Sample records for synthetic aperture radar

  1. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Horne; G. Yates

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is becoming increasingly important in many military ground surveillance and targeting roles because of its ability to operate in all weather, day and night, and to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering vulnerability. This

  2. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of radar imagery from space altitudes is discussed and the advantages of radar over passive sensor systems are outlined. Specific reference is made to the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar. Possible applications include oil spill monitoring, snow and ice reconnaissance, mineral exploration, and monitoring phenomena in the urban environment.

  3. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    REVIEW ARTICLE Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Christopher T. Allen Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory University of Kansas Abstract. This paper provides a brief review of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (In

  5. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L. (Tijeras, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  6. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Held; R. F. Gasparovic; A. W. Mansfield; W. K. Melville; E. L. Mollo-Christensen; H. A. Zebker

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes

  7. A butterfly algorithm for synthetic aperture radar

    E-print Network

    Demanet, Laurent

    It is not currently known if it is possible to accurately form a synthetic aperture radar image from N data points in provable near-linear complexity, where accuracy is defined as the ?? error between the full O(N²) ...

  8. Processing for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lybanon, M.

    1973-01-01

    The data handling and processing in using synthetic aperture radar as a satellite-borne earth resources remote sensor is considered. The discussion covers the nature of the problem, the theory, both conventional and potential advanced processing techniques, and a complete computer simulation. It is shown that digital processing is a real possibility and suggests some future directions for research.

  9. Multistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Krishnan; J. Swoboda; Can Evren Yarman; Birsen Yazici

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a multistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging scenario where a swarm of airborne antennas, some of which are transmitting, receiving or both, are traversing arbitrary flight trajectories and transmitting arbitrary waveforms without any form of multiplexing. The received signal at each receiving antenna may be interfered by the scattered signal due to multiple transmitters and

  10. Target Discrimination in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) using Artificial Neural Networks 1 TargetDiscriminationinSyntheticApertureRadar(SAR)

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Target Discrimination in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) using Artificial Neural Networks 1 TargetDiscriminationinSyntheticApertureRadar(SAR principe@cnel.ufl.edu Abstract: This paper addresses target discrimination in synthetic aperture radar (SAR false alarm rate (CFAR) detector which is widely utilized as a target detector in SAR. Then we

  11. Ultrawideband Synthetic Aperture Radar Landmine Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian Jin; Zhimin Zhou

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider landmine detection using ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar, where the two main challenges are feature extraction and discriminator design. The space-wavenumber processing is proposed to retrieve the frequency-and aspect-angle-dependent scattering features of suspected objects. In order to reduce the dimensionality of the input feature vector for a discriminator, the sequential forward floating selection method is used

  12. Multi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Formation

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    Multi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Formation V. P. Krishnan Department of Electrical a multi-static synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging scenario where a swarm of airborne antennas, some-static radar are less effective against distributed radar systems [3], [4]. Finally, multi-static measurements

  13. Performance limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-02-01

    The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to ''get your arms around'' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics, no matter how bright the engineer tasked to generate a system design. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall SAR system. For example, there are definite optimum frequency bands that depend on weather conditions and range, and minimum radar PRF for a fixed real antenna aperture dimension is independent of frequency. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the ''seek time''.

  14. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    SciTech Connect

    Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Synthetic aperture radar autofocus via semidefinite relaxation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuang-Hung; Wiesel, Ami; Munson, David C

    2013-06-01

    The autofocus problem in synthetic aperture radar imaging amounts to estimating unknown phase errors caused by unknown platform or target motion. At the heart of three state-of-the-art autofocus algorithms, namely, phase gradient autofocus, multichannel autofocus (MCA), and Fourier-domain multichannel autofocus (FMCA), is the solution of a constant modulus quadratic program (CMQP). Currently, these algorithms solve a CMQP by using an eigenvalue relaxation approach. We propose an alternative relaxation approach based on semidefinite programming, which has recently attracted considerable attention in other signal processing problems. Experimental results show that our proposed methods provide promising performance improvements for MCA and FMCA through an increase in computational complexity. PMID:23475365

  16. Massively parallel synthetic-aperture radar autofocus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, Gary A.; Plimpton, Steven J.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

    1991-12-01

    The iterative phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithm for automatically focusing synthetic aperture radar images has been implemented on both a 16384-processor Connection Machine and the 1024-processor nCUBE 2 hypercube. Massive parallelism has proven its value by dramatically reducing processing times over those achieved on sequential machines by an order of magnitude or more. This is especially important for very large images or where high volumes of input and output are encountered. We provide an overview of the PGA algorithm, highlighting opportunities for significant speed-up in parallel architectures. This is followed by implementation details and timing results.

  17. Synthetic aperture radar for disaster monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, R.; Saddler, R.; Doerry, A. W.

    2011-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is well known to afford imaging in darkness and through clouds, smoke, and other obscurants. As such, it is particularly useful for mapping and monitoring a variety of natural and man-made disasters. A portfolio of SAR image examples has been collected using General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.'s (GA-ASI's) Lynx® family of Ku-Band SAR systems, flown on both operational and test-bed aircraft. Images are provided that include scenes of flooding, ice jams in North Dakota, agricultural field fires in southern California, and ocean oil slicks from seeps off the coast of southern California.

  18. Synthetic aperture radar processing with tiered subapertures

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Synthetic Aperture Radar Dept.

    1994-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used to form images that are maps of radar reflectivity of some scene of interest, from range soundings taken over some spatial aperture. Additionally, the range soundings are typically synthesized from a sampled frequency aperture. Efficient processing of the collected data necessitates using efficient digital signal processing techniques such as vector multiplies and fast implementations of the Discrete Fourier Transform. Inherent in image formation algorithms that use these is a trade-off between the size of the scene that can be acceptably imaged, and the resolution with which the image can be made. These limits arise from migration errors and spatially variant phase errors, and different algorithms mitigate these to varying degrees. Two fairly successful algorithms for airborne SARs are Polar Format processing, and Overlapped Subaperture (OSA) processing. This report introduces and summarizes the analysis of generalized Tiered Subaperture (TSA) techniques that are a superset of both Polar Format processing and OSA processing. It is shown how tiers of subapertures in both azimuth and range can effectively mitigate both migration errors and spatially variant phase errors to allow virtually arbitrary scene sizes, even in a dynamic motion environment.

  19. Detection of small, slow ground targets using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis; Chapin, Elaine; Rosen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along-track interferometry (ATI) is a technique for sensing Earth-surface motion. The technique involves interferometrically combining data from two radar images acquired from phase centers separated along the platform flight track.

  20. Filtered Back Projection Type Direct Edge Detection of Real Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    E-print Network

    Qiao, Zhijun "George" - Department of Mathematics, University of Texas

    Filtered Back Projection Type Direct Edge Detection of Real Synthetic Aperture Radar Images Noe American, Edinburg, TX 78539 USA ABSTRACT Edge detection algorithms applied to Synthetic Aperture Radar with significant results. Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar, Backprojection, Edge Detection, Imaging 1

  1. Second Order Motion Compensation for Squinted Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar

    E-print Network

    Second Order Motion Compensation for Squinted Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar Minh Phuong Nguyen motion com- pensation (MoCom) algorithm for squinted spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR). A preciseCom accomplishes a phase error compensation considered for every position in the spot. For pulsed SAR with a squint

  2. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar using two satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomiyasu, K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the feasibility of a bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BISAR) utilizing two satellites. The proposed BISAR assumes that the direction of the two narrow antenna beams are programmed to coincide over the desired area to be imaged. Functionally, the transmitter and receiver portions can be interchanged between the two satellites. The two satellites may be in one orbit plane or two different orbits such as geosynchronous and low-earth orbits. The pulse repetition frequency and imaging geometry are constrained by contours of isodops and isodels. With two images of the same area viewed from different angles, it is possible in principle to derive three-dimensional stereo images. Applications of BISAR include topography, water resource management, and soil moisture determination.. Advantages of BISAR over a monostatic SAR are mentioned, including lower transmitter power and greater ranges in incidence angle and coverage.

  3. Multistatic synthetic aperture radar image formation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, V; Swoboda, J; Yarman, C E; Yazici, B

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we consider a multistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging scenario where a swarm of airborne antennas, some of which are transmitting, receiving or both, are traversing arbitrary flight trajectories and transmitting arbitrary waveforms without any form of multiplexing. The received signal at each receiving antenna may be interfered by the scattered signal due to multiple transmitters and additive thermal noise at the receiver. In this scenario, standard bistatic SAR image reconstruction algorithms result in artifacts in reconstructed images due to these interferences. In this paper, we use microlocal analysis in a statistical setting to develop a filtered-backprojection (FBP) type analytic image formation method that suppresses artifacts due to interference while preserving the location and orientation of edges of the scene in the reconstructed image. Our FBP-type algorithm exploits the second-order statistics of the target and noise to suppress the artifacts due to interference in a mean-square sense. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of our multistatic SAR image formation algorithm with the FBP-type bistatic SAR image reconstruction algorithm. While we mainly focus on radar applications, our image formation method is also applicable to other problems arising in fields such as acoustic, geophysical and medical imaging. PMID:20051343

  4. Difficulties in superresolving synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Dickey, Fred M.; Romero, Louis A.; DeLaurentis, John M.

    2002-08-01

    The ability to resolve Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images to finer resolutions than the system bandwidths classically allow is a tantalizing prospect. Seemingly superresolution offers something for nothing, or at least something better than the system was designed for if only we process enough or right. Over the years this has proved to be a rather popular area of investigation, generating a wide variety of algorithms and corresponding claims of performance. Nevertheless, the literature on the fundamental underlying principles of superresolution as applied to SAR has been rather anemic. This paper addresses the following questions: What exactly is superresolution? and What is not really superresolution, but perhaps more aptly described as image enhancement? Is true superresolution possible? and to what degree? What constrains superresolution? and very importantly, How should we objectively test whether an image is in fact superresolved? Whereas superresolution concepts offer the potential of resolution beyond the classical limit, this great promise has not generally been realized. That is not to say that many reported algorithms have no useful effect on images. True superresolution is defined herein as the recovery of true scene spectrum, that allows more accurate scene rendering. The analytical basis for superresolution theory is outlined, and the application to SAR is then investigated as an operator inversion problem, which is generally ill posed. Noise inherent in radar data tends to severely inhibit significant enhancement of image resolution. A criterion for judging superresolution processing of an image is presented.

  5. Lincoln Laboratory millimeter-wave synthetic aperture radar imaging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Henry; Thomas J. Murphy; Kathleen M. Carusone

    1992-01-01

    The Lincoln Laboratory millimeter-wave synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging system is part of a DARPA-funded program that was established at Lincoln Laboratory to investigate the detection and classification of stationary targets using ultra-high resolution, fully polarimetric SAR and real aperture radar (RAR) data. The system consists of an airborne radar that operates at 33.56 GHz. The raw radar data are

  6. A Butterfly Algorithm for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    E-print Network

    Demanet, Laurent

    In spite of an extensive literature on fast algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, it is not currently known if it is possible to accurately form an image from N data points in provable near-linear time ...

  7. Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging of Iapetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Richard D.; Ostro, S.; Janssen, M. A.; Stiles, B.; Kelleher, K.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Johnson, W. T.; Veeramachaneni, C.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2007-10-01

    On Sep. 10, 2007, the Cassini spacecraft will conduct its last targeted flyby of Iapetus during the four year prime mission. On this flyby, the radar will collect a unique active and passive data set. Unlike all other radar data collections during non-Titan flybys, the spacecraft will be close enough to Iapetus to permit synthetic aperture imaging of portions of the facing hemisphere. The range of 20,000 km during this observation makes it similar to high altitude SAR imaging performed on some Titan flybys (e.g., T25 and T29). The imaged area lies mostly on the dark hemisphere of Iapetus, which will also be the night side at the time of this observation. The best active mode resolution will be about 2 km by 6 km. The passive beam footprints will be about 120 km across, while Iapetus is 718 km in radius. At the center of the scan, some high-bandwidth altimetry data will be collected. This presentation will examine the performance trade-offs made in the observation plan, and show some early quick-look results. The combined active and passive data sets have the potential to complement the optical and infrared imaging of Iapetus and shed more light on the structure and composition of the surface. The Iapetus SAR images will also be the first of an icy satellite for which high-resolution optical images are available, and therefore will provide useful lessons for interpretation of Titan SAR images. This work is supported by the NASA Cassini Program at JPL-CalTech.

  8. The SIR-C\\/X-SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Jordan; B. L. Huneycutt; M. Werner

    1995-01-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C\\/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C\\/X-SAR) was a joint United States\\/German\\/Italian space agency imaging radar system successfully flown aboard the shuttle Endeavor in April 1994 and again in September\\/October 1994. The multifaceted SIR-C\\/X-SAR represents a major technological step forward in radar remote sensing and is the first spaceborne multifrequency, polarimetric SAR. The United States developed SIR-C operated at

  9. A Multiscale Approach to Synthetic Aperture Radar in Dispersive Random Media

    E-print Network

    Garnier, Josselin

    Aperture Radar in Random Media 2 1. Introduction In spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SARA Multiscale Approach to Synthetic Aperture Radar in Dispersive Random Media Josselin Garnier1 consider Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation in the situation when the propagation medium

  10. Inverse synthetic aperture 3-D imaging laser radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin He; Xiao-you Yang; Jian-feng Wang; Qun Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) Image can represent target's physical characteristic well and improve target recognition capability, however, conventional optical imaging radar which is limited by the array units or scan system cannot realize the high resolution imaging for moving targets. This paper combines the inverse synthetic aperture technology, laser signal and interferometric technique to suggest a new radar system which is called

  11. Adaptive compression algorithm results for complex synthetic aperture radar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis R. Cirillo; Paul L. Poehler; Noneen Ziemba

    2003-01-01

    Research conducted on complex Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data over the last two years has culminated in the development of a compression algorithm1 compatible with current imagery standards. This new algorithm also includes adaptive attributes which identify the radar data type, data characteristics, and then selects optimal quantization parameters, generated based on the statistics of the data, from a knowledge

  12. Space shuttle search and rescue experiment using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Larson, R. W.; Zelenka, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Langley Research Center, NASA, is developing a concept for using a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar with passive reflectors for search and rescue applications. The feasibility of a synthetic aperture radar for search and rescue applications has been demonstrated with aircraft experiments. One experiment was conducted using the ERIM four-channel radar and several test sites in the Michigan area. In this test simple corner-reflector targets were successfully imaged. Results from this investigation were positive and indicate that the concept can be used to investigate new approaches focused on the development of a global search and rescue system. An orbital experiment to demonstrate the application of synthetic aperture radar to search and rescue is proposed using the space shuttle.

  13. A SEASAT-A synthetic aperture imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, R. L.; Rodgers, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The SEASAT, a synthetic aperture imaging radar system is the first radar system of its kind designed for the study of ocean wave patterns from orbit. The basic requirement of this system is to generate continuous radar imagery with a 100 km swath with 25m resolution from an orbital altitude of 800 km. These requirements impose unique system design problems. The end to end data system described including interactions of the spacecraft, antenna, sensor, telemetry link, and data processor. The synthetic aperture radar system generates a large quantity of data requiring the use of an analog link with stable local oscillator encoding. The problems associated in telemetering the radar information with sufficient fidelity to synthesize an image on the ground is described as well as the selected solutions to the problems.

  14. Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging for Arbitrary Trajectories in the Presence of Noise and Clutter

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging for Arbitrary Trajectories in the Presence of Noise-backprojection (FBP) type inversion method for bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BISAR) when the measurements have targets through numerical simulations. Keywords: Bistatic, filtered-backprojection, microlocal analysis

  15. Mapping of boreal forest biomass from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jon Ranson; R. H. Lang; N. S. Chauhan; R. J. Cacciola; O. Kilic; Sun Guoqing

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Boreal-Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), an investigation is being made of the use of satellite data including shuttle imaging radar-C (SIR-C), X-band synthetic aperture radar (XSAR), and Landsat-Thematic Mapper data for estimating total and component aboveground woody biomass in boreal forest study sites in Canada. The goal of this paper is to present progress in mapping above

  16. Stereoscopic Height Estimation from Multiple Aspect Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    SciTech Connect

    DELAURENTIS,JOHN M.; DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    2001-08-01

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is a two-dimensional projection of the radar reflectivity from a 3-dimensional object or scene. Stereoscopic SAR employs two SAR images from distinct flight paths that can be processed together to extract information of the third collapsed dimension (typically height) with some degree of accuracy. However, more than two SAR images of the same scene can similarly be processed to further improve height accuracy, and hence 3-dimensional position accuracy. This report shows how.

  17. Image simulation of geometric targets for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Nasr; D. Vidal-Madjar

    1991-01-01

    A technique of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image simulation is proposed. The method is based upon embedding of simulated man-made targets in a real background taken among the scenes captured by a spaceborne SAR. Scenes observed at 30 and 3 cm wavelength are used and the target dimensions are large enough with respect to the wavelength in order to compute

  18. Doppler Parameter Estimation for Spaceborne Synthetic-Aperture Radars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuk-Kwok Li; Daniel Held; John Curlander; Chialin Wu

    1985-01-01

    Problems in the determination of Doppler parameters for spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data processing are examined. The degradations in image quality due to errors in these parameters are summarized. We show that these parameters can be estimated using accurate spacecraft ancillary data. In cases where such data are not available, we propose two techniques to estimate these parameters using the

  19. Focusing bistatic synthetic aperture radar using dip move out

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D'Aria; A. Monti Guarnieri; F. Rocca

    2004-01-01

    The appearance of new synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquisition techniques based on opportunity sources enhances interest in bistatic geometries. In seismic data acquisition, each source is currently accompanied by up to 10 000 receivers, and in the last two decades, the bistatic geometry has been carefully studied by scores of authors. Rather then introducing new focusing techniques, within the first-order

  20. Model-based ATR using synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hummel

    2000-01-01

    The Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) program was initiated by the USA Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the USA Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) in the summer of 1995. The goal of this project was to advance the state of automatic target recognition (ATR) using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery by developing the technology of

  1. Lynx: a high-resolution synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan I. Tsunoda; F. Pace; J. Stence; M. Woodring; William H. Hensley; Armin W. Doerry; Bruce C. Walker

    1999-01-01

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or

  2. RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar measurements of some 1998 hurricanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paris W. Vachon; Kristina Katsaros; Peter Black; Peter Dodge

    1999-01-01

    The RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquired C-band HH polarization images over four 1998 hurricanes: Bonnie, Danielle, Georges, and Mitch. The authors present the SAR images and discuss their quantitative use in understanding hurricane morphology. The SAR provides a complimentary “view from below” that is most beneficial when considered in the context of more conventional hurricane observations

  3. Digital technique for generating synthetic aperture radar images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. van de Lindt

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes a digital processing method applicable to a synthetic aperture radar, to be carried by the space shuttle or by satellites. The method uses an earth-fixed coordinate system in which corrective procedures are invoked to compensate for errors introduced by the satellite motion, earth curvature, and wavefront curvature. Among the compensations discussed are those of the coordinate system,

  4. Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations of Currents Colocated With Slicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Ochadlick; Peter Cho; Jeannette Evans-Morgis

    1992-01-01

    During low wind conditions, our synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the ocean contains examples of strong perturbations in the geometry of persistent turbulent ship wakes at the intersection of wakes with dark slicklike features. The perturbations in the wakes are presumably caused by currents and are invariably colocated with slicklike submesoscale features. The current dynamics, influencing the geometry of

  5. Convolution backprojection image reconstruction for spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mita D. Desai; W. Kenneth Jenkins

    1992-01-01

    Convolution backprojection (CBP) image reconstruction has been proposed as a means of producing high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images by processing data directly in the polar recording format which is the conventional recording format for spotlight mode SAR. The CBP algorithm filters each projection as it is recorded and then backprojects the ensemble of filtered projections to create the final image

  6. Moving target imaging using ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanwei Guo; Diannong Liang; Yan Wan; Xiaotao Huang; Zhen Dong

    2003-01-01

    Moving Target High Resolution Imaging of Foliage Penetrate Ultra-Wide Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (FOPEN UWB SAR) is of great significance for battlefield awareness of concealed target. Great range migration and strong clutter make moving target detection and imaging difficult, especially the Signal to Clutter Ration(SCR) some times is so low that the moving targets is invisible in FOPEN UWB SAR

  7. A Multiscale Approach to Synthetic Aperture Radar in Dispersive Random Media

    E-print Network

    Solna, Knut

    . Introduction In spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and for imaging or communication through the earthA Multiscale Approach to Synthetic Aperture Radar in Dispersive Random Media Josselin Garnier1 consider Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation in the situation when the propagation medium

  8. Quasi-Optical Discrete Lens Arrays for Synthetic Aperture Radar GARY LOUIS RAIT

    E-print Network

    Popovic, Zoya

    -of-the-art in both spaceborne and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing systems, but the resourcesQuasi-Optical Discrete Lens Arrays for Synthetic Aperture Radar by GARY LOUIS RAIT B.S.E.E., Ohio Aperture Radar written by Gary Louis Rait has been approved for the Department of Electrical and Computer

  9. New military uses for synthetic aperture radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reamer, Richard E.; Stockton, Wayne; Stromfors, Richard D.

    1993-02-01

    Loral Defense Systems-Arizona, holder of the original patent for the invention of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), developed SAR to meet the military's need for an all-weather, day/night sensor that could produce high quality reconnaissance imagery in adverse weather and restricted visibility conditions. These features, and the ability to image large areas with fine resolution in a relatively short period of time make this sensor useful for many military applications. To date, however, SARs for military use have been hampered by the fact that they've been large, complex, and expensive. Additionally, they have been mounted on special purpose, single mission aircraft which are costly to operate. That situation has changed. A small, modular SAR, called Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (MSAR) developed by Loral can be mounted with relative ease on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or on multi-mission aircraft such as the F-16, F/A-18, or on the F-14.

  10. Gulf Stream thermal fronts detected by synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tao; Perrie, William; Chen, Wei

    2010-03-01

    Our purpose is to detect ocean surface features, specifically oceanic thermal fronts, through analysis of SAR (synthetic aperture radar)-derived wind stress fields. Fine-resolution measurements of near-surface wind speeds over the Gulf Stream region of the Northwest Atlantic were made using SAR images collected by RADARSAT-2. Linear statistical relationships between the wind stress curl and divergence to the crosswind and downwind components of the SST gradient field were used to derive a new method for detecting Gulf Stream thermal fronts from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. In particular, sea surface temperature front features, as suggested by corresponding AVHRR and MODIS images, are evident in both of the wind stress curl and divergence fields. The importance of this methodology is that clouds are often present in the Northwest Atlantic in autumn and winter months and they obscure AVHRR and MODIS images, whereas SAR can penetrate clouds.

  11. Space-surface bistatic synthetic aperture radar - prospective and problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cherniakov

    2002-01-01

    The paper introduced a feasibility analysis of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with novel architecture. Two essential peculiarities are discussed: the system configuration with a moving transmitter when the receiver is stationary and noncooperative transmitters utilization for the system. The system is named space-surface BSAR or S-SBSAR. The system analysis confirms its feasibility. S-S SAR could find numerous applications where

  12. Underground focusing spotlight synthetic aperture radar for tunnel detection applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. Martinez-Lorenzo; Carey Rappaport

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the concept of a underground focusing plane-based synthetic aperture radar (UF-SL-SAR) by analyzing two different scenarios. The first scenario is a sandy, non-dispersive, homogeneous and rough soil. In this case successful underground focusing can be performed and the scattered field produced by the tunnel just above the rough surface dominates that of by the rough ground surface

  13. Synthetic aperture radar processing facility based on a parallel supercomputer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Holm; A. Maoy

    1989-01-01

    A high-performance processing facility for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is described. The SAR processor is designed for the ERS-1 remote sensing satellite and will process a 100-km by 100-km scene in less than eight minutes. This is three times the throughput of comparable facilities. The SAR processor is built around a 320-MFLOP parallel processor. The front-end processor is a superminicomputer,

  14. Synthetic aperture radar/LANDSAT MSS image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, H. E. (editor); Oberholtzer, J. D. (editor); Anuta, P. E. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms and procedures necessary to merge aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery were determined. The design of a SAR/LANDSAT data merging system was developed. Aircraft SAR images were registered to the corresponding LANDSAT MSS scenes and were the subject of experimental investigations. Results indicate that the registration of SAR imagery with LANDSAT MSS imagery is feasible from a technical viewpoint, and useful from an information-content viewpoint.

  15. Soil-penetrating synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Boverie, B.; Brock, B.C.; Doerry, A.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes the results for the first year of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort. This effort included a system study, preliminary data acquisition, and preliminary algorithm development. The system study determined the optimum frequency and bandwidth, surveyed soil parameters and targets, and defined radar cross section in lossy media. The data acquisition imaged buried objects with a rail-SAR. Algorithm development included a radar echo model, three-dimensional processing, sidelobe optimization, phase history data interpolation, and clutter estimation/cancellation.

  16. Forward imaging for obstacle avoidance using ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam H.; Wong, David C.; Stanton, Brian; Smith, Gregory

    2003-09-01

    In support of the Army vision for increased mobility, survivability, and lethality, we are investigating the use of ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology to enhance unmanned ground vehicle missions. The ability of UWB radar technology to detect objects concealed by foilage could provide an important obstacle avoidance capability for robotic vehicles. This would improve the speed and maneuverability of these vehicles and consequently increase the probability of survivability of U.S. forces. This technology would address the particular challenges that confront robotic vehicles such as large rocks hidden in tall grass and voids such as ditches and bodies of water. ARL has designed and constructed an instrumentation-grade low frequency, UWB synthetic aperture radar for evaluation of the target signatures and underlying phenomenology of stationary tactical targets concealed by foilage and objects buried in the ground. The radar (named BoomSAR) is installed in teh basekt of a 30-ton boom lift and can be operated while the entire boom lift is driven forward slowly, with the boom arm extended as high as 45 m to generate a synthetic aperture. In this paper, we investigate the potential use of the UWB radar in the forward imaging configuration. The paper describes the forward imaging radar and test setup at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. We present imagery of "positive" obstacles such as trees, fences, wires, mines, etc., as well as "negative" obstacles such as ditches. Imagery of small targets such as plastic mines is also included. We provide eletromagnetic simulations of forward SAR imagery of plastic mines and compare that to the measurement data.

  17. Optimum frequency for subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, B.C.; Patitz, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    A subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar (SISAR) has potential for application in areas as diverse as non-proliferation programs for nuclear weapons to environmental monitoring. However, most conventional synthetic-aperture radars operate at higher microwave frequencies which do not significantly penetrate below the soil surface. This study attempts to provide a basis for determining optimum frequencies and frequency ranges which will allow synthetic-aperture imaging of buried targets. Since the radar return from a buried object must compete with the return from surface clutter, the signal-to-clutter ratio is an appropriate measure of performance for a SISAR. A parameter-based modeling approach is used to model the complex dielectric constant of the soil from measured data obtained from the literature. Theoretical random-surface scattering models, based on statistical solutions to Maxwell's equations, are used to model the clutter. These models are combined to estimate the signal-to-clutter ratio for canonical targets buried in several soil configurations. Initial results indicate that the HF spectrum (3--30 MHz), although it could be used to detect certain targets under some conditions, has limited practical value for use with SISAR, while the upper vhf through uhf spectrum ([approximately]100 MHz--1 GHz) shows the most promise for a general purpose SISAR system. Recommendations are included for additional research.

  18. MOTION COMPENSATION OF INTERFEROMETRIC SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR

    E-print Network

    Long, David G.

    radar images. This thesis is an in- vestigation into the improvement of the motion compensation;differential phase from the interferogram. Second, range resampling coregisters the two images. All see my potential all aLong the way. I also want to thank my wife, Julie, and my family for their love

  19. Microlocal aspects of bistatic synthetic aperture radar imaging

    E-print Network

    Krishnan, Venky P

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the microlocal properties of the linearized forward scattering operator $F$ and the reconstruction operator $F^{*}F$ appearing in bistatic synthetic aperture radar imaging. In our model, the radar source and detector travel along a line a fixed distance apart. We show that $F$ is a Fourier integral operator, and we give the mapping properties of the projections from the canonical relation of $F$, showing that the right projection is a blow-down and the left projection is a fold. We then show that $F^{*}F$ is a singular FIO belonging to the class $I^{3,0}$.

  20. Proceedings of the Third Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob J. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop was held on 23-24 May 1991 at JPL. Thirty oral presentations were made and 18 poster papers displayed during the workshop. Papers from these 25 presentations are presented which include analyses of AIRSAR operations and studies in SAR remote sensing, ecology, hydrology, soil science, geology, oceanography, volcanology, and SAR mapping and data handling. Results from these studies indicate the direction and emphasis of future orbital radar-sensor missions that will be launched during the 1990's.

  1. Probing the Martian Subsurface with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. A.; Maxwell, T. A.; Freeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Many regions of the martian surface are covered by fine-grained materials emplaced by volcanic, fluvial, or aeolian processes. These mantling deposits likely hide ancient channel systems (particularly at smaller scale lengths) and volcanic, impact, glacial, or shoreline features. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers the capability to probe meters below the surface, with imaging resolution in the 10 s of m range, to reveal the buried terrain and enhance our understanding of Mars geologic and climate history. This presentation focuses on the practical applications of a Mars orbital SAR, methods for polarimetric and interferometric radar studies, and examples of such techniques for Mars-analog sites on the Moon and Earth.

  2. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar imagery of the Gulf Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, T. L.; Cannella, M. E.; Jansen, R. W.; Chubb, S. R.; Carande, R. E.; Foley, E. W.; Goldstein, R. M.; Valenzuela, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    The advent of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) imagery brought to the ocean remote sensing field techniques used in radio astronomy. Whilst details of the interferometry differ between the two fields, the basic idea is the same: Use the phase information arising from positional differences of the radar receivers and/or transmitters to probe remote structures. The interferometric image is formed from two complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. These two images are of the same area but separated in time. Typically the time between these images is very short -- approximately 50 msec for the L-band AIRSAR (Airborne SAR). During this short period the radar scatterers on the ocean surface do not have time to significantly decorrelate. Hence the two SAR images will have the same amplitude, since both obtain the radar backscatter from essentially the same object. Although the ocean surface structure does not significantly decorrelate in 50 msec, surface features do have time to move. It is precisely the translation of scattering features across the ocean surface which gives rise to phase differences between the two SAR images. This phase difference is directly proportional to the range velocity of surface scatterers. The constant of proportionality is dependent upon the interferometric mode of operation.

  3. Time-frequency analysis of synthetic aperture radar signals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, B.

    1996-08-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has become an important tool for remote sensing of the environment. SAR is a set of digital signal processing algorithms that are used to focus the signal returned to the radar because radar systems in themselves cannot produce the high resolution images required in remote sensing applications. To reconstruct an image, several parameters must be estimated and the quality of output image depends on the degree of accuracy of these parameters. In this thesis, we derive the fundamental SAR algorithms and concentrate on the estimation of one of its critical parameters. We show that the common technique for estimating this particular parameter can sometimes lead to erroneous results and reduced quality images. We also employ time-frequency analysis techniques to examine variations in the radar signals caused by platform motion and show how these results can be used to improve output image quality.

  4. Smart antennas for space-borne synthetic aperture radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, F.; Gao, S.; Mao, C.; Wang, Z.; Patyuchenko, A.; Younis, M.; Krieger, G.

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses smart antennas for space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). First, some recent development in smart antennas for space-borne SAR is reviewed. Then, the paper presents a low-cost space-borne SAR system using digital beam forming on receive. The smart antenna system is also discussed, and some results are shown. The antenna system, consisting of a parabolic reflector and multi-feed array, is designed and optimized for dual-band dual-polarized digital beam-forming performance. The operating frequencies are at X and Ka bands with the center frequency of 9.6 and 35.75 GHz, respectively. The stacked dipoles and square patches with parasitic elements are employed as the feed elements at X and Ka bands. Dual-band antenna arrays are combined in the same aperture, which not only reduce the aperture of the feed array, but also coincide the center of dual-band feed arrays.

  5. The Seasat-A synthetic aperture radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, R. L.

    1980-04-01

    The paper discusses the Seasat-A synthetic aperture radar system (SAR). The objective of this system was to detect ocean waves from orbital altitudes. A SAR system operating at 1275 MHz was designed to meet this objective; the choice of wavelength resulted from the imagery obtained by aircraft during 1972 to 1974 and the ease of implementation. The Seasat-A SAR system was turned-on in orbit on July 4, 1978, and gathered imagery until the spacecraft bus failed in orbit in Oct. 1978. The hardware including the antenna, the radar sensor, and data-link subsystem, and the SAR data processing subsystem are described; the radar performance including the SAR system error budget and various SAR imageries are presented, concluding that the performance of the Seasat-A SAR system met all of its parameters on at least some of the imagery.

  6. Application of synthetic aperture radar remote sensing in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunxia; Deng, Fanghui; Wan, Lei; Wang, Zemin; E, Dongchen; Zhou, Yu

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) delivers high-resolution radar images day or night, and in all weather conditions. It also offers the capability for penetrating materials. These unique capabilities boost the application of SAR remote sensing techniques in Antarctica. Based on the key area of Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) - PANDA (Prydz Bay, Amery Ice Shelf and Dome A) section, this paper summarized the typical applications of SAR data, and discussed the crevasse detection with semi-variance analysis in the SAR images of the Grove Mountains area, DEM generation with InSAR pairs and ICESat GLAS data of the Grove Mountains area and nearby areas, and ice flow velocity derivation from D-InSAR and offset tracking of the Grove Mountains area and downstream areas in East Antarctica. The studies provide important information for Antarctic fieldwork and scientific researches. It is further confirmed that Synthetic Aperture Radar remote sensing has tremendous potential in the field of glacial geomorphology, topographic mapping and glacier dynamics, etc.

  7. Efficient parallel implementation of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Sergio S.; Marpu, Prashanth R.; Plaza, Antonio J.

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the parallel implementation of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (POLSAR) data processing chain. Such processing can be computationally expensive when large data sets are processed. However, the processing steps can be largely implemented in a high performance computing (HPC) environ- ment. In this work, we studied different aspects of the computations involved in processing the POLSAR data and developed an efficient parallel scheme to achieve near-real time performance. The algorithm is implemented using message parsing interface (MPI) framework in this work, but it can be easily adapted for other parallel architectures such as general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs).

  8. Synthetic-aperture radar autofocus by maximizing sharpness.

    PubMed

    Fienup, J R

    2000-02-15

    To focus a synthetic-aperture radar image that is suffering from phase errors, a phase-error estimate is found that, when it is applied, maximizes the sharpness of the image. Closed-form expressions are derived for the gradients of a sharpness metric with respect to phase-error parameters, including both a point-by-point (nonparametric) phase function and coefficients of a polynomial expansion. Use of these expressions allows for a highly efficient gradient-search algorithm for high-order phase errors. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated with an example. PMID:18059835

  9. Two target height effects on interferometric synthetic aperture radar coherence

    SciTech Connect

    YOCKY,DAVID A.; JAKOWATZ JR.,CHARLES V.

    2000-03-07

    Useful products generated from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) complex data include height measurement, coherent change detection, and classification. The IFSAR coherence is a spatial measure of complex correlation between two collects, a product of IFSAR signal processing. A tacit assumption in such IFSAR signal processing is that one height target exists in each range-Doppler cell. This paper presents simulations of IFSAR coherence if two targets with different heights exist in a given range-Doppler cell, a condition in IFSAR collections produced by layover. It also includes airborne IFSAR data confirming the simulation results. The paper concludes by exploring the implications of the results on IFSAR classification and height measurements.

  10. SEASAT views oceans and sea ice with synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. L.; Holt, B.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-one SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the oceans and sea ice are presented. Surface and internal waves, the Gulf Stream system and its rings and eddies, the eastern North Pacific, coastal phenomena, bathymetric features, atmospheric phenomena, and ship wakes are represented. Images of arctic pack and shore-fast ice are presented. The characteristics of the SEASAT SAR system and its image are described. Maps showing the area covered, and tables of key orbital information, and listing digitally processed images are provided.

  11. Automatic focus and registration of synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calloway, Terry Marshall

    1992-09-01

    A tomographic model explains why aperture phase error produces cross-range blur. New algorithms estimate phase error then correct it to remove blur from a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image. A new sinusoidal map drift autofocus (SMDA) algorithm removes high-order (greater than five) phase error better than a conventional polynomial map drift autofocus (PMDA) algorithm. A new least squares autofocus (LSA) algorithm focuses an image in fewer iterations than required by a conventional phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithm. A new algorithm aligns, or registers, a complex valued SAR image with a reference SAR image. Tests indicate that the algorithm can achieve simultaneously RMS errors of 0.01 degree, 0.03 pixel, and 0.01 percent in rotation, translation, and scale, respectively.

  12. Automatic Focus and Registration of Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calloway, Terry Marshall

    A tomographic model explains why aperture phase error produces cross-range blur. New algorithms estimate phase error then correct it to remove blur from a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image. A new sinusoidal map drift autofocus (SMDA) algorithm removes high-order (> 5) phase error better than a conventional polynomial map drift autofocus (PMDA) algorithm. A new least squares autofocus (LSA) algorithm focuses an image in fewer iterations than required by a conventional phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithm. A new algorithm aligns, or registers, a complex-valued SAR image with a reference SAR image. Tests indicate that the algorithm can achieve simultaneously RMS errors of 0.01^circ, 0.03 pixel, and 0.01% in rotation, translation, and scale, respectively.

  13. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar imaging for arbitrary flight trajectories.

    PubMed

    Yarman, Can Evren; Yazici, Birsen; Cheney, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analytic, filtered backprojection (FBP) type inversion method for bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BISAR). We consider a BISAR system where a scene of interest is illuminated by electromagnetic waves that are transmitted, at known times, from positions along an arbitrary, but known, flight trajectory and the scattered waves are measured from positions along a different flight trajectory which is also arbitrary, but known. We assume a single-scattering model for the radar data, and we assume that the ground topography is known but not necessarily flat. We use microlocal analysis to develop the FBP-type reconstruction method. We analyze the computational complexity of the numerical implementation of the method and present numerical simulations to demonstrate its performance. PMID:18229806

  14. Signal based motion compensation for synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    John Kirk

    1999-06-07

    The purpose of the Signal Based Motion Compensation (SBMC) for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) effort is to develop a method to measure and compensate for both down range and cross range motion of the radar in order to provide high quality focused SAR imagery in the absence of precision measurements of the platform motion. Currently SAR systems require very precise navigation sensors for motion compensation. These sensors are very expensive and are often supplied in pairs for reliability. In the case of GPS they can be jammed, further degrading performance. This makes for a potentially very expensive and possibly vulnerable SAR system. SBMC can eliminate or reduce the need for these expensive navigation sensors thus reducing the cost of budget minded SAR systems. The results on this program demonstrated the capability of the SBMC approach.

