariëlle C. W. van Hulten; Just M. Vlak

2001-01-01

65

A Newly Recognized Virus Associated with a Fatal Case of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis of virus detected in autopsy tissues of a fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-like case in Louisianarevealedthepresenceofapreviouslyunrecognizedhantavirus.NucleotidesequenceanalysisofPCR fragments of the complete S and M segments of the virus amplified from RNA extracted from the tissues showedthevirustobenovel,differingfromtheclosestrelatedhantavirus,SinNombrevirus,byapproximately 30%. Both genome segments were unique, and there was no evidence of genetic reassortment with previously characterized hantaviruses. The primary rodent reservoir of Sin

SERGEY P. MORZUNOV; HEINZ FELDMANN; CHRISTINA F. SPIROPOULOU; VERA A. SEMENOVA

66

Protection of Procambarus clarkii against white spot syndrome virus using inactivated WSSV  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly pathogenic and prevalent virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. The potentiality of binary ethylenimine (BEI)-inactivated WSSV against WSSV in crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, was investigated in this study. Efficacy of BEI-inactivated WSSV was tested by vaccination trials followed by challenge of crayfish with WSSV. The crayfish injected with BEI-inactivated WSSV showed a better

Fei Zhu; Huahua Du; Zhi-Guo Miao; Hai-Zhi Quan; Zi-Rong Xu

2009-01-01

67

Varicella zoster virus central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome presenting in a child.  

PubMed

A HIV-positive child presented with acute onset of right hemiplegia, facial palsy and dysphasia 4 weeks after commencing highly active antiretroviral therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a left-sided cerebral infarct. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction was positive for varicella zoster virus. This is the first reported pediatric case of varicella zoster virus-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome involving the central nervous system. PMID:24141801

Iro, Mildred A; Kirkham, Fenella J; Macdonald, Jason H M; Tebruegge, Marc; Faust, Saul N; Patel, Sanjay V

2013-11-01

68

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 contributes to NF-?B activation  

PubMed Central

Background Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) is an inducible transcription factor that plays a key role in inflammation and immune responses, as well as in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Previous studies by our group and others have demonstrated that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection could activate NF-?B in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. The nucleocapsid (N) protein was identified as an NF-?B activator among the structural proteins encoded by PRRSV; however, it remains unclear whether the nonstructural proteins (Nsps) contribute to NF-?B activation. In this study, we identified which Nsps can activate NF-?B and investigated the potential mechanism(s) by which they act. Results By screening the individual Nsps of PRRSV strain WUH3, Nsp2 exhibited great potential to activate NF-?B in MARC-145 and HeLa cells. Overexpression of Nsp2 induced I?B? degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-?B. Furthermore, Nsp2 also induced NF-?B-dependent inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, COX-2, and RANTES. Compared with the Nsp2 of the classical PRRSV strain, the Nsp2 of highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strains that possess a 30 amino acid (aa) deletion in Nsp2 displayed greater NF-?B activation. However, the 30-aa deletion was demonstrated to not be associated with NF-?B activation. Further functional domain analyses revealed that the hypervariable region (HV) of Nsp2 was essential for NF-?B activation. Conclusions Taken together, these data indicate that PRRSV Nsp2 is a multifunctional protein participating in the modulation of host inflammatory response, which suggests an important role of Nsp2 in pathogenesis and disease outcomes.

2012-01-01

69

Down Syndrome: A Novel Risk Factor for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis— A Prospective Birth-Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. Respiratory syncytial virus is the single-most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. Preterm birth and congenital heart disease are known risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections. Although Down syndrome is associated with a high risk of respiratory tract infections, little is known about the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus infections in this group. The

Beatrijs L. P. Bloemers; A. Marceline van Furth; Michel E. Weijerman; Reinoud J. B. J. Gemke

2008-01-01

70

Detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of Penaeus chinensis by in situ hybridization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) was purified from hemolymph of infected shrimp. After nucleic acid extraction from the purified virus particles, EcoR I-digested fragments of the WSSV genome were cloned; three of these fragments were used as non-radioactive probes labeled with DIG-11-dUTP. The probes hybridized in situ, with sections located in the nuclei of all WSSV-infected tissues. The virus was detected in the gill, stomach, epidermis, and connective tissue and so on, but not detected in healthy shrimp tissues and epithelial cells of hepatopancreatic tubules of diseased shrimp.

Zhan, Wen-Bin; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Hideo, Fukuda

2000-09-01

71

[Virus encephalitis with symptomatic Parkinson syndrome, diabetes insipidus and panhypopituitarism].  

PubMed

Virusencephalitis is characterised by clinical symptoms of a parenchymatous inflammation. In addition, early mental status changes often occur as a result of virusencephalitis, beside focal neurological deficiencies, epileptic seizures, cerebral compression, even coma. Other pathological manifestations of virusencephalitis are disturbances of the neurohumoral and the endocrine system, which are often recognised and treated too late. This case report describes symptoms, treatment, and complications of a 76 year old female in-patient, who was diagnosed with virusencephalitis. The number of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid was increased to 30 cells per microliter, liquor albumin was 1705 mg/l, liquor sugar was 53 mg/dl and liquor lactat was 1.9 mmol/l. IgM antibodies against herpes viruses were found in the cerebrospinal fluid and distinct contrasting foci were found near the mammillary bodies, hypothalamus, tractus opticus, hypophyseal stalk and right parahippocampal in the magnetic resonance imaging of the head, indicating a focal herpes simplex encephalitis. Within seven days, the following symptoms developed: akinetic parkinsonian syndrome, central diabetes insipidus with hypernatremia and polyuria (6 l/die), hypothyreosis, adrenal insufficiency with adynamia, sopor, hypotension and even hypophyseal coma. Panhypopituitarism was diagnosed after measuring the basal hormone levels (ACTH, TSH, FT3, FT4, Cortisol, Prolactin, LH, FSH, ADH) and conducting the pituitary stimulation test. The severeness of all symptoms was slightly improved after substitution with antidiuretic hormone at 0.4 microgram/die and administration of hydrocortisone at 50 mg/die. Administration of amantadine sulphate at 0.6 g/die and L-dopa at 187.5 mg/die for 14 days resulted in a complete regression of the parkinsonism. After administration of aciclovir at 2.25 g/die for 21 days a complete regression of the clinical symptoms could be reached in connection with a decrease of 90% in number and size of cerebral contrasting foci in the magnetic resonance imaging of the head. Three month after therapy, clinical examination and blood serum analysis revealed persistent panhypopituitarism. The present case report is the first description of a viral infection on of the central nervous system (CNS) in combination with parkinsonism, diabetes insipidus, persistent panhypopituitarism and hyperprolactinemia. Early treatment of viral infections of the brain can improve a patient's prognosis dramatically. Early determination and early treatment of a patient's neurohumoral parameters is therefore critical to prevent or reverse early mental status changes like attention disturbances, alterations of personality and behavior, apathy, and slowed cognition. PMID:10596369

Ickenstein, G W; Klotz, J M; Langohr, H D

1999-10-01

72

Selective breeding of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) for growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 1998, the Oceanic Institute operated a breeding program for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on a selection index weighted equally for growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV). In 1998, two separate breeding lines were established. One line was selected 100% for growth (Growth line) and a second line was selected on an index weighted 70%

Brad J Argue; Steve M Arce; Jeffrey M Lotz; Shaun M Moss

2002-01-01

73

Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource- limited settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies for confronting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS) have included a range of different approaches that focus on prevention and treatment. However, debate persists over what levels of emphasis are appropriate for the different components of the global response. This paper presents an overview of this debate and briefly summarizes the evidence on a range of

Daniel R. Hogan; Joshua A. Salomon

2005-01-01

74

Antiretroviral therapeutic possibilities for human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) illness, the reverse transcriptase and protease (PRT) enzymes of HIV are currently the targets of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Nucleoside analogues were the first group of ARV drugs that exerted antiviral activity in patients. More recently, PRT inhibitors have provided new approaches in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. Impressive clinical results

G. A Balint

2001-01-01

75

A Case of Ramsay Hunt-Like Syndrome Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

PubMed Central

We report an immunocompetent patient with recurrent auricular and facial vesicles associated with painful paresthesias and facial paralysis, consistent with Ramsay Hunt syndrome [1], due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. Clinical and laboratory-proven acyclovir resistance developed during therapy. Immunologic assays revealed normal reactivity to HSV-2.

Diaz, George A.; Rakita, Robert M.; Koelle, David M.

2005-01-01

76

Quasispecies variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus during natural infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) displays notorious genetic, antigenic, and clinical variability. Little is known, however, about the nature and extent of viral variation present within naturally infected animals. By amplifying and cloning the open reading frame 5 gene from tonsils of naturally infected swine, and by sequencing individual clones, we characterized viral diversity in nine animals from

Tony L. Goldberg; James F. Lowe; Suzanne M. Milburn; Lawrence D. Firkins

2003-01-01

77

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) induced by influenza A virus subtype H1N1.  

PubMed

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) has been associated with several bacterial and viral infections. We presented a case report of a woman who presented to the emergency room, with influenza A virus subtype H1N1 which progressed to CAPS in the course of 17 days. We believe this is the first case that links CAPS with H1N1. PMID:24081593

Durkin, Melonie L; Marchese, Diana; Robinson, Marjorie D; Ramgopal, Moti

2013-09-30

78

A psychological assessment of chronic fatigue syndrome\\/chronic epstein-barr virus patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), the current name for a malady most recently known as Chronic Epstein Barr Virus (CEBV), is a medical puzzle that now is a focus of intense research interest. Although the literature is sparse and studies are either anecdotal or based on small samples, psychological and psychiatric symtoms are frequently reported for patients with symptoms suggestive of

Carrie Millon; Fernando Salvato; Nancy Blaney; Robert Morgan; Emilio Mantero-atienza; Nancy Klimas; Mary Ann Fletcher

1989-01-01

79

Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolated from Piglet Stool Samples  

PubMed Central

WUH4 is a highly pathogenic North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Unlike previous PRRSV isolates, which were mainly recovered from sera or tissues, WUH4 was isolated from a piglet stool sample. Here we announce its complete genome sequence.

Song, Tao; Fang, Liurong; Zeng, Songlin; Li, Bin; Chen, Huanchun

2012-01-01

80

Association of Non-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-Defining Cancers With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were among the earliest recognized manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Excluding these two tumors, the overall risk of all other cancers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is similar to that of the general population. However, varying levels of evidence link several additional neoplasms to HIV infection. The evidence is strongest for

Charles S. Rabkin

81

Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancers in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated ano- genital malignancies occur frequently in patients with hu- man immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the ac- quired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of our study was to determine if the high frequency of these cancers is due to lifestyle factors associated with both HPV and HIV infections or to immunosuppression following HIV infection. Methods: We

Morten Frisch; Robert J. Biggar; James J. Goedert

82

Carbamazepine Hypersensitivity Syndrome Triggered by a Human Herpes Virus Reactivation in a Genetically Predisposed Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe hypersensitivity syndrome, triggered by carbamazepine in the presence of a concomitant active human herpes virus (HHV) 6 and 7 infection is described. To further understand the molecular mechanism of this adverse reaction, analyses of the genetic variants of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and of the epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX1), previously associated with carbamazepine hypersensitivity, were performed.

Lorenzo Calligaris; Gabriele Stocco; Sara De Iudicibus; Sara Marino; Giuliana Decorti; Egidio Barbi; Marco Carrozzi; Federico Marchetti; Fiora Bartoli; Alessandro Ventura

2009-01-01

83

Pathogenicity and Molecular Characterization of Emerging Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Vietnam in 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2007, Vietnam experienced swine disease outbreaks causing clinical signs similar to the "porcine high fever disease" that occurred in China during 2006. Analysis of diagnostic samples from the disease outbreaks in Vietnam identified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ...

84

Evaluation of the role of mallard ducks as vectors of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from pigs to mallard ducks, 10 adult (one-year-old) female mallard ducks were housed with pigs infected experimentally with PRRSV, and allowed to be in close contact with them for 21 days. To evaluate the transmission of PRRSV from mallard ducks to pigs, two adult ducks were inoculated orally

C. Trincado; S. Dee; C. Pijoan; K. Rossow; D. Halvorson

2004-01-01

85

The effect of porcine parvovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on porcine reproductive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a worldwide perspective, porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are the most common viral causes of porcine reproductive failure. A typical epidemic of PPV-induced reproductive failure is presented as an increased number of mummified fetuses and sometimes, entire litters are mummified. If infection with PPV is very early in gestation, the number of liveborn

W. L Mengeling; K. M Lager; A. C Vorwald

2000-01-01

86

Morphological evidence for identifying the viruses of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome as candidate members of the bunyaviridae family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Thin section immuno-electron microscopy has been succesfully applied to investigate and identify the classical and mild form of HFRS viruses isolated in the People's Republic of China. The results showed that all the 8 strains studied (derived from different parts of China, adapted in different cell lines) share a common morphology and morphogenesis. Essentially, the viruses possess characteristics of

T. Hung; S. M. Xia; T. X. Zhao; J. Y. Zhou; G. Song; G. X. H. Liao; W. W. Ye; Y. L. Chu; C. S. Hang

1983-01-01

87

[Study on using NSP2 protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HuN4-F112) to express E2 neutralizing epitope of classical swine fever virus].  

PubMed

Establishment of recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with co-expression E2 Epitope of Classical Swine Fever virus (CSFV) is a crucial step to develop a genetic engineered vaccine against PRRSV and CSFV. Reverse genetic manipulation could be adopted as a com monly used technique. In this study, we focus on using nonessential regions of NSP2 (aa480-532 and aa508-532) as viral vector to express E2 Epitope of CSFV. A neutralizing epitope of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein was inserted into the two nonessential region of nsp2 by the method of mutant PCR, basing on the infectious clone of HuN4-F112 vaccine strain. The co-expressed full-length cDNA clones (psk-HuN4-F112-delta508-532 + E2 and psk-HuN4-F112-delta480-532 + E2) were assembled by cloning and splice of the gene fragments. The completely assembled full-length cDNA clones were confirmed by sequence and Swa I enzyme digestion. Capped RNAs were transcribed in vitro from a full-length cDNA clone of the viral genome and transfected into BHK-21 cells by liposome to acquire the rescued virus. The rescued recombinant viruses were passaged on MARC-145 cells. The successfully rescued viruses were tested by RT-PCR, digestion, and genome sequence. The results showed that these rescued viruses could be distinguished from the parental virus (HuN4-F112) with the mutant genetic marker (Mlu I enzyme site of virual genome at 14 667nt was created by synonymous mutation) and the inserted nsp2 gene region. The results of IFA showed that the inserted E2 epitope could be expressed by the recombinant viruses and the E2 epitope gene was stable during the viral serial passage. The results of plaque assay and viral growth curve showed that the recovery viruses possessed similar characterses of viral growth to those of the parental virus. In summary, the full-length infectious cDNA clones containing the marker gene were constructed and the marker recombinant viruses were rescued. The results suggested that these stable infectious clones could be used as an important tool for development of novel vaccine against PRRSV. PMID:23547375

Xu, Yan-Zhao; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Tong, Wu; Li, Ling; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Guang-Zhi

2013-01-01

88

Infection of porcine alveolar macrophages with recombinant chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Effects on cellular gene transcription and virus growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genetic determinants affecting the response of the host primary target cell, the macrophage, to infection are yet to be defined. Here we have used recombinant viruses encompassing ORF 1A to identify PRRSV determinants associated with growth and modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in primary pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) cultures. Three genomic

Ingigerdur Gudmundsdottir; Guillermo R. Risatti

2009-01-01

89

Excretion of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in semen after experimentally induced infection in boars.  

PubMed

Four boars intranasally inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus were monitored for 56 days after exposure for changes in semen characteristics and for the presence of virus in the semen. Clinically, 2 of 4 boars had mild respiratory signs of 1 day's duration after infection. Changes in appetite, behavior, or libido were not detected. All boars seroconverted on the indirect fluorescent antibody and serum virus neutralization tests by day 14 after inoculation. Virus was isolated from serum between days 7 and 14 after inoculation. During the monitoring period, semen volume decreased and pH correspondingly increased; however, this change began 7 to 10 days prior to infection. Differences in sperm morphologic features, concentration, or motility between the preinfection and postinfection samples were not observed. The PRRS virus was detected in semen at the first collection in each of the 4 boars (ie, 3 or 5 days after challenge exposure). Virus was detected in nearly all semen samples collected from the 4 infected boars through days 13, 25, 27, and 43, respectively. Neither gross nor microscopic lesions attributable to PRRS virus were observed in tissues collected at the termination of the experiment (day 56), and virus isolation results from reproductive tissues were negative. PMID:8077142

Swenson, S L; Hill, H T; Zimmerman, J J; Evans, L E; Landgraf, J G; Wills, R W; Sanderson, T P; McGinley, M J; Brevik, A K; Ciszewski, D K

1994-06-15

90

Inactivation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question addressed in this dissertation is whether ultraviolet could be used to inactivate airborne PRRS virus. Specifically, the aim of this research was to determine if ultraviolet could be used to prevent the airborne transmission of PRRS virus. This problem was addressed in the logical series of experiments described below.\\u000aChapter 2 addressed the problem of quantifying the concentration

Timothy D. Cutler

2011-01-01

91

The SI strain of measles virus derived from a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis possesses typical genome alterations and unique amino acid changes that modulate receptor specificity and reduce membrane fusion activity.  

PubMed

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal sequela associated with measles and is caused by persistent infection of the brain with measles virus (MV). The SI strain was isolated in 1976 from a patient with SSPE and shows neurovirulence in animals. Genome nucleotide sequence analyses showed that the SI strain genome possesses typical genome alterations for SSPE-derived strains, namely, accumulated amino acid substitutions in the M protein and cytoplasmic tail truncation of the F protein. Through the establishment of an efficient reverse genetics system, a recombinant SI strain expressing a green fluorescent protein (rSI-AcGFP) was generated. The infection of various cell types with rSI-AcGFP was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. rSI-AcGFP exhibited limited syncytium-forming activity and spread poorly in cells. Analyses using a recombinant MV possessing a chimeric genome between those of the SI strain and a wild-type MV strain indicated that the membrane-associated protein genes (M, F, and H) were responsible for the altered growth phenotype of the SI strain. Functional analyses of viral glycoproteins showed that the F protein of the SI strain exhibited reduced fusion activity because of an E300G substitution and that the H protein of the SI strain used CD46 efficiently but used the original MV receptors on immune and epithelial cells poorly because of L482F, S546G, and F555L substitutions. The data obtained in the present study provide a new platform for analyses of SSPE-derived strains as well as a clear example of an SSPE-derived strain that exhibits altered receptor specificity and limited fusion activity. PMID:21917959

Seki, Fumio; Yamada, Kentaro; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Okamura, Koji; Yanagi, Yusuke; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeda, Makoto

2011-09-14

92

Unusual clinical manifestation of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old man presented with bilateral painless cervical lymphadenomegaly, difficulties in nasal breathing and bilateral conductive hearing loss. Rhinoscopy and computer tomography disclosed mucosal polyps in the nasal cavity and a polypoid soft mass almost completely filling the whole nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. Thoracic and abdominal computer tomography showed mild hepatosplenomegaly and a solitary round lesion in the right lung. No fever or abnormal laboratory parameters were detected. The biopsy from the nasal polypoid lesions and from the cervical lymph nodes showed extensive proliferation of histologically benign erythrophagocytic histiocytes. The diagnosis of virus (Epstein-Barr virus)-associated hemophagocytic histiocytosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical reactions, by polymerase chain reaction, and by Epstein-Barr-Encodes (Early)-RNA in situ hybridization. This case illustrates an unusual clinical manifestation of virus-associated hemophagocytic histiocytosis presenting as mucosal polyps of the upper respiratory tract. PMID:14708643

Buza, Natália; Bálint, Ildikó; Schneider, Tamás; Koltai, László; Orosz, Zsolt

2003-01-01

93

Full Genome Sequence of Egg Drop Syndrome Virus Strain FJ12025 Isolated from Muscovy Duckling.  

PubMed

Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) strain FJ12025 was isolated from a 9-day-old Muscovy duckling. The results of the sequence showed that the genome of strain FJ12025 is 33,213 bp in length, with a G+C content of 43.03%. When comparing the genome sequence of strain FJ12025 to that of laying duck original strain AV-127, we found 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two viral genome sequences. A genomic sequence comparison of FJ12025 and AV-127 will help to understand the phenotypic differences between the two viruses. PMID:23969050

Fu, Guanghua; Chen, Hongmei; Huang, Yu; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Qiuling; Shi, Shaohua; Wan, Chunhe; Chen, Cuiteng; Lin, Jiansheng

2013-08-22

94

Meningitis-Retention Syndrome as a Presentation of West Nile Virus Meningitis  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old previously healthy man presented with fever, urinary retention, nuchal rigidity, and hyperreflexia but with a clear sensorium. His initial spinal fluid results were consistent with aseptic meningitis from West Nile virus infection, and this was confirmed by serological studies on blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies were unremarkable. He received supportive care and urinary catheterization to prevent bladder injury from overdistension. He was discharged home without recurrence of urinary retention after five days of hospitalization. Therefore, this case report describes the first case of West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with the meningitis-retention syndrome.

Laengvejkal, Pavis; Argueta, Erwin; Limsuwat, Chok; Nugent, Kenneth

2013-01-01

95

Learning Spirit Possession: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our introduction builds on existing approaches in possession studies to explore a less-developed path focused on processes of ‘learning possession’. We propose here an ontogenetic and pragmatic approach to spirit possession based on a historically and cognitively informed ethnography. Our main aim is to suggest an analytical framework able to take into account the interrelationality of cultural contexts and patterns

Arnaud Halloy; Vlad Naumescu

2012-01-01

96

Isolation of HHV-6-related virus from children affected by infectious syndrome.  

PubMed

Peripheral blood cultures from children showing symptoms of generic infectious disease have been examined for human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Two HHV-6-related isolates have been obtained: one from a child for whom a clinical diagnosis of exanthema subitum has been made when a typical rash appeared, and one from a child in whom the infectious symptomatology has maintained the characters of nonspecific syndrome. All the syndrome diagnosed as exanthema subitum resulted as being associated with fresh infection by HHV-6-related virus. PMID:2155597

Portolani, M; Cermelli, C; Pietrosemoli, P; Pecorari, M; Farabegoli, F; Cavazzuti, G B; Bertolani, M F; Micheli, A

1990-01-01

97

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus ankara efficiently induces virus-neutralizing antibodies.  

PubMed

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic stability and growth characteristics of MVA-MERS-S make it a suitable candidate vaccine for clinical testing. Vaccinated mice produced high levels of serum antibodies neutralizing MERS-CoV. Thus, MVA-MERS-S may serve for further development of an emergency vaccine against MERS-CoV. PMID:23986586

Song, Fei; Fux, Robert; Provacia, Lisette B; Volz, Asisa; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Haagmans, Bart L; Sutter, Gerd

2013-08-28

98

Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in Sjögren's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by severe dryness of the eyes and mouth, resulting from lymphocytic infiltration of the lacrimal and salivary glands. SS may exist as a primary condition (primary SS, 1° SS) or as a secondary condition (2° SS) in association with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or progressive systemic sclerosis. In some 1°

Robert I. Fox; Mario Luppi; Ho-Il Kang; Pavel Pisa

1991-01-01

99

Assembly of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus RNA Packaging Signal into Virus-Like Particles Is Nucleocapsid Dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was recently identified as the etiology of SARS. The virus particle consists of four structural proteins: spike (S), small envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N). Recognition of a specific sequence, termed the packaging signal (PS), by a virus N protein is often the first step in the assembly of viral RNA, but

Ping-Kun Hsieh; Shin C. Chang; Chu-Chun Huang; Ting-Ting Lee; Ching-Wen Hsiao; Yi-Hen Kou; I-Yin Chen; Chung-Ke Chang; Tai-Huang Huang; Ming-Fu Chang

2005-01-01

100

Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection on the ovary and progesterone levels in third trimester pregnant sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a common cause of reproductive failure and abortion in swine. The mechanism of abortion is not fully defined, and the effect of the virus on luteal function has not been explored. In this study, we exposed late-term pregnant swine to varied doses of PRRSV strain NADC-8 and evaluated effects on ovarian function

J. E. Benson; M. J. Yaeger; S. P. Ford

2001-01-01

101

Quantitation of antibody-bound and unbound Sin Nombre virus in the plasma of patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare but acute fulminant disease caused by Sin Nombre virus and other related hantaviruses. We reported earlier that HPS patients had high levels of viremia and the levels of viremia correlated with the severity of the disease. To determine whether the viruses are free in plasma or bound to antibodies to form immune complexes,

Masanori Terajima; Francis A. Ennis

2003-01-01

102

Kinetics of humoral immune response to the major structural proteins of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The kinetics of appearance of antibodies directed to the major structural proteins N, M and E of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was followed in pigs naturally- and experimentally-exposed to the virus. Specific IgM antibody titers were first detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) at the end of the first week of PRRSV infection, peaked by day 14

H. D. Loemba; S. Mounir; H. Mardassi; D. Archambault; S. Dea

1996-01-01

103

Studies of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection in avian species.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently recognized virus of swine. As a newly emerging virus, much of the basic information regarding PRRSV is in the process of discovery. We report three experiments with PRRSV in birds, and a fourth experiment to evaluate the infectivity and transmissibility of avian-derived PRRSV in swine. Experiment 1 compared the susceptibility of Muscovy ducks, Mallard ducks, guinea fowl, and chickens to PRRSV. Birds were exposed to PRRSV (ATCC VR-2402) in drinking water and virus isolation was attempted from feces collected from cages. Based on the duration of fecal shedding of the virus, this experiment showed that Mallard ducks were particularly susceptible to PRRSV. Experiment 2 was done in mallards to corroborate and augment the observations of experiment 1. Virus was isolated from pooled mallard feces up to 25 days post exposure (PE) and from the intestinal contents of 8 of 20 birds euthanized on day 38 PE. No gross or microscopic lesions were observed in ducks collected between 0 and 15 days PE. Experiment 3 evaluated the infectivity and transmissibility of mallard-derived PRRSV in mallards. A cage of mallards orally exposed to PRRSV shed the virus in feces. Exposure of a second cage of mallards to feces from the first cage resulted in fecal shedding of PRRSV by birds in cage two. In turn, exposure to feces from the second cage led to fecal shedding by mallards in a third cage. Experiment 4 assessed the infectivity and transmissibility of mallard-derived virus in swine. Pigs intranasally exposed to PRRSV isolaed from mallard feces in experiment 2 became viremic, seroconverted by ELISA, and transmitted the virus to sentinel swine. Collectively, these studies show that the possibility exists for avian species to be involved in the epidemiology of PRRSV. This is the first report of PRRSV infection in a species other than swine. PMID:9220630

Zimmerman, J J; Yoon, K J; Pirtle, E C; Wills, R W; Sanderson, T J; McGinley, M J

1997-04-01

104

Influence of Hypericum perforatum Extract on Piglet Infected with Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the influence of Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) on piglets infected with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), enzyme-labeled immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and cytopathic effect (CPE) were used to determine in vitro whether HPE could induce swine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) to secrete IFN-g, and whether PRRSV titers in PAMs were affected by the levels of HPE-induced IFN-g.

Xiu-ying PU; Jian-ping LIANG; Ruo-feng SHANG; Xue-hong WANG; Zuo-xin WANG; Lan-ying HUA; Yu LIU

2009-01-01

105

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with Chediak-Higashi syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of clinical and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serological studies on nine Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) patients are reported. Persistently elevated antibodies to the viral capsid antigen (VCA) and the restricted component of the early antigen complex (EA-R) developed in six patients who experienced primary EBV infection which either remained silent or were accompanied by clinical signs of infectious mononucleosis (IM).

Fernando Merino; Werner Henle; Pedro Ramírez-Duque

1986-01-01

106

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Human Immunodeficiency Virus\\/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and it is estimated that 42 million people\\u000a are infected with HIV. Four classes of drugs are used today to treat people with AIDS; nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTIs),\\u000a non-NRTIs (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), and entry blockers (EIs). Evidence is accumulating that both PIs and NNRTIs\\u000a are good candidates for therapeutic drug

Steven J. Soldin

107

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection, and Dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A new disease, Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was identified in the early 1980’s, when it was observed that an\\u000a unusually high number of otherwise healthy gay men in San Francisco, developed Kaposi’s sarcoma, and pneumocystis carinii\\u000a pneumonia (1, 2). Before the discovery of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the causative agent, and refinements were made in various\\u000a serological methods

T. K. Sreepada Rao

108

Effect of VP28 DNA vaccine on white spot syndrome virus in Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the shrimp\\u000a farming industry. Considering the global environmental, the economic and sociological importance of shrimp farming, and the\\u000a constraints of high intensity cultivation, development of novel control measures against the outbreak of WSSV become inevitable.\\u000a In this study, we have explored the protective efficacy

Xiang Li; Qing-hui Liu; Lin Hou; Jie Huang

2010-01-01

109

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein expressed by attenuated vaccinia virus protectively immunizes mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spike protein (S), a membrane component of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is anticipated to be an important component of candidate vaccines. We constructed recombinant forms of the highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) containing the gene encoding full-length SARS-CoV S with and without a C-terminal epitope tag called MVA\\/S-HA and MVA\\/S, respectively. Cells infected with MVA\\/Sor

Himani Bisht; Anjeanette Roberts; Leatrice Vogel; Alexander Bukreyev; Peter L. Collins; Brian R. Murphy; Kanta Subbarao; Bernard Moss

2004-01-01

110

Genomic analysis of two Chinese strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses with different virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated, designated GDQJ and GDBY1. Experimental\\u000a inoculation showed that GDBY1, caused 100% morbidity and 67% mortality, while GDQJ, caused 100% morbidity but no death. Full-length\\u000a genomes were sequenced. Homologic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these two strains were closely related to Chinese\\u000a highly pathogenic PRRSV strains. Surprisingly, identical 30

Yan Li; Chunyi Xue; Lianxiang Wang; Xianxian Chen; Feng Chen; Yongchang Cao

2010-01-01

111

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes apoptosis during its replication in fetal implantation sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive failure due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is characterized by late-term abortions, early farrowing and an increase of dead and mummified fetuses and weak-born piglets. The mechanism of PRRSV-induced reproductive failure is poorly understood. Human pregnancies, complicated by some pathogens leading to reproductive disorders exhibit increased apoptosis in the fetal membranes. Because PRRSV-target cells are present

Uladzimir U. Karniychuk; Dipongkor Saha; Marc Geldhof; Merijn Vanhee; Pieter Cornillie; Wim Van den Broeck; Hans J. Nauwynck

2011-01-01

112

Involvement of Sialoadhesin in Entry of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus into Porcine Alveolar Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) shows a very restricted tropism for cells of the monocyte\\/macrophage lineage. It enters cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) that is able to block PRRSV infection of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) and that recognizes a 210-kDa protein (p210) was described previously (MAb41D3) (X. Duan, H. Nauwynck, H. Favoreel, and M. Pensaert,

Nathalie Vanderheijden; Peter L. Delputte; Herman W. Favoreel; Joel Vandekerckhove; Jozef Van Damme; Peter A. van Woensel; Hans J. Nauwynck

2003-01-01

113

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Gene 7 Products Contribute to Virus-Induced Apoptosis?  

PubMed Central

The proteins encoded by gene 7 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) have been demonstrated to have proapoptotic activity when expressed from cDNA but appear to be dispensable for virus replication. Recombinant SARS-CoVs bearing deletions in gene 7 were used to assess the contribution of gene 7 to virus replication and apoptosis in several transformed cell lines, as well as to replication and pathogenesis in golden Syrian hamsters. Deletion of gene 7 had no effect on SARS-CoV replication in transformed cell lines, nor did it alter the induction of early apoptosis markers such as annexin V binding and activation of caspase 3. However, viruses with gene 7 disruptions were not as efficient as wild-type virus in inducing DNA fragmentation, as judged by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, indicating that the gene 7 products do contribute to virus-induced apoptosis. Disruption of gene 7 did not affect virus replication or morbidity in golden Syrian hamsters, suggesting that the gene 7 products are not required for acute infection in vivo. The data indicate that open reading frames 7a and 7b contribute to but are not solely responsible for the apoptosis seen in SARS-CoV-infected cells.

Schaecher, Scott R.; Touchette, Erin; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R. Mark; Pekosz, Andrew

2007-01-01

114

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus gene 7 products contribute to virus-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

The proteins encoded by gene 7 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) have been demonstrated to have proapoptotic activity when expressed from cDNA but appear to be dispensable for virus replication. Recombinant SARS-CoVs bearing deletions in gene 7 were used to assess the contribution of gene 7 to virus replication and apoptosis in several transformed cell lines, as well as to replication and pathogenesis in golden Syrian hamsters. Deletion of gene 7 had no effect on SARS-CoV replication in transformed cell lines, nor did it alter the induction of early apoptosis markers such as annexin V binding and activation of caspase 3. However, viruses with gene 7 disruptions were not as efficient as wild-type virus in inducing DNA fragmentation, as judged by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, indicating that the gene 7 products do contribute to virus-induced apoptosis. Disruption of gene 7 did not affect virus replication or morbidity in golden Syrian hamsters, suggesting that the gene 7 products are not required for acute infection in vivo. The data indicate that open reading frames 7a and 7b contribute to but are not solely responsible for the apoptosis seen in SARS-CoV-infected cells. PMID:17686858

Schaecher, Scott R; Touchette, Erin; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R Mark; Pekosz, Andrew

2007-08-08

115

Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Korea  

PubMed Central

The high genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been an obstacle to developing an effective vaccine for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). This study was performed to assess the degree of genetic diversity among PRRSVs from Korean pig farms where wasting and respiratory syndrome was observed from 2005 to 2009. Samples from 786 farms were tested for the presence of PRRSV using reverse transcription PCR protocol. A total of 117 farms were positive for type 1 PRRSV while 198 farms were positive for type 2. Nucleotide sequences encoding the open reading frame (ORF) 5 were analyzed and compared to those of various published PRRSV isolates obtained worldwide. Sequence identity of the ORF 5 in the isolates was 81.6~100% for type 1 viruses and 81.4~100% for type 2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the ORF 5 sequences showed that types 1 and 2 PRRSVs from Korea were mainly classified into three and four clusters, respectively. The analyzed isolates were distributed throughout the clusters independent of the isolation year or geographical origin. In conclusion, our results indicated that the genetic diversity of PRRSVs from Korean pig farms is high and has been increasing over time.

Choi, Eun-Jin; Lee, Chang-Hee; Song, Jae-Young; Song, Hee-Jong; Park, Choi-Kyu; Kim, Byounghan

2013-01-01

116

Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and healthy controls in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence

William M Switzer; Hongwei Jia; Oliver Hohn; HaoQiang Zheng; Shaohua Tang; Anupama Shankar; Norbert Bannert; Graham Simmons; R Michael Hendry; Virginia R Falkenberg; William C Reeves; Walid Heneine

2010-01-01

117

Serologic and PCR testing of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome in the United States shows no association with xenotropic or polytropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009, a newly discovered human retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus (XMRV), was reported by\\u000a Lombardi et al. in 67% of persons from the US with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) by PCR detection of gag sequences. Although six subsequent studies have been negative for XMRV, CFS was defined more broadly using only the CDC or\\u000a Oxford criteria and

Brent C Satterfield; Rebecca A Garcia; Hongwei Jia; Shaohua Tang; HaoQiang Zheng; William M Switzer

2011-01-01

118

A multicenter blinded analysis indicates no association between chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis and either xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus or polytropic murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

The disabling disorder known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been linked in two independent studies to infection with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV). Although the associations were not confirmed in subsequent studies by other investigators, patients continue to question the consensus of the scientific community in rejecting the validity of the association. Here we report blinded analysis of peripheral blood from a rigorously characterized, geographically diverse population of 147 patients with CFS/ME and 146 healthy subjects by the investigators describing the original association. This analysis reveals no evidence of either XMRV or pMLV infection. IMPORTANCE Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis has an estimated prevalence of 42/10,000 in the United States, with annual direct medical costs of $7 billion. Here, the original investigators who found XMRV and pMLV (polytropic murine leukemia virus) in blood of subjects with this disorder report that this association is not confirmed in a blinded analysis of samples from rigorously characterized subjects. The increasing frequency with which molecular methods are used for pathogen discovery poses new challenges to public health and support of science. It is imperative that strategies be developed to rapidly and coherently address discoveries so that they can be carried forward for translation to clinical medicine or abandoned to focus resource investment more productively. Our study provides a paradigm for pathogen dediscovery that may be helpful to others working in this field. PMID:22991430

Alter, Harvey J; Mikovits, Judy A; Switzer, William M; Ruscetti, Francis W; Lo, Shyh-Ching; Klimas, Nancy; Komaroff, Anthony L; Montoya, Jose G; Bateman, Lucinda; Levine, Susan; Peterson, Daniel; Levin, Bruce; Hanson, Maureen R; Genfi, Afia; Bhat, Meera; Zheng, HaoQiang; Wang, Richard; Li, Bingjie; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lee, Li Ling; Sameroff, Stephen; Heneine, Walid; Coffin, John; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W Ian

2012-09-18

119

The role of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus accessory proteins in virus pathogenesis.  

PubMed

A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, termed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was first reported in China in late 2002. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected more than 30 countries worldwide, resulting in a mortality rate of ~10% of infected individuals. The spread of the virus was ultimately controlled by isolation of infected individuals and there has been no infections reported since April 2004. However, the natural reservoir of the virus was never identified and it is not known if this virus will re-emerge and, therefore, research on this virus continues. The SARS-CoV genome is about 30 kb in length and is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The genome encodes for proteins that are homologous to known coronavirus proteins, such as the replicase proteins (ORFs 1a and 1b) and the four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E). SARS-CoV also encodes for eight unique proteins, called accessory proteins, with no known homologues. This review will summarize the current knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins and will include: (i) expression and processing; (ii) the effects on cellular processes; and (iii) functional studies. PMID:23202509

McBride, Ruth; Fielding, Burtram C

2012-11-07

120

The Role of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus Accessory Proteins in Virus Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, termed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was first reported in China in late 2002. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected more than 30 countries worldwide, resulting in a mortality rate of ~10% of infected individuals. The spread of the virus was ultimately controlled by isolation of infected individuals and there has been no infections reported since April 2004. However, the natural reservoir of the virus was never identified and it is not known if this virus will re-emerge and, therefore, research on this virus continues. The SARS-CoV genome is about 30 kb in length and is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The genome encodes for proteins that are homologous to known coronavirus proteins, such as the replicase proteins (ORFs 1a and 1b) and the four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E). SARS-CoV also encodes for eight unique proteins, called accessory proteins, with no known homologues. This review will summarize the current knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins and will include: (i) expression and processing; (ii) the effects on cellular processes; and (iii) functional studies.

McBride, Ruth; Fielding, Burtram C.

2012-01-01

121

Fanconi's Syndrome Associated with Prolonged Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy in a Hepatitis B Virus Patient  

PubMed Central

Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is commonly used as an antiviral agent in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Nephrotoxicity has been shown to occur at daily dosages of 60-120 mg. Fanconi's syndrome is a generalized dysfunction of the renal proximal tubular cells, which is usually accompanied by complications. Here we report a case of Fanconi's syndrome in a chronic hepatitis B patient who had been treated with a prolonged regimen of ADV at 10 mg/day. A 47-year-old man complained of severe back and chest-wall pain. He had chronic hepatitis B and had been treated with ADV at a daily dose of 10 mg for 38 months. He was hospitalized because of severe bone pain, and laboratory and radiologic findings suggested a diagnosis of Fanconi's syndrome with osteomalacia. After discontinuation of the ADV, he recovered and was discharged from hospital. His laboratory findings had normalized within 2 weeks. This case indicates that Fanconi's syndrome can be acquired by a chronic hepatitis B patient taking ADV at a conventional dosage of 10 mg/day. Therefore, patients treated with long-term ADV should be checked regularly for the occurrence of ADV-induced Fanconi's syndrome.

Jung, Young Kul; Choi, Jong Hwan; Kim, Chung Ho; Jung, Eun Suk; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae; Byun, Kwan Soo

2010-01-01

122

Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.  

PubMed

This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome. PMID:7258407

Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

1981-01-01

123

Complete coding sequences of European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) strains isolated in 1982 in Sweden.  

PubMed

European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) is characterised by high mortality of European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and mountain hares (Lepus timidus). European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and the closely related rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) comprise the genus Lagovirus, family Caliciviridae. In contrast to RHDV, which is well studied, with more than 30 complete genome sequences available, the only complete genome sequence available for EBHSV was obtained from a strain isolated in 1989 in France. EBHS was originally diagnosed in Sweden in 1980. Here, we report the complete coding sequences of two EBHSV strains isolated from European brown hares that died with liver lesions characteristic of EBHS in Sweden in 1982. These sequences represent the oldest complete coding sequences of EBHSV isolated from the original area of virus diagnosis. The genomic organisation is similar to that of the published French sequence. Comparison with this sequence revealed several nucleotide substitutions, corresponding to 6 % divergence. At the amino acid level, the Swedish strains are 2 % different from the French strain. Most amino acid substitutions were located within the major capsid protein VP60, but when considering the amino acid sequence length of each protein, VP10 is the protein with the highest percentage of amino acid differences. The same result was obtained when Swedish strains were compared. This evolutionary pattern has not been described previously for members of the genus Lagovirus. PMID:23640583

Lopes, Ana M; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana

2013-05-03

124

Molecular virus screening to detect novel viruses from turkey flocks affected by Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) is an economically important, infectious enteric disease of young turkeys. The disease is characterized by decreased weight gain, increased morbidity and mortality, and increased production costs due to poor feed conversions. PEMS is considered to be a multi...

125

Guillain-Barré syndrome after exposure to influenza virus.  

PubMed

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, acquired, monophasic autoimmune disorder of peripheral nerves that develops in susceptible individuals after infection and, in rare cases, after immunisation. Exposure to influenza via infection or vaccination has been associated with GBS. We review the relation between GBS and these routes of exposure. Epidemiological studies have shown that, except for the 1976 US national immunisation programme against swine-origin influenza A H1N1 subtype A/NJ/76, influenza vaccine has probably not caused GBS or, if it has, rates have been extremely low (less than one case per million vaccine recipients). By contrast, influenza-like illnesses seem to be relevant triggering events for GBS. The concerns about the risk of inducing GBS in mass immunisation programmes against H1N1 2009 do not, therefore, seem justified by the available epidemiological data. However, the experiences from the 1976 swine flu vaccination programme emphasise the importance for active and passive surveillance to monitor vaccine safety. PMID:20797646

Lehmann, Helmar C; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C; Hughes, Richard A C

2010-09-01

126

DNA condensates organized by the capsid protein VP15 in White Spot Syndrome Virus  

SciTech Connect

The White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has a large circular double-stranded DNA genome of around 300 kb and it replicates in the nucleus of the host cells. The machinery of how the viral DNA is packaged has been remained unclear. VP15, a highly basic protein, is one of the major capsid proteins found in the virus. Previously, it was shown to be a DNA binding protein and was hypothesized to participate in the viral DNA packaging process. Using Atomic Force Microscopy imaging, we show that the viral DNA is associated with a (or more) capsid proteins. The organized viral DNA qualitatively resembles the conformations of VP15 induced DNA condensates in vitro. Furthermore, single-DNA manipulation experiments revealed that VP15 is able to condense single DNA against forces of a few pico Newtons. Our results suggest that VP15 may aid in the viral DNA packaging process by directly condensing DNA.

Liu Yingjie, E-mail: phyyj@nus.edu.s [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Wu Jinlu [Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chen Hu [Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Hew, Choy Leong, E-mail: dbshewcl@nus.edu.s [Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Yan Jie [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Centre for Bioimaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

2010-12-20

127

Hantaan virus RNA load in patients having hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: correlation with disease severity.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of viral load in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, the Hantaan virus RNA load in plasma from 101 patients was quanti?ed, and the relationships between viral load and disease course, severity, and level of specific humoral immunity were analyzed. The viral load, detectable in 79 patients, ranged from 3.43 to 7.33 log10 copies/mL of plasma. In the early stage of disease, patients in severe/critical group were found to have higher viral loads than those in the mild/moderate group (5.90 vs 5.03 log10 copies/mL; P = .001), suggesting an association between Hantaan virus load and disease severity. PMID:22869912

Yi, Jing; Xu, Zhuwei; Zhuang, Ran; Wang, Jiuping; Zhang, Yusi; Ma, Ying; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Chunmei; Yan, Guolin; Zhang, Fanglin; Xu, Zhikai; Yang, Angang; Jin, Boquan

2012-08-06

128

Haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) in Norway: pathology and associated virus-like particles.  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon Salmo salar pre-smolt, smolt and post-smolt, with clinical signs of haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) have been found in several locations along the Norwegian coast (Rogaland to Troms). Affected fish had pale gills and bleeding at the fin bases, but seemed to be in good physical condition with no obvious weight loss. The internal organs and body cavity showed distinct bleedings. Petechiae were found on the gastrointestinal tract, swim bladder and peritoneum, visceral adipose tissue, heart and somatic musculature. The liver was bright yellow and sometimes mottled with petechiae and ecchymoses. Acitic fluid was found in the visceral cavity and fluid was also present in the pericardial cavity. Histological examination revealed haemorrhage in most organs. The glomeruli were degenerated and the renal tubules were filled with erythrocytes. The aims of this study were to describe the pathology and discover, if possible, the aetiology of the HSS. Tissues were collected for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence (IFAT), reverse transcription (RT)-PCR diagnostics (screening for infectious salmon anaemia virus [ISAV], viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus [VHSV], salmon pancreas disease virus [SPDV], sleeping disease virus [SDV] and infectious haematopoetic necrosis virus [IHNV]), and tissue homogenates (heart, liver, kidney and spleen) were sterile-filtered and inoculated into cell cultures. Homogenates made from several tissues were also injected intraperitoneally into salmon and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The diagnostic tests revealed no consistent findings of any pathogens, with the exception of TEM which showed 2 types of virus-like particles: Type I was 50 to 60 nm in diameter and Type II about 50 nm in diameter. These virus-like particles were found in salmon from all farms affected by HSS and screened by TEM. Several different cells, blood vessel endothelial cells, endocardial cells, heart myofibres, and leukocytes were associated with the 2 virus-like particles. The Type I particle seems to be an infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN)-like virus, while (based on the number of target cells, particle morphology, budding and uptake into target cells) Type II particle could be a togavirus. PMID:12718466

Nylund, A; Plarre, H; Hodneland, K; Devold, M; Aspehaug, V; Aarseth, M; Koren, C; Watanabe, K

2003-03-17

129

Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in boar semen by PCR.  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a devastating disease in swine. The presence and transmission of PRRSV by boar semen has been demonstrated by using a swine bioassay. In this assay, 4- to 8-week-old pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with semen from PRRSV-infected boars. Seroconversion of these piglets indicated the presence of PRRSV in semen. Seroconversion in gilts has also been demonstrated following artificial insemination with semen from PRRSV-infected boars. These methods of detecting PRRSV in boar semen are time-consuming, laborious, and expensive. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable and sensitive PCR assay to directly detect PRRSV in boar semen. Primers from open reading frames 1b and 7 of the PRRSV genome were used in nested PCRs. Virus was detected at concentrations as low as 10 infectious virions per ml in PRRSV-spiked semen. Specificity was confirmed by using a nested PCR and a 32P-labeled oligonucleotide probe. The primers did not react with related arteriviruses or other swine viruses. The PCR assay showed good correlation with the swine bioassay, and both methods were superior to virus isolation. To consistently identify PRRSV in boar semen, the cell fraction was separated by centrifugation at 600 x g for 20 min, a lysis buffer without a reducing agent (2-mercaptoethanol) was used, and nondiluted and 1:20-diluted cell fractions were evaluated by PCR. PRRSV was not reliably detected in the seminal plasma fraction of boar semen.

Christopher-Hennings, J; Nelson, E A; Nelson, J K; Hines, R J; Swenson, S L; Hill, H T; Zimmerman, J J; Katz, J B; Yaeger, M J; Chase, C C

1995-01-01

130

Epstein-Barr virus and other herpesvirus infections in Kawasaki syndrome.  

PubMed

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a possible cause of Kawasaki syndrome (KS), is not pathenogenically associated with KS in Hawaii. The prevalence of EBV capsid antibody in KS patients was found not to differ significantly from that in controls, and the antibody response in those infected with EBV was the same as that in other children similarly infected. No EBV was isolated from acute-phase patients. All patients with capsid antibody at the onset of KS also had Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen antibody: 36 patients developed antibody within 3 months after onset of KS; in 10, EBV infection could have been coincidental with the disease. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was isolated from 9 patients with KS and 10 controls. A similar number of controls and patients had antibody to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6); one patient seroconverted. None of the herpes viruses (EBV, CMV, HHV6, varicella-zoster virus, or herpes simplex virus) plays a unique or dominant role in the etiology or pathogenesis of KS in Hawaii. PMID:2156943

Marchette, N J; Melish, M E; Hicks, R; Kihara, S; Sam, E; Ching, D

1990-04-01

131

Cryptoporus volvatus Extract Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important arterivirus that can cause significant losses in swine industry. At present, there are no adequate control strategies against PRRSV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment regimens that have efficacious antiviral activity to compensate for vaccines. Cryptoporus volvatus commonly serves as an anti-infective agent in Tradational Chinese Medicines. In this report, we exploited whether the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus had the potential to inhibit PRRSV infection. Our results showed that the extract significantly inhibited PRRSV infection by repressing virus entry, viral RNA expression, and possibly viral protein synthesis, cell-to-cell spread, and releasing of virus particles. However, it did not block PRRSV binding to cells. Further studies confirmed that the extract directly inhibited PRRSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, thus interfering with PRRSV RNA and protein synthesis. More importantly, the extract efficiently inhibited highly pathologic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection in vivo, reduced virus load in serum, and increased the survival rate of pigs inoculated with HP-PRRSV strain. Collectively, our findings imply that the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapies.

Gao, Li; Zhang, Weiwei; Sun, Yipeng; Yang, Qian; Ren, Jie; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Hexiang; Feng, Wen-hai

2013-01-01

132

Genome dynamics in three different geographical isolates of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the sole member of the monotypic family Nimaviridae, is considered an extremely lethal shrimp pathogen. Despite its impact, some essential biological characteristics related to WSSV genome dynamics, such as the synonymous codon usage pattern and selection pressure in genes, remain to be elucidated. The results show that compositional limitations and mutational pressure determine the codon usage bias and base composition in WSSV. Furthermore, different forces of selective pressure are acting across various regions of the WSSV genome. Finally, this study points out the possible occurrence of two major recombination events. PMID:22836599

Sablok, Gaurav; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Wu, Xianming; Ranjan, Jayant; Kuo, Jimmy; Bulla, Ingo

2012-07-27

133

Mononucleosis syndrome and coincidental human herpesvirus-7 and Epstein-Barr virus infection  

PubMed Central

Two girls (a 5 year old and a 21 month old) experiencing mononucleosis syndrome with coincidental human herpesvirus (HHV)-7 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are described. One patient had primary HHV-7 infection and reactivated EBV infection. The other had primary HHV-7 and EBV infections. These cases indicated that HHV-7 is capable of inducing infectious mononucleosis-like illness. Multiple herpesvirus infection in one of the patients also suggests that interaction among herpesviruses can occur in vivo. The consequence of this interaction may have clinical implications.??

Chiu, H; Lee, C; Lee, P; Lin, K; Huang, L

1998-01-01

134

Cytokine nephropathy in a patient with fatal Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.  

PubMed

Abstract Occasionally, patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection develop hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). Acute kidney injury (AKI) is considered a strong prognostic factor, but very few data are available about the biopsy-proven renal involvement of EBV-HPS. Here we describe a previously healthy 17-year-old girl with EBV-HPS. Combination therapy failed and renal necropsy was performed. The renal histology showed that intact glomeruli, remarkable interstitial edema and some cellular infiltration, and protein casts. These findings were compatible with cytokine nephropathy as recently advocated. We suggest that hypercytokinemia may play an important role in the pathophysiology in AKI of EBV-HPS. PMID:23991898

Nagayama, Yoshikuni; Yoshimura, Ashio; Iwasaki, Shigeki

2013-09-02

135

Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome (WSS) is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (nr) database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO) scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at . Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp.

Leu, Jiann-Horng; Chang, Chih-Chin; Wu, Jin-Lu; Hsu, Chun-Wei; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lo, Chu-Fang; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng

2007-01-01

136

Avian Influenza: Potential Impact on Sub-Saharan Military Populations with High Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus\\/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several sub-Saharan militaries have large percentages of troops with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)\\/acquired im- munodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease. Two possible scenarios have been postulated regard- ing how such a coinfection of HIV and H5N1

Robert L. Feldman; COL Kent Nickell; MC USAR

2007-01-01

137

Cerebral edema and a transtentorial brain herniation syndrome associated with pandemic swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute encephalitis, encephalopathy, and seizures are known rare neurologic sequelae of respiratory tract infection with seasonal influenza A and B virus, but the neurological complications of the pandemic 2009 swine influenza A (H1N1) virus, particularly in adults, are ill-defined. We document two young adults suffering from H1N1-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal failure who developed cerebral edema. The patients

Kristopher T. Kahle; Brian P. Walcott; Brian V. Nahed; Zachary R. Barnard; Eng H. Lo; Ferdinando S. Buonanno; Nagagopal Venna; MingMing Ning

2011-01-01

138

Development of a non-radioactive gene probe by PCR for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining primers created from the sequence information of two baculo-like viruses of penaeid shrimp, Baculovirus penaei (BP) and Monodon baculovirus (MBV), produced a 750 bp band on a 0.8% agarose gel using White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), from Penaeus monodon, as the DNA template. The PCR fragment was ligated to a plasmid vector, (pGEM-T) and transformed, creating a 3.7 Kbp

Linda M. Nunan; Donald V. Lightner

1997-01-01

139

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus productively infects monocyte-derived dendritic cells and compromises their antigen-presenting ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play an important role in inducing primary antigen-specific\\u000a immune responses. However, some viruses have evolved to specifically target DC to circumvent the host’s immune responses for\\u000a their persistence in the host. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a persistent infection in\\u000a susceptible animals. Although it is generally believed that the

X. Wang; M. Eaton; M. Mayer; H. Li; D. He; E. Nelson; J. Christopher-Hennings

2007-01-01

140

Susceptible cell lines for the production of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by stable transfection of sialoadhesin and CD163  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes major economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. In vivo, the virus infects a subpopulation of tissue macrophages. In vitro, PRRSV only replicates in primary pig macrophages and African green monkey kidney derived cells, such as Marc-145. The latter is currently used for vaccine production. However, since virus entry in Marc-145

Iris Delrue; Hanne Van Gorp; Jan Van Doorsselaere; Peter L Delputte; Hans J Nauwynck

2010-01-01

141

Evaluation of the role of mallard ducks as vectors of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

To assess the transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from pigs to mallard ducks, 10 adult (one-year-old) female mallard ducks were housed with pigs infected experimentally with PRRSV, and allowed to be in close contact with them for 21 days. To evaluate the transmission of PRRSV from mallard ducks to pigs, two adult ducks were inoculated orally with PRRSV (total dose 10(6.0) TCID50) and allowed to drink PRRsv-infected water; 24 hours later, two four-week-old PRRsv-naive sentinel pigs were housed in pens below the cages housing the ducks for 14 days. In both experiments, cloacal and faecal samples were collected three times a week from the ducks and tested by PCR, virus isolation and a pig bioassay. Blood samples from the pigs were tested by ELISA, PCR and virus isolation. Sera from the ducks were tested by serum neutralisation. The ducks were examined postmortem and selected tissues were tested by PCR, virus isolation, histopathology and pig bioassay. In both experiments all the cloacal swabs, faecal samples, tissues and sera from the ducks were negative by all the tests. The sera from the pigs in the first experiment were PCR positive at three, seven, 14 and 21 days after infection and ELISA positive at 14 and 21 days. Sera from the pigs in the second experiment were negative by all the tests. The virus was isolated from the oral inoculum and the drinking water provided for the ducks in the second experiment. Under the conditions of this study, it was not possible to demonstrate the transmission of PRRSV either from the pigs to the ducks or from the ducks to the pigs. PMID:15005448

Trincado, C; Dee, S; Rossow, K; Halvorson, D; Pijoan, C

2004-02-21

142

Involuntary mass spirit possession among the Miskitu.  

PubMed

This paper seeks to understand the outbreaks and the development of grisi siknis, a form of mass spirit possession among the Miskitu of north-eastern Nicaragua. Earlier documented outbreaks typically involved a few adolescents, however, in recent years, violent large-scale epidemics have taken place, involving many people of all ages. This has coincided with recent developments in Miskitu society marked by conflicts, contradictions and tense social relations. The anthropological field technique of participant-observation was used. The research took place during 11 months from 2005 to 2008 in the port town of Puerto Cabezas. A total of 38 informants were interviewed. Group discussions, narratives and informal and semi-structured interviews were carried out, as well as participation in healing rituals. The paper shows that socio-economic, cultural, personal as well as environmental factors all contribute to outbreaks of grisi siknis. The affliction has previously been considered a 'culture-bound syndrome' only occurring among the Miskitu. However, when viewed in a more contemporary context and cross-cultural perspective, grisi siknis shows similarities with other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession, particularly in the ways it is manifested, experienced and appears to be spreading. The paper argues that the phenomenon should no longer be considered a 'culture-bound condition' but in fact a Miskitu version of involuntary mass spirit possession. Further research that seeks to understand other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession should emphasize the social, personal and environmental context as well as cross-cultural comparisons in order to encompass fully the role of culture in relation to illness and suffering. PMID:22746214

Wedel, Johan

2012-07-02

143

Analysis of the PB2 gene reveals that Indian H5N1 influenza virus belongs to a mixed-migratory bird sub-lineage possessing the amino acid lysine at position 627 of the PB2 protein.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus were reported for the first time in India during February 2006. Herein, we have sequenced and analyzed the PB2 genes of five influenza virus isolates obtained from three affected states (Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra) in India during the outbreaks. In the phylogenetic analysis, the Indian isolates were grouped in the mixed-migratory bird sub-lineage of the Eurasian lineage. From the phylogenetic tree, it is evident that viruses were probably introduced to India from China via Europe because they share a direct ancestral relationship with the Indian isolates. The virus might have spread through migratory waterfowls that survived the HPAI H5N1 infection. These viruses were able to replicate in cultured cells of avian and mammalian hosts and posses lysine at position 627 of the PB2 protein, indicating that they might be able to cross the host barrier to infect mammals. PMID:17558541

Kamal, R P; Tosh, C; Pattnaik, B; Behera, P; Nagarajan, S; Gounalan, S; Shrivastava, N; Shankar, B P; Pradhan, H K

2007-06-11

144

Characterization of a virus obtained from snakeheads Ophicephalus striatus with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in the Philippines.  

PubMed

This is the first report of the isolation and characterization of a fish virus from the Philippines. The virus was isolated using snakehead spleen cells (SHS) from severely lesioned epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS)-affected snakehead Ophicephalus striatus from Laguna de Bay, in January 1991. The virus induced cytopathic effects (CPE) in SHS cells yielding a titer of 3.02 x 10(6) TCID50 ml(-1) at 25 degrees C within 2 to 3 d. Other susceptible cell lines included bluegill fry (BF-2), catfish spleen (CFS) and channel catfish ovary (CCO) cells. Replication in chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214) was minimal while Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cells (EPC) and rainbow trout gonad cells (RTG-2) were refractory. Temperatures of 15 to 25 degrees C were optimum for virus replication but the virus did not replicate at 37 degrees C. The virus can be stored at -10 and 8 degrees C for 30 and 10 d, respectively, without significant loss of infectivity. Viral replication was logarithmic with a 2 h lag phase; viral assembly in the host cells occurred in 4 h and release of virus occurred 8 h after viral infection. A 1-log difference in TCID50 titer between the cell-free virus and the total virus was noted. Freezing and thawing the virus caused a half-log drop in titer. Viral exposure to chloroform or heating to 56 degrees C for 30 min inactivated the virus. Exposure to pH 3 medium for 30 min resulted in a more than 100-fold loss of viral infectivity. The 5-iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) did not affect virus replication, indicating a RNA genome. Neutralization tests using the Philippine virus, the ulcerative disease rhabdovirus (UDRV) and the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) polyvalent antisera showed slight cross-reaction between the Philippine virus antiserum and UDRV but established no serological relationship with SHRV and IHN virus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of SHS cells infected with the virus showed virus particles with typical bullet morphology and an estimated size of 65 x 175 nm. The Philippine virus was therefore a rhabdovirus, but the present study did not establish its role in the epizootiology of EUS. PMID:11206734

Lio-Po, G D; Traxler, G S; Albright, L J; Leaño, E M

2000-12-21

145

A Bayesian Phylogeographical Analysis of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV).  

PubMed

Understanding viral transmission is an important factor for the effective prevention one of the most devastating swine diseases, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. Focusing on molecular epidemiology of type 1 PRRSV, this study analysed a large ORF5 dataset collected worldwide from 1991 to 2012 using a coalescent-based Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. The results suggested that the virus diversified into unique subpopulations in Russia & Belarus and Italy approximately 100 years ago. Previously unreported consecutive diffusions of the virus were identified, which showed that some countries, such as Spain and Germany, acted as distribution sources to some extent. This study also provided statistical evidence for the existence of an ORF5-based phylogeographical structure of type 1 PRRSV, in which the virus tended to cluster by geographical locations more tightly than expected by chance. In contrast to this tight geographical structure, the evolution of the ORF5 gene, based on mapping of non-synonymous/synonymous substitutions, was best described by a non-homogeneous process that could be implicated as a mechanism for viral immune evasion. PMID:23336975

Nguyen, V G; Kim, H K; Moon, H J; Park, S J; Chung, H C; Choi, M K; Park, B K

2013-01-22

146

Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

2011-01-01

147

Determinants of risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in people with severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the prevalence and correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk behaviors in a large sample of severely mentally ill (SMI) patients. Risk levels were correlated with demographic factors, diagnosis, symptom severity, trauma history, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and sexual orientation. SMI clients from urban and rural settings (N = 275) were

Stanley D. Rosenberg; Susan L. Trumbetta; Kim T. Mueser; Lisa A. Goodman; Fred C. Osher; Robert M. Vidaver; David S. Metzger

2001-01-01

148

First report of White spot syndrome virus in farmed and wild penaeid shrimp from lagoa dos patos estuary, southern brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, we detected White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild Farfantepenaeus paulensis collected in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary and cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei. This is the first report of WSSV in F. paulensis from Lagoa dos Patos and farmed L. vannamei shrimps in Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:24031739

Cavalli, Lissandra Souto; Romano, Luis Alberto; Marins, Luis Fernando; Abreu, Paulo César

2011-09-01

149

Oral delivery of DNA vaccine encoding VP28 against white spot syndrome virus in crayfish by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective immune responses in shrimp induced by DNA vaccines against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) with intramuscular injection have been reported in recent reports. In this study, we investigated the utilities of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella typhimurium) as a bactofection vehicle for the oral delivery of a DNA vaccine plasmid to crayfish (Cambarus clarkii). The DNA vaccine plasmid

Jian-Fang Ning; Wei Zhu; Jin-Ping Xu; Cong-Yi Zheng; Xiao-Lin Meng

2009-01-01

150

Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus\\/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing HIV prevention services. Methods: Semistructured telephone surveys were conducted with health administrators from 25 HBCUs. Results:

Lari Warren-Jeanpiere; Sandra Jones; Madeline Y. Sutton

2011-01-01

151

First report of White spot syndrome virus in farmed and wild penaeid shrimp from lagoa dos patos estuary, southern brazil  

PubMed Central

In this study, we detected White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild Farfantepenaeus paulensis collected in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary and cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei. This is the first report of WSSV in F. paulensis from Lagoa dos Patos and farmed L. vannamei shrimps in Rio Grande do Sul.

Cavalli, Lissandra Souto; Romano, Luis Alberto; Marins, Luis Fernando; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

2011-01-01

152

GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRULENT, ATTENUATED, AND REVERTANT PASSAGES OF A NORTH AMERICAN PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS STRAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pigs were exposed to 3 passages of the NADC-8 strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to investigate the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic properties. Differences were found in the virulence of the 3 passages referred to as virulent, intermediate, and avirul...

153

In Depth Global Analysis of Transcript Abundance Levels Following Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Infection of the primary target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not under...

154

Validation of a Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be one of the most significant diseases of swine. IDEXX HerdChek PRRS, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has become the industry standard for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus (PRRSV). The need to accurately determine the PRRSV serostatus of herds and individual animals has prompted the development of several

Neal H. Ferrin; Ying Fang; Craig R. Johnson; Michael P. Murtaugh; Dale D. Polson; Montserrat Torremorell; Marie L. Gramer; Eric A. Nelson

2004-01-01

155

Use of an Experimental Model To Test the Efficacy of Planned Exposure to Live Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to test the efficacy and safety of planned exposure to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in protecting naive and previously exposed pigs against PRRSV challenge and to gain information on the dose of PRRSV necessary to induce a protective immune response. Fifty 2-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to one of five groups:

Tanja Opriessnig; Rodney B. Baker; Patrick G. Halbur

2007-01-01

156

Current knowledge on the structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus: comparison of the North American and European isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) belongs to the recently recognized Arteriviridae family within the genus Arterivirus, order Nidovirales, which also includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever\\u000a virus (SHFV). Mature viral particles are composed of an envelope 50–72?nm in diameter, with an isometric core about 20–30?nm\\u000a enclosing a linear positive-stranded RNA genome

S. Dea; C. A. Gagnon; H. Mardassi; B. Pirzadeh; D. Rogan

2000-01-01

157

Pathogenicity and distribution of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain (HuN4) is poorly understood. Therefore, highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (HuN4) and its derivative strain (HuN4-F112) (obtained by propagation in MARC145 cells for 112 passages) were inoculated into a total of 48 PRRSV-sero-negative pigs (age: 4-5?weeks) by the intranasal route. Virological, pathological and in situ hybridization analyses were performed. The results exhibited that pigs infected with HuN4 showed a loss of appetite, decrease in body weight, raised body temperature and respiratory symptoms, along with interstitial pneumonia lesions. In the HuN4 group, multifocal interstitial pneumonia with macrophage infiltration was found in the lung. The lesions in the lymph node were characterized by collapsed follicles, depletion of germinal centres and reduction in lymphocytes. Perivascular cuffing and glial nodules were observed in the brains of some pigs. By comparison, the HuN4-F112 group had milder lesions. PRRSV was detected in macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells in the tonsil and lymph nodes. The PRRSV amounts in the pigs infected with HuN4 were 10(5) -10(9) ?copies/ml in the blood and 10(10) -10(11) ?copies/g in the lung tissues, whereas the virus amounts with HuN4-F112 were 10(2.15) -10(3.13) ?copies/ml in the blood and 10(3.0) -10(3.6) ?copies/g in the lung. Our results demonstrate that the PRRS HuN4 virus infects alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages and vascular endothelial cells causing diffuse alveolar damage and lymph node necrosis. Its higher pathogenicity compared with HuN4-F112 virus may be explained in part by higher replication rate in the previously mentioned organs. PMID:22762447

Hu, S P; Zhang, Z; Liu, Y G; Tian, Z J; Wu, D L; Cai, X H; He, X J

2012-07-05

158

Profiling of cellular proteins in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus virions by proteomics analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped virus, bearing severe economic consequences to the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies on enveloped viruses have shown that many incorporated cellular proteins associated with the virion's membranes that might play important roles in viral infectivity. In this study, we sought to proteomically profile the cellular proteins incorporated into or associated with the virions of a highly virulent PRRSV strain GDBY1, and to provide foundation for further investigations on the roles of incorporated/associated cellular proteins on PRRSV's infectivity. Results In our experiment, sixty one cellular proteins were identified in highly purified PRRSV virions by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric approaches. The identified cellular proteins could be grouped into eight functional categories including cytoskeletal proteins, chaperones, macromolecular biosynthesis proteins, metabolism-associated proteins, calcium-dependent membrane-binding proteins and other functional proteins. Among the identified proteins, four have not yet been reported in other studied envelope viruses, namely, guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase, peroxiredoxin 1 and galectin-1 protein. The presence of five selected cellular proteins (i.e., ?-actin, Tubulin, Annexin A2, heat shock protein Hsp27, and calcium binding proteins S100) in the highly purified PRRSV virions was validated by Western blot and immunogold labeling assays. Conclusions Taken together, the present study has demonstrated the incorporation of cellular proteins in PRRSV virions, which provides valuable information for the further investigations for the effects of individual cellular proteins on the viral replication, assembly, and pathogenesis.

2010-01-01

159

Evolutionary and molecular analysis of the emergent severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.  

PubMed

In 2009, a novel Bunyavirus, called severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was identified in the vicinity of Huaiyangshan, China. Clinical symptoms of this zoonotic virus included severe fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with a mortality rate of ~10%. By the end of 2011 the disease associated with this pathogen had been reported from eleven Chinese provinces and human-to-human transmission suspected. However, current understanding of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of SFTSV before and after its identification is limited. To address this we undertake phylogenetic, evolutionary and structural analyses of all available SFTSV genetic sequences, including a new SFTSV complete genome isolated from a patient from Henan in 2011. Our discovery of a mosaic L segment sequence, which is descended from two major circulating lineages of SFTSV in China, represents the first evidence that homologous recombination plays a role in SFTSV evolution. Selection analyses indicate that negative selection is predominant in SFTSV genes, yet differences in selective forces among genes are consistent between Phlebovirus species. Further analysis reveals structural conservation between SFTSV and Rift Valley fever virus in the residues of their nucleocapsids that are responsible for oligomerisation and RNA-binding, suggesting the viruses share similar modes of higher-order assembly. We reconstruct the epidemic history of SFTSV using molecular clock and coalescent-based methods, revealing that the extant SFTSV lineages originated 50-150 years ago, and that the viral population experienced a recent growth phase that concurs with and extends the earliest serological reports of SFTSV infection. Taken together, our combined structural and phylogenetic analyses shed light into the evolutionary behaviour of SFTSV in the context of other, better-known, pathogenic Phleboviruses. PMID:23438426

Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Liu, Wei; Bowden, Thomas A; Cui, Ning; Zhuang, Lu; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Cao, Wu-Chun; Pybus, Oliver G

2012-09-26

160

22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...possession; property not normally taken into physical possession. 72.14 Section 72...possession; property not normally taken into physical possession. (a) When a consular...representative such acton is not a taking of physical possession by the officer....

2013-04-01

161

Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation.  

PubMed Central

AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about 40% of American cases, it has been hypothesized that this virus causes AIDS by killing T cells. Consequently, the virus was termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and antibody to HIV became part of the definition of AIDS. The hypothesis that HIV causes AIDS is examined in terms of Koch's postulates and epidemiological, biochemical, genetic, and evolutionary conditions of viral pathology. HIV does not fulfill Koch's postulates: (i) free virus is not detectable in most cases of AIDS; (ii) virus can only be isolated by reactivating virus in vitro from a few latently infected lymphocytes among millions of uninfected ones; (iii) pure HIV does not cause AIDS upon experimental infection of chimpanzees or accidental infection of healthy humans. Further, HIV violates classical conditions of viral pathology. (i) Epidemiological surveys indicate that the annual incidence of AIDS among antibody-positive persons varies from nearly 0 to over 10%, depending critically on nonviral risk factors. (ii) HIV is expressed in less than or equal to 1 of every 10(4) T cells it supposedly kills in AIDS, whereas about 5% of all T cells are regenerated during the 2 days it takes the virus to infect a cell. (iii) If HIV were the cause of AIDS, it would be the first virus to cause a disease only after the onset of antiviral immunity, as detected by a positive "AIDS test." (iv) AIDS follows the onset of antiviral immunity only after long and unpredictable asymptomatic intervals averaging 8 years, although HIV replicates within 1 to 2 days and induces immunity within 1 to 2 months. (v) HIV supposedly causes AIDS by killing T cells, although retroviruses can only replicate in viable cells. In fact, infected T cells grown in culture continue to divide. (vi) HIV is isogenic with all other retroviruses and does not express a late, AIDS-specific gene. (vii) If HIV were to cause AIDS, it would have a paradoxical, country-specific pathology, causing over 90% Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi sarcoma in the U.S. but over 90% slim disease, fever, and diarrhea in Africa.(viii) It is highly improbable that within the last few years two viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) that are only 40% sequence-related would have evolved that could both cause the newly defined syndrome AIDS. Also, viruses are improbable that kill their only natural host with efficiencies of 50-100%, as is claimed for HIVs. It is concluded that HIV is not sufficient for AIDS and that it may not even be necessary for AIDS because its activity is just as low in symptomatic carriers as in asymptomatic carriers. The correlation between antibody to HIV and AIDS does not prove causation, because otherwise indistinguishable diseases are now set apart only on the basis of this antibody. I propose that AIDS is not a contagious syndrome caused by one conventional virus or microbe. No such virus or microbe would require almost a decade to cause primary disease, nor could it cause the diverse collection of AIDS diseases. Neither would its host range be as selective as that of AIDS, nor could it survive if it were as inefficiently transmitted as AIDS. Since AIDS is defined by new combinations of conventional diseases, it may be caused by new combinations of conventional pathogens, including acute viral or microbial infections and chronic drug use and malnutrition. The long and unpredictable intervals between infection with HIV and AIDS would then reflect the thresholds for these pathogenic factors to cause AIDS diseases, instead of an unlikely mechanism of HIV pathogenesis.

Duesberg, P H

1989-01-01

162

Passive protection of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using specific antibody from egg yolk of chickens immunized with inactivated virus or a WSSV-DNA vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality and large economic losses in cultured shrimp. The VP28, VP19 and VP15 genes encode viral structural proteins of WSSV. In this study, hens were immunized with recombinant plasmid (pCI-VP28\\/VP19\\/VP15) with linkers or with inactivated WSSV, which used CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) and Freund's adjuvant as adjuvant, respectively. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) from

Yanan Lu; Junjun Liu; Liji Jin; Xiaoyu Li; YuHong Zhen; Hongyu Xue; Jiansong You; Yongping Xu

2008-01-01

163

Replication-Competent Recombinant Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Viruses Expressing Indicator Proteins and Antiviral Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In contrast, replication of IFN-expressing viruses was attenuated, similar to the level of replication observed after the addition of exogenous IFN. Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. Inhibition by the different IFN subtypes corresponded to their anti-PRRSV activity, i.e., IFN?5 ° IFN?1 > IFN-? > IFN?3. In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high?throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. This was shown when they were used to clearly demonstrate the involvement of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in the early stage of PRRSV infection. In addition, replication?competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and may induce more effective adaptive immunity against PRRSV infection.

Sang, Yongming; Shi, Jishu; Sang, Wenjing; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Blecha, Frank

2012-01-01

164

Meningitis and stridor in advanced Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old female presented confused with a preceding history of severe headache. After clinical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (including central nervous system involvement), and Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Her hospital stay was complicated. She developed stridor and a cerebrovascular accident with left hemiplegia. She died approximately 2 weeks after admission. The potential causes of her stridor included a mediastinal mass or a central mechanism secondary to tuberculosis meningitis. Limited resources precluded definitive imaging of the chest to rule out a mediastinal mass. Further, an autopsy was not done. Despite these limitations, this case is unique because it reports the presence of both stridor and tuberculosis meningitis in an adult patient. PMID:24049455

Naidoo, P; Pillay, D; Saman, S

2013-09-13

165

Experimental infection of twenty species of Indian marine crabs with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

Twenty species of Indian marine crabs were experimentally infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), via the oral route and intramuscular injection, to determine their viral susceptibility. We determined that 16 species (Calappa philargius, Charybdis annulata, C. lucifera, Doclea hybrida, Grapsus albolineatus, Halimede ochtodes, Liagore rubronaculata, Lithodes maja, Matuta miersi, Paradorippe granulata, Parthenope prensor, Philyra syndactyla, Podophthalmus vigil, Portunus sanquinolentus, Scylla serrata and Thalamita danae) were susceptible and 4 (Atergatis integerrimus, Charybdis natator, Demania splendida or Menippe rumphii) were refractive at 50 d post-infection (p.i.). The presence of WSSV in these crabs was confirmed by PCR tests, histology and bioassay. WSSV was found in the gill, heart, eyestalks, striated muscle and cephalothoraxic tissue. The 4 WSSV-refractive species represent potential reservoirs or carriers of WSSV. PMID:14735935

Hameed, A S Sahul; Balasubramanian, G; Musthaq, S Syed; Yoganandhan, K

2003-12-01

166

Indian isolates of white spot syndrome virus exhibit variations in their pathogenicity and genomic tandem repeats.  

PubMed

To detect genomic variation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates from different geographical regions of India, the variable number of the tandem repeat (VNTR) region of the ORF 94 (Thailand WSSV isolate - GeneBank Accession No. AF369029) was analysed using five specific sets of primers. Analysis of 70 WSSV-positive samples showed the presence of 14 different genotypes of WSSV with VNTRs ranging from 2 to 16 tandem repeats with the majority (85.47%) having 6-12 tandem repeats. Occurrence of different genotypes of WSSV was found to be neither correlated to any specific geographical region nor to the different growth stage of the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Pathogenicity studies conducted with 25 isolates of WSSV revealed the presence of virulent and avirulent strains of WSSV in Indian shrimp farms. However, an unambiguous link could not be established between the different genotypes and their virulence. PMID:20690959

John, K R; George, M R; Iyappan, T; Thangarani, A J; Jeyaseelan, M J P

2010-09-01

167

Crassostrea gigas oysters as a shrimp farm bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

This study explored whether Crassostrea gigas oysters can be used as a bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp farm water canals. Bioassays showed that C. gigas can accumulate WSSV in their gills and digestive glands but do not become infected, either by exposure to seawater containing WSSV or by cohabitation with infected shrimp. The use of a WSSV nested PCR to screen oysters placed in water canals at the entry of a shrimp farm allowed WSSV to be detected 16 d prior to the disease occurring. The finding that C. gigas can concentrate small amounts of WSSV present in seawater without being harmed makes it an ideal sentinel species at shrimp farms. PMID:22535870

Vazquez-Boucard, C; Escobedo-Fregoso, C; Duran-Avelar, Ma de J; Mercier, L; Llera-Herrera, R; Escobedo-Bonilla, C; Vibanco-Perez, N

2012-04-26

168

Expression, purification and crystallization of a novel nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus.  

SciTech Connect

The nonstructural protein VP9 from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been identified and expressed in Escherichia coli. To facilitate purification, a cleavable His{sub 6} tag was introduced at the N-terminus. The native protein was purified and crystallized by vapor diffusion against mother liquor containing 2 M sodium acetate, 100 mM MES pH 6.3, 25 mM cadmium sulfate and 3% glycerol. Crystals were obtained within 7 d and diffracted to 2.2 Angstroms; they belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.13, b = 78.21, c = 78.98 Angstroms and four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The selenomethionine-labeled protein produced isomorphous crystals that diffracted to approximately 3.3 Angstroms.

Liu,Y.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

2006-01-01

169

A new fluorescent quantitative PCR-based in vitro neutralization assay for white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

A fluorescent quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) assay utilizing SYBR green I dye is described for quantitation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) particles isolated from infected crayfish, Cambarus clarkii. For this assay, a primer set was designed which amplifies, with high efficiency and specificity, a 129bp target sequence within ORF167 of the WSSV genome. Conveniently, WSSV particles can be added into the FQ-PCR assay with a simple and convenient method to release its DNA. To establish the basis for an in vitro neutralization test, primary cultures of shrimp cells were challenged with WSSV that had been incubated with a polyclonal anti-WSSV serum or with control proteins. The number of WSSV particles released from the cells after these treatments were assayed by FQ-PCR. This test may serve as a method to screen monoclonal antibody pools or recombinant antibody pools for neutralizing activity prior to in vivo animal experiments. PMID:17645951

Yuan, Li; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chang, Mingxian; Jia, Chensong; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Dai, Heping

2007-07-23

170

Isolation and identification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in cell cultures.  

PubMed

Three strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated in porcine lung macrophage (PLM) cultures from three swine herds. This has been the first successful isolation of PRRSV in the Czech Republic and the strains received the designations CAPM V-501, CAPM V-502 and CAPM V-503, respectively. All the three isolates in PLM were identified by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests and the strain CAPM V-502 also by electron microscopy using the ultrathin section technique. The strain CAPM V-502 has been adapted to the cell line MARC-145. Viral RNA in PLM cultures infected with any of the isolated PRRSV strains was demonstrated by RT-PCR targeted to the more conserved ORF 7 genomic region encoding the nucleocapsid protein. The assessment of PCR products in agarose gel revealed a uniform size of 394 bp in all the three isolates and the European prototype strain Lelystad used as positive control. PMID:9416008

Valícek, L; Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Kubalíková, R; Kosinová, E

1997-10-01

171

Landscape Elements and Hantaan Virus-related Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, People's Republic of China  

PubMed Central

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in the People’s Republic of China, accounting for 90% of human cases reported globally. In this study, a landscape epidemiologic approach, combined with geographic information system and remote sensing techniques, was applied to increase our understanding of HFRS due to Hantaan virus and its relationship with landscape elements in China. The landscape elements considered were elevation, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, land surface temperature, soil type, and land use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HFRS incidence was remarkably associated with elevation, NDVI, precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, semihydromorphic soils, timber forests, and orchards. These findings have important applications for targeting HFRS interventions in mainland China.