  15. YSAR: a compact low-cost synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Douglas G.; Arnold, David V.; Long, David G.; Miner, Gayle F.; Karlinsey, Thomas W.; Robertson, Adam E.

    1997-09-01

    The Brigham Young University Synthetic Aperture Radar (YSAR) is a compact, inexpensive SAR system which can be flown on a small aircraft. The system has exhibited a resolution of approximately 0.8 m by 0.8 m in test flights in calm conditions. YSAR has been used to collect data over archeological sites in Israel. Using a relatively low frequency (2.1 GHz), we hope to be able to identify walls or other archeological features to assist in excavation. A large data set of radar and photographic data have been collected over sites at Tel Safi, Qumran, Tel Micnah, and the Zippori National Forest in Israel. We show sample images from the archeological data. We are currently working on improved autofocus algorithms for this data and are developing a small, low-cost interferometric SAR system (YINSAR) for operation from a small aircraft.

  16. A comparison of spotlight synthetic aperture radar image formation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Knittle, C.D.; Doren, N.E.; Jakowatz, C.V.

    1996-10-01

    Spotlight synthetic aperture radar images can be formed from the complex phase history data using two main techniques: (1) polar-to-cartesian interpolation followed by two-dimensional inverse Fourier transform (2DFFT), and (2) convolution backprojection (CBP). CBP has been widely used to reconstruct medical images in computer aided tomography, and only recently has been applied to form synthetic aperture radar imagery. It is alleged that CBP yields higher quality images because (1) all the Fourier data are used and (2) the polar formatted data is used directly to form a 2D Cartesian image and therefore 2D interpolation is not required. This report compares the quality of images formed by CBP and several modified versions of the 2DFFT method. We show from an image quality point of view that CBP is equivalent to first windowing the phase history data and then interpolating to an exscribed rectangle. From a mathematical perspective, we should expect this conclusion since the same Fourier data are used to form the SAR image. We next address the issue of parallel implementation of each algorithm. We dispute previous claims that CBP is more readily parallelizable than the 2DFFT method. Our conclusions are supported by comparing execution times between massively parallel implementations of both algorithms, showing that both experience similar decreases in computation time, but that CBP takes significantly longer to form an image.

  17. Addendum to proceedings of the 1978 Synthetic Aperture Radar Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Various research projects on synthetic aperture radar are reported, including SAR calibration techniques. Slot arrays, sidelobe suppression, and wide swaths on satellite-borne radar were examined. The SAR applied to remote sensing was also considered.

  18. Synthetic aperture radar and interferometry development at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-04-01

    Environmental monitoring, earth-resource mapping, and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides such a capability. SAR systems take advantage of the long-range propagation characteristics of radar signals and the complex information processing capability of modern digital electronics to provide high resolution imagery. SAR complements photographic and other optical imaging capabilities because of the minimum constrains on time-of-day and atmospheric conditions and because of the unique responses of terrain and cultural targets to radar frequencies. Interferometry is a method for generating a three-dimensional image of terrain. The height projection is obtained by acquiring two SAR images from two slightly differing locations. It is different from the common method of stereoscopic imaging for topography. The latter relies on differing geometric projections for triangulation to define the surface geometry whereas interferometry relies on differences in radar propagation times between the two SAR locations. This paper presents the capabilities of SAR, explains how SAR works, describes a few SAR applications, provides an overview of SAR development at Sandia, and briefly describes the motion compensation subsystem.

  19. The European synthetic-aperture-radar \\/SAR\\/ processor for Seasat-A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Guignard

    1978-01-01

    Procedures and equipment for processing synthetic-aperture radar data from the Seasat-A spacecraft are discussed. The five payload sensors are described: the scanning multifrequency microwave radiometer, the radar scatterometer, the radar altimeter, the visual infrared radiometer, and the synthetic-aperture radar. The main processing steps are noted: range compression, range migration correction, and azimuth compression. The hardware and software candidates are reviewed

  20. Fusion of multiple-look synthetic aperture radar images at data and image levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram M. Narayanan; Zhixi Li; Scott Papson

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) have proven capabilities for non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR) applications. Multiple looks of the same target (at different aspect angles, frequencies, etc.) can be exploited to enhance target recognition by fusing the information from each look. Such fusion can be performed at the raw data level or at the processed image

  1. Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging for Arbitrary Flight Trajectories and Non-flat

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging for Arbitrary Flight Trajectories and Non-flat Topography inversion method for bistatic synthetic aperture radar. A are well-known [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11 geometry of bistatic SAR studies for the case of poor antenna directivity are limited to I. INTRODUCTION

  2. 3D Reconstruction of Buildings and Vegetation from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Images

    E-print Network

    3D Reconstruction of Buildings and Vegetation from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Images Martin of buildings and vegetation can be obtained from the shadows in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. First in the SAR image. Then the shad­ ows are assigned to suitable elevated objects. Since it is assumed

  3. Energy density directional spectra of a nearshore wave field measured by interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Marom; L. Shemer; E. B. Thornton

    1991-01-01

    The nearshore wave field within Monterey Bay, California, is studied using remote sensing imaging by an interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) and simultaneous ground-based measurements. It is shown that INSAR imagery of the ocean surface offers some advantages over conventional synthetic aperture radar. Because of the direct imaging mechanism of INSAR, quantitative information about the complicated wave field can be

  4. Spatially Interpolated Nonlinear Anodization in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Jr., Charles V.; Yocky, David A.

    1999-06-29

    Spatially Interpolated Nonlinear Anodization in Synthetic Aperture Original formulation of spatially variant anodization for complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery oversampled at twice the Nyquist rate (2.OX). Here we report a spatially interpolating, noninteger-oversampled SVA sidelobe. The pixel's apparent IPR location is assessed by comparing its value to the sum of its value plus weighted comparable for exact interpolation. However, exact interpolation implies an ideal sine interpolator3 and large components may not be necessary. Note that P is the summation of IPR diagonal values. The value of a sine IPR on the diagonals is a sine-squared; values much less than cardinal direction (m, n) values. This implies that cardinal direction interpolation requires higher precision than diagonal interpolation. Consequently, we employed a smaller set. The spatially interpolated SVA used an 8-point/4-point sine interpolator described above. Table 1 shows the Table 1 results show a two-times speed-up using the 1.3x oversampled and spatially interpolated SVA over the Figure 1d. Detected results of 1.3x oversampled sine interpolated spatially variant

  5. Automatic aircraft landing using interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging.

    PubMed

    Soumekh, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an interferometric processing of an aircraft's monostatic and bistatic inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) signatures for automatic landing. The aircraft's squint angle in this ISAR imaging problem is near 90 degrees . We show that this extreme squint angle does not pose any problem for the ISAR Fourier-based (wavefront) reconstruction algorithm. In fact, the aircraft can be imaged accurately, and without any erroneous shifts in the cross-range domain, within the imposed theoretical resolution. Moreover, the algorithm is accurate enough such that one can utilize the phase of the ISAR monostatic and bistatic measurements for interferometric processing. The resultant interferometric ISAR image is used to detect undesirable rotations in the aircraft's orientation. PMID:18285222

  6. Synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition based on curvelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Liu, Zhuo; Jiao, Licheng; He, Jun

    2009-10-01

    A novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) approach based on Curvelet Transform is proposed. However, the existing approaches can not extract the more effective feature. In this paper, our method is concentrated on a new effective representation of the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR) database to obtain a more accurate target region and reduce feature dimension. Firstly, MSTAR database can be extracted feature through the optimal sparse representation by curvelets to obtain a clear target region. However, considering the loss of part of edges of image. We extract coarse feature, which is to compensate fine feature error brought by segmentation. The final features consisting of fine and coarse feature are classified by SVM with Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm can achieve a better correct classification rate.

  7. Seamless Synthetic Aperture Radar Archive for Interferometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S.; Baru, C.; Bryson, G.; Buechler, B.; Crosby, C.; Fielding, E.; Meertens, C.; Nicoll, J.; Youn, C.

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archive (SSARA) project is a collaboration between UNAVCO, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and OpenTopography at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to design and implement a seamless distributed access system for SAR data and derived interferometric SAR (InSAR) data products. A unified application programming interface (API) has been created to search the SAR archives at ASF and UNAVCO, 30 and 90-m SRTM DEM data available through OpenTopography, and tropospheric data from the NASA OSCAR project at JPL. The federated query service provides users a single access point to search for SAR granules, InSAR pairs, and corresponding DEM and tropospheric data products from the four archives, as well as the ability to search and download pre-processed InSAR products from ASF and UNAVCO.

  8. Adaptive resource allocation for synthetic aperture radars under resource constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.; Zelnio, Edmund G.; Hero, Alfred O.

    2013-05-01

    In along-track synthetic aperture radar systems, measurements from multiple phase centers can be used to remove bright stationary clutter in order to detect and estimate moving targets in the scene. The effectiveness of this procedure can be improved by increasing the number of antennas in the system. However, due to computational and communication constraints, it may be prohibitive to use a large number of antennas. In this work, an efficient resource allocation policy is provided to exploit sparsity in the scene, namely that there are few targets relative to the size of the scene. It is shown that even with limited computational resources, one can have significant estimation and computational gains over non-adaptive strategies. Moreover, the performance of the adaptive strategy approaches that of an oracle policy as the number of the stages grows large.

  9. Hierarchical model-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Huang, Haifeng; Dong, Zhen; Wu, Manqing

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar technology, classical image registration methods are incompetent for high-efficiency and high-accuracy masses of real data processing. Based on this fact, we propose a new method. This method consists of two steps: coarse registration that is realized by cross-correlation algorithm and fine registration that is realized by hierarchical model-based algorithm. Hierarchical model-based algorithm is a high-efficiency optimization algorithm. The key features of this algorithm are a global model that constrains the overall structure of the motion estimated, a local model that is used in the estimation process, and a coarse-to-fine refinement strategy. Experimental results from different kinds of simulated and real data have confirmed that the proposed method is very fast and has high accuracy. Comparing with a conventional cross-correlation method, the proposed method provides markedly improved performance.

  10. Perceptual compression of magnitude-detected synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, John D.; Werness, Susan A.

    1994-01-01

    A perceptually-based approach for compressing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is presented. Key components of the approach are a multiresolution wavelet transform, a bit allocation mask based on an empirical human visual system (HVS) model, and hybrid scalar/vector quantization. Specifically, wavelet shrinkage techniques are used to segregate wavelet transform coefficients into three components: local means, edges, and texture. Each of these three components is then quantized separately according to a perceptually-based bit allocation scheme. Wavelet coefficients associated with local means and edges are quantized using high-rate scalar quantization while texture information is quantized using low-rate vector quantization. The impact of the perceptually-based multiresolution compression algorithm on visual image quality, impulse response, and texture properties is assessed for fine-resolution magnitude-detected SAR imagery; excellent image quality is found at bit rates at or above 1 bpp along with graceful performance degradation at rates below 1 bpp.

  11. Moving receive beam method and apparatus for synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Kare, Jordin T. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems by reducing the effect of "edge losses" associated with nonuniform receiver antenna gain. By moving the receiver antenna pattern in synchrony with the apparent motion of the transmitted pulse along the ground, the maximum available receiver antenna gain can be used at all times. Also, the receiver antenna gain for range-ambiguous return signals may be reduced, in some cases, by a large factor. The beam motion can be implemented by real-time adjustment of phase shifters in an electronically-steered phased-array antenna or by electronic switching of feed horns in a reflector antenna system.

  12. SEASAT synthetic-aperture radar data user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Huneycutt, B.; Holt, B. M.; Held, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    The SEASAT Synthetic-Aperture Radar (SAR) system, the data processors, the extent of the image data set, and the means by which a user obtains this data are described and the data quality is evaluated. The user is alerted to some potential problems with the existing volume of SEASAT SAR image data, and allows him to modify his use of that data accordingly. Secondly, the manual focuses on the ultimate focuses on the ultimate capabilities of the raw data set and evaluates the potential of this data for processing into accurately located, amplitude-calibrated imagery of high resolution. This allows the user to decide whether his needs require special-purpose data processing of the SAR raw data.

  13. Performance limits for maritime Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR).

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-11-01

    The performance of an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. In this report we specifically examine ISAR as applied to maritime targets (e.g. ships). It is often difficult to get your arms around' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall ISAR system. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the seek time'.

  14. Fourier-domain multichannel autofocus for synthetic aperture radar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuang-Hung; Munson, David C

    2011-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging suffers from image focus degradation in the presence of phase errors in the received signal due to unknown platform motion or signal propagation delays. We present a new autofocus algorithm, termed Fourier-domain multichannel autofocus (FMCA), that is derived under a linear algebraic framework, allowing the SAR image to be focused in a noniterative fashion. Motivated by the mutichannel autofocus (MCA) approach, the proposed autofocus algorithm invokes the assumption of a low-return region, which generally is provided within the antenna sidelobes. Unlike MCA, FMCA works with the collected polar Fourier data directly and is capable of accommodating wide-angle monostatic SAR and bistatic SAR scenarios. Most previous SAR autofocus algorithms rely on the prior assumption that radar's range of look angles is small so that the phase errors can be modeled as varying along only one dimension in the collected Fourier data. And, in some cases, implicit assumptions are made regarding the SAR scene. Performance of such autofocus algorithms degrades if the assumptions are not satisfied. The proposed algorithm has the advantage that it does not require prior assumptions about the range of look angles, nor characteristics of the scene. PMID:21606028

  15. Identifying tropical mountain wetlands with Asymmetric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; Schumann, G.

    2009-04-01

    Land cover classification in remote areas is often done with remotely sensed data. However, on classic spectrometer data, wetlands are difficult to distinguish from neighbouring grass and shrubland vegetation, despite the differences in hydrological regime and species variety. Another problem with spectrometer data is the interference of cloud cover, which is abundant in the areas where wetlands tend to occur. Radar measurements, which are not affected by cloud cover, are sensitive to soil moisture. As such, they have the potential to identify wetlands from well drained grasslands. In this study, Asymmetric Synthetic Aperture Radar from the ESA ENVISAT satellite are used to identify wetlands in the Ecuadorian paramo ecosystem. This ecosystem occurs above the treeline (3500 m) and is characterised by highly intermingled grass- and wetlands. By comparing ASAR data from different months, hydrologically active zones can be identified. Corroboration with field observations and rain gauge data show that the areas identified with ASAR coincide with locations with a high tendency for saturation and ponding. By linking precipitation data from local raingauges with the ASAR images, the hydrological regime of the area can be characterised. This information is valuable for hydrological and ecological studies, particularly in the paramo region, which has an important water supply function and is a hotspot for biodiversity.

  16. Microlocal Structure of High Range-Resolution Inverse Synthetic-Aperture Radar Data

    E-print Network

    Cheney, Margaret

    Microlocal Structure of High Range-Resolution Inverse Synthetic-Aperture Radar Data Margaret Cheney the problem of identification of airborne objects from high-range- resolution radar data. We use high-frequency asymptotics to show that certain features of the object correspond to identifiable features of the radar data

  17. Metrology, attitude, and orbit determination for spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riley M. Duren; Ed Wong; Bill Breckenridge; Scott Shaffer; Courtney Duncan; Eldred F. Tubbs; Phil M. Salomon

    1998-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), scheduled for an 11 day Space Shuttle flight in 1999, will use an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar instrument to produce a near-global digital elevation map of the earth's land surface with 16 m absolute vertical height accuracy at 30 meter postings. SRTM will achieve the required interferometric baseline by extending a receive-only radar antenna

  18. Estimates of surface roughness derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane L. Evans; Tom G. Farr; Jakob J. van Zyl

    1992-01-01

    Radar remote sensing data provide a unique perspective of the earth's crust and the processes that have influenced its evolution. Physically based models are required, however, to relate the geophysical quantities being measured by the radar sensor to useful geologic information. In this study, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over the Cima volcanic field in the Mojave Desert of California

  19. Estimates of surface roughness derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane L. Evans; Tom G. Farr; Jakob J. van Zyl

    1992-01-01

    Radar remote sensing data provide a unique perspective on the Earth's crust and the processes that have influenced its evolution. Physically based models are required, however, to relate the geophysical quantities being measured by the radar sensor to useful geologic information. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over the Cima volcanic field in the Mojave Desert of California are quantitatively connected

  20. Synthetic Aperture Characterization of Radar Satellite Constellations Nathan A. Goodman and James M. Stiles

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    Synthetic Aperture Characterization of Radar Satellite Constellations Nathan A. Goodman and James M- The concept of radar satellite constellations, or clusters, for SAR and other radar modes has been proposed cell can change dramatically, however, depending on the number of satellites in the constellation

  1. Understanding Volcanic Inflation of Long Valley Caldera, California, from Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, F.; Hensley, S.; Rosen, P.; Langbein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The results using interferometric synthetic aperture radar(SAR) to measure the co-seismic displacement from the June 28, 1992 Landers earthquake suggest that this technique may be applicable to other problems in crustal deformation.

  2. Transient volcano deformation sources imaged with interferometric synthetic aperture radar: Application to Seguam Island, Alaska

    E-print Network

    Transient volcano deformation sources imaged with interferometric synthetic aperture radar time series of source strength attribute a distinctive transient behavior to each of the three source data accounts for the transient, interrelated behavior of the source clusters and the observed

  3. Sparsity-Driven Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Reconstruction, autofocusing, moving targets, and compressed sensing

    E-print Network

    Cetin, Mujdat

    This article presents a survey of recent research on sparsity-driven synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. In particular, it reviews 1) the analysis and synthesis-based sparse signal representation formulations for SAR ...

  4. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  5. Radar shadow detection in synthetic aperture radar images using digital elevation model and projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasath, V. B. Surya; Haddad, Oussama

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are currently widely used in target recognition tasks. In this work, we propose an automatic approach for radar shadow detection and extraction from SAR images utilizing geometric projections along with the digital elevation model (DEM), which corresponds to the given georeferenced SAR image. First, the DEM is rotated into the radar geometry, so that each row would match that of a radar line of sight. Next, we extract the shadow regions by processing row by row until the image is covered fully. We test the proposed shadow detection approach on different DEMs and simulated one-dimensional signals and two-dimensional hills and valleys modeled by various variance-based Gaussian functions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm produces good results in detecting shadows in SAR images with high resolution.

  6. Determination of the velocity of ocean gyres through Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. I. Andharia

    1987-01-01

    The imaging process of a sensor is affected by the motion of the target. The simple optical image undergoes blurring due to target motion, but the more complex aperture synthesis process of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) results in a shift in the position of the moving target. The different parts of an extended non-linear target (such as an ocean

  7. Concepts and Technologies for Synthetic Aperture Radar from MEO and Geosynchronous orbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Edelstein; Soren Madsen; Alina Moussessian; Curtis Chen

    The area accessible from a spacebome imaging radar, e.g. a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), generally increases with the elevation of the satellite while the map coverage rate is a more complicated function 0 f platform velocity and beam agility. T he coverage 0 fa low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite is basically given by the fast ground velocity times the relatively

  8. Concepts and technologies for synthetic aperture radar from MEO and geosynchronous orbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy N. Edelstein; Soren N. Madsen; Alina Moussessian; Curtis Chen

    2005-01-01

    The area accessible from a spaceborne imaging radar, e.g. a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), generally increases with the elevation of the satellite while the map coverage rate is a more complicated function of platform velocity and beam agility. The coverage of a low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite is basically given by the ground velocity times the relatively narrow swath width.

  9. Footprints of storms on the sea: A view from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Atlas

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on board Seasat observed images of stormlike echoes on the sea in 1978. The core of these images is usually an echo-free hole which is attributed to the damping of the short (30-cm) radar detectable gravity waves by the intense rain in the storm core. Although ``the beating down of waves by rain'' is consistent with

  10. On the Detectability of Ocean Surface Waves by Real and Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner R. Alpers; Duncan B. Ross; Clifford L. Rufenach

    1981-01-01

    Real and synthetic aperture radars have been used in recent years to image ocean surface waves. Though wavelike patterns are often discernible on radar images, it is still not fully understood how they relate to the actual wave field. The present paper reviews and extends current models on the imaging mechanism. Linear transfer functions that relate the two-dimensional wave field

  11. Effect of Faraday rotation on L-band interferometric and polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J. M. Rignot

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves traveling through the ionosphere undergo a Faraday rotation of the polarization vector, which modifies the polarization and phase characteristics of the electromagnetic signal. Using L-band (?=24 cm), polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from the shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C) acquired in 1994, the author simulates the effect of a change in the Faraday rotation angle ? on

  12. Temporal Stability of Soil Moisture and Radar Backscatter Observed by the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Pathe, Carsten; Doubkova, Marcela; Sabel, Daniel; Bartsch, Annett; Hasenauer, Stefan; Blöschl, Günter; Scipal, Klaus; Martínez-Fernández, José; Löw, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The high spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture is the result of atmospheric forcing and redistribution processes related to terrain, soil, and vegetation characteristics. Despite this high variability, many field studies have shown that in the temporal domain soil moisture measured at specific locations is correlated to the mean soil moisture content over an area. Since the measurements taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments are very sensitive to soil moisture it is hypothesized that the temporally stable soil moisture patterns are reflected in the radar backscatter measurements. To verify this hypothesis 73 Wide Swath (WS) images have been acquired by the ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) over the REMEDHUS soil moisture network located in the Duero basin, Spain. It is found that a time-invariant linear relationship is well suited for relating local scale (pixel) and regional scale (50 km) backscatter. The observed linear model coefficients can be estimated by considering the scattering properties of the terrain and vegetation and the soil moisture scaling properties. For both linear model coefficients, the relative error between observed and modelled values is less than 5 % and the coefficient of determination (R2) is 86 %. The results are of relevance for interpreting and downscaling coarse resolution soil moisture data retrieved from active (METOP ASCAT) and passive (SMOS, AMSR-E) instruments.

  13. Design and analysis of an X-band synthetic aperture radar for a joint mission with NASA's Shuttle Imaging Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Braun; W. Gilg; W. Kriegl

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual layout of a Shuttle borne X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar. In a joint mission this German\\/Italian radar experiment shall complement the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C) of NASA operating in L- and C-band. The main objectives are simultaneous measurements in L, C, and X-band. In the future this will increase the viability of radar image interpretation, and

  14. Model-Based Information Extraction From Synthetic Aperture Radar Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzner, Shari A.

    2011-07-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a remote sensing technology for imaging areas of the earth's surface. SAR has been successfully used for monitoring characteristics of the natural environment such as land cover type and tree density. With the advent of higher resolution sensors, it is now theoretically possible to extract information about individual structures such as buildings from SAR imagery. This information could be used for disaster response and security-related intelligence. SAR has an advantage over other remote sensing technologies for these applications because SAR data can be collected during the night and in rainy or cloudy conditions. This research presents a model-based method for extracting information about a building -- its height and roof slope -- from a single SAR image. Other methods require multiple images or ancillary data from specialized sensors, making them less practical. The model-based method uses simulation to match a hypothesized building to an observed SAR image. The degree to which a simulation matches the observed data is measured by mutual information. The success of this method depends on the accuracy of the simulation and on the reliability of the mutual information similarity measure. Electromagnetic theory was applied to relate a building's physical characteristics to the features present in a SAR image. This understanding was used to quantify the precision of building information contained in SAR data, and to identify the inputs needed for accurate simulation. A new SAR simulation technique was developed to meet the accuracy and efficiency requirements of model-based information extraction. Mutual information, a concept from information theory, has become a standard for measuring the similarity between medical images. Its performance in the context of matching a simulation image to a SAR image was evaluated in this research, and it was found to perform well under certain conditions. The factors that affect its performance, and the model-based method overall, were found to include the size of the building and its orientation. Further refinements that expand the range of operational conditions for the method would lead to a practical tool for collecting information about buildings using SAR technology. This research was performed using SAR data from MIT-Lincoln Laboratory.

  15. Hierarchical ship classifier for airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Valin; Y. Tessier; A. Jouan

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Canada has developed an agent-based adaptable data fusion testbed (ADFT) within the knowledge based system (KBS) architecture which is currently made of a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF) module and an image support module (ISM). The MSDF module fuses the information provided by nonimaging (2D-radar, ESM) sensors and the various propositions provided by the ISM when processing a synthetic

  16. Preliminary results from the NASA\\/JPL multifrequency, multipolarization synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Held; W. E. Brown; T. W. Miller

    1988-01-01

    A brief description is given of the three-frequency polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar built and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The radar has the capability to simultaneously acquire fully polarimetric data at P-, L-, and C-bands from a DC-8 airborne platform. The radar has an instantaneous data rate of approximately 2.1 Gb\\/s and has selectable record rates between 80-240 Mb\\/s. The

  17. Overview of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C\\/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C\\/X-SAR) missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane L. Evans; Jeffrey J. Plaut; Ellen R. Stofan

    1997-01-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C\\/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C\\/X-SAR), the most advanced imaging radar system to have flown in Earth orbit, was carried in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour in April and October 1994. SIR-C\\/X-SAR simultaneously recorded data at three wavelengths (L-, C-, and X-bands; 23.5 cm, 5.8 cm, and 3.1 cm, respectively). In addition, the full polarimetric

  18. Autofocus algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging with large curvilinear apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleszynski, E.; Bleszynski, M.; Jaroszewicz, T.

    2013-05-01

    An approach to autofocusing for large curved synthetic aperture radar (SAR) apertures is presented. Its essential feature is that phase corrections are being extracted not directly from SAR images, but rather from reconstructed SAR phase-history data representing windowed patches of the scene, of sizes sufficiently small to allow the linearization of the forward- and back-projection formulae. The algorithm processes data associated with each patch independently and in two steps. The first step employs a phase-gradient-type method in which phase correction compensating (possibly rapid) trajectory perturbations are estimated from the reconstructed phase history for the dominant scattering point on the patch. The second step uses phase-gradient-corrected data and extracts the absolute phase value, removing in this way phase ambiguities and reducing possible imperfections of the first stage, and providing the distances between the sensor and the scattering point with accuracy comparable to the wavelength. The features of the proposed autofocusing method are illustrated in its applications to intentionally corrupted small-scene 2006 Gotcha data. The examples include the extraction of absolute phases (ranges) for selected prominent point targets. They are then used to focus the scene and determine relative target-target distances.

  19. Bandwidth compression of synthetic aperture radar imagery by quantization of raw radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipes, R. G.; Butman, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    A study is made of the effects of quantization of the radar returns transmitted from aircraft or spacecraft employing a synthetic aperture radar system. The study is based on the output images obtained after one-bit, two-bit, and eight-bit quantizations and comparing the results to ground truth. In this way the degradation resulting from data or bandwidth reduction is determined. Quantization is evaluated in terms of crater scene, number of looks, and transmission error rate. It is found that two-bit quantization of raw radar data from homogeneous scenes processed to 32 looks yields nearly all the details of the original. One-bit quantization of raw radar data from homogeneous scenes processed to 32 looks yields a good visual representation of the scene but some fine detail is lost and the absolute reflectivity level is not reliable. Image quality is observed to improve with more looks and video and intermediate frequency quantization are not distinguishable even for one-bit quantizations. Image quality is not influenced by bit error rates less than about 2 to the -7th power.

  20. 84 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 17, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008 Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    84 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 17, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008 Bistatic Synthetic Aperture backpro- jection (FBP) type inversion method for bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BISAR). We consider to demonstrate its performance. Index Terms--Bistatic, filtered backprojection, microlocal anal- ysis, radar

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 10, NO. 4, APRIL 2001 623 Feature-Enhanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Image

    E-print Network

    Willsky, Alan S.

    pulses from a radar mounted on an airborne or spaceborne platform to a particular area of interest Aperture Radar Image Formation Based on Nonquadratic Regularization Müjdat Çetin, Student Member, IEEE-mode synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with enhanced features. The approach is based on a regularized

  2. The DESDynI Synthetic Aperture Radar Array-Fed Reflector Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Ghaemi, Hirad; Giersch, Louis; Harcke, Leif; Hodges, Richard; Hoffman, James; Johnson, William; Jordan, Rolando; Khayatian, Behrouz; Rosen, Paul; Sadowy, Gregory; Shaffer, Scott; Shen, Yuhsyen; Veilleux, Louise; Wu, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    DESDynI is a mission being developed by NASA with radar and lidar instruments for Earth-orbit remote sensing. This paper focuses on the design of a largeaperture antenna for the radar instrument. The antenna comprises a deployable reflector antenna and an active switched array of patch elements fed by transmit/ receive modules. The antenna and radar architecture facilitates a new mode of synthetic aperture radar imaging called 'SweepSAR'. A system-level description of the antenna is provided, along with predictions of antenna performance.

  3. IFP V4.0:a polar-reformatting image formation processor for synthetic aperture radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Eichel, Paul H.

    2005-09-01

    IFP V4.0 is the fourth generation of an extraordinarily powerful and flexible image formation processor for spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar. It has been successfully utilized in processing phase histories from numerous radars and has been instrumental in the development of many new capabilities for spotlight mode SAR. This document provides a brief history of the development of IFP, a full exposition of the signal processing steps involved, and a short user's manual for the software implementing this latest iteration.

  4. Deployable extendable support structure for the RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar antenna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Gralewski; L. Adams; J. M. Hedgepeth

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the development of the Extendable Support Structure (ESS) which deploys and supports the radiating panels of the RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar antenna. Critical requirements for ESS packaging, deployment, surface position accuracy, and the ability to cope with differential thermal expansion between the ESS and the antenna panels are discussed. Preliminary designs of several of the joint hinge

  5. Spectral signal to clutter and thermal noise properties of ocean wave imaging synthetic aperture radars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Alpers; Klaus Hasselmann

    1982-01-01

    The high wavenumber detection cut-off is determined above which the spectrum of ocean waves imaged by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is lost in the background noise spectrum consisting of the clutter noise associated with the Rayleigh statistics of the backscattering surface and the thermal noise originating in the SAR system itself. For given power, the maximum detection cut-off wavenumber

  6. Fractional Brownian motion models for synthetic aperture radar imagery scene segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLAYTON V. STEWART; BABACK MOGHADDAM; KENNETH J. HINTZ; LESLIE M. NOVAK

    1993-01-01

    The application of fractal random process models and their related scaling parameters as features in the analysis and segmentation of clutter in high-resolution, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is demonstrated. Specifically, the fractal dimension of natural clutter sources, such as grass and trees, is computed and used as a texture feature for a Bayesian classifier. The SAR shadows are

  7. Computation of Wind Vectors over the Ocean Using Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Horstmann; Susanne Lehner; Wolfgang Koch; Rasmus Tonboe

    2000-01-01

    he high resolution and large coverage of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offer a unique opportunity to derive mesoscale wind fields over the ocean surface and to investigate their spatial variation. For this purpose, different algorithms were developed and tested using SAR images from two European Remote Sensing satellites. In this article, the methods for deriving wind fields from SAR

  8. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar observations of ocean waves traveling into sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth; Susanne Lehner

    2002-01-01

    Damping of ocean waves by sea ice is studied using spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) acquired by the European Remote sensing satellite ERS-2. SAR imaging of waves damped by sea ice is analyzed theoretically. The impact of sea ice on the azimuthal cutoff is studied by simulation of the azimuthal SAR image autocorrelation

  9. Conceptual reconfigurable antenna for 35 GHz high-resolution spaceborne synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tomiyasu

    2003-01-01

    An innovative Cassegrain antenna for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) utilizes a reconfigurable feed array for scene grazing angles from 15° to 70° to produce the largest antenna beam footprints that are circular and to maintain high efficiency or the transmitter. The antenna has a beam waveguide input and the feed array is located in this waveguide. The feed array

  10. The Design and Construction of Inexpensive RF Circuitry for an S-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    E-print Network

    Long, David G.

    The Design and Construction of Inexpensive RF Circuitry for an S-band Synthetic Aperture Radar reliable than the pre- vious prototype design which was implemented in coaxial components. The circuitry construction of the circuitry. Measurements are also presented. INTRODUCTION Compact and inexpensivesynthetic

  11. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar inversion with application in dynamic object imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehrdad Soumekh

    1991-01-01

    An inversion method is presented for bistatic synthetic aperture radar imaging. The method is based on a Fourier analysis (Doppler processing) of the bistatic synthesized array's data followed by a phase modulation analysis of the Doppler data. The approach incorporates the phase information of the wavefront curvature in the transmitted waves as well as the resultant echoed signals. The Doppler

  12. Noise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery Compressing and Reconstruction Based on Compressed Sensing

    E-print Network

    Qiao, Zhijun "George" - Department of Mathematics, University of Texas

    Noise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery Compressing and Reconstruction Based on Compressed approach is proposed to reduce the speckle noise in SAR images based on compress sensing. Through the skill in the SAR image, the performance of the proposed approach is shown and compared with a conventional

  13. Seasonal subsidence and rebound in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, observed by synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    E-print Network

    Amelung, Falk

    Seasonal subsidence and rebound in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, observed by synthetic aperture radar in the subsidence and rebound occurring over stressed aquifer systems, in conjunction with measurements, generally permanent aquifer system compaction and land subsidence at yearly and longer timescales, caused

  14. Integrated satellite interferometry: Tropospheric noise, GPS estimates and implications for interferometric synthetic aperture radar products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Williams; Yehuda Bock; Peng Fang

    1998-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR), like other astronomic and space geodetic techniques, is limited by the spatially and temporally variable delay of electromagnetic waves propagating through the neutral atmosphere. Statistical analysis of these variations, from a wide variety of instruments, reveals a power law dependence on frequency that is characteristic of elementary (Kolmogorov) turbulence. A statistical model for a major

  15. Accuracy Assessment of a Digital Height Model Derived from Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred Kleusberg; Hans-georg Klaedtke

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: A digital height model (DHM) derived from airborne interferometric synthetic aperture Radar (InSAR) covering about140 kmwas compared to the elevations of Trigonometric Points, the DHM of the state of Baden-Wrttemberg (DHMBa-W), and GPS derived elevations.

  16. Fusion of multistatic synthetic aperture radar data to obtain a superresolution image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Mohammad-Djafari; Sha Zhu; Franck Daout; Philippe Fargette

    2010-01-01

    When using a single emitter and a single receiver, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data gives information in the Fourier domain of the scene over a line segment whose width is related to the bandwidth of the emitted signal. The mathematical problem of image reconstruction in SAR then becomes a Fourier Synthesis (FS) inverse problem. When there are more than

  17. An atlas of November 1978 synthetic aperture radar digitized imagery for oil spill studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, H. E.; Oderman, W.; Crosswell, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A data set is described which consists of digitized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery plus correlative data and some preliminary analysis results. This data set should be of value to experimenters who are interested in the SAR instrument and its application to the detection and monitoring of oil on water and other distributed targets.

  18. A two-level image pair simulator for interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenxun Chen; Zheng Xiang; Xingzhao Liu; Mengmeng Zhu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel simulator to obtain single-look complex (SLC) image pair from the distributed target for interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). From conventional works, two simulation levels are derived: one is raw signal level (RSL) which means using raw signal to obtain SLC image pairs, the other is SLC image level (SIL) which means obtaining the SLC image

  19. Ocean wave extraction from RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar inter-look image cross-spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Dowd; Paris W. Vachon; Fred W. Dobson; Richard B. Olsen

    2001-01-01

    This study is concerned with the extraction of directional ocean wave spectra from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image spectra. The statistical estimation problem underlying the wave-SAR inverse problem is examined in detail in order to properly quantify the wave information content of SAR. As a concrete focus, a data set is considered comprising six RADARSAT SAR images co-located with a

  20. An airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) experiment to support RADARSAT-2 ground moving target indication (GMTI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Livingstone; I. Sikaneta; C. H. Gierull; S. Chiu; A. Beaudoin; J. Campbell; J. Beaudoin; S. Gong; T. A. Knight

    2002-01-01

    As part of the preparatory work for the RADARSAT-2 moving object detection experiment (MODEX special operating mode), an airborne experiment was conducted at Canadian Forces Base Petawawa in July 1999 to study synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along-track interferometry (ATI) and SAR displaced phase centre antenna (DPCA) as candidate measurement techniques. The CV 580 SAR system operated by Environment Canada was

  1. Mapping near-surface soil moisture with RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Leconte; François Brissette; Martine Galarneau; Jean Rousselle

    2004-01-01

    An approach for mapping near-surface soil moisture at the watershed scale from RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data was developed and tested on seven RADARSAT-1 SAR images acquired over the northern portion of the Châteauguay River Basin in southwestern Quebec, Canada, dominated by agricultural and herbaceous fields. A soil surface roughness map was first retrieved from a SAR image by

  2. Cooperative Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Segmentation Using Learning Sparse Representation Based Clustering Scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuyuan Yang; Junlin Zhu; Zailin Hu; Min Wang; Licheng Jiao

    2011-01-01

    Based on a recent proposed and popular sparse representation based classifier (SRC), in this paper we presented a novel Learning Sparse Representation based Clustering (LSRC) scheme for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) segmentation. LSRC introduces the examples-based dictionary learning technology in SRC to find a dictionary that is adaptable to sparsely representing samples, which is liable to provide more accurate approximation

  3. A theory of the synthetic aperture radar images of time-dependent scenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew S. Milman; Albert O. Scheffler; John R. Bennett

    1993-01-01

    Data from synthetic aperture radars (SAR's) can be used to measure the surface height spectrum of the ocean. Traditionally, only the real SAR image is used; we show, both theoretically and with SAR data, that the complex image contains more information about the ocean scene. We derive an expression for the ambiguity function of the complex image, which is an

  4. Wavefront curvature limitations and compensation to polar format processing for synthetic aperture radar images.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-01-01

    Limitations on focused scene size for the Polar Format Algorithm (PFA) for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation are derived. A post processing filtering technique for compensating the spatially variant blurring in the image is examined. Modifications to this technique to enhance its robustness are proposed.

  5. BYU MICRO-SAR: A VERY SMALL, LOW-POWER LFM-CW SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR

    E-print Network

    Long, David G.