Yan, Lei; Fang, Li-Qun; Huang, Hua-Guo; Zhang, Long-Qi; Feng, Dan; Zhao, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiao-Wen

2007-01-01

172

Meningitis and stridor in advanced Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 37-year-old female presented confused with a preceding history of severe headache. After clinical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (including central nervous system involvement), and Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Her hospital stay was complicated. She developed stridor and a cerebrovascular accident with left hemiplegia. She died approximately 2 weeks after admission. The potential causes of her stridor included a mediastinal mass or a central mechanism secondary to tuberculosis meningitis. Limited resources precluded definitive imaging of the chest to rule out a mediastinal mass. Further, an autopsy was not done. Despite these limitations, this case is unique because it reports the presence of both stridor and tuberculosis meningitis in an adult patient.

Naidoo, P; Pillay, D; Saman, S

2013-01-01

173

Multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, classical swine fever virus, and porcine circovirus in pigs.  

PubMed

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was designed for the simultaneous detection of three viruses involved in reproductive and respiratory failure in pigs: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). Each target produced a specific amplicon with a size of 718 bp (PRRSV), 288 bp (CSFV), or 466 bp (PCV-2). The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR using purified plasmid constructs containing the specific viral target fragments was 2.0 × 10(4), 2.5 × 10(3), and 6.0 × 10(2) copies for PRRSV, CSFV, and PCV-2, respectively. Non-specific reactions were not observed when other viruses, bacteria, and PK-15/Marc-145 cells were used to assess the multiplex PCR. Among 82 clinical samples from Fujian province, co-infection by PRRSV and CSFV was 12.19%, co-infection by PRRSV and PCV-2 was 21.95%, CSFV and PCV-2 was 13.41%, and co-infection by the three viruses was 3.66%. In conclusion, the multiplex PCR should be useful for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiology. The multiplex PCR was effective in detecting various combinations of one or more of these viruses in pig specimens. PMID:23524252

Liu, Jian-Kui; Wei, Chun-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Dai, Ai-Ling; Li, Xiao-Hua

2013-03-19

174

Prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in wild shrimp Penaeus monodon in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology on DNA extracted from the gills of wild black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon collected from 7 sampling sites in the Philippines. These 7 sampling sites are the primary sources of spawners and broodstock for hatchery use. During the dry season, WSSV was detected in shrimp from all sites except Bohol, but during the wet season it was not detected in any site except Palawan. None of the WSSV-PCR positive shrimp showed signs of white spots in the cuticle. Prevalence of WSSV showed seasonal variations, i.e. prevalence in dry season (April to May) was higher than in the wet season (August to October). These results suggest that WSSV has already become established in the local marine environment and in wild populations of P. monodon. Thus, broodstock collected during the dry season could serve as the main source of WSSV contamination in shrimp farms due to vertical transmission of the virus in hatcheries. PMID:18062468

de la Peña, Leobert D; Lavilla-Pitogo, Celia R; Villar, Corina Belle R; Paner, Milagros G; Sombito, Christopher D; Capulos, Geimbo C

2007-10-15

175

Identification of the Nucleocapsid, Tegument, and Envelope Proteins of the Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Virion  

PubMed Central

The protein components of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) virion have been well established by proteomic methods, and at least 39 structural proteins are currently known. However, several details of the virus structure and assembly remain controversial, including the role of one of the major structural proteins, VP26. In this study, Triton X-100 was used in combination with various concentrations of NaCl to separate intact WSSV virions into distinct fractions such that each fraction contained envelope and tegument proteins, tegument and nucleocapsid proteins, or nucleocapsid proteins only. From the protein profiles and Western blotting results, VP26, VP36A, VP39A, and VP95 were all identified as tegument proteins distinct from the envelope proteins (VP19, VP28, VP31, VP36B, VP38A, VP51B, VP53A) and nucleocapsid proteins (VP664, VP51C, VP60B, VP15). We also found that VP15 dissociated from the nucleocapsid at high salt concentrations, even though DNA was still present. These results were confirmed by CsCl isopycnic centrifugation followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, by a trypsin sensitivity assay, and by an immunogold assay. Finally, we propose an assembly process for the WSSV virion.

Tsai, Jyh-Ming; Wang, Han-Ching; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Zhuang, Ying; Walker, Peter J.; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

2006-01-01

176

Peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomers inhibit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been devastating the global swine industry for more than a decade, and current strategies to control PRRS are inadequate. In this study we characterized the inhibition of PRRS virus (PRRSV) replication by antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO). Of 12 peptide-conjugated PMO (PPMO), four were found to be highly effective at inhibiting PRRSV replication in cell culture in a dose-dependant and sequence-specific manner. PPMO 5UP2 and 5HP are complementary to sequence in the 5' end of the PRRSV genome, and 6P1 and 7P1 to sequence in the translation initiation regions of ORF6 and ORF7, respectively. Treatment of cells with 5UP2 or 5HP caused a 4.5log(10) reduction in PRRSV yield, compared to a control PPMO. Combination of 6P1 and 7P1 led to higher level reduction than 6P1 or 7P1 alone. 5UP2, 5HP, and a combination of 6P1 and 7P1 inhibited PRRSV replication in porcine alveolar macrophages and protected the cells from PRRSV-induced cytopathic effect. Northern blot and real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated that the effective PPMO led to a reduction of PRRSV RNA level. 5UP2 and 5HP inhibited virus replication of 10 other strains of PRRSV. Results from this study suggest potential applications of PPMO for PRRS control. PMID:17959259

Patel, Deendayal; Opriessnig, Tanja; Stein, David A; Halbur, Patrick G; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Iversen, Patrick L; Zhang, Yan-Jin

2007-10-04

177

Respiratory disease due to current egg drop syndrome virus in Pekin ducks.  

PubMed

Severe acute respiratory symptoms with coughing, dyspnea, and gasping were reported in two flocks of 9-day-old Pekin ducklings from different provinces. Gross lesions, white exudate and mucous membrane congestion in the trachea as well as blue to purple color changes and sclerosis in lungs were observed. Histological lesions revealed that the trachea and bronchial epithelium were hyperplastic and infiltrated by neutrophil granulocytes. Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) was differentially diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction, and the strains were isolated from tracheas and lungs by inoculation of 10-day-old embryonated duck eggs. The virus isolates were designated strain D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017. The clinical and pathological signs were reproduced by intra-tracheal inoculation of the isolates in 3-day-old ducklings. Although the two isolates produced similar clinical signs, pathological lesions and ciliostasis, the D11-JW-017 strain resulted in more severe clinical signs with progressive symptoms compared to those of D11-JW-012 strain-infected ducklings. We suggest that different EDSV strains with mild or severe to moderate pathogenicity coexist and have potential risks in poultry. Hereby, we report an EDSV infection in ducklings. PMID:23639475

Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kang, Min; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Park, Choi-Kyu; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

2013-04-13

178

Epidemiology of egg drop syndrome virus in ducks from South Korea.  

PubMed

Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is an important pathogen of poultry that decreases egg production in chickens and causes respiratory disease in goslings. In 2011, we obtained serum samples from 139 domestic Pekin ducks, 416 one-day-old Pekin ducklings, and 75 wild ducks (67 mallards and 8 pintails) to survey their exposure to EDSV. A total of 123 of 139 sera (88.5%) from Pekin ducks, 396 of the ducklings (95.2%), and 16 of 67 mallards (23.9%) were positive. Field cases of EDSV in wild and domestic ducks were investigated. Six cases from domestic Pekin ducks were identified by PCR detection and were used for virus isolation and molecular analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial hexon and full fiber genes showed that the D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017 strains among 6 isolates belonged to different clusters compared with other known strains including the 127 strain. We assessed cell growth efficiency by hemagglutination (HA) titers and cytopathic effects in duck embryo liver cells and chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells to investigate host adaptation. The D11-JW-017 strain propagated more in chicken embryo liver than the D11-JW-012 strain and the field isolate from chickens. Our results demonstrate the high prevalence of EDSV in wild and domestic ducks in South Korea and provide information on EDSV from ducks that showed variable adaptability in chickens. PMID:23776265

Cha, S-Y; Kang, M; Park, C-K; Choi, K-S; Jang, H-K

2013-07-01

179

A Prevalence of Posttransplantation Cancers Compared With Cancers in People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus\\/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome After Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOrgan transplant recipients and human immunodeficiency virus & acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS) patients have immune deficiencies that are possible mechanisms to develop malignancy. The type of cancers associated with these 2 conditions might elucidate this premise.

N. Srisawat; A. Avihingsanon; K. Praditpornsilpa; W. Jiamjarasrangsi; S. Eiam-Ong; Y. Avihingsanon

2008-01-01

180

Avian Influenza: Potential Impact on Sub-Saharan Military Populations with High Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several sub-Saharan militaries have large percentages of troops with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become i...

K. Nickell R. L. Feldman

2007-01-01

181

Comparison of European Isolates of Viruses Causing Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome by a Neutralization Test. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different virus isolates causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) were compared using a neutralization test. Patient convalescent sera and antisera prepared in rabbits were used to compare Puumala-related Hantavirus isolates from Finland. Swed...

B. Niklasson M. Jonsson A. Lundkvist J. Horling E. Tkachenko

1991-01-01

182

Mycoplasma pneumoniae preceding Lemierre's syndrome due to Fusobacterium nucleatum complicated by acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis in an immunocompetent host.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of Lemierre's syndrome due to a rare species of Fusobacterium, that is, Fusobacterium nucleatum preceded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae pharyngitis and followed later by Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis. PMID:22464641

Klein, Natalie C; Petelin, Andrew; Cunha, Burke A

2012-03-28

183

Spontaneous Resolution of Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection and Concomitant Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in an Otherwise Healthy Adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Reported here is the case of a patient who spontaneously recovered from hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute B19\\u000a infection and concomitant Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. The previously healthy 37-year-old-man was hospitalized after 10\\u000a days of high fever, arthralgia and arthritis and was determined to have hemophagocytic syndrome. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies\\u000a to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antigen, early antigen and

C. Larroche; C. Scieux; P. Honderlick; A. M. Piette; F. Morinet; O. Blétry

2002-01-01

184

Multiplex real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis for detection of white spot syndrome virus, yellow-head virus, and Penaeus monodon densovirus in penaeid shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex real-time PCR and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to detect simultaneously three of the major viruses of penaeid shrimp including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow-head virus (YHV), and Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV). Plasmids containing DNA\\/cDNA fragments of WSSV and YHV, and genomic DNAs of PmDNV and normal shrimp were used to test sensitivity of the procedure.

Benjaporn Panichareon; Paisarn Khawsak; Warin Deesukon; Wasana Sukhumsirichart

2011-01-01

185

Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection of porcine alveolar macrophages on Toll-like receptors elicitation of type I interferon responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of virus replication initially depends on rapid activation of the innate immune responses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are potent inducers of innate immunity against viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) initiates infection in pulmonary alveolar m...

186

Presence of interferon-alpha delays viral replication and reduces disease signs in pigs challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Compared to other viruses that infect the respiratory system, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) appears to induce only modest levels of interferon-alpha (IFNA). However, IFNA has been shown to inhibit PRRSV replication in vitro, and indirectly to inhibit replication in viv...

187

Prognosis of Children with Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome and Malignant Histiocytosis: Correlation with Levels of Serum Interleukin1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the correlation of cytokine level with the severity and prognosis of children with the hemophagocytic syndrome, we analyzed serum interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels in 26 children with either the virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS, n = 12) or malignant histiocytosis (MH, n = 14). When compared to healthy controls, 13 children had an elevated IL-1

E. Ishii; S. Ohga; T. Aoki; S. Yamada; M. Sako; H. Tasaka; A. Kuwano; M. Sasaki; Y. T. Tsunematsu; K. Ueda

1991-01-01

188

Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS) outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7) have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity

Min Xu; Shujie Wang; Linxi Li; Liancheng Lei; Yonggang Liu; Wenda Shi; Jiabin Wu; Liqin Li; Fulong Rong; Mingming Xu; Guangli Sun; Hua Xiang; Xuehui Cai

2010-01-01

189

Oral Administration of Bacterially Expressed VP28dsRNA to Protect Penaeus monodon from White Spot Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the possibility of protecting Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection via interference RNA technology by oral administration of bacterially\\u000a expressed WSSV VP28dsRNA. Shrimp were given dsRNA orally via two methods. In the first method, pellet feed was coated with\\u000a inactivated bacteria containing overexpressed dsRNA of the WSSV VP28 gene, and in the second method, pellet

M. Sarathi; Martin C. Simon; C. Venkatesan; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2008-01-01

190

White Spot Syndrome Virus Annexes a Shrimp STAT To Enhance Expression of the Immediate-Early Gene ie1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 30 August 2006\\/Accepted 12 October 2006 Although the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway is part of the antiviral response in arthropods such as Drosophila, here we show that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) uses a shrimp STAT as a transcription factor to enhance viral gene expression in host cells. In a series of deletion

Wang-Jing Liu; Yun-Shiang Chang; Andrew H.-J. Wang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Chu-Fang Lo

2007-01-01

191

Passive Immunization of Crayfish ( Procambius clarkiaii ) with Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin (IgY) Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major cause of mortality in shrimp lacking a true adaptive immune response. In this\\u000a study, high activity egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against WSSV for passive immunization of crustaceans was already prepared\\u000a as crude and purified product, while an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was used for quality control of IgY\\u000a activity. The effectiveness

Yanan Lu; Junjun Liu; Liji Jin; Xiaoyu Li; YuHong Zhen; Hongyu Xue; Qiuye Lin; Yongping Xu

2009-01-01

192

Increased Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines following Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) ( and ), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) was assessed following experimental infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and\\/or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by using in vivo and in vitro models. The in vivo model consisted of pigs infected with PRRSV and\\/or

Roongroje Thanawongnuwech; Brad Thacker; Patrick Halbur; Eileen L. Thacker

2004-01-01

193

Enzyme-linked Immunoassay for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Is Not Predictive of Bronchiolitis in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-infected infants may present with apnea, the role that RSV plays in sudden infant\\u000a death syndrome (SIDS) is speculative. To determine whether RSV is associated with bronchiolitis in these patients, we examined\\u000a histologic sections of lungs from 41 apparent SIDS cases and compared the results with those of enzyme-linked immunofluorescent\\u000a assay (EIA) from nasal washings. Bronchiolitis

David M. Parham; Richard Cheng; Gordon E. Schutze; Bradley Dilday; Rebecca Nelson; Stephen Erickson; Charles Kokes; Frank Peretti; William Q. Sturner

1998-01-01

194

Shrimp Taura syndrome virus detection by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows rapid amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions using four sets of specially designed primers that recognize six distinct target sequences with high specificity and sensitivity. In this report, a 60-min reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) method for amplification of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) cDNA using biotin-labeled primer was combined with a chromatographic lateral flow dipstick

Wansika Kiatpathomchai; Wansadaj Jaroenram; Narong Arunrut; Sarawut Jitrapakdee; T. W. Flegel

2008-01-01

195

Knocking down a Taura syndrome virus (TSV) binding protein Lamr is lethal for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA encoding a laminin receptor protein (Lamr) has been isolated from hemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv), based on primers designed from a previously published Lamr sequence of a Taura syndrome virus (TSV) binding protein of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Pm). The deduced amino acid sequence of PvLamr shares 97% identity with PmLamr

Saengchan Senapin; Kornsunee Phiwsaiya; Gun Anantasomboon; Thanawat Sriphaijit; Craig L. Browdy; Timothy W. Flegel

2010-01-01

196

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Protein 6 Accelerates Murine Hepatitis Virus Infections by More than One Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes numerous accessory proteins whose importance in the natural infection process is currently unclear. One of these accessory proteins is set apart by its function in the context of a related murine hepatitis virus (MHV) infection. SARS-CoV protein 6 increases MHV neurovirulence and accelerates MHV infection kinetics in tissue culture. Protein 6 also

Snawar Hussain; Stanley Perlman; Thomas M. Gallagher

2008-01-01

197

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the detection of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the open reading frames 1a of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus genome was developed. The 10 reference strains, 1 clinical isolation strain and 122 positive samples were tested. Positive reactions were confirmed for all strains and specimens by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification and nested reverse transcription polymerase

Hao-tai Chen; Jie Zhang; De-hui Sun; Li-na Ma; Xiang-tao Liu; Kai Quan; Yong-sheng Liu

2008-01-01

198

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in GB pig herds: farm characteristics associated with heterogeneity in seroprevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The between- and within-herd variability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibodies were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 103 British pig herds conducted 2003–2004. Fifty pigs from each farm were tested for anti-PRRSV antibodies using ELISA. A binomial logistic model was used to investigate management risks for farms with and without pigs with PRRSV antibodies and

Charlotte M Evans; Graham F Medley; Laura E Green

2008-01-01

199

Monoclonal antibodies to the ORF5 product of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus define linear neutralizing determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary DNA encoding the ORF5 gene of a Quebec reference isolate (IAF-Klop) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vectors pGEX-4T and pET21a to produce ORF5- glutathione S-transferase and ORF5-polyhistidine fusion proteins. Five hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the 25 kDa viral envelope glycoprotein (GP5) were obtained from BALB\\/c mice

Boroushan Pirzadeh; Serge Dea

200

Antibody Response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Nonstructural Proteins and Implications for Diagnostic Detection and Differentiation of PRRSV Types I and II?  

PubMed Central

To further characterize the humoral immune response of pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to study the kinetics of antibody responses directed against PRRSV nonstructural proteins in pigs experimentally exposed to the virus. The highest immunoreactivities were against nsp1, nsp2, and nsp7. Using the recombinant nsp7 as an antigen, we validated a dual ELISA for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of serum antibodies against type I and type II PRRSV. Receiver operating characteristic analysis based on 1,334 known-positive and 1,357 known-negative samples showed good specificity (98.3% to type I and 99.3% to type II) and sensitivity (97.4% for type I and 99.8% for type II). To differentiate type I and type II PRRSV, 470 sera originating from experimentally inoculated pigs were tested, and positive sera were correctly differentiated in 469 of 470 samples. The capability of the nsp7 dual ELISA to detect serum antibody responses from pigs infected with various genetically different field strains was determined. The nsp7 dual ELISA possessed 97.6% agreement with the Idexx HerdChek PRRS 2XR ELISA. In further testing of Idexx ELISA suspected false-positive samples, the nsp7 dual ELISA resolved 98% of the samples as negative. Taken together, these results indicate that the nsp7 dual ELISA can be used as a differential test for PRRSV serology with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This ELISA offers an additional tool for routine or follow-up diagnostics, as well as having substantial value in epidemiological surveys and outbreak investigations.

Brown, Elizabeth; Lawson, Steven; Welbon, Craig; Gnanandarajah, Josephine; Li, Juan; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Nelson, Eric A.; Molina, Ramon M.; Zimmerman, Jeffery J.; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Fang, Ying

2009-01-01

201

Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 viral loads in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) affected pigs.  

PubMed

Torque teno viruses (TTV) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular single-stranded DNA genome, which are considered non-pathogenic. However, TTVs have been eventually linked to human diseases. TTVs infecting pigs, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2), have been recently associated to porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). To get more insights into such potential disease association, the aim of this study was to quantify TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral loads in serum of pigs affected by two PCVDs, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). Such study was carried out by means of a newly developed real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. Both TTSuVs were highly prevalent among studied pigs. TTSuV2 viral loads were significantly higher in PMWS affected animals, further supporting the previously suggested association between TTSuV2 and PMWS. On the contrary, TTSuV1 prevalence and loads were not related with the studied PCVDs. PMID:21719215

Aramouni, M; Segalés, J; Sibila, M; Martin-Valls, G E; Nieto, D; Kekarainen, T

2011-06-12

202

Possible transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection from an elite controller to a patient who progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, exhibit persistent virus replication and declining CD4+ cell numbers, and progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome within 10?years of infection. Elite controllers are rare individuals with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection who can maintain undetectable plasma virus levels and remain asymptomatic without antiretroviral therapy. It has been proposed that elite controllers benefit from being infected with attenuated human immunodeficiency virus-1 variants. Case presentation A 31-year-old African woman presented with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection during pregnancy and was diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Subsequently, her husband, a 31-year-old African man, was tested and found to be seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus-1. His plasma human immunodeficiency virus-1 ribonucleic acid level was found to be below the limit of detection of the clinical assay. Conclusion This report provides evidence for the first described case of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection possibly transmitted from an elite controller to a patient who progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This observation strengthens the case against avirulence as a mechanism that protects elite controllers.

2012-01-01

203

Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) is a recently recognized illness characterized by debilitating fatigue as well as immunological and neurological abnormalities. Once thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, it is now thought to have a different but unknown etiology. The authors evaluted 30 adult and pediatric CFIDS patients from six eastern states for the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II by Western immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of blood samples. The majority of patients were positive for HTLV antibodies by Western blotting and for HTLV-II gag sequences by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Twenty nonexposure healthy controls were negative in all assays. These data support an association between an HTLV-II-like virus and CFIDS.

DeFreitas, E.; Hilliard, B.; Cheney, P.R.; Bell, D.S.; Kiggundu, E.; Sankey, D.; Wroblewska, Z.; Palladino, M.; Woodward, J.P.; Koprowski, H. (Wistar Inst., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1991-04-01

204

Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus by Reverse Transcription-Cross-Priming Amplification Coupled with Vertical Flow Visualization  

PubMed Central

A virus known as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was recently identified as the etiological agent of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in China. Reliable laboratory detection and identification of this virus are likely to become clinically and epidemiologically desirable. We developed a nearly instrument-free, simple molecular method which incorporates reverse transcription–cross-priming amplification (RT-CPA) coupled with a vertical flow (VF) visualization strip for rapid detection of SFTSV. The RT-CPA-VF assay targets a conserved region of the M segment of the SFTSV genome and has a limit of detection of 100 copies per reaction, with no cross-reaction with other vector-borne bunyaviruses and bacterial pathogens. The performance of the RT-CPA-VF assay was determined with 175 human plasma specimens collected from 89 clinically suspected SFTS patients and 86 healthy donors. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 94.1% and 100.0%, respectively, compared with a combination of virus culture and real-time RT-PCR. The entire procedure, from specimen processing to result reporting, can be completed within 2 h. The simplicity and nearly instrument-free platform of the RT-CPA-VF assay make it practical for point-of-care testing.

Cui, Lunbiao; Ge, Yiyue; Qi, Xian; Xu, Gaolian; Li, Haijing; Zhao, Kangchen; Wu, Bin; Shi, Zhiyang; Guo, Xiling; Hu, Lin; You, Qimin; Zhang, Li-Hong; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Yu, Xuejie; Wang, Hua

2012-01-01

205

The role of cytomegalovirus, Haemophilus influenzae and Epstein Barr virus in Guillain Barre syndrome.  

PubMed

Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) is an inflammatory, usually demyelinating, polyneuropathy; clinically characterized by acute onset of symmetric progressive muscle weakness with loss of myotatic reflexes. Thirty five patients with GBS, defined clinically according to the criteria of Asbury and Cornblath, were recruited from three hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Controls: As a control group 35 age and sex matched patients with other neurological diseases admitted to the same hospital at the same time, were included in our study. Serum samples were collected before treatment from each patient (within 4 weeks after the disease onset) and controls, and stored frozen at -80ºC until serologic assays were done. Serologic testing of pretreatment serum was performed in all patients. Positive titer of virus specific IgM antibody against cytomegalovirus (CMV) was found in 6 cases and 2 controls. 34 patients and 31 controls had high titer of anti Haemophilus influenzae IgG and one patient had serologic evidence of a recent Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. The mean titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae in cases and controls was 5.21 and 2.97 respectively. Although serologic evidence of all these infections were more frequent in cases than in controls, only Haemophilus influenzae infection appeared to be significantly related to GBS (P=0.002). Eleven cases and 3 controls had high titers of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae type B (titer >8). There is significant association between high titer of IgG antibody against Haemophilus influenzae and GBS (P=0.017). Our results provide further evidence that Haemophilus influenzae and probably CMV, can be associated with GBS. PMID:23852841

Nafissi, Shahriar; Vahabi, Zahra; Sadeghi Ghahar, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Naderi, Soheil

2013-07-13

206

Penaeus monodon Thioredoxin Restores the DNA Binding Activity of Oxidized White Spot Syndrome Virus IE1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: In this study we identified viral gene targets of the important redox regulator thioredoxin (Trx), and explored in depth how Trx interacts with the immediate early gene #1 (IE1) of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Results: In a pull-down assay, we found that recombinant Trx bound to IE1 under oxidizing conditions, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that Trx bound to WSSV IE1 when the transfected cells were subjected to oxidative stress. A pull-down assay with Trx mutants showed that no IE1 binding occurred when cysteine 62 was replaced by serine. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that the DNA binding activity of WSSV IE1 was downregulated under oxidative conditions, and that Penaeus monodon Trx (PmTrx) restored the DNA binding activity of the inactivated, oxidized WSSV IE1. Another EMSA experiment showed that IE1's Cys-X-X-Cys motif and cysteine residue 55 were necessary for DNA binding. Measurement of the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in WSSV-infected shrimp showed that oxidative stress was significantly increased at 48?h postinfection. The biological significance of Trx was also demonstrated in a double-strand RNA Trx knockdown experiment where suppression of shrimp Trx led to significant decreases in mortality and viral copy numbers. Innovation and Conclusion: WSSV's pathogenicity is enhanced by the virus' use of host Trx to rescue the DNA binding activity of WSSV IE1 under oxidizing conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 914–926.

Huang, Jiun-Yan; Liu, Wang-Jing; Wang, Han-Ching; Lee, Der-Yen; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Wang, Hao-Ching; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Kang, Shih-Ting; Chen, I-Tung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung

2012-01-01

207

Epstein-Barr virus and the lacrimal gland pathology of Sj?gren's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland (LG) immunopathology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) consists of a proliferation of B and CD4 lymphocytes surrounding epithelial structures (Pepose JS, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:1599-1605). Based on the detection of EBV genomes in a greater percentage of SS than normal LG biopsies, we previously postulated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a risk factor for LG lymphoproliferation in SS (Pflugfelder SC, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:976-984). The purpose of this study was to determine the cellular site(s) of infection, virus type, and antigen expression of EBV infecting normal and SS LGs. EBV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in intraductal epithelia in 13-33% of lobules in 21% of normal LGs and in cells in areas of B lymphoproliferation as well as the majority of epithelia in 86% of SS LGs. EBV genomic sequences were amplified from 36% of normal and 88% of SS LG biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. Only type 1 EBV sequences were amplified in SS LGs; in contrast EBV nuclear antigen 2-deleted but not type 1 sequences were amplified in normal LGs. Immunohistochemistry with EBV-specific monoclonal antibodies was performed on normal and SS LGs. No EBV antigens were detected in normal LGs. In contrast, latent antigens (latent membrane protein, EBV nuclear antigen 2) were detected in lymphocytes in areas of B lymphoproliferation, and early and late lytic cycle antigens were observed in epithelia in SS LGs. These studies suggest that EBV may play a role in the LG B lymphoproliferation and epithelial pathologic changes observed in SS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Pflugfelder, S. C.; Crouse, C. A.; Monroy, D.; Yen, M.; Rowe, M.; Atherton, S. S.

1993-01-01

208

Evidence of long distance airborne transport of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae  

PubMed Central

The ability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to be transported over long distances via the airborne route was evaluated. A source population of 300 grow-finish pigs was experimentally inoculated with PRRSV MN-184 and M. hyopneumoniae 232 and over a 50-day period, air samples were collected at designated distances from the source herd using a liquid cyclonic collector. Samples were tested for the presence of PRRSV RNA and M. hyopneumoniae DNA by PCR and if positive, further characterized. Of the 306 samples collected, 4 (1.3%) were positive for PRRSV RNA and 6 (1.9%) were positive for M. hyopneumoniae DNA. The PRRSV-positive samples were recovered 4.7 km to the northwest (NW) of the source population. Four of the M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were obtained at the NW sampling point; 2 samples at approximately 2.3 km and the other 2 samples approximately 4.7 km from the source population. Of the remaining 2 samples, one sample was obtained at the southeast sampling point and the other at the southwest sampling point, with both locations being approximately 4.7 km from the source. The four PRRSV-positive samples contained infectious virus and were ? 98.8% homologous to the MN-184 isolate used to inoculate the source population. All 6 of the M. hyopneumoniae-positive samples were 99.9% homologous to M. hyopneumoniae 232. These results support the hypothesis that long distance airborne transport of these important swine pathogens can occur.

Dee, Scott; Otake, Satoshi; Oliveira, Simone; Deen, John

2009-01-01

209

Persistence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in intensive farrow-to-finish pig herds.  

PubMed Central

An epidemiological study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) within pig herds was conducted in 8 intensive farrow-to-finish pig farms. Persistence of PRRS virus (PRRSV) in pig herds was demonstrated by regular postmortem examination on 2 farms for a period of 2 y. Virus isolation and serum neutralization (SN) tests were performed on the sera collected from 9 groups of pigs (10 pigs/group) of various ages on 8 pig farms. Except for 1 farm, isolation rates of PRRSV reached the highest level of 70 to 100% of pigs 6 to 8 wk of age, which coincided with the lowest levels of maternal immunity. In 1 pig herd, sows (39 in total) with SN titers of < or = 1:2, 1:4-1:8, and > or = 1:16 were designated as groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Sera were obtained from their progeny (3 pigs randomly selected from each litter) at various ages from 0 to 22 weeks. A positive correlation (r = 0.377, P < 0.001) between the SN titers of sows and those of their progeny (1-week-old piglets) was observed. Pigs at the age of 6 wk, only 7.9% of group 1 pigs compared to 72.4% of group 3 pigs were seropositive. A significant difference (P < 0.01) in the percentage of pigs with PRRSV viremia among the 3 groups was observed, with the lowest level found in group 3 pigs. The isolation rates of PRRSV from serum reached the maximum at the age of 9 wk for all 3 groups. The results indicated that passively acquired serum antibodies conferred a protective effect for piglets; however, loss of passive immunity at various ages of pigs produced susceptible pigs that resulted in PRRSV persistence in the pig herds. Pigs 6 to 9 weeks old were the major reservoir for PRRSV in farrow-to-finish pig herds.

Chung, W B; Lin, M W; Chang, W F; Hsu, M; Yang, P C

1997-01-01

210

Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus exhibits more extensive tissue tropism for pigs  

PubMed Central

Background The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) emerging in China exhibits high fatality to pigs. However, the mechanism related to the increased pathogenicity of the virus remains unclear. In the present study, the differences in tissue tropism between the highly pathogenic PRRSV strain (JXwn06) and the low pathogenic PRRSV strain (HB-1/3.9) were investigated using PRRSV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining to provide evidence for elucidating possible mechanism of the pathogenicity of Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV. Findings IHC examination showed that PRRSV antigen in the tissues including spleen, tonsil, thymus, kidney, cerebellum, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, turbinal bone and laryngeal cartilage was positive in more pigs inoculated with JXwn06 than HB-1/3.9, and the tissues including trachea, esophagus, liver, mandibular gland and thyroid gland were positive for viral antigen in the pigs inoculated with JXwn06, but not in the pigs inoculated with HB-1/3.9. Meanwhile, we observed that epithelium in tissues including interlobular bile duct in liver, distal renal tubule of kidney, esophageal gland and tracheal gland were positive for viral antigen only in JXwn06-inoculated pigs, and epithelium of gastric mucosa and fundic gland, and intestinal gland were positive for viral antigen in both JXwn06- and HB-1/3.9-inoculated pigs, using monoclonal antibodies to N and Nsp2 proteins. Conclusions Taken together, these findings indicate that the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXwn06 displays an expanded tissue tropism in vivo, suggesting this may contribute to its high pathogenicity to pigs.

2012-01-01

211

A possible strategy to produce pigs resistant to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to enhance the production of transgenic cloned embryos with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) shRNA expression cassettes. To construct transgenic vector with expression targeting against PRRSV, PRRSV shRNA expression cassettes were inserted into pEGFP-N1 and the ability of resulting recombinant plasmid pEGFP-G1 inhibiting virus replication was examined in Marc-145 cells. Results showed that PRRSV replication could be significantly inhibited by pEGFP-G1 in Marc-145 cells compared with the control. The pEGFP-G1 plasmid was used to deliver a transgene expressing EGFP and the PRRSV shRNA into porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFF). Fluorescent-positive cells were used as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce shRNA-EGFP transgenic cloned embryos. The effects of trichostatin A (TSA) on production of transgenic cloned embryos were investigated. Reconstructed embryos were designed into 4 groups: Donor cells of Group A were treated with 50nM TSA for 24h before SCNT. Reconstructed embryos of Group B were treated with 50nM TSA for 24h after activation. Both donor cells and reconstructed embryos in Group C were treated with TSA and Group D were the control without TSA treatment. The results showed no difference (p>0.05) in cleavage rates among the 4 groups; however, blastocyst developmental rates of Group B and C (30.9% and 42.0%, respectively) were higher than for Group A and D (21.2% and 22.1%, respectively) with Group C highest among groups (p<0.05). Interestingly, EGFP expression intensity of transgenic cloned blastocysts of Group A was the highest. Our results provide promising evidence toward a new approach for production of transgenic cloned pigs with resistance to PRRSV and possibly a wide variety of other porcine diseases. PMID:23732571

Luo, Biping; Ju, Shiqiang; Wang, Bin; Rui, Rong

2013-06-02

212

Inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication by RNA interference in MARC-145 cells.  

PubMed

With the ultimate aim of producing an RNA interference-mediated transgenic pig that is resistant to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), we have investigated the effect of RNA interference (RNAi) on silencing the expression of viral genes in the MARC-145 cell line. Twenty small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed and screened for their ability to suppress the expression of the genes ORF1b, 5, 6, and 7 from the highly virulent isolate, PRRSV-JXwn06. Of these siRNAs, the four most effective were selected and four short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors (pGenesil-1-1b-135, pGenesil-1-1b-372, pGenesil-1-6-135, and pGenesil-1-6-169) targeting ORF1b and ORF6 were constructed and delivered into MARC-145 cells. These cells were then infected with JXwn06. All four vectors inhibited the PRRSV-specific cytopathic effect (CPE). The virus titers in cells transfected with pGenesil-1-1b-135, pGenesil-1-1b-372, pGenesil-1-6-135, and pGenesil-1-6-169 were lower than that of control cells by approximately 150-, 600-, 2.3- and 1.7-fold, respectively. In addition, the expression levels of ORF1 and ORF6 were reduced compared with controls. The unglycosylated membrane protein M, encoded by ORF6, was not detectable in cells transfected with shRNA expression vectors. These results verified that RNAi can effectively inhibit PRRSV-JXwn06 replication in cultured cells in vitro. The four shRNA expression vectors are an initial step in the production of transgenic pigs with PRRSV resistance. PMID:21667252

Bao, Yonghua; Guo, Yongchen; Zhang, Liying; Zhao, Zhihui; Li, Ning

2011-06-12

213

[Clinical analysis of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in children].  

PubMed

The primary infection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may results in hemophagocytic syndrome, known as EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS), but the clinical risk factors complicating this fatal disease in children with infectious mononucleosis (IM) are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features of EBV-AHS and to evaluate the curative effect of HLH-2004 protocol. The clinical and laboratory data of 644 IM children including 27 children developed into EBV-AHS and 43 HPS children associated with other diseases were retrospectively analyzed and logistic regression was used to identify the clinical risk factors complicating EBV-AHS. The results showed as follows: (1) the prevalence of EBV-AHS in IM children was 4.2% (27/644), and the prevalence in group aged younger than 3 years was higher than in other age groups. The incidence age of EBV-AHS was significantly younger than that of other HPS patients; (2) Liver function damage of group aged older than 7 years was much more severe in HPS patients. (3) Compared with other HPS patients, male patients were more common and liver function damage was severe in EBV-AHS patients, especially in the patients aged at 2 years or younger. (4) The fatality rate in the EBV-AHS patients was 37.0% (10/27). (5)After treatment with HLH-2004 protocol, the fatality rate in patients with EBV-AHS decreased from 50.0% to 18.2%, the overall survival (OS) of 3 years significantly increased (P = 0.032). It is concluded that IM is a benign self-limited disease, of which only about 4.2% patients will develop into EBV-AHS. Clinical risk factors identified in this study may be helpful for early diagnosis of IM children with complicated EBV-ASH, the HLH-2004 protocol can obviously improve prognosis of EBV-HPS. PMID:23628054

Guo, Xia; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Chen-Yan; Zhao, Ya-Ning

2013-04-01

214

Studies of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine boca-like virus and torque teno virus indicate the presence of multiple viral infections in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome pigs.  

PubMed

In a previous study, using random amplification and large-scale sequencing technology, we identified a novel porcine parvovirus belonging to the genus Bocavirus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) in Swedish pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In addition to bocavirus we demonstrated the presence of torque teno virus (TTV) genogroups 1 and 2 in these cases of PMWS, indicating the simultaneous presence of several viruses in this disease complex. In the present study, 34 PMWS-affected animals and 24 pigs without PMWS were screened by PCR for the presence of PCV-2, TTV-1, TTV-2 and porcine boca-like virus (Pbo-likeV). The studies revealed the following infection rates in the PMWS-affected pigs: PCV-2 100%, TTV-1 77%, TTV-2 94% and Pbo-likeV 88%. In comparison, the pigs without PMWS had the following rates: PCV-2 80%, TTV-1 79%, TTV-2 83% and Pbo-likeV 46%. The sequence identity between the different Swedish Pbo-likeV sequences ranged between 98% and 100%. By checking co-infection, it was found that 71% of the PMWS-affected pigs harbor simultaneously all these viruses. As a contrast, in the group without PMWS only 33% of the animals were positive simultaneously for these viruses. These observations indicate a multiple viral infection in PMWS-affected pigs. It has to be studied further if the clinical manifestation of PMWS might be due to synergistic effects of different viruses acting together. PMID:20542066

Blomström, Anne-Lie; Belák, Sándor; Fossum, Caroline; Fuxler, Lisbeth; Wallgren, Per; Berg, Mikael

2010-06-11

215

Pathogenic characteristics of three genotype II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses isolated from China  

PubMed Central

Background We examined differences in pathogenicity in pigs from China that had been experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Methods We compared pathogenic characteristics of a field isolate (GX-1/2008F), two PRRSV isolates (HN-1/2008, YN-1/2008) propagated in cells, and GX-1/2008F that had been propagated in cells (GX-1/2008). The clinical courses, along with humoral and cell-mediated responses, were monitored for 21 days post-infection (DPI). Animals were sacrificed and tissue samples used for gross pathological, histopathological and ultrastructure examination. Results At 2–3 DPI, animals infected with cell-propagated viruses exhibited signs of coughing, anorexia and fever. However their rectal temperature did not exceed 40.5°C. Viremia was detectable as early as 3 DPI in animals infected with HN-1/2008 and YN-1/2008. Animals inoculated with GX-1/2008F displayed clinical signs at 6 DPI; the rectal temperature of two animals in this group exceeded 41.0°C, with viremia first detected at 7 DPI. Seroconversion for all challenged pigs, except those infected with GX-1/2008, was seen as early as 7 DPI. All of these pigs had fully seroconverted by 11 DPI. All animals challenged with GX-1/2008 remained seronegative until the end of the experiment. Innate immunity was inhibited, with levels of IFN-? and IL-1 not significantly different between control and infected animals. The cytokines IFN-? and IL-6 transiently increased during acute infection. All virus strains caused gross lesions including multifocal interstitial pneumonia and hyperplasia of lymph nodes. Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine was also observed. Lesions in the group infected with GX-1/2008F were more serious than in other groups. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that alveolar macrophages, plasmacytes and lymphocytes had fractured cytomembranes, and hepatocytes had disrupted organelles and swollen mitochondria. Conclusions The pathogenicity of the PRRSV field isolate became attenuated when propagated in MARC-145 cells. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic strains prevailing in China was altered compared with classical PRRSV strains. The observed damage to immune cells and modulation of cytokine production could be mechanisms that PRRSV employs to evade host immune responses.

2013-01-01

216

Optimization of a Sampling System for Recovery and Detection of Airborne Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Swine Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

The objective of this research was to optimize sampling parameters for increased recovery and detection of airborne porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SIV). Collection media containing antifoams, activated carbons, protectants, and ethylene glycol were evaluated for direct effects on factors impacting the detection of PRRSV and SIV, including virus infectivity, viability of continuous cell lines used for the isolation of these viruses, and performance of reverse transcriptase PCR assays. The results showed that specific compounds influenced the likelihood of detecting PRRSV and SIV in collection medium. A subsequent study evaluated the effects of collection medium, impinger model, and sampling time on the recovery of aerosolized PRRSV using a method for making direct comparisons of up to six treatments simultaneously. The results demonstrated that various components in air-sampling systems, including collection medium, impinger model, and sampling time, independently influenced the recovery and detection of PRRSV and/or SIV. Interestingly, it was demonstrated that a 20% solution of ethylene glycol collected the greatest quantity of aerosolized PRRSV, which suggests the possibility of sampling at temperatures below freezing. Based on the results of these experiments, it is recommended that air-sampling systems be optimized for the target pathogen(s) and that recovery/detection results should be interpreted in the context of the actual performance of the system.

Hermann, J. R.; Hoff, S. J.; Yoon, K. J.; Burkhardt, A. C.; Evans, R. B.; Zimmerman, J. J.

2006-01-01

217

Compatibility of a combined vaccination against Haemophilus parasuis and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Objective of this study was to assess the tissue compatibility of a vaccination, combining vaccines against Haemophilus parasuis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV). Clinical examinations were done with special respect to local tissue reactions after injection of 2 ml each of either Porcilis Glasser, or Porcilis PRRS (both Intervet, Unterschleissheim, Germany), or a mixture of the two vaccines. Animals were euthanized on day six post vaccination. Clinical as well as gross pathological or histological alterations at the injection sites were similar in all groups and were predominantly low grade. Clinical investigation of the injection sites revealed a mild increase in tissue consistency as well as mild swelling and reddening after the application of Porcilis PRRS and the mixture of the two vaccines. In the Porcilis Glässer group, few cases of moderately increased skin consistency and mild swelling were noted 4 hours post injection. Pathological examination showed mild haemorrhages and mild pallor of the tissue with a maximum linear width of 2 cm at the injection site in most animals. Histological examination predominantly revealed a mild lymphocytic reaction, which was generally restricted to the subdermal connective tissue. However, the study did not address the key outcome of combined vaccination, namely immunogenic power. Therefore, further immunological studies are warranted. PMID:19863006

Elicker, Sabine; Sipos, Wolfgang

218

Evidence for cell apoptosis suppressing white spot syndrome virus replication in Procambarus clarkii at high temperature.  

PubMed

In shrimp, higher water temperatures (~32°C) can suppress the ability of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) to replicate and cause mortality, but the mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate whether cell apoptosis might be involved, a Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end label (TUNEL) method was used to assess levels of chromosomal DNA fragmentation in hepatopancreas and gill cells of Procambarus clarkii crayfish infected with WSSV and maintained at either 32 ± 1°C or 24 ± 1°C. Based on relative cell numbers with yellow-green colored TUNEL-positive nuclei, the apoptotic index was elevated in WSSV-infected crayfish maintained at 32°C. In gill tissue sections examined by transmission electron microscope, cells with nuclei displaying apoptotic bodies or marginated, condensed and fragmented chromatin without concurrent cell cytoplasm damage were also more prevalent. Flow cytometry sorting of annexin-stained cells showed apoptosis to be most prevalent in granular haemocytes, and assays for caspase-3 activity showed it to be most elevated in hepatopancreas tissue. Despite these indicators of cell apoptosis but consistent with WSSV replication being restricted at elevated temperatures, no increases in transcription of the viral anti-apoptosis genes ORF390 and ORF222 were detected by RT-PCR in shrimp maintained at 32°C, possibly due to the elevated levels of cellular apoptosis. PMID:23209074

Wu, Xiao-Guo; Xiong, Hai-Tao; Wang, Yi-Zhen; Du, Hua-Hua

2012-12-01

219

Proteomic Analysis of the Major Envelope and Nucleocapsid Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus?  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) virions were purified from the tissues of infected Procambarus clarkii (crayfish) isolates. Pure WSSV preparations were subjected to Triton X-100 treatment to separate into the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions, which were subsequently separated by 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The major envelope and nucleocapsid proteins were identified by either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry or defined antibody. A total of 30 structural proteins of WSSV were identified in this study; 22 of these were detected in the envelope fraction, 7 in the nucleocapsid fraction, and 1 in both the envelope and the nucleocapsid fractions. With the aid of specific antibodies, the localizations of eight proteins were further studied. The analysis of posttranslational modifications revealed that none of the WSSV structural proteins was glycosylated and that VP28 and VP19 were threonine phosphorylated. In addition, far-Western and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that VP28 interacted with both VP26 and VP24. In summary, the data obtained in this study should provide an important reference for future molecular studies of WSSV morphogenesis.

Xie, Xixian; Xu, Limei; Yang, Feng

2006-01-01

220

Oral immunogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigen expressed in transgenic banana.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a persistent threat of economically significant influence to the swine industry worldwide. Recombinant DNA technology coupled with tissue culture technology is a viable alternative for the inexpensive production of heterologous proteins in planta. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. 'Pei chiao' (AAA) have been transformed with the ORF5 gene of PRRSV envelope glycoprotein (GP5) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and have been confirmed. Recombinant GP5 protein levels in the transgenic banana leaves were detected and ranged from 0.021%-0.037% of total soluble protein. Pigs were immunized with recombinant GP5 protein by orally feeding transgenic banana leaves for three consecutive doses at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks postinitial immunization. A vaccination-dependent gradational increase in the elicitation of serum and saliva anti-PRRSV IgG and IgA was observed. Furthermore, significantly lower viraemia and tissue viral load were recorded when compared with the pigs fed with untransformed banana leaves. The results suggest that transgenic banana leaves expressing recombinant GP5 protein can be an effective strategy for oral delivery of recombinant subunit vaccines in pigs and can open new avenues for the production of vaccines against PRRSV. PMID:23116484

Chan, Hui-Ting; Chia, Min-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

2012-11-01

221

Proteomic analysis of the major envelope and nucleocapsid proteins of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) virions were purified from the tissues of infected Procambarus clarkii (crayfish) isolates. Pure WSSV preparations were subjected to Triton X-100 treatment to separate into the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions, which were subsequently separated by 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The major envelope and nucleocapsid proteins were identified by either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry or defined antibody. A total of 30 structural proteins of WSSV were identified in this study; 22 of these were detected in the envelope fraction, 7 in the nucleocapsid fraction, and 1 in both the envelope and the nucleocapsid fractions. With the aid of specific antibodies, the localizations of eight proteins were further studied. The analysis of posttranslational modifications revealed that none of the WSSV structural proteins was glycosylated and that VP28 and VP19 were threonine phosphorylated. In addition, far-Western and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that VP28 interacted with both VP26 and VP24. In summary, the data obtained in this study should provide an important reference for future molecular studies of WSSV morphogenesis. PMID:16928742

Xie, Xixian; Xu, Limei; Yang, Feng

2006-08-23

222

Enhanced inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication by combination of morpholino oligomers.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused heavy economic losses in the swine industry worldwide and current strategies to control PRRS are inadequate. Previous studies have shown that peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PPMO) can be an effective antiviral against the PRRS virus (PRRSV). PPMO is structurally similar to DNA with modified backbone and is resistant to nuclease. This study was designed to examine increasing inhibitory effect of PPMO combination. Two pairs of PPMOs were identified to have enhanced suppression of PRRSV replication in cell culture, while individual constituents did not work under the same testing conditions. PPMO 5UP1 that is complementary to 5' terminus of PRRSV genome was paired with 4P1 or 7P1 that are complementary to sequence in the translation initiation regions of ORFs 4 and 7, respectively. The PPMO combination also inhibited replication of heterologous strains in the North American PRRSV genotype. Treatment of the cells with the combinations reduced PRRSV RNA and protein levels. In cell-free or cell-based luciferase reporter assays, the PPMO combination suppressed target mRNA translation more effectively than individual constituents, indicating that the suppression was due to their antisense effect. These results suggest potential application of these PPMO combinations for PRRS control. PMID:19428596

Han, Xue; Fan, Sumin; Patel, Deendayal; Zhang, Yan-Jin

2009-02-10

223

Association of non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers with human immunodeficiency virus infection.  

PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were among the earliest recognized manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Excluding these two tumors, the overall risk of all other cancers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is similar to that of the general population. However, varying levels of evidence link several additional neoplasms to HIV infection. The evidence is strongest for an association with Hodgkin's disease, with lower relative and absolute risks than for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Anogenital intraepithelial neoplasia also appears to be HIV associated, but increases of invasive disease are still uncertain for both cervical and anal cancers. Various studies have suggested associations with testicular seminoma, multiple myeloma, oral cancer, and melanoma, but the data are inconsistent. Leiomyosarcoma and benign leiomyomas have increased in incidence in HIV-infected children but are unusual in HIV-infected adults. Conjunctival carcinoma is seen in HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa but it is uncommon in Western countries. Most other cancers do not seem to have increased incidences in HIV infection. The etiologic mechanisms of HIV-related cancer likely differ among these diverse cancers and do not globally increase cancer risk. PMID:9709298

Rabkin, C S

1998-01-01

224

Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in Patients with Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), which can cause hemorrhagic fever–like illness, is a newly discovered bunyavirus in China. The pathogenesis of SFTSV infection is poorly understood. However, it has been suggested that immune mechanisms, including cytokines and chemokines, play an important role in disease pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated host cytokine and chemokine profiles in serum samples of patients with SFTSV infection from Northeast China and explored a possible correlation between cytokine levels and disease severity. Methods and Principal Findings Acute phase serum samples from 40 patients, diagnosed with SFTSV infection were included. Patients were divided into two groups – severe or non-severe – based on disease severity. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, interleukin-6, interferon (IFN)-?, IFN- ?-induced protein (IP)-10 and RANTES were measured in the serum samples with commercial ELISAs. Statistical analysis showed that increases in TNF-?, IP-10 and IFN-? were associated with disease severity. Conclusions We suggest that a cytokine-mediated inflammatory response, characterized by cytokine and chemokine production imbalance, might be in part responsible for the disease progression of patients with SFTSV infection.

Deng, Baocheng; Zhang, Shujun; Geng, Yingzhi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Yuncheng; Yao, Wenqing; Wen, Ying; Cui, Wei; Zhou, Ying; Gu, Qiuhong; Wang, Wen; Wang, Yu; Shao, Zhen; Wang, Yanli; Li, Chengbo; Wang, Donglei; Zhao, Yitong; Liu, Pei

2012-01-01

225

Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource-limited settings.  

PubMed Central

Strategies for confronting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have included a range of different approaches that focus on prevention and treatment. However, debate persists over what levels of emphasis are appropriate for the different components of the global response. This paper presents an overview of this debate and briefly summarizes the evidence on a range of interventions designed to prevent the spread of HIV infection, paying particular attention to voluntary counselling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We also review the experience with antiretroviral therapy to date in terms of response rates and survival rates, adherence, drug resistance, behavioural change and epidemiological impact. Although various studies have identified strategies with proven effectiveness in reducing the risks of HIV infection and AIDS mortality, considerable uncertainties remain. Successful integration of treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS will require a balanced approach and rigorous monitoring of the impact of programmes in terms of both individual and population outcomes.

Hogan, Daniel R.; Salomon, Joshua A.

2005-01-01

226

[Terminology for classifying the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) status of swine herds].  

PubMed

Standardized terminology for the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) status of swine herds is necessary to facilitate communication between veterinarians, swine producers, genetic companies, and other industry participants. It is also required for implementation of regional and national efforts towards PRRSV control and elimination. The purpose of this paper is to provide a herd classification system for describing the PRRSV status of herds, based upon a set of definitions reflecting the biology and ecology of PRRSV. The herd classification system was developed by a definitions committee formed jointly by the American Association of Swine Veterinarians (AASV) and the United States Department of Agriculture PRRS-Coordinated Agricultural Project, and was approved by the AASV Board of Directors on March 9, 2010. The committee included veterinarians from private practice and industry, researchers, and representatives from AASV and the National Pork Board. Breeding herds, with or without growing pigs on the same premises, are categorized as Positive Unstable (Category I), Positive Stable (Category II), Provisional Negative (Category III), or Negative (Category IV) on the basis of herd shedding and exposure status. Growing-pig herds are categorized as Positive or Negative. Recommended testing procedures and decision rules for herd classification are detailed. PMID:22138772

Holtkamp, D J; Polson, D D; Torremorell, M; Morrison, B; Classen, D M; Becton, L; Henry, S; Rodibaugh, M T; Rowland, R R; Snelson, H; Straw, B; Yeske, P; Zimmerman, J

2011-01-01

227

Enhanced immunogenicity of the modified GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The ORF5-encoded major envelope glycoprotein (GP5) is one of the key immunogenic proteins of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is the leading target for the development of the new generation of vaccines against PRRS. However, weak and tardy neutralizing antibodies have been elicited in several developed experimental vaccines expressing PRRSV GP5. More recent evidence has demonstrated a non-neutralizing decoy epitope upstream of the neutralizing epitope of GP5, which might prevent the development of a strong neutralizing antibody response against PRRSV. In the present study, we modified the ORF5 gene by inserting a Pan DR T-helper cell epitope (PADRE) between the neutralizing epitope and the decoy epitope to minimize or eliminate the decoy effect of the non-neutralizing epitope. The immunogenicity of the modified GP5 was further evaluated using DNA vaccination. The results showed that significantly enhanced neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice immunized with the DNA construct expressing the modified GP5 compared with the native GP5. Slightly increased levels of GP5-specific ELISA antibodies and T-cell proliferative activities were also observed. These results indicate that the high immunogenicity of the modified GP5 might facilitate the development of improved PRRS vaccines in the future. PMID:16525729

Fang, Liurong; Jiang, Yunbo; Xiao, Shaobo; Niu, Chuanshuang; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Huanchun

2006-02-01

228

Cis-acting structural element in 5' UTR is essential for infectivity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

It is believed that the genomic 5' untranslated region (UTR) of Arterivirus plays crucial roles in viral genomic replication, subgenomic mRNA transcription and protein translation, yet the structure and function still remain largely unknown. In this study, we conducted serial nucleotide truncation, ranging from 1 to 190 nucleotides, to the 5' UTR of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infectious full-length cDNA clone pAPRRS. In vitro synthetic RNAs were transfected into MARC-145 cells for further genetic and virologic analysis. Our results demonstrated that the first three nucleotides of PRRSV 5' UTR were dispensable for virus viability, which however was repaired with foreign sequences. In order to assess if the primary sequence or structural element play more important regulatory roles, the CMV promoter-driven 5' UTR truncation mutant cDNA clones were directly transfected into the BHK-21 cell lines. We found that PRRSV tolerated the first 16 nucleotides sequence alteration of 5' UTR without losing virus viability. However, these revertant viruses contained a range of non-templated with unknown origin exogenous nucleotides in the repaired 5' end. Further analyses revealed that the 5' proximal stem-loop 1 (SL1) in the highly structured 5' UTR was invariably required for virus infectivity. Taken together, we conclude that authentic 5'-proximal primary sequence is nonessential, but the resultant structural elements are probably indispensable for PRRSV infectivity. PMID:21924304

Gao, Fei; Lu, Jiaqi; Yao, Huochun; Wei, Zuzhang; Yang, Qian; Yuan, Shishan

2011-09-08

229

Studies on the transmission of WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) in juvenile Marsupenaeus japonicus via marine microalgae.  

PubMed

We studied the possible role that marine microalgae may play during the outbreaks of WSS (white spot syndrome). In order to elucidate the possibility of marine microalgae carrying WSSV (white spot syndrome virus), six marine microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Skeletonema costatum, Chlorella sp., Heterosigma akashiwo, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Dunaliella salina) were co-cultured with adult Marsupenaeus japonicus infected with WSSV and were assayed daily by nested-PCR to study whether they could carry WSSV. Further experiments were conducted to investigate whether the virus carried by microalgae could re-infect juvenile M. japonicus. Results showed that all of the experimental microalgae, except H. akashiwo could carry WSSV, and among them, Chlorella sp. and S. trochoidea had the strongest WSSV-carrying ability. Unlike other invertebrate carriers of WSSV, the WSSV detections in microalgae, which were positive after 1 and 3 days, were negative after 10days of incubation. WSSV detection results in juvenile M. japonicus showed that the juvenile shrimp were re-infected by co-cultured Chlorella sp., although the juvenile M. japonicus carried so small an amount of WSSV that it could only be detected by nested-PCR. The results of this experiment suggest that microalgae might be one possible horizontal transmission pathway for WSSV. Further research, however, is required to better understand the factors behind the different carrying abilities and virus-carrying mechanisms of different microalgae. PMID:17383676

Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Guan, Yueqiang

2007-02-03

230

Genetic analysis of JC virus and BK virus from a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with hyper IgM syndrome.  

PubMed

A case of acute progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with hyper IgM syndrome 1 is reported. Viral DNA and VP1 protein of JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) were detected by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, semi-nested polymerase chain (PCR) and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. JCV DNA and VP1 protein were found in the nuclei of oligodendrocytes. The non-coding control region (NCCR) and VP1 region of the JCV genome were sequenced; this revealed a novel rearrangement pattern of the NCCR in the brain tissue. The VP1 regions of brain and urine JCV were identical and of genotype type 2A. The BKV in the urine sample was genotype I. No BKV genome was found in the brain. The novel genomic rearrangement of the JCV NCCR in the brain tissue may have altered JCV pathogenesis to induce PML; the impaired immunity from hyper IgM syndrome 1 may have enabled the rearrangement. The JCV NCCR rearrangement in the brain may have originated from the archetypal form in the urine through deletion and duplication. PMID:15902714

Han, Gui Ping; Miura, Katsutoshi; Ide, Yoshihiro; Tsutsui, Yoshihiro

2005-07-01

231

Role of metabolic syndrome components in human immunodeficiency virus-associated stroke  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors, including elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), atherogenic dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides [TRG]), abdominal obesity (increased body mass index [BMI]), glucose intolerance (elevated glucose [GLU]), and prothrombotic/inflammatory state (increases in uric acid [UA]), that are associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. We studied if an association existed between MetS components and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptogenic strokes—those not caused by HIV complications, endocarditis, or stimulant abuse. We performed a retrospective case-control study. Eleven cryptogenic strokes were identified from 2346 HIV-infected (HIV+) participants. Each case was matched by age, sex, and date of stroke diagnosis to five HIV+ controls without stroke. Nonparametric stratified Wilcoxon ranked sum tests with subsequent mixed effect logistic regression determined the influence of each MetS component on HIV-associated cryptogenic stroke. Although each MetS component appeared higher for HIV+ cases with cryptogenic strokes than HIV+ controls, only MAP (odds ratio [OR] = 5.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15–28.3) and UA (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.06–3.32) were statistically different. A significantly higher percentage of HIV-associated cryptogenic stroke cases met criteria for MetS (4/11 = 36%) compared to HIV+ controls (6/55 = 11%). This observational study suggests a possible role for MetS components in HIV+ cryptogenic stroke cases. Although MetS is defined as a constellation of disorders, elevated hypertension and hyperuricemia may be involved in stroke pathogenesis. Reducing MetS component levels in HIV+ patients could therefore protect them from subsequent stroke.

Ances, Beau M; Bhatt, Archana; Vaida, Florin; Rosario, Debralee; Alexander, Terry; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; McCutchan, J Allen

2010-01-01

232

[Possible etiological relations between Sjogren's syndrome and Epstein-Barr virus].  

PubMed

Tissue biopsies from patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and controls were detected by a monoclonal antibody (McAb) of gene engineering against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded early antigen (EA p138) and a 32p-labelled EBV DNA probe, and also B95-8 and K4 cells as antigens to detect reacting antibodies to EBV in patients' sera. As a result, cytoplasmic fluorescence staining of epithelial cells with the McAb as described above was noted in 15/33 labial and 7/7 renal biopsies from primary SS. The same McAb did not react with biopsies from secondary SS, non-SS connective tissue diseases, benign tumors and normal persons, nor with the other tissues detected from primary SS. By using McAbs against the EBV EA p54 and nuclear antigen (EBNA-1) and by using immunoblotting method, it was found that the reacting antigens in labial biopsies of primary SS had both a M. W. of 54,000 and a M. W. of 65,000, similar to the EA-D and EBNA-1 antigens found in lymphoblastoid cells lytically infected with EBV. Seven out of 21 labial and one out of two renal samples from primary SS patients contained EBV DNA detectable by dot blot hybridization with EBV Bam W probe. Serum levels of both antiviral capsid antigen antibodies and antinuclear antibodies were elevated in patients with primary SS. Our results demonstrated an elevated content of EBV in labial gland and kidney of patients with primary SS, where EBV has been of a lytic fate leading to active replication. It is concluded that EBV may play an important role in the pathogenesis of primary SS. PMID:1648423

Yang, J

1991-03-01

233

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and prolonged hypoperfusion lesions in an infant with respiratory syncytial virus encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a cause of neurological complications in infants. We report a rare case of RSV encephalopathy in an infant who presented with poor sucking and hypothermia at 17 days of age after suffering from rhinorrhea and a cough for several days. After hospitalization, the patient presented with stupor and hypotonia lasting for at least 24 h, and was intubated, sedated, and ventilated for treatment of pneumonia. These symptoms led to diagnosis of pediatric systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by RSV infection. High-dose steroid therapy was combined with artificial ventilation because the initial ventilation therapy was ineffective. Interleukin (IL)-6 levels in spinal fluid were markedly increased upon admission, and serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels showed even greater elevation. The patient was diagnosed with RSV encephalopathy. On day 5, high signal intensity in the bilateral hippocampus was observed on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On day 14, the patient presented with delayed partial seizure and an electroencephalogram showed occasional unilateral spikes in the parietal area, but the hippocampal abnormality had improved to normal on MRI. (99m)Tc-labeled ethylcysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on day 18 showed hypoperfusion of the bilateral frontal and parietal regions and the unilateral temporal region. SPECT at 3 months after onset still showed hypoperfusion of the bilateral frontal region and unilateral temporal region, but hypoperfusion of the bilateral parietal region had improved. The patient has no neurological deficit at 6 months. These findings suggest that RSV encephalopathy with cytokine storm induces several symptoms and complications, including SIRS and prolonged brain hypoperfusion on SPECT. PMID:23354937

Miyamoto, Kenji; Fujisawa, Masahide; Hozumi, Hajime; Tsuboi, Tatsuo; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Hirao, Jun-Ichi; Sugita, Kenichi; Arisaka, Osamu

2013-01-26

234

Expression, Purification, Crystallization of Two Major Envelope Proteins from White Spot Syndrome Virus  

SciTech Connect

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 {angstrom}. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 {angstrom}, and diffracts to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution.

Tang,X.; Hew, C.

2007-01-01

235

Evolutionary Trajectory of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Genome Shrinkage during Spread in Asia  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the sole member of the novel Nimaviridae family, and the source of major economic problems in shrimp aquaculture. WSSV appears to have rapidly spread worldwide after the first reported outbreak in the early 1990s. Genomic deletions of various sizes occur at two loci in the WSSV genome, the ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 variable regions, and these have been used as molecular markers to study patterns of viral spread over space and time. We describe the dynamics underlying the process of WSSV genome shrinkage using empirical data and a simple mathematical model. Methodology/Principal Findings We genotyped new WSSV isolates from five Asian countries, and analyzed this information together with published data. Genome size appears to stabilize over time, and deletion size in the ORF23/24 variable region was significantly related to the time of the first WSSV outbreak in a particular country. Parameter estimates derived from fitting a simple mathematical model of genome shrinkage to the data support a geometric progression (k<1) of the genomic deletions, with k?=?0.371±0.150. Conclusions/Significance The data suggest that the rate of genome shrinkage decreases over time before attenuating. Bioassay data provided support for a link between genome size and WSSV fitness in an aquaculture setting. Differences in genomic deletions between geographic WSSV isolates suggest that WSSV spread did not follow a smooth pattern of geographic radiation, suggesting spread of WSSV over long distances by commercial activities. We discuss two hypotheses for genome shrinkage, an adaptive and a neutral one. We argue in favor of the adaptive hypothesis, given that there is support for a link between WSSV genome size and fitness.

Hemerik, Lia; Vlak, Just M.

2010-01-01

236

Increased susceptibility of white spot syndrome virus-infected Litopenaeus vannamei to Vibrio campbellii.  

PubMed

The concept of polymicrobial disease is well accepted in human and veterinary medicine but has received very little attention in the field of aquaculture. This study was conducted to investigate the synergistic effect of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio campbellii on development of disease in specific pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The juvenile shrimp were first injected with WSSV at a dose of 30 SID(50) shrimp(-1) (SID(50) = shrimp infectious dose with 50% endpoint) and 24 h later with 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) of V. campbellii shrimp(-1). Controls receiving just one of the pathogens or negative inocula were included. In the treatment with WSSV only, shrimp started to die at 48-108 h post injection (hpi) and cumulative mortality reached 100% at 268-336 hpi. In the treatment with only V. campbellii injection (10(6) cfu shrimp(-1)), cumulative mortality reached 16.7%. Shrimp in the dual treatment died very quickly after V. campbellii injection and 100% cumulative mortality was obtained at 72-96 hpi. When WSSV-injected shrimp were given sonicated V. campbellii instead of live V. campbellii, no synergistic effect was observed. Density of V. campbellii in the haemolymph of co-infected moribund shrimp collected 10 h after V. campbellii injection was significantly higher than in shrimp injected with V. campbellii only (P < 0.01). However, there was no difference in WSSV replication between shrimp inoculated with WSSV only compared with dually inoculated ones. This study revealed that prior infection with WSSV enhances the multiplication and disease inducing capacity of V. campbellii in shrimp. PMID:18616551

Phuoc, L H; Corteel, M; Nauwynck, H J; Pensaert, M B; Alday-Sanz, V; Van den Broeck, W; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

2008-07-08

237

Identification of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Like Virus in a Leaf-Nosed Bat in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Bats are reservoirs for emerging zoonotic viruses that can have a profound impact on human and animal health, including lyssaviruses, filoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs). In the course of a project focused on pathogen discovery in contexts where human-bat contact might facilitate more efficient interspecies transmission of viruses, we surveyed gastrointestinal tissue obtained from bats collected in caves in Nigeria that are frequented by humans. Coronavirus consensus PCR and unbiased high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed the presence of coronavirus sequences related to those of SARS-CoV in a Commerson’s leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni). Additional genomic sequencing indicated that this virus, unlike subgroup 2b CoVs, which includes SARS-CoV, is unique, comprising three overlapping open reading frames between the M and N genes and two conserved stem-loop II motifs. Phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with these features suggest that this virus represents a new subgroup within group 2 CoVs.

Quan, Phenix-Lan; Firth, Cadhla; Street, Craig; Henriquez, Jose A.; Petrosov, Alexandra; Tashmukhamedova, Alla; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Egholm, Michael; Osinubi, Modupe O. V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Ogunkoya, Albert B.; Briese, Thomas; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2010-01-01

238

Horizontal transmission of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS)-associated virus in the snakehead Ophicephalus striatus under simulated natural conditions.  

PubMed

Natural transmission of the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) was conducted on naïve snakeheads Ophicephalus striatus (also known as Channa striata) kept (A) in aquifer water, (B) in lakewater, (C) cohabiting with EUS snakeheads in lakewater, and (D) cohabiting with apparently healthy snakeheads in lakewater during the 1994 to 1995 EUS season. The results showed that EUS-like lesions developed in 6 to 14 d among naïve snakeheads cohabiting with EUS snakeheads and with apparently healthy snakeheads in lakewater (Treatments C and D). Among naïve fish exposed to lakewater (Treatment B), similar lesions developed in 16 to 21 d, while naïve fish in aquifer water (Treatment A) did not develop EUS-like lesions. EUS signs began as Grade I (slight) lesions that gradually progressed to Grades III-IV (severe) 3 to 5 d from lesion onset, similar to the naturally affected EUS fish. The virus was recovered from some but not all naturally EUS-affected snakeheads, snakeheads with healing lesions and apparently healthy snakeheads, but not from naïve snakeheads. The results provide evidence of a waterborne horizontal transmission of the EUS-associated virus. This is the first report of a successful horizontal transmission of the EUS-associated virus from apparently healthy snakeheads to naïve fish under natural conditions and of virus recovery in tissue culture from naturally exposed experimental fish. PMID:14960033

Lio-Po, Gilda D; Albright, Lawrence J; Traxler, Garth S; Leaño, Eduardo M

2003-12-29

239

Varicella-Zoster Virus Encephalitis in a Patient Undergoing Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome—Overt Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is rare after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation\\u000a (SCT). Here, we describe the first patient who developed VZV encephalitis after cord blood transplantation (CBT). A 35-year-old\\u000a man with myelodysplastic syndrome-overt leukemia underwent CBT. On day +23, a neutrophil count consistently greater than 0.5\\u000a X 109\\/L was achieved. On day +42,1 mg\\/kg

Kenji Fukuno; Akira Tomonari; Satoshi Takahashi; Jun Ooi; Kashiya Takasugi; Nobuhiro Tsukada; Takaaki Konuma; Tohru Iseki; Hisataka Moriwaki; Arinobu Tojo; Shigetaka Asanoa

2006-01-01

240

A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus generated from an infectious cDNA clone retains the in vivo virulence and transmissibility properties of the parental virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequence of a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was determined. Transfection of MARC-145 cells with capped in vitro transcripts derived from a full-length cDNA clone of the viral genome resulted in infectious PRRSV with growth characteristics similar to that of the parental virus. Primer extension analysis revealed that during replication, the viral polymerase corrected

Ha M Truong; Z Lu; Gerald F Kutish; Judith Galeota; Fernando A Osorio; Asit K Pattnaik

2004-01-01

241

Panleukopenia-like syndrome of FeLV caused by co-infection with FeLV and feline panleukopenia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effect of interferon on feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection, 30 specific pathogen free (SPF) cats were infected with the apathogenic FeLV A Glasgow. Unexpectedly, between 5 and 8 weeks after FeLV infection, all 19 cats with persistent FeLV infection but not the FeLV-negative cats died from a panleukopenia-like syndrome. No feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) antigen was found

H. Lutz; I. Castelli; F. Ehrensperger; A. Pospischil; M. Rosskopf; G. Siegl; M. Grob; S. Martinod

1995-01-01

242

Analysis of white spot syndrome virus envelope protein complexome by two-dimensional blue native\\/SDS PAGE combined with mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped virus, but the organization of its envelope proteins remains largely\\u000a unknown. In the present study, we used blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) and SDS-PAGE in combination\\u000a with mass spectrometry to analyze the envelope protein complexome of WSSV. Our results show that the viral envelope consists\\u000a of multi-protein complexes (MPCs). Within

Zichong Li; Limei Xu; Fang Li; Qing Zhou; Feng Yang

2011-01-01

243

The association of metabolic syndrome and Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1: The Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome together with insulin resistance and their consequences are basic factors in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The infectious aspects of metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we

Iraj Nabipour; Katayon Vahdat; Seyed Mojtaba Jafari; Raha Pazoki; Zahra Sanjdideh

2006-01-01

244

Helper T-Cell Antigenic Site Identification in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus gp120 Envelope Protein and Induction of Immunity in Mice to the Native Protein Using a 16Residue Synthetic Peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much effort has been devoted to the analysis of antibodies to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus antigens, but no studies, to our knowledge, have defined antigenic sites of this virus that elicit T-cell immunity, even though such immunity is important in protection against many other viruses. T cells tend to recognize only a limited number of discrete sites on a protein

Kemp B. Cease; Hanah Margalit; James L. Cornette; Scott D. Putney; W. Gerard Robey; Cecilia Ouyang; Howard Z. Streicher; Peter J. Fischinger; Robert C. Gallo; Charles Delisi; Jay A. Berzofsky

1987-01-01

245

The nucleoprotein of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus processes a stable hexameric ring to facilitate RNA encapsidation.  

PubMed

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a member of the Phlebovirus genus from the Bunyaviridae family endemic to China, is the causative agent of life-threatening severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), which features high fever and hemorrhage. Similar to other negative-sense RNA viruses, SFTSV encodes a nucleocapsid protein (NP) that is essential for viral replication. NP facilitates viral RNA encapsidation and is responsible for the formation of ribonucleoprotein complex. However, recent studies have indicated that NP from Phlebovirus members behaves in inhomogeneous oligomerization states. In the present study, we report the crystal structure of SFTSV NP at 2.8 Å resolution and demonstrate the mechanism by which it processes a ringshaped hexameric form to accomplish RNA encapsidation. Key residues essential for oligomerization are identified through mutational analysis and identified to have a significant impact on RNA binding, which suggests that correct formation of highly ordered oligomers is a critical step in RNA encapsidation. The findings of this work provide new insights into the discovery of new antiviral reagents for Phlebovirus infection. PMID:23702688

Zhou, Honggang; Sun, Yuna; Wang, Ying; Liu, Min; Liu, Chao; Wang, Wenming; Liu, Xiang; Li, Le; Deng, Fei; Wang, Hualin; Guo, Yu; Lou, Zhiyong

2013-05-23

246

The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that

2001-01-01

247

Attitudes toward material possessions among Chinese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to quantify how children in urban China perceive someone described as owning many or few expensive toys. It aims to measure the types of possessions and personal characteristics they attributed to such individuals. This is an extension of previous research on perceived links between possessions and personal characteristics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 268 Chinese

Kara Chan; Fan Hu

2008-01-01

248

50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Possession...person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass, in, or harvested from the...operator of a fishing vessel issued a black sea bass moratorium permit, or is...

2010-10-01

249

50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Possession...person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass in, or harvested from the...operator of a fishing vessel issued a black sea bass moratorium permit, or is...

2009-10-01

250

Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to influenza virus A/H1N1v in a patient with HIV/HCV co-infection.  

PubMed

The clinical severity of human infection with the novel influenza virus A/H1N1v has not been completely defined, especially in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients. Although most patients develop mild to moderate symptoms, severe disease may occur in a limited proportion of cases. We report the case of a 44-year-old man infected with HIV and HCV with a high CD4 cell count who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with influenza virus A/H1N1v infection. The patient recovered completely after oseltamivir therapy and mechanical ventilation. PMID:21515759

Madeddu, G; Rezza, G; Fois, A G; Naitana, A G V; Piredda, G; Pirina, P; Mura, M S

2011-04-01

251

Occurrence of swine salmonellosis in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs concurrently infected with porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).  

PubMed

Fourteen diseased pigs from four farms in which there had been an outbreak of salmonellosis were investigated. Granulomatous inflammation with depletion of lymphocytes was observed in the swollen lymph nodes in these pigs. Antigens to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were immunolabeled in the lesions along with detection of viral DNA as PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, antigens to porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were immunodetected in the lungs and Salmonella Choleraesuis was isolated from the affected pigs. The nine salmonellosis affected pigs, five (55.6%) with salmonellosis and PMWS concurrently infected with PRRSV were much higher than those infected with salmonellosis and PMWS (22.2%) or with salmonellosis and PPPRV (22.2%). PMID:16679733

Murakami, Satoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kinoshita, Tomohide; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Ito, Noriko; Nakane, Takashi

2006-04-01

252

Endocrine and metabolic disturbances in human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

Numerous alterations in endocrine function are observed in HIV infection. Direct destruction of endocrine organs by HIV itself or by invasive infection with opportunistic organisms resulting in loss of function is rare. When acutely ill, HIV patients can develop the metabolic derangements that accompany any severe systemic disorder. Studies of thyroid function tests emphasize that the presence of acute secondary infection must be analyzed when evaluating such patients. In addition to euthyroid sick syndrome other hormonal axes are affected by severe illness. These alterations may be cytokine mediated. As with seronegative patients, these changes can be transient and resolve with successful treatment of the intervening illness. Given the complexity of HIV disease, future reports should characterize patients by CD4 cell count, history of AIDS-indicating illnesses, and viral load. Viral burden is an independent predictor of immunosuppression and progression to AIDS. A large number of medications used in the treatment of HIV infection and related illnesses can alter endocrine function, mineral and electrolyte balance, and substrate turnover. Drug therapy must be considered in the evaluation of endocrine abnormalities in HIV-infected patients and carefully characterized in studies of these patients. The endocrine effects of medications used in the treatment of HIV infection are summarized in Table 3. Concomitant factors that affect endocrine function independent of the HIV virus can confound results in these patients. For example, opiate use affects PRL, gonadotropins, and cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Investigations in HIV-infected patients must include careful descriptions of the study population and comparison to relevant controls. HIV-infected patients may also demonstrate more subtle alterations in endocrinological function in early, relatively asymptomatic, stages. The etiology and clinical significance of these changes, particularly their relationship to cytokines, continues to be investigated. The sequential studies of stable aldosterone levels despite decreased aldosterone response to ACTH stimulation indicate that alterations in response to provocative testing do not predict the development of hormonal insufficiency in this patient population. Similar longitudinal studies need to be done for the other hormonal axes to further delineate the endocrinological alterations in HIV infection. Finally, when the rationale for hormone replacement is debatable, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are necessary. Transient improvement in clinical status during open-label treatment does not prove hormone insufficiency. The long-term efficacy and safety of hormonal therapy must be demonstrated. PMID:8897023

Sellmeyer, D E; Grunfeld, C

1996-10-01

253

Serum selenium and skin diseases among Nigerians with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The role of selenium as an antioxidant micronutrient has garnered the unprecedented focus of researchers in recent times. No clinical study has related serum selenium concentration to skin diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Methods In this study, 134 newly diagnosed HIV patients that satisfied the inclusion criteria were included. Skin diseases were clinically diagnosed and fasting venous blood was taken for assessment of serum selenium using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results The mean age of HIV subjects with and without skin disease were not significantly different: 32.72 ± 9.21 versus 35.86 ± 8.55 years, P = 0.077, respectively. The mean of serum selenium (0.51 ± 0.48 versus 0.81 ± 0.39), CD4+ count (228.06 ± 212.89 versus 446.41 ± 182.87), and body mass index (BMI; 21.09 ± 3.58 versus 23.53 ± 3.35) were significantly lower (P < 0.001) for HIV/AIDS participants with skin disease than those without skin disease. We found significant clustering of symptoms and signs: fever (P = 0.037), weight loss (P = 0.009), oral candidiasis (P = 0.038), pallor (P = 0.037) among HIV/AIDS subjects with skin diseases than those without. Low serum selenium concentration was significantly associated with primary skin disease of HIV/AIDS, such as pruritic papular eruption of AIDS (P = 0.003), xeroderma (P = 0.030), fluffy hair (P = 0.021), blue-black nail hyperpigmentation (P = 0.033) and secondary skin disease, such as oral candidiasis (P = 0.002). There was a significant association between low serum selenium concentration and increasing frequency of skin diseases (P = 0.002), but serum selenium was not significantly related to extents of distribution of skin diseases (P > 0.05). Conclusion serum selenium concentration was lower among HIV subjects with skin diseases than those without skin disease. Pruritic papular eruption, xeroderma, fluffy hair, blue-black nail hyper pigmentation, and oral candidiasis were significantly associated with low serum selenium concentration.

Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Mejiuni, David Ayodele; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Atiba, Adeniran Samuel; Bamimore, Gbenga Micheal

2013-01-01

254

The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods  

PubMed Central

Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P) ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN) titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p < 0.05). VN titer was significantly different in the 106 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI)-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p < 0.05). Consequently, the inactivated vaccines tested in this study provided weak memory responses with sequential challenge without any obvious active immune responses in the vaccinated pigs. Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

2011-01-01

255

A synthetic antibacterial peptide from Mytilus galloprovincialis reduces mortality due to white spot syndrome virus in palaemonid shrimp.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolated from Penaeus monodon was found to be highly infective for the western Mediterranean shrimp, Palaemon sp. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it was demonstrated that such shrimp are not naturally carriers of WSSV. Following challenge with virus, mortality reached 100% 3.5-4 days after injection at 22 degrees C. Incubation of infected shrimp at 10 degrees C totally suppressed the mortality which rapidly developed when shrimp were returned to 18 or 22 degrees C. Preincubation of WSSV with mature synthetic mytilin significantly reduced shrimp mortality with a 50% efficient dose of about 5 microM. Survival of shrimp was not due to the development of an active mechanism of defence as re-injection of WSSV produced the same mortality pattern. Mortality was probably due to WSSV replication as dot blot failed to detect viral DNA in the injection sample but was positive 1 day post-injection. Protection by mytilin was by interaction at the virus level, preventing replication as no WSSV nucleic acid was detected by PCR even after 7 days in shrimp injected with WSSV preincubated with 10 or 50 microM mytilin. PMID:14986940

Dupuy, J W; Bonami, J R; Roch, Ph

2004-01-01

256

Genomic Sequencing Reveals Mutations Potentially Related to the Overattenuation of a Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) continues to evolve when serially passaged in Marc-145 cells. In this study, we analyzed the genomic and antigenic variants of HP-PRRSV strain JXA1 during in vitro passage. Protective efficacies of JXA1 from passages 100, 110, 120, 140, and 170 against the high-virulence parental virus were evaluated by inoculating pigs with each of these viruses and then challenging with JXA1 from passage 5 at 28 days postimmunization. We found that the antigenicities of JXA1 from passages after 110 were significantly reduced. Inoculation with JXA1 from passages after 110 provided only insufficient protection against the parental strain challenge, indicating that the immunogenicity of JXA1 is significantly decreased when it is in vitro passaged for 110 times and more. To identify the genomic variants that emerged during the overattenuation, eight complete genomes of highly passaged JXA1 were sequenced. One guanine deletion in the 5? untranslated region (UTR), two nucleotide substitutions in the 3? UTR, and 65 amino acid mutations in nonstructural and structural proteins that accompanied with the attenuation and overattenuation were determined. Genomic sequencing of in vitro serially passaged HP-PRRSV first identified the mutations potentially correlated with the overattenuation of a HP-PRRSV strain. These results facilitate the research aimed at elucidating the mechanisms for PRRSV genomic and antigenic changes and may also contribute to developing a safe and effective PRRSV vaccine.