    BYU MICRO-SAR: A VERY SMALL, LOW-POWER LFM-CW SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR by Michael I. Duersch Douglas M. Chabries Dean, Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology #12;#12;ABSTRACT BYU MICRO-SAR-weight, and low power consumption SAR for flight on a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at low altitudes

  6. Global digital topography mapping with a synthetic aperture scanning radar altimeter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Elachi; K. E. Im; F. Li; E. Rodriguez

    1990-01-01

    Global digital topography data of the land surface is of importance in a variety of geoscientific and application disciplines. Such a database, with a spatial resolution of 150 to 500 m and height accuracy of 5 m or better can be acquired from an orbiting platform using a synthetic aperture scanning radar altimeter. Near-global coverage can be achieved within 14

  7. Feature-enhanced synthetic aperture radar image formation based on nonquadratic regularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Müjdat Çetin; William Clement Karl

    2001-01-01

    We develop a method for the formation of spotlight-mode synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with enhanced features. The approach is based on a regularized reconstruction of the scattering field which combines a tomographic model of the SAR observation process with prior information regarding the nature of the features of interest. Compared to conventional SAR techniques, the method we propose produces

  8. Optimization of Soil Hydraulic Model Parameters Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: An Integrated Multidisciplinary Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentijn R. N. Pauwels; Anna Balenzano; Giuseppe Satalino; Henning Skriver; Niko E. C. Verhoest; Francesco Mattia

    2009-01-01

    It is widely recognized that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are a very valuable source of information for the modeling of the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. During the last couple of decades, most of the research on the use of SAR data in hydrologic applications has been focused on the retrieval of land and biogeophysical parameters

  9. Improvement of classification accuracy integrating C- and X-band synthetic aperture radar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Kun; Wu Bingfang; Li Qiangzi; Tian Yichen

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing for the monitoring of agricultural crops has been widely used in the past. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, for its characteristics of all-weather, all-day image obtain capacity, is an attractive source of information for agriculture crop classification applications, particularly in regions where cloud cover is a problem. The accuracy with which crops can be classified is dependent on

  10. A compact implementation of a real time acousto-optic synthetic aperture radar processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Kamran; Lesh, James R.; Hemmati, Hamid

    1988-01-01

    The architecture of a real-time acoustooptic synthetic aperture radar processor is reviewed and recent efforts to develop a compact processor are presented. It employs an acoustooptic device operated in the space integrating mode to compress the signal in range.

  11. A butterfly algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging Laurent Demanet1

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    A butterfly algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging Laurent Demanet1 , Matthew Ferrara2, with the desired pixelwise accuracy. It is based on the butterfly scheme, which unlike the FFT works for vastly analysis in the butterfly algorithm. MF and LD are grateful for AFOSR support from Arje Nachman. MF and NM

  12. A butterfly algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging Laurent Demanet1

    E-print Network

    Demanet, Laurent

    A butterfly algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging Laurent Demanet1 , Matthew Ferrara2 pixelwise accuracy. It is based on the butterfly scheme, which unlike the FFT works for vastly more general in the butterfly algorithm. MF is grateful for AFOSR support from Arje Nachman. MF and NM were partially supported

  13. Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging on a Cuda-Enabled Mobile Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatica, M.; Philllips, E.

    2014-12-01

    This talk will present the details of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging on the smallest CUDA-capable platform available, the Jetson TK1. The results indicate that GPU accelerated embedded platforms have considerable potential for this type of workload and in conjunction with low power consumption, light weight and standard programming tools, could open new horizons in the embedded space.

  14. The Influence of Random Phase Errors on the Angular Resolution of Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean A. Develet

    1964-01-01

    The influence of random phase errors on the angular resolution of a focused synthetic aperture radar system is treated. The principal measure of performance has been taken as the mean envelope power at the system output. This system output power is evaluated exactly, although not in closed form, based on the following assumptions: 1) the real beam pattern is Gaussian;

  15. MMW target and clutter characterization using the range instrumentation synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry A. Ray; Douglas Barr

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (AMRDEC) and Redstone Test Center (RTC) at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama have developed a Ka band, range instrumentation synthetic aperture radar (RISAR) for the purpose of millimeter wave (MMW) target and scene characterization. RISAR was developed as one element of the Advanced Multi-Spectral Sensor and Subsystem Test Capabilities (AMSSTC) program funded and managed

  16. Synthetic-aperture radar imaging through dispersive media

    E-print Network

    Cheney, Margaret

    ) the frequency bands of most radar systems are not wide enough for dispersive effects to be important. However homogeneous dispersive material, the scene to be imaged lies on a known surface, and the radar antenna flight vegetation. However, the method is also applicable to other dielectric materials where the dispersion

  17. Target-adaptive polarimetric synthetic aperture radar target discrimination using maximum average correlation height filters.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Firooz A; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2006-05-01

    We report the development of a technique for adaptive selection of polarization ellipse tilt and ellipticity angles such that the target separation from clutter is maximized. From the radar scattering matrix [S] and its complex components, in phase and quadrature phase, the elements of the Mueller matrix are obtained. Then, by means of polarization synthesis, the radar cross section of the radar scatters are obtained at different transmitting and receiving polarization states. By designing a maximum average correlation height filter, we derive a target versus clutter distance measure as a function of four transmit and receive polarization state angles. The results of applying this method on real synthetic aperture radar imagery indicate a set of four transmit and receive angles that lead to maximum target versus clutter discrimination. These optimum angles are different for different targets. Hence, by adaptive control of the state of polarization of polarimetric radar, one can noticeably improve the discrimination of targets from clutter. PMID:16639454

  18. a Robust Change Detector for Multilook Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari; Akbari; Abkar; Sahebi; Liu

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust unsupervised change detection algorithm for multilook polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data. The Hotelling-Lawley trace (HLT) statistic is used as a test statistic to measure the similarity of two covariance matrices. The generalized Kittler and Illingworth (K&I) minimum-error thresholding algorithm is then applied on the test statistic image to accurately discriminates changed and unchanged areas. The algorithm, tested on real PolSAR images, provides satisfactory results.

  19. Penetration depth of interferometric synthetic-aperture radar signals in snow and ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Rignot; Keith Echelmeyer; William Krabill

    2001-01-01

    Digital elevation models of glaciated terrain produced by the NASA\\/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR) instrument in Greenland and Alaska at the C- (5.6 cm wavelength) and L-band (24-cm) frequencies were compared with surface elevation measured from airborne laser altimetry to estimate the phase center of the interferometric depth, or penetration depth, deltap. On cold polar firn

  20. Identification of sea ice types in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Kwok; Eric Rignot; Benjamin Holt; R. Onstott

    1992-01-01

    An approach for identification of sea ice types in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data is presented. The unsupervised classification approach involves cluster analysis for segmentation of the image data followed by cluster labeling based on previously defined look-up tables containing the expected backscatter signatures of different types measured by land-based scatterometer. The particular look-up table used for labeling

  1. Wide-Bandwidth Continuous-Wave Monostatic\\/Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehrdad Soumekh

    1998-01-01

    Monostatic and bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems with wide-bandwidth continuous-wave (WB-CW) sources have been utilized for military reconnaissance. The WB-CW sources are less susceptible than FM-CW sources to electronic counter measures (ECM). The main shortcoming of the WB-CW microwave illumination is that its resultant SAR echoed signal is not composed of distinct Doppler spreadings around specific tones; this

  2. Tutorial review of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) with applications to imaging of the ocean surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KIYO TOMIYASU

    1978-01-01

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can produce high-resolution two-dimensional images of mapped areas. The SAR comprises a pulsed transmitter, an antenna, and a phase-coherent receiver. The SAR is borne by a constant velocity vehicle such as an aircraft or satellite, with the antenna beam axis oriented obliquely to the velocity vector. The image plane is defined by the velocity vector

  3. Feasibility of tunnel detection under rough ground surfaces using Underground Focusing Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Quivira; Kristen Fassbender; Jose A. Martinez-Lorenzo; Carey M. Rappaport

    2010-01-01

    Detecting and imaging the presence of illicit tunnels in any given volume of soil is occasionally possible because the air that fills them is materially quite different from anything else underground. The Underground Focusing Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar (UF-SL-SAR) concept has been suggested for sub-surface tunnel detection due to its ability to scan large areas of terrain in a short

  4. Physical Limitations on Detecting Tunnels using Underground Focusing Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carey M. Rappaport; Jose Angel Martinez Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the concept of Underground Focusing Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar (UF-SL-SAR) systems for tunnel detection applications. A general formulation for generating UF-SL-SAR imaging in realistic, randomly rough ground is developed by focusing in space and frequency at subsurface points by considering rays refraction at the nominal ground surface. Imaging results are presented for two soil scenarios: dry sand

  5. Vegetation profiles in tropical forests from multibaseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar, field, and lidar measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Treuhaft; B. D. Chapman; J. R. dos Santos; F. G. Gonçalves; L. V. Dutra; P. M. L. A. Graça; J. B. Drake

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the estimation of vertical vegetation density profiles from multibaseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the AirSAR aircraft at C band over primary, secondary, and abandoned-pasture stands at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica in 2004. Profiles were also estimated from field data taken in 2006 and lidar data taken with the LVIS, 25 m spot

  6. Performance of Stereoradargrammetric Methods Applied to Spaceborne Monostatic–Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Renga; Antonio Moccia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of stereoradargrammetric methods applied to spaceborne monostatic-bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for digital elevation model (DEM) generation. Stereoradargrammetric techniques for robust DEM generation were successfully experienced on monostatic repeat-pass SIR-A, SIR-B, SIR-C\\/X-SAR, ERS1\\/2, JERS-1, and Radarsat data. However, novel configurations achievable by modern spacecraft flying in formation will allow for the attainment

  7. Mission analysis and design of a bistatic synthetic aperture radar on board a small satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Moccia; Sergio Vetrella; Roberta Bertoni

    2000-01-01

    This paper is aimed at a feasibility study of a new space-based observation technique: bistatic synthetic aperture radar, e.g. an active microwave sensor operating with separated transmitting and receiving antennae. Assuming ESA ENVISAT ASAR as main mission, a small satellite (BISSAT) equipped with a receiving-only antenna and flying in formation with ENVISAT is studied in details. In addition to conventional

  8. Multitask Learning and Sparse Representation Based Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuyuan Yang; Zhizhou Liu; Min Wang; Fenghua Sun; Licheng Jiao

    2011-01-01

    In earth observing remote sensing fields, to recognize objects whose size approaches the limiting spatial resolution scale especially in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, spatial resolution enhancement is usually required. In this paper, we proposed a multi-task learning and K-SVD based Super- resolution image restoration method where K-SVD algorithm is employed to learn a redundant dictionary from some example image

  9. Global digital topography mapping with a synthetic aperture scanning radar altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Im, K. E.; Rodriguez, E.

    1990-01-01

    Global digital topography data of the land surface is of importance in a variety of geoscientific and application disciplines. Such a database, with a spatial resolution of 150 to 500 m and height accuracy of 5 m or better can be acquired from an orbiting platform using a synthetic aperture scanning radar altimeter. Near-global coverage can be achieved within 14 days from an orbiting platform in a polar or near-polar orbit.

  10. Strapdown inertial measurement units for motion compensation for synthetic aperture radars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Kennedy

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) motion can be compensated by using an antenna-mounted strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) as the motion sensing system, but sensor and system errors affect SAR image quality. A strapdown IMU consists of three accelerator channels and three gyro channels. Strapdown IMU errors include gyro-scale and accelerometer-scale factor and bias errors, velocity error, platform

  11. User guide to the Magellan synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.; Mcconnell, Shannon L.; Leff, Craig E.; Austin, Richard S.; Beratan, Kathi K.; Rokey, Mark J.

    1995-01-01

    The Magellan radar-mapping mission collected a large amount of science and engineering data. Now available to the general scientific community, this data set can be overwhelming to someone who is unfamiliar with the mission. This user guide outlines the mission operations and data set so that someone working with the data can understand the mapping and data-processing techniques used in the mission. Radar-mapping parameters as well as data acquisition issues are discussed. In addition, this user guide provides information on how the data set is organized and where specific elements of the set can be located.

  12. Urban land use classification using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Several approaches to the use of radar imagery for land use classification of urban and near-urban areas are presented. The use of L band, horizontal transmit, and horizontal receive data is emphasized because of their general availability. For urban area studies using imaging radar, the effects of processing in an off-zero Doppler or squint mode, of the presence of large diffuse scatters, and of the possibility of height measurements are discussed. Data from the Los Angeles area are illustratively used.

  13. Estimation of Canopy Water Content in Konza Parry Grasslands Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Measurements During FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; van Zyl, Jacob J.; Asrar, Ghassem

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an algorithm to retrieve the canopy water contents of natural grasslands and pasture from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements. The development on this algorithm involves three interrelated steps: (1) calibration of SAR data for ground topographic variations, (2) development and validation of backscatter model for cross-polarized ratio. The polarimetric radar data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory AIRSAR system during the 1989 First International Satellite land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) used for this study. The SAR data have been calibrated and corrected for the topographical effects by using the digital elevation map of the study area.

  14. Global mapping strategies for a synthetic aperture radar system in orbit about Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the global mapping of Venus using a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is presented. The geometry of the side-looking radar, the narrow swath width, and the slow rotation of Venus combine to constrain the methods required to produce such a map within the primary mapping mission of 121.5 days. Parametric studies indicate that multiple strategies can satisfy the requirements of the mission with reasonable assumptions for the total recording capacity, the downlink data rate, and the operating time of the SAR on each revolution.

  15. Synthetic aperture radar target detection, feature extraction, and image formation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian

    1994-01-01

    This report presents new algorithms for target detection, feature extraction, and image formation with the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. For target detection, we consider target detection with SAR and coherent subtraction. We also study how the image false alarm rates are related to the target template false alarm rates when target templates are used for target detection. For feature extraction from SAR images, we present a computationally efficient eigenstructure-based 2D-MODE algorithm for two-dimensional frequency estimation. For SAR image formation, we present a robust parametric data model for estimating high resolution range signatures of radar targets and for forming high resolution SAR images.

  16. Field test of bistatic forward-looking synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Balke; Azimuth Beamwidth

    2005-01-01

    Monostatic radar systems reach their limits if a two-dimensional resolution is desired for a forward-looking geometry. Bistatic systems offer an alternative to handle this problem if the transmitter operates as a separated illuminator while the receiver is arranged in a forward-looking mode. A newly arranged field test presented in this paper successfully showed the applicability of the chosen approach. By

  17. Moving target detection in foliage using along track monopulse synthetic aperture radar imaging.

    PubMed

    Soumekh, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting moving targets embedded in foliage from the monostatic and bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data obtained via two airborne radars. The two radars, which are mounted on the same aircraft, have different coordinates in the along track (cross-range) domain. However, unlike the interferometric SAR systems used for topographic mapping, the two radars possess a common range and altitude (i.e., slant range). The resultant monopulse SAR images are used to construct difference and interferometric images for moving target detection. It is shown that the signatures of the stationary targets are weakened in these images. Methods for estimating a moving target's motion parameters are discussed. Results for an ultrawideband UHF SAR system are presented. PMID:18283004

  18. A model for forming airborne synthetic aperture radar images of underground targets

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from an airborne platform has been proposed for imaging targets beneath the earth`s surface. The propagation of the radar`s energy within the ground, however, is much different than in the earth`s atmosphere. The result is signal refraction, echo delay, propagation losses, dispersion, and volumetric scattering. These all combine to make SAR image formation from an airborne platform much more challenging than a surface imaging counterpart. This report treats the ground as a lossy dispersive half-space, and presents a model for the radar echo based on measurable parameters. The model is then used to explore various imaging schemes, and image properties. Dynamic range is discussed, as is the impact of loss on dynamic range. Modified window functions are proposed to mitigate effects of sidelobes of shallow targets overwhelming deeper targets.

  19. Estimates of surface roughness derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Radar remote sensing data provide a unique perspective of the earth's crust and the processes that have influenced its evolution. Physically based models are required, however, to relate the geophysical quantities being measured by the radar sensor to useful geologic information. In this study, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over the Cima volcanic field in the Mojave Desert of California are quantitatively connected with microtopography through inversion of a radar backscatter model. Changes in surface roughness inferred from the derived microtopography are modeled and found to be consistent with aeolian mantling as surfaces age. Estimated rates of aeolian deposition for the Cima area are compared to the Lunar Crater volcanic field in Nevada. Rates of deposition appear to be higher at Cima volcanic field, most likely because of its proximity to Soda Lake, the main source of the aeolian material.

  20. Estimating Titan Surface Topography from Cassini Synthetic Aperture RADAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, B. W.; Hensley, S.; Gim, Y.; Kirk, R. L.; Zebker, H. A.; Janssen, M. A.; Johnson, W. T.; West, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    One of the more vexing dilemmas for RADAR remote sensing is the necessity to choose between altimetry and SAR imaging of a surface. Coincident surface height estimates are very useful in aiding the analysis of the unique surface features observed in the SAR imagery of Titan. Radar altimetry is optimally obtained from nadir observations, whereas SAR requires off-nadir observation in order to construct an image. Co-located nadir altimetry and SAR only occur when observations taken at different times happen to overlap. Stereo techniques can also be used to estimate topography in SAR images, but they also require multiple overlapping observations. Here we discuss a technique, SARTopo, for obtaining 10 km horizontal resolution and 75 m vertical resolution surface height estimates along each SAR swath. The height estimates comprise 1-3 cuts in each SAR pass that are 10 km wide by thousands of km long and extend along the entire long dimension of the SAR image strips. Because we obtain co-located topography along each SAR pass rather than only in regions with overlapping observations, the new technique extends the area over which we have colocated topography and SAR imagery by a couple orders of magnitude. The method is based upon Amplitude Monopulse Comparison, a technique for resolving RADAR targets developed prior to the advent of SAR. The technique requires: 1) accurate spacecraft pointing, 2) accurate spacecraft ephemeris, 3) precise knowledge of the antenna pattern of the RADAR, and 4) downlinked echo data covering the entire antenna footprint. The fourth requirement is met through synergy with Cassini SAR coverage requirements. Cassini SAR commanding and pointing is designed to utilize as much of the antenna footprint as possible in order to maximize cross-track coverage. We describe the technique and present the results for several SAR passes. We validate the technique through comparison with known features such as mountain ranges and dry lakes, and by comparison with colocated nadir altimetry and SAR stereo. In particular, we examine a strip of nadir altimetry obtained along a 1000 km strip observed by SAR a month earlier. The SARTopo height track is within 5-10 km of the nadir altimetry track for a 200 km long section. In this area, the two independent techniques agree closely. Furthermore the region contains prominent high spatial resolution topography, so it provides an excellent test of the resolution and accuracy of both techniques. SARTopo heights are also co-located and agree well with SAR stereo observations. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Operational Use of Civil Space-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Donald R. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a remote-sensing technology which uses the motion of the aircraft or spacecraft carrying the radar to synthesize an antenna aperture larger than the physical antenna to yield a high-spatial resolution imaging capability. SAR systems can thus obtain high-spatial resolution geophysical measurements of the Earth over wide surface areas, under all-weather, day/night conditions. This report was prepared to document the results of a six-month study by an Ad Hoc Interagency Working Group on the Operational Use of Civil (i.e., non-military) Space-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The Assistant Administrator of NOAA for Satellite and Information Services convened this working group and chaired three meetings of the group over a six-month period. This action was taken in response to a request by the Associate Administrator of NASA for Mission to Planet Earth for an assessment of operational applications of SAR to be accomplished in parallel with a separate study requested of the Committee on Earth Studies of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council on the scientific results of SAR research missions. The representatives of participating agencies are listed following the Preface. There was no formal charter for the working group or long term plans for future meetings. However, the working group may be reconstituted in the future as a coordination body for multiagency use of operational SAR systems.

  2. Two antenna, two pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Ana; Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2005-06-28

    A multi-antenna, multi-pass IFSAR mode utilizing data driven alignment of multiple independent passes can combine the scaling accuracy of a two-antenna, one-pass IFSAR mode with the height-noise performance of a one-antenna, two-pass IFSAR mode. A two-antenna, two-pass IFSAR mode can accurately estimate the larger antenna baseline from the data itself and reduce height-noise, allowing for more accurate information about target ground position locations and heights. The two-antenna, two-pass IFSAR mode can use coarser IFSAR data to estimate the larger antenna baseline. Multi-pass IFSAR can be extended to more than two (2) passes, thereby allowing true three-dimensional radar imaging from stand-off aircraft and satellite platforms.

  3. Application of the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) correlation file for use in feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simental, Edmundo; Guthrie, Verner

    2002-11-01

    Fine resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) have been widely used for the purpose of creating viable terrain maps. A map is only as good as the information it contains. Therefore, it is a major priority of the mapmakers that the data that goes into the process be as complete and accurate as possible. In this paper, we analyze IFSAR correlation/de-correlation data to help in terrain feature information. The correlation data contains the correlation coefficient between the bottom and top IFSAR radar channels. It is a 32-bit floating-point number. This number is a measure of the absolute complex correlation coefficient between the signals that are received in each channel. The range of these numbers in between zero and unity. Unity indicates 100% correlation and zero indicates no correlation. The correlation is a function of several system parameters including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), local geometry, and scattering mechanism. These two radar channels are physically close together and signals are inherently highly correlated. Significant difference is found beyond the fourth decimal place. We have concentrated our analysis on small features that are easily detectable in the correlation/de-correlation data and not so easily detectable in the elevation or magnitude data.

  4. Higher order nonlinear chirp scaling algorithm for medium Earth orbit synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengbo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Jie; Yang, Wei; Han, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Due to the larger orbital arc and longer synthetic aperture time in medium Earth orbit (MEO) synthetic aperture radar (SAR), it is difficult for conventional SAR imaging algorithms to achieve a good imaging result. An improved higher order nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) algorithm is presented for MEO SAR imaging. First, the point target spectrum of the modified equivalent squint range model-based signal is derived, where a concise expression is obtained by the method of series reversion. Second, the well-known NLCS algorithm is modified according to the new spectrum and an improved algorithm is developed. The range dependence of the two-dimensional point target reference spectrum is removed by improved CS processing, and accurate focusing is realized through range-matched filter and range-dependent azimuth-matched filter. Simulations are performed to validate the presented algorithm.

  5. Phenomenology of low probability of intercept synthetic aperture radar via Frank codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garren, David A.; Pace, Phillip E.; Romero, Ric A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates techniques for using low probability of intercept (LPI) modulation techniques for forming synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. This analysis considers a specific waveform type based upon Frank codes in providing for the LPI capability via phase shift keying (PSK) modulation. A correlation receiver that is matched to the transmitted waveform is utilized to generate a set of SAR data. This analysis demonstrates the ability to form SAR images based upon simulated radar measurements collected by a notional radar sensor that has ability to transmit and receive Frank-coded waveforms and to form SAR images based upon the results of a correlation receiver. Spotlight-mode SAR images are generated using the Frank-coded waveforms and their properties are analyzed and discussed.

  6. Origin of storm footprints on the sea seen by synthetic aperture radar.

    PubMed

    Atlas, D

    1994-11-25

    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar can detect storm footprints on the sea. Coastal weather radar from Cape Hatteras provides evidence that the echo-free hole at the footprint core is the result of wave damping by rain. The increased radar cross section of the sea surrounding the echo-free hole results from the divergence of the precipitation-forced downdraft impacting the sea. The footprint boundary is the gust front; its oriention is aligned with the direction of the winds aloft, which are transported down with the downdraft, and its length implies downdraft impact 1 hour earlier at a quasi-stationary impact spot. The steady, localized nature of the storm remains a mystery. PMID:17772844

  7. Feature discrimination and detection probability in synthetic aperture radar imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipes, R. G.; Butman, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Images obtained using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems can only represent the intensities of resolution cells in the scene of interest probabilistically since radar receiver noise and Rayleigh scattering of the transmitted radiation are always present. Consequently, when features to be identified differ only by their contribution to the mean power of the radar return, discrimination can be treated by detection theory. In this paper, we develop a 'sufficient statistic' for discriminating between competing features and compare it with some suboptimal methods frequently used. Discrimination is measured by probability of detection error and depends on number of samples or 'looks', signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and ratio of mean power returns from the competing features. Our results show discrimination and image quality rapidly saturate with SNR (very small improvement for SNR not less than 10 dB) but continue to improve with increasing number of looks.

  8. Spaceborne SAR study: LDRD 92 final report. [Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, D.L.; Brock, B.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Allen, C.T. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.)

    1993-03-01

    This is the final report for a study performed for the 1992 LDRD spaceborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) study. This report presents an overview of some of the issues that must be considered for design and implementation of a SAR on a spaceborne platform. The issues addressed in this report include: a survey of past, present, and future spaceborne SARs; pulse-repetition frequency (PRF); general image processing issues; transmitter power requirements; the ionosphere; antennas; two case studies; and an appendix with a simplified presentation on geometry and orbits.

  9. Comparison of synthetic-aperture radar autofocus techniques: phase gradient versus subaperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calloway, Terry M.; Jakowatz, Charles V., Jr.; Thompson, Paul A.; Eichel, Paul H.

    1991-12-01

    Two methods of focusing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are compared. Both a conventional subaperture cross-correlation method and a new phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithm developed at Sandia National Laboratories are shown to perform well if high-order phase errors are not present. With the introduction of significant high-order phase errors [e.g., due to uncompensated platform motion], both algorithms suffer a loss in performance. However, relative performance degradation is less for PGA than for the subaperture focusing technique. An explanation is presented for the observed behavior of the two autofocus techniques.

  10. The relationship between ocean surface structure and the synthetic aperture radar imagery of ocean waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of ocean waves and the ocean surface structure is discussed. The effects of ocean surface motion on SAR images is given. A generalization of conventional SAR correlation techniques is developed to provide imagery with the minimum possible degradation and distortion. The modeling of such imagery is discussed and an analytically tractable example given. Ongoing work towards the determination of the relevant components of surface microstructure is described. The future use of SAR phase information to supplement information obtainable from SAR imagery is suggested.

  11. SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR VISUALIZATION Randolph L. Moses, Emre Ertin, and Christian Austin

    E-print Network

    Moses, Randolph L.

    collection of radar backscatter data that is coherent over larger apertures. In addition, bistatic radar systems are becoming increasingly popular; in bistatic systems a standoff transmitter illuminates a scene

  12. Real-time implementation of frequency-modulated continuous-wave synthetic aperture radar imaging using field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Yinghui; Li, Yachao; Hu, Guibin; Xing, Mengdao

    2015-06-01

    A new miniature linear frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar which mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle is presented. It allows the accomplishment of high resolution synthetic aperture radar imaging in real-time. Only a Kintex-7 field programmable gate array from Xilinx is utilized for whole signal processing of sophisticated radar imaging algorithms. The proposed hardware architecture achieves remarkable improvement in integration, power consumption, volume, and computing performance over its predecessor designs. The realized design is verified by flight campaigns.

  13. Use of compact synthetic aperture radar systems to assist with device detection and discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Mark; Walls, Thomas J.; Anderson, Scott A.; Linne von Berg, Dale; Holt, Niel; Kruer, Melvin; Long, David G.; Wilson, Michael L.

    2010-04-01

    NuSAR (Naval Research Laboratory Unmanned Synthetic Aperture Radar) is a sensor developed under the ONRfunded FEATHAR (Fusion, Exploitation, Algorithms, and Targeting for High-Altitude Reconnaissance) program. FEATHAR is being directed and executed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in conjunction with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL). FEATHAR's goal is to develop and test new tactical sensor systems specifically designed for small manned and unmanned platforms (payload weight < 50 lbs). NuSAR is a novel dual-band (L- and X-band) SAR capable of a variety of tactically relevant operating modes and detection capabilities. Flight test results will be described for narrow and wide bandwidth and narrow and wide azimuth aperture operating modes.

  14. Concepts and Technologies for Synthetic Aperture Radar from MEO and Geosynchronous orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Wendy N.; Madsen, Soren; Moussessian, Alina; Chen, Curtis

    2004-01-01

    The area accessible from a spaceborne imaging radar, e.g. a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), generally increases with the elevation of the satellite while the map coverage rate is a more complicated function of platform velocity and beam agility. The coverage of a low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite is basically given by the fast ground velocity times the relatively narrow swath width. The instantaneously accessible area will be limited to some hundreds of kilometers away from the sub-satellite point. In the other extreme, the sub-satellite point of a SAR in geosynchronous orbit will move relatively slowly, while the area which can be accessed at any given time is very large, reaching thousands of kilometers from the subsatellite point. To effective1y use the accessibility provided by a high vantage point, very large antennas with electronically steered beams are required.

  15. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar imaging using ultraNarrowband continuous waveforms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Yazici, Birsen

    2012-08-01

    We consider synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging using ultra-narrowband continuous waveforms (CW). Due to the high Doppler resolution of CW signals, we refer to this imaging modality as Doppler Synthetic Aperture Radar (DSAR). We present a novel model and an image formation method for the bistatic DSAR for arbitrary imaging geometries. Our bistatic DSAR model is formed by correlating the translated version of the received signal with a scaled or frequencyshifted version of the transmitted CW signal over a finite time window. High frequency analysis of the resulting model shows that the correlated signal is the projections of the scene reflectivity onto the bistatic iso-Doppler curves. We next use microlocal techniques to develop a filtered-backprojection (FBP) type image reconstruction method. The FBP inversion results in backprojection of the correlated signal onto the bistatic iso- Doppler curves as opposed to the bistatic iso-range curves, performed in the traditional wideband SAR imaging. We show that our method takes advantage of the velocity, as well as the acceleration of the antennas in certain directions to form a high resolution SAR image. Our bistatic DSAR imaging method is applicable for arbitrary flight trajectories, nonflat topography, and can accommodate system related parameters. We present resolution analysis and extensive numerical experiments to demonstrate the performance of our imaging method. PMID:22481825

  16. Multi-frequency synthetic-aperture imaging with a lightweight ground penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppenjan, Steven K.; Allen, Curt M.; Gardner, Duane; Wong, Howard R.; Lee, Hua; Lockwood, Stephanie J.

    2000-03-01

    The detection of buried objects, particularly hazardous waste containers and unexploded ordnance (UXO), has gained significant interest in the Unites States in the late 1990s. The desire to remediate the thousands of sites worldwide has become an increasing concern and the application of radar to this problem has received renewed attention. The US Department of Energy's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL), operated by Bechtel Nevada, has developed several frequency-modulated, continuous-wave (FM-CW) ground penetrating radar (GPR) units. To meet technical requirements for higher-resolution data, STL and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is investigating advanced GPR hardware, signal processing, and synthetic-aperture imaging with the development of an innovative system. The goal is to design and fabricate a lightweight, battery-operated unit that does not require surface contact, can be operated by a novice user, and can achieve improved resolution. The latter is accomplished by using synthetic-aperture imaging, which forms the subsurface images by fully utilizing the data sequences collectively along a scan path. We also present the backward propagation algorithm as the basic structure of the multiple-frequency tomographic imaging technique, and the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT) method which can be described as a degenerated case of the model where the computation procedure is approximated under the narrow-beam assumption.

  17. A study of image quality for radar image processing. [synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Kaupp, V. H.; Waite, W. P.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods developed for image quality metrics are reviewed with focus on basic interpretation or recognition elements including: tone or color; shape; pattern; size; shadow; texture; site; association or context; and resolution. Seven metrics are believed to show promise as a way of characterizing the quality of an image: (1) the dynamic range of intensities in the displayed image; (2) the system signal-to-noise ratio; (3) the system spatial bandwidth or bandpass; (4) the system resolution or acutance; (5) the normalized-mean-square-error as a measure of geometric fidelity; (6) the perceptual mean square error; and (7) the radar threshold quality factor. Selective levels of degradation are being applied to simulated synthetic radar images to test the validity of these metrics.

  18. Metrology, attitude, and orbit determination for spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, Riley M.; Wong, Ed; Breckenridge, Bill; Shaffer, Scott J.; Duncan, Courtney; Tubbs, Eldred F.; Salomon, Phil M.

    1998-07-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), scheduled for an 11 day Space Shuttle flight in 1999, will use an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar instrument to produce a near-global digital elevation map of the earth's land surface with 16 m absolute vertical height accuracy at 30 meter postings. SRTM will achieve the required interferometric baseline by extending a receive-only radar antenna on a 60 meter deployable mast from the shuttle payload bay. Continuous measurement of the interferometric baseline length, attitude, and position is required at the 2 mm, 9 arcsec, and 1 m levels, respectively, in order to obtain the desired height accuracy. The attitude and orbit determination avionics (AODA) subsystem will provide these functions for SRTM. The AODA flight sensor complement includes electro-optical metrology sensor, a star tracker, an inertial reference unit, GPS receivers, plus supporting electronics and computers. AODA ground processing computers will support SRTM system performance evaluation during the mission and baseline reconstruction after the mission. The final AODA data products will be combined with the radar data to reconstruct the height information necessary for topographic map generation. A description of the AODA system architecture, error budgets, and the major issues involved with measuring large space structures are presented.

  19. Footprints of storms on the sea: A view from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, David

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on board Seasat observed images of stormlike echoes on the sea in 1978. The core of these images is usually an echo-free hole which is attributed to the damping of the short (30-cm) radar detectable gravity waves by the intense rain in the storm core. Although 'the beating down of waves by rain' is consistent with observations by seafarers and with the first scientific explanation of the phenomenon by Reynolds (1875), neither theory nor experiment has provided definitive support. One experiment appears to provide the key; it shows that the kenetic energy of the rain produces sufficient turbulence in a thin fresh water layer to damp 30-cm waves in 10-20 s, thus producing the echo-free hole. A sequence of positive feedbacks then serves to damp the longer waves. The angular dependence of the sea surface echo cross sections seen by Seasat SAR outside the echo-free hole indicates winds diverging from the downdraft induced by the intense rain core. The wind-generated waves and associated echoes extend out to a sharply defined gust front. The sea surface footprint thus mimics the features of a storm microburst. The variations in surface radar cross section due to a combination of rain and wind effects impacts spaceborne measurements of surface winds by scatterometry and rainfall measurements by radar. Portions of this synthesis remain speculative but serve as hypotheses for further research.

  20. Retrieval of soil moisture using airborne synthetic- and real- aperture radar data at different spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Tsang, L.; Liao, T.; Huang, H.; Jackson, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    For the studies of surface soil moisture, radar observations offer high spatial resolution through aperture synthesis. The spatial resolution may be tens of meters from airborne platform to a few kilometers for global mapping from spaceborne platforms such as the L-band Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. A suite of sophisticated radar scattering forward models 'data-cubes' were developed for 17 land cover classes that simulate the radar response to soil moisture, surface roughness, and diverse vegetation. The inversion of the forward models to estimate soil moisture becomes a well-constrained problem through time-series analysis and parameterization of vegetation structure through an empirical allometric relationship. The retrieval approach has been developed for application using SMAP radar observations. This paper studies the applicability of the approach to radar observations over various spatial scales. The high-resolution airborne L-band radar data were collected by the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar during the SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 conducted near Winnipeg, Canada in 2012 over agriculture fields. During the six-week campaign period, there were three major drying cycles of surface soil moisture that occurred while the agricultural vegetation grew from bare condition to full canopy. The volumetric soil moisture and radar backscattering generally showed a positive relationship when the vegetation effect was not strong, such as over pasture fields, or when the vegetation effect did not change substantially over time, such as for wheat fields. However, the significant temporal changes in corn and soybean canopies from bare to full growth result in a reverse of this relationship over these fields. The data-cube retrieval approach was able to systematically correct for the effect of the changing vegetation. Errors in soil moisture retrieval ranged from 0.037 to 0.086 cm3/cm3, when evaluated over all the available fields. In addition, the Passive Active L-band Sensor (PALS) was flown during the campaign. This instrument collected real-aperture radar data over the same spatial and temporal domains as those of the UAVSAR. The PALS spatial resolution is about 650m and often includes more than one crop types within a footprint. The data-cube retrieval algorithm will be applied to the PALS radar data and its ability to perform with the heterogeneous vegetation conditions will be evaluated. The scatterometer onboard the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite has provided the global 70km-resolution radar data for 3 years so far. The radar forward model predictions match the Aquarius data with the mean difference of about 2 dB and a standard deviation of about 3 dB (one sigma) globally. The data-cube retrieval will also be tested on a global scale using the Aquarius data.

  1. Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging of Moving Targets using Ultra-Narrowband Continuous Waveforms

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    We consider a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that uses ultra-narrowband continuous waveforms (CW) as an illumination source. Such a system has many practical advantages, such as the use of relatively simple, low-cost and low-power transmitters, and in some cases, using the transmitters of opportunity, such as TV, radio stations. Additionally, ultra-narrowband CW signals are suitable for motion estimation due to their ability to acquire high resolution Doppler information. In this paper, we present a novel synthetic aperture imaging method for moving targets using a bi-static SAR system transmitting ultra-narrowband continuous waveforms. Our method exploits the high Doppler resolution provided by ultra-narrowband CW signals to image both the scene reflectivity and to determine the velocity of multiple moving targets. Starting from the first principle, we develop a novel forward model based on the temporal Doppler induced by the movement of antennas and moving targets. We form the reflectivity image of t...

  2. Detection of aquifer system compaction and land subsidence using interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Antelope Valley, Mojave Desert, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Galloway; K. W. Hudnut; S. E. Ingebritsen; S. P. Phillips; G. Peltzer; F. Rogez; P. A. Rosen

    1998-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has great potential to detect and quantify land subsidence caused by aquifer system compaction. InSAR maps with high spatial detail and resolution of range displacement (610 mm in change of land surface elevation) were developed for a groundwater basin (;103 km2) in Antelope Valley, California, using radar data collected from the ERS-1 satellite. These data

  3. Imaging targets embedded in a lossy half space with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.; Brock, B.C.; Boverie, B.; Cress, D.

    1994-05-01

    This paper addresses theoretical aspects of forming images from an airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) of targets buried below the earth`s surface. Soil is generally a lossy, dispersive medium, with wide ranging variability in these attributes depending on soil type, moisture content, and a host of other physical properties. Focussing a SAR subsurface image presents new dimensions of complexity relative to its surface-image counterpart, even when the soil`s properties are known. This paper treats the soil as a lossy, dispersive half space, and presents a practical model for the radar echo-delay time to point scatterers within it. This model is then used to illustrate effects of refraction, dispersion, and attenuation on a SAR`s phase histories, and the resulting image. Various data collection geometries and processing strategies are examined for both 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional SAR images. The conclusions from this work are that (1) focussing a SAR image must generally take into account both refraction and dispersion, (2) resolving targets at different depths in lossy soils requires perhaps unprecedented sidelobe attenuation, that for some soils may only be achievable with specialized window functions, (3) the impulse response of the soil itself places a practical limit on the usable bandwidth of the radar, and (4) dynamic ranges and sensitivities will need to be orders of magnitude greater than typical surface-imaging SARs, leading to significant impact on SAR parameters, for example compressing the usable range of pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs).

  4. Abstract--Ionospheric contributions to the phase of L-band2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) signals put severe3

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 1 Abstract-- Ionospheric contributions to the phase of L-band2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR ionospheric contributions to surface displacement11 measurements derived from L-band SAR data. We test the12 displacement, which has important implications in17 earthquake modelling based on L-band SAR data.18 19 Index

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 21, NO. 8, AUGUST 2012 3673 Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging Using

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    . INTRODUCTION TRADITIONAL synthetic aperture radar (SAR) uses wide- band waveforms to provide high range that our method takes advantage of the velocity, as well as the acceleration of the antennas in certain directions, to form a high-resolution SAR image. Our bistatic DSAR imaging method is applicable for arbitrary

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION OCEAN SURFACE WIND FIELDS RETRIEVED FROM SPACEBORNE SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADARS OPERATING AT C-BAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Horstmann; Wolfgang Koch

    This paper introduces algorithms designed to re- trieve high-resolution ocean surface wind fields from satellite borne synthetic aperture radars (SARs) op- erating in C-band at either vertical (VV) or horizon- tal (HH) polarization in transmit and receive. Wind directions are extracted from wind induced streaks that are visible in SAR images at scales above 200 m and that are approximately

  7. On the soil roughness parameterization problem in soil moisture retrieval of bare surfaces from Synthetic Aperture Radar 1959

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic Aperture Radar has shown its large potential for retrieving soil moisture maps at regional scales. However, since the backscattered signal is determined by several surface characteristics, the retrieval of soil moisture is an ill-posed problem when using single configuration imagery. Unles...

  8. synthetic aperture radar imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, B09406, doi:10.1029/2004JB003338.

    E-print Network

    Allen, Richard M.

    synthetic aperture radar imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, B09406, doi:10.1029/2004JB., 2007. A scaling law for slow earthquakes. Nature, 447, 76­79, doi:10.1038. Johanson, I. A., Fielding, E in Guerrero, Mexico: New results from GPS. Geophys Res Lett, 34, L13309, doi:10.1029/2007GL029912. Linde, A. T

  9. REDUCTION OF VIBRATION-INDUCED ARTIFACTS IN SYNTHETIC-APERTURE-RADAR IMAGERY USING THE FRACTIONAL FOURIER TRANSFORM

    E-print Network

    Santhanam, Balu

    REDUCTION OF VIBRATION-INDUCED ARTIFACTS IN SYNTHETIC-APERTURE-RADAR IMAGERY USING THE FRACTIONAL of objects exhibit- ing low-level vibrations are accompanied by localized arti- facts, or ghost targets to the non-stationary nature of the returned signals from vibrating objects. Re- cently, a method based

  10. Coastline Detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Images by Integrating Watershed Transformation and Controllable Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) Snake Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guofeng Sheng; Wen Yang; Xinping Deng; Chu He; Yongfeng Cao; Hong Sun

    2012-01-01

    Detection of coastline in synthetic aperture radars (SARs) is difficult due to the presence of speckle effect and strong signal return from wind-roughened, wave-modulated sea. This paper presents a new approach to detect coastlines from SAR images by integrating watershed transformation and gradient vector flow (GVF) snake model. Several improvements have been made to improve the accuracy and efficiency of

  11. Measurement of surface currents using sequential synthetic aperture radar images of slick patterns near the edge of the Gulf Stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Lyzenga; George O. Marmorino

    1998-01-01

    Two-dimensional surface currents are estimated over an area of 00100 kmnear the inshore edge of the Gulf Stream by correlating the surface slick patterns observed on two synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images collected about 20 min apart. The currents obtained from this analysis are found to agree well with shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements at 10 to 20-m

  12. Volcano-wide fringes in ERS synthetic aperture radar interferograms of Etna (1992-1998): Deformation or tropospheric effect?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Beauducel; Pierre Briole; Jean-Luc Froger

    2000-01-01

    Mount Etna (3300 m) is the volcano that has been first and most studied by differential synthetic aperture radar. Previous papers gave evidence for a large-scale deformation of the entire edifice consistent with unrest episodes but with a poor fit with classical elastic models. Also, atmospheric effects on mountainous areas are known to be very significant. Accordingly, interferograms may reflect

  13. A two-level image pair simulator for interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenxun; Xiang, Zheng; Liu, Xingzhao; Zhu, Mengmeng

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a novel simulator to obtain single-look complex (SLC) image pair from the distributed target for interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). From conventional works, two simulation levels are derived: one is raw signal level (RSL) which means using raw signal to obtain SLC image pairs, the other is SLC image level (SIL) which means obtaining the SLC image pairs directly from existing SAR images. Conventional simulators only work on one simulation level, use complicated backscattering models, have high computational load on RSL and mismatch the real data on SIL. The novel simulator can robustly work on both RSL and SIL. It not only simplified the backscattering model, but also reduces the computational load on RSL. Moreover, the novel simulator creatively uses complex backscattering coefficient (CBC) pair to generate SLC image pair on SIL, which makes the result more accurately match real data. Finally, the improvements of this novel simulator are demonstrated by experimental results.

  14. The Use of Multiple-Polarization Data in Foliage Penetrating (FOPEN) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Applications

    SciTech Connect

    RICHARDS,JOHN A.

    2002-07-01

    Foliage penetrating (FOPEN) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are capable of producing images of targets concealed under a foliage canopy. The quality and interpretability of these images, however, is generally limited by dense foliage clutter and by fundamental foliage-induced image degradation. Use of a polarimetric SAR to provide multiple polarization channels can mitigate these effects by offering target and scene information beyond that provided by a single-polarization SAR. This paper presents the results of a literature survey to investigate the use of multiple-polarization data in conjunction with FOPEN SAR applications. The effects of foliage propagation on SAR image quality are briefly summarized. Various approaches to multiple-polarization-based FOPEN target detection are described. Although literature concerning FOPEN target recognition is scarce, the use of multiple-polarization data for in-the-clear target recognition is described. The applicability of various target detection and recognition applications for use with concealed target SAR (CTSAR) imagery is considered.

  15. SIR-C L-band/C-band dual-polarization synthetic aperture radar antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rait, Gary L.

    1993-08-01

    The SIR-C/X-SAR experiment, a joint effort of NASA, DARA/DLR, and ASI, is a multi- frequency, multi-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system for spaceborne scientific Earth imaging scheduled for initial launch in April 1994. Its predecessors include the L-Band, single-polarization Seasat, SIR-A, and SIR-B missions of the late 70's and early 80's. Since SIR-C/X-SAR is intended to be the predecessor to the multi-frequency, multi-polarization EOS SAR satellite, it serves to demonstrate and validate various advanced SAR architectures and data products. This paper documents the architecture and performance of the SIR-C L-Band and C-Band active SAR arrays, with emphasis on RF test results and expected performance. Performance at the array level is extrapolated from measurements at the T/R module and antenna subarray levels.

  16. On the importance of path for phase unwrapping in synthetic aperture radar interferometry.

    PubMed

    Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Dixon, Timothy H; Wdowinski, Shimon; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    2011-07-01

    Phase unwrapping is a key procedure in interferometric synthetic aperture radar studies, translating ambiguous phase observations to topography, and surface deformation estimates. Some unwrapping algorithms are conducted along specific paths based on different selection criteria. In this study, we analyze six unwrapping paths: line scan, maximum coherence, phase derivative variance, phase derivative variance with branch-cut, second-derivative reliability, and the Fisher distance. The latter is a new path algorithm based on Fisher information theory, which combines the phase derivative with the expected variance to get a more robust path, potentially performing better than others in the case of low image quality. In order to compare only the performance of the paths, the same unwrapping function (phase derivative integral) is used. Results indicate that the Fisher distance algorithm gives better results in most cases. PMID:21743520

  17. Mesoscale Near-Surface Wind Speed Variability Mapping with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    PubMed Central

    Young, George; Sikora, Todd; Winstead, Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    Operationally-significant wind speed variability is often observed within synthetic aperture radar-derived wind speed (SDWS) images of the sea surface. This paper is meant as a first step towards automated distinguishing of meteorological phenomena responsible for such variability. In doing so, the research presented in this paper tests feature extraction and pixel aggregation techniques focused on mesoscale variability of SDWS. A sample of twenty eight SDWS images possessing varying degrees of near-surface wind speed variability were selected to serve as case studies. Gaussian high- and low-pass, local entropy, and local standard deviation filters performed well for the feature extraction portion of the research while principle component analysis of the filtered data performed well for the pixel aggregation. The findings suggest recommendations for future research.

  18. General adaptive-neighborhood technique for improving synthetic aperture radar interferometric coherence estimation.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Gabriel; Trouvé, Emmanuel; Ciuc, Mihai; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2004-08-01

    A new method for filtering the coherence map issued from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometric data is presented. For each pixel of the interferogram, an adaptive neighborhood is determined by a region-growing technique driven by the information provided by the amplitude images. Then pixels in the derived adaptive neighborhood are complex averaged to yield the filtered value of the coherence, after a phase-compensation step is performed. An extension of the algorithm is proposed for polarimetric interferometric SAR images. The proposed method has been applied to both European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellite SAR images and airborne high-resolution polarimetric interferometric SAR images. Both subjective and objective performance analysis, including coherence edge detection, shows that the proposed method provides better results than the standard phase-compensated fixed multilook filter and the Lee adaptive coherence filter. PMID:15330474

  19. Comparison of synthetic aperture radar and impact-echo imaging for detecting delamination in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovics, J. S.; Ham, S.; Ghasr, M. T.; Zoughi, R.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we evaluate the utility of microwave and mechanical wave nondestructive testing techniques to detect delamination in reinforced concrete bridge deck mock-up samples. The mechanical wave tests comprise air-coupled impact-echo measurements, while the microwave measurements comprise three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar imaging using wideband reflectometery in the frequency range of 1-4 GHz. The results of these investigations are presented in terms of images that are generated from these data. Based on a comparison of the results, we show that the two methods are complementary, in that provide distinct capabilities for defect detection. More specifically, the former approach is unable to detect depth of a delaminated region, while the latter may provide this information. Therefore, the two methods may be used in a complementary fashion (i.e., data fusion) to give more comprehensive information about the 3D location of delamination.

  20. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Indian Space Research Organisation Synthetic Aperture Radar Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawden, G. W.; Rosen, P. A.; Dubayah, R.; Hager, B. H.; Joughin, I. R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Indian Space Research Organisation are planning a synthetic aperture radar (currently named NISAR) mission for launch in 2020. The mission is a dual L- and S-band polarimetric SAR satellite with a 12-day interferometric orbit and 240 km wide ground swath. The 3-year mission will have a circular sun synchronous orbit (6 am and 6 pm) with a 98° inclination and 747 km altitude that will provide systematic global coverage. Its primary science objectives are to: measure solid Earth surface deformation (earthquakes, volcanic unrest, land subsidence/uplift, landslides); track and understand cryosphere dynamics (glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, and permafrost); characterize and track changes in vegetation structure and wetlands for understanding ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle; and support global disaster response. We will describe the current mission concept: the satellite design/capabilities, spacecraft, launch vehicle, and data flow.

  1. Preparations to use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in sea ice remote sensing in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppäranta, M.; Kuittinen, R.; Kemppainen, H.

    Remote sensing methods are largely used in ice mapping in the Baltic Sea. The next significant step will come true in next decade with satellite Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR); in particular, SAR is weather independent and provides information of ice roughness. As an early phase of a joint Finnish-Swedish research programme BEPERS (Bothnian Experiment in Preparation for ERS-1), a field experiment ``BEPERS Pilot Study'' was carried through in 1987. The French VARAN-S X-band SAR was chartered for this experiment. Four study areas of around 10 × 50 km size were chosen representing different ice types and conditions. Intensive ground and remote sensing observations were made for correct interpretation of the SAR images. Digital analyses of the SAR images showed that the ice cover could be classified into four classes: 1) open water or bare smooth ice, 2) smooth of slightly deformed ice, 3) ridges and 4) leads with brash ice.

  2. Operational Mapping of Soil Moisture Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Application to the Touch Basin (France)

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Aubert, Maelle; Cerdan, Olivier; Franchistéguy, Laurent; Viel, Christian; Martin, Eric; Zribi, Mehrez; Desprats, Jean François

    2007-01-01

    Soil moisture is a key parameter in different environmental applications, such as hydrology and natural risk assessment. In this paper, surface soil moisture mapping was carried out over a basin in France using satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired in 2006 and 2007 by C-band (5.3 GHz) sensors. The comparison between soil moisture estimated from SAR data and in situ measurements shows good agreement, with a mapping accuracy better than 3%. This result shows that the monitoring of soil moisture from SAR images is possible in operational phase. Moreover, moistures simulated by the operational Météo-France ISBA soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model in the SIM-Safran-ISBA-Modcou chain were compared to radar moisture estimates to validate its pertinence. The difference between ISBA simulations and radar estimates fluctuates between 0.4 and 10% (RMSE). The comparison between ISBA and gravimetric measurements of the 12 March 2007 shows a RMSE of about 6%. Generally, these results are very encouraging. Results show also that the soil moisture estimated from SAR images is not correlated with the textural units defined in the European Soil Geographical Database (SGDBE) at 1:1000000 scale. However, dependence was observed between texture maps and ISBA moisture. This dependence is induced by the use of the texture map as an input parameter in the ISBA model. Even if this parameter is very important for soil moisture estimations, radar results shown that the textural map scale at 1:1000000 is not appropriate to differentiate moistures zones.

  3. On the convergence of the phase gradient autofocus algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging is a class of coherent range and Doppler signal processing techniques applied to remote sensing. The aperture is synthesized by recording and processing coherent signals at known positions along the flight path. Demands for greater image resolution put an extreme burden on requirements for inertial measurement units that are used to maintain accurate pulse-to-pulse position information. The recently developed Phase Gradient Autofocus algorithm relieves this burden by taking a data-driven digital signal processing approach to estimating the range-invariant phase aberrations due to either uncompensated motions of the SAR platform or to atmospheric turbulence. Although the performance of this four-step algorithm has been demonstrated, its convergence has not been modeled mathematically. A new sensitivity study of algorithm performance is a necessary step towards this model. Insights that are significant to the application of this algorithm to both SAR and to other coherent imaging applications are developed. New details on algorithm implementation identify an easily avoided biased phase estimate. A new algorithm for defining support of the point spread function is proposed, which promises to reduce the number of iterations required even for rural scenes with low signal-to-clutter ratios.

  4. The Analysis of Moonborne Cross Track Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry for Global Environment Change Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yixing, Ding; Huadong, Guo; Guang, Liu; Daowei, Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Faced to the earth observation requirement of large scale global environment change, a SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) antenna system is proposed to set on Moon's surface for interferometry in this paper. With several advantages superior to low earth obit SAR, such as high space resolution, large range swath and short revisit interval, the moonborne SAR could be a potential data resource of global changes monitoring and environment change research. Due to the high stability and ease of maintenance, the novel system is competent for offering a long and continuous time series of remote sensing imagery. The Moonborne SAR system performance is discussed at the beginning. Then, the peculiarity of interferometry is analyzed in both repeat pass and single pass cases. The chief distinguishing feature which is worth to research the potentiality of repeat pass interferometry is that the revisit interval is reduced to one day in most cases, and in worst case one month. Decorrelation deriving from geometry variety is discussed in detail. It turns out that the feasibility of moonborne SAR repeat pass interferometry depends on the declination of Moon. The severity of shift effects in radar echoes increased as Moon approaches to the equatorial plane. Moreover, referring to the single pass interferometry, two antennas are assumed to set on different latitude of Moon. There is enough space on Moon to form a long baseline, which is highly related to the interferogram precision.

  5. SAR-EDU - An education initiative for applied Synthetic Aperture Radar remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Robert; Richter, Nicole; Auer, Stefan; Eineder, Michael; Roth, Achim; Hajnsek, Irena; Walter, Diana; Braun, Matthias; Motagh, Mahdi; Pathe, Carsten; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Thiel, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Since the 1970s, radar remote sensing techniques have evolved rapidly and are increasingly employed in all fields of earth sciences. Applications are manifold and still expanding due to the continuous development of new instruments and missions as well as the availability of very high-quality data. The trend worldwide is towards operational employment of the various algorithms and methods that have been developed. However, the utilization of operational services does not keep up yet with the rate of technical developments and the improvements in sensor technology. With the enhancing availability and variety of space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and a growing number of analysis algorithms the need for a vital user community is increasing. Therefore the German Aerospace Center (DLR) together with the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (FSU) and the Technical University Munich (TUM) launched the education initiative SAR-EDU. The aim of the project is to facilitate access to expert knowledge in the scientific field of radar remote sensing. Within this effort a web portal will be created to provide seminar material on SAR basics, methods and applications to support both, lecturers and students. The overall intension of the project SAR-EDU is to provide seminar material for higher education in radar remote sensing covering the topic holistically from the very basics to the most advanced methods and applications that are available. The principles of processing and interpreting SAR data are going to be taught using test data sets and open-source as well as commercial software packages. The material that is provided by SAR-EDU will be accessible at no charge from a DLR web portal. The educational tool will have a modular structure, consisting of separate modules that broach the issue of a particular topic. The aim of the implementation of SAR-EDU as application-oriented radar remote sensing educational tool is to advocate the development and wider use of operational services on the base of pre-existing algorithms and sensors on the one hand, and to aid the extension of radar remote sensing techniques to a broader field of application on the other. SAR-EDU therefore combines the knowledge, expertise and experience of an excellent German consortium.

  6. Study of the Effects of Target Geometry on Synthetic Aperture Radar Images using Simulation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, K.; Jha, A. K.; Kumar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Synthetic aperture radar technology has revolutionized earth observation with very high resolutions of below 5m, making it possible to distinguish individual urban features like buildings and even cars on the surface of the earth. But, the difficulty in interpretation of these images has hindered their use. The geometry of target objects and their orientation with respect to the SAR sensor contribute enormously to unexpected signatures on SAR images. Geometry of objects can cause single, double or multiple reflections which, in turn, affect the brightness value on the SAR images. Occlusions, shadow and layover effects are present in the SAR images as a result of orientation of target objects with respect to the incident microwaves. Simulation of SAR images is the best and easiest way to study and understand the anomalies. This paper discusses synthetic aperture radar image simulation, with the study of effect of target geometry as the main aim. Simulation algorithm has been developed in the time domain to provide greater modularity and to increase the ease of implementation. This algorithm takes into account the sensor and target characteristics, their locations with respect to the earth, 3-dimensional model of the target, sensor velocity, and SAR parameters. two methods have been discussed to obtain position and velocity vectors of SAR sensor - the first, from the metadata of real SAR image used to verify the simulation algorithm, and the second, from satellite orbital parameters. Using these inputs, the SAR image coordinates and backscatter coefficients for each point on the target are calculated. The backscatter coefficients at target points are calculated based on the local incidence angles using Muhleman's backscatter model. The present algorithm has been successfully implemented on radarsat-2 image of San Francisco bay area. Digital elevation models (DEMs) of the area under consideration are used as the 3d models of the target area. DEMs of different resolutions have been used to simulate SAR images in order to study how the target models affect the accuracy of simulation algorithm. The simulated images have been compared with radarsat-2 images to observe the efficiency of the simulation algorithm in accurately representing the locations and extents of different objects in the target area. The simulated algorithm implemented in this paper has given satisfactory results as the simulated images accurately show the different features present in the DEM of the target area.

  7. Modeling atmospheric precipitation impact on synthetic aperture radar imagery at X and Ka bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Saverio; Polverari, Federica; Pulvirenti, Luca; Montopoli, Mario; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Marzano, Frank S.

    2014-10-01

    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radars (SARs) operating at X-band and above allow observations of Earth surface at very high spatial resolution. Moreover, recent polarimetric SARs enable the complete characterization of target scattering and extinction properties. Nowadays several spaceborne X-band SAR systems are operative, and plans exist for systems operating at higher frequency bands (i.e. Ku, Ka and W). Although higher frequencies may have interesting and distinctive applications, atmospheric effects, especially in precipitating conditions, may affect the surface SAR response in both the signal amplitude and its phase, as assessed by numerous works in the last years. A valid tool to analyze and characterize the SAR response in these conditions is represented by forward modeling, where a known synthetic scenario, which is described by user-selected surface and atmospheric conditions, is considered. Thus, the SAR echoes corresponding to the synthetic scenarios are simulated using electromagnetic models. In this work a 3-D realistic polarimetric SAR response numerical simulator is presented. The proposed model framework accounts for the SAR slant observing geometry and it is able to characterize the polarimetric response both in amplitude and phase. In this work we have considered both X and Ka bands, thus exploring the atmospheric effects for the present and future polarimetric systems. The atmospheric conditions are simulated using the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) which is an high-resolution mesoscale model. SAM is used to define the three-dimensional distribution of hydrometeors which are among the inputs used in the Hydrometeor Ensemble Scattering Simulator (HESS) T-Matrix which allow simulating the SAR signal due to the atmospheric component. The SAR surface component is, instead, simulated by a Semi Empirical Model (SEM) for bare-soils conditions and SEAWIND2 two-scale model for ocean surfaces. The proposed methodology has been applied in this work to assess the sensitivity of the considered frequency bands to different hydrometeor spatial distributions above some examples surface backgrounds.

  8. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Doppler anomalies due to volcanic eruption induced phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; Minet, Christian

    2015-04-01

    In the frame of the EU funded "MEDSUV" supersite project, we use multiple SAR data to investigate Doppler anomalies in the SAR signal occurring during volcanic eruptions. In Synthetic Aperture Radar, variations in the Electro Magnetic Waves travel time results in a change in the Doppler frequency that adds up to the one that is naturally generated by the relative motion between the platform and the ground targets. Within the SAR system, frequencies modulations control the image focusing along the two fundamental SAR directions, the azimuth (i.e. the platform motion direction) and the range (i. e. the sensor looking direction). During the synthetic aperture process (the so called image focusing) a target on the surface is seen along different paths. In standard focusing processing it is assumed both that ground targets are stationary and that between the sensor and the target the medium is the vacuum or a totally homogeneous medium. Therefore, if there is a significant path delay variation along the paths to a specific target this can result either in image defocusing or in pixel misregistration or both. It has been shown that SAR Doppler history anomalies can occur over volcanic areas. The goal of this study is to highlight Doppler history anomalies occurring during the SAR image formation over active volcanoes on a number of test cases. To do so, we apply a sub-aperture cross correlation algorithm on Single Look Complex data. Practically, we measure any pixel misregistration between two sub-looks of the same SAR acquisition. If a pixel shift occurs, it means that the expected radar wave path has been lengthened (or shortened) during the time when ground surface scatterers were illuminated by the sensor radiation either by a ground feature velocity (e. g. water flows, vehicles) or it is refracted by a strong medium discontinuity in the air (volcanic ash plume?). If a Doppler history anomaly is detected by the sub-aperture cross correlation, we try to explore whether it is possible to distinguish between signal delays due to the presence of a volcanic ash plume and the signal delays due to other volcano-related phenomena (such as lahars, lava flows velocity, ice melts, ocean currents induced/modified by lahars discharges), or simply non volcano-related natural phenomena such as ocean currents and river flows. We focus on the largest eruption producing an ash plume in the last decade, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption in Iceland by using a selected set of data from the German Space Agency (DLR) TerraSAR-X sensor. The first outcome of this analysis is that our methodology to detect Doppler anomalies on TerraSAR-X data works at least for extended surface motions signatures (ocean swell). A preliminary analysis of the results, allows us to reasonably state that we do not see a flashy impact of the ash plume on the Doppler history of the SAR data. We see sporadic, spatially discontinuous Doppler anomalies around the volcanic edifice and on the top, but it is premature to link those to the presence of a volcanic ash plume. On the other hand, our results put into evidence Doppler shifts reasonably due to eruption-induced ice melts, lahars, river discharge and consequent modification of the near shore ocean currents. These signals worth a deeper analysis as these natural eruption-induced phenomena heavily impact the surrounding environment. Besides, further investigations have to be performed both on archived C-band SAR on Etna volcano and, particularly important, on the new SENTINEL-1 data and its specific TOPSAR mode that could be more complex to use for such applications.

  9. A three-dimensional fractional Fourier transformation methodology for volumetric linear, circular, and orbital synthetic aperture radar formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The 3-D Fractional Fourier Transformation (FrFT) has unique applicability to multi-pass and multiple receiver Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) scenarios which can collect radar returns to create volumetric reflectivity data. The 3-D FrFT can independently compress and image radar data in each dimension for a broad set of parameters. The 3-D FrFT can be applied at closer ranges and over more aperture sampling conditions than other imaging algorithms. The FrFT provides optimal processing matched to the quadratic signal content in SAR (i.e. the pulse chirp and the spherical wave-front across the aperture). The different parameters for 3-D linear, circular, and orbital SAR case are derived and specifi…c considerations such as squint and scene extent for each scenario are addressed. Example imaged volumes are presented for linear, circular and orbital cases. The imaged volume is sampled in the radar coordinate system and can be transformed to a target based coordinate system. Advantages of the FrFT which extend to the 3-D FrFT include its applicability to a wide variety of imaging condition (standoff range and aperture sub-sampling) as well as inherent phase preservation in the images formed. The FrFT closely matches the imaging process and thus is able to focus SAR images over a large variation in standoff ranges specifi…cally at close range. The FrFT is based on the relationship between time and frequency and thus can create an image from an under-sampled wave-front. This ability allows the length of the synthetic aperture to be increased for a fixed number of aperture samples.

  10. Delineation of inundated area and vegetation along the Amazon floodplain with the SIR-C synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Hess; John M. Melack; Solange Filoso; Yong Wang

    1995-01-01

    Floodplain inundation and vegetation along the Negro and Amazon rivers near Manaus, Brazil were accurately delineated using multi-frequency, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from the April and October 1994 SIR-C missions. A decision-tree model was used to formulate rules for a supervised classification into five categories: water, clearing (pasture), aquatic macrophyte (floating meadow), nonflooded forest, and flooded forest. Classified

  11. Aseismic deformation of a fold-and-thrust belt imaged by synthetic aperture radar interferometry near Shahdad, southeast Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J. Fielding; Tim J. Wright; Jordan Muller; Barry E. Parsons; Richard Walker

    2004-01-01

    At depth, many fold-and-thrust belts are composed of a gently dipping, basal thrust fault and steeply dipping, shallower splay faults that terminate beneath folds at the sur- face. Movement on these buried faults is difficult to observe, but synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry has imaged slip on at least 600 km2 of the Shahdad basal-thrust and splay-fault network in southeast

  12. Comparison between C band synthetic aperture radar and 3-D laser scanner statistics for the Baltic Sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Similä; M. Mäkynen; I. Heiler

    2010-01-01

    A statistical analysis was performed for nearly simultaneously acquired C band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and ice freeboard statistics. The data analyzed were collected during a CryoSat calibration-validation campaign in March 2005 in the Baltic Sea. The 3-D ice freeboard topography along transects with a total length about 150 km and width of 300 m was constructed from cross-track

  13. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Analysis of Current Deformation Along the Arava Valley, Dead Sea Transform, Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Finzi; G. Baer; Z. Reches

    2002-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform (DST) is a left-lateral strike-slip plate boundary between the Arabian plate and the Israel-Sinai sub-plate. We present here results of an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis of recent ground displacements in the Arava Valley (AV), which is a 160km long depression in the DST between the Dead Sea basin in the north and the Gulf

  14. C- and Multiangle Ku-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Data for Bare Soil Moisture Estimation in Agricultural Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Sano; M. S. Moran; A. R. Huete; T. Miura

    1998-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of C-band (5.3 GHz) and Ku-band (14.85 GHz) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to the bare soil moisture content of agricultural fields was conducted in this study. The C-band data were obtained with a 23° incidence angle, whereas the Ku-band data were obtained with 35°, 55°, and 75° incidence angles. The fields presented either a small-scale or

  15. Performance evaluation of a satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar for soil moisture mapping by a computer simulation technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. T. Ulaby; M. Fujita

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, the ability of a satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to detect soil moisture is evaluated by means of a computer simulation technique. The computer simulation package includes the azimuth compression processing using a range-sequential processor. The results of computer simulations indicate that in estimating soil moisture content with a four-look processor, the difference between the assumed and

  16. Spatial Estimation of Soil Moisture Using Synthetic Aperture Radar in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, N. G.; Hinzman, L. D.; Kane, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    A spatially distributed Model of Arctic Thermal and Hydrologic processes (MATH) has been developed. One of the attributes of this model is the spatial and temporal prediction of soil moisture in the active layer. The spatially distributed output from this model required verification data obtained through remote sensing to assess performance at the watershed scale independently. Therefore, a neural network was trained to predict soil moisture contents near the ground surface. The input to train the neural network is synthetic aperture radar (SAR) pixel value, and field measurements of soil moisture, and vegetation, which were used as a surrogate for surface roughness. Once the network was trained, soil moisture predictions were made based on SAR pixel value and vegetation. These results were then used for comparison with results from the hydrologic model. The quality of neural network input was less than anticipated. Our digital elevation model (DEM) was not of high enough resolution to allow exact co-registration with soil moisture measurements; therefore, the statistical correlations were not as good as hoped. However, the spatial pattern of the SAR derived soil moisture contents compares favorably with the hydrologic MATH model results. Primary surface parameters that effect SAR include topography, surface roughness, vegetation cover and soil texture. Single parameters that are considered to influence SAR include incident angle of the radar, polarization of the radiation, signal strength and returning signal integration, to name a few. These factors influence the reflectance, but if one adequately quantifies the influences of terrain and roughness, it is considered possible to extract information on soil moisture from SAR imagery analysis and in turn use SAR imagery to validate hydrologic models

  17. Foldbelt exploration with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.M.; Pruett, F.D.

    1987-05-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is being successfully used within the southern fold and thrust belt of Papua New Guinea to map surface structure and stratigraphy and to help plan a hydrocarbon exploration program. The airborne SAR imagery, along with other surface data, is used as a primary exploration tool because acquisition of acceptable seismic data is extremely costly due to extensive outcrops of Tertiary Darai Limestone which develops rugged karst topography. Most anticlines in the licenses are capped with this deeply karstified limestone. The region is ideally suited to geologic analysis using remote sensing technology. The area is seldom cloud free and is covered with tropical rain forest, and geologic field studies are limited. The widespread karst terrain is exceedingly dangerous, if not impossible, to traverse on the ground. SAR is used to guide ongoing field work, modeling of subsurface structure, and selection of well locations. SAR provides their explorationists with an excellent data base because (1) structure is enhanced with low illumination, (2) resolution is 6 x 12 m, (3) digital reprocessing is possible, (4) clouds are penetrated by the SAR, and (5) the survey was designed for stereoscopic photogeology. Landsat images and vertical aerial photographs complement SAR but provide subdued structural information because of minimal shadowing (due to high sun angles) and the jungle cover. SAR imagery reveals large-scale mass wasting that has led to a reevaluation of previously acquired field data. Lithologies can be recognized by textural and tonal changes on the SAR images despite near-continuous canopy of jungle. Reprocessing and contrast stretching of the digital radar imagery provide additional geologic information.

  18. Determining snow depth using Ku-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. R.; Kruse, F. A.; Bickel, D. L.; Dunkel, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring seasonal snow accumulation is important for evaluation of snow models, for short- and long-term snow cover monitoring, and for both military and civilian activities in cold climates. Improved spatial analysis of snow depth and volume can help decision makers plan for future events and mitigate risk. Current snow depth measurement methods fall short of operational requirements. This research explored a new approach for determining snow depth using Ku-band multi-pass (monostatic) airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). A perturbation method that isolated and compared high frequency terrain phase to elevation was used to generate Snow-Off and Snow-On DEMs from the InSAR phase data. Differencing the InSAR DEMs determined elevation change caused by accumulated snow. Comparison of InSAR snow depths to manual snow depth measurements indicated average InSAR snow depth errors of -8cm, 95cm, -49cm, 176cm, 87cm, and 42cm for six SAR pairs. The source of these errors appears to be mostly related to uncorrected slope and tilt in fitted low frequency planes. Results show that this technique has promise but accuracy could be substantially improved by the use of bistatic SAR systems, which would allow for more stable and measurable interferometric baselines.

  19. 3-D synthetic aperture radar interferometry phase unwrapping using extended Kalman filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Wdowinski, S.; Dixon, T. H.

    2013-10-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) observations allow researchers to map elevations, analyze surface deformation, and even detect ground water level changes from satellites orbiting the Earth. The InSAR phase measurements are inherently wrapped between 0 and 2?. For most physical interpretation methods the phase measurements have to be unwrapped to reveal the full scale of the observations. The unwrapping of multi-dimensional phase data is still a field of active research and here we present an algorithm using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The current implementation of our EKF algorithm utilizes a piecewise linear approximation in space and a simple model in the third dimension (e.g. time). The algorithm starts from wrapped, unfiltered interferograms and filters and unwraps the results at the same time solving for a common topography or deformation rate, starting from the highest quality point in the coherent area and proceeding to unwrap highest quality neighbors. The highest quality neighbors are determined according to the Fisher's Distance, which is a phase quality measure similar to the more commonly used phase derivative variance, but also includes the interferogram coherence. In this presentation we demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm for the applications of DEM generation and deformation rate analysis using real data.

  20. Synthetic Aperture Radar (sar) and Optical Imagery Data Fusion: Crop Yield Analysis in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    With the expanding energy crisis and rising food prices, crop yield analysis in Southeast Asia is an increasingly important topic in this region. Rice is the most important food crop in Southeast Asia and the ability to accurately predict crop yields during a growing season is useful for decision-makers, aid providers, and commercial trade organizations. The use of optical satellite image data by itself is difficult due to the almost constant cloud in many parts of Southeast Asia. However, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or SAR data, which can image the Earth's surface through cloud cover, is suitable for many agricultural purposes, such as the detection of rice fields, and the identification of different crop species. Crop yield analysis is difficult in this region due to many factors. Rice cropping systems are often characterized by the type of rice planted, the size of rice field, the sowing dates for different fields, different types of rice cropping systems from one area to another, as well as cultural practices such as sowing and transplanting. This paper will discuss the use of SAR data fused with optical imagery to improve the ability to perform crop yield analysis on rice crops in Southeast Asia.

  1. Agricultural crop harvest progress monitoring by fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao; Zhao, Chunjiang; Yang, Guijun; Li, Zengyuan; Chen, Erxue; Yuan, Lin; Yang, Xiaodong; Xu, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic mapping and monitoring of crop harvest on a large spatial scale will provide critical information for the formulation of optimal harvesting strategies. This study evaluates the feasibility of C-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) for monitoring the harvesting progress of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields. Five multitemporal, quad-pol Radarsat-2 images and one optical ZY-1 02C image were acquired over a farmland area in China during the 2013 growing season. Typical polarimetric signatures were obtained relying on polarimetric decomposition methods. Temporal evolutions of these signatures of harvested fields were compared with the ones of unharvested fields in the context of the entire growing cycle. Significant sensitivity was observed between the specific polarimetric parameters and the harvest status of oilseed rape fields. Based on this sensitivity, a new method that integrates two polarimetric features was devised to detect the harvest status of oilseed rape fields using a single image. The validation results are encouraging even for the harvested fields covered with high residues. This research demonstrates the capability of PolSAR remote sensing in crop harvest monitoring, which is a step toward more complex applications of PolSAR data in precision agriculture.

  2. Seasonal subsidence and rebound in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, observed by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, JöRn; Zebker, Howard A.; Galloway, Devin L.; Amelung, Falk

    2001-06-01

    Analyses of areal variations in the subsidence and rebound occurring over stressed aquifer systems, in conjunction with measurements of the hydraulic head fluctuations causing these displacements, can yield valuable information about the compressibility and storage properties of the aquifer system. Historically, stress-strain relationships have been derived from paired extensometer/piezometer installations, which provide only point source data. Because of the general unavailability of spatially detailed deformation data, areal stress-strain relations and their variability are not commonly considered in constraining conceptual and numerical models of aquifer systems. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques can map ground displacements at a spatial scale of tens of meters over 100 km wide swaths. InSAR has been used previously to characterize larger magnitude, generally permanent aquifer system compaction and land subsidence at yearly and longer timescales, caused by sustained drawdown of groundwater levels that produces intergranular stresses consistently greater than the maximum historical stress. We present InSAR measurements of the typically small-magnitude, generally recoverable deformations of the Las Vegas Valley aquifer system occurring at seasonal timescales. From these we derive estimates of the elastic storage coefficient for the aquifer system at several locations in Las Vegas Valley. These high-resolution measurements offer great potential for future investigations into the mechanics of aquifer systems and the spatial heterogeneity of aquifer system structure and material properties as well as for monitoring ongoing aquifer system compaction and land subsidence.

  3. Observation of sea-ice dynamics using synthetic aperture radar images: Automated analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, John F.; Samadani, Ramin; Smith, Martha P.; Daida, Jason M.; Bracewell, Ronald N.

    1988-01-01

    The European Space Agency's ERS-1 satellite, as well as others planned to follow, is expected to carry synthetic-aperture radars (SARs) over the polar regions beginning in 1989. A key component in utilization of these SAR data is an automated scheme for extracting the sea-ice velocity field from a time sequence of SAR images of the same geographical region. Two techniques for automated sea-ice tracking, image pyramid area correlation (hierarchical correlation) and feature tracking, are described. Each technique is applied to a pair of Seasat SAR sea-ice images. The results compare well with each other and with manually tracked estimates of the ice velocity. The advantages and disadvantages of these automated methods are pointed out. Using these ice velocity field estimates it is possible to construct one sea-ice image from the other member of the pair. Comparing the reconstructed image with the observed image, errors in the estimated velocity field can be recognized and a useful probable error display created automatically to accompany ice velocity estimates. It is suggested that this error display may be useful in segmenting the sea ice observed into regions that move as rigid plates of significant ice velocity shear and distortion.

  4. MMW target and clutter characterization using the range instrumentation synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Jerry A.; Barr, Douglas

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (AMRDEC) and Redstone Test Center (RTC) at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama have developed a Ka band, range instrumentation synthetic aperture radar (RISAR) for the purpose of millimeter wave (MMW) target and scene characterization. RISAR was developed as one element of the Advanced Multi-Spectral Sensor and Subsystem Test Capabilities (AMSSTC) program funded and managed by the U.S. Army Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI), Project Manager for Instrumentation, Targets and Threat Simulators (PM ITTS). The key objective of RISAR is the collection of MMW SAR data that can be used to develop high resolution target and terrain models for use in digital and real-time hardwarein- the-loop simulations. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of RISAR development and implementation. Example results of funded data collections will be presented with an emphasis on the system's 3D target modeling capabilities for ground targets, and wake characterization capabilities for littoral targets.

  5. A jamming strategy against synthetic aperture radar with varieties of squint angles and wide beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaohong; Xue, Guoyi; Liu, Peiguo

    2013-10-01

    In order to form a false scene in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image, deceptive jammer need to get the relevant SAR parameters. In these parameters, squint angle and beamwidth usally change and it will make the pre-generated jamming signal unuseful. For solving this problem, a strategy is proposed to transform the pre-generated jamming signals to counter SAR with arbitrary squint angle and beamwidth in real time. Firstly, the jamming effects under estimation errors of SAR's squint angle and beam-width are analyzed. Using Graphics Processing Units (GPU), a parallel algorithm to generate jamming signals for varying squint angle and azimuth beam-width is proposed. Then, This paper describes a method that can implement the signal transformation between wide-beam condition and narrow-beam condition. Based on the generated signals, the jamming under arbitrary squint angle and beam-width can be realized in real time. The simulation results shows that this strategy is effective to jam SAR with varieties of squint angles and wide-beams.