Yu, Xiuling; Chen, Nanhua; Deng, Xiaoyu; Cao, Zhen; Han, Wei; Hu, Dongmei; Wu, Jiajun; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Baoyue; Gu, Xiaoxue

2013-01-01

257

Silencing VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp by bacterially expressed dsRNA.  

PubMed

An in vivo expression system to produce large amounts of virus-derived dsRNAs in bacteria to provide a practical control of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp was developed. The bacterially synthesized dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of WSSV promoted gene-specific interference with the WSSV infection in shrimp. Virus infectivity was significantly reduced in WSSV-challenged shrimp injected with VP28-dsRNA and 100% survival was recorded. The inhibition of the expression of WSSV VP28 gene in experimentally challenged animals by VP28-dsRNA was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the efficacy of bacterially expressed VP28-dsRNA to silence VP28 gene expression in SISK cell line transfected with eukaryotic expression vector (pcDNA3.1) inserted with VP28 gene of WSSV. The expression level of VP28 gene in SISK cells was determined by fluorescent microscopy and ELISA. The results showed that the expression was significantly reduced in cells transfected with VP28dsRNA, whereas the cells transected with pcDNA-VP28 alone showed higher expression. The in vivo production of dsRNA using prokaryotic expression system could be an alternative to in vitro method for large-scale production of dsRNA corresponding to VP28 gene of WSSV for practical application to control the WSSV in shrimp farming. PMID:17965920

Sarathi, M; Simon, Martin C; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Kumar, S Rajesh; Hameed, A S Sahul

2007-10-27

258

Analytical sensitivity of air samplers based on uniform point-source exposure to airborne Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and swine influenza virus  

PubMed Central

Research and surveillance activities involving airborne pathogens rely on the capture and enumeration of pathogens suspended in aerosols. The objective of this study was to estimate the analytical sensitivity (detection threshold) of each of 4 air samplers for Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SIV). In a 5-min sampling period under controlled conditions, the analytical sensitivity of the AGI-30 (Ace Glass, Vineland, New Jersey, USA), AGI-4 (Ace Glass), SKC BioSampler (SKC, Eighty Four, Pennsylvania, USA), and Midwest Micro-Tek sampler (Midwest Micro-Tek, Brookings, South Dakota, USA) was calculated at 1 × 101.1, 1 × 101.3, 1 × 101.1, and 1 × 101.2 median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) equivalents for PRRSV and 1 × 101.4, 1 × 101.1, 1 × 101.6, and 1 × 101.2 TCID50 equivalents for SIV [per 60 L (5-min sampling period)]. Despite marked differences in sampler design, no statistically significant difference in analytical sensitivity was detected between the samplers for collection of artificially produced aerosols containing cell-culture-propagated PRRSV or SIV.

Hermann, Joseph R.; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J.

2008-01-01

259

Analytical sensitivity of air samplers based on uniform point-source exposure to airborne porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and swine influenza virus.  

PubMed

Research and surveillance activities involving airborne pathogens rely on the capture and enumeration of pathogens suspended in aerosols. The objective of this study was to estimate the analytical sensitivity (detection threshold) of each of 4 air samplers for Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SIV). In a 5-min sampling period under controlled conditions, the analytical sensitivity of the AGI-30 (Ace Glass, Vineland, New Jersey, USA), AGI-4 (Ace Glass), SKC BioSampler (SKC, Eighty Four, Pennsylvania, USA), and Midwest Micro-Tek sampler (Midwest Micro-Tek, Brookings, South Dakota, USA) was calculated at 1 x 10(1.1), 1 x 10(1.3), 1 X 10(1.1), and 1 x 10(1.2) median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) equivalents for PRRSV and 1 x 10(1.4), 1 x 10(1.1), 1 x 10(1.6), and 1 x 10(1.2) TCID50 equivalents for SIV [per 60 L (5-min sampling period)]. Despite marked differences in sampler design, no statistically significant difference in analytical sensitivity was detected between the samplers for collection of artificially produced aerosols containing cell-culture-propagated PRRSV or SIV. PMID:19086377

Hermann, Joseph R; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J

2008-10-01

260

Vaccine efficacy and immune response to swine influenza virus challenge in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at the time of SIV vaccination.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of concurrent infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on the efficacy of an inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine. Eight groups of pigs were infected with a virulent PRRSV isolate either between the two SIV vaccines or at the time of SIV challenge. Control groups included SIV vaccination without PRRSV and pigs infected with SIV and/or PRRSV. Pigs infected with PRRSV during vaccination showed increased levels of macroscopic and microscopic lesions compared to pigs vaccinated against and challenged with only SIV indicating decreased SIV vaccine efficacy. In addition, pigs vaccinated in the presence of PRRSV showed increased clinical disease and shedding of SIV during the acute phase of SIV infection. No alterations in the systemic or local antibody response to either SIV vaccination or challenge were observed. These findings demonstrate that PRRSV infection has a significant impact on SIV vaccine efficacy that may be important for disease control. PMID:19595522

Kitikoon, Pravina; Vincent, Amy L; Jones, Katherine R; Nilubol, Dachrit; Yu, Shan; Janke, Bruce H; Thacker, Brad J; Thacker, Eileen L

2009-06-11

261

An entero?like virus associated with the runting syndrome in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small round unenveloped virus, 31 nm in diameter, and with no obvious surface structure, was identified during the first week of life in the gut contents of broiler chickens which later developed runting. This virus grew in the cytoplasm of the villous epithelial cells of the small intestine, with a predilection for the mid small intestine. Broilers orally infected

M. S. McNulty; G. M. Allan; T. J. Connor; J. B. McFerran; R. M. McCracken

1984-01-01

262

Epizootic congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle: Isolation of Akabane virus from affected fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Previous serological studies strongly suggested Akabane virus to be the etiologic agent of epizootic abortion and congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly in cattle, and this view was further corroborated in this study by the isolation of the virus from an aborted fetus in an epizootic of the disease and from a fetus extracted from a cow which was suggested by serologic tests

H. Kurogi; Y. Inaba; E. Takahashi; K. Sato; T. Omori; Y. Miura; Y. Goto; Y. Fujiwara; Y. Hatano; K. Kodama; S. Fukuyama; N. Sasaki; M. Matumoto

1976-01-01

263

Oral administration of antiviral plant extract of Cynodon dactylon on a large scale production against White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot disease (WSD) has been reported to cause severe mortality in farmed shrimp especially black tiger shrimp in many countries. WSSV is responsible for huge economic loss in the shrimp culture industry worldwide. The present study was carried out to examine the antiviral activity of a large scale produced plant extract of Cynodon dactylon on white spot syndrome virus

G. Balasubramanian; M. Sarathi; C. Venkatesan; John Thomas; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2008-01-01

264

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replicase - Isoforms of Nonstructural Protein 2 and Interaction with Heat Shock 70kDa Protein 5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nsp2 replicase protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), when expressed independently, was recently demonstrated to be processed from its precursor by the PL2 protease at or near the G**1196|G**1197 dipeptide in transfected CHO cells. The proteolytic cleavage of nsp...

265

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) subverts normal development of adaptive immunity by proliferation of germline-encoded B cells with hydrophobic HCDR3  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isolator piglets infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) develop severe hypergammaglobulinemia, lymph node adenopathy and autoimmune disease. The expanded B cell clones in this disease are unusual in bearing hydrophobic HCDR3 regions and these are disseminated to mo...

266

Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Natural Recombinant Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolated from a Pig Farm in Yunnan Province, Southwest China  

PubMed Central

YN-2011 is a highly pathogenic North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Unlike previously described PRRSVs, which contained a 30-amino-acid deletion in NS2, YN-2011 had no amino acid deletions or insertions but had several new mutations in NS2. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of YN-2011.

Yan, Yulin; Xin, Aiguo; Zhu, Gaohong; Huang, Hui; Liu, Qian; Shao, Zhiyong; Zang, Yating; Chen, Ling; Sun, Yongke

2013-01-01

267

Validation of a major quantitative trait locus associated with host response to experimental infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infectious diseases are costly to the swine industry and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most devastating. In earlier work, a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV was identified on Sus scrofa chromosome 4 (SSC4) using ~560 exp...

268

Analysis of the swine tracheobronchial lymphnode transcriptomic response to infection with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative investigation into the host transcriptome response in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 14...

269

In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of surviving piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte

J Nielsen; A Bøtner; J.-E Tingstedt; B Aasted; C. K Johnsen; U Riber; P Lind

2003-01-01

270

Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing the Spike Glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Induces Protective Neutralizing Antibodies Primarily Targeting the Receptor Binding Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunization with a killed or inactivated viral vaccine provides significant protection in animals against challenge with certain corresponding pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs). However, the promise of this approach in humans is hampered by serious concerns over the risk of leaking live severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) viruses. In this study, we generated a SARS vaccine candidate by using the live-attenuated modified

Zhiwei Chen; Linqi Zhang; Chuan Qin; Lei Ba; Christopher E. Yi; Fengwen Zhang; Qiang Wei; Tian He; Wenjie Yu; Jian Yu; Hong Gao; Xinming Tu; Agegnehu Gettie; Michael Farzan; Kwok-yung Yuen; David D. Ho

2005-01-01

271

Co-Interactive DNA-Binding between a Novel, Immunophilin-Like Shrimp Protein and VP15 Nucleocapsid Protein of White Spot Syndrome Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most serious pathogens of penaeid shrimp. Although its genome has been completely characterized, the functions of most of its putative proteins are not yet known. It has been suggested that the major nucleocapsid protein VP15 is involved in packaging of the WSSV genome during virion formation. However, little is known in

Pakkakul Sangsuriya; Saengchan Senapin; Wei-Pang Huang; Chu-Fang Lo; Timothy W. Flegel; Robert J. Geraghty

2011-01-01

272

Epitope Mapping Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus by Phage Display: the nsp2 Fragment of the Replicase Polyprotein Contains a Cluster of B-Cell Epitopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We screened phage display libraries of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) pro- tein fragments with sera from experimentally infected pigs to identify linear B-cell epitopes that are commonly recognized during infection in vivo. We identified 10 linear epitope sites (ES) 11 to 53 amino acids in length. In the replicase polyprotein, a total of eight ES were identified,

M. B. Oleksiewicz; A. Botner; P. Toft; P. Normann; T. Storgaard

2001-01-01

273

Mechanisms of Androgen Deficiency in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women with the Wasting Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although prior studies suggest reduced androgen levels in women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting, little is known regarding the regulation of adrenal and ovar- ian androgen secretion in such patients. We investigated ovar- ian and adrenal function in 13 human immunodeficiency vi- rus-infected women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting and 21 age- and body mass index-matched healthy control

STEVEN GRINSPOON; COLLEEN CORCORAN; TAKARA STANLEY; JESSICA RABE; STEPHANIE WILKIE

274

Increased pathogenicity of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is associated with enhanced adaptive responses and viral clearance.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine worldwide. Since its first emergence in 1987 the PRRS virus (PRRSV) has become particularly divergent with highly pathogenic strains appearing in both Europe and Asia. However, the underlying mechanisms of PRRSV pathogenesis are still unclear. This study sets out to determine the differences in pathogenesis between subtype 1 and 3 strains of European PRRSV (PRRSV-I), and compare the immune responses mounted against these strains. Piglets were infected with 3 strains of PRRSV-I: Lelystad virus, 215-06 a British field strain and SU1-bel from Belarus. Post-mortem examinations were performed at 3 and 7 days post-infection (dpi), and half of the remaining animals in each group were inoculated with an Aujeszky's disease (ADV) vaccine to investigate possible immune suppression resulting from PRRSV infection. The subtype 3 SU1-bel strain displayed greater clinical signs and lung gross pathology scores compared with the subtype 1 strains. This difference did not appear to be caused by higher virus replication, as viraemia and viral load in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were lower in the SU1-bel group. Infection with SU1-bel induced an enhanced adaptive immune response with greater interferon (IFN)-? responses and an earlier PRRSV-specific antibody response. Infection with PRRSV did not affect the response to vaccination against ADV. Our results indicate that the increased clinical and pathological effect of the SU1-bel strain is more likely to be caused by an enhanced inflammatory immune response rather than higher levels of virus replication. PMID:23313323

Morgan, S B; Graham, S P; Salguero, F J; Sánchez Cordón, P J; Mokhtar, H; Rebel, J M J; Weesendorp, E; Bodman-Smith, K B; Steinbach, F; Frossard, J P

2012-11-29

275

Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus throughout a coordinated sequence of events during warm weather  

PubMed Central

Mechanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) throughout a coordinated sequence of events that replicated common farm worker behavior during warm weather (10°C to 16°C) was assessed using a field-based model. The model involved fomites (boots and containers), vehicle sanitation, transport, and personnel movement. In a previous study, the model successfully demonstrated mechanical transmission of PRRSV in 8 out of 10 replicates during cold weather. A field strain of PRRSV was inoculated into carriers consisting of soil samples, which were adhered to the undercarriage of a vehicle. The vehicle was driven approximately 50 km to a commercial truck washing facility where the driver's boots contacted the carriers during washing, introducing the virus to the vehicle interior. The vehicle was then driven 50 km to a simulated farm site, and the driver's boots mechanically spread virus into the farm anteroom. Types of containers frequently employed in swine farms contacted drippings from the footwear on the anteroom floor. The truck wash floor, vehicle cab floor mats, boot soles, anteroom floor, and the ventral surface of containers were sampled to track the virus throughout the model. Ten replicates were conducted, along with sham-inoculated controls, and control replicates. In 2 replicates, infectious PRRSV was detected on the anteroom floor and in 1 replicate, infectious PRRSV was detected on the surface of the container by swine bioassay. All sham-inoculated controls and protocol controls were negative. These results indicate that mechanical transmission of PRRSV throughout a coordinated sequence of events in warm weather can occur, but in contrast to data from studies conducted during cold weather, it appears to be a relatively infrequent event.

Dee, Scott; Deen, John; Rossow, Kurt; Weise, Carrie; Eliason, Roger; Otake, Satoshi; Joo, Han Soo; Pijoan, Carlos

2003-01-01

276

Subself theory and reincarnation/possession.  

PubMed

A subself model of the mind is used to account for multiple personality, possession, the spirit controls of mediums, reincarnation, and the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenics, with suggestions for empirical research. PMID:15739836

Lester, David

2004-12-01

277

Social comparison of material possessions among adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' engagement in social comparison of material possessions using qualitative inquiries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 64 Chinese adolescents aged 13-17 were face-to-face interviewed. They were asked whether they engaged in social comparison of possessions with direct and vicarious role models such as media celebrities. Characteristics of role models and

Kara Chan

2008-01-01

278

Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1918 influenza A H1N1 virus caused the worst pandemic of influenza ever recorded. To better understand the pathogenesis and immunity to the 1918 pandemic virus, we generated recombinant influenza viruses possessing two to five genes of the 1918 influenza virus. Recombinant influenza viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), nonstructural (NS), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes or any

Terrence M. Tumpey; Adolfo García-Sastre; Jeffery K. Taubenberger; Peter Palese; David E. Swayne; Christopher F. Basler

2004-01-01

279

Acquired unilateral nevoid telangiectasia syndrome accompanied by chronic hepatitis B virus infection.  

PubMed

Unilateral nevoid telangiectasia syndrome (UNTS) is a rare disease characterized by superficial telangiectasias in a dermatomal distribution. It is generally unilateral and frequently distributed in the C3-C4 or trigeminal nerve dermatomes (1). There are various opinions on the pathogenesis, which can be congenital or acquired. Here, we intended to make a new contribution to the pathogenesis of the disease by presenting a male patient with UNTS accompanied by chronic hepatitis B virus infection. An 18-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient clinic with asymptomatic telangiectasias that appeared 3 years previously and increased gradually. He had no systemic diseases or history of alcohol consumption. Physical examination was normal. Dermatologic examination revealed a few fine, branching unilateral telangiectasias located on the left half of the upper lip, left upper and lower eyelids, and left side of the neck, which were in accordance with the C3 dermatome, ophthalmic and maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve (Fig. 1a, b). Complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, urine analysis, renal and hepatic parameters, thyroid function tests, bleeding and coagulation parameters, blood estrogen level, anti-nuclear antibody and thyroid autoantibodies, and HIV serology were within the normal range. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HBVe antibodies and HBV-DNA were positive, which led to the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. There was no evidence of liver cirrhosis. Punch biopsy of the lesional skin revealed fine, dilated vessels located in the middle and upper dermis (Fig. 2). Immune reactivity was negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Taking into consideration the distribution of the lesions, histopathology and laboratory test results, the patient was diagnosed as UNTS accompanied by chronic hepatitis B. UNTS is thought to be associated with physiological and pathological hyperestrogenemic states such as pregnancy, puberty, hepatic disease, and hormonal therapy. However, Wenson et al. (1) showed that hormonal theory was not valid for all cases and there were cases with no underlying disease or hormonal abnormality. Even though our patient had accompanying hepatitis B infection, there was no concomitant hormonal pathology. There are a few UNTS cases associated with hepatitis B or C infection in the literature. Almazan Fernandez et al. (2) report on a male patient with UNTS and chronic hepatitis B in non-replicative phase without a sign of cirrhosis. Karakas et al. (3) report on a female hepatitis B carrier with UNTS. Hynes and Shenefelt (4) report on two male UNTS patients with hepatitis C without a sign of cirrhosis. In all three reports, serum estrogen levels and tissue estrogen/progesterone receptor levels were normal. These authors agree that the somatic mosaicism is the cause of UNTS and vague telangiectasias become visible when estrogen levels increase, either physiologically or pathologically. Different from these case reports, our case had a detectable viral load and he was a chronic hepatitis B patient, not a carrier. Even though the effect of estrogen has been referred to in those reports, neither those patients nor our patient had elevated estrogen levels. Therefore, a clear relation between UNTS and hepatitis without a sign of cirrhosis could not be established. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a protein that plays a critical role in vascular development and new vessel formation. In a study on serum VEGF levels in various hepatic diseases, the authors reported that acute hepatocellular damage caused significant amounts of VEGF to be released into the circulation (5). In a similar study, Makhlouf et al. (6) report that VEGF levels were higher in patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis than in healthy controls. Therefore, we believe that there is a somatic mosaicism in UNTS accompanied by hepatitis; however, telangiectasias may occur in response to elevated serum levels of angiogenic factors such as VEGF rather than estrogen. Although in this case we could not per

Turan, Hakan; Gönen, Ibak; Albayrak, Hülya; Alia?ao?lu, Cihangir

2013-08-01

280

A major QTL associated with host response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus challenge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes severely decreased reproductive performance in breeding animals and increased respiratory problems and morbidity in growing animals, ultimately resulting in great economic losses in the swine industry. Vaccination has not generally been eff...

281

Cytokine profiles and phenotype regulation of antigen presenting cells by genotype-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the immunological response of antigen presenting cells (APC) to genotype-I isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection by analysing the cytokine profile induced and evaluating the changes taking place upon infection on immunologically relevant cell markers (MHCI, MHCII, CD80/86, CD14, CD16, CD163, CD172a, SWC9). Several types of APC were infected with 39 PRRSV isolates. The results show that different isolates were able to induce different patterns of IL-10 and TNF-?. The four possible phenotypes based on the ability to induce IL-10 and/or TNF-? were observed, although different cell types seemed to have different capabilities. In addition, isolates inducing different cytokine-release profiles on APC could induce different expression of cell markers.

2011-01-01

282

The signal sequence of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus glycoprotein 3 is sufficient for endoplasmic reticulum retention  

PubMed Central

The glycoprotein 3 (GP3) of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus has the characteristic domains of a membrane protein. However, this protein has been reported to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) rather than transported to the plasma membrane of the cell. In this study, we performed confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of variants of GP3 and foundthat the signal sequence of the GP3 led to confinement of GP3 in the ER, while the functional ortransmembrane domain did not affect its localization. Based on these results, we concludedthat the signal sequence of GP3 contains the ER retention signal, which might play an important role in assembly of viral proteins.

Kim, Do-Geun; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Park, Seung-Yong; Lee, Joong-Bok

2013-01-01

283

Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31  

SciTech Connect

Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity.

Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Xie Xixian [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Yang Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

2005-09-15

284

Determinants of risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in people with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

We examined the prevalence and correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk behaviors in a large sample of severely mentally ill (SMI) patients. Risk levels were correlated with demographic factors, diagnosis, symptom severity, trauma history, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and sexual orientation. SMI clients from urban and rural settings (N = 275) were assessed regarding HIV/AIDS risk behaviors, and hypothesized risk factors. Patients exhibited substantial levels of risky behavior, particularly sexual risk. Correlates of increased risk included SUD, trauma, male homosexual orientation, younger age, and symptom severity. Structural equation modeling identified SUD and sexual orientation as the primary determinants of both drug and sexual risk behavior. We conclude that specific illness related variables appear to have less impact on risk behavior among people with SMI than previously hypothesized. Substance abuse prevention and treatment may be the most effective means of reducing HIV risk in this population. PMID:11458300

Rosenberg, S D; Trumbetta, S L; Mueser, K T; Goodman, L A; Osher, F C; Vidaver, R M; Metzger, D S

285

Multiplex real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis for detection of white spot syndrome virus, yellow-head virus, and Penaeus monodon densovirus in penaeid shrimp.  

PubMed

A multiplex real-time PCR and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to detect simultaneously three of the major viruses of penaeid shrimp including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow-head virus (YHV), and Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV). Plasmids containing DNA/cDNA fragments of WSSV and YHV, and genomic DNAs of PmDNV and normal shrimp were used to test sensitivity of the procedure. Without the need of any probe, the products were identified by HRM analysis after real-time PCR amplification using three sets of viral specific primers. The results showed DNA melting curves that were specific for individual virus. No positive result was detected with nucleic acids from shrimp, Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV), Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), or Taura syndrome virus (TSV). The detection limit for PmDNV, YHV and WSSV DNAs were 40fg, 50fg, and 500fg, respectively, which was 10 times more sensitive than multiplex real-time PCR analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In viral nucleic acid mixtures, HRM analysis clearly identified each virus in dual and triple infection. To test the capability to use this method in field, forty-one of field samples were examined by HRM analysis in comparison with agarose gel electrophoresis. For HRM analysis, 11 (26.83%), 9 (21.95%), and 4 (9.76%) were infected with WSSV, PmDNV, and YHV, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis detected lesser number of PmDNV infection which may due to the limit of sensitivity. No multiple infection was found in these samples. This method provides a rapid, sensitive, specific, and simultaneous detection of three major viruses making it as a useful tool for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of these viruses in shrimp and carriers. PMID:21906627

Panichareon, Benjaporn; Khawsak, Paisarn; Deesukon, Warin; Sukhumsirichart, Wasana

2011-08-05

286

Anti-white spot syndrome virus activity of Ceriops tagal aqueous extract in giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the most contagious pathogen of cultured shrimp, causes mass mortality, leading to huge economic loss to the shrimp industry. The lack of effective therapeutic or prophylactic measures has aggravated the situation, necessitating the development of antiviral agents. With this objective, the antiviral activity in the aqueous extract of a mangrove plant Ceriops tagal in Penaeus monodon was evaluated. The Ceriops tagal aqueous extract (CTAE) was non-toxic to shrimps at 50 mg/ml when injected intramuscularly at a dosage of 10 ?L/animal (0.5 mg/animal) and showed a protective effect against WSSV at 30 mg/ml when mixed with WSSV suspension at a 1:1 ratio. When the extract was administered along with the diet and the animals were challenged orally, there was a dose-dependent increase in survival, culminating in 100 % survival at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Neither hypertrophied nuclei nor the viral envelope protein VP28 could be demonstrated in surviving shrimps using histology and indirect immunofluorescence histochemistry (IIFH), respectively. To elucidate the mode of action, the temporal expression of WSSV genes and shrimp immune genes, including antimicrobial peptides, was attempted. None of the viral genes were found to be expressed in shrimps that were fed with the extract and challenged or in those that were administered CTAE-exposed WSSV. The overall results suggest that the aqueous extract from C. tagal can protect P. monodon from white spot syndrome virus infection. PMID:22643833

Sudheer, N S; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

2012-05-29

287

Knocking down a Taura syndrome virus (TSV) binding protein Lamr is lethal for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding a laminin receptor protein (Lamr) has been isolated from hemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv), based on primers designed from a previously published Lamr sequence of a Taura syndrome virus (TSV) binding protein of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Pm). The deduced amino acid sequence of PvLamr shares 97% identity with PmLamr and has significant homology to laminin receptors and ribosomal protein p40 from various organisms. Tissue distribution analysis by RT-PCR revealed that Lamr transcripts were widely expressed in all tested tissues of P. monodon and Penaeus vannamei. PmLamr was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified and used to raise a polyclonal antibody. The antiserum reacted with purified recombinant PmLamr and crude muscle tissue proteins from both P. monodon and P. vannamei, but not with hemocyte-free shrimp hemolymph. Examination of protein localization by immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of Lamr positive cytoplasm in subcuticular epithelial cells, hematopoietic tissues, epithelial cells of the stomach, epithelial cells of the anterior midgut cecum, antennal gland epithelial cells, F cells of the hepatopancreas, cells in the ovarian zone of proliferation and spheroid cells in the lymphoid organ. RNA interference-mediated silencing of the messenger from Lamr in P. vannamei led to shrimp mortality and indicated an essential function of Lamr for shrimp viability. A negative consequence was that the effect of Lamr knockdown on shrimp infection by Taura syndrome virus could not be assessed. PMID:20451618

Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Anantasomboon, Gun; Sriphaijit, Thanawat; Browdy, Craig L; Flegel, Timothy W

2010-05-06

288

A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus.

You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A. [Nebraska Center for Virology, E249A Beadle, Lincoln (United States); Hiscox, Julian A. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.a.hiscox@leeds.ac.uk

2008-08-15

289

Characterization of Hantaan virions, the prototype virus of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.  

PubMed

Hantaan virus, strain 76-118, was propagated to high titer in a clone of Vero cells, and infectious virions were successfully concentrated and purified. Infectivity and virus antigenic activity were closely associated with a virus particle that exhibited a sedimentation rate indistinguishable from a representative member of the Bunyaviridae. Purified virions sedimented to a density of 1.16-1.17 in sucrose and 1.20-1.21 in cesium chloride. Detergent disruption of virions resulted in a nucleocapsid structure (density, 1.18 in sucrose and 1.25 in cesium chloride) and soluble protein antigens. Three separate nucleocapsids were resolved by rate-zonal centrifugation and contained a single but common polypeptide of 50,000 daltons. Electrophoresis of radiolabeled RNA extracted from purified virions yielded a profile of three RNA species with apparent molecular weights of 2.7, 1.2, and 0.6 X 10(6). These data support earlier electron microscopy reports which suggested that Hantaan virus has characteristics similar to some members of the virus family Bunyaviridae. PMID:6140290

Schmaljohn, C S; Hasty, S E; Harrison, S A; Dalrymple, J M

1983-12-01

290

Infectiousness of pigs infected by the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) is time-dependent  

PubMed Central

The time-dependent transmission rate of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and the correlation between infectiousness, virological parameters and antibody responses of the infected pigs were studied in experimental conditions. Seven successive transmission trials involving a total of 77 specific pathogen-free piglets were carried out from 7 to 63 days post-inoculation (dpi). A semi-quantitative real time RT-PCR was developed to assess the evolution of the viral genome load in blood and nasal swabs from inoculated and contact pigs, with time. Virus genome in blood was detectable in inoculated pigs from 7 to 77 dpi, whereas viral genome shedding was detectable from nasal swabs from 2 to 48 dpi. The infectiousness of inoculated pigs, assessed from the frequency of occurrence of infected pigs in susceptible groups in each contact trial, increased from 7 to 14 dpi and then decreased slowly until 42 dpi (3, 7, 2, 1 and 0 pigs infected at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 dpi, respectively). These data were used to model the time-dependent infectiousness by a lognormal-like function with a latency period of 1 day and led to an estimated basic reproduction ratio, R0 of 2.6 [1.8, 3.3]. The evolution of infectiousness was mainly correlated with the time-course of viral genome load in the blood whereas the decrease of infectiousness was strongly related to the increase in total antibodies.

2012-01-01

291

Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp  

SciTech Connect

Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter.

Liu Wangjing [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang Yunshiang [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wang Chunghsiung [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kou, Guang-Hsiung [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lo Chufang [Institute of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: gracelow@ntu.edu.tw

2005-04-10

292

A Putative Cell Surface Receptor for White Spot Syndrome Virus Is a Member of a Transporter Superfamily  

PubMed Central

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a large enveloped DNA virus, can cause the most serious viral disease in shrimp and has a wide host range among crustaceans. In this study, we identified a surface protein, named glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), which could also interact with WSSV envelope protein, VP53A. Sequence analysis revealed that Glut1 is a member of a large superfamily of transporters and that it is most closely related to evolutionary branches of this superfamily, branches that function to transport this sugar. Tissue tropism analysis showed that Glut1 was constitutive and highly expressed in almost all organs. Glut1's localization in shrimp cells was further verified and so was its interaction with Penaeus monodon chitin-binding protein (PmCBP), which was itself identified to interact with an envelope protein complex formed by 11 WSSV envelope proteins. In vitro and in vivo neutralization experiments using synthetic peptide contained WSSV binding domain (WBD) showed that the WBD peptide could inhibit WSSV infection in primary cultured hemocytes and delay the mortality in shrimps challenged with WSSV. These findings have important implications for our understanding of WSSV entry.

Huang, Huai-Ting; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Huang, Po-Yu; Chen, Li-Li

2012-01-01

293

Antilipopolysaccharide factor interferes with white spot syndrome virus replication in vitro and in vivo in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus.  

PubMed

In a study of genes expressed differentially in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus infected experimentally with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), one protein, known as antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), was chosen, among those whose transcript levels increased upon viral infection, for further studies. ALF RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in whole animals and in cell cultures indicated that ALF can protect against WSSV infection, since knockdown of ALF by RNAi specifically resulted in higher rates of viral propagation. In a cell culture of hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) from P. leniusculus, quantitative PCR showed that knockdown of ALF by RNAi resulted into WSSV levels that were about 10-fold higher than those treated with control double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In addition, RNAi experiments with other crayfish genes that had been found to be up-regulated by a WSSV infection did not result in any changes of viral loads. Thus, the cell culture does not respond to dsRNA in a similar manner, as shown earlier for dsRNA injected into shrimp, which gave a higher degree of resistance to WSSV infection. If ALF transcription in whole animals was stimulated by the administration of UV-treated WSSV, a partial protection against a subsequent challenge with the active virus was conferred to the host. This is the first crustacean gene product identified with the capacity to interfere with replication of this important pathogen. PMID:17041217

Liu, Haipeng; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Cerenius, Lage; Söderhäll, Kenneth

2006-11-01

294

Suppression of immune responses in pigs by nonstructural protein 1 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is characterized by a delayed and defective adaptive immune response. The viral nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) of the PRRS virus (PRRSV) is able to suppress the type I interferon (IFN) response in vitro. In this study, recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) expressing NSP1 (rAd-NSP1), glycoprotein 5 (GP5) (rAd-GP5), and the NSP1-GP5 fusion protein (rAd-NSP1-GP5) were constructed, and the effect of NSP1 on immune responses was investigated in pigs. Pigs inoculated with rAd-NSP1 or rAd-NSP1-GP5 had significantly lower levels of IFN-? and higher levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 than pigs inoculated with rAd-GP5, wild-type adenovirus, or cell culture medium alone. The antibody response to vaccination against classic swine fever virus (CSFV) was significantly decreased by inoculation of NSP1 7 d after CSFV vaccination in pigs. Thus, NSP1-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in PRRSV pathogenesis. PMID:23543950

Zhou, Yefei; Bai, Juan; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Xinglong; Wang, Xianwei; Jiang, Ping

2012-10-01

295

A simple and rapid immunochromatographic strip test for detecting antibody to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is rapidly gaining worldwide importance as one of the most economically significant diseases of swine. The antibody of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is detected currently by the combined use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, serum neutralization test, immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. These methods are time-consuming and require specialized equipment operated by trained technicians. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simple strip assay (based on a chromatographic and immunogold system) for specific detection of PRRSV antibody in swine sera. This "immunochromatographic strip" test uses Escherichia coli-expressed viral recombinant membrane protein antigen in combination with recombinant nucleocapsid protein as capture protein for detecting antibodies against PRRSV. In this study, the performance of this assay was evaluated with sera from both clinical samples and experimentally infected piglets. Detection by immunochromatographic strip test was compared with detection by a standard, available commercially, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The immunochromatographic test strip detected antibodies in sera known to contain antibodies to PRRSV in 95.7% sensitivity of samples from pigs infected experimentally and 98.6% sensitivity of clinical serum samples. For sera that did not contain antibodies to PRRSV, the specificity was 97.8% and 98.2% for clinical and experimental serum samples, respectively. PMID:18619681

Cui, Shangjin; Zhou, Shenghua; Chen, Changmu; Qi, Ting; Zhang, Chaofan; Oh, JinSik

2008-07-10

296

Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

SciTech Connect

Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-alpha treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells is dependent on TGF-beta but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-alpha treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.

Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Mwangi, Waithaka [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Hernandez, Jesus, E-mail: jhdez@ciad.m [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2009-05-10

297

Detection and differentiation of rabbit hemorrhagic disease and European brown hare syndrome viruses by amplification of VP60 genomic sequences from fresh and fixed tissue specimens.  

PubMed Central

Two reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays have been developed for the detection and differentiation of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV), two closely related caliciviruses. In order to select highly specific primers, comparative analysis was performed with a large number of RHDV and EBHSV genomic sequences. Regarding these data, primers were selected from similar regions of the VP60 genes to amplify a fragment of 316 nucleotides from the genome of RHDV and a fragment of 265 nucleotides from the genome of EBHSV. In sensitivity studies, as few as 10 copies of cloned viral genomic fragments were detected in each PCR assay, and no cross amplification was observed between the two viruses. The diagnostic value of the assays was confirmed with clinical material by testing fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver and spleen specimens from a large number of geographically and temporally distant outbreaks. Thus, the two PCR assays provide highly specific and sensitive, novel means of direct detection of the two caliciviruses. In addition, by detecting the viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues (PETs), the RT-PCR assays facilitate retrospective virological and epidemiological studies. For example, the identification of EBHSV in PET specimens collected in the 1970s indicates that this virus appeared in the hare populations several years before the first reports of European brown hare syndrome during the 1980s.

Ros Bascunana, C; Nowotny, N; Belak, S

1997-01-01

298

[Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore virus) in the Peruvian Amazon region].  

PubMed

Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later. PMID:23085803

Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Alvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F

299

Phylogenetic analysis of murine leukemia virus sequences from longitudinally sampled chronic fatigue syndrome patients suggests PCR contamination rather than viral evolution.  

PubMed

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) has been amplified from human prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patient samples. Other studies failed to replicate these findings and suggested PCR contamination with a prostate cancer cell line, 22Rv1, as a likely source. MLV-like sequences have also been detected in CFS patients in longitudinal samples 15 years apart. Here, we tested whether sequence data from these samples are consistent with viral evolution. Our phylogenetic analyses strongly reject a model of within-patient evolution and demonstrate that the sequences from the first and second time points represent distinct endogenous murine retroviruses, suggesting contamination. PMID:21849443

Katzourakis, Aris; Hué, Stéphane; Kellam, Paul; Towers, Greg J

2011-08-17

300

50 CFR 648.105 - Possession restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...one person, the violation shall be deemed to have been committed by the owner and operator. (d) Owners and operators of otter trawl vessels issued a permit under § 648.4(a)(3) that fish with or possess nets or pieces of net on board that...

2011-10-01

301

An Inventory of an Inquisitorial Prisoner's Possessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presentation will describe how an inventory of an inquisitorial prisoner's possessions, routinely drawn up at the time of a prisoner's arrest, throws light on the material circumstances and consumption patterns of the prisoner and his\\/her family, as well as on the material milieu he\\/she inhabited. The inventory is that of Francisco Maldonado de Silva, a physician in the Viceroyalty

Miriam Bodian

2007-01-01

302

Demonstrating data possession and uncheatable data transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observe that a certain RSA-based secure hash function is homo- morphic. We describe a protocol based on this hash function which prevents 'cheating' in a data transfer transaction, while placing little burden on the trusted third party that oversees the protocol. We also describe a cryptographic protocol based on similar principles, through which a prover can demonstrate possession of

Decio Luiz Gazzoni Filho; Paulo S ´ ergio; Licciardi Messeder Barreto

303

Passive protection of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using specific antibody from egg yolk of chickens immunized with inactivated virus or a WSSV-DNA vaccine.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality and large economic losses in cultured shrimp. The VP28, VP19 and VP15 genes encode viral structural proteins of WSSV. In this study, hens were immunized with recombinant plasmid (pCI-VP28/VP19/VP15) with linkers or with inactivated WSSV, which used CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) and Freund's adjuvant as adjuvant, respectively. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) from hens immunized with inactivated vaccine and DNA vaccine was obtained, purified and used for protection of Metapenaeus ensis shrimp against WSSV. The data showed that the antibody response of the hens immunized with the DNA vaccine was improved by CpG ODNs as adjuvant, but was still inferior to inactivated WSSV in both sera and egg yolks. Using specific IgY from hens immunized with inactivated WSSV and DNA vaccine to neutralize WSSV, the challenged shrimp showed 73.3% and 33.3% survival, respectively. Thus, the results suggest that passive immunization strategy with IgY will be a valuable method against WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:18805492

Lu, Yanan; Liu, Junjun; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhen, Yuhong; Xue, Hongyu; You, Jiansong; Xu, Yongping

2008-09-04

304

Lupus anticoagulant in Nigerian patients living with human immunodeficiency virus\\/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Lupus anticoagulants (LACs) are frequently found in patients with human immuno- deficiency virus (HIV). This study was designed to examine the prevalence of LACs and its significance in HIV-infected Nigerian patients. Methods: LACs were assayed, and complete blood count and direct Coombs' test (DCT) were performed for 155 participants. Patients with other conditions known to be associated

Muhammad Alhaji Ndakotsu; Lateef Salawu; Muheez Alani Durosinmi

305

Gene-Based Immunotherapy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT More than 40 million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and a successful vac- cine is at least a decade away. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy prolongs life, the maintenance of viral latency requires life-long treatment and results in cumulative toxicities and viral escape mutants. Gene therapy offers the promise to cure or prevent progressive HIV infection

Boro Dropulic; Carl H. June

2006-01-01

306

Evidence for a major QTL associated with host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus challenge.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes decreased reproductive performance in breeding animals and increased respiratory problems in growing animals, which result in significant economic losses in the swine industry. Vaccination has generally not been effective in the prevention of PRRS, partially because of the rapid mutation rate and evolution of the virus. The objective of the current study was to discover the genetic basis of host resistance or susceptibility to the PRRS virus through a genome-wide association study using data from the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium PRRS-CAP project. Three groups of approximately 190 commercial crossbred pigs from 1 breeding company were infected with PRRS virus between 18 and 28 d of age. Blood samples and BW were collected up to 42 d post infection (DPI). Pigs were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine 60k Beadchip. Whole-genome analysis focused on viremia at each day blood was collected and BW gains from 0 to 21 DPI (WG21) or 42 DPI (WG42). Viral load (VL) was quantified as area under the curve from 0 to 21 DPI. Heritabilities for WG42 and VL were moderate at 0.30 and litter accounted for an additional 14% of phenotypic variation. Genomic regions associated with VL were found on chromosomes 4 and X and on 1, 4, 7, and 17 for WG42. The 1-Mb region identified on chromosome 4 influenced both WG and VL, exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium, and explained 15.7% of the genetic variance for VL and 11.2% for WG42. Despite a genetic correlation of -0.46 between VL and WG42, genomic EBV for this region were favorably and nearly perfectly correlated. The favorable allele for the most significant SNP in this region had a frequency of 0.16 and estimated allele substitution effects were significant (P < 0.01) for each group when the SNP was fitted as a fixed covariate in a model that included random polygenic effects with overall estimates of -4.1 units for VL (phenotypic SD = 6.9) and 2.0 kg (phenotypic SD = 3 kg) for WG42. Candidate genes in this region on SSC4 include the interferon induced guanylate-binding protein gene family. In conclusion, host response to experimental PRRS virus challenge has a strong genetic component, and a QTL on chromosome 4 explains a substantial proportion of the genetic variance in the studied population. These results could have a major impact in the swine industry by enabling marker-assisted selection to reduce the impact of PRRS but need to be validated in additional populations. PMID:22205662

Boddicker, N; Waide, E H; Rowland, R R R; Lunney, J K; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M; Dekkers, J C M

2011-12-28

307

Metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who do not have obesity or type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The individual components of metabolic syndrome may be independent predictors of mortality in patients with liver disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related components in hepatitis C virus–infected patients who are not obese and do not have type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 125 patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Anthropometric data were measured according to standardized procedures. Bioimpedance analysis was performed on all patients. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 21.6% of patients. Of the subjects with metabolic syndrome, 59.3% had hypertension, 77.8% had insulin resistance, 85.2% were overweight, 48.1% had a high waist circumference, 85.2% had an increased body fat percentage, and 92.3% had an elevated waist:hip ratio. In the bivariate analysis, female sex (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.09–6.25), elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (?GT) (OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.04–7.29), elevated fasting glucose (OR 8.05; 95% CI: 3.17-21.32), low HDL cholesterol (OR 2.80; 95% CI: 1.07–7.16), hypertriglyceridemia (OR 7.91; 95% CI: 2.88–22.71), elevated waist circumference (OR 10.33; 95% CI: 3.72–30.67), overweight (OR 11.33; 95% CI: 3.97–41.07), and increased body fat percentage (OR 8.34; 95% CI: 2.94–30.08) were independent determinants of metabolic syndrome. Using the final multivariate regression model, similar results were observed for abdominal fat (OR 9.98; 95% CI: 2.63–44.41) and total body fat percentage (OR 8.73; 95% CI: 2.33–42.34). However, metabolic syndrome risk was also high for those with blood glucose ?5.55 mmol/L or HDL cholesterol <0.9 mmol/L (OR 16.69; 95% CI: 4.64–76.35; OR 7.23; 95% CI: 1.86–32.63, respectively). CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among hepatitis C virus–infected patients without type 2 diabetes or obesity. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with hypertension, insulin resistance, increased abdominal fat, and overweight.

Oliveira, Lucivalda Pereira Magalhaes; de Jesus, Rosangela P.; Boulhosa, Ramona SSB; Mendes, Carlos Mauricio C.; Lyra, Andre Castro; Lyra, Luiz Guilherme C.

2012-01-01

308

Interleukin-21 overexpression dominates T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus in a fatal case of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1.  

PubMed

Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine whose actions are closely related to B cell differentiation into plasma cells as well as to CD8(+) cytolytic T cell effector and memory generation, influencing the T lymphocyte response to different viruses. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 (XLP-1) is a primary immunodeficiency syndrome that is characterized by a high susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. We observed in a pediatric patient with XLP-1 that IL-21 was expressed in nearly all peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. However, IL-21 could not be found in the lymph nodes, suggesting massive mobilization of activated cells toward the infection's target organs, where IL-21-producing cells were detected, resulting in large areas of tissue damage. PMID:23467775

Ortega, Consuelo; Estévez, Orlando A; Fernández, Silvia; Aguado, Rocío; Rumbao, José M; Gonzalez, Teresa; Pérez-Navero, Juan L; Santamaría, Manuel

2013-03-06

309

A novel baculovirus vector shows efficient gene delivery of modified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigens and elicits specific immune response.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating epizootic of porcine species. Current vaccines are inadequate to control the disease burden and outbreaks in the field. We report a novel baculovirus vaccine vector with White spot syndrome virus immediate early 1 shuttle promoter, with strong activity in both insect cells and mammalian cells, for immunization against PRRSV. The insect cell cultured baculovirus vector produces PRRSV envelope glycoproteins ORF2a, ORF3, ORF4 and ORF5, which are similar to the antigens in the infectious PRRS virion, and these antigens are stably incorporated on the surface of the baculovirus. Further, the baculovirus vector efficiently transduces these antigens in cells of porcine origin, thereby simulating a live infection. The baculovirus vectored PRRSV antigens, upon inoculation in mice, elicits robust neutralizing antibodies against the infective PRRS virus. Further, the experiments indicate that hitherto under emphasized ORF2a and ORF4 are important target antigens for neutralizing PRRSV infectivity. PMID:24035590

Karuppannan, Anbu K; Qiang, Jia; Chang, C C; Kwang, Jimmy

2013-09-12

310

The Prevalence of Pain in Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus\\/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome as Reported by Participants in the Pediatric Late Outcomes Study (PACTG 219)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. As the life expectancy of children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)\\/ac- quired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increases, quality-of-life outcomes are of increasing concern. The prevalence of pain in adults with AIDS ranges from 40% to 60%, depending on stage of illness. There is limited research concerning pain in HIV-infected children and youth. Design. The General Health Assessment for Children was

Denise M. Gaughan; Michael D. Hughes; George R. Seage; Peter A. Selwyn; Vincent J. Carey; Steven L. Gortmaker; James M. Oleske

2010-01-01

311

An RNA helicase, RHIV -1, induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is mapped on porcine chromosome 10q13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on porcine alveolar macrophages (Mø) was examined by differential display reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR). A PRRSV-induced expressed gene tag (EST) was used to isolate and identify a single cDNA clone from a library prepared from porcine peripheral blood. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was employed to clone a

Xuexian Zhang; Changchun Wang; Lawrence B Schook; Rachel J Hawken; Mark S Rutherford

2000-01-01

312

THE ECONOMIC BURDEN OF ILLNESS FOR HOUSEHOLDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A REVIEW OF STUDIES FOCUSING ON MALARIA, TUBERCULOSIS, AND HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS\\/ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ill-health contributes to impoverishment, a process brought into sharper focus by the impact of the human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS) epidemic. This paper reviews studies that have measured the economic costs and consequences of illness for households, focusing on malaria, tuberculosis (TB), and HIV\\/AIDS. It finds that in resource-poor settings illness imposed high and regressive cost burdens on patients

STEVEN RUSSELL

313

White Spot Syndrome Virus Proteins and Differentially Expressed Host Proteins Identified in Shrimp Epithelium by Shotgun Proteomics and Cleavable Isotope-Coded Affinity Tag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp subcuticular epithelial cells are the initial and major targets of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Proteomic studies of WSSV-infected subcuticular epithelium of Penaeus monodon were performed through two approaches, namely, subcellular fractionation coupled with shotgun proteomics to identify viral and host proteins and a quantitative time course proteomic analysis using cleavable isotope-coded affinity tags (cICATs) to identify differentially

Jinlu Wu; Qingsong Lin; Teck Kwang Lim; Tiefei Liu; Choy-Leong Hew

2007-01-01

314

Specific detection of reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification amplicons for Taura syndrome virus by colorimetric dot–blot hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop a field diagnosis system based on isothermal reverse transcription-loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) for shrimp Taura syndrome virus (TSV), placing emphasis on specific and simple detection of the LAMP amplicons. After a single-tube RT-LAMP reaction for TSV was established, colorimetric dot–blot hybridization (DBH) was adopted to detect signals only from the target-derived amplicons. The

Ping-Hua Teng; Chu-Liang Chen; Ping-Feng Sung; Fu-Chun Lee; Bor-Rung Ou; Pei-Yu Lee

2007-01-01

315

Immunization with Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Based Recombinant Vaccine against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Is Associated with Enhanced Hepatitis in Ferrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a newly identified coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a serious emerging human infectious disease. In this report, we immunized ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with recom- binant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) expressing the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein. Immunized ferrets developed a more rapid and vigorous neutralizing antibody response than control animals after challenge with SARS-CoV;

Hana Weingartl; Markus Czub; Stefanie Czub; James Neufeld; Peter Marszal; Jason Gren; Greg Smith; Shane Jones; Roxanne Proulx; Yvonne Deschambault; Elsie Grudeski; Anton Andonov; Runtao He; Yan Li; John Copps; Allen Grolla; Daryl Dick; Jody Berry; Shelley Ganske; Lisa Manning; Jingxin Cao

2004-01-01

316

Fanconi syndrome-like tubular acidosis associated with a tenofovir-containing antiretroviral regimen in a human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected Asian woman.  

PubMed

A 49-year-old, human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected Asian woman developed Fanconi syndrome-like tubular acidosis while taking tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine plus lopinavir/ritonavir for 9 months. All of her symptoms and abnormalities in laboratory tests resolved completely after switching TDF/emtricitabine to zidovudine and lamivudine. We consider that TDF caused symptomatic tubular acidosis in the present case, one of the few that has been reported in Japan to date. PMID:21918819

Kiyasu, Yoshihiko; Koganemaru, Hiroshi; Hitomi, Shigemi

2011-09-15

317

Effect of dose and challenge routes of Vibrio spp. on co-infection with white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dose and challenge routes of Vibrio spp. on co-infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei shrimp. Juvenile shrimp were first injected with WSSV at a dose of 30 SID50 shrimp?1 (SID50=shrimp infectious dose with 50% endpoint) and 24 h later with 103, 104, 105 or 106 CFU

Le Hong Phuoc; Mathias Corteel; Nguyen Cong Thanh; Hans Nauwynck; Maurice Pensaert; Victoria Alday-Sanz; Wim Van den Broeck; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier

2009-01-01

318

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus as a vector: Immunogenicity of green fluorescent protein and porcine circovirus type 2 capsid expressed from dedicated subgenomic RNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of PRRS, which is characterized by late-term abortions in sows and respiratory disease in young pigs. Using an infectious cDNA clone of North American PRRSV strain P129, the viral genome was engineered to transcribe an additional subgenomic RNA initiating between non-structural and structural genes. Two unique restriction sites and

Yanlong Pei; Douglas C. Hodgins; Jiaqiang Wu; Siao-Kun W. Welch; Jay G. Calvert; Gang Li; Yijun Du; Cheng Song; Dongwan Yoo

2009-01-01

319

Porcine B-cells recognize epitopes that are conserved between the structural proteins of American and European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

By selecting phage display libraries with immune sera from experimentally infected pigs, porcine B-cell epitopes in the open reading frame (ORF) 2, 3, 5 and 6 proteins of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were identified. The sequences of all the epitopes were well conserved in European-type PRRSV and even between European- and American-type PRRSV. Accordingly, sera from

M. B. Oleksiewicz; A. Bøtner; P. Normann

2002-01-01

320

Identification of major differences in the nucleocapsid protein genes of a Quebec strain and European strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the genome of Qurbec reference strain IAF-expgl of porcine repro- ductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was investigated by analysis of four cDNA clones. The 3'- terminal 530 nucleotides (nt) encompassed a large open reading frame with a coding capacity of 123 amino acids (34,. 13 649). The predicted protein was extremely basic

Helmi Mardassi; Samir Mounir; Serge Dea

1994-01-01

321

Recovery of viable porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from an infectious clone containing a partial deletion within the Nsp2-encoding region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-structural protein 2 (Nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most variable region\\u000a and postulated to play an important role in cell and tissue tropism of PRRSV. To investigate the role of Nsp2 in the viability\\u000a and growth of PRRSV in cells in vitro, two cDNA clones were constructed containing a deletion of 63 consecutive nucleotides

Z. G. Ran; X. Y. Chen; X. Guo; X. N. Ge; K. J. Yoon; H. C. Yang

2008-01-01

322

Sensory neuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients: Protease inhibitorâ??mediated neurotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common and disabling disorder, often associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. We investigated the clinical features and associated pathogenic determinants of HIV-SN in a neurological cohort of HIV-infected patients, together with a novel model of HIV-SN. Methods: HIV-infected patients with neurological disease were investigated in terms of clinical and laboratory aspects

Jacqueline A. Pettersen; Gareth Jones; Catherine Worthington; Hartmut B. Krentz; Oliver T. Keppler; Ahmet Hoke; M. John Gill; Christopher Power

2006-01-01

323

Isolation of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several isolates of a human type-C retrovirus belonging to one group, known as human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), have previously been obtained from patients with adult T-cell leukemia or lymphoma. The T-cell tropism of HTLV and its prevalence in the Caribbean basin prompted a search for it in patients with the epidemic T-cell immune deficiency disorder known as AIDS. Peripheral

Robert C. Gallo; Prem S. Sarin; E. P. Gelmann; Marjorie Robert-Guroff; Ersell Richardson; V. S. Kalyanaraman; Dean Mann; Gurdip D. Sidhu; Rosalyn E. Stahl; Susan Zolla-Pazner; Jacque Leibowitch; Mikulas Popovic

1983-01-01

324

Interaction of the European genotype porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with sialoadhesin (CD169/Siglec-1) inhibits alveolar macrophage phagocytosis  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus that shows a restricted in vivo tropism for subsets of porcine macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being major target cells. The virus is associated with respiratory problems in pigs of all ages and is commonly isolated on farms with porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Due to virus-induced macrophage death early in infection, PRRSV hampers the innate defence against pathogens in the lungs. In addition, the virus might also directly affect the antimicrobial functions of macrophages. This study examined whether interaction of European genotype PRRSV with primary alveolar macrophages (PAM) affects their phagocytic capacity. Inoculation of macrophages with both subtype I PRRSV (LV) and subtype III PRRSV (Lena) showed that the virus inhibits PAM phagocytosis. Similar results were obtained using inactivated PRRSV (LV), showing that initial interaction of the virion with the cell is sufficient to reduce phagocytosis, and that no productive infection is required. When macrophages were incubated with sialoadhesin- (Sn) or CD163-specific antibodies, two entry mediators of the virus, only Sn-specific antibodies downregulated the phagocytic capacity of PAM, indicating that interaction with Sn, but not CD163, mediates the inhibitory effect of PRRSV on phagocytosis. In conclusion, this study shows that European genotype PRRSV inhibits PAM phagocytosis in vitro, through the interaction with its internalization receptor Sn. If similar events occur in vivo, this interaction may be important in the development of PRDC, as often seen in the field.

2012-01-01

325

Comparison of the virulence of European and North American genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in experimentally infected pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the virulence of Korean types 1 and 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolated from weaned pigs with respiratory disease. Affected pigs were within the same herd and animals infected with type 2 virus had significantly higher mean rectal temperatures than those with type 1 virus between days 2 and 9 post-inoculation (P<0.05). Similarly, mean serum viral titres, expressed as tissue culture infective doses 50% (TCID50)/mL, as well as macroscopic and microscopic pulmonary lesion scores, were significantly higher at multiple time points in pigs infected with type 2 PRRSV compared to those infected with type 1 virus. Mean numbers of PRRSV-positive cells/unit area of lungs and lymph nodes were also significantly higher in type 2 PRRSV infected pigs. This study demonstrates that type 2 PRRSV is more virulent than type 1 PRRSV in this experimental setting as reflected by the pulmonary pathology induced, the extent of virus distribution, and oral shedding of the virus. PMID:22831992

Han, K; Seo, H W; Oh, Y; Kang, I; Park, C; Chae, C

2012-07-24

326

Know-how and concept possession  

Microsoft Academic Search

We begin with a puzzle: why do some know-how attributions entail ability attributions while others do not? After rejecting\\u000a the tempting response that know-how attributions are ambiguous, we argue that a satisfactory answer to the puzzle must acknowledge\\u000a the connection between know-how and concept possession (specifically, reasonable conceptual mastery, or understanding). This\\u000a connection appears at first to be grounded solely

John Bengson; Marc A. Moffett

2007-01-01

327

Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain dependent. These viruses are classified as members of the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae. BVDV are considered primarily a pathogen of cattle but can infect most ruminant species. The virus particle consists of a lipid bilayer membrane surrounding the encapsidated genomic RNA. Inserted in the outer membrane are two virus-encoded glycoproteins that contain the major antigenic determinants of the virus as well as receptor binding and cell fusion functions. A third glycoprotein is weakly associated with the virion, but also possesses unique features that play important roles in suppression of innate immunity. The viral proteins are encoded in a single, large open reading frame. The viral proteins are proteolytically cleaved from the polyprotein by different proteases. The structural proteins are processed by cellular signal peptidases while the processing of the nonstructural proteins is by the viral serine protease. The virus is assembled and matures in the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi bodies of the cell. The virus is released via exocytosis, where viral proteins are not exposed on the surface of the cell. PMID:22884672

Neill, John D

2012-08-11

328

Inhibition of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication by Small Interfering RNAs in Mammalian Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory infectious disease that spread worldwide in early 2003. The cause was determined as a novel coronavirus (CoV), SARS-associated CoV (SARS-CoV), with a single-stranded, plus-sense RNA. To date, no effective specific treatment has been identified. To exploit the possibility of using RNA interference as a therapeutic approach to fight the disease, plasmid-mediated

Zhi Wang; Lili Ren; Xingang Zhao; Tao Hung; Anming Meng; Jianwei Wang; Ye-Guang Chen

2004-01-01

329

Mutations in the genome of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus responsible for the attenuation phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Although live-attenuated vaccines have been used for some time to control clinical symptoms of the porcine reproductive and\\u000a respiratory syndrome (PRRS), the molecular bases for the attenuated phenotype remain unclear. We had previously determined\\u000a the genomic sequence of the pathogenic PRRSV 16244B. Limited comparisons of the structural protein coding sequence of an attenuated\\u000a vaccine strain have shown 98% homology to

R. Allende; G. F. Kutish; W. Laegreid; Z. Lu; T. L. Lewis; D. L. Rock; J. Friesen; J. A. Galeota; A. R. Doster; F. A. Osorio

2000-01-01

330

Simultaneous and rapid detection of white spot syndrome virus and yellow head virus infection in shrimp with a dual immunochromatographic strip test.  

PubMed

A strip test for the dual detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) was developed using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the WSSV major envelope protein VP28 (W1 and W30) and the YHV nucleocapsid protein p20 (Y19 and Y21). The MAbs W30 and Y19 were conjugated with colloidal gold and sprayed onto a glass fiber pad that was placed adjacent to a sample chamber. The MAbs W1 and Y21 and the goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (GAM) antibody were sprayed onto a nitrocellulose membrane in strips at positions designated W, Y and C, respectively. These test strips were placed in plastic cases and stored desiccated in a plastic bag. The test strips were assessed for their ability to detect WSSV and YHV simultaneously using pleopods sampled from shrimp. A pleopod homogenate in application buffer 100?l was applied to the sample chamber to flow through the nitrocellulose membrane strip, and antibody-protein complexes could be observed within 15min. In sample from shrimp infected with WSSV and/or YHV, viral protein bound to the colloidal gold-conjugated MAbs. These complexes were captured by the MAbs at the W and/or Y test lines, resulting in the appearance of reddish-purple coloured bands. Any unbound colloidal gold-conjugated MAbs migrated pass the W and Y lines would be captured by the GAM antibody, forming a band at position C. When samples not containing WSSV and YHV proteins or containing viral proteins at below the detection limit of the test, only the band at position C was observed. The sensitivity of the test was comparable to dot blot tests using single MAbs, and ?500-fold less sensitive than a 1-step PCR test for WSSV and 1000-fold less sensitive than an RT-PCR test for YHV. Despite this lower sensitivity, the dual strip test has advantages in speed and simplicity in not requiring sophisticated equipment or specialized skills. The ability to co-detect WSSV and YHV provides simultaneously cost savings. PMID:21256869

Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Sridulyakul, Pattarin; Longyant, Siwaporn

2011-01-21

331

Dynamic changes in inflammatory cytokines in pigs infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection induces both humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, we investigated the changes in cytokine levels in peripheral blood between the highly pathogenic PRRSV HuN4 strain and its derivative strain HuN4-F112 obtained by serial propagation in MARC145 cells to 112 passages. The results demonstrated that pigs infected with HuN4 showed a loss of appetite, decrease in body weight, raised body temperature, and respiratory symptoms, along with interstitial pneumonia lesions. The PRRSV amounts in the pigs infected with HuN4 were 10(5) to 10(9) copies/ml in the blood and 10(10) to 10(11) copies/g in the lung tissues, whereas the virus amounts with HuN4-F112 were 10(2.15) to 10(3.13) copies/ml in the blood and 10(3.0) to 10(3.6) copies/g in the lungs. Moreover, the levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) in peripheral blood were upregulated 7 days postinoculation with HuN4, which was earlier than in the HuN4-F112 group. Furthermore, cytokine levels in the pigs infected with HuN4 returned to normal on the 21st day postinoculation, while the levels in those infected with HuN4-F112 continued to increase. These results demonstrated that the pigs infected with the highly pathogenic PRRSV HuN4 strain generated earlier and higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, and the results also indicated that HuN4 may aggravate inflammation and damage tissues and organs. The low-pathogenic PRRSV HuN4-F112 strain induced lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, which may enhance the immune responses against the infection. PMID:20631336

Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Zhou, Enmin; Wang, Shujie; Hu, Shouping; Cai, Xuehui; Rong, Fulong; Wu, Jiabin; Xu, Min; Xu, Mingming; Li, Liqin

2010-07-14

332

Expression of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in soybean seed yields an immunogenic antigenic protein.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a serious disease of swine and contributes to severe worldwide economic losses in swine production. Current vaccines against PRRS rely on the use of an attenuated-live virus; however, these are unreliable. Thus, alternative effective vaccines against PRRS are needed. Plant-based subunit vaccines offer viable, safe, and environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional vaccines. In this study, efforts have been undertaken to develop a soybean-based vaccine against PRRSV. A construct carrying a synthesized PRRSV-ORF7 antigen, nucleocapsid N protein of PRRSV, has been introduced into soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. cvs. Jack and Kunitz, using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants carrying the sORF7 transgene have been successfully generated. Molecular analyses of T(0) plants confirmed integration of the transgene and transcription of the PRRSV-ORF7. Presence of a 15-kDa protein in seeds of T(1) transgenic lines was confirmed by Western blot analysis using PRRSV-ORF7 antisera. The amount of the antigenic protein accumulating in seeds of these transgenic lines was up to 0.65% of the total soluble protein (TSP). A significant induction of a specific immune response, both humoral and mucosal, against PRRSV-ORF7 was observed following intragastric immunization of BALB/c female mice with transgenic soybean seeds. These findings provide a 'proof of concept', and serve as a critical step in the development of a subunit plant-based vaccine against PRRS. PMID:21971995

Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Gasic, Ksenija; Soria-Guerra, Ruth; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Korban, Schuyler S

2011-10-05

333

Emergence and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) characterized by high fever, high morbidity, and high mortality in pigs of all ages emerged in China in 2006 and spread rapidly throughout Southeast Asia. In July 2010, a highly contagious swine disease with clinical signs similar to those of HP-PRRS was observed in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). A field investigation covering 8 pig farms and 1 slaughterhouse in 7 different districts in the capital city of Vientiane was conducted to identify the disease. Total mortality rates ranged from 6.02% in boars to 91.28% in piglets (mean 54.15%) across the farms investigated. Emergence of the HP-PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) in Lao PDR was confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as virus isolation and identification. An animal inoculation study was performed to characterize the HP-PRRSV responsible for this outbreak. Isolate Laos 1.13 was inoculated into 70-day-old specific pathogen-free pigs to study pathogenicity. Clinical signs of high fever, rubefaction, respiratory distress, nervous symptoms, and diarrhea were observed in inoculated pigs, as well as pathological hemorrhagic lesions consolidated in the lungs. Morbidity and mortality were 100% and 60%, respectively, in inoculated pigs. HP-PRRSV was re-isolated from the inoculated pigs. Results suggested that the newly emerged HP-PRRSV was responsible for recent outbreaks of the swine disease in Lao PDR. The current report highlights the importance of continuous surveillance in neighboring countries to prevent introduction of PRRS to new regions. PMID:22379051

Ni, Jianqiang; Yang, Shibiao; Bounlom, Douangngeun; Yu, Xiuling; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Jianling; Khamphouth, Vongxay; Vatthana, Theppannga; Tian, Kegong

2012-03-01

334

Oral Vaccination of Baculovirus-Expressed VP28 Displays Enhanced Protection against White Spot Syndrome Virus in Penaeus monodon  

PubMed Central

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an infectious pathogen of shrimp and other crustaceans, and neither effective vaccines nor adequate treatments are currently available. WSSV is an enveloped dsDNA virus, and one of its major envelope proteins, VP28, plays a pivotal role in WSSV infection. In an attempt to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we inserted the VP28 gene into a baculovirus vector tailored to express VP28 on the baculovirus surface under the WSSV ie1 promoter (Bac-VP28). The Bac-VP28 incorporated abundant quantity (65.3 µg/ml) of VP28. Shrimp were treated by oral and immersion vaccination with either Bac-VP28 or wild-type baculovirus (Bac-wt). The treatment was followed by challenge with WSSV after 3 and 15 days. Bac-VP28 vaccinated shrimp showed significantly higher survival rates (oral: 81.7% and 76.7%; immersion: 75% and 68.4%) than Bac-wt or non-treated shrimp (100% mortality). To verify the protective effects of Bac-VP28, we examined in vivo expression of VP28 by immunohistochemistry and quantified the WSSV copy number by qPCR. In addition to that, we quantified the expression levels shrimp genes LGBP and STAT by real-time RT-PCR from the samples obtained from Bac-VP28 vaccinated shrimp at different duration of vaccine regime. Our findings indicate that oral vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 is an attractive preventative measure against WSSV infection that can be used in the field.

S, Syed Musthaq; Kwang, Jimmy

2011-01-01

335

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replicates in testicular germ cells, alters spermatogenesis, and induces germ cell death by apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

Like other arteriviruses, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is shed in semen, a feature that is critical for the venereal transmission of this group of viruses. In spite of its epidemiological importance, little is known of the association of PRRSV or other arteriviruses with gonadal tissues. We experimentally infected a group of boars with PRRSV 12068-96, a virulent field strain. By combined use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we detected infection by PRRSV in the testes of these boars. The PRRSV testicular replication in testis centers on two types of cells: (i) epithelial germ cells of the seminiferous tubules, primarily spermatids and spermatocytes, and (ii) macrophages, which are located in the interstitium of the testis. Histopathologically, hypospermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), and abundant germ cell depletion and death were observed. We obtained evidence that such germ cell death occurs by apoptosis, as determined by a characteristic histologic pattern and evidence of massive DNA fragmentation detected in situ (TUNEL [terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated digoxigenin-UTP nick end labeling] assay). Simultaneously with these testicular alterations, we observed that there is a significant increase in the number of immature sperm cells (mainly MGCs, spermatids, and spermatocytes) in the ejaculates of the PRRSV-inoculated boars and that these cells are infected with PRRSV. Our results indicate that PRRSV may infect target cells other than macrophages, that these infected cells can be primarily responsible for the excretion of infectious PRRSV in semen, and that PRRSV induces apoptosis in these germ cells in vivo.

Sur, J H; Doster, A R; Christian, J S; Galeota, J A; Wills, R W; Zimmerman, J J; Osorio, F A

1997-01-01

336

A simple and rapid immunochromatographic test strip for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp.  

PubMed

A simple strip-test kit for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) detection was developed using monoclonal antibody W29 (against the VP28 structural protein) conjugated with colloidal gold as the detector antibody. A rabbit anti-recombinant VP28F118 (rVP28) protein antibody in combination with a W28 monoclonal antibody was used as the capture complex at the test line (T), and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody (GAM) was used as the capture antibody at the control line (C). For evidence, the ready-to-use strip was kept in a plastic case and stored in a desiccated plastic bag. A sample volume of 100 microl gill homogenate in application buffer was applied to the sample chamber at one end of the strip and allowed to flow by chromatography through the nitrocellulose membrane to the other end. In test samples containing WSSV, the virus bound to the monoclonal antibody conjugated with colloidal gold and the resulting complex was captured by the antibodies at T to give a reddish-purple band. Any unbound monoclonal antibody conjugated with colloidal gold moved across T to be captured by the GAM and formed a band at C. In samples without WSSV or with WSSV below the limit of detection of the kit, only the band at C was seen. This method was 4 times less sensitive than dot blotting, and about 2 000 000 times less sensitive than 1-step PCR. Nonetheless, it could be used to screen individual shrimp or pooled shrimp samples to confirm high levels of WSSV infection or WSSV disease outbreaks. The beneficial features of this kit are that simple, convenient and quick results can be obtained without the requirement of sophisticated tools or special skills. PMID:17140132

Sithigorngul, Weerawan; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Pecharaburanin, Nilawan; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2006-10-17

337

Pathogenesis of Korean type 1 (European genotype) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine (1) the pathogenesis of experimental infection with a Korean type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) by defining the viral distribution and the sites of viral replication and (2) the relationship between viral replication and apoptosis in stillborn fetuses and live born piglets from infected pregnant gilts. At 3 weeks ante partum, four pregnant gilts were inoculated intranasally with Korean type 1 PRRSV. Stillborn fetuses from the infected gilts were of crown-to-rump length 25.8-27.1 cm consistent with fetal death between 106 and 110 days of gestation. Type 1 PRRSV was isolated from the fetal tissues and these isolates were shown to be identical to the challenge virus by sequence analysis. Type 1 PRRSV RNA was detected in the lung, lymph node, heart, tonsil, thymus, liver, adrenal gland and spleen of live born piglets and stillborn fetuses from the infected gilts. The mean number of apoptotic cells per unit area of lung (P = 0.003), heart (P = 0.011), thymus (P = 0.003), liver (P = 0.011) and spleen (P = 0.002) was significantly higher in stillborn fetuses than in live born piglets. Dual labelling showed that the majority of cells either contained type 1 PRRSV or were apoptotic, but not both. Apoptotic cells were more numerous than PRRSV(+) cells. The results of the study demonstrated that type 1 PRRSV induces reproductive failure in pregnant gilts. Apoptosis induced by type 1 PRRSV may be associated with the incidence of stillborn fetuses in PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. PMID:23489681

Han, K; Seo, H W; Oh, Y; Kang, I; Park, C; Ha, B C; Kim, S-H; Chae, C

2013-03-13

338

Improved sensitivity of Taura syndrome virus immunodetection with a monoclonal antibody against the recombinant VP2 capsid protein.  

PubMed

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is one of the major pathogens causing mortality in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, the gene sequence encoding the VP2 capsid protein (40 kDa) of TSV was cloned into pMAL-C2 expression vector. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the VP2 capsid protein, which was expressed heterologously in the form of a fusion protein with maltose binding protein and called MBP-VP2. All MAbs belonged to the IgG1 subclass and could bind MBP-VP2 at 400-800 pg/spot in immuno-dot blot assays. The MAbs could detect VP2 both in extracts from shrimp infected naturally in western blotting and dot blotting and in shrimp tissues in immunohistochemistry. Additionally, these MAbs did not exhibit cross-reactivity to extracts from uninfected shrimp or shrimp infected with several other common viruses. However, the dot blot assay sensitivity for TSV was approximately 10,000 times lower than that of one step RT-PCR. The MAb TSV2-88 specific to VP2 obtained in this study demonstrated an approximately twofold higher sensitivity than that of the MAb specific to VP3 from a previous study. In immunohistochemistry, the MAb TSV2-88 specific to VP2 demonstrated stronger immunoreactivity than the MAb TSV3-601 specific to VP3. A combination of the VP2 and VP3 MAbs could be used to more easily detect TSV infections in field samples of L. vannamei with better sensitivity and fidelity than using a single MAb. PMID:19914291

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Hajimasalaeh, Warunee; Sridulyakul, Pattarin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2009-11-13

339

Chicken anemia virus and fowl adenoviruses: association to induce the inclusion body hepatitis/ hydropericardium syndrome.  

PubMed

The effects of a simultaneous and/or a subsequent coinfection with chicken anemia virus (CAV) isolate 10343 and fowl adenovirus (FAV) isolate 341 in specific-pathogen-free light chickens were evaluated. The simultaneous coinfection was conducted by the intramuscular route, whereas the subsequent coinfection trial considered FAVs administered orally. In trial 1, 20-day-old chickens simultaneously coinfected with CAV (10343) and FAV (341) intramuscularly (i.m.) showed 55% mortality and characteristic signs and lesions of inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium (IBH/HPS). In contrast, birds singly infected with FAV i.m. showed 10% mortality due to IBH/HPS. Trial 2 showed that birds receiving FAV 341 orally at day 7 post-CAV intramuscular infection (group A) developed a mild form of IBH/HPS with presence of inclusion bodies (INIBs) in 60% of the group and virus-neutralizing antibodies against FAV 341. Group B (FAV orally 14 days after CAV) showed significant decreased weight gain, nonspecific microscopic lesions in the liver, spleen, bursa, and thymus, and an antibody response against FAV 341. However, no INIBs could be detected in the hepatocytes of these chickens. Group C (FAV orally 35 days after CAV) showed nonspecific histopathologic changes in the liver and no antibody response to FAV. The oral single infection with FAV isolate 341 induced neither mortality nor macroscopic lesions of IBH/HPS in the birds. The present results corroborate previous reports on pathogenicity of Chilean FAV isolates, which suggest that synergism with other viruses or prior immunosuppression is necessary to produce IBH/HPS in chickens. These results also suggest that the susceptibility of chickens to FAV oral infection resulting in IBH/HPS varies throughout the course of CAV infection. PMID:10737644

Toro, H; Gonzalez, C; Cerda, L; Hess, M; Reyes, E; Geissea, C

340

50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20.38 Wildlife...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird...

2012-10-01

341

50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20.38 Wildlife...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird...

2011-10-01

342

25 CFR 11.452 - Possession of a controlled substance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Possession of a controlled substance. 11.452 Section 11...11.452 Possession of a controlled substance. (a) It is unlawful...intentionally possess any controlled substance listed in 21 CFR Part...

2013-04-01

343

High efficacy of white spot syndrome virus replication in tissues of freshwater rice-field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodomous (Herbst).  

PubMed

An attempt was made to determine the replication efficiency of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp in different organs of freshwater rice-field crab, Paratelphusa hydrodomous (Herbst), using bioassay, PCR, RT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot and real-time PCR analyses, and also to use this crab instead of penaeid shrimp for the large-scale production of WSSV. This crab was found to be highly susceptible to WSSV by intramuscular injection. PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed the systemic WSSV infection in freshwater crab. The RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of VP28 gene in different organs of infected crab. The indirect ELISA was used to quantify the VP28 protein in different organs of crab. It was found that there was a high concentration of VP28 protein in gill tissue, muscle, haemolymph and heart tissue. The copy number of WSSV in different organs of infected crab was quantified by real-time PCR, and the results revealed a steady increase in copy number in different organs of infected crab during the course of infection. The viral inoculum prepared from different organs of infected crab caused significant mortality in tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius). The results revealed that this crab can be used as an alternate host for WSSV replication and production. PMID:22943699

Sundar Raj, N; Nathiga Nambi, K S; Abdul Majeed, S; Taju, G; Vimal, S; Farook, M A; Sahul Hameed, A S

2012-09-03

344

The Role of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase and Hsp70 in Suppression of White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication at High Temperature?  

PubMed Central

High temperature (32 to 33°C) has been shown to reduce mortality in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimps, but the mechanism still remains unclear. Here we show that in WSSV-infected shrimps cultured at 32°C, transcriptional levels of representative immediate-early, early, and late genes were initially higher than those at 25°C. However, neither the IE1 nor VP28 protein was detected at 32°C, suggesting that high temperature might inhibit WSSV protein synthesis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis revealed two proteins, NAD-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the proteasome alpha 4 subunit (proteasome ?4), that were markedly upregulated in WSSV-infected shrimps at 32°C. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of members of the heat shock protein family also showed that hsp70 was upregulated at 32°C. When aldh, proteasome ?4, and hsp70 were knocked down by double-stranded RNA interference and shrimps were challenged with WSSV, the aldh and hsp70 knockdown shrimps became severely infected at 32°C, while the proteasome ?4 knockdown shrimps remained uninfected. Our results therefore suggest that ALDH and Hsp70 both play an important role in the inhibition of WSSV replication at high temperature.

Lin, Ying-Ru; Hung, Hsiao-Chun; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Wang, Hao-Ching; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

2011-01-01

345

Concurrent highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection accelerates Haemophilus parasuis infection in conventional pigs.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at determining the effect of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) on Haemophilus parasuis (HPS) in co-infection. A quantitative real-time PCR targeting infB gene, which is conserved among different HPS serotypes, was developed to improve the accuracy and speed of the detection of HPS. A total of 32 four-week-old conventional pigs were distributed randomly into four groups: pigs in group I were intranasally infected with HP-PRRSV first, and were then intraperitoneally inoculated with HPS on 5 days after HP-PRRSV infection; pigs in group II were intranasally inoculated with HP-PRRSV alone; pigs in group III were intraperitoneally inoculated with HPS alone; pigs in group IV were intraperitoneally inoculated with physiological saline. The amount of HPS in serum on 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days post-inoculation (dpi) with HPS were detected using the established quantitative real-time PCR. Clinical signs, pathological changes and histopathological lesions were observed. The amount of HPS in serum reached 10(6)copies/?l at 3 dpi with HPS in pigs of group I, while it arrived 10(5.7)copies/?l at 9 dpi with HPS in pigs of group III. The HPS loads in hearts and lungs were much higher than in other tissues. The study showed that HP-PRRSV was able to accelerate HPS infection and loads. PMID:22460022

Yu, Jiang; Wu, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Yuyu; Guo, Lihui; Cong, Xiaoyan; Du, Yijun; Li, Jun; Sun, Wenbo; Shi, Jianli; Peng, Jun; Yin, Feifei; Wang, Dapeng; Zhao, Pengwei; Wang, Jinbao

2012-03-08

346

Enzyme E2 from Chinese White Shrimp Inhibits Replication of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Ubiquitinates Its RING Domain Proteins ? †  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that the ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome pathway (UPP) is closely related to immune defense. We have identified a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2, from the Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcUbc). Injection of recombinant FcUbc protein (rFcUbc) reduced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and inhibited replication of WSSV. rFcUbc, but not a mutant FcUbc (mFcUbc), bound to WSSV RING domains (WRDs) from four potential E3 ligase proteins of WSSV in vitro. Importantly, rFcUbc could ubiquitinate the RING domains (named WRD2 and WRD3) of WSSV277 and WSSV304 proteins in vitro and the two proteins in WSSV-infected Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells. Furthermore, overexpression of FcUbc increased ubiquitination of WSSV277 and WSSV304 during WSSV infection. In summary, our study demonstrates that FcUbc from Chinese white shrimp inhibited WSSV replication and could ubiquitinate WSSV RING domain-containing proteins. This is the first report about antiviral function of Ubc E2 in shrimp.

Chen, An-Jing; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Jin-Xing

2011-01-01

347

New variants of European brown hare syndrome virus strains in free-ranging European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Slovakia.  

PubMed

Investigations regarding European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in Slovakia were undertaken in order to detect the possible presence of EBHSV and to evaluate its phylogenetic position. Liver and/or serum samples were obtained from 135 European brown hares shot by hunters in eight regional hunting areas. From 36 animals corresponding liver and serum samples were available; from the remaining 49 and 50 animals only liver or serum samples were examined, respectively. Samples were tested for antibodies against EBHSV and for viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-PCR products were subsequently sequenced. Additionally, matrilinear hare haplotypes were analyzed in order to detect potential familial susceptibility to EBHSV. Sixty-three of 86 sera contained antibodies against EBHSV, whereas 15 of 85 liver samples were PCR positive. Of the latter, 14 were sequenced, revealing three new strains of EBHSV. Fifteen different matrilinear haplotypes were identified, but no correlation was found between haplotype and susceptibility to EBHSV infection. Our findings confirmed the existence of EBHSV in Slovakia and reinforce the need for determining EBHSV status when importing hares for restocking. PMID:17347397

Frölich, Kai; Fickel, Jörns; Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Jurcik, Rastislav; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Wibbelt, Gudrun

2007-01-01

348

Effects on boar semen quality after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: a case report  

PubMed Central

The effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on semen quality was examined in a group of 11 spontaneously infected boars in a commercial boar stud. Semen samples were collected 4 weeks prior to 4 weeks post-infection (wpi). Infection with PRRSV of the European genotype subtype 1 (EU-1) was verified by specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 36% of the serum samples. All boars seroconverted before 4 wpi and remained in normal condition throughout the study. Comparison of the percentage of morphologically intact spermatozoa revealed an increase of acrosome-defective spermatozoa (P = 0.012) between ?4 and 4 wpi. Significant deleterious effects on semen quality were detected for membrane integrity when semen had been stored for 2 days after sampling. Analysis of sperm subpopulations in a thermoresistance test on day 7 after sampling revealed alterations in the percentage of circular, progressively motile spermatozoa (P = 0.013), in the percentage of non-linear, progressively motile spermatozoa (P = 0.01), and on the amplitude of lateral sperm head displacement (P = 0.047). There was no difference in the incidence of mitochondrially active spermatozoa (P = 0.075). Investigation of routine production data between pre- and post-infection status showed no differences on ejaculate volume (P = 0.417), sperm concentration (P = 0.788), and percentage of motile spermatozoa (P = 0.321). This case report provides insights into a potential control strategy for PRRSV outbreaks in boar studs.