  6. Deramp Range Migration Processing for Satellite-borne Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Z.; Zeng, T.; Long, T.; Liu, W.

    Based on the two-step algorithm and range migration algorithm the deramp range migration algorithm for the high-resolution satellite-borne spotlight synthetic aperture radar SAR is presented The algorithm combines the advantages of SPECAN algorithm and range migration algorithm The first step of the proposed algorithm implements a linear and space-invariant azimuth filtering that is carried out via a deramp-based technique representing a simplified version of SPECAN approach This operation allows us to perform a bulk azimuth raw data compression and to achieve a pixel spacing no larger than the expected azimuth resolution of the fully focused image Thus the azimuth spectral folding phenomenon which is typical for satellite-borne spotlight SAR is overcome And the space-variant characteristics of the strip-map system transfer function are preserved Secondly the residual and precise focusing of the SAR data is achieved by applying the range migration algorithm The range migration algorithm can be applied to carry out by simply accounting for a new system transfer function and by considering the new azimuth sampling frequency In this algorithm the squinted equivalent range model that is fitter for satellite-borne SAR is introduced The equivalent velocity and equivalent squint angle are two important parameters in the algorithm and should accurately be acquired When the equivalent velocity and equivalent squint angle acquired form the spacecraft ancillary data are imprecise the estimation of the two parameters is circumvent through estimating the Doppler

  7. A fast level set method for synthetic aperture radar ocean image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Bo; Li, Hongga

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of high noise imagery like Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is still one of the most challenging tasks in image processing. While level set, a novel approach based on the analysis of the motion of an interface, can be used to address this challenge, the cell-based iterations may make the process of image segmentation remarkably slow, especially for large-size images. For this reason fast level set algorithms such as narrow band and fast marching have been attempted. Built upon these, this paper presents an improved fast level set method for SAR ocean image segmentation. This competent method is dependent on both the intensity driven speed and curvature flow that result in a stable and smooth boundary. Notably, it is optimized to track moving interfaces for keeping up with the point-wise boundary propagation using a single list and a method of fast up-wind scheme iteration. The list facilitates efficient insertion and deletion of pixels on the propagation front. Meanwhile, the local up-wind scheme is used to update the motion of the curvature front instead of solving partial differential equations. Experiments have been carried out on extraction of surface slick features from ERS-2 SAR images to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed fast level set method. PMID:22399940

  8. Investigations of fault creep in southern California using interferometric synthetic aperture radar and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Suzanne Noelle

    This dissertation presents an array of remote sensing methods that can be utilized in deformation studies. The main focus is on the detection of creep and how it relates to earthquake hazard assessments. Chapter I outlines how both the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) can be used to detect small creep signatures near strike-slip faults. Chapter 2 presents the results from rapid-static GPS surveys of the dense Imperial Valley geodetic network. Chapter 3 investigates the southern San Andreas Fault, near the Salton Sea, where geodetic monuments are sparse. We utilize InSAR in this region and stack interferograms to isolate the creep signature along the fault. The use of permanent scatterers is introduced and its effects on improving image coherence are analyzed. Our photographic survey of permanent scatterers in the Coachella Valley/Salton Sea area is presented in Appendix 3A, while Chapter 4 summarizes various studies of creep on California faults. Research from my first two years is presented in Chapter 5, which details how one can determine the elastic thickness of oceanic lithosphere using shipboard bathymetry and satellite gravity.

  9. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar image unsupervised classification method based on artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Yu; Gang, Wang; Teng, Zhu; Xiaojuan, Li; Qin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    An unsupervised classification method based on the H/? classifier and artificial immune system (AIS) is proposed to overcome the inefficiencies that arise when traditional classification methods deal with polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data having large numbers of overlapping pixels and excess polarimetric information. The method is composed of two steps. First, Cloude-Pottier decomposition is used to obtain the entropy H and the scattering angle ?. The classification result based on the H/? plane is used to initialize the AIS algorithm. Second, to obtain accurate results, the AIS clonal selection algorithm is used to perform an iterative calculation. As a self-organizing, self-recognizing, and self-optimizing algorithm, the AIS is able to obtain a global optimal solution and better classification results by making use of both the scattering mechanism of ground features and polarimetric scattering characteristics. The effectiveness and feasibility of this method are demonstrated by experiments using a NASA-JPL PolSAR image and a high-resolution PolSAR image of Lingshui autonomous county in Hainan Province.

  10. On the extraction of directional sea-wave spectra from synthetic- aperture radar-signal arrays without matched filtering.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildey, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    An economical method of digitally extracting sea-wave spectra from synthetic-aperture radar-signal records, which can be performed routinely in real or near-real time with the reception of telemetry from Seasat satellites, would be of value to a variety of scientific disciplines. This paper explores techniques for such data extraction and concludes that the mere fact that the desired result is devoid of phase information does not, of itself, lead to a simplification in data processing because of the nature of the modulation performed on the radar pulse by the backscattering surface. -from Author

  11. Refined Motion Compensation for Highly Squinted Spotlight Syn-thetic Aperture Radar

    E-print Network

    Refined Motion Compensation for Highly Squinted Spotlight Syn- thetic Aperture Radar Minh Phuong which is capable of dealing with large motion errors for highly squinted spotlight SAR. The approach/resampling in azimuth. For pulsed SAR with a 30° squint angle, the proposed algorithm compensates motion errors

  12. Rapid, repeat-sample monitoring of crustal deformations and environmental phenomena with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) mission being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Dryden Flight Research Center in support of NASAs Science Mission Directorate. UAVSARs unique ability to fly a repeatable flight path, along with an electronically steerable array, allows interferometric data to be obtained with accuracies measured in millimeters. Deploying the radar on an airborne platform will also allow for radar images to be collected and compared with images from the same area taken hours or even years later - providing for long-term trending and near-real-time notification of changes and deformations. UAVSARs data processing algorithms will provide for near-real time data reduction providing disaster planning and response teams with highly accurate data to aid in the prediction of, and response to, natural phenomena. UAVSAR data can be applied to increasing our understanding of the processes behind solid earth, cryosphere, carbon cycle and other areas of interest in earth science. Technologies developed for UAVSAR may also be applicable to a future earth-orbiting InSAR mission and possibly for missions to the Moon or Mars. The UAVSAR is expected to fly on a Gulfstream III aircraft this winter, followed by a flight test program lasting until the second half of 2007. Following radar calibration and data reduction activities, the platform will be ready for science users in the summer of 2008.

  13. Rapid, Repeat-sample Monitoring of Crustal Deformations and Environmental Phenomena with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) mission being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Dryden Flight Research Center in support of NASA s Science Mission Directorate. UAVSAR's unique ability to fly a repeatable flight path, along with an electronically steerable array, allows interferometric data to be obtained with accuracies measured in millimeters. Deploying the radar on an airborne platform will also allow for radar images to be collected and compared with images from the same area taken hours or even years later - providing for long-term trending and near real-time notification of changes and deformations. UAVSAR s data processing algorithms will provide for near-real time data reduction providing disaster planning and response teams with highly accurate data to aid in the prediction of, and response to, natural phenomena. UAVSAR data can be applied to increasing our understanding of the processes behind solid earth, cryosphere, carbon cycle and other areas of interest in earth science. Technologies developed for UAVSAR may also be applicable to a future earth-orbiting InSAR mission and possibly for missions to the Moon or Mars. The UAVSAR is expected to fly on a Gulfstream III aircraft this winter, followed by a flight test program lasting until the second half of 2007. Following radar calibration and data reduction activities, the platform will be ready for science users in the summer of 2008.

  14. Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Study River Ice Breakup on the Kuparuk River, Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, A.; Prakash, A.; Meyer, F. J.; Gens, R.; Liljedahl, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    A combined use of remote sensing techniques and in-situ measurements is an effective approach to study Arctic hydrology, given the vastness, complexity, and logistical challenges posed by most Arctic watersheds. Remote sensing techniques can provide tools to assess the geospatial variations that form the integrated response of a river system and, therefore, provide important details to study one of the effects of climate change on the remote Arctic environment. This study investigates the breakup response of the Kuparuk River on the North Slope of Alaska using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Imagery and runoff data collected during the spring and summer months between 2001 and 2010 from the Lower Kuparuk River are included in the analysis, which totals 65 SAR images. Image processing results have been calibrated with in-situ stream gauge data provided by USGS gauging station 15896000, on the Lower Kuparuk River, near the town of Deadhorse, Alaska. A time series was assembled to examine the breakup initiation in the subsets through statistical analysis. Images were stacked, geocoded using a Fast Fourier Transform, subset, masked, and divided into subsections. The statistics of each subsection were then compiled and analyzed. Arctic river breakup is a dynamic process. Therefore, we expected drastic change in river surface conditions to correspond to a large variance in backscatter between river subsections. However, before and after breakup we expected image subsections to have largely homogenous statistics. This was verified in nearly all of the image sets, although some variance still existed before and after the breakup event as a result of other conflicting variables. Changes in wind velocity, water depth, and size of point bars all contributed to these confounding variances. Combined with a comprehensive field campaign, SAR imagery interpretations have the potential to develop into a useful monitoring tool for monitoring Arctic rivers and developing resource management plans for neighboring communities.

  15. Analysis of Soil Moisture Using a Long-term Record of Synthetic Aperture Radar Backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overduin, P. P.; Nolan, M.

    2001-12-01

    The promise of monitoring temporal variation in soil moisture levels has spurred much research into the capabilities of synthetic aperture radar techniques (SAR). SAR backscatter intensity is determined by characteristics of the reflecting surface, including the surface dielectric and roughness. In the boreal forest of interior Alaska, SAR imagery has been tested for its use as a measure of soil dielectric and therefore moisture content, but a clear correlation between C-band backscatter and soil dielectric has not been found. We examine a 5 year record of over 400 SAR images from the Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed in interior Alaska, including ERS-1, ERS-2, JERS and radarsat, and compare it to field ground-truthing data and detailed topographic and vegetation distribution information. Our objective is to place constraints on the usefulness of SAR data as an indicator of soil moisture levels in a variety of forest canopies. Pixel to field data comparisons do not show a clear link between the two, not a surprising result considering the different scales of measurement involved. Further, field measurements themselves do not show a clear correlation to weather, as the measurement of point data in tussock fields has considerable error. Trend analysis of changes between successive SAR scenes has yielded the most useful results. SAR images show strong seasonal signal corresponding to seasonal temperature fluctuations, the result of changes in backscatter due to changes in vegetation. The onset of snow melt also shows clearly through the canopy. Soil moisture variations through the canopy are much more subtle, though more evident in recent fire scars.

  16. Airborne synthetic aperture radar observations of “spiral eddy” slick patterns in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorino, George O.; Holt, Benjamin; Molemaker, M. Jeroen; Digiacomo, Paul M.; Sletten, Mark A.

    2010-05-01

    Repeat sampling on hourly time scales using an airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used to investigate the occurrence and evolving characteristics of spiral-shaped slick patterns, commonly presumed to be indicators of submesoscale ocean eddies, in the area around Santa Catalina Island, California (˜33.4°N, 118.4°W). Simultaneous SAR imagery and boat survey data are examined over two ˜5 h long periods spaced 3 days apart in April 2003. The SAR imagery reveals several spiral-like patterns, roughly 5 km in diameter, occurring downstream of the western end of Catalina. We believe that the most likely formation mechanism for these patterns is current-wake instability related to the flow of the Southern California Countercurrent along the north shore of Catalina. In one case, there is an observed cold-core eddy and vortex sheet attached to the tip of the island, similar to island-wake simulations done by Dong and McWilliams (2007). In another case, the SAR imagery shows a series of slick patterns that, at least initially, resemble spiral eddies, but the data show no clear evidence of actual ocean eddies being present either at depth or through a rotating surface expression. A speculation is that such features signify island-wake eddies that are relatively weak and dissipate quickly. An unexpected finding was how quickly a spiral slick pattern could deteriorate, suggesting a time scale for the surface feature of the order of only several hours. An implication of this result is that care is needed when interpreting a single satellite SAR imagery for evidence of active submesoscale eddies. Recommendations are made for future field studies.

  17. Maritime surveillance with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and automatic identification system (AIS) onboard a microsatellite constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, E. H.; Zee, R. E.; Fotopoulos, G.

    2012-11-01

    New developments in small spacecraft capabilities will soon enable formation-flying constellations of small satellites, performing cooperative distributed remote sensing at a fraction of the cost of traditional large spacecraft missions. As part of ongoing research into applications of formation-flight technology, recent work has developed a mission concept based on combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with automatic identification system (AIS) data. Two or more microsatellites would trail a large SAR transmitter in orbit, each carrying a SAR receiver antenna and one carrying an AIS antenna. Spaceborne AIS can receive and decode AIS data from a large area, but accurate decoding is limited in high traffic areas, and the technology relies on voluntary vessel compliance. Furthermore, vessel detection amidst speckle in SAR imagery can be challenging. In this constellation, AIS broadcasts of position and velocity are received and decoded, and used in combination with SAR observations to form a more complete picture of maritime traffic and identify potentially non-cooperative vessels. Due to the limited transmit power and ground station downlink time of the microsatellite platform, data will be processed onboard the spacecraft. Herein we present the onboard data processing portion of the mission concept, including methods for automated SAR image registration, vessel detection, and fusion with AIS data. Georeferencing in combination with a spatial frequency domain method is used for image registration. Wavelet-based speckle reduction facilitates vessel detection using a standard CFAR algorithm, while leaving sufficient detail for registration of the filtered and compressed imagery. Moving targets appear displaced from their actual position in SAR imagery, depending on their velocity and the image acquisition geometry; multiple SAR images acquired from different locations are used to determine the actual positions of these targets. Finally, a probabilistic inference model combines the SAR target data with transmitted AIS data, taking into account nearest-neighbor position matches and uncertainty models of each observation.

  18. Observation of melt onset on multiyear Arctic sea ice using the ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebrenner, D. P.; Nelson, E. D.; Colony, R.; West, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    We present nearly coincident observations of backscattering from the Earth Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS) 1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and of near-surface temperature from six drifting buoys in the Beaufort Sea, showing that the onset of melting in snow on multiyear sea ice is clearly detectable in the SAR data. Melt onset is marked by a clean, steep decrease in the backscattering cross section of multiyear ice at 5.3 GHz and VV polarization. We investigate the scattering physics responsible for the signature change and find that the cross section decrease is due solely to the appearance of liquid water in the snow cover overlying the ice. A thin layer of moist snow is sufficient to cause the observed decrease. We present a prototype algorithm to estimate the date of melt onset using the ERS 1 SAR and apply the algorithm first to the SAR data for which we have corresponding buoy temperatures. The melt onset dates estimated by the SAR algorithm agree with those obtained independently from the temperature data to within 4 days or less, with the exception of one case in which temperatures oscillated about 0 C for several weeks. Lastly, we apply the algorithm to the entire ERS 1 SAR data record acquired by the Alaska SAR Facility for the Beaufort Sea north of 73 deg N during the spring of 1992, to produce a map of the dates of melt onset over an area roughly 1000 km on a side. The progression of melt onset is primarily poleward but shows a weak meridional dependence at latitudes of approximately 76 deg-77 deg N. Melting begins in the southern part of the study region on June 13 and by June 20 has progressed to the northermost part of the region.

  19. Mono-static Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry with Arbitrary Flight Trajectories

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    with an entropy minimization technique. Finally, we present numerical experiments to demonstrate the performance a novel differential interferometric synthetic aperture image formation method using a mono-static system Yanik and Birsen Yazici Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic

  20. Monitoring flooding and vegetation on seasonally inundated floodplains with multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Laura Lorraine

    The ability of synthetic aperture radar to detect flooding and vegetation structure was evaluated for three seasonally inundated floodplain sites supporting a broad variety of wetland and upland vegetation types: two reaches of the Solimoes floodplain in the central Amazon, and the Magela Creek floodplain in Northern Territory, Australia. For each site, C- and L-band polarimetric Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) data was obtained at both high- and low-water stages. Inundation status and vegetation structure were documented simultaneous with the SIR-C acquisitions using low-altitude videography and ground measurements. SIR-C images were classified into cover states defined by vegetation physiognomy and presence of standing water, using a decision-tree model with backscattering coefficients at HH, VV, and HV polarizations as input variables. Classification accuracy was assessed using user's accuracy, producer's accuracy, and kappa coefficient for a test population of pixels. At all sites, both C- and L-band were necessary to accurately classify cover types with two dates. HH polarization was most. useful for distinguishing flooded from non-flooded vegetation (C-HH for macrophyte versus pasture, L-HH for flooded versus non-flooded forest), and cross-polarized L-band data provided the best separation between woody and non-woody vegetation. Increases in L-HH backscattering due to flooding were on the order of 3--4 dB for closed-canopy varzea and igapo forest, and 4--7 dB, for open Melaleuca woodland. The broad range of physiognomies and stand structures found in both herbaceous and woody wetland communities, combined with the variation in the amount of emergent canopy caused by water level fluctuations and phenologic changes, resulted in a large range in backscattering characteristics of wetland communities both within and between sites. High accuracies cannot be achieved for these communities using single-date, single-band, single-polarization data, particularly in the case of distinguishing flooded macrophyte from non-flooded forest vegetation. However, the large changes in backscattering caused by flooding make it possible to achieve good accuracies (>85%) using multi-temporal data. Where river stage records are available, SAR-based maps of inundation status on a series of dates can be linked to long-term stage data to define wetland habitat types based on flooding regime and low-water vegetation cover.

  1. Resolution and Synthetic Aperture Characterization of

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    [5], there is currently much interest in moving radar technology onto spaceborne platforms. The advantages of moving radar into space are numerous [3, 6­7]. First, spaceborne radars provide global coverageResolution and Synthetic Aperture Characterization of Sparse Radar Arrays NATHAN A. GOODMAN, Member

  2. Relation between ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar data and measurements of surface roughness and moisture content of rocky soils in a semiarid rangeland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edson E. Sano; Alfredo R. Huete; Denis Troufleau; M. Susan Moran; Alain Vidal

    1998-01-01

    Surface roughness and soil moisture content control the distribution of rainfall into runoff, evapotranspiration, and infiltration. Satellite radar data have the potential to provide spatial and multitemporal estimates of these variables, depending upon the sensor configuration and field condition. The relation between the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data and measurements of surface roughness and moisture

  3. Synthetic aperture radar for a crop information system: A multipolarization and multitemporal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang

    Acquisition of timely information is a critical requirement for successful management of an agricultural monitoring system. Crop identification and crop-area estimation can be done fairly successfully using satellite sensors operating in the visible and near-infrared (VIR) regions of the spectrum. However, data collection can be unreliable due to problems of cloud cover at critical stages of the growing season. The all-weather capability of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired from satellites provides data over large areas whenever crop information is required. At the same time, SAR is sensitive to surface roughness and should be able to provide surface information such as tillage-system characteristics. With the launch of ERS-1, the first long-duration SAR system became available. The analysis of airborne multipolarization SAR data, multitemporal ERS-1 SAR data, and their combinations with VIR data, is necessary for the development of image-analysis methodologies that can be applied to RADARSAT data for extracting agricultural crop information. The overall objective of this research is to evaluate multipolarization airborne SAR data, multitemporal ERS-1 SAR data, and combinations of ERS-1 SAR and satellite VIR data for crop classification using non-conventional algorithms. The study area is situated in Norwich Township, an agricultural area in Oxford County, southern Ontario, Canada. It has been selected as one of the few representative agricultural 'supersites' across Canada at which the relationships between radar data and agriculture are being studied. The major field crops are corn, soybeans, winter wheat, oats, barley, alfalfa, hay, and pasture. Using airborne C-HH and C-HV SAR data, it was found that approaches using contextual information, texture information and per-field classification for improving agricultural crop classification proved to be effective, especially the per-field classification method. Results show that three of the four best per-field classification accuracies (\\ K=0.91) are achieved using combinations of C-HH and C-VV SAR data. This confirms the strong potential of multipolarization data for crop classification. The synergistic effects of multitemporal ERS-1 SAR and Landsat TM data are evaluated for crop classification using an artificial neural network (ANN) approach. The results show that the per-field approach using a feed-forward ANN significantly improves the overall classification accuracy of both single-date and multitemporal SAR data. Using the combination of TM3,4,5 and Aug. 5 SAR data, the best per-field ANN classification of 96.8% was achieved. It represents an 8.5% improvement over a single TM3,4,5 classification alone. Using multitemporal ERS-1 SAR data acquired during the 1992 and 1993 growing seasons, the radar backscatter characteristics of crops and their underlying soils are analyzed. The SAR temporal backscatter profiles were generated for each crop type and the earliest times of the year for differentiation of individual crop types were determined. Orbital (incidence-angle) effects were also observed on all crops. The average difference between the two orbits was about 3 dB. Thus attention should be given to the local incidence-angle effects when using ERS-1 SAR data, especially when comparing fields from different scenes or different areas within the same scene. Finally, early- and mid-season multitemporal SAR data for crop classification using sequential-masking techniques are evaluated, based on the temporal backscatter profiles. It was found that all crops studied could be identified by July 21.

  4. Brief Communication: Contrast-stretching- and histogram-smoothness-based synthetic aperture radar image enhancement for flood map generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, F.; Riaz, M. M.; Ghafoor, A.; Arif, F.

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic-aperture-radar-image-based flood map generation is usually a challenging task (due to degraded contrast). A three-step approach (based on adaptive histogram clipping, histogram remapping and smoothing) is proposed for generation of a more visualized flood map image. The pre- and post-flood images are adaptively histogram equalized. The hidden details in difference image are enhanced using contrast-based enhancement and histogram smoothing. A fast-ready flood map is then generated using equalized pre-, post- and difference images. Results (evaluated using different data sets) show significance of the proposed technique.

  5. Surface Ruptures and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.

    2005-01-01

    We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface ruptures related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The main strike-slip fault rupture south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.

  6. Oil Spill Detection and Tracking Using Lipschitz Regularity and Multiscale Techniques in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Automatic oil spill detection and tracking from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is a difficult task, due in large part to the inhomogeneous properties of the sea surface, the high level of speckle inherent in SAR data, the complexity and the highly non-Gaussian nature of amplitude information, and the low temporal sampling that is often achieved with SAR systems. This research presents a promising new oil spill detection and tracking method that is based on time series of SAR images. Through the combination of a number of advanced image processing techniques, the develop approach is able to mitigate some of these previously mentioned limitations of SAR-based oil-spill detection and enables fully automatic spill detection and tracking across a wide range of spatial scales. The method combines an initial automatic texture analysis with a consecutive change detection approach based on multi-scale image decomposition. The first step of the approach, a texture transformation of the original SAR images, is performed in order to normalize the ocean background and enhance the contrast between oil-covered and oil-free ocean surfaces. The Lipschitz regularity (LR), a local texture parameter, is used here due to its proven ability to normalize the reflectivity properties of ocean water and maximize the visibly of oil in water. To calculate LR, the images are decomposed using two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D-CWT), and transformed into Holder space to measure LR. After texture transformation, the now normalized images are inserted into our multi-temporal change detection algorithm. The multi-temporal change detection approach is a two-step procedure including (1) data enhancement and filtering and (2) multi-scale automatic change detection. The performance of the developed approach is demonstrated by an application to oil spill areas in the Gulf of Mexico. In this example, areas affected by oil spills were identified from a series of ALOS PALSAR images acquired in 2010. The comparison showed exceptional performance of our method. This method can be applied to emergency management and decision support systems with a need for real-time data, and it shows great potential for rapid data analysis in other areas, including volcano detection, flood boundaries, forest health, and wildfires.

  7. Wavefront Synthesis and Reconstruction: Direct Binary Search Holograms and Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennison, Brian Keith

    Computer-generated binary holograms can perform complex waveshaping functions that are beyond the capability of ordinary refractive optical elements. An iterative procedure for the synthesis of computer-generated holograms (CGH's) is investigated that consists of a direct binary search (DBS) for the element configuration that minimizes the error between the actual and desired reconstructed wavefronts. Although DBS CGH's have low reconstruction error and high diffraction efficiency, images reconstructed from DBS holograms suffer from leakage noise due to parts of the diffraction pattern that are not controlled by the algorithm. The statistics of the nonhomogeneous leakage noise are analyzed under the assumption of independent, identically-distributed addressable hologram cell transmittances. The severity of the leakage noise is compared to the representation -related error caused by the finite resolution and binary transmittance of the medium used to realize the CGH. Except for a cross artifact due to a nonzero mean hologram transmittance, the leakage is found to exhibit speckle-like unity contrast. Due to the computational complexity of the DBS algorithm, it has been limited to synthesis of CGH's with a relatively small number of addressable cells. To ameliorate this disadvantage, a fast algorithm is developed that recursively computes the error measure to be minimized. For complex amplitude-based error, the required computation for an L point CGH is reduced by a factor of sqrt{L/log_2/L}. The fast intensity-based algorithm is substantially more complicated; and modifications are considered to make the algorithm more efficient. An acceleration technique that attempts increase the rate of convergence of DBS is also investigated. Spotlight-mode synthetic aperture radar provides measurements in a limited annular sector of the two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform of the complex reflectance function of a spatially limited terrain patch. A maximum likelihood estimate of the reflectance magnitude based on the measured data is derived under the assumption of independent, uniformly distributed reflectance phase. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is employed to solve the nonlinear likelihood function; and it yields a computationally efficient iterative estimator.

  8. Inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging for concealed object detection on a naturally walking person

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, Andrey; Ivashov, Sergey; Razevig, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Igor; Bechtel, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the architecture of a microwave radar system intended for imaging concealed objects under clothing as a subject walks through the inspection area. The system uses the principle of inverse aperture which is achieved by a person's movement past a stationary microwave sensor array. In the system, the vertical resolution is achieved by arranging microwave sensors vertically while the horizontal resolution is due to the subject's horizontal motion. The positioning of the objects is achieved by employing a synchronous video sensor that allows coherent radar signal processing. A possible radar signal processing technique based on signal accumulation is described. Numerical experiments are conducted with the described object trajectory model. The influence of positioning errors attributed to the video positioning system is also modeled numerically. An experimental setup is designed and proposed to evaluate the suggested signal processing techniques on real data with an electro-mechanical scanner and single transceiver. It is suggested that the signal acquisition with the system can be accomplished using the stop motion technique, in which a series of changing stationary scenes is sampled and processed. Experimental radar images are demonstrated for stationary objects with concealed items and considered as reference images. Further development of the system is suggested.

  9. An Integrated Navigation System using GPS Carrier Phase for Real-Time Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, J. Rick; Kim, Theodore J.; Kohler, Stewart M.

    1999-06-24

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) requires accu- rate measurement of the motion of the imaging plat- form to produce well-focused images with minimal absolute position error. The motion measurement (MoMeas) system consists of a inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a P-code GPS receiver that outputs corrected ephemeris, L1 & L2 pseudoranges, and L1 & L2 carrier phase measurements. The unknown initial carrier phase biases to the GPS satellites are modeled as states in an extended Kalman filter and the resulting integrated navigation solution has po- sition errors that change slowly with time. Position error drifts less than 1- cm/sec have been measured from the SAR imagery for various length apertures.

  10. On the Soil Roughness Parameterization Problem in Soil Moisture Retrieval of Bare Surfaces from Synthetic Aperture Radar

    PubMed Central

    Verhoest, Niko E.C; Lievens, Hans; Wagner, Wolfgang; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Moran, M. Susan; Mattia, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar has shown its large potential for retrieving soil moisture maps at regional scales. However, since the backscattered signal is determined by several surface characteristics, the retrieval of soil moisture is an ill-posed problem when using single configuration imagery. Unless accurate surface roughness parameter values are available, retrieving soil moisture from radar backscatter usually provides inaccurate estimates. The characterization of soil roughness is not fully understood, and a large range of roughness parameter values can be obtained for the same surface when different measurement methodologies are used. In this paper, a literature review is made that summarizes the problems encountered when parameterizing soil roughness as well as the reported impact of the errors made on the retrieved soil moisture. A number of suggestions were made for resolving issues in roughness parameterization and studying the impact of these roughness problems on the soil moisture retrieval accuracy and scale.

  11. Science Results from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR): Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L. (Editor); Plaut, Jeffrey (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is the most advanced imaging radar system to fly in Earth orbit. Carried in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour in April and October of 1994, SIR-C/X-SAR simultaneously recorded SAR data at three wavelengths (L-, C-, and X-bands; 23.5, 5.8, and 3.1 cm, respectively). The SIR-C/X-SAR Science Team consists of 53 investigator teams from more than a dozen countries. Science investigations were undertaken in the fields of ecology, hydrology, ecology, and oceanography. This report contains 44 investigator team reports and several additional reports from coinvestigators and other researchers.

  12. Observation of Planetary Oceans with Fully Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Wooil M.

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one of the most cost effective and powerful all weather tools for observation of planetary surface without sun light. The SAR systems can observe planetary surfaces with the very high resolution and large spatial coverage. We have developed and improved the algorithms for extracting quantitative information on geophysical parameters using various types of SAR data available on Earth's surface, both space-borne SAR (ERS-1/2, RADARSAT, and ENVISAT ASAR) and airborne SAR (NASA(JPL) AIRSAR). SAR is the only system that can provide a synoptic view of find wind fields near the coastal area on Earth. Many SAR images including RADARSAT and ENVISAT ASAR's alternating polarization mode and wide swath mode were to investigate the ability of retrieving sea surface wind field and the results are quite accurate and operationally acceptable. We installed corner reflectors on the nearby beach to calibrate the SAR data, and we obtained in-situ measurements from the several coast-based automatic weather systems and ocean buoys. Using the simultaneously acquired polarization ENVISAT ASAR data (HH and VV), the most appropriate polarization ratio was evaluated and applied for improving the wind retrieval model. In addition, the best combinations depending on given sea states and incidence angle ranges were investigated. The characteristics of short-period and long-period (near-inertial) internal waves are also investigated with several space-borne SAR systems. The possibility of inferring characteristics of the interior ocean dynamics from the SAR image associated with internal solitary waves was tested using a hydrodynamic interaction model (action balance equation) and a radar backscattering model (two-scale tilted Bragg model). These models were used iteratively to fit the observed SAR data to the simulated SAR. The estimated results were compared with in-situ measurements. The typical scales and the spatial and temporal characteristics of internal waves observed in the western part of the East Sea test area were also estimated from more than 140 SAR images. On the other hand, very long wave patterns (13-10 km) were observed in two successively acquired ENVISAT ASAR images and interpreted as near-inertial internal waves based on the hydrographic data. The Along Track Interferometric SAR (ATI-SAR), utilizing two SAR antennas separated along the platform flight direction and combined interferometrically, was also tested and validated to derive ocean surface current and wave information. The phase of ATI-SAR is related to the line-of-sight velocity of the water scatterers. The surface current extraction from the ATI-SAR velocity is still an open question, because the Doppler shift is not simply proportional to the component of the mean surface current. It also includes other types of contributions associated with the phase velocity of the Bragg waves and orbital motions of all ocean waves that are longer than Bragg waves. For accurate current estimation, a new and practically useful method was developed using simultaneously measured L- and C-band ATI-SAR data. The influence of Bragg resonant waves and long ocean wave motions on the ATI-SAR velocity according to the radar-frequency was analyzed and effectively eliminated. The method was applied to NASA(JPL) L- and C-band ATI-SAR measurements. The resulting ocean surface current vectors were compared with in situ measurements collected by an RCM (Recording Current Meter). Furthermore, ocean surface wave information was extracted from the ATI-SAR data using a quasi-linear transform. The limitations of the transform were also discussed. The basic principles and the results of these multi-disciplinary observation approaches on the Earth's ocean may be extended to investigate other terrestrial planetary surface observation in the solar system. With recent launching of several fully polarimetric SAR systems such as ALOS, TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2, we now have the real opportunities, which we can further extend our application capabilities on Earth to other terrestr

  13. Landslide Investigations at Salmon Falls Creek Canyon in Idaho Using Satellite-Based Multitemporal Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necsoiu, M.; Hooper, D. M.; Mcginnis, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    Landslides are a common worldwide natural hazard. Due to the difficulties of preventing landslides or mitigating their impacts, it is vital to know the locations of potential slide areas and their states of activity, especially for those situations where property, infrastructure, and human lives are at risk. This study improves understanding of the rate of movement and the lateral extent of the active domain of a landslide complex within Salmon Falls Creek Canyon near Twin Falls, Idaho. The research investigates the feasibility of (i) using high-resolution multitemporal Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques to detect slow, nonlinear landslide displacement, and (ii) developing a work-flow that maximizes the accuracy of InSAR techniques while minimizing the number of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) datasets. The results provide (i) new insights into landslide displacement and rate of change over two decades; (ii) an assessment of change at a finer spatial resolution with similar or greater accuracy than previous studies that incorporated field and optical-based remote sensing; and (iii) improved geostatistical analysis of two separate landslides within the Salmon Falls Creek Canyon complex. These InSAR results show that the headwall block and transverse scarp had the highest mean annual velocity in the radar line-of-site direction. Line-of-site movement velocity in the toe and body of the landslide was less. Additionally, we interpret that lateral translation may have been greater in the body and toe compared to the headwall region due to the curved shape of the landside detachment surface.

  14. Distributed aperture OFDM radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Wook Jung; R aviraj S. Adve; Joohwan Chun

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of obtaining frequency diversity using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Exploiting spatial diversity, the key advantage of a distributed aperture radar, requires orthogonality in, for example, the frequency, time, waveform, dimensions across sensors. This paper focuses on the simplest of these cases; frequency orthogonality. Here we address the key drawback associated with frequency diversity:

  15. Application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to volcano mapping in the humid tropics: a case study in East Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon A. Carn

    1999-01-01

    Volcanoes in humid tropical environments are frequently cloud covered, typically densely vegetated and rapidly eroded. These\\u000a factors complicate field and laboratory studies and even the basic identification of potentially active volcanoes. Numerous\\u000a previous studies have highlighted the potential value of radar remote sensing for volcanology in equatorial regions. Here,\\u000a cloud- and vegetation-penetrating LHH-band (??24?cm) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from

  16. Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar (3D SISAR). Final report, September 22, 1993--September 22, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The concept developed under this applied research and development contract is a novel Ground Penetrating Radar system capable of remotely detecting, analyzing, and mapping buried waste containers from a mobile platform. From the testing and analysis performed to date, the 3-D SISAR has achieved the detection, accurate location, and three-dimensional imaging of buried test objects from a stand-off geometry. Tests have demonstrated that underground objects have been located to within 0.1 meter of their actual position. This work validates that the key elements of the approach are performing as anticipated. The stand-off synthetic aperture radar (SAR) methodology has been demonstrated to be a feasible approach as a remote sensing technique. The radar sensor constructed under this project is providing adequate quality data for imaging, and the matched filters have been demonstrated to provide enhanced target detection. Additional work is on-going in the area of underground propagation and scattering phenomena to provide enhanced depth performance, as the current imaging results have been limited to a few feet of depth underground.

  17. Inverse synthetic aperture radar processing using parametric time-frequency estimators Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V., LLNL

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for the Office of the Chief of Naval Research (ONR) during the period of 1 September 1997 through 31 December 1997. The primary objective of this research was aimed at developing an alternative time-frequency approach which is recursive-in-time to be applied to the Inverse Synthethic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging problem discussed subsequently. Our short term (Phase I) goals were to: 1. Develop an ISAR stepped-frequency waveform (SFWF) radar simulator based on a point scatterer vehicular target model incorporating both translational and rotational motion; 2. Develop a parametric, recursive-in-time approach to the ISAR target imaging problem; 3. Apply the standard time-frequency short-term Fourier transform (STFT) estimator, initially to a synthesized data set; and 4. Initiate the development of the recursive algorithm. We have achieved all of these goals during the Phase I of the project and plan to complete the overall development, application and comparison of the parametric approach to other time-frequency estimators (STFT, etc.) on our synthesized vehicular data sets during the next phase of funding. It should also be noted that we developed a batch minimum variance translational motion compensation (TMC) algorithm to estimate the radial components of target motion (see Section IV). This algorithm is easily extended to recursive solution and will probably become part of the overall recursive processing approach to solve the ISAR imaging problem. Our goals for the continued effort are to: 1. Develop and extend a complex, recursive-in-time, time- frequency parameter estimator based on the recursive prediction error method (RPEM) using the underlying Gauss- Newton algorithms. 2. Apply the complex RPEM algorithm to synthesized ISAR data using the above simulator. 3. Compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to standard time-frequency estimators applied to the same data sets.

  18. Comparison of flat-topped stellate seamounts on Earth's seafloor with stellate domes on Venus using side-scan sonar and Magellan synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Bulmer; J. B. Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The diameters of many domes on Venus imaged by the Magellan synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are an order of magnitude larger than terrestrial subaerial domes; however, surveys of the seafloor using sonar imaging systems such as GLORIA (Geological Long Range Inclined Asdic) and SeaBEAM have revealed flat-topped volcanic features with similar diameters, volumes and slope angles. Suggested analogies between domes

  19. Linear dispersion relation and depth sensitivity to swell parameters: application to synthetic aperture radar imaging and bathymetry.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Valentina; Renga, Alfredo; Rufino, Giancarlo; D'Errico, Marco; Moccia, Antonio; Aragno, Cesare; Zoffoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Long gravity waves or swell dominating the sea surface is known to be very useful to estimate seabed morphology in coastal areas. The paper reviews the main phenomena related to swell waves propagation that allow seabed morphology to be sensed. The linear dispersion is analysed and an error budget model is developed to assess the achievable depth accuracy when Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are used. The relevant issues and potentials of swell-based bathymetry by SAR are identified and discussed. This technique is of particular interest for characteristic regions of the Mediterranean Sea, such as in gulfs and relatively close areas, where traditional SAR-based bathymetric techniques, relying on strong tidal currents, are of limited practical utility. PMID:25789333

  20. Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sourcesof production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermalfield

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, B.; Vasco, D.W.

    2006-07-01

    We used synthetic aperture radar interferograms to imageground subsidence that occurred over the Dixie Valley geothermal fieldduring different time intervals between 1992 and 1997. Linear elasticinversion of the subsidence that occurred between April, 1996 and March,1997 revealed that the dominant sources of deformation during this timeperiod were large changes in fluid volumes at shallow depths within thevalley fill above the reservoir. The distributions of subsidence andsubsurface volume change support a model in which reduction in pressureand volume of hot water discharging into the valley fill from localizedupflow along the Stillwater range frontal fault is caused by drawdownwithin the upflow zone resulting from geothermal production. Our resultsalso suggest that an additional source of fluid volume reduction in theshallow valley fill might be similar drawdown within piedmont faultzones. Shallow groundwater flow in the vicinity of the field appears tobe controlled on the NW by a mapped fault and to the SW by a lineament ofas yet unknown origin.