2013-01-01

349

Effects of high salinity, high temperature and pH on capsid structure of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The structural stability of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) capsids at high salinity, high temperature and various pH values was studied. To obtain the viral capsids, the nucleocapsids were treated with high salinity. The results showed that high salinity treatment can cause the dissociation of VP15 and most of VP95 from the nucleocapsid, but there were no noticeable alterations in morphology and ultrastructure of the nucleocapsid and capsid. The capsids retained morphological integrity at temperatures <45°C but became aberrant at >60°C. In addition, the capsids were relatively resistant to strong acid conditions and were tolerant to a broad pH range of 1 to 10. However, morphological change occurred at pH 10.5. The capsids broke up into small pieces at pH 11 and completely degraded in 0.1 and 1.0 M NaOH. These results indicated that the WSSV capsid is acid-stable and alkali-labile. PMID:23135144

Chen, Weiyu; Zhang, Heng; Gu, Li; Li, Fang; Yang, Feng

2012-11-01

350

Antiviral effect of dietary germanium biotite supplementation in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium. The present study was conducted to better understand the effects of GB on immune responses in a mouse model, and to demonstrate the clearance effects of this mineral against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of a feed supplement that would promote immune activity and help prevent diseases. In the mouse model, dietary supplementation with GB enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and increased the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV, viral titers in lungs and lymphoid tissues from the GB-fed group were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group 12 days post-infection. Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that GB-fed pigs displayed less severe pathological changes associated with PRRSV infection compared to the control group, indicating that GB promotes PRRSV clearance. These antiviral effects in pigs may be related to the ability of GB to increase CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte production observed in the mice. Hence, this mineral may be an effective feed supplement for increasing immune activity and preventing disease.

Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A

2013-01-01

351

An investigation into occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus outbreak in traditional paddy cum prawn fields in India.  

PubMed

A yearlong (September 2009-August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8 mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds. PMID:22593673

Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K M; Mohamed Hatha, A A

2012-04-19

352

An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India  

PubMed Central

A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010) study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8?mg/L) throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds.

Selvam, Deborah Gnana; Mujeeb Rahiman, K. M.; Mohamed Hatha, A. A.

2012-01-01

353

South Asian Consensus Guidelines for the rational management of diabetes in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

PubMed Central

As newer methods of management are made available, and accessible, survival rates with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are increasing. This means that chronic, metabolic complications of HIV are becoming more frequent in clinical practice, as acute morbidity is controlled. Management of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is gradually expanding to include these chronic and metabolic complications of the disease, and the adverse effects associated with its treatments, including diabetes. Unfortunately, no guidelines are available to help the medical practitioners choose appropriate therapy for patients with these conditions. The aim of the South Asian Consensus Guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations to assist healthcare providers in the rational management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with HIV. The development of these guidelines used systematic reviews of available evidence to form its key recommendations. These guidelines and associated review of literature represent a compilation of available knowledge regarding rational management of diabetes in HIV. Patients of diabetes with concomitant HIV infection are managed optimally with insulin therapy and judicious use of highly active antiretroviral therapy with suitable alternatives is also recommended. These guidelines should prove helpful to physicians, not only in South Asia, but also across the globe, while managing patients with coexistent HIV and diabetes.

Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Raza, Syed Abbas; Bantwal, Ganpathy; Baruah, Manash P.; Latt, Tint Swe; Shrestha, Dina; John, Mathew; Katulanda, Prasad; Somasundaram, Noel; Sahay, Rakesh; Pathan, Faruque

2011-01-01

354

Serological characterization of dengue virus infections observed among dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome cases in upper Myanmar.  

PubMed

In Myanmar, dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children. From Pyinmana Hospital in 2004 and Mandalay Children Hospital in 2006, 160 patients diagnosed clinically to have DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were examined for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels. A focus reduction neutralization test was also used to determine primary or secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection. By using IgM-capture ELISA, 139 cases were confirmed as DENV infections. Of these IgM-positives, 94 samples were collected 7-24 days from the onset of illness, to which 13 (14%) and 81 (86%) were determined to be primary and secondary DENV infections, respectively. The 13 primary DENV infection cases were spread among the various severity groups (DHF grade I-IV and DSS) and represented age groups ranging from <1 year of age to 9 years of age. The patients in these primary infection cases showed a remarkably high IgM with a low IgG titer response compared with the secondary infection cases. No significant differences were observed in IgG titers with clinical severity. The data obtained in this study suggest that primary DENV infection cases exist certainly among DHF/DSS cases in Myanmar, and that additional mechanism(s) aside from the antibody-dependent enhancement mechanism could have influenced the clinical severity in DHF/DSS cases. PMID:23595687

Ngwe Tun, Mya Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Kurosawa, Yae; Lwin, Yee Yee; Lin, Sanda; Aye, Kay Thi; Thet Khin, Pe; Myint, Tin; Htwe, Khin; Mapua, Cynthia A; Natividad, Filipinas F; Hirayama, Kenji; Morita, Kouichi

2013-04-17

355

In vitro white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replication in explants of the heart of freshwater crab, Paratelphusa hydrodomous.  

PubMed

Explants from different organs of freshwater crab, Paratelphusa hydrodomous were prepared to establish an in vitro system for replication of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp. Heart explants were maintained for 53 days without any morphological changes in EX-CELL™ 405 medium with and without serum whereas the explants of eye muscle, gill, shell membrane and appendage muscle died within 15 days of culture period. The heart explants on different days of culture were exposed to WSSV for 10 days to study the viral replication. The infection of WSSV in explants of the heart was confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Western blot, histology, immunohistochemistry, bioassay and transmission electron microscopy. The WSSV was quantified by real-time PCR and indirect ELISA. The WSSV inoculum prepared from the heart explants of crab caused significant mortality in Penaeus monodon in challenge experiments and the results indicate that the WSSV which replicated in the heart explants of freshwater crab maintains its infectivity as in marine shrimp. The results indicate that the heart explants of P. hydrodomous would be a good alternative to whole animals for production of WSSV. PMID:22575573

Nathiga Nambi, K S; Abdul Majeed, S; Sundar Raj, N; Taju, G; Madan, N; Vimal, S; Sahul Hameed, A S

2012-04-30

356

Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis in a patient undergoing unrelated cord blood transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome-overt leukemia.  

PubMed

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is rare after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Here, we describe the first patient who developed VZV encephalitis after cord blood transplantation (CBT). A 35-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome-overt leukemia underwent CBT. On day +23, a neutrophil count consistently greater than 0.5 x 10(9)/L was achieved. On day +42, 1 mg/kg per day of prednisolone therapy was initiated for grade III acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Then, the dose of prednisolone was slowly reduced. For exacerbation of chronic GVHD, the dose of prednisolone was again increased to 1 mg/kg per day on day +231. On day +265, localized cutaneous zoster in the left thoracic region occurred, but soon resolved after acyclovir therapy. On day +309, he suddenly developed diplopia. Subsequently, right facial palsy and hearing impairment occurred. No skin rash was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans revealed multifocal abnormal high-signal intensity in the CNS. A high level of VZV DNA was detected in a cerebrospinal fluid specimen. He was diagnosed with VZV encephalitis. Acyclovir was given intravenously for 40 days. Four months after the onset, the neurologic symptoms had incompletely resolved. MRI scans showed substantial resolution but with mild residual lesions. The present report indicates that VZV should be considered as a possible causative agent in patients who develop multifocal neurologic symptoms of the CNS after SCT. PMID:16867908

Fukuno, Kenji; Tomonari, Akira; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ooi, Jun; Takasugi, Kashiya; Tsukada, Nobuhiro; Konuma, Takaaki; Iseki, Tohru; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Tojo, Arinobu; Asano, Shigetaka

2006-07-01

357

An evaluation of test and removal for the elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from 5 swine farms.  

PubMed Central

The objective of this field study was to evaluate the protocol of test and removal (T&R) for the elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from 5 chronically infected breeding herds. The T&R protocol involved sampling the entire breeding herd in one day, testing sera by polymerase chain reaction and ELISA to detect previously exposed and/or infected animals, and subsequently removing them from the herd. Following completion of T&R, breeding herds were monitored for 12 consecutive months, using ELISA, for the presence of antibodies to PRRSV. In order to be classified as a PRRSV-negative herd, all samples collected over the 12-month monitoring period were required to be negative by ELISA (s/p ratio < 0.4). At the conclusion of the monitoring period, all 5 farms were PRRSV-negative, according to the defined testing criteria. Approximately 2.2% (74/3408) ELISA false positive samples were detected across all 5 farms during the monitoring period. The diagnostic cost required during the T&R protocol was approximately US $10.66 per animal tested. Limitations of the study were a lack of herds with large (> 2000 sows) breeding herd inventories, and herds with a history of PRRSV vaccination.

Dee, S A; Bierk, M D; Deen, J; Molitor, T W

2001-01-01

358

Simple and rapid detection of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from pig whole blood using filter paper.  

PubMed

The combination of Flinders Technology Associates filter papers (FTA cards) and real-time PCR was examined to establish a simple and rapid technique for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from whole pig blood. A modified live PRRS vaccine was diluted with either sterilised saline or pig whole blood, and the suspensions were applied onto the FTA cards. The real-time RT-PCR detection of PRRSV was performed directly with the samples applied to the FTA card without the RNA extraction step. Six whole blood samples from at random selected piglets in the PRRSV infected farm were also assayed in this study. The expected PCR product was successfully amplified from either saline diluted or pig whole blood diluted vaccine. The same PCR ampliocon was detected from all blood samples assayed in this study. This study suggested that the combination of an FTA card and real-time PCR is a rapid and easy technique for the detection of PRRSV. This technique can remarkably shorten the time required for PRRSV detection from whole blood and makes the procedure much easier. PMID:17188757

Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Sunaba, Chinatsu; Itoh, Mitsugi; Ushida, Kazunari

2006-12-26

359

Tracing the genetic history of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses derived from the complete ORF 5-7 sequences: a Bayesian coalescent approach.  

PubMed

To trace the genetic history of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), we determined the complete sequences of ORFs 5 to 7 of four PRRSV isolates. These sequences were analyzed together with published sequences from 146 isolates from various parts of the world using a Bayesian coalescent approach as well as Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood methods. All of the European-type (EU-type) viruses were classified into one of two groups or unclassified (4 isolates), while all North American-type (NA-type) viruses belonged to one of three major groups or were unclassified (5 isolates). Within each genotype, no apparent periodic and/or geographic influence on the evolution of PRRSVs was observed. The evolutionary rate of PRRSV isolates was estimated to be 1.55 × 10(-3) substitutions/site/year, and the time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) was 491.2 years ago. Here, the TMRCA for the EU- and NA-type viruses was 58.7 and 62.6 years ago, respectively. A Bayesian skyline plot revealed that the viruses evolved at an almost constant population size until the late 1970s, when they experienced a population expansion that continued until the late 1980s. The population size then remained constant again until the early 2000s, when a rapid, sharp decline in the effective number of infections occurred. PMID:22825696

Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Hyekwon; Park, Bongkyun; Kim, Heebal

2012-07-24

360

Structural gene analysis of a Quebec reference strain or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).  

PubMed

The 3' end genomic region of a Québec PRRSV reference strain (IAF-exp91), propagated in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM), was sequenced and compared to the prototype European strain, the Lelystad virus (LV). The sequence, which represents the 3'-terminal 2834 nucleotides, encompassed 5 ORFs corresponding to ORFs 3 to 7 of LV. Extensive genomic variations resulting from an important rate of nucleotide additions, substitutions, and deletions were demonstrated between the two viruses. Indeed, the two corresponding sequences displayed a total of 66% and 63% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The predicted products of ORFs 5, 3, and 7, showed the highest rate of amino acid variations with percentages of identity of 52, 54, and 59, respectively. Sequence analysis of an additional Québec strain that could be propagated in a continuous cell line (MARC-145), suggested that Québec PRRSV strains belong to a genotype distinct from that of LV, thus confirming previous serological results which allowed to divide PRRSV isolates into two distinct antigenic subgroups (U.S. and European). Six viral major polypeptides with apparent M(rs) of 14.5K, 15K, 19K, 24.5K, 29K, and 42K could be identified from lysates of viral infected cells, of which the 15, 19 and 24.5K species seemed to be structural. In vitro translation products of ORFs 7 and 6 comigrated with the 15 and 19 K viral proteins, whereas that of ORF 5 may be associated to the 24.5K when translated in presence of microsomes. Consequently, it is likely that ORFs 7 to 5, encode the three major structural proteins. PMID:8830492

Mardassi, H; Mounir, S; Dea, S

1995-01-01

361

Correlation among genetic, Euclidean, temporal, and herd ownership distances of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in Quebec, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease that has a major economic impact for the swine industry. Its control is mostly directed towards preventing its spread which requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of the virus between herds. The objectives of this study were to describe the genetic diversity and to assess the correlation among genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership to better understand pathways of transmission. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted on sites located in a high density area of swine production in Quebec. Geographical coordinates (longitude/latitude), date of submission and ownership were obtained for each site. ORF5 sequencing was attempted on PRRSV positive sites. Proportion of pairwise combinations of strains having ?98% genetic homology were analysed according to Euclidean distances and ownership. Correlations between genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership were assessed using Mantel tests on continuous and binary matrices. Sensitivity of the correlations between genetic and Euclidean as well as temporal distances was evaluated for different Euclidean and temporal distance thresholds. An ORF5 sequence was identified for 132 of the 176 (75%) PRRSV positive sites; 122 were wild-type strains. The mean (min-max) genetic, Euclidean and temporal pairwise distances were 11.6% (0–18.7), 15.0?km (0.04-45.7) and 218?days (0–852), respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between genetic and ownership, genetic and Euclidean and between genetic and temporal binary distances. The relationship between genetic and ownership suggests either common sources of animals or semen, employees, technical services or vehicles, whereas that between genetic and Euclidean binary distances is compatible with area spread of the virus. The latter correlation was observed only up to 5?km. Conclusions This study suggests that transmission of PRRSV is likely to occur between sites belonging to the same owner or through area spread within a 5?km distance. Both should be considered in the perspective of prevention.

2012-01-01

362

Induction of STAT1 Phosphorylation at Serine 727 and Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a viral pathogen that causes acute respiratory illnesses in young pigs. Since 1987, PRRSV has contributed substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in PRRSV-infected pigs is thought to contribute to PRRSV pathogenesis. In this study, PRRSV VR-2385, a Type 2 strain with moderate virulence, was found to induce phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) at serine 727 (pSTAT1-S727) in MARC-145 cells. No phosphorylated STAT1 at tyrosine 701 was detected, which indicates that the pSTAT1-S727 elevation was interferon-independent. The PRRSV-induced pSTAT1-S727, however, was dose-dependent and its levels increased with infection time. IngelVac PRRS MLV strain had a minimal effect on pSTAT1-S727. Compared to MLV-infected cells, VR-2385 infection caused significantly higher level of expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) and IL-8. The VR-2385-induced pSTAT1-S727 and cytokine expression were reduced after SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or methylthioadenosine (MTA), a methyl transferase inhibitor, was added to the cells. The SB203580 and MTA-mediated inhibition suggested that the virus-induced pSTAT1-S727 was dependent on p38 MAPK pathway. In primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), VR-2385 also induced pSTAT1-S727 and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1beta, IL-8, chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10). Similarly, SB203580 treatment of PAM cells blocked the elevation of pSTAT1-S727 and cytokine expression. Overexpression of individual viral proteins showed that non-structural protein 12 (nsp12) was able to induce elevation of pSTAT1-S727 and the expression of IL-1? and IL-8. These results indicated that PRRSV VR-2385 induces pSTAT1-S727 and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which contributes to the insight of PRRSV pathogenesis.

Yu, Ying; Wang, Rong; Nan, Yuchen; Zhang, Linsheng; Zhang, Yanjin

2013-01-01

363

Induction of STAT1 phosphorylation at serine 727 and expression of proinflammatory cytokines by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a viral pathogen that causes acute respiratory illnesses in young pigs. Since 1987, PRRSV has contributed substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in PRRSV-infected pigs is thought to contribute to PRRSV pathogenesis. In this study, PRRSV VR-2385, a Type 2 strain with moderate virulence, was found to induce phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) at serine 727 (pSTAT1-S727) in MARC-145 cells. No phosphorylated STAT1 at tyrosine 701 was detected, which indicates that the pSTAT1-S727 elevation was interferon-independent. The PRRSV-induced pSTAT1-S727, however, was dose-dependent and its levels increased with infection time. IngelVac PRRS MLV strain had a minimal effect on pSTAT1-S727. Compared to MLV-infected cells, VR-2385 infection caused significantly higher level of expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) and IL-8. The VR-2385-induced pSTAT1-S727 and cytokine expression were reduced after SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or methylthioadenosine (MTA), a methyl transferase inhibitor, was added to the cells. The SB203580 and MTA-mediated inhibition suggested that the virus-induced pSTAT1-S727 was dependent on p38 MAPK pathway. In primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), VR-2385 also induced pSTAT1-S727 and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1beta, IL-8, chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10). Similarly, SB203580 treatment of PAM cells blocked the elevation of pSTAT1-S727 and cytokine expression. Overexpression of individual viral proteins showed that non-structural protein 12 (nsp12) was able to induce elevation of pSTAT1-S727 and the expression of IL-1? and IL-8. These results indicated that PRRSV VR-2385 induces pSTAT1-S727 and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which contributes to the insight of PRRSV pathogenesis. PMID:23637938

Yu, Ying; Wang, Rong; Nan, Yuchen; Zhang, Linsheng; Zhang, Yanjin

2013-04-24

364

Evaluation of viral peptide targeting to porcine sialoadhesin using a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccination-challenge model.  

PubMed

Targeting antigens to professional antigen presenting cells resident at the sites where effective immune responses are generated is a promising vaccination strategy. As such, targeting sialoadhesin (Sn)-expressing macrophages, abundantly present in spleen and lymph nodes where they appear to be strategically placed for antigen capture and processing, is recently gaining increased attention. Previously, we have shown that humoral immune responses to the model antigen human serum albumin can be enhanced by using a porcine Sn-specific monoclonal antibody to target the model antigen to Sn-expressing macrophages. To date however, no studies have been performed to evaluate whether targeted delivery of a pathogen-derived antigen can enhance the pathogen-specific immune response. Therefore, we selected a linear epitope on glycoprotein 4 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which is known to be a target of virus-neutralizing antibodies. This paper reports on the targeted delivery of this viral peptide to porcine Sn-expressing macrophages and the evaluation of the subsequent immune response in a vaccination-challenge set-up. Four copies of the selected PRRSV epitope were genetically fused to a previously developed porcine Sn-targeting recombinant antibody or an irrelevant isotype control. Fusion proteins were shown to be efficiently purified from HEK293T cell supernatants and subsequently, only Sn-specific fusion proteins were shown to bind to and to be internalized into Sn-expressing cells. Subsequent immunizations with a single dose of the fusion proteins showed that peptide-specific immune responses and neutralizing antibody responses after PRRSV challenge were enhanced in animals receiving a single 500?g intramuscular dose of the Sn-targeting fusion protein, although correlations between the two read-outs were hard to effectuate. Furthermore, a minor beneficial effect on viral clearance was observed. Together, these data show that viral peptide targeting to porcine Sn-expressing macrophages can improve the anti-viral immune response, although more research will be needed to further explore vaccination potential. PMID:23932898

Ooms, Karen; Van Gorp, Hanne; Botti, Sara; Van Gaever, Tim; Delputte, Peter L; Nauwynck, Hans J

2013-08-08

365

Epstein-Barr virus and HIV play no direct role in persistent generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) and polyclonal B cell activation are features of infection with HIV. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and HIV are known to activate B cells in vitro, but whether they are important B cell activators in patients infected with HIV is less clear. In this study, lymph node tissue was obtained from 10 patients with PGL and assessed for evidence of EBV and HIV gene sequences. DNA was extracted and specific viral gene sequences identified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). EBV sequences were difficult to detect in the PGL tissue, with a signal intensity similar to that of other benign and malignant lymphoid conditions not associated with EBV. HIV sequences were also rare in the PGL tissue, consistent with HIV infection of the small number of peripheral blood cells and nodal T cells likely to be present in such a sample. These findings suggest that the polyclonal B cell activation typical of HIV is not driven by direct EBV or HIV infection of B cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Boyle, M J; Sculley, T B; Cooper, D A; Turner, J J; Penny, R; Sewell, W A

1992-01-01

366

[Mental disease related to belief in being possessed by the "Zar" spirit].  

PubMed

The belief in being possessed by the "Zar" spirit is widespread in East and Central Africa, particularly in Sudan and Ethiopia. It also affects Jews living in Ethiopia, as well as those who have immigrated to Israel. According to this belief, being possessed by Zar is the cause of almost all somatic and mental disturbances. Zar exorcism, rituals, language and the clinical syndromes of 13 cases of Zar possession treated in our outpatient clinic are described. Of the 13, 8 were neurotic and the rest atypical psychotics, who except for 1, remitted quickly. Of the 13, 9 were married, 6 were males and 8 were 40 or older. All had a history of Zar possession while still in Ethiopia, and in the immediate families of 8 there were others with a history of Zar possession. 8 of the cases spoke in a peculiar "Zar language." In all cases the new episode of Zar possession appeared during the first 2 years of living in Israel. The differential diagnosis of DSM-III R categories in relation to Zar possession illness, and anthropological and sociopsychological implications of the illness in Israel as compared to Ethiopia are discussed. According to an accepted theory, Zar possession is found in the weaker strata of Amharic society. In Ethiopia, therefore, it was the women who were usually affected. In Israel, there has been a dramatic emancipation of the Ethiopian woman, and men were relegated to lower status. For these reasons, in Israel it is the men among the Ethiopian immigrants who are more susceptible to the condition. We find it important to combine both traditional and modern therapeutic modalities in treating Zar possession. PMID:7926995

Arieli, A; Aychen, S

1994-06-01

367

Characterizing differential individual response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection through statistical and functional analysis of gene expression  

PubMed Central

We evaluated differences in gene expression in pigs from the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Host Genetics Consortium initiative showing a range of responses to PRRS virus infection. Pigs were allocated into four phenotypic groups according to their serum viral level and weight gain. RNA obtained from blood at 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 28, and 42 days post-infection (DPI) was hybridized to the 70-mer 20K Pigoligoarray. We used a blocked reference design for the microarray experiment. This allowed us to account for individual biological variation in gene expression, and to assess baseline effects before infection (0 DPI). Additionally, this design has the flexibility of incorporating future data for differential expression analysis. We focused on evaluating transcripts showing significant interaction of weight gain and serum viral level. We identified 491 significant comparisons [false discovery rate (FDR) = 10%] across all DPI and phenotypic groups. We corroborated the overall trend in direction and level of expression (measured as fold change) at 4 DPI using qPCR (r = 0.91, p ? 0.0007). At 4 and 7 DPI, network and functional analyses were performed to assess if immune related gene sets were enriched for genes differentially expressed (DE) across four phenotypic groups. We identified cell death function as being significantly associated (FDR ? 5%) with several networks enriched for DE transcripts. We found the genes interferon-alpha 1(IFNA1), major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 (SLA-DQA1), and major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha (SLA-DRA) to be DE (p ? 0.05) between phenotypic groups. Finally, we performed a power analysis to estimate sample size and sampling time-points for future experiments. We concluded the best scenario for investigation of early response to PRRSV infection consists of sampling at 0, 4, and 7 DPI using about 30 pigs per phenotypic group.

Arceo, Maria E.; Ernst, Catherine W.; Lunney, Joan K.; Choi, Igseo; Raney, Nancy E.; Huang, Tinghua; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Rowland, R. R. R.; Steibel, Juan P.

2013-01-01

368

Multiplex Method for Simultaneous Serological Detection of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Circovirus Type 2?  

PubMed Central

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Routine serological diagnosis and surveillance play an important role in the prevention of PRDC, as it is a leading cause of economic losses to the swine industry. We herein describe an advanced microsphere-based immunoassay that permits the simultaneous detection of antibodies to PCV2 and PRRSV, thereby reducing the time and effort involved in testing. Recombinant PRRSV nucleoprotein antigen and the PCV2 capsid antigen were coupled to fluorophore-dyed beads with distinct spectral addresses. Weekly serum samples from 72 pigs that were experimentally exposed to either PCV2, PRRSV, or both PCV2 and PRRSV were used to validate the microbead assay (MBA) in comparison with the “gold standard” enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The kinetics of the PCV2- and PRRSV-specific antibody responses measured by the microbead assay were comparable to those of the standard assays; Spearman's rank correlations were 0.72 (P < 0.001) for PRRSV and 0.80 (P < 0.001) for PCV2. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined using field sera whose positive or negative status was determined by the standard tests. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were both 98% for PCV2 and were 91% and 93%, respectively, for PRRSV (kappa coefficients, 0.85 and 0.67 for PCV2 and PRRSV, respectively). Multiplexing did not interfere with assay performance or diagnostic sensitivity. Therefore, the described study demonstrates proof of concept for the development of more versatile and economical microbead array-based multiplex serological test panels for veterinary use.

Lin, Kathy; Wang, Chong; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Ramamoorthy, Sheela

2011-01-01

369

Effects on boar semen quality after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: a case report.  

PubMed

The effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on semen quality was examined in a group of 11 spontaneously infected boars in a commercial boar stud. Semen samples were collected 4 weeks prior to 4 weeks post-infection (wpi). Infection with PRRSV of the European genotype subtype 1 (EU-1) was verified by specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 36% of the serum samples. All boars seroconverted before 4 wpi and remained in normal condition throughout the study. Comparison of the percentage of morphologically intact spermatozoa revealed an increase of acrosome-defective spermatozoa (P = 0.012) between -4 and 4 wpi. Significant deleterious effects on semen quality were detected for membrane integrity when semen had been stored for 2 days after sampling. Analysis of sperm subpopulations in a thermoresistance test on day 7 after sampling revealed alterations in the percentage of circular, progressively motile spermatozoa (P = 0.013), in the percentage of non-linear, progressively motile spermatozoa (P = 0.01), and on the amplitude of lateral sperm head displacement (P = 0.047). There was no difference in the incidence of mitochondrially active spermatozoa (P = 0.075). Investigation of routine production data between pre- and post-infection status showed no differences on ejaculate volume (P = 0.417), sperm concentration (P = 0.788), and percentage of motile spermatozoa (P = 0.321). This case report provides insights into a potential control strategy for PRRSV outbreaks in boar studs. PMID:23442207

Schulze, Martin; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Schmoll, Friedrich; Grossfeld, Rudolf; Griessler, Alfred

2013-02-25

370

Effects of white spot syndrome virus infection on immuno-enzyme activities and ultrastructure in gills of Cherax quadricarinatus.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the pathogenic mechanism of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, by investigating activities of enzymes related to innate immune function during infection. After 6-12 h of exposure to WSSV, the activities of four enzymes, phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme (LSZ), increased in the gills of C. quadricarinatus but then sharply decreased during longer infection times. Except for PO, the activities of other enzymes in the WSSV-infected crayfish (Group II) were significantly lower than those of the controls at 72 h post-exposure (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the enzyme activities in the group treated with polysaccharides before challenge with WSSV (Group III) were higher than those in Group II. This phenomenon demonstrated that the polysaccharides could improve the immuno-enzyme activities and enhance the organism's antiviral defenses. Morphological examination by transmission electron microscopy revealed abundant WSSV particles and significant damage in the gills of infected crayfish. WSSV infection caused parts of the gill epithelium and microvilli to be reduced in number and size or damaged; meanwhile, the mitochondria morphology changed, with parts of the cristae diminished leaving large vacuoles. Moreover, electron dense deposits appeared and heterochromatinized nuclei could be seen in blood cells with ruptured nuclear membranes and outflow of nucleoplasm. The findings of this study furthers our understanding of the biochemical alterations induced by viral infections, including changes in the antioxidant status, oxidative stress and lysozyme activity, which could help to advance strategies for control of WSSV in crayfish. PMID:22281607

Wang, Dan-Li; Zuo, Di; Wang, Lan-Mei; Sun, Ting; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yun-Long

2012-01-17

371

Novel, closely related, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genotypes from Madagascar, Mozambique and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly pathogenic to penaeid shrimp and has caused significant economic losses in the aquaculture industry around the world. During 2010 to 2012, WSSV caused severe mortalities in cultured penaeid shrimp in Saudi Arabia, Mozambique and Madagascar. To investigate the origins of these WSSV, we performed genotyping analyses at 5 loci: the 3 open reading frames (ORFs) 125, 94 and 75, each containing a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and deletions in the 2 variable regions, VR14/15 and VR23/24. We categorized the WSSV genotype as {N125, N94, N75, ?X14/15, ?X23/24} where N is the number of repeat units in a specific ORF and ?X is the length (base pair) of deletion within the variable region. We detected 4 WSSV genotypes, which were characterized by a full-length deletion in ORF94/95, a relatively small ORF75 and one specific deletion length in each variable region. There are 2 closely related genotypes in these 3 countries: {6125, del94, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24} and {7125, del94, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24}, where del is the full-length ORF deletion. In Saudi Arabia, 2 other related types of WSSV were also found: {6125, 794, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24} and {8125, 1394, 375, ?595014/15, ?1097123/24}. The identical patterns of 3 loci in these 4 types indicate that they have a common lineage, and this suggests that the WSSV epidemics in these 3 countries were from a common source, possibly the environment. PMID:24062547

Tang, Kathy F J; Le Groumellec, Marc; Lightner, Donald V

2013-09-24

372

A gC1qR prevents white spot syndrome virus replication in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus.  

PubMed

The gC1qR/p32 protein is a multiple receptor for several proteins and pathogens. We cloned a gC1qR homologue in a crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, and analyzed the expression of P. leniusculus C1qR (PlgC1qR) in various tissues. The gC1qR/p32 transcript was significantly enhanced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection 6 h after viral infection both in vitro in a hematopoietic tissue cell culture (Hpt) and in vivo compared to appropriate controls. Moreover, PlgC1qR silencing in both the Hpt cell culture and live crayfish enhanced the WSSV replication. In addition, by making a recombinant PlgC1qR protein we could show that if this recombinant protein was injected in a crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, followed by injection of WSSV, this significantly reduced viral replication in vivo. Furthermore, if the recombinant PlgC1qR was incubated with Hpt cells and then WSSV was added, this also reduced viral replication. These experiments clearly demonstrate that recombinant PlgC1qR reduce WSSV replication both in vivo and in vitro. The results from a far-Western overlay and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays showed that PlgC1qR could bind to VP15, VP26, and VP28. Altogether, these results demonstrate a role for PlgC1qR in antiviral activity against WSSV. PMID:20686021

Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth

2010-08-04

373

Oral delivery of DNA vaccine encoding VP28 against white spot syndrome virus in crayfish by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed

Protective immune responses in shrimp induced by DNA vaccines against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) with intramuscular injection have been reported in recent reports. In this study, we investigated the utilities of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella typhimurium) as a bactofection vehicle for the oral delivery of a DNA vaccine plasmid to crayfish (Cambarus clarkii). The DNA vaccine plasmid pcDNA3.1-VP28, encoding viral envelope protein VP28, was transformed to an attenuated S. typhimurium strain SV4089 and the resulting recombinant bacteria named SV/pcDNA3.1-VP28 were used to orally immunize crayfish with coated feed. Successful delivery of the DNA vaccine plasmid was shown by the isolation of recombinant bacteria SV/pcDNA3.1-VP28 from the vaccinated crayfish. The distribution analysis of plasmid pcDNA3.1-VP28 in different tissues revealed the effective release of DNA vaccine plasmid into crayfish. RT-PCR and immunoflurescence results confirmed the expression of protein VP28 in the vaccinated crayfish. Challenge experiments with WSSV at 7, 15, 25 days post-vaccination demonstrated significant protection in immunized crayfish with relative survival rate 83.3%, 66.7% and 56.7%, respectively. Studies on stability and safety of SV/pcDNA3.1-VP28 showed the recombinant bacteria could exist in crayfish at least 7 days but not more than 10 days and without any observable harm to the host. Our study here demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of attenuated Salmonella as a live vector to orally deliver a DNA vaccine against WSSV into the arthropod crayfish and provides a new way to design more practical strategies for the control of WSSV and other invertebrate pathogens. PMID:19071178

Ning, Jian-Fang; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Jin-Ping; Zheng, Cong-Yi; Meng, Xiao-Lin

2008-12-09

374

Inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in piglets by a peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomer.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes substantial economic losses to the swine industry in many countries, and current control strategies are inadequate. Previously, we explored the strategy of using peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) to inhibit PRRS virus (PRRSV) replication. PPMOs are nuclease-resistant and single-stranded DNA analogs containing a modified backbone conjugated to a cell-penetrating peptide and can act as antisense agents through steric blockade of complementary messenger RNA. A PPMO (designated 5UP2) targeting highly conserved sequence in the 5'-terminal region of the PRRSV genome was found to produce multi-log10 inhibition of PRRSV replication in cultured cells. To evaluate 5UP2 in vivo, we here administrated the PPMO to 3-week-old piglets via intranasal instillation at 24h before, and 2 and 24h after infection with PRRSV (strain VR2385). Blood samples were collected at 6, 10 and 14 days post-infection (dpi) for detection of PRRSV RNA and antibodies. Necropsy was performed at 14 dpi. Monitoring weight gain in all piglet groups throughout the experiment indicated that PPMO was well tolerated at the doses used. PPMO 5UP2 treatment significantly reduced PRRSV viremia at 6 dpi. On day 14, piglets receiving 5UP2 had significantly less interstitial pneumonia and lower level of anti-PRRSV antibodies than untreated piglets. In alveolar macrophages isolated at the time of necropsy, the expression of antiviral genes in PPMO-treated piglets was elevated in comparison with untreated. This study provides further data indicating that the 5UP2 PPMO can be considered a candidate component for a novel PRRS control strategy. PMID:21554902

Opriessnig, Tanja; Patel, Deendayal; Wang, Rong; Halbur, Patrick G; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Stein, David A; Zhang, Yan-Jin

2011-04-30

375

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge among high school students in K?r?kkale province of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess the existing level of knowledge of high school children about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the sources of their information. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two high schools in Kirikkale, Turkey and data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample. Results: Four hundred and seventy three participants; 230 males and 243 females were analyzed. Their ages ranged from 15 to 19 years with a mean age of 16.81 ± 1.27. 92.2% of the students claimed to have heard about HIV/AIDS prior to the study with slightly more females than males. Although with some misconceptions, majority of the participants knew that HIV is not transmitted by sharing meals, casual contact, and sleeping in the same room and using the same bathroom. 93.4% identi?ed HIV/AIDS as a life-threatening disease and 27% believe that there is a cure for AIDS. 64% and 22.8% respectively believed that the people can protect themselves by using condoms and by avoiding sexual contact. Internet was preponderantly claimed as the most important source of information about HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that the students have a fairly high knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This is not without some misconceptions about the prognosis of the disease. Internet was the major source of HIV/AIDS information.

Ayl?kc?, Bahad?r Ugur; Bamise, Cornelius Tokunbo; Hamidi, Mehmet Mustafa; Turkal, Mustafa; Colak, Hakan

2013-01-01

376

Impact of genetic variation and geographic distribution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on infectivity and pig growth  

PubMed Central

Background The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease for the pig industry. In this study, we analysed the genetic variability of PRRS virus (PRRSV) as well as the relationship between the genetic variability, the geographical and temporal distribution of the PRRSV strains. Moreover, we investigated the association between the glycosylation patterns in PRRSV sequences and pigs growth. Results The data highlight that PRRSV strains evolve rapidly on individual farms, and temporal evolution of PRRSV is an important factor of genetic variability. Analysis of glycosylation sites in the glycoprotein 5 (GP5) ectodomain revealed that PRRSV isolates had seven combinations of putative N-linked glycosylation sites of which the N37/46/53 sites was found in 79% of the sequences. No significant relationship was found between the genetic variation of the PRRSV strains and the geographic distance. A significant relationship was found between the genetic variation and time of sampling when farm was considered as a factor in the analysis. Furthermore, the commercial semen from artificial insemination centres was not a source of PRRS transmission. The PRRSV having the glycosylation site at position N46 (N46+) were observed to have higher burden on pigs and accordingly the corresponding infected pigs had lower average daily gain (ADG) compared with those infected with PRRSV lacking the glycosylation at N46 (N46-) position site. This study showed that the number of piglets by litter infected by PRRSV was lower for the Landrace breed than for the other studied breeds (Large White, Duroc and Pietrain). Conclusions The PRRSV genetic variability which is determined by a local and temporal evolution at the farm level could be considered in a perspective of prevention. Moreover, the association between the PRRSV glycosylation patterns and its virulence could be of interest for vaccine development. The differences of resistance to PRRSV infections among pig breeds might open new horizons for the genetic selection of robustness against PRRSV infection.

2013-01-01

377

Oral administration of bacterially expressed VP28dsRNA to protect Penaeus monodon from white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

We explored the possibility of protecting Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection via interference RNA technology by oral administration of bacterially expressed WSSV VP28dsRNA. Shrimp were given dsRNA orally via two methods. In the first method, pellet feed was coated with inactivated bacteria containing overexpressed dsRNA of the WSSV VP28 gene, and in the second method, pellet feed was coated with VP28dsRNA-chitosan complex nanoparticles. The treated shrimp were orally challenged with WSSV by feeding WSSV-infected tissue. The experiment was conducted for 30 days. The dsRNA-treated shrimp challenged with WSSV showed higher survival compared to control shrimp. Sixty-eight percent survival was observed in shrimp fed with feed coated with inactivated bacteria containing dsRNA of the WSSV VP28 gene whereas 37% survival was observed in shrimp fed with VP28dsRNA-chitosan complex nanoparticle-coated feed. The WSSV caused 100% mortality in shrimp fed with pellet feed coated with inactivated bacteria with empty LITMUS38i vector. At the end of the experiment, the tissue samples prepared from randomly selected shrimp that survived were analyzed via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis for WSSV. The samples were negative for WSSV. Based on the present data and the advantages of dsRNA, we believe that oral administration of crude extract of bacterially expressed VP28dsRNA is a potential therapeutic agent against WSSV infection of shrimp. PMID:18202890

Sarathi, M; Simon, Martin C; Venkatesan, C; Hameed, A S Sahul

2008-01-17

378

Immunological responses of Penaeus monodon to DNA vaccine and its efficacy to protect shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

White spot disease is an important viral disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and is responsible for huge economic losses in the shrimp culture industry worldwide. The VP28 gene encoding the most dominant envelope protein of WSSV was used to construct a DNA vaccine. The VP28 gene was cloned in the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1 and the construct was named as pVP28. The protective efficiency of pVP28 against WSSV was evaluated in Penaeus monodon by intramuscular challenge. In vitro expression of VP28 gene was confirmed in sea bass kidney cell line (SISK) by fluorescence microscopy before administering to shrimp. The distribution of injected pVP28 in different tissues of shrimp was studied and the results revealed the presence of pVP28 in gill, head soft tissue, abdominal muscle, hemolymph, pleopods, hepatopancreas and gut. RT-PCR and fluorescence microscopy analyses showed the expression of pVP28 in all these tissues examined. The results of vaccination trials showed a significantly higher survival rate in shrimp vaccinated with pVP28 (56.6-90%) when compared to control groups (100% mortality). The immunological parameters analyzed in the vaccinated and control groups revealed that the vaccinated shrimp showed significantly high level of prophenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) when compared to the control groups. The high levels of prophenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) might be responsible for developing resistance against WSSV in DNA vaccinated shrimp. PMID:18280179

Rajesh Kumar, S; Ishaq Ahamed, V P; Sarathi, M; Nazeer Basha, A; Sahul Hameed, A S

2008-01-11

379

Proteomic characterization of a novel structural protein ORF5a of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) emerged in the late 1980s in both Europe and North America is an arterivirus causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Recently, a novel structural protein, ORF5a, encoded by an alternative ORF of a subgenomic mRNA encoding the major envelope glycoprotein, GP5, has been discovered in all arteriviruses, suggesting its important role in arterivirology. The present study attempted to investigate compensatory changes of cellular gene expression in natural target cells regulated by the ORF5a. We thus established sublines of PAM cells to stably express the PRRSV ORF5a protein and assessed alterations in cellular protein productions of ORF5a-expressing PAM (PAM-ORF5a) cells at different time courses by the use of proteomic analysis. A total of 36 protein spots were initially found to be differentially expressed in PAM-ORF5a cells compared with normal PAM cells by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Of these spots, 16 protein spots with statistically significant alteration, including 13 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated protein spots, were picked out for subsequent protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The altered cellular proteins identified in this study were grouped into the functions associated with a variety of cellular processes such as cell growth, cytoskeleton networks and cell communication, metabolism, protein biosynthesis, RNA processing, and transportation. The proteomics data will provide valuable information for better understanding the specific cellular response to the novel ORF5a protein during PRRSV replication. PMID:22960469

Oh, Jongsuk; Lee, Changhee

2012-08-31

380

Validation of a Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus  

PubMed Central

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be one of the most significant diseases of swine. IDEXX HerdChek PRRS, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has become the industry standard for the detection of antibodies against PRRS virus (PRRSV). The need to accurately determine the PRRSV serostatus of herds and individual animals has prompted the development of several follow-up assay methods. A highly specific and repeatable blocking ELISA (bELISA) was developed on the basis of the use of an expressed PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein as the antigen and a biotinylated monoclonal antibody. Validation of the bELISA used sera from 316 animals experimentally and naturally infected with North American PRRSV and sera from 370 uninfected animals. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the data calculated a diagnostic sensitivity of 97.8% and a diagnostic specificity of 100%. The between-run coefficient of variation of an internal quality control serum was 4.24%. The bELISA was able to detect seroconversion as well as the IDEXX ELISA and the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay; kappa values were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. A collection of 133 serum samples with unexpected positive IDEXX ELISA results was obtained from 4,038 diagnostic samples submitted from farms from which PRRS-negative results were expected. The bELISA identified 97% of the samples as PRRS seronegative, while the IFA identified 100% as seronegative. The anticipated use of the bELISA is as a follow-up test to the IDEXX ELISA for determining the PRRSV serostatus of individual animals with unexpected positive test results from swine herds from which negative results are expected.