  1. Automatic Synthetic Aperture Radar based oil spill detection and performance estimation via a semi-automatic operational service benchmark.

    PubMed

    Singha, Suman; Vespe, Michele; Trieschmann, Olaf

    2013-08-15

    Today the health of ocean is in danger as it was never before mainly due to man-made pollutions. Operational activities show regular occurrence of accidental and deliberate oil spill in European waters. Since the areas covered by oil spills are usually large, satellite remote sensing particularly Synthetic Aperture Radar represents an effective option for operational oil spill detection. This paper describes the development of a fully automated approach for oil spill detection from SAR. Total of 41 feature parameters extracted from each segmented dark spot for oil spill and 'look-alike' classification and ranked according to their importance. The classification algorithm is based on a two-stage processing that combines classification tree analysis and fuzzy logic. An initial evaluation of this methodology on a large dataset has been carried out and degree of agreement between results from proposed algorithm and human analyst was estimated between 85% and 93% respectively for ENVISAT and RADARSAT. PMID:23790462

  2. Linear Dispersion Relation and Depth Sensitivity to Swell Parameters: Application to Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging and Bathymetry

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Valentina; Renga, Alfredo; Rufino, Giancarlo; D'Errico, Marco; Moccia, Antonio; Aragno, Cesare; Zoffoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Long gravity waves or swell dominating the sea surface is known to be very useful to estimate seabed morphology in coastal areas. The paper reviews the main phenomena related to swell waves propagation that allow seabed morphology to be sensed. The linear dispersion is analysed and an error budget model is developed to assess the achievable depth accuracy when Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are used. The relevant issues and potentials of swell-based bathymetry by SAR are identified and discussed. This technique is of particular interest for characteristic regions of the Mediterranean Sea, such as in gulfs and relatively close areas, where traditional SAR-based bathymetric techniques, relying on strong tidal currents, are of limited practical utility. PMID:25789333

  3. Reservoir monitoring and characterization using satellite geodetic data: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations from the Krechba field, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Deformation in the material overlying an active reservoir is used to monitor pressure change at depth. A sequence of pressure field estimates, eleven in all, allow us to construct a measure of diffusive travel time throughout the reservoir. The dense distribution of travel time values means that we can construct an exactly linear inverse problem for reservoir flow properties. Application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data gathered over a CO{sub 2} injection in Algeria reveals pressure propagation along two northwest trending corridors. An inversion of the travel times indicates the existence of two northwest-trending high permeability zones. The high permeability features trend in the same direction as the regional fault and fracture zones. Model parameter resolution estimates indicate that the features are well resolved.

  4. Inshore ship detection using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar images based on maximally stable extremal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingping; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongyu; Yuan, Naichang

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for detecting inshore ships using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The method first applies preprocessing steps to obtain the solving region of an SAR image, suitable for the berthing rules. Then the ship candidates are extracted based on a maximally stable extremal region detector, while ship detection is applied using an improved constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detector. Finally, based on discrimination processing, false alarms are removed according to compactness, therefore the ultimate detection result is obtained without interference from strong terrestrial clutter or man-made objects. Experimental results show that this method could achieve effective detection of ships in harbors using high-resolution SAR images. This method can reduce the required computation time by 99.7%, compared with the traditional CFAR method.

  5. Review of the NASA\\/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunling Lou

    2002-01-01

    AIRSAR has served as a test-bed for both imaging radar techniques and radar technologies for over a decade. In fact, the polarimetric, cross-track interferometric, and along-track interferometric radar techniques were all developed using AIRSAR. We present the up-to-date system configuration, the expected performance and data accuracy in the standard radar modes.

  6. Backward propagation image reconstruction techniques for bistatic synthetic-aperture radar imaging systems with circular-aperture configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Lockwood; Andrew Brown; Hua Lee

    2001-01-01

    Backward propagation has been an effective algorithm for high-resolution image formation in many applications. In the past, the implementation of this technique has been limited to the configurations of linear and planar aperture arrays. This paper presents the conversion to the circular-aperture configurations and demonstrates the capability of the algorithm in monostatic and bistatic imaging modes

  7. Retrieval and Evaluation of Wind Vectors and Advective Surface Velocities from Synthetic Aperture Radar and Infrared Radiometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif E. B.

    Analysis of ocean surface dynamics has been proven to be of vital importance in many areas (e.g. shipping, fishing). Two important parameters to describe the ocean dynamics are the wind velocity (speed and direction) and advective surface velocities (ocean current velocity). These parameters are currently provided operationally by forecast models, surface sensors (e.g. buoys, coastal radar) and satellite sensors. However, coverage limitations, low resolution and limited temporal availability impose a need for implementation and evaluation of new data sources and techniques for estimation of these parameters. In this paper we implement and evaluate known techniques for determination of wind and ocean current velocity from satellite data. Wind is determined from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data by applying two algo-rithms. First, the Local Gradient method is implemented to extract wind direction from the SAR data, and then the CMOD-5 Geophysical Model Function of the backscatter is inverted to obtain the wind speed as a function of the wind direction and the incidence angle. Current propagation is estimated by analyzing the Sea Surface Temperature propagation in two consec-utive infrared images of the same area from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The evaluation shows a good agreement between estimated wind vectors from SAR and scat-terometer data. Comparison with merged ocean current estimates is addressed. The methods will be implemented in the maritime security service provided by the SECTRONIC project funded by the EU 7th framework program.

  8. Seasonal sea ice melt pond fraction and pond freezing estimation using dual-polarisation C-band synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharien, R. K.; Landy, J.; Howell, S.; Warner, K.; Barber, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Sea ice melt ponds play an important role in spring-summer radiation absorption and upper ocean warming, light transmittance and under-ice primary production, and biogeochemical exchanges. With a larger portion of Arctic first-year sea ice (FYI) compared to multiyear ice observed in recent years comes the expectation of greater melt pond fraction due to the absence of topographical controls on FYI. Despite progress in our understanding and modelling of pond fraction evolution and coupled processes at the local scale, a reliable means for monitoring variations at regional or greater scales, uninhibited by cloud cover, is lacking. In this study we demonstrate the ability of dual-polarisation C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for estimating pond fraction and freezing conditions on level FYI in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We use a combination of in situ C-band scatterometer and radar-scale surface roughness observations to study the dual-polarisation channel (VV+HH and HV+HH) and channel ratio characteristics of individual melt ponds and ice patches. Aerial surveys of pond fraction are used to evaluate retrieval approaches from Radarsat-2 SAR fine quad-polarisation mode imagery. Accurate retrievals of pond fraction are found using the VV/HH polarisation ratio during melting conditions. Results demonstrate the potential of dual-polarisation SAR for regional scale observations with temporal frequency suitable for contributing to process-scale studies and improvements to model parameterizations.

  9. Tracking lava flow emplacement on the east rift zone of Kilauea, Hawai’i with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietterich, Hannah R.; Poland, Michael P.; Schmidt, David; Cashman, Katharine V.; Sherrod, David R.; Espinosa, Arkin Tapia

    2012-01-01

    Lava flow mapping is both an essential component of volcano monitoring and a valuable tool for investigating lava flow behavior. Although maps are traditionally created through field surveys, remote sensing allows an extraordinary view of active lava flows while avoiding the difficulties of mapping on location. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, in particular, can detect changes in a flow field by comparing two images collected at different times with SAR coherence. New lava flows radically alter the scattering properties of the surface, making the radar signal decorrelated in SAR coherence images. We describe a new technique, SAR Coherence Mapping (SCM), to map lava flows automatically from coherence images independent of look angle or satellite path. We use this approach to map lava flow emplacement during the Pu‘u ‘?‘?-Kupaianaha eruption at K?lauea, Hawai‘i. The resulting flow maps correspond well with field mapping and better resolve the internal structure of surface flows, as well as the locations of active flow paths. However, the SCM technique is only moderately successful at mapping flows that enter vegetation, which is also often decorrelated between successive SAR images. Along with measurements of planform morphology, we are able to show that the length of time a flow stays decorrelated after initial emplacement is linearly related to the flow thickness. Finally, we use interferograms obtained after flow surfaces become correlated to show that persistent decorrelation is caused by post-emplacement flow subsidence.

  10. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar study of the Tsaoling landslide generated by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuchlewski, Kristina R.; Weissel, Jeffrey K.; Kim, Yunjin

    2003-12-01

    We employ L-band airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) polarimetry to detect surface changes produced by the Tsaoling landslide, the largest slope failure triggered by the September 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. Imaging polarimeters provide a complete description of the scattering properties of radar target materials. Resurfacing of forested hillslopes by landslides alters scattering mechanisms from those dominated by backscatter from trees to mechanisms associated with scatter from rough, bare surfaces. Scattering mechanism information on a per-pixel basis is extracted by decomposing matrices formed as the outer product of the complex scattering vector measured for each resolution cell. We classify surface cover type and thereby identify the extent of the landslide, using such polarimetric parameters as scattering entropy, anisotropy, and pedestal height, derived from the eigenvalues of the decomposition, as well as the weighted average scattering mechanism derived from the eigenvectors. We address the utility of full polarimetry versus dual polarimetry for landslide mapping purposes and show that fully polarimetric SAR is necessary for distinguishing water surfaces of varying roughness from the bare surfaces created by landsliding. We show that scattering entropy and average scattering mechanism, for example, can be used to identify the Tsaoling landslide source, run out area and impounded lakes as proficiently as maps obtained using satellite optical sensors, such as Landsat and the Indian Research Satellite. However, the operational advantages of radar over optical sensing techniques (namely, its day-night, all-weather data acquisition capability) suggest that SAR polarimetry could play a leading role in the rapid assessment of landslide disasters.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF BASIC SCATTERING MECHANISMS USING LABORATORY BASED POLARIMETRIC SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR IMAGING

    E-print Network

    Kerekes, John

    scattering is the back scatter return from a smooth surface which usually appears dark in the radar image with an adjacent vertical surface. In this case, major portion of the transmitted energy is back scattered towards waveform radar with RF power around 1W, maximum range of 3000ft, signal bandwidth 80MHz. System parameters

  12. Experiments for ultra-wideband imaging radar with one-dimentional Synthetic Aperture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daeman Kim; Shangyoual Shin

    2011-01-01

    The experiments to acquire the basic data of the ultrawideband radar have been performed. In the experiments, targets are located at the back of the extruded polystyrene foam (Styrofoam) wall, and the antenna is scanned over the Styrofoam wall at the constant distance while the responses are recorded. For the experiments, the ultra-wideband radar consists of an oscilloscope, an impulse

  13. Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing for High-Resolution Lunar Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harcke, Leif; Weintraub, Lawrence; Yun, Sang-Ho; Dickinson, Richard; Gurrola, Eric; Hensley, Scott; Marechal, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    During the 2008-2009 year, the Goldstone Solar System Radar was upgraded to support radar mapping of the lunar poles at 4 m resolution. The finer resolution of the new system and the accompanying migration through resolution cells called for spotlight, rather than delay-Doppler, imaging techniques. A new pre-processing system supports fast-time Doppler removal and motion compensation to a point. Two spotlight imaging techniques which compensate for phase errors due to i) out of focus-plane motion of the radar and ii) local topography, have been implemented and tested. One is based on the polar format algorithm followed by a unique autofocus technique, the other is a full bistatic time-domain backprojection technique. The processing system yields imagery of the specified resolution. Products enabled by this new system include topographic mapping through radar interferometry, and change detection techniques (amplitude and coherent change) for geolocation of the NASA LCROSS mission impact site.

  14. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) for Fine-resolution Basal Ice Sheet Imaging

    E-print Network

    Blake, William Arthur

    2010-08-31

    by the MCRDS radar around the NEEM drill site. Reflectivity maps were generated leading to the possibility of extracting useful basal composition data. Extraction of basal composition information was examined including estimating the roughness of basal...

  15. Robust recovery of synthetic aperture radar data from uniformly under-sampled measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lam H. Nguyen; Trac D. Tran

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel robust sparse-recovery technique that allows sub-Nyquist uniform under-sampling of wide-bandwidth radar data in real time (single observation). Although much of the information is lost in the received signal due to the low sampling rate, we hypothesize that each widebandwidth radar data record can be modeled as a superposition of many backscattered signals from

  16. Synthetic aperture wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bará, Salvador; Arines, Justo; Pailos, Eliseo

    2014-06-01

    We propose the synthetic aperture wavefront sensing approach. It is based on acquiring several sets of measurements of the wavefront slopes by displacing sequentially the microlens array with respect to the unknown wavefront. These measurements are stacked together and processed as if obtained with a single-sampling array with an effective number of subpupils equal to the product of the number of microlenses by the number of displacements. We analyze and compare the performance of this approach with the method of modal coefficient averaging. The comparison is made in terms of the squared wavefront reconstruction error, spatially averaged over the pupil and statistically averaged over the noise and the aberrations of the population. We focused our attention on its applications to eye aberrometry. Our numerical results were obtained for a population statistics consistent with a wide sample of young adult eyes using different sampling grids and with several signal-to-noise ratios. They indicate that the synthetic aperture wavefront sensing is affected by less bias and noise propagation than the averaging method, providing smaller mean-squared estimation error. The number of complete Zernike radial orders that can be estimated using the synthetic aperture approach is consistently higher than that allowed by the conventional method.

  17. SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar). Earth observing system. Volume 2F: Instrument panel report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The scientific and engineering requirements for the Earth Observing System (EOS) imaging radar are provided. The radar is based on Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C), and would include three frequencies: 1.25 GHz, 5.3 GHz, and 9.6 GHz; selectable polarizations for both transmit and receive channels; and selectable incidence angles from 15 to 55 deg. There would be three main viewing modes: a local high-resolution mode with typically 25 m resolution and 50 km swath width; a regional mapping mode with 100 m resolution and up to 200 km swath width; and a global mapping mode with typically 500 m resolution and up to 700 km swath width. The last mode allows global coverage in three days. The EOS SAR will be the first orbital imaging radar to provide multifrequency, multipolarization, multiple incidence angle observations of the entire Earth. Combined with Canadian and Japanese satellites, continuous radar observation capability will be possible. Major applications in the areas of glaciology, hydrology, vegetation science, oceanography, geology, and data and information systems are described.

  18. Automatic position calculating imaging radar with low-cost synthetic aperture sensor for imaging layered media

    DOEpatents

    Mast, Jeffrey E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system for analyzing structures comprises a radar transmitter and receiver connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitter and receiver are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receiver are moved about the surface to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes.

  19. Automatic position calculating imaging radar with low-cost synthetic aperture sensor for imaging layered media

    DOEpatents

    Mast, J.E.

    1998-08-18

    An imaging system for analyzing structures comprises a radar transmitter and receiver connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitter and receiver are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receiver are moved about the surface to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes. 10 figs.

  20. Melt ponds on sea ice in the Canadian Archipelago 2. On the use of RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar for geophysical inversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Yackel; D. G. Barber

    2000-01-01

    Microwave scattering from a first-year sea ice (FYI) melt ponded surface is examined using RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected during the 1997 Collaborative-Interdisciplinary Cryospheric Experiment (C-ICE'97) near Resolute Bay, Nunavut. This paper (1) investigates the utility of time series of microwave scattering to detect melt pond formation and (2) investigates approaches toward geophysically inverting information on the physical

  1. Assessment of ERS synthetic aperture radar wave spectra retrieved from the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) scheme through intercomparisons of 1 year of directional buoy measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Violante-Carvalho; I. S. Robinson; J. Schulz-Stellenfleth

    2005-01-01

    One year of directional buoy measurements comprising the period from May 1994 to April 1995 acquired in deep ocean waters by an offshore heave-pitch-roll buoy are used for the assessment of the directional wave spectra retrieved from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images using the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) scheme. SAR is the only sensor so far deployed from satellites that can provide

  2. On the retrieval of significant wave heights from spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar using the Max-Planck Institut algorithm.

    PubMed

    Violante-Carvalho, Nelson

    2005-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) onboard satellites is the only source of directional wave spectra with continuous and global coverage. Millions of SAR Wave Mode (SWM) imagettes have been acquired since the launch in the early 1990's of the first European Remote Sensing Satellite ERS-1 and its successors ERS-2 and ENVISAT, which has opened up many possibilities specially for wave data assimilation purposes. The main aim of data assimilation is to improve the forecasting introducing available observations into the modeling procedures in order to minimize the differences between model estimates and measurements. However there are limitations in the retrieval of the directional spectrum from SAR images due to nonlinearities in the mapping mechanism. The Max-Planck Institut (MPI) scheme, the first proposed and most widely used algorithm to retrieve directional wave spectra from SAR images, is employed to compare significant wave heights retrieved from ERS-1 SAR against buoy measurements and against the WAM wave model. It is shown that for periods shorter than 12 seconds the WAM model performs better than the MPI, despite the fact that the model is used as first guess to the MPI method, that is the retrieval is deteriorating the first guess. For periods longer than 12 seconds, the part of the spectrum that is directly measured by SAR, the performance of the MPI scheme is at least as good as the WAM model. PMID:16341447

  3. Inversion of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferograms for Sources of Production-Related Subsidence at the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W; Vasco, D

    2003-02-07

    We used synthetic aperture radar interferograms to image ground subsidence that occurred over the Dixie Valley geothermal field during different time intervals between 1992 and 1997. Linear elastic inversion of the subsidence that occurred between April, 1996 and March, 1997 revealed that the dominant sources of deformation during this time period were large changes in fluid volumes at shallow depths within the valley fill above the reservoir. The distributions of subsidence and subsurface volume change support a model in which reduction in pressure and volume of hot water discharging into the valley fill from localized upflow along the Stillwater range frontal fault is caused by drawdown within the upflow zone resulting from geothermal production. Our results also suggest that an additional source of fluid volume reduction in the shallow valley fill might be similar drawdown within piedmont fault zones. Shallow groundwater flow in the vicinity of the field appears to be controlled on the NW by a mapped fault and to the SW by a lineament of as yet unknown origin.

  4. Small-scale deformations associated with the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake mapped by synthetic aperture radar interferometry phase gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Evelyn J.; Sandwell, David T.

    1998-11-01

    The Landers earthquake (Mw 7.3) occurred on June 28, 1992, and ruptured nearly 100 km of previously mapped and unmapped faults in the Mojave Desert. We use synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) to examine the cumulative surface deformation between April 24 and August 7, 1992, in a 100 × 100 km region surrounding the northern portion of the earthquake rupture. Also, we introduce a technique for manipulating SAR interferograms to extract short-wavelength displacement information. This technique involves computation and subsequent combination of interferometric phase gradient maps. The InSAR results show significant deformation signatures associated with faults, fractures, dry lake beds, and mountainous regions within 75-100 km of the main rupture. Using the phase gradient method, we are able to extract small-scale deformation patterns near the main rupture. Many of the preexisting, mapped faults within 50 km of the main rupture experienced triggered slip; these include the Old Woman, Lenwood, Johnson Valley, West Calico, and Calico Faults. The InSAR results also indicate right-lateral offsets along secondary fractures trending N-NE within the left-lateral zone of shear between the main rupture and the Johnson Valley Fault. Additionally, there are interesting interferogram fringe signatures surrounding Troy Dry Lake and Coyote Dry Lake that are related to deformation of dry lake beds.

  5. Assessing short- and long-time displacements in the Venice coastland by synthetic aperture radar interferometric point target analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Strozzi, Tazio; Tosi, Luigi; Wegmüller, Urs; Werner, Charles; Carbognin, Laura

    2007-03-01

    The Venice Lagoon in Italy is a unique environment vulnerable to loss in surface elevation relative to the mean sea level. We present detailed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometric analyses on persistent point targets for the historical center of Venice, the tourist area of Sottomarina, and the Zennare farmland close to the southern lagoon edge. The selected areas are characterized by different degrees of development and our analyses show the remarkable capability of SAR Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA) to map land displacement rates in densely urbanized zones and to detect movement information on isolated structures with a mm/year accuracy. A detailed analysis of the time series from 1992 to 2000 provided by IPTA shows that the vertical component of the measured displacements are the superposition of a short timescale, generally seasonal, movement on the order of 1 cm that is likely related to the fluctuation of environmental variables (temperature, piezometric head in the aquifer system underlying the lagoon, sea/lagoon water level) and a long-term ground deformation associated with building construction, the geomorphology of the area, and the human development of natural resources. If Venice is confirmed to be generally stable, significant long-term subsidence on the order of 4 mm/year is detected at the Sottomarina coastland. The highest displacement rates, of up to 8-10 mm/year, are recorded in the farmland bounding the lagoon margin where the movements are found to be highly site-specific.

  6. Forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using general model-based decomposition for polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, Nghia Pham; Zou, Bin; Cai, Hongjun; Wang, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of forest parameters over mountain forest areas using polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PolInSAR) images is one of the greatest interests in remote sensing applications. For mountain forest areas, scattering mechanisms are strongly affected by the ground topography variations. Most of the previous studies in modeling microwave backscattering signatures of forest area have been carried out over relatively flat areas. Therefore, a new algorithm for the forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using the general model-based decomposition (GMBD) for PolInSAR image is proposed. This algorithm enables the retrieval of not only the forest parameters, but also the magnitude associated with each mechanism. In addition, general double- and single-bounce scattering models are proposed to fit for the cross-polarization and off-diagonal term by separating their independent orientation angle, which remains unachieved in the previous model-based decompositions. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated with simulated data from PolSARProSim software and ALOS-PALSAR spaceborne PolInSAR datasets over the Kalimantan areas, Indonesia. Experimental results indicate that forest height could be effectively estimated by GMBD.

  7. Off-line processing of ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar data with high precision and high throughput

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gredel, J.; Markwitz, W.; Noack, W.; Schreier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The first European remote sensing satellite ERS-1 will be launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 1989. The expected lifetime is two to three years. The spacecraft sensors will primarily support ocean investigations and to a limited extent also land applications. Prime sensor is the Active Microwave Instrumentation (AMI) operating in C-Band either as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or as Wave-Scatterometer and simultaneously as Wind-Scatterometer. In Europe there will be two distinct types of processing for ERS-1 SAR data, Fast Delivery Processing and Precision Processing. Fast Delivery Proceessing will be carried out at the ground stations and up to three Fast Delivery products per pass will be delivered to end users via satellite within three hours after data acquisition. Precision Processing will be carried out in delayed time and products will not be generated until several days or weeks after data acquisition. However, a wide range of products will be generated by several Processing and Archiving Facilities (PAF) in a joint effort coordinated by ESA. The German Remote Sensing Data Center (Deutsches Fernerkundungsdatenzentrum DFD) will develop and operate one of these facilities. The related activities include the acquisition, processing and evaluation of such data for scientific, public and commercial users. Based on this experience the German Remote Sensing Data Center is presently performing a Phase-B study regarding the development of a SAR processor for ERS-1. The conceptual design of this processing facility is briefly outlined.

  8. Patterns of irrigated rice growth and malaria vector breeding in Mali using multi-temporal ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar

    PubMed Central

    Diuk-Wasser, M. A.; Dolo, G.; Bagayoko, M.; Sogoba, N.; Toure, M. B.; Moghaddam, M.; Manoukis, N.; Rian, S.; Traore, S. F.; Taylor, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the use of the European Remote Sensing Satellite 2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (ERS-2 SAR) to trace the development of rice plants in an irrigated area near Niono, Mali and relate that to the density of anopheline mosquitoes, especially An. gambiae. This is important because such mosquitoes are the major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, and their development is often coupled to the cycle of rice development. We collected larval samples, mapped rice fields using GPS and recorded rice growth stages simultaneously with eight ERS-2 SAR acquisitions. We were able to discriminate among rice growth stages using ERS-2 SAR backscatter data, especially among the early stages of rice growth, which produce the largest numbers of larvae. We could also distinguish between basins that produced high and low numbers of anophelines within the stage of peak production. After the peak, larval numbers dropped as rice plants grew taller and thicker, reducing the amount of light reaching the water surface. ERS-2 SAR backscatter increased concomitantly. Our data support the belief that ERS-2 SAR data may be helpful for mapping the spatial patterns of rice growth, distinguishing different agricultural practices, and monitoring the abundance of vectors in nearby villages. PMID:17710188

  9. Atmospheric corrections in interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation - a case study of the city of Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbarani, S.; Euillades, P. A.; Euillades, L. D.; Casu, F.; Riveros, N. C.

    2013-09-01

    Differential interferometry is a remote sensing technique that allows studying crustal deformation produced by several phenomena like earthquakes, landslides, land subsidence and volcanic eruptions. Advanced techniques, like small baseline subsets (SBAS), exploit series of images acquired by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors during a given time span. Phase propagation delay in the atmosphere is the main systematic error of interferometric SAR measurements. It affects differently images acquired at different days or even at different hours of the same day. So, datasets acquired during the same time span from different sensors (or sensor configuration) often give diverging results. Here we processed two datasets acquired from June 2010 to December 2011 by COSMO-SkyMed satellites. One of them is HH-polarized, and the other one is VV-polarized and acquired on different days. As expected, time series computed from these datasets show differences. We attributed them to non-compensated atmospheric artifacts and tried to correct them by using ERA-Interim global atmospheric model (GAM) data. With this method, we were able to correct less than 50% of the scenes, considering an area where no phase unwrapping errors were detected. We conclude that GAM-based corrections are not enough for explaining differences in computed time series, at least in the processed area of interest. We remark that no direct meteorological data for the GAM-based corrections were employed. Further research is needed in order to understand under what conditions this kind of data can be used.

  10. Synthetic aperture radar imagery of airports and surrounding areas: Study of clutter at grazing angles and their polarimetric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, Robert G.; Gineris, Denise J.; Clinthorne, James T.

    1991-01-01

    The statistical description of ground clutter at an airport and in the surrounding area is addressed. These data are being utilized in a program to detect microbursts. Synthetic aperture radar data were collected at the Denver Stapleton Airport. Mountain terrain data were examined to determine if they may potentially contribute to range ambiguity problems and degrade microburst detection. Results suggest that mountain clutter may not present a special problem source. The examination of clutter at small grazing angles was continued by examining data collected at especially low altitudes. Cultural objects such as buildings produce strong sources of backscatter at angles of about 85 deg, with responses of 30 dB to 60 dB above the background. Otherwise there are a few sources which produce significant scatter. The polarization properties of hydrospheres and clutter were examined with the intent of determining the optimum polarization. This polarization was determined to be dependent upon the ratio of VV and HH polarizations of both rain and ground clutter.

  11. Range ambiguity suppression for multiple-input, multiple-output synthetic aperture radar system using azimuth phase coding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Robert; Deng, Yunkai; Wang, Wei; Luo, Xiulian

    2014-01-01

    For synthetic aperture radar (SAR), range ambiguity causes a great deterioration in imaging performance. To suppress range ambiguity, the azimuth phase coding (APC) technique stands out for its effectiveness with a low implementation complexity among the available approaches. With proper phase modulation and demodulation, the position of an ambiguous signal is shifted in Doppler spectrum and then part of the ambiguity can be filtered out by an azimuth filter. However, since the suppression performance heavily depends on the system oversampling rate, the APC technique cannot achieve the same suppression performance for a multichannel SAR system compared with a single-channel SAR system. A method to suppress the range ambiguity for multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) SAR system based on APC technique is presented. By taking advantage of more phase centers of the MIMO SAR, a proper azimuth beamformer weight vector can be computed to null out the ambiguity position in the azimuth frequency domain and reconstruct the useful signal; thus most of the ambiguity components can be significantly suppressed. Finally, the simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Focused synthetic aperture radar processing of ice-sounder data collected over the Greenland ice sheet

    E-print Network

    Legarsky, J.; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Akins, T. L.

    2001-10-01

    for landmine detection, and radar sounding of the glacial ice sheets. From 1999 to 2000, he was with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, where he worked in the Radar Science and Engineering Section. He was involved... echoes from the bottom as well as from layers near the bedrock over the new European deep drill site [13], many outlet glaciers [14], and a hill (we detected it under the ice sheet) in north-central Greenland [15]. 0196-2892/01$10.00 ? 2001 IEEE 2110 IEEE...

  13. Data-Level Fusion of Multilook Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhixi Li; Scott Papson; Ram M. Narayanan

    2008-01-01

    Although techniques for resolution enhancement in single-aspect radar imaging have made rapid progress in recent years, it does not necessarily imply that such enhanced images will improve target identification or recognition. However, when multiple looks of the same target from different aspects are obtained, the available knowledge increases, allowing more useful target information to be extracted. Physics-based image fusion techniques

  14. Data Level Fusion of Multilook Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhixi Li; Ram M. Narayanan

    2006-01-01

    Although techniques for resolution enhancement in single-aspect radar imaging have made rapid progress in recent years, it does not necessarily imply that such enhanced images will improve target identification or recognition. However, when multiple looks of the same target from different aspects are obtained, the available knowledge base increases allowing more useful target information to be extracted. Physics based image

  15. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Response to Lowland Vegetation Types in Eastern Maryland and Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dennis Krohn; N. M. Milton; Donald B. Segal

    1983-01-01

    Examination of SEASAT SAR images of eastern Maryland and Virginia reveals botanical distinctions between vegetated lowland areas and adjacent upland areas. Radar returns from the lowland areas can be either brighter or darker than returns from the upland forests. Scattering models and scatterometer measurements predict an increase of 6 dB in backscatter from vegetation over standing water. This agrees with

  16. Feasibility study of the space synthetic aperture radar for the SSETI-ESMO project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartosz Dawidowicz; Krzysztof Kulpa

    The following paper presents the analysis of the feasibility study of the SAR radar for lunar space missions. The European Students Moon Orbiter (ESMO) project is con- ducted by the Students Space Exploration and Technology Initiative (SSETI) association. The phase A of this project is supported by the European Space Agency (ESA).

  17. Dismount modeling and detection from small aperture moving radar platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Hersey; W. L. Melvin; E. Culpepper

    2008-01-01

    Future advanced radar systems must detect targets of diminishing radar cross section (RCS) at low radial velocity, in demanding clutter and interference environments. Presently, a deficiency in radar detection performance exists between the capabilities of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for fixed target indication and space-time adaptive processing (STAP) for ground moving target indication (GMTI) of targets with low ground track

  18. Interferometric Baseline Performance Estimations for Multistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar Configurations Derived from GRACE GPS Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Kohlhase; R. Kroes; S. D’Amico

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of global positioning system (GPS) receivers for relative positioning of formation-flying satellites using dual-frequency carrier-phase observations. The accurate determination of distances or baselines between satellites flying in formation can provide significant benefits to a wide area of geodetic studies. For spaceborne radar interferometry in particular, such measurements will improve the accuracy of interferometric products

  19. Modeling surface deformation observed with synthetic aperture radar interferometry at Campi Flegrei caldera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lundgren; S. Usai; E. Sansosti; R. Lanari; M. Tesauro; G. Fornaro; P. Berardino

    2001-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry of Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, reveals a pattern of subsidence during the period 1993-1998. Interferograms spanning the first half of the observation period (1993-1995) have a lower amplitude and average rate of subsidence than those spanning either the second half (1995-1998) or the entire period (1993-1998), consistent with observations of a slowing down or reversal of subsidence

  20. 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging of the Interior of the Cometary Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim, Y.; Heggy, E.; Arumugam, D.; Wu, X.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    A capability of constructing the primitive body's interior structure such as the cometary nucleus is the key to the successful realization of a future three-dimensional (3D) mapping mission using a long-wavelength (20-60 meters) penetrating radar system. Discontinuities in the material density and/or composition at the surface and deep interior reflect a small amount of incoming electro-magnetic waves back to the orbiting radar system that records amplitudes and travel times (or phases). By coherently processing the phase information collected from different viewing angles at different times, we would like to show that we could build 3D internal structural and compositional images, and thereby provide crucial information about the origin and evolution of the cometary nucleus. Here, we will report our efforts on the high-fidelity electromagnetic (E&M) forward modeling, comet modeling related to Rosetta experiments, and validation of a radar reflection tomographic imaging technique. We have developed innovative techniques to reduce numerical errors in the E&M modeling, allowing us to simulate data collection in a realistic environment while significantly reducing spurious effects caused by numerical errors or imperfect matching layers surrounding the simulation scene. For comet modeling, we have used models developed for radar sounding experiments on Rosetta comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. These models are driven from various scientific hypothesis and lab measurements of cometary materials. For an imaging algorithm, we have used a proven SAR technique after taking into account the slowness of light inside the comet and refraction (ray-bending) at the comet surface. We have successfully imaged 2D cross-sectional images of various comet models and will pursuit 3D simulation and imaging reconstruction in the near future.

  1. The derivation of sub-canopy surface terrain models of coastal forests using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Gesch, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    Radar data acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B mission covering a portion of the Mouths of the Ganges forests were used to create a terrain model for use in determining tidal flow and eventual nutrient transport from the forest to the marine habitat. Results show that good digital topographic terrain models of wet coastal forests can be generated using multiple sets of L-band SAR and ancillary tide elevation data. The dominance of the interaction phenomenon in the radar backscatter of flooded forests can be used to create sub-canopy inundation maps which when merged with tide surface data can be used to generate reasonable topographic models. Ideally models could be improved by using multiple sets of data at a constant incidence angle over the total tide range. The optimal angle for the SAR depends upon the characteristics of the forest. The range of 46 to 57 deg seems applicable to the 12.5 m tall closed canopy in this example. Such models can be an extremely valuable tool for studying and mapping the mangal ecosystem.

  2. 1290 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 19, NO. 5, MAY 2010 Multistatic Synthetic Aperture

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    , Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--In this paper, we consider a multistatic synthetic aper- ture radar (SAR, multistatic, radar, synthetic aperture imagery (SAR). I. INTRODUCTION I N synthetic aperture radar (SAR from clutter [31]. Both bistatic and multistatic radar systems have received in- creased atte

  3. BISTATIC SYNTHETIC APERTURE HITCHHIKER IMAGING Can Evren Yarman1

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    BISTATIC SYNTHETIC APERTURE HITCHHIKER IMAGING Can Evren Yarman1 , Birsen Yaz c 1 , Margaret Cheney Department, 2 Department of Mathematical Sciences ABSTRACT We introduce a new bistatic synthetic of opportunity. Index Terms-- Bistatic synthetic aperture radar, correlation l- tering, tomography, ltered

  4. Maximum a posteriori classification of multifrequency, multilook, synthetic aperture radar intensity data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Chellappa, R.

    1993-01-01

    We present a maximum a posteriori (MAP) classifier for classifying multifrequency, multilook, single polarization SAR intensity data into regions or ensembles of pixels of homogeneous and similar radar backscatter characteristics. A model for the prior joint distribution of the multifrequency SAR intensity data is combined with a Markov random field for representing the interactions between region labels to obtain an expression for the posterior distribution of the region labels given the multifrequency SAR observations. The maximization of the posterior distribution yields Bayes's optimum region labeling or classification of the SAR data or its MAP estimate. The performance of the MAP classifier is evaluated by using computer-simulated multilook SAR intensity data as a function of the parameters in the classification process. Multilook SAR intensity data are shown to yield higher classification accuracies than one-look SAR complex amplitude data. The MAP classifier is extended to the case in which the radar backscatter from the remotely sensed surface varies within the SAR image because of incidence angle effects. The results obtained illustrate the practicality of the method for combining SAR intensity observations acquired at two different frequencies and for improving classification accuracy of SAR data.

  5. The evolution of synthetic aperture radar systems and their progression to the EOS SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Jobea; Smith, Elizabeth A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the evolution of the spaceborne imaging radar starting with the Seasat SAR, through the SIR-A, SIR-B, and SIR-C/X-SAR missions, to the Earth Observing System (EOS) SAR which is scheduled for launch as part of EOS in the late 1990s. A summary of the planned international missions, which may produce a permanent active microwave capability in space starting as early as 1991, is also presented, along with a description of the airborne systems which will be essential to the algorithm development and long-term calibration of the spaceborne data. A brief summary of the planetary missions utilizing SAR and a comparison of their imaging capabilities with those available on Earth are presented.

  6. Synthetic aperture microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    Realizing the full potential of microwave remote sensing from space requires putting relatively large antennas in orbit. Research is being conducted to develop synthetic aperture antennas to reduce the physical collecting area required of sensors in space, and to possibly open the door to new applications of microwave remote sensing. The technique under investigation involves using a correlation interferometer with multiple baselines. The Microwave Sensors and Data Collection Branch has been engaged in research to develop this technique for applications to remote sensing of soil moisture from space. Soil moisture is important for agricultural applications and for understanding the global hydrologic cycle. An aircraft prototype of an instrument suitable for making such measurements was developed. This is an L-band radiometer called ESTAR which is hoped will become part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). ESTAR is a hybrid instrument which uses both real aperture antennas (long sticks to obtain resolution in the along-track dimension) and aperture synthesis (correlation between sticks to obtain resolution in the cross track dimension). The hybrid was chosen as a compromise to increase the sensitivity (T) of the instrument.

  7. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar study of Okmok volcano, Alaska, 1992-2003: Magma supply dynamics and postemplacement lava flow deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Masterlark, T.; Dzurisin, D.

    2005-01-01

    Okmok volcano, located in the central Aleutian arc, Alaska, is a dominantly basaltic complex topped with a 10-km-wide caldera that formed circa 2.05 ka. Okmok erupted several times during the 20th century, most recently in 1997; eruptions in 1945, 1958, and 1997 produced lava flows within the caldera. We used 80 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images (interferograms) to study transient deformation of the volcano before, during, and after the 1997 eruption. Point source models suggest that a magma reservoir at a depth of 3.2 km below sea level, located beneath the center of the caldera and about 5 km northeast of the 1997 vent, is responsible for observed volcano-wide deformation. The preeruption uplift rate decreased from about 10 cm yr-1 during 1992-1993 to 2 ??? 3 cm yr-1 during 1993-1995 and then to about -1 ??? -2 cm yr-1 during 1995-1996. The posteruption inflation rate generally decreased with time during 1997-2001, but increased significantly during 2001-2003. By the summer of 2003, 30 ??? 60% of the magma volume lost from the reservoir in the 1997 eruption had been replenished. Interferograms for periods before the 1997 eruption indicate consistent subsidence of the surface of the 1958 lava flows, most likely due to thermal contraction. Interferograms for periods after the eruption suggest at least four distinct deformation processes: (1) volcano-wide inflation due to replenishment of the shallow magma reservoir, (2) subsidence of the 1997 lava flows, most likely due to thermal contraction, (3) deformation of the 1958 lava flows due to loading by the 1997 flows, and (4) continuing subsidence of 1958 lava flows buried beneath 1997 flows. Our results provide insights into the postemplacement behavior of lava flows and have cautionary implications for the interpretation of inflation patterns at active volcanoes.