Ferrin, Neal H.; Fang, Ying; Johnson, Craig R.; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Polson, Dale D.; Torremorell, Montserrat; Gramer, Marie L.; Nelson, Eric A.

2004-01-01

381

Evidence for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) broodstock, in the southeast coast of India.  

PubMed

A survey on the presence of the viruses of two economically significant diseases, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) in wild-collected Penaeus monodon broodstock, was conducted during different seasons of the year in two major coastal areas of southeast India. The broodstock were collected along the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during summer, premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for three consecutive years. A total of 7905 samples were collected and subjected to MBV screening, and 6709 samples that were screened as MBV negative were diagnosed for WSSV. MBV was detected using rapid malachite green staining and WSSV by nested polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence data of the viruses were analysed using the EpiCalc 2000 program at 95% confidence interval. Samples collected from the Andhra Pradesh coast displayed a slightly higher prevalence of WSSV and MBV infection than those collected from Tamil Nadu, although this difference was not statistically significant (P > 005). In addition, it was found that the prevalence of both WSSV and MBV infections fluctuated according to season. Data on prevalence of these viruses in broodstock would be useful to develop strategies for shrimp health management along the southeast coast of India. PMID:22924635

Remany, M C; Daly, C; Nagaraj, S; Panda, A K; Jaideep, K; Samraj, Y C T

2012-08-23

382

Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome as a major contributor to death in patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a severe complication of various viral infections often resulting in multiorgan\\u000a failure and death. The purpose of this study was to describe baseline characteristics, development of VAHS, related treatments\\u000a and associated mortality rate of consecutive critically ill patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection and\\u000a respiratory failure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a prospective observational study of

Gernot Beutel; Olaf Wiesner; Matthias Eder; Carsten Hafer; Andrea S Schneider; Jan T Kielstein; Christian Kühn; Albert Heim; Tina Ganzenmüller; Hans-Heinrich Kreipe; Axel Haverich; Andreas Tecklenburg; Arnold Ganser; Tobias Welte; Marius M Hoeper

2011-01-01

383

The contextuality of the possessed values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is determined by two algorithms: quantization algorithm (QUAN) which says that an observed value of an observable Q is one of the eigenvalues q of the corresponding physical operator icons/Journals/Common/hatQ" ALT="hatQ" ALIGN="TOP"/>, and the statistical algorithm (STAT) which says that the probability for the observed physical quantity vm(Q) to be q is |icons/Journals/Common/langle" ALT="langle" ALIGN="TOP"/> q|icons/Journals/Common/psi" ALT="psi" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/rangle" ALT="rangle" ALIGN="TOP"/>|2. From these two algorithms we can derive the principle of statistical function composition (SFC), Prob(vm(f(Q)) = r|icons/Journals/Common/psi" ALT="psi" ALIGN="TOP"/>) = Prob(vm(Q) = f-1(r)|icons/Journals/Common/psi" ALT="psi" ALIGN="TOP"/>). With the assumption of the principle of function composition (FC) that the algebraic relations between observables of a given physical system are identical with the algebraic relations between the values possessed by the system before the observation is made, it could be explained why the result of measurement obeys SFC. According to Bell-KS theorem, FC is not compatible with quantum theory. We analyse, in this paper, the incompatibility of FC with quantum theory in detail, focusing on the analysis of Redhead (1989 Incompleteness, Nonlocality and Realism (Oxford: Oxford University Press)). Redhead assumes the faithful measurement principle (FM) in order to construct FC. However, we show, that FC can be derived without the help of FM.

Kim, Myung Suk; Jo, Sang Gyu; Choi, Sang Don; Kim, Jung Ho; Moo Jeon, Hun; Kim, Ho Il

1999-04-01

384

Pestivirus NS3 (p80) protein possesses RNA helicase activity.  

PubMed Central

The pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) p80 protein (referred to here as the NS3 protein) contains amino acid sequence motifs predictive of three enzymatic activities: serine proteinase, nucleoside triphosphatase, and RNA helicase. We have previously demonstrated that the former two enzymatic activities are associated with this protein. Here, we show that a purified recombinant BVDV NS3 protein derived from baculovirus-infected insect cells possesses RNA helicase activity. BVDV NS3 RNA helicase activity was specifically inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to the p80 protein. The activity was dependent on the presence of nucleoside triphosphate and divalent cation, with a preference for ATP and Mn2+. Hydrolysis of the nucleoside triphosphate was necessary for strand displacement. The helicase activity required substrates with an un-base-paired region on the template strand 3' of the duplex region. As few as three un-base-paired nucleotides were sufficient for efficient oligonucleotide displacement. However, the enzyme did not act on substrates having a single-stranded region only to the 5' end of the duplex or on substrates lacking single-stranded regions altogether (blunt-ended duplex substrates), suggesting that the directionality of the BVDV RNA helicase was 3' to 5' with respect to the template strand. The BVDV helicase activity was able to displace both RNA and DNA oligonucleotides from RNA template strands but was unable to release oligonucleotides from DNA templates. The possible role of this activity in pestivirus replication is discussed.

Warrener, P; Collett, M S

1995-01-01

385

Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with the D222E variant of the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus: Case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated disorder of the peripheral nervous system and a triggering infectious event is often reported in the weeks before the disease onset. Influenza viruses have been associated with Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), both after infection and, in rare cases, after vaccination. However, GBS has rarely reported to be a neurological complication of the recent pandemic

Andrea Cortese; Fausto Baldanti; Eleonora Tavazzi; Livio Carnevale; Lorenzo Minoli; Alessandro Lozza; Enrico Marchioni

386

High street prices of syringes correlate with strict syringe possession laws.  

PubMed

The current epidemic of injection drug use in the United States and abroad has precipitated an increase in transmission of infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human T-lymphotrophic virus II (HTLV-II) in injection drug users (IDUs) who share syringes and other injection equipment. Sharing is often due to a lack of available sterile syringes, which is, in part, a result of laws and regulations controlling the purchase and possession of syringes. These laws, in turn, raise the price of questionably sterile black market syringes, inadvertently encouraging the reuse and sharing of syringes. To date, very little information has been gathered on the street price of syringes in different communities. We surveyed 42 needle exchange programs (NEPs) in the United States in July and August 1998 to determine the street prices of syringes. The relationship among local laws regulating syringe possession, the enforcement of those laws, and street syringe prices was examined. There was a strong correlation between the presence of syringe possession laws and higher street syringe price ($2.87 vs. $1.14, p< .01). In areas with syringe possession laws, cost was significantly higher when laws were perceived to be enforced strictly ($3.66 vs. $2.08, p<.01). Street prices for syringes are an easily quantifiable indirect measure of availability of sterile syringes and may reflect syringe sharing and reuse. PMID:10976670

Rich, J D; Foisie, C K; Towe, C W; McKenzie, M; Salas, C M

2000-08-01

387

31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees...or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed, while on Government property...who are required to possess weapons or explosives in the...

2013-07-01

388

Lymphomas in patients with Sjogren's syndrome are marginal zone B-cell neoplasms, arise in diverse extranodal and nodal sites, and are not associated with viruses.  

PubMed

The occurrence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the most serious complication of Sjogren's syndrome (SS). We performed a study of 16 NHLs occurring in patients with an underlying SS. These lymphomas arose not only in salivary glands (7 cases) but also in other mucosal extranodal sites (the stomach [4 cases], the lung [3 cases], the skin [3 cases], the buccal mucosa [1 case], the thymus [1 case]) and in nodal sites (8 cases). Low-grade marginal zone lymphomas (MZL) were diagnosed in 12 of the 16 patients, 9 of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) type in mucosal sites and 3 exclusively nodal. The 4 other patients presented with a high-grade B-cell lymphoma that was probably a histological transformation of an underlying low-grade MZL at least in 3 of the cases involving skin, stomach, and parotid, respectively. A t(14;18) translocation was detected in 1 of 8 lymphomas tested. We detected serum anti-p53 antibodies in 2 of the 14 studied patients. p53 protein was detected in 1 of 11 lymphomas tested. LMP protein and Eber RNAs of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were not detected in the 16 NHL biopsies. Using polymerase chain reaction, EBV was never detected except in 1 of 4 parotid lymphomas. No human T-lymphotropic virus 1 or human herpes virus 8 DNAs were detected in NHL biopsies. None of the patients had hepatitis C virus infection found using serological methods. Chemotherapy was usually efficient. In conclusion, lymphomas occurring in patients with an underlying SS are in most cases MZL. These lymphomas are not associated with viruses known to be present in other types of lymphomas. Some of the translocations or mutations of oncogenes or antioncogenes described in other lymphomas are detected in SS-associated lymphomas. PMID:9226177

Royer, B; Cazals-Hatem, D; Sibilia, J; Agbalika, F; Cayuela, J M; Soussi, T; Maloisel, F; Clauvel, J P; Brouet, J C; Mariette, X

1997-07-15

389

Role of the Spike Glycoprotein of Human Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Virus Entry and Syncytia Formation  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the biology of the emerging human group c betacoronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Because coronavirus spike glycoproteins (S) mediate virus entry, affect viral host range, and elicit neutralizing antibodies, analyzing the functions of MERS-CoV S protein is a high research priority. MERS-CoV S on lentivirus pseudovirions mediated entry into a variety of cell types including embryo cells from New World Eptesicus fuscus bats. Surprisingly, a polyclonal antibody to the S protein of MHV, a group a murine betacoronavirus, cross-reacted in immunoblots with the S2 domain of group c MERS-CoV spike protein. MERS pseudovirions released from 293T cells contained only uncleaved S, and pseudovirus entry was blocked by lysosomotropic reagents NH4Cl and bafilomycin and inhibitors of cathepsin L. However, when MERS pseudovirions with uncleaved S protein were adsorbed at 4°C to Vero E6 cells, brief trypsin treatment at neutral pH triggered virus entry at the plasma membrane and syncytia formation. When 293T cells producing MERS pseudotypes co-expressed serine proteases TMPRSS-2 or -4, large syncytia formed at neutral pH, and the pseudovirions produced were non-infectious and deficient in S protein. These experiments show that if S protein on MERS pseudovirions is uncleaved, then viruses enter by endocytosis in a cathepsin L-dependent manner, but if MERS-CoV S is cleaved, either during virus maturation by serine proteases or on pseudovirions by trypsin in extracellular fluids, then viruses enter at the plasma membrane at neutral pH and cause massive syncytia formation even in cells that express little or no MERS-CoV receptor. Thus, whether MERS-CoV enters cells within endosomes or at the plasma membrane depends upon the host cell type and tissue, and is determined by the location of host proteases that cleave the viral spike glycoprotein and activate membrane fusion.

Qian, Zhaohui; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Holmes, Kathryn V.

2013-01-01

390

A small-molecule oxocarbazate inhibitor of human cathepsin L blocks severe acute respiratory syndrome and ebola pseudotype virus infection into human embryonic kidney 293T cells.  

PubMed

A tetrahydroquinoline oxocarbazate (PubChem CID 23631927) was tested as an inhibitor of human cathepsin L (EC 3.4.22.15) and as an entry blocker of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and Ebola pseudotype virus. In the cathepsin L inhibition assay, the oxocarbazate caused a time-dependent 17-fold drop in IC(50) from 6.9 nM (no preincubation) to 0.4 nM (4-h preincubation). Slowly reversible inhibition was demonstrated in a dilution assay. A transient kinetic analysis using a single-step competitive inhibition model provided rate constants of k(on) = 153,000 M(-1)s(-1) and k(off) = 4.40 x 10(-5) s(-1) (K(i) = 0.29 nM). The compound also displayed cathepsin L/B selectivity of >700-fold and was nontoxic to human aortic endothelial cells at 100 muM. The oxocarbazate and a related thiocarbazate (PubChem CID 16725315) were tested in a SARS coronavirus (CoV) and Ebola virus-pseudotype infection assay with the oxocarbazate but not the thiocarbazate, demonstrating activity in blocking both SARS-CoV (IC(50) = 273 +/- 49 nM) and Ebola virus (IC(50) = 193 +/- 39 nM) entry into human embryonic kidney 293T cells. To trace the intracellular action of the inhibitors with intracellular cathepsin L, the activity-based probe biotin-Lys-C5 alkyl linker-Tyr-Leu-epoxide (DCG-04) was used to label the active site of cysteine proteases in 293T lysates. The reduction in active cathepsin L in inhibitor-treated cells correlated well with the observed potency of inhibitors observed in the virus pseudotype infection assay. Overall, the oxocarbazate CID 23631927 was a subnanomolar, slow-binding, reversible inhibitor of human cathepsin L that blocked SARS-CoV and Ebola pseudotype virus entry in human cells. PMID:20466822

Shah, Parag P; Wang, Tianhua; Kaletsky, Rachel L; Myers, Michael C; Purvis, Jeremy E; Jing, Huiyan; Huryn, Donna M; Greenbaum, Doron C; Smith, Amos B; Bates, Paul; Diamond, Scott L

2010-05-13

391

Immune response in pigs vaccinated with plasmid DNA encoding ORF5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ORF5-encoded major envelope glycoprotein (GP5) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syn- drome virus (PRRSV) is one of the three major structural proteins of this virus. While some porcine convalescent sera and monoclonal antibodies directed against GP4 and GP5 have the capacity to neutralize the virus in vitro, the protein specificity of porcine neutralizing sera has not yet been estab-

Boroushan Pirzadeh; Serge Dea

1998-01-01

392

Consumption narratives of extended possessions and the extended self  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the nature of the boundaries between the extended self and possessions (including potentially extended possessions) in the context of gift giving for Hong Kong Chinese consumers. Our findings showed that informants narrated stories not only about the gifts that they themselves had received as being their important possessions and thus constituting part of their extended self, but

Phoebe Wong; Margaret K. Hogg; Markus Vanharanta

2012-01-01

393

Valuing Things: The Public and Private Meanings of Possessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers own objects for the value they provide. This article argues that the value of possessions resides in their meanings and further makes a distinction between the public and private meanings of possessions. The nature of these meanings is elaborated, and three studies are described that assess the public and private meanings of the possessions consumers value most. Similarities and

Marsha L. Richins

1994-01-01

394

Spirited into America: Narratives of possession, 1650--1850  

Microsoft Academic Search

My dissertation illustrates how British colonial writers and later, early national writers, created a colonial discourse of spirit possession. Stories of spirit possession in early America have traditionally been read along side of witchcraft narratives and wonder tales. This work has emphasized the particular social conditions that allowed for such fantastical narratives. Unlike witches however, the possessed did not voluntarily

Joy A. J Howard

2011-01-01

395

Real-time PCR for quantitation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 in naturally-infected and challenged pigs.  

PubMed

Real-time PCR assays were developed for quantitative detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). The established real-time PCR for the quantitation of PRRSV cDNA and PCV2 DNA were found to be in the 9-log(10) linear dynamic range with excellent linearity and reliable reproducibility. Using these techniques, the distribution and quantitation of PRRSV and PCV2 in naturally infected and challenged pigs were investigated. The viral concentrations were expressed as the mean log(10) viral DNA or cDNA copy numbers per mg or ml of tested samples. For pigs infected naturally with both viruses, the lung, spleen, tonsil and lymphoid organs had the highest viral burdens with ranges from 5.73 to 8.38 and 5.65 to 6.91 for PRRSV and PCV2, respectively. The injection of formalin-inactivated Salmonella choleraesuis emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant 1 week before and after the inoculation of both viruses resulted in PRRSV replication enhancement 2 weeks post-challenge. However, this facilitated the clearance of PRRSV 4 weeks post-challenge. Results from this study show that the established quantitative PCR could be a useful tool when applied to vaccine development and pathogenesis studies in the future. PMID:15664045

Chung, Wen-Bin; Chan, Wen-Hung; Chaung, Hso-Chi; Lien, Yi; Wu, Chia-Chang; Huang, Yu-Liang

2004-11-28

396

Phylogeny-Directed Search for Murine Leukemia Virus-Like Retroviruses in Vertebrate Genomes and in Patients Suffering from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) like retroviruses (MLLVs) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs)) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect “stealth” infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered.

Blomberg, Jonas; Sheikholvaezin, Ali; Elfaitouri, Amal; Blomberg, Fredrik; Sjosten, Anna; Mattson Ulfstedt, Johan; Pipkorn, Rudiger; Kallander, Clas; Ohrmalm, Christina; Sperber, Goran

2011-01-01

397

"Prepandemic" immunization for novel influenza viruses, "swine flu" vaccine, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and the detection of rare severe adverse events.  

PubMed

The availability of immunogenic, licensed H5N1 vaccines and the anticipated development of vaccines against "swine" influenza A(H1N1) have stimulated debate about the possible use of these vaccines for protection of those exposed to potential pandemic influenza viruses and for immunization or "priming" of populations in the so-called "prepandemic" (interpandemic) era. However, the safety of such vaccines is a critical issue in policy development for wide-scale application of vaccines in the interpandemic period. For example, wide-scale interpandemic use of H5N1 vaccines could lead to millions of persons receiving vaccines of uncertain efficacy potentially associated with rare severe adverse events and against a virus that may not cause a pandemic. Here, we first review aspects of the 1976 National Influenza Immunization Programme against "swine flu" and its well-documented association with Guillain-Barré syndrome as a case study illustration of a suspected vaccine-associated severe adverse event in a mass interpandemic immunization setting. This case study is especially timely, given the recent spread of a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus in humans in Mexico and beyond. Following this, we examine available safety data from clinical trials of H5N1 vaccines and briefly discuss how vaccine safety could be monitored in a postmarketing surveillance setting. PMID:19563262

Evans, David; Cauchemez, Simon; Hayden, Frederick G

2009-08-01

398

"Prepandemic" Immunization for Novel Influenza Viruses, "Swine Flu" Vaccine, Guillain-Barr? Syndrome, and the Detection of Rare Severe Adverse Events  

PubMed Central

The availability of immunogenic, licensed H5N1 vaccines and the anticipated development of vaccines against “swine” influenza A(H1N1) have stimulated debate about the possible use of these vaccines for protection of those exposed to potential pandemic influenza viruses and for immunization or “priming” of populations in the so-called “prepandemic” (interpandemic) era. However, the safety of such vaccines is a critical issue in policy development for wide-scale application of vaccines in the interpandemic period. For example, wide-scale interpandemic use of H5N1 vaccines could lead to millions of persons receiving vaccines of uncertain efficacy potentially associated with rare severe adverse events and against a virus that may not cause a pandemic. Here, we first review aspects of the 1976 National Influenza Immunization Programme against “swine flu” and its well-documented association with Guillain-Barré syndrome as a case study illustration of a suspected vaccine-associated severe adverse event in a mass interpandemic immunization setting. This case study is especially timely, given the recent spread of a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus in humans in Mexico and beyond. Following this, we examine available safety data from clinical trials of H5N1 vaccines and briefly discuss how vaccine safety could be monitored in a postmarketing surveillance setting.

Evans, David; Cauchemez, Simon; Hayden, Frederick G

2010-01-01

399

Two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB proteins interact with transcription factors LvSTAT and LvDorsal to activate the promoter of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene ie1  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused great economic damage to shrimp aquaculture. Previous studies have shown that WSSV successfully usurps the immunity system of the host for its own gene regulation. To investigate the role of shrimp high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins in WSSV gene regulation, two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB genes, LvHMGBa and LvHMGBb, were isolated by rapid

Yi-Hong Chen; Xiao-Ting Jia; Xian-De Huang; Shuang Zhang; Mei Li; Jun-Feng Xie; Shao-Ping Weng; Jian-Guo He

2011-01-01

400

Effect of porcine circovirus type 2a or 2b on infection kinetics and pathogenicity of two genetically divergent strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the conventional pig model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to characterize the infection dynamics and pathogenicity of two heterologous type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in a conventional pig model under the influence of concurrent porcine circovirus (PCV) subtype 2a or 2b infection. ...

401

Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

402

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein confers ability to efficiently produce virus-like particles when substituted for the human immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We replaced the HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) domain with different N-coding sequences to test SARS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) self-interaction\\u000a capacity, and determined the capabilities of each chimera to direct virus-like particle (VLP) assembly. Analysis results indicate\\u000a that the replacement of NC with the carboxyl-terminal half of the SARS-CoV N resulted in the production of wild type (wt)-level\\u000a virus-like particles (VLPs) with the

Shui-Mei Wang; Yu-Fen Chang; Yi-Ming Arthur Chen; Chin-Tien Wang

2008-01-01

403

Complete protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-mediated lethal respiratory disease in aged mice by immunization with a mouse-adapted virus lacking E protein.  

PubMed

Zoonotic coronaviruses, including the one that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. No specific therapy for any human coronavirus is available, making vaccine development critical for protection against these viruses. We previously showed that recombinant SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Urbani strain based) lacking envelope (E) protein expression (rU-?E) provided good but not perfect protection in young mice against challenge with virulent mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15). To improve vaccine efficacy, we developed a second set of E-deleted vaccine candidates on an MA15 background (rMA15-?E). rMA15-?E is safe, causing no disease in 6-week-, 12-month-, or 18-month-old BALB/c mice. Immunization with this virus completely protected mice of three ages from lethal disease and effected more-rapid virus clearance. Compared to rU-?E, rMA15-?E immunization resulted in significantly greater neutralizing antibody and SARS-CoV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. After challenge, inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, and lung destruction were decreased in the lungs of rMA15-?E-immunized mice compared to those in rU-?E-immunized 12-month-old mice. Collectively, these results show that immunization with a species-adapted attenuated coronavirus lacking E protein expression is safe and provides optimal immunogenicity and long-term protection against challenge with lethal virus. This approach will be generally useful for development of vaccines protective against human coronaviruses as well as against coronaviruses that cause disease in domestic and companion animals. PMID:23576515

Fett, Craig; DeDiego, Marta L; Regla-Nava, Jose A; Enjuanes, Luis; Perlman, Stanley

2013-04-10

404

Coronavirus Nonstructural Protein 16 Is a Cap-0 Binding Enzyme Possessing (Nucleoside-2?O)-Methyltransferase Activity?  

PubMed Central

The coronavirus family of positive-strand RNA viruses includes important pathogens of livestock, companion animals, and humans, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus that was responsible for a worldwide outbreak in 2003. The unusually complex coronavirus replicase/transcriptase is comprised of 15 or 16 virus-specific subunits that are autoproteolytically derived from two large polyproteins. In line with bioinformatics predictions, we now show that feline coronavirus (FCoV) nonstructural protein 16 (nsp16) possesses an S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent RNA (nucleoside-2?O)-methyltransferase (2?O-MTase) activity that is capable of cap-1 formation. Purified recombinant FCoV nsp16 selectively binds to short capped RNAs. Remarkably, an N7-methyl guanosine cap (7MeGpppAC3-6) is a prerequisite for binding. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that nsp16 mediates methyl transfer from AdoMet to the 2?O position of the first transcribed nucleotide, thus converting 7MeGpppAC3-6 into 7MeGpppA2?OMeC3-6. The characterization of 11 nsp16 mutants supported the previous identification of residues K45, D129, K169, and E202 as the putative K-D-K-E catalytic tetrad of the enzyme. Furthermore, residues Y29 and F173 of FCoV nsp16, which may be the functional counterparts of aromatic residues involved in substrate recognition by the vaccinia virus MTase VP39, were found to be essential for both substrate binding and 2?O-MTase activity. Finally, the weak inhibition profile of different AdoMet analogues indicates that nsp16 has evolved an atypical AdoMet binding site. Our results suggest that coronavirus mRNA carries a cap-1, onto which 2?O methylation follows an order of events in which 2?O-methyl transfer must be preceded by guanine N7 methylation, with the latter step being performed by a yet-unknown N7-specific MTase.

Decroly, Etienne; Imbert, Isabelle; Coutard, Bruno; Bouvet, Mickael; Selisko, Barbara; Alvarez, Karine; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Snijder, Eric J.; Canard, Bruno

2008-01-01

405

Coronavirus nonstructural protein 16 is a cap-0 binding enzyme possessing (nucleoside-2'O)-methyltransferase activity.  

PubMed

The coronavirus family of positive-strand RNA viruses includes important pathogens of livestock, companion animals, and humans, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus that was responsible for a worldwide outbreak in 2003. The unusually complex coronavirus replicase/transcriptase is comprised of 15 or 16 virus-specific subunits that are autoproteolytically derived from two large polyproteins. In line with bioinformatics predictions, we now show that feline coronavirus (FCoV) nonstructural protein 16 (nsp16) possesses an S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent RNA (nucleoside-2'O)-methyltransferase (2'O-MTase) activity that is capable of cap-1 formation. Purified recombinant FCoV nsp16 selectively binds to short capped RNAs. Remarkably, an N7-methyl guanosine cap ((7Me)GpppAC(3-6)) is a prerequisite for binding. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that nsp16 mediates methyl transfer from AdoMet to the 2'O position of the first transcribed nucleotide, thus converting (7Me)GpppAC(3-6) into (7Me)GpppA(2')(O)(Me)C(3-6). The characterization of 11 nsp16 mutants supported the previous identification of residues K45, D129, K169, and E202 as the putative K-D-K-E catalytic tetrad of the enzyme. Furthermore, residues Y29 and F173 of FCoV nsp16, which may be the functional counterparts of aromatic residues involved in substrate recognition by the vaccinia virus MTase VP39, were found to be essential for both substrate binding and 2'O-MTase activity. Finally, the weak inhibition profile of different AdoMet analogues indicates that nsp16 has evolved an atypical AdoMet binding site. Our results suggest that coronavirus mRNA carries a cap-1, onto which 2'O methylation follows an order of events in which 2'O-methyl transfer must be preceded by guanine N7 methylation, with the latter step being performed by a yet-unknown N7-specific MTase. PMID:18417574

Decroly, Etienne; Imbert, Isabelle; Coutard, Bruno; Bouvet, Mickaël; Selisko, Barbara; Alvarez, Karine; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Snijder, Eric J; Canard, Bruno

2008-04-16

406

Epstein-Barr virus myelitis and Castleman's disease in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Few cases of Epstein-Barr virus myelitis have been described in the literature. Multi-centric Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative\\u000a disorder that is well known for its associations with the human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus 8, and Kaposi's\\u000a sarcoma. The concurrent presentation of these two diseases in a patient at the same time is extremely unusual.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case Presentation  We describe the case

Costantine Albany; George Psevdos; Jasminka Balderacchi; Victoria L Sharp

2011-01-01

407

Russian Federation: penalties eased for possession of illegal drugs.  

PubMed

In November 2003, after long deliberations, the Russian Parliament passed a bill amending the national Criminal Code to differentiate between the liability for possession of illegal drugs for drug users and for drug traffickers. The reforms involved redefining the terms "large" and "extra-large" with respect to the quantities for possession and trafficking of illegal substances. (There is no criminal liability for possession of less than a large amount.) On 16 December 2003, the new bill was enacted into law. PMID:15216819

2004-04-01

408

Mannan oligosaccharide improves immune responses and growth efficiency of nursery pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine whether the ingestion of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS, Bio-Mos) alters the immune response of nursery pigs challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 64 pigs (3 wk old), free of PRRSV, were used in 2 separate but similar experiments conducted sequentially. Pigs were blocked by initial BW. Sex and ancestry were equalized across treatments. Pigs were randomly assigned from within blocks to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement [2 types of diet: control (0%) and MOS addition (0.2%); 2 levels of PRRSV: with and without]. There were 8 replicate chambers of 2 pigs each. After 2 wk of a 4-wk period of feeding the treatments, pigs were intranasally inoculated with PRRSV or a sterile medium at 5 wk of age. The PRRSV challenge decreased ADG, ADFI, and G:F throughout the experiment (P < 0.001). Feeding MOS improved G:F of the pigs during d 7 to 14 (P=0.041) postinfection (PI). Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin were increased by PRRSV (P < 0.001). The MOS × PRRSV interaction was significant for TNF-? at d 14 PI (P=0.028), suggesting that infected pigs fed MOS had less TNF-? than those fed the control. Dietary MOS increased serum IL-10 at d 14 PI (P=0.036). Further, MOS-fed pigs had greater numbers of white blood cells (WBC) at d 3 (P=0.048) and 7 PI (P=0.042) and lymphocytes at d 7 PI (P=0.023) than control-fed pigs. In contrast, PRRSV decreased (P < 0.01) WBC numbers until d 14 PI. Dietary MOS appeared (P=0.060) to increase the neutrophils in PRRSV-infected pigs at d 3 PI, but no (P=0.202) MOS × PRRSV interaction was found. Infection with PRRSV increased rectal temperature (RT) of pigs at d 3 PI (P < 0.001) and continued to affect the infected pigs fed the control diet until d 14 PI. The MOS × PRRSV interaction for RT was found at d 7 (P < 0.01) and 10 (P=0.098) PI, indicating that the infected pigs fed MOS had a decreased RT compared with those fed the control. This could explain why feed efficiency was improved by MOS. No effect (P > 0.05) of treatments on viremia or PRRSV-specific antibody was observed. These results suggest that MOS is associated with rapidly increased numbers of WBC at the early stage of infection and alleviates PRRSV-induced effects on G:F and fever. The results also indicate that the reduced intensity of inflammation by MOS may be related to changes in inflammatory mediator levels at the end of the acute phase. PMID:21454863

Che, T M; Johnson, R W; Kelley, K W; Van Alstine, W G; Dawson, K A; Moran, C A; Pettigrew, J E

2011-03-31

409

Further assessment of fomites and personnel as vehicles for the mechanical transport and transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

PubMed Central

This study re-evaluated the role of fomites and personnel in the mechanical transport and transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) between pig populations. Swabs were collected from hands, boots, coveralls, and other fomites following contact with infected pigs and compared with identical samples collected in the absence of PRRSV exposure. Naïve pigs were provided contact with contaminated fomites/personnel and blood tested periodically post-exposure [positive exposure population (PEP)] and compared with populations that did not gain exposure via these routes [negative exposure population (NEP)]. The majority of swab samples from hands, coveralls, and boots from personnel and fomite samples (cable snare and bleeding equipment) following contact with the PRRSV-infected Source Population. Transmission of PRRSV to the PEP was observed (7/7) cases but not in the NEP. In conclusion, under the proper conditions, transport and transmission of PRRSV by fomites and personnel may occur between swine populations in the absence of intervention.

Pitkin, Andrea; Deen, John; Dee, Scott

2009-01-01

410

A new method for quantifying white spot syndrome virus: Experimental challenge dose using TaqMan real-time PCR assay.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. The susceptibility of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was assessed by means of serial dilutions of a solution containing WSSV. A TaqMan real-time PCR was used to quantify the WSSV challenge dose in P. clarkii. The results showed that WSSV copies could be detected at concentrations from 1.365×10(4) to 1.129×10(9) copies/?l. The viral infectivity (LD(50)), measured as the mortality of infected crayfish, indicated 60% mortality in the 10(5) dilution group (1.524×10(5) copies/?l). TaqMan real-time PCR represents a novel standard method, based on the by quantitation of WSSV copies, for determining the appropriate concentration of WSSV for use in infection experiments. PMID:22664183

Zhu, Fei; Quan, Haizhi

2012-06-01

411

Fatal hemophagocytic syndrome related to active human herpesvirus-8/Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-negative, non-transplant patients without related malignancies.  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic syndrome (HS) may occur as a consequence of herpes viral infections. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus has so far been recognized as a trigger of HS only in immunosuppressed subjects or in patients with Kaposi sarcoma and/or HHV-8-related lymphoproliferative diseases. We report two Italian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative elderly men who developed an HS with a rapidly fatal course, following treatment with corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. An overwhelming active infection with HHV-8 was unequivocally documented by molecular and immunohistochemical methods, in the absence of HHV-8-related tumors. The occurrence of HHV-8-associated HS, although rare, may be considered, even out of the HIV or the transplantation settings, at least in areas endemic for HHV-8 infection. PMID:17331129

Re, A; Facchetti, F; Borlenghi, E; Cattaneo, C; Capucci, M A; Ungari, M; Barozzi, P; Vallerini, D; Potenza, L; Torelli, G; Rossi, G; Luppi, M

2007-01-22

412

Genetic diversity of the ORF5 gene of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genotypes I and II in Thailand.  

PubMed

To investigate the genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in Thailand, 279 ORF5 sequences of PRRSV collected during 2010-2011 from 102 swine herds in five swine-producing areas were analyzed. The co-existence of European (EU) and North American (NA) genotypes was observed in 98 % of herds investigated and was evident at the pig level. Both genotypes have evolved separately with a temporal influence on strain development. Novel introductions influence the genetic diversity of the NA genotype. Although Thai EU and NA isolates develop their own clusters that are separate from those of other countries, there was no geographic influence on strain development within Thailand. PMID:23232748

Nilubol, Dachrit; Tripipat, Thitima; Hoonsuwan, Tawatchai; Tipsombatboon, Pavita; Piriyapongsa, Jittima

2012-12-12

413

Further assessment of houseflies (Musca domestica) as vectors for the mechanical transport and transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus under field conditions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for houseflies (Musca domestica) to mechanically transport and transmit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) between pig populations under controlled field conditions. The study employed swine housed in commercial livestock facilities and a release-recapture protocol involving marked (ochre-eyed) houseflies. To assess whether transport of PRRSV by insects occurred, ochre-eyed houseflies were released and collected from a facility housing an experimentally PRRSV-inoculated population of pigs (facility A) and collected from a neighboring facility located 120 m to the northwest that housed a naïve pig population (facility B). All samples were tested for PRRSV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To assess transmission between the 2 populations, blood samples were collected from naïve pigs in facility B at designated intervals and tested by PCR. A total of 7 replicates were conducted. During 2 of 7 replicates (1 and 5), PCR-positive ochre-eyed houseflies were recovered in facility B and pigs in this facility became infected with PRRSV. Chi-squared analysis indicated that the presence of PRRSV in an insect sample was significantly (P = 0.0004) associated with infection of facility B pigs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was not recovered from other reported routes of transmission during the study period, including air, fomites, and personnel. In conclusion, while an insufficient number of replicates were conducted to predict the frequency of the event, houseflies may pose some level of risk for the transport and transmission of PRRSV between pig populations under field conditions.

Pitkin, Andrea; Deen, John; Otake, Satoshi; Moon, Roger; Dee, Scott

2009-01-01

414

Characterization of Pseudotype VSV Possessing HCV Envelope Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes two envelope glycoproteins (E1 and E2), which are thought to be responsible for receptor binding and membrane fusion resulting in virus penetration. To investigate cell surface determinants important for HCV infection, we used a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the glycoprotein gene was replaced with a reporter gene encoding green

Yoshiharu Matsuura; Hideki Tani; Kensuke Suzuki; Tomomi Kimura-Someya; Ryosuke Suzuki; Hideki Aizaki; Koji Ishii; Kohji Moriishi; Clinton S. Robison; Michael A. Whitt; Tatsuo Miyamura

2001-01-01

415

DNA shuffling of the GP3 genes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) produces a chimeric virus with an improved cross-neutralizing ability against a heterologous PRRSV strain.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important swine pathogen. Here we applied the DNA shuffling approaches to molecularly breed the PRRSV GP3 gene, a neutralizing antibodies inducer, in an attempt to improve its heterologous cross-neutralizing ability. The GP3 genes of six different PRRSV strains were bred by traditional DNA shuffling. Additionally, synthetic DNA shuffling of the GP3 gene was also performed using degenerate oligonucleotides. The shuffled-GP3-libraries were cloned into the backbone of a DNA-launched PRRSV infectious clone pIR-VR2385-CA. Four traditional-shuffled chimeras each representing all 6 parental strains and four other synthetic-shuffled chimeras were successfully rescued. These chimeras displayed similar levels of replication both in vitro and in vivo, compared to the backbone parental virus, indicating that the GP3 shuffling did not impair the replication capability of the chimeras. One chimera GP3TS22 induced significantly higher levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies in pigs against a heterologous PRRSV strain FL-12. PMID:23051709

Zhou, Lei; Ni, Yan-Yan; Piñeyro, Pablo; Sanford, Brenton J; Cossaboom, Caitlin M; Dryman, Barbara A; Huang, Yao-Wei; Cao, Dian-Jun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2012-10-07

416

Role of the Spike Glycoprotein of Human Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Virus Entry and Syncytia Formation.  

PubMed

Little is known about the biology of the emerging human group c betacoronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Because coronavirus spike glycoproteins (S) mediate virus entry, affect viral host range, and elicit neutralizing antibodies, analyzing the functions of MERS-CoV S protein is a high research priority. MERS-CoV S on lentivirus pseudovirions mediated entry into a variety of cell types including embryo cells from New World Eptesicus fuscus bats. Surprisingly, a polyclonal antibody to the S protein of MHV, a group a murine betacoronavirus, cross-reacted in immunoblots with the S2 domain of group c MERS-CoV spike protein. MERS pseudovirions released from 293T cells contained only uncleaved S, and pseudovirus entry was blocked by lysosomotropic reagents NH4Cl and bafilomycin and inhibitors of cathepsin L. However, when MERS pseudovirions with uncleaved S protein were adsorbed at 4°C to Vero E6 cells, brief trypsin treatment at neutral pH triggered virus entry at the plasma membrane and syncytia formation. When 293T cells producing MERS pseudotypes co-expressed serine proteases TMPRSS-2 or -4, large syncytia formed at neutral pH, and the pseudovirions produced were non-infectious and deficient in S protein. These experiments show that if S protein on MERS pseudovirions is uncleaved, then viruses enter by endocytosis in a cathepsin L-dependent manner, but if MERS-CoV S is cleaved, either during virus maturation by serine proteases or on pseudovirions by trypsin in extracellular fluids, then viruses enter at the plasma membrane at neutral pH and cause massive syncytia formation even in cells that express little or no MERS-CoV receptor. Thus, whether MERS-CoV enters cells within endosomes or at the plasma membrane depends upon the host cell type and tissue, and is determined by the location of host proteases that cleave the viral spike glycoprotein and activate membrane fusion. PMID:24098509

Qian, Zhaohui; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V

2013-10-03

417

A study of hoarding behavior and attachment to material possessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumers' motivation to accumulate obsolete items and their reluctance to dispose of material possessions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The role of attachment to material possession in the construction of consumer identity provides a conceptual framework for the research. A video-ethnography with eight individuals, who classify themselves as functional hoarders, individuals who accumulate

Hélène Cherrier; Tresa Ponnor

2010-01-01