  8. Climate Change Indicator for Hazard Identification of Indian North West Coast Marine Environment Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (sar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambheer, Phani Raj

    2012-07-01

    Stormwater runoff, Petroleum Hydrocarbon plumes are found abundantly near coastal cities, coastal population settlements especially in developing nations as more than half the world's human population. Ever increasing coastal populations and development in coastal areas have led to increased loading of toxic substances, nutrients and pathogens. These hazards cause deleterious effects on the population in many ways directly or indirectly which lead to algal blooms, hypoxia, beach closures, and damage to coastal fisheries. Hence these pollution hazards are important and the coastal administrations and people need to be aware of such a danger lurking very close to them. These hazards due to their small size, dynamic and episodic in nature are difficult to be visualized or to sample using in-situ traditional scientific methods. Natural obstructions like cloud cover and complex coastal circulations can hinder to detect and monitor such occurrences in the selected areas chosen for observations. This study takes recourse to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery because the pollution hazards are easily detectable as surfactants are deposited on the sea surface, along with nutrients and pathogens, smoothing capillary and small gravity waves to produce areas of reduced backscatter compared with surrounding ocean. These black spots can be termed as `Ecologic Indicator' and formed probably due to stronger thermal stratification, a deepening event of thermocline. SAR imagery that delivers useful data better than others regardless of darkness or cloud cover, should be made as an important observational tool for assessment and monitoring marine pollution hazards in the areas close to coastal regions. Till now the effects of climate change, sea level rise and global warming seems to have not affected the coastal populace of India in intrusions of sea water but it takes significance to the human health as the tides dominate these latitudes with bringing these polluted waters. KEY WORDS Coastal, ecologic, estuarine, hazard, indicator, marine, pollution, stressor, tides

  9. Reconstructing 2-D/3-D Building Shapes from Spaceborne Tomographic Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, M.; Zhu, X. X.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present an approach that allows automatic (parametric) reconstruction of building shapes in 2-D/3-D using TomoSAR point clouds. These point clouds are generated by processing radar image stacks via advanced interferometric technique, called SAR tomography. The proposed approach reconstructs the building outline by exploiting both the available roof and façade information. Roof points are extracted out by employing a surface normals based region growing procedure via selected seed points while the extraction of façade points is based on thresholding the point scatterer density SD estimated by robust M-estimator. Spatial clustering is then applied to the extracted roof points in a way such that each roof cluster represents an individual building. Extracted façade points are reconstructed and afterwards incorporated to the segmented roof cluster to reconstruct the complete building shape. Initial building footprints are derived by employing alpha shapes method that are later regularized. Finally, rectilinear constraints are added to yield better geometrically looking building shapes. The proposed approach is illustrated and validated by examples using TomoSAR point clouds generated from a stack of TerraSAR-X high-resolution spotlight images from ascending orbit only covering two different test areas with one containing relatively smaller buildings in densely populated regions and the other containing moderate sized buildings in the city of Las Vegas.

  10. Synergy and fusion of optical and synthetic aperture radar satellite data for underwater topography estimation in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Lehner, Susanne; Heege, Thomas; Mott, Claudius

    2011-12-01

    A method to obtain underwater topography for coastal areas using state-of-the-art remote sensing data and techniques worldwide is presented. The data from the new Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite TerraSAR-X with high resolution up to 1 m are used to render the ocean waves. As bathymetry is reflected by long swell wave refraction governed by underwater structures in shallow areas, it can be derived using the dispersion relation from observed swell properties. To complete the bathymetric maps, optical satellite data of the QuickBird satellite are fused to map extreme shallow waters, e.g., in near-coast areas. The algorithms for bathymetry estimation from optical and SAR data are combined and integrated in order to cover different depth domains. Both techniques make use of different physical phenomena and mathematical treatment. The optical methods based on sunlight reflection analysis provide depths in shallow water up to 20 m in preferably calm weather conditions. The depth estimation from SAR is based on the observation of long waves and covers the areas between about 70- and 10-m water depths depending on sea state and acquisition quality. The depths in the range of 20 m up to 10 m represent the domain where the synergy of data from both sources arises. Thus, the results derived from SAR and optical sensors complement each other. In this study, a bathymetry map near Rottnest Island, Australia, is derived. QuickBird satellite optical data and radar data from TerraSAR-X have been used. The depths estimated are aligned on two different grids. The first one is a uniform rectangular mesh with a horizontal resolution of 150 m, which corresponds to an average swell wavelength observed in the 10 × 10-km SAR image acquired. The second mesh has a resolution of 150 m for depths up to 20 m (deeper domain covered by SAR-based technique) and 2.4 m resolution for the shallow domain imaged by an optical sensor. This new technique provides a platform for mapping of coastal bathymetry over a broad area on a scale that is relevant to marine planners, managers, and offshore industry.

  11. Mapping and Monitoring Boreal Wetlands within the NEESPI Domain Using Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar for Assessing Carbon Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon and methane emissions from wetlands and lakes can have a large impact on global climate. These ecosystems are dominant features in the northern high latitudes hence the importance of assessing their spatial and temporal extent to improve upon global net carbon exchange estimates. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an effective tool for this purpose since large inaccessible areas can be monitored on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination and it is sensitive to vegetation and standing water. We employ multi-temporal PALSAR data (L-band, 30 m resolution, HH and HV-polarizations) and combined QuikSCAT and AMSR-E in this study to map wetland distribution and inundation state within sub-regions of the NEESPI domain. These products are then used within a carbon modeling framework. Multi-temporal PALSAR data spanning the beginning of the seasonal non-frozen period through the end of summer has been assembled over selected hydrologic basins within the NEESPI domain. A decision tree classification approach is then used to classify the radar data. Supplementary data layers are used within the classifier in order to support generation of the results. These data layers include Landsat imagery, a DEM, a proximity to water data layer, and image texture. The classification results depicting wetland extent are used to assess bi-weekly landscape inundation products derived from coarse resolution (~25 km) AMSR-E and QuikSCAT. These products will provide information on wetland extent and inundation dynamics on a bi-weekly basis. The coarse and high-resolution products are then used to calibrate and validate a carbon-modeling framework. Examples of how the remote sensing products are used to calibrate and validate the modeling framework will be presented as well. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and at the University of Washington under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This work has been undertaken in part within the framework of the JAXA ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. ALOS PALSAR data have been provided by JAXA EORC.

  12. Development of a GPS-aided motion measurement, pointing, and stabilization system for a Synthetic Aperture Radar. [Global Positioning System (GPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, J.R.; Kohler, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Motion Compensation System has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The system includes a miniaturized high accuracy ring laser gyro inertial measurement unit, a three axis gimbal pointing and stabilization assembly, a differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation aiding system, and a pilot guidance system. The system provides several improvements over previous SNL motion compensation systems and is capable of antenna stabilization to less than 0.01 degrees RMS and absolute position measurement to less than 5.0 meters RMS. These accuracies have been demonstrated in recent flight testing aboard a DHC-6-300 Twin Otter'' aircraft.

  13. Automatic change detection in time series of Synthetic Aperture Radar data using a scale-driven approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    Automatic change detection and change classification from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is a difficult task mostly due to the high level of speckle noise inherent to SAR data and the highly non-Gaussian nature of the SAR amplitude information. Several approaches were developed in recent years to deal with SAR specific change detection problems from image pairs and time series of images. Despite these considerable efforts, no satisfying solution to this problem has been found so far. In this paper we present a promising new algorithm for change detection from SAR that is based on a multi-scale analysis of a times series of SAR images. Our approach is composed of three steps, including (1) data enhancement and filtering, (2) multi-scale change detection, and (3) time-series analysis of change detection maps. In the data enhancement and filtering step, we first form time-series of ratio images by dividing all SAR images by a reference acquisition to suppress stationary image information and enhance change signatures. Several methods for reference image selection will be discussed in the paper. The generated ratio images are further log-transformed to create near-Gaussian data and to convert the originally multiplicative noise into additive noise. A subsequent fast non-local mean filter is applied to reduce image noise whilst preserving most of the image details. The filtered log-ratio images are then inserted into a multi-scale change detection algorithm that is composed of: (1) a multi-scale decomposition of the input images using a two-dimensional discrete stationary wavelet transform (2D-SWT); (2) a multi-resolution classification into 'change' and 'no-change' areas; and (3) a scale-driven fusion of the classification results. In a final time-series analysis step the multi-temporal change detection maps are analyzed to identify seasonal, gradual, and abrupt changes. The performance of the developed approach will be demonstrated by application to the monitoring of wildfire progression in an area northeast of Fairbanks, Alaska. In this demonstration study, areas affected by wildfires were identified from a time series of Radarsat-1 SAR images acquired between the years 2000 and 2008. A series of change detection maps were created and analyzed to automatically extract wildfire related change and reject changes unrelated to fires. The accuracy of the resulting change detection maps was assessed using burn scar shapefiles acquired from the Alaska Fire Service. The comparison showed exceptional performance of our algorithm for this application.

  14. Monitoring of Ground Movement and Generation of Digital Elevation Models Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has the potential for measuring deformation of the earth's surface with very high accuracy and for the development of digital elevation models. Both capabilities are of high relevance for ground movement assessment. In addition, when archived raw data is available (post 1992), recent historic movement may be quantifiable. InSAR utilizes satellite-based data acquired at two different times along orbits of a similar trajectory to detect changes in the ground surface elevation. This technique can be used to monitor ground movement for rectangular areas as large as 100 kilometers on a side. Knowledge of topography, geology, trends and mechanics of existing ground movement is required for successful interpretation of InSAR data. The detection of ground surface deformation in terrain of high slope relief terrain is difficult. For ground deformation mapping by means of InSAR it is necessary to separate the motion-related and the topographic phase contributions. This is achieved by using a low resolution digital elevation model (DEM) during the processing of InSAR data. The application of InSAR technology to mining areas provides monitoring of not only the active mine areas but also the adjacent regions that has been affected by mining. Thus InSAR technique proves to be an essential ground monitoring methods in future for mining areas. The results from the InSAR analysis are compared with data from a ground-based monitoring system comprised of measured survey prisms for an open pit mine in Canada. InSAR analysis provided the location of the stable site for relocating the crusher which was affected by movement of pit slope. The presentation will show the application of InSAR technology to various mines in USA and Canada. Besides subsidence evaluation, InSAR data is also used to generate digital elevation models (DEM) and digital terrain models (DTM). The DEM and DTM derived from InSAR data for a mine in Canada is compared with the survey and LIDAR data to demonstrate the applicability of InSAR data to model surface topography.

  15. Monitoring Land Subsidence in Arizona Due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Land subsidence due to excess groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona since the1940's. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in 1946 near Picacho, Arizona. In some areas of the State, groundwater declines of more than 400 feet have resulted in extensive earth fissuring and widespread land subsidence; land subsidence of more than 19 feet has been documented near Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence throughout Arizona since 1997 using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data and Global Navigation Satellite System Data. The ADWR InSAR program has proven to be a critical resource in monitoring land subsidence throughout Arizona, resulting in the identification of more than twenty-five individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 1,200 square miles. The majority of these land subsidence features are a direct result of groundwater declines attributed to groundwater overdraft. Using InSAR data in conjunction with both automated and manual groundwater level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor active land subsidence areas as well as identify other areas that may require additional InSAR monitoring. InSAR data have also proven to be extremely useful in monitoring land surface uplift associated with rising groundwater levels near groundwater recharge facilities. InSAR data can show the impact of the recharged groundwater as the area of uplift extends down gradient from the recharge facility. Some highlights of recent InSAR results include the identification of a new land subsidence feature in the eastern portion of Metropolitan Phoenix where groundwater levels have recently declined; the identification of changes to a floodplain that may be exacerbating recent flooding; seasonal land subsidence and uplift related to seasonal groundwater demands; and the identification of uplift related to groundwater recharge facilities. The declining groundwater levels in Arizona are both a challenge for future groundwater availability but also for mitigating land subsidence. ADWR's InSAR program will continue to be a critical tool for monitoring land subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal.

  16. Gulf of Mexico Ecological Forecasting - Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Population Assessment and Management using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laygo, K.; Jones, I.; Huerta, J.; Holt, B.

    2010-12-01

    Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is one of the largest vertebrates in the world and is in high demand in sushi markets. It is a highly political species and is managed internationally by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna. The Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea are the only two known spawning sites in the world. However, there is a large variance in estimates of adult Atlantic Tuna spawning. This research focuses on extending Earth science research results to existing decision-making systems, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)for population assessment and management of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. The research team is a multi-sector and multi-disciplinary team composed of government (NOAA_NMFS), academic (University of South Florida Institute for Marine Remote Sensing) and commercial (Roffer’s Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc.) institutions. Their goal is to reduce the variance in the estimates of adult Bluefin Tuna spawning stock abundance in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Therefore, this paper will be derived from the innovative use of several earth orbiting satellites focusing on the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to identify Sargassum, which is a floating marine algae that may be relevant to the presence of Bluefin Tuna aggregations. The SAR imagery will be examined in combination with MODIS and MERIS Chlorophyll-a products to detect fine-scale surface current shear, eddy and frontal features, as well as biological slicks due to the presence of Sargassum. In addition, wind records from NOAA buoy data will be studied to analyze wind patterns in the Gulf of Mexico. The fine-resolution, all-weather capabilities of SAR provide a valuable complement to optical/IR sensors, which are often impacted by cloud cover. This study will provide an assessment of whether or not SAR can contribute to decision support efforts relevant to commercial fisheries through the improvement of the understanding of environmental conditions relative to Tuna. The critically endangered Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus)

  17. Savannah woody structure modelling and mapping using multi-frequency (X-, C- and L-band) Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Laven; Mathieu, Renaud; Main, Russell; Kleynhans, Waldo; Wessels, Konrad; Asner, Gregory; Leblon, Brigitte

    2015-07-01

    Structural parameters of the woody component in African savannahs provide estimates of carbon stocks that are vital to the understanding of fuelwood reserves, which is the primary source of energy for 90% of households in South Africa (80% in Sub-Saharan Africa) and are at risk of over utilisation. The woody component can be characterised by various quantifiable woody structural parameters, such as tree cover, tree height, above ground biomass (AGB) or canopy volume, each been useful for different purposes. In contrast to the limited spatial coverage of ground-based approaches, remote sensing has the ability to sense the high spatio-temporal variability of e.g. woody canopy height, cover and biomass, as well as species diversity and phenological status - a defining but challenging set of characteristics typical of African savannahs. Active remote sensing systems (e.g. Light Detection and Ranging - LiDAR; Synthetic Aperture Radar - SAR), on the other hand, may be more effective in quantifying the savannah woody component because of their ability to sense within-canopy properties of the vegetation and its insensitivity to atmosphere and clouds and shadows. Additionally, the various components of a particular target's structure can be sensed differently with SAR depending on the frequency or wavelength of the sensor being utilised. This study sought to test and compare the accuracy of modelling, in a Random Forest machine learning environment, woody above ground biomass (AGB), canopy cover (CC) and total canopy volume (TCV) in South African savannahs using a combination of X-band (TerraSAR-X), C-band (RADARSAT-2) and L-band (ALOS PALSAR) radar datasets. Training and validation data were derived from airborne LiDAR data to evaluate the SAR modelling accuracies. It was concluded that the L-band SAR frequency was more effective in the modelling of the CC (coefficient of determination or R2 of 0.77), TCV (R2 of 0.79) and AGB (R2 of 0.78) metrics in Southern African savannahs than the shorter wavelengths (X- and C-band) both as individual and combined (X + C-band) datasets. The addition of the shortest wavelengths also did not assist in the overall reduction of prediction error across different vegetation conditions (e.g. dense forested conditions, the dense shrubby layer and sparsely vegetated conditions). Although the integration of all three frequencies (X + C + L-band) yielded the best overall results for all three metrics (R2 = 0.83 for CC and AGB and R2 = 0.85 for TCV), the improvements were noticeable but marginal in comparison to the L-band alone. The results, thus, do not warrant the acquisition of all three SAR frequency datasets for tree structure monitoring in this environment.

  18. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Analysis of Current Deformation Along the Arava Valley, Dead Sea Transform, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzi, Y.; Baer, G.; Reches, Z.

    2002-12-01

    The Dead Sea transform (DST) is a left-lateral strike-slip plate boundary between the Arabian plate and the Israel-Sinai sub-plate. We present here results of an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis of recent ground displacements in the Arava Valley (AV), which is a 160km long depression in the DST between the Dead Sea basin in the north and the Gulf of Elat (Aqaba) in the south. The general structure of the AV is of NNE-striking en-echelon segments, a few tens km long each, enclosing small extensional and compressional structures in the major step zones. The current slip rate along the DST is poorly constrained and there are some indications that the AV segments are locked. For example, paleoseismic data indicate decrease in earthquake magnitude since Late Pleistocene, and a low seismicity level has been measured during the past 15 years. Using a hybrid approach of topographic phase construction (combining a DEM and a suitable ERS-1 to ERS-2 tandem pair) we analyzed five ERS frames of both descending and ascending tracks. Interferograms were generated from almost every possible pair and span periods of 2-74 months between 1995 and 2001. We identified two regions in the AV with systematic ground displacement: (1) an area about 35 km long and 20 km wide, north of Elat, that includes the playas of Yotvata and Avrona, and the coastal sabkha of Elat, and (2) an area about 10 km long and 5 km wide in the central AV (east of Zofar) where the major Transform is observed at the surface and traced by seismic lines at the subsurface. In both regions the dominant displacement is vertical. The Yotvata playa exhibits continuous uplift at a rate of 85 mm/y between 3/1995 and 11/1995, and 15 mm/y between 5/1996 and 11/1998. The linear southeastern border of the uplifted area coincides with a right-step in the major fault, suggesting that uplift is related to local compression due to the change in the fault strike. The Avrona playa and the Elat sabkha show alternating uplift and subsidence that are synchronized with fluctuations in the local groundwater levels. This suggests that processes within the aquifer system are the cause for the observed surface displacements. In the Zofar area, interferograms of ascending and descending tracks reveal two separate phases of subsidence: 5-10 mm between 5/98 and 2/99, and 25-30 mm between 4/99 and 2/01. The association between the linear borders of the subsiding area and active faults suggests that the observed subsidence reflects slip along these faults. Our results indicate that current tectonic activity in the Arava Valley is limited to stepping zones between segments of the DST. The relationship of these local deformation patterns to the general left-lateral slip of the Dead Sea transform is being investigated.

  19. Water volume variations in Lake Izabal (Guatemala) from in situ measurements and ENVISAT Radar Altimeter (RA-2) and Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Camilo; Gomez-Enri, Jesus; Alonso, Jose Juan; Villares, Pilar

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThe water storage variations in lakes affect their physical, chemical and biological processes. Besides, the water masses of these waterbodies reflect the balance of the rainfall and evaporation with surface and ground waters. The lake's water volume is estimated combining water level variations with accurate bathymetry and shore topography maps. Lake Izabal is the largest waterbody of Guatemala (approximately 673.29 km 2). Its water volume has been estimated in the past but the volume variations are still unknown. The lake water level variations are monitored in situ since 2004, but regrettably accurate information about the bathymetry and shore topography is not available. The main objective of this study was to make a first estimate of the Lake Izabal water volume variations. To do this, we combined level variations and inundated area variations. The lack of accurate bathymetry and topography maps was overcame by using inundated area variations in the assumption that every level change reflects an inundated area response, depending on bathymetry and shore topography. The level variations were estimated from an in situ moored gauged in the lake and from the ENVISAT Radar Altimeter (RA-2). The inundated area variations were obtained using 12 ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images. Prior to the area estimates the lake's shoreline was extracted making use of a chain of existing image processing algorithms. The correlation analysis between in situ lake levels and inundated area variations yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.9. The volume variations of the lake were then estimated on the dates of the acquired SAR images. Then, a group of rating curves relating level, area and volume were developed. In order to extend the area and volume estimates to the whole study time period (February 2003 to December 2006) the lake levels from the RA-2 dataset were entered to the rating curves. The estimated water volume variations of Lake Izabal range between 8271.2 × 10 6 m 3 (17th December of 2005) and 9018.15 × 10 6 m 3 (15th July of 2006) in agreement with the most recent estimation of the Lake Izabal water volume (8300 × 10 6 m 3). Regarding the inundated area variations, they range between 672.44 × 10 6 m 2 (17th December of 2005) and 677.2 × 10 6 m 2 (15th July of 2006) in agreement with the Guatemalan government information (673.29 km 2). The water volume, inundated area and water level fluctuations of the Lake Izabal show a strong seasonal signal with high stages during the rainy season (May-November) and low stages during the dry seasons (December-April). These results give valuable information for the Lake Izabal management and strengthen the idea of using remote sensing as a powerful and cheap complementary tool for hydrologic purposes.

  20. Synthetic aperture radiometer systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Le Vine

    1999-01-01

    Aperture synthesis is an emerging technology for passive microwave remote sensing from space. It is an interferometric technique similar to earth rotation synthesis employed in radio astronomy in which pairs of small antennas and signal processing are used to obtain the resolution of a single large antenna. The technique has the potential to overcome the barriers that antenna size has

  1. Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for geologic reconnaissance in Arctic regions: An example from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, C.L.; Guritz, R.M. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Satellite-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can provide an additional remote-sensing tool for regional geologic studies in arctic regions. Although SAR data do not yield direct information on rock type and do not replace traditional optical data, SAR data can provide useful geologic information in arctic regions where the stratigraphic column includes a wide range of lithologies, and bedrock exposures have been reduced to rubble by frost action. For example, in ERS-1 SAR data from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) of the northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska, carbonate and clastic rocks can give remarkably different radar responses on minimally reprocessed SAR data. The different radar response of different lithologies can specifically the size and angularity of scree in talus slopes. Additional postacquisition processing can both remove many of the negative terrain effects common in SAR data and enhance contrasts in bedrock lithology. Because of this ability to discriminate between gross lithologic packages, the ERS-1 SAR data can be used to provide a regional view of ANWR and a detailed look at specific areas. A mosaic of ERS-1 SAR data from all of ANWR provides a synoptic view of the regional structural framework, such as the anticlinoria of northern ANWR and the different allochthonous units of central and southern ANWR. Higher resolution ERS-1 SAR data of the Porcupine Lake area can be used to examine specific structural and stratigraphic problems associated with several major structural boundaries.

  2. Two-dimensional superresolution multiple-input multiple-output and inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging based on spatial frequency ambiguity resolving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianchao; Su, Weimin; Gu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Combining multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) techniques can reduce the number of antennas used and shorten the radar integrated time compared with the single-channel ISAR for the same cross-range resolution. In existing MIMO-ISAR processing, the echoes of different sensors are rearranged into an equivalent single-channel ISAR signal. A new method without echo rearrangement is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) MIMO-ISAR imaging. A 2-D frequency estimation algorithm based on Unitary ESPRIT and projection transformation is used to obtain the spatial and Doppler frequencies of scatterers, and a high cross-range resolution can be achieved. The relationship between the two frequencies is exploited to resolve the ambiguity of spatial frequency. The analysis and simulation results show that, compared with the existing method, the proposed method can decrease the relative rotation angle (or integrated time) required for imaging. Thus, this method is more suitable for imaging targets with limited rotation or high maneuvering.

  3. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar: Current status and future directions. A report to the Committee on Earth Sciences, Space Studies Board, National Research Council

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. L. (editor); Apel, J.; Arvidson, R.; Bindschadler, R.; Carsey, F.; Dozier, J.; Jezek, K.; Kasischke, E.; Li, F.; Melack, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a context in which questions put forth by NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMPTE) regarding the next steps in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) science and technology can be addressed. It summarizes the state-of-the-art in theory, experimental design, technology, data analysis, and utilization of SAR data for studies of the Earth, and describes potential new applications. The report is divided into five science chapters and a technology assessment. The chapters summarize the value of existing SAR data and currently planned SAR systems, and identify gaps in observational capabilities needing to be filled to address the scientific questions. Cases where SAR provides complementary data to other (non-SAR) measurement techniques are also described. The chapter on technology assessment outlines SAR technology development which is critical not only to NASA's providing societally relevant geophysical parameters but to maintaining competitiveness in SAR technology, and promoting economic development.

  4. Marine target detection in quad-pol synthetic aperture radar imagery based on the relative phase of cross-polarized channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunhua; Li, Huimin; Zhang, Yanmin; Guo, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    A focus on marine target detection in noise corrupted fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is presented. The property of the relative phase between two cross-polarized channels reveals that the relative phases evaluated within sea surface area or noise corrupted area are widely spread phase angle region [-?,?] due to decorrelation effect; however, the relative phases are concentrated to zero and ±? for real target and its first-order azimuth ambiguities (FOAAs), respectively. Exploiting this physical behavior, the reciprocal of the mean square value of the relative phase (RMSRP) is defined as a new parameter for target detection, and the experiments based on fully polarimetric Radarsat-2 SAR images show that the strong noise and the FOAAs can be effectively suppressed in RMSRP image. Meanwhile, validity of the new parameter for target detection is also verified by two typical Radarsat-2 SAR images, in which targets' ambiguities and strong noise are present.

  5. Multitemporal L- and C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar To Highlight Differences in Water Status Among Boreal Forest and Wetland Systems in the Yukon Flats, Interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balser, Andrew W.; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2010-01-01

    Tracking landscape-scale water status in high-latitude boreal systems is indispensible to understanding the fate of stored and sequestered carbon in a climate change scenario. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery provides critical information for water and moisture status in Alaskan boreal environments at the landscape scale. When combined with results from optical sensor analyses, a complementary picture of vegetation, biomass, and water status emerges. Whereas L-band SAR showed better inherent capacity to map water status, C-band had much more temporal coverage in this study. Analysis through the use of L- and C-band SARs combined with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) enables landscape stratification by vegetation and by seasonal and interannual hydrology. Resultant classifications are highly relevant to biogeochemistry at the landscape scale. These results enhance our understanding of ecosystem processes relevant to carbon balance and may be scaled up to inform regional carbon flux estimates and better parameterize general circulation models (GCMs).

  6. Improving the TanDEM-X DEM for flood modelling using flood extents from Synthetic Aperture Radar images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, David; Trigg, Mark; Garcia-Pintado, Javier; Cloke, Hannah; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Many floodplains in the developed world have now been imaged with high resolution airborne LiDAR or InSAR, giving accurate DEMs that facilitate accurate flood inundation modelling. This is not always the case for remote rivers in developing countries. However, the accuracy of DEMs produced for modelling studies on such rivers should be enhanced in the near future by the high resolution TanDEM-X World DEM. In a parallel development, increasing use is now being made of flood extents derived from high resolution SAR images for calibrating, validating and assimilating observations into flood inundation models in order to improve these. The paper discusses an additional use of SAR flood extents to improve the accuracy of the TanDEM-X DEM in the floodplain covered by the flood extents, thereby permanently improving the DEM for future flood modelling studies in this area. The method is based on the fact that for larger rivers the water elevation changes only slowly along a reach, so that the boundary of the flood extent (the waterline) can be regarded locally as a quasi-contour. As a result, heights of adjacent pixels along a small section of waterline can be regarded as a sample of heights with a common population mean. The height of the central pixel in the section can be replaced with the average of these heights, leading to a more accurate height estimate. While this will result in a reduction in the height errors along a waterline, the waterline is a linear feature in a two-dimensional space. However, improvements to the DEM heights between adjacent pairs of waterlines can also be made, because DEM heights enclosed by the higher waterline of a pair must be at least no higher than the refined heights along the higher waterline, whereas DEM heights not enclosed by the lower waterline must be no lower than the refined heights along the lower waterline. In addition, DEM heights between the higher and lower waterlines can also be assigned smaller errors because of the reduced errors on the refined waterline heights. The method was tested on a section of the TanDEM-X Intermediate DEM (IDEM) covering an 11km reach of the Warwickshire Avon, England. Flood extents from four COSMO-SKyMed images were available at various stages of a flood in November 2012. Waterlines were detected automatically using the method described in [1]. The 12.5m resolution IDEM was re-sampled to the 2.5m resolution of the CSK images using nearest neighbour interpolation. Improvements to the IDEM were attempted only in regions of low slope and low vegetation, so that the DEM could be regarded as the DTM. The height of a pixel on a waterline was replaced by the average of the waterline pixel heights in an 11 x 11 IDEM pixel window centred on the current CSK pixel (but selecting only one waterline height per IDEM pixel to reduce correlations). Original and refined IDEM heights were compared to corresponding airborne LiDAR heights. Along the waterlines, it was found that the original IDEM heights had a standard deviation of 1.1m and a bias of 0.2m, while the refined heights had a standard deviation of only 0.6m and a similar bias. Between two adjacent waterlines, on average approximately 25% of IDEM heights were above the higher waterline, and 20% below the lower waterline. When compared to LiDAR, the original higher heights had a mean difference from the LiDAR height of 2.4m with standard deviation 3.0m, while after correction the mean difference was 0.5m with standard deviation 1.0m. The corrected heights below the lower waterline were similarly improved. The height errors of a further 40% of IDEM heights between the higher and lower waterlines were also reduced, because of the reduced errors on the refined waterline heights. 1. Mason DC, Davenport IJ, Neal JC, Schumann GJ-P and Bates PD (2012). Near real-time flood detection in urban and rural areas using high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar images. IEEE. Trans. Geoscience Rem. Sens., 50(8), 3041-3052.

  7. Ground deformation occurring in the city of Auckland, New Zealand, and observed by Envisat interferometric synthetic aperture radar during 2003-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Sergey; Tiampo, Kristy; GonzáLez, Pablo J.; Manville, Vernon; Jolly, Gill

    2010-08-01

    In this study we present modeling results derived from ground deformation observed in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) by the C-band Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar. Auckland, the largest city in New Zealand with a current population of over one million, coincides with the AVF, which comprises about 50 individual, largely monogenetic, basaltic volcanoes distributed across a total area of 360 km2. The most recent and largest eruption there occurred 600 years ago. While it is anticipated that the chance of any existing volcano reawakening is very low, a new volcano could be created at any time in a new location within the field. The aim of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) for mapping ground deformation associated with magma ascent, which would be a likely precursor to the onset of volcanic activity. For this study we acquired and processed 23 single look complex (SLC) images from the Envisat satellite (Track 151, Frame 6442, IS2, VV) spanning from July 2003 until November 2007. All possible combinations of differential interferograms were created. Stacking, Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Permanent Scatterers (PS) processing algorithms were used to determine spatial and temporal patterns of surface deformation as well as their average rates. A number of localized deformation regions were consistently observed by all three techniques. Due to a lack of evidence pointing toward a relationship with volcanic or tectonic sources it was assumed that they are produced by groundwater withdrawal and recharge. Three largest regions of subsidence (S1-S3) and also three largest regions of uplift (U1-U3) were modeled with the derivative-free simplex algorithms for location, depth and source volume change using a Mogi point source approximation. The results show that InSAR is a viable technique capable of detecting the scale, rate and spatial distribution of precursory deformation that would likely be associated with resumption of volcanic activity in the Auckland urban area.

  8. Rupture parameters of the 2003 Zemmouri (Mw 6.8), Algeria, earthquake from joint inversion of interferometric synthetic aperture radar, coastal uplift, and GPS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belabbes, S.; Wicks, C.; Cakir, Z.; Meghraoui, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the surface deformation associated with the 21 May 2003 (M w = 6.8) Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake, the strongest seismic event felt in the Algiers region since 1716. The thrust earthquake mechanism and related surface deformation revealed an average 0.50 m coastal uplift along ??55-km-long coastline. We obtain coseismic interferograms using Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) (IS2) and RADARSAT standard beam (ST4) data from both the ascending and descending orbits of Envisat satellite, whereas the RADARSAT data proved useful only in the descending mode. While the two RADARSAT interferograms cover the earthquake area, Envisat data cover only the western half of the rupture zone. Although the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) coherence in the epicenter area is poor, deformation fringes are observed along the coast in different patches. In the Boumerdes area, the maximum coseismic deformation is indicated by the high gradient of fringes visible in all interferograms in agreement with field measurements (tape, differential GPS, leveling, and GPS). To constrain the earthquake rupture parameters, we model the interferograms and uplift measurements using elastic dislocations on triangular fault patches in an elastic and homogeneous half-space. We invert the coseismic slip using first, a planar surface and second, a curved fault, both constructed from triangular elements using Poly3Dinv program that uses a damped least square minimization. The best fit of InSAR, coastal uplift, and GPS data corresponds to a 65-km-long fault rupture dipping 40?? to 50?? SE, located at 8 to 13 km offshore with a change in strike west of Boumerdes from N60??-65?? to N95??-105??. The inferred rupture geometry at depth correlates well with the seismological results and may have critical implications for the seismic hazard assessment of the Algiers region. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Terahertz interferometric synthetic aperture tomography for confocal imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Heimbeck, M S; Marks, D L; Brady, D; Everitt, H O

    2012-04-15

    Terahertz (THz) interferometric synthetic aperture tomography (TISAT) for confocal imaging within extended objects is demonstrated by combining attributes of synthetic aperture radar and optical coherence tomography. Algorithms recently devised for interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy are adapted to account for the diffraction-and defocusing-induced spatially varying THz beam width characteristic of narrow depth of focus, high-resolution confocal imaging. A frequency-swept two-dimensional TISAT confocal imaging instrument rapidly achieves in-focus, diffraction-limited resolution over a depth 12 times larger than the instrument's depth of focus in a manner that may be easily extended to three dimensions and greater depths. PMID:22513671

  10. On the remote sensing of oceanic and atmospheric convection in the Greenland Sea by synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Romeiser; Susanne Ufermann; Alexei Androssov; Henning Wehde; Leonid Mitnik; Stefan Kern; Angelo Rubino

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss characteristic properties of radar signatures of oceanic and atmospheric convection features in the Greenland Sea. If the water surface is clean (no surface films or ice coverage), oceanic and atmospheric features can become visible in radar images via a modulation of the surface roughness, and their radar signatures can be very similar. For an unambiguous

  11. Short-range ground-based synthetic aperture radar imaging: performance comparison between frequency-wavenumber migration and back-projection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, Enes; Demirci, Sevket; Özdemir, Caner; Tekba?, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Two popular synthetic aperture radar (SAR) reconstruction algorithms, namely the back-projection (BP) and the frequency wavenumber (?-k) algorithms, were tested and compared against each other, especially for their use in ground-based (GB) SAR applications directed to foreign object debris removal. For this purpose, an experimental setup in a semi-anechoic chamber room was accomplished to obtain near-field SAR images of objects on the ground. Then, the 90 to 95 GHz scattering data were acquired by using a stepped frequency continuous-wave radar operation. The performances of the setup and the imaging algorithms were then assessed by exploiting various metrics including point spread function, signal-to-clutter ratio, integrated side-lobe ratio, and computational complexity. Results demonstrate that although both algorithms produce almost accurate images of targets, the BP algorithm is shown to be superior to the ?-k algorithm due to its some inherent advantages specifically suited for short-range GB-SAR applications.

  12. Modeling Collapse Chimney and Spall Zone Settlement as a Source of Post-Shot Subsidence Detected by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Foxwall, W.

    2000-07-24

    Ground surface subsidence resulting from the March 1992 JUNCTION underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) imaged by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) wholly occurred during a period of several months after the shot (Vincent et al., 1999) and after the main cavity collapse event. A significant portion of the subsidence associated with the small (less than 20 kt) GALENA and DIVIDER tests probably also occurred after the shots, although the deformation detected in these cases contains additional contributions from coseismic processes, since the radar scenes used to construct the deformation interferogram bracketed these two later events, The dimensions of the seas of subsidence resulting from all three events are too large to be solely accounted for by processes confined to the damage zone in the vicinity of the shot point or the collapse chimney. Rather, the subsidence closely corresponds to the span dimensions predicted by Patton's (1990) empirical relationship between spall radius and yield. This suggests that gravitational settlement of damaged rock within the spall zone is an important source of post-shot subsidence, in addition to settlement of the rubble within the collapse chimney. These observations illustrate the potential power of InSAR as a tool for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring and on-site inspection in that the relatively broad ({approx} 100 m to 1 km) subsidence signatures resulting from small shots detonated at normal depths of burial (or even significantly overburied) are readily detectable within large geographical areas (100 km x 100 km) under favorable observing conditions. Furthermore, the present results demonstrate the flexibility of the technique in that the two routinely gathered satellite radar images used to construct the interferogram need not necessarily capture the event itself, but can cover a time period up to several months following the shot.

  13. Study on synthetic aperture imaging lidar based on a laboratory-scale sliding guide system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Zang; Liang Guo; Meng-dao Xing; Lu-lan Long

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Imaging Lidar (SAIL) is an extension of conventional microwave Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to much shorter wavelengths (by a factor of about 100,000). This kind of active imaging radar can offer finer resolution and better image feature which is closer to optical image. In this paper, we introduce our laboratory-scale SAIL system in detail, elaborate difficulties that we

  14. 3472 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 46, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 Inversion of Spaceborne X-Band Synthetic Aperture

    E-print Network

    Marzano, Frank Silvio

    of Spaceborne X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Measurements for Precipitation Remote Sensing Over Land Frank--Several spaceborne X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR) systems were launched in 2007, and more will be launched--Inversion methodology, microwave modeling, precipitation, retrieval, X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR). I

  15. Comparison of flat-topped stellate seamounts on Earth's seafloor with stellate domes on Venus using side-scan sonar and Magellan synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulmer, M. H.; Wilson, J. B.

    1999-08-01

    The diameters of many domes on Venus imaged by the Magellan synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are an order of magnitude larger than terrestrial subaerial domes; however, surveys of the seafloor using sonar imaging systems such as GLORIA (Geological Long Range Inclined Asdic) and SeaBEAM have revealed flat-topped volcanic features with similar diameters, volumes and slope angles. Suggested analogies between domes on Venus and seamounts on the northern East Pacific Rise and off Hawaii have been tested by D.K. Smith [J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 73 (1996) 47-64] using comparisons of size and shape and significant differences identified. GLORIA images of flat-topped seamounts near Hawaii show them to have stellate planforms. Over half of the total population of 375 domes on Venus have been modified and many have stellate planforms. We have focused on the similarities in stellate planforms between flat-topped seamounts and modified domes on Venus. We have used GLORIA sonar and Magellan radar data to constrain the formation and evolution of both flat-topped seamounts on the ocean floor and volcanic domes on Venus to see if the processes that formed them are similar. We propose that flat-topped seamounts on the Hawaiian Ridge are built on sediments overlying the oceanic crust and that available evidence supports three processes that can form stellate margins: (1) radial dike intrusions related to flank rift zones; (2) dike intrusions which cause slope failures; and (3) gravitational slope failures unrelated to intrusions. For Venus, where low erosion rates and the absence of a sediment layer results in lavas being emplaced directly onto the crust, the available evidence supports stellate margins originating by gravitational slope failures unrelated to diking, though intrusions cannot be ruled out with existing data.

  16. NOAA satellite ocean remote sensing near real-time system for providing synthetic aperture radar data for marine and coastal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pichel, W.G.; Stone, R.N.; Tseng, W. [NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Naval Oceanographic Office, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the University of Alaska at Fairbanks (UAF), and the Canadian Ice Service has constructed a near real-time data system for providing satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to U.S. Government users. Data processed in near real-time at the Alaska SAR Facility of the UAF, at the Gatineau Ground Station in Canada, and the Tromso Satellite Station in Norway (with the McMurdo Ground Station in Antarctica to be added in the future), are brought electronically to the NOAA/NESDIS Satellite Active Archive where they are provided to US Government subscribers in near real-time or retrospectively. A SAR data display and analysis system developed by NRL is provided to users to aid in applying these data to marine and coastal environmental problems. Targeted applications include operational sea and lake ice analysis, river ice jam monitoring, flood mapping, oil spill tracking, ocean feature detection, fisheries management and enforcement, fisheries studies, and river plume monitoring. Initial coastal and marine users include the US National Ice Center, the NOAA CoastWatch Regional Nodes and the US Coast Guard.

  17. Fast image-formation algorithm for ultrahigh-resolution airborne squint spotlight synthetic aperture radar based on adaptive sliding receive-window technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zeng, Hong-cheng; Chen, Jie; Wang, Peng-bo

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive sliding receive-window (ASRW) technique was usually introduced in airborne squint synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. Airborne squint spotlight SAR varies its receive-window starting time pulse-by-pulse as a function of range-walk, namely, the linear term of range cell migration (RCM). As a result, a huge data volume of the highly squint spotlight SAR echo signal can be significantly reduced. Because the ASRW technique changes the echo-receive starting time and Doppler history, the conventional image algorithm cannot be employed to directly focus airborne squint spotlight ASRW-SAR data. Therefore, a fast image-formation algorithm, based on the principle of the wave number domain algorithm (WDA) and azimuth deramping processing, was proposed for accurately and efficiently focusing the squint spotlight ASRW-SAR data. Azimuth deramping preprocessing was implemented for eliminating azimuth spectrum aliasing. Moreover, bulk compression and modified Stolt mapping were utilized for high-precision focusing. Additionally, geometric correction was employed for compensating the image distortion resulting from the ASRW technique. The proposed algorithm was verified by evaluating the image performance of point targets in different squint angles. In addition, a detailed analysis of computation loads in the appendix indicates that the processing efficiency can be greatly improved, e.g., the processing efficiency could be improved by 17 times in the 70-deg squint angle by applying the proposed image algorithm to the squint spotlight ASRW-SAR data.

  18. Slope instability and post-emplacement lava flow deformation revealed using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, L. N.; Lu, Z.; Oommen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala, is a dominantly basaltic complex that has been continually active since the 1960's, with over 250 lava flows, intermittent strombolian activity, and ash and fumerolic plumes. Sometime between 0.6 and 1.6 ka B.P., the SW sector of the initial cone failed in a major edifice collapse. This event left a large arcuate scarp, within which the modern cone was constructed from historical times up to the present. Two collapses on the upper flanks of the cone near the main vent in 1962 and 2010, and uneven loading of lava flows on the SW flank are a cause for concern about the stability of this young edifice. For this study, ALOS PALSAR L-band Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data was analyzed at Pacaya from February 2007 - February 2011. Interferograms reveal several applications of InSAR for understanding and monitoring activity at Pacaya, including: (1) lava cooling-related compaction during effusive activity, (2) inflation on the northern side of the cone prior to a large eruption on May 27th, 2010, and (3) movement of the edifice to the SW during this large eruption, suggesting large-scale flank instability. With the implementation of InSAR technology at Pacaya in the future, we may be able to provide insights into the post-emplacement behavior of lava flows and shed light on edifice stability, leading to improved volcano hazard assessments.

  19. Ground displacements caused by aquifer-system water-level variations observed using interferometric synthetic aperture radar near Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heywood, Charles E.; Galloway, Devin L.; Stork, Sylvia V.

    2002-01-01

    Six synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images were processed to form five unwrapped interferometric (InSAR) images of the greater metropolitan area in the Albuquerque Basin. Most interference patterns in the images were caused by range displacements resulting from changes in land-surface elevation. Loci of land- surface elevation changes correlate with changes in aquifer-system water levels and largely result from the elastic response of the aquifer-system skeletal material to changes in pore-fluid pressure. The magnitude of the observed land-surface subsidence and rebound suggests that aquifer-system deformation resulting from ground-water withdrawals in the Albuquerque area has probably remained in the elastic (recoverable) range from July 1993 through September 1999. Evidence of inelastic (permanent) land subsidence in the Rio Rancho area exists, but its relation to compaction of the aquifer system is inconclusive because of insufficient water-level data. Patterns of elastic deformation in both Albuquerque and Rio Rancho suggest that intrabasin faults impede ground- water-pressure diffusion at seasonal time scales and that these faults are probably important in controlling patterns of regional ground-water flow.

  20. A possibilistic approach to soil moisture retrieval from ERS synthetic aperture radar backscattering under soil roughness uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. C. Verhoest; B. De Baets; F. Mattia; G. Satalino; C. Lucau; P. Defourny

    2007-01-01

    Radar remote sensing of bare soil surfaces has been shown to be very useful for retrieving soil moisture. However, the error on the retrieved value depends on the accuracy of the roughness parameters (RMS height and correlation length). Several studies have demonstrated that these parameters show a high variability within a field, and therefore a lot of soil roughness profiles

  1. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy

    2010-07-10

    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt. 42, 701 (2003)]. A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt. 47, 1705 (2008)]. Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process. PMID:20648161

  2. Comparison of airborne synthetic aperture radar imagery with in situ surface-slope measurements across Gulf Stream slicks and a convergent front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorino, G. O.; Lyzenga, D. R.; Kaiser, J. A. C.

    1999-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery showing two types of features near the inshore edge of the Gulf Stream are compared with nearly simultaneous estimates of the sea surface slope field derived from optical shipboard measurements. One class of feature consists of a set of narrow, dark lines having radar signal modulations of about -10 dB at L band. These modulations are comparable to those observed in the in situ wave-slope data over wavenumbers corresponding to the radar-resonant Bragg waves. These modulations are also predicted by a simplified equilibrium wave spectrum model using a surface elasticity of about 25 mN/m (as determined from in situ measurements of surface tension) and a wind friction velocity of about 10 cm/s (from buoy and shipboard measurements). These results support Lyzenga and Marmorino's [1998] inference that the Gulf Stream dark lines represent relatively passive, biogenically derived surfactant slicks that are advected and strained by the large-scale surface flow field. The second class of feature consists of a pair of bright-dark signatures over the shallow continental shelf region near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. These features are characterized by signal modulations of about +4 and -4 dB in both the L band SAR and in situ data. These modulations appear to be due to the interaction of surface waves with the current convergence and divergence regions associated with a rotary circulation in a shallow convergent front. Model calculations of this interaction by Lyzenga [1998] indicate that the positive perturbations associated with current convergence should be relatively independent of the wavenumber, which is in approximate agreement with the in situ measurements of the present paper. The model also indicates that the negative perturbations associated with the region of current divergence should decrease for wavenumbers higher than L band. That trend is observed in the SAR data but not in the in situ data, which show significant perturbations at higher wavenumbers. It is conjectured that this is due to the effects of surfactants and either along-front or time variability in the frontal dynamics, which are not included in the model. Additional comparisons of this kind should be useful to further test and improve physical models of near-surface phenomena.

  3. Sea ice motion and open water area at the Ronne Polynia, Antarctica: Synthetic aperture radar observations versus model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollands, T.; Haid, V.; Dierking, W.; Timmermann, R.; Ebner, L.

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with observations and simulations of the evolution of coastal polynias focusing on the Ronne Polynia. We compare differences in polynia extent and ice drift patterns derived from satellite radar images and from simulations with the Finite Element Sea Ice Ocean Model, employing three atmospheric forcing data sets that differ in spatial and temporal resolution. Two polynia events are analyzed, one from austral summer and one from late fall 2008. The open water area in the polynia is of similar size in the satellite images and in the model simulations, but its temporal evolution differs depending on katabatic winds being resolved in the atmospheric forcing data sets. Modeled ice drift is slower than the observed and reveals greater turning angles relative to the wind direction in many cases. For the summer event, model results obtained with high-resolution forcing are closer to the drift field derived from radar imagery than those from coarse resolution forcing. For the late fall event, none of the forcing data yields outstanding results. Our study demonstrates that a dense (1-3 km) model grid and atmospheric forcing provided at high spatial resolution ( < 50 km) are critical to correctly simulate coastal polynias with a coupled sea-ice ocean model.

  4. System and method for measuring ocean surface currents at locations remote from land masses using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Lawrence E. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A system for measuring ocean surface currents from an airborne platform is disclosed. A radar system having two spaced antennas wherein one antenna is driven and return signals from the ocean surface are detected by both antennas is employed to get raw ocean current data which are saved for later processing. There are a pair of global positioning system (GPS) systems including a first antenna carried by the platform at a first location and a second antenna carried by the platform at a second location displaced from the first antenna for determining the position of the antennas from signals from orbiting GPS navigational satellites. Data are also saved for later processing. The saved data are subsequently processed by a ground-based computer system to determine the position, orientation, and velocity of the platform as well as to derive measurements of currents on the ocean surface.

  5. Analysis of lake ice dynamics and morphology on Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Siberia, using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Matt; Liston, Glen; Prokein, Peter; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Huntzinger, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    A time series of more than 450 combined ERS-2, Radarsat-1, and Landsat-7 scenes acquired between 1998 and 2001 was analyzed to develop a fairly complete picture of lake ice dynamics on Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Siberia (67.5°N, 172°E). This 14-km3 lake partially fills a meteorite impact crater formed 3.6 million years ago and is home to a paleoenvironmental coring project. The duration of lake ice cover and the onset of lake ice breakup are important both to interpretations of the archived sediment core record and to future drilling projects that will use the ice as a stable platform. Ice formation, snowmelt, and ice breakup likely occur in late October, mid-May, and early July, respectively. These data were used to validate a one-dimensional energy-balance lake ice model, which can now be used to hindcast paleoclimate based on core proxy information. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter from the lake ice also revealed unusual spatial variations in bubble content, which were found to indicate the level of biological productivity in the sediments directly beneath the ice, with the highest productivity located in the shallowest (0-10 m) as well as the deepest (170-175 m) regions of the lake. Seismic data indicates that the backscatter anomaly above the deepest water is collocated with the central peak of the impact crater, 500 m below the surface. Several hypotheses are presented to explain this anomaly. Regardless of cause, the fact that large spatial variations in biological productivity exist in the lake has important implications for selecting the locations of future sediment cores.

  6. Analysis of lake ice dynamics and morphology on Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Siberia, using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Matt; Liston, Glen; Prokein, Peter; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Huntzinger, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    A time series of more than 450 combined ERS-2, Radarsat-1, and Landsat-7 scenes acquired between 1998 and 2001 was analyzed to develop a fairly complete picture of lake ice dynamics on Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Siberia (67.5°N, 172°E). This 14-km3 lake partially fills a meteorite impact crater formed 3.6 million years ago and is home to a paleoenvironmental coring project. The duration of lake ice cover and the onset of lake ice breakup are important both to interpretations of the archived sediment core record and to future drilling projects that will use the ice as a stable platform. Ice formation, snowmelt, and ice breakup likely occur in late October, mid-May, and early July, respectively. These data were used to validate a one-dimensional energy-balance lake ice model, which can now be used to hindcast paleoclimate based on core proxy information. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter from the lake ice also revealed unusual spatial variations in bubble content, which were found to indicate the level of biological productivity in the sediments directly beneath the ice, with the highest productivity located in the shallowest (0-10 m) as well as the deepest (170-175 m) regions of the lake. Seismic data indicates that the backscatter anomaly above the deepest water is collocated with the central peak of the impact crater, 500 m below the surface. Several hypotheses are presented to explain this anomaly. Regardless of cause, the fact that large spatial variations in biological productivity exist in the lake has important implications for selecting the locations of future sediment cores.

  7. Multifocal interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Chng, Xiong Kai Benjamin; Adie, Steven G; Boppart, Stephen A; Carney, P Scott

    2014-06-30

    There is an inherent trade-off between transverse resolution and depth of field (DOF) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) which becomes a limiting factor for certain applications. Multifocal OCT and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) each provide a distinct solution to the trade-off through modification to the experiment or via post-processing, respectively. In this paper, we have solved the inverse problem of multifocal OCT and present a general algorithm for combining multiple ISAM datasets. Multifocal ISAM (MISAM) uses a regularized combination of the resampled datasets to bring advantages of both multifocal OCT and ISAM to achieve optimal transverse resolution, extended effective DOF and improved signal-to-noise ratio. We present theory, simulation and experimental results. PMID:24977909

  8. Multifocal interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Chng, Xiong Kai Benjamin; Adie, Steven G.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Scott Carney, P.

    2014-01-01

    There is an inherent trade-off between transverse resolution and depth of field (DOF) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) which becomes a limiting factor for certain applications. Multifocal OCT and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) each provide a distinct solution to the trade-off through modification to the experiment or via post-processing, respectively. In this paper, we have solved the inverse problem of multifocal OCT and present a general algorithm for combining multiple ISAM datasets. Multifocal ISAM (MISAM) uses a regularized combination of the resampled datasets to bring advantages of both multifocal OCT and ISAM to achieve optimal transverse resolution, extended effective DOF and improved signal-to-noise ratio. We present theory, simulation and experimental results. PMID:24977909

  9. Applications of Radarsat-1 synthetic aperture radar imagery to assess hurricane-related flooding of coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiage, L.M.; Walker, N.D.; Balasubramanian, S.; Babin, A.; Barras, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Louisiana coast is subjected to hurricane impacts including flooding of human settlements, river channels and coastal marshes, and salt water intrusion. Information on the extent of flooding is often required quickly for emergency relief, repairs of infrastructure, and production of flood risk maps. This study investigates the feasibility of using Radarsat-1 SAR imagery to detect flooded areas in coastal Louisiana after Hurricane Lili, October 2002. Arithmetic differencing and multi-temporal enhancement techniques were employed to detect flooding and to investigate relationships between backscatter and water level changes. Strong positive correlations (R2=0.7-0.94) were observed between water level and SAR backscatter within marsh areas proximate to Atchafalaya Bay. Although variations in elevation and vegetation type did influence and complicate the radar signature at individual sites, multi-date differences in backscatter largely reflected the patterns of flooding within large marsh areas. Preliminary analyses show that SAR imagery was not useful in mapping urban flooding in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina's landfall on 29 August 2005. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  10. Distributed synthetic apertures for digital holographic imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Gao; Da-Yong Wang; Hua-Kun Cui; Zhi-Wei Zhou; Yun-Xin Wang

    2011-01-01

    A key problem for the digital holography is to improve the resolution of digital holographic system. We present a system for long-range digital holographic imaging with improved resolution using synthetic aperture method. Imaging system is formed by three sub-apertures, and each sub-aperture receiver contains independently telescope lenses and a CCD device. Through every sub-aperture system, a hologram is obtained. Subsequently,

  11. Sensitivity analysis of C- and Ku-band synthetic aperture radar data to soil moisture content in a semiarid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Edson Eyji

    In this study, the sensitivity of the C-band (5.3 GHz) with a 23sp° incidence angle and the Ku-band (14.85 GHz) with 35sp° ,\\ 55sp° , and 75sp° incidence angles to surface soil moisture content from a semiarid region were evaluated. To obtain an improved soil moisture estimation, a practical technique to reduce the influence of soil roughness and vegetation in the SAR data was developed in a study area located in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, a representative site of shrub- and grass-dominated rangelands of the southwestern part of the United States. To correct for soil roughness effects, the C-band radar backscattering coefficients sigmasp° from a wet season image were subtracted from sigmasp° derived from a dry season image. The assumption was that, in semiarid regions, the SAR data from the dry season was dependent only on the soil roughness effects. To correct for vegetation effects, an empirical relation between sigmasp° and leaf area index was used, the latter derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The results showed that when both soil roughness and vegetation effects were corrected for, the sensitivity of sigmasp° to soil moisture improved substantially. The sensitivity of sigmasp° to soil moisture was also evaluated in agricultural fields with bare soil and periodic roughness components (planting row and furrow structures). Four types of SAR system configurations were analyzed: C-band with a 23sp° incidence angle and Ku-band with 35sp° ,\\ 55sp° , and 75sp° incidence angles. The test sites were located at the University of Arizona's Maricopa Agricultural Center, south of Phoenix, Arizona. The results showed that the sensitivity of sigmasp° to soil moisture was strongly dependent upon the field conditions. The SAR signal was nearly insensitive to soil moisture for furrowed fields (furrow spacing ˜95 cm; amplitude ˜22 cm), but for fields with planting row structures (row spacing ˜24 cm; amplitude ˜2 cm), the SAR data was sensitive to soil moisture, particularly with the C-band at a 23sp° incidence angle and the Ku-band with a 35sp° incidence angle, regardless of the row direction.

  12. Detection and measurement of land subsidence using interferometric synthetic aperture radar and Global Positioning System, San Bernardino County, Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Ikehara, Marti E.; Stork, Sylvia V.; Amelung, Falk; Galloway, Devin L.

    2003-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in parts of the Mojave Desert, California. Ground water has been the primary source of domestic, agricultural, and municipal water supplies in the desert since the early 1900s. Pumping of ground water from the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins in the southwestern Mojave Desert resulted in water-level declines of more than 30 meters (100 feet) between the 1950s and the 1990s. A Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of a geodetic network was used to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of vertical land-surface changes in Lucerne Valley in the Morongo ground-water basin. The GPS survey was conducted in 1998 to estimate historical elevation changes by comparing GPS-derived elevations with historical elevations (which were available for some of the monuments in the network as early as 1944) and to establish baseline values that can be used for comparisons with future GPS surveys. The GPS measurements indicated that about 600 millimeters (2 feet) [plus or minus 1,500 millimeters (5 feet)] of subsidence occurred at three of the monuments between 1969 and 1998 but that very little to no vertical change in position occurred at seven other monuments in the network. Water levels in the area of subsidence in Lucerne Valley declined about 15 meters (50 feet) during 1970-98. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods were used to characterize vertical land-surface changes in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins during various intervals of time between 1992 and 1999. Interferograms, InSAR-generated displacement maps, show that subsidence ranging from 45 to 90 mm (0.15 to 0.3 ft) occurred in four areas of these two ground-water basins--the El Mirage, Lockhart-Harper Lake (dry), Newberry Springs, and Lucerne Valley areas. Some of the InSAR measurements were affected by the earthquakes at Landers and Hector Mine, California, and by atmospheric artifacts. Water-level data were examined for areas undergoing vertical land-surface changes to determine whether the vertical land-surface changes may be related to aquifer-system compaction caused by ground-water-level changes. Temporally relevant water-level data were sparse for some areas, particularly the El Mirage and Lockhart-Harper Lake (dry) areas. Water levels in wells proximate to the subsiding areas generally declined between 1992 and 1999; water levels in some wells proximate to the subsiding areas experienced seasonal periods of declines and recoveries.

  13. Investigation of land subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region of Texas by using the Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, 1993-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Kasmarek, Mark C.; Brandt, Justin; Middleton, Clifton S.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, groundwater has been the primary source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water supplies for the Houston-Galveston region, Texas. The region's combination of hydrogeology and nearly century-long use of groundwater has resulted in one of the largest areas of subsidence in the United States; by 1979, as much as 3 meters (m) of subsidence had occurred, and approximately 8,300 square kilometers of land had subsided more than 0.3 m. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, used interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data obtained for four overlapping scenes from European remote sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 to analyze land subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region of Texas. The InSAR data were processed into 27 interferograms that delineate and quantify land-subsidence patterns and magnitudes. Contemporaneous data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) were reprocessed by the National Geodetic Survey and analyzed to support, verify, and provide temporal resolution to the InSAR investigation. The interferograms show that the area of historical subsidence in downtown Houston along the Houston Ship Channel has stabilized and that recent subsidence occurs farther west and north of Galveston Bay. Three areas of recent subsidence were delineated along a broad arcuate (bowshaped) feature from Spring, Tex., southwest to Cypress, Tex., and south to Sugar Land, Tex., with subsidence rates ranging from 15 millimeters per year (mm/yr) to greater than 60 mm/yr. Multiyear interferograms near Seabrook, Tex., within the historical subsidence area and nearby Galveston Bay, show several fringes of subsidence (approximately 85 millimeters from January 1996 to December 1997) in the area; however it is difficult to determine the subsidence magnitude near Seabrook because many of the InSAR fringes were truncated or ill-defined. Horizontal and vertical GPS data throughout the area support the InSAR measured subsidence rates and extent. The subsidence rates for a few GPS stations northwest of Houston began to decrease in 2007, which may indicate that subsidence may be decreasing in these areas.

  14. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar observation of vertical land displacement in the vicinity of the All-American Canal at the United States and Mexico border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Joo-Yup

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) provided a synoptic view of the status of groundwater levels in the vicinity of the All-American Canal (AAC) by measuring vertical land displacements. The European Remote Sensing satellite SAR images were used to produce surface deformation maps. The full time period (1992-2000) was divided to two shorter periods (early and late) (1992-97 and 1996-2000). For low coherence areas such as agricultural fields in the Mexicali Valley, Persistent Scatterers InSAR (PSInSAR) was used to detect any deformation signals. The surface deformation maps from InSAR indicated that there were insignificant vertical land displacements in the vicinity of the AAC. However, the surrounding areas of the East Mesa Geothermal Field (EMGF) were subsiding over the full observation period (-38 mm/year). The maximum subsidence rate at the EMGF was reduced by 21% between the early (-43 mm/year) and late (-34 mm/year) periods. The AAC was within the edges of the spatial extent of the EMGF subsidence, especially during the early period, which was associated with a high averaged net geothermal production. The maximum subsidence on the East Highline Canal was -9.5 +/- 0.5 cm and -2.4 +/- 0.8 cm for the early and late periods, respectively. Results from PSInSAR in Mexicali City and the Mexicali Valley showed insignificant displacements. This lack of deformation indicated that there was no measurable surface deformation in the areas, but validation data were not available. The most interesting phenomenon is the high density of persistent scatterers in the areas between the Andrade Mesa and the Mexicali Valley, and the Sand Hills dunes. Forward modeling was conducted to characterize the reservoir zone of the EMGF based on the InSAR displacement over the full time period. Inputs to the model were the maximum subsidence (-3.8 cm) and depth of the reservoir, the radius of the reservoir and Poisson's ratio. An interactive approach was conducted to find the radius of the reservoir and Poisson's ratio. The radius of the EMGF reservoir is between 1,900 m and 2,000 m with Poisson's ratios between 0.180 and 0.205 at a deforming depth of 800 m.

  15. Analysis of the fractal dimension of volcano geomorphology through Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) amplitude images acquired in C and X band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, S.; Di Martino, G.; Iodice, A.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Riccio, D.; Ruello, G.; Sansosti, E.; Tizzani, P.; Zinno, I.

    2012-04-01

    In the last two decades several aspects relevant to volcanic activity have been analyzed in terms of fractal parameters that effectively describe natural objects geometry. More specifically, these researches have been aimed at the identification of (1) the power laws that governed the magma fragmentation processes, (2) the energy of explosive eruptions, and (3) the distribution of the associated earthquakes. In this paper, the study of volcano morphology via satellite images is dealt with; in particular, we use the complete forward model developed by some of the authors (Di Martino et al., 2012) that links the stochastic characterization of amplitude Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images to the fractal dimension of the imaged surfaces, modelled via fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processes. Based on the inversion of such a model, a SAR image post-processing has been implemented (Di Martino et al., 2010), that allows retrieving the fractal dimension of the observed surfaces, dictating the distribution of the roughness over different spatial scales. The fractal dimension of volcanic structures has been related to the specific nature of materials and to the effects of active geodynamic processes. Hence, the possibility to estimate the fractal dimension from a single amplitude-only SAR image is of fundamental importance for the characterization of volcano structures and, moreover, can be very helpful for monitoring and crisis management activities in case of eruptions and other similar natural hazards. The implemented SAR image processing performs the extraction of the point-by-point fractal dimension of the scene observed by the sensor, providing - as an output product - the map of the fractal dimension of the area of interest. In this work, such an analysis is performed on Cosmo-SkyMed, ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT images relevant to active stratovolcanoes in different geodynamic contexts, such as Mt. Somma-Vesuvio, Mt. Etna, Vulcano and Stromboli in Southern Italy, Shinmoe in Japan, Merapi in Indonesia. Preliminary results reveal that the fractal dimension of natural areas, being related only to the roughness of the observed surface, is very stable as the radar illumination geometry, the resolution and the wavelength change, thus holding a very unique property in SAR data inversion. Such a behavior is not verified in case of non-natural objects. As a matter of fact, when the fractal estimation is performed in the presence of either man-made objects or SAR image features depending on geometrical distortions due to the SAR system acquisition (i.e. layover, shadowing), fractal dimension (D) values outside the range of fractality of natural surfaces (2 < D < 3) are retrieved. These non-fractal characteristics show to be heavily dependent on sensor acquisition parameters (e.g. view angle, resolution). In this work, the behaviour of the maps generated starting from the C- and X- band SAR data, relevant to all the considered volcanoes, is analyzed: the distribution of the obtained fractal dimension values is investigated on different zones of the maps. In particular, it is verified that the fore-slope and back-slope areas of the image share a very similar fractal dimension distribution that is placed around the mean value of D=2.3. We conclude that, in this context, the fractal dimension could be considered as a signature of the identification of the volcano growth as a natural process. The COSMO-SkyMed data used in this study have been processed at IREA-CNR within the SAR4Volcanoes project under Italian Space Agency agreement n. I/034/11/0.

  16. Generalized radar/radiometry imaging problems

    E-print Network

    Genève, Université de

    Paper Generalized radar/radiometry imaging problems Ivan Prudyus, Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy, Andriy- ing simulation based on radar, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and radiometry systems are presented systems, synthetic aperture radar, spatio-temporal imaging. 1. Introduction Resolution of radar

  17. Radar Detection using Sparsely Distributed Apertures in Urban Environment

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    Radar Detection using Sparsely Distributed Apertures in Urban Environment Il-Young Sona, Trond in detection performance compared to conventional matched filtering. Keywords: Radar detection, Distributed antenna, Radar data processing, Statistical signal pro- cessing 1. INTRODUCTION Conventional matched

  18. Detection and Measurement of Land Subsidence Using Global Positioning System and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Stork, Sylvia V.; Ikehara, Marti E.

    2002-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in Coachella Valley, California. Since the early 1920s, ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley. Pumping of ground water resulted in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the lower Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels during the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, demand for water in the valley has exceeded deliveries of imported surface water, resulting in increased pumping and associated ground-water-level declines and, consequently, an increase in the potential for land subsidence caused by aquifer-system compaction. The location, extent, and magnitude of the vertical land-surface changes in Coachella Valley between 1998 and 2000 were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods. GPS measurements made at 15 geodetic monuments in the lower Coachella Valley indicate that -34 to +60 millimeters ? 45 millimeters (-0.11 to +0.20 foot ? 0.15 foot) of vertical change in the land surface occurred during the 2-year period. Changes at three of the monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ? 45 millimeters (? 0.15 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, which indicates that small amounts of uplift occurred at these monuments between October 1998 and August 2000. Water-level measurements made at wells near the three uplifted monuments during this 2-year period indicate that the water levels fluctuate seasonally; water-level measurements made at these wells in September 1998 and September 2000 indicate that the water levels rose slightly near two monuments and declined slightly near the third. The relation between the seasonally fluctuating, but fairly stable, water levels between September 1998 and September 2000 and the slight uplift at the monuments may indicate that the water levels are fluctuating in the elastic range of stress and that the preconsolidation stress of the aquifer system was not exceeded during the 2-year period. Results of the InSAR measurements made between June 17, 1998, and October 4, 2000, indicate that land subsidence, ranging from about 40 to 80 millimeters (0.13 to 0.26 foot), occurred in three areas of the Coachella Valley; near Palm Desert, Indian Wells, and La Quinta. Measurements made between June 17, 1998, and June 2, 1999, indicate that about 15 millimeters (0.05 foot) occurred southeast of Lake Cahuilla. All the subsiding areas coincide with or are near areas where ground-water levels declined between 1998 and 2000; some water levels in 2000 were at the lowest levels in their recorded histories. The coincident areas of subsidence and declining water levels suggest that aquifer-system compaction may be causing subsidence. If the stresses imposed by the historically lowest water levels exceeded the preconsolidation stress, the aquifer-system compaction and associated land subsidence may be permanent. Although the localized character of the subsidence signals look typical of the type of subsidence characteristically caused by localized pumping, the subsidence also may be related to tectonic activity in the valley.

  19. Natural and Unnatural Oil Layers on the Surface of the Gulf of Mexico Detected and Quantified in Synthetic Aperture RADAR Images with Texture Classifying Neural Network Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Morey, S. L.; Huffer, F.

    2011-12-01

    Effervescent hydrocarbons rise naturally from hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and reach the ocean surface. This oil forms thin (~0.1 ?m) layers that enhance specular reflectivity and have been widely used to quantify the abundance and distribution of natural seeps using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). An analogous process occurred at a vastly greater scale for oil and gas discharged from BP's Macondo well blowout. SAR data allow direct comparison of the areas of the ocean surface covered by oil from natural sources and the discharge. We used a texture classifying neural network algorithm to quantify the areas of naturally occurring oil-covered water in 176 SAR image collections from the Gulf of Mexico obtained between May 1997 and November 2007, prior to the blowout. Separately we also analyzed 36 SAR images collections obtained between 26 April and 30 July, 2010 while the discharged oil was visible in the Gulf of Mexico. For the naturally occurring oil, we removed pollution events and transient oceanographic effects by including only the reflectance anomalies that that recurred in the same locality over multiple images. We measured the area of oil layers in a grid of 10x10 km cells covering the entire Gulf of Mexico. Floating oil layers were observed in only a fraction of the total Gulf area amounting to 1.22x10^5 km^2. In a bootstrap sample of 2000 replications, the combined average area of these layers was 7.80x10^2 km^2 (sd 86.03). For a regional comparison, we divided the Gulf of Mexico into four quadrates along 90° W longitude, and 25° N latitude. The NE quadrate, where the BP discharge occurred, received on average 7.0% of the total natural seepage in the Gulf of Mexico (5.24 x10^2 km^2, sd 21.99); the NW quadrate received on average 68.0% of this total (5.30 x10^2 km^2, sd 69.67). The BP blowout occurred in the NE quadrate of the Gulf of Mexico; discharged oil that reached the surface drifted over a large area north of 25° N. Performing a similar estimate using 5x5 km grid cells, we observed discharged oil over an area of 1.20x10^5 km^2; 91% of this area was east of 90° W. The average area oil covered water observed in the SAR images was 4.41x104^ km^2, 98% of which was observed in the eastern Gulf. Numerical oil spill model experiments are used to clarify the distinction between the area impacted by the BP oil spill and the surface slicks due to known natural seeps. Natural oil seepage has been cited as a background source of hydrocarbon contamination in the Gulf of Mexico. Our direct comparison shows that during the blowout, the discharged oil impacted an average area two orders of magnitude greater than the entire Gulf total and three orders of magnitude greater than the usual dose received in the northeastern region. Because the layers of discharged oil were often many times thicker than natural seep oil, additional scale factors are required to show the true difference in doses. These differences should be weighed when evaluating the relative impact of natural and unnatural oil in a large marine ecosystem.

  20. The Use of Coincident Synthetic Aperture Radar and Visible Imagery to Aid in the Analysis of Photon-Counting Lidar Data Sets Over Complex Ice/Snow Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horan, Kimberly H.

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-sensor data is becoming increasingly useful as a method of improving our understanding of complex environments, and can be an effective tool in the arsenal to help climate scientists to predict sea level rise due to change in the mass balance of large glaciers in the Arctic and Antarctic. A novel approach to remote sensing of the continuously changing polar environment involves the use of coincident RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and Landsat 7 visible/near-infrared imagery, combined with digital elevation models (DEM) developed from Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL) data sets. MABEL is a scaled down model of the lidar altimeter that will eventually be flown on ICESat-2, and provides dense along-track and moderate slope (cross-track) elevation data over narrow (~198 m) aircraft transects. Because glacial terrain consists of steep slopes, crevices, glacial lakes, and outflow into the sea, accurate slope information is critical to our understanding of any changes that may be happening in the ice sheets. RADARSAT-2 operates in the C-band, at a wavelength of 5.55 cm, and was chosen partly for its ability to image the Earth under all atmospheric conditions, including clouds. The SAR images not only provide spatial context for the elevation data found using the lidar, but also offer key insights into the consistency of the snow and ice making up the glacier, giving us some idea of mean temperature and surface conditions on the ice sheet. Finally, Landsat 7 images provide us with information on the extent of the glacier, and additional understanding of the state of the glacial surface. To aid in the analysis of the three data sets, proper preparation of each data set must first be performed. For the lidar data, this required the development of a new data reduction technique, based on statistical analysis, to reduce the number of received photons to those representing only the surface return. Accordingly, the raw SAR images require calibration, speckle reduction, and geocorrection, before they can be used. Landsat 7 bands are selected to provide the most contrast between rock, snow, and other surface features, and compiled into a three-band red, green, blue (RGB) image. By qualitatively analyzing images and data taken only a short time apart using multiple imaging modalities, we are able to accurately compare glacial surface features to elevation provided by MABEL, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how the glacier is changing over time. Quantitative analysis performed throughout this thesis has indicated that there is a strong correlation between top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance (Landsat 7), sigma,0-calibrated HH and HV polarized backscatter coefficients (RADARSAT-2), elevation (MABEL), and various surface features and glacial zones on the ice sheet. By comparing data from unknown or mixed surfaces to known quantities scientists can effectively estimate the type of glacial zone the area of interest occurs in. Climate scientists can then use this data, along with long-term digital elevations models, as a measure of predicting climate change.

  1. Distributed aperture radar using small satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Molz

    1989-01-01

    Recent work on key technological problems of self-cohering and high-speed processing has led to a concept for distributed space based radar. Experimentally demonstrated self-cohering techniques allow a cluster of small satellites to form a coherent aperture even though the position of each satellite in the cluster is not precisely known. The signal processing of the receive beams has been sized,

  2. Real-time interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    E-print Network

    Bhargava, Rohit

    Real-time interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy Tyler S. Ralston1,2,* , Daniel L. Marks1) system design with real-time 2D cross-sectional processing is described in detail. The system can acquire indistinguishable scattering intensities and provides proof of feasibility for future real-time ISAM systems. ©2008

  3. Detection and measurement of land subsidence using Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Ikehara, Marti E.; Galloway, D.L.; Amelung, Falk

    2001-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been recognized as a potential problem in Coachella Valley, California. Since the early 1920s, ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley, resulting in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the lower Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels from the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, the demand for water in the valley has exceeded the deliveries of imported surface water, again resulting in increased pumping and ground-water-level declines. The magnitude and temporal occurrence of land subsidence in the lower Coachella Valley are not well known; data are sparse and accuracy varies. Also, the area is tectonically active and has subsided during the past several million years, which further complicates interpretations of the data. Land-surface-elevation data have been collected by many agencies using various methods and different geographic scales; because of this, the -150 millimeters (-0.5 foot) of subsidence determined for the southern parts of the valley for 1930-96 may have a possible error of plus or minus (?)90 millimeters (?0.3 foot). The location, extent, and magnitude of vertical land-surface changes from 1996 to 1998 were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods. GPS measurements for 14 monuments in the lower Coachella Valley indicate that the vertical land-surface changes from 1996 to 1998 ranged from -13 to -67 millimeters ? 40 millimeters (-0.04 to -0.22 foot ?0.13 foot). Changes at seven of the monuments exceeded the measurement error of ?40 millimeters (?0.13 foot), which indicates that small amounts of land subsidence occurred at these monuments between 1996 and 1998. Some of the water levels measured in wells near several of these monuments during 1996-98 were the lowest water levels in the recorded histories of the wells. The possible relation between the stresses caused by historically low water levels and the measured vertical changes in land surface suggests that the preconsolidation stress of the aquifer system may have been exceeded during this period and that subsidence may be permanent. Comparisons of several paired monuments and wells indicated that the relation between short-term ground-water-level changes and vertical changes in land surface in the lower Coachella Valley is not clearly defined. Results of InSAR measurements made between 1996 and 1998 indicate that vertical changes in land surface, ranging from about -20 to -70 millimeters ? 5-10 millimeters (-0.07 to -0.23 foot ? 0.02-0.03 foot), occurred in three areas of the Coachella Valley--near Palm Desert, Indian Wells, and Lake Cahuilla. The areas of subsidence near Palm Desert and Indian Wells coincide with areas of substantial ground-water production during 1996-98. The Coachella Valley Water District reported that they had no ground-water production wells in the Lake Cahuilla area but that there may be private production wells in the area. Production from these wells or possibly tectonic activity may be contributing to or causing the subsidence. The geodetic network used for the GPS measurements described in this report covers the area from the Salton Sea on the south to just northwest of Indio. The maps processed using InSAR overlap the part of the geodetic network west of Coachella and north of Lake Cahuilla, and include the Palm Desert area. Both methods of measuring vertical land-surface changes, GPS and InSAR, were used to characterize vertical land-surface changes from the Palm Desert area to the Salton Sea. Because InSAR produces more spatially detailed data over large areas, it generally was useful where vertical land-surface changes were previously unrecognized, such as the

  4. Detection and Measurement of Land Subsidence Using Global Positioning System Surveying and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar, Coachella Valley, California, 1996-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin T.

    2007-01-01

    Land subsidence associated with ground-water-level declines has been investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coachella Valley, California, since 1996. Ground water has been a major source of agricultural, municipal, and domestic supply in the valley since the early 1920s. Pumping of ground water resulted in water-level declines as large as 15 meters (50 feet) through the late 1940s. In 1949, the importation of Colorado River water to the southern Coachella Valley began, resulting in a reduction in ground-water pumping and a recovery of water levels during the 1950s through the 1970s. Since the late 1970s, demand for water in the valley has exceeded deliveries of imported surface water, resulting in increased pumping and associated ground-water-level declines and, consequently, an increase in the potential for land subsidence caused by aquifer-system compaction. Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods were used to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of the vertical land-surface changes in the southern Coachella Valley. GPS measurements made at 13 geodetic monuments in 1996 and in 2005 in the southern Coachella Valley indicate that the elevation of the land surface had a net decline of 333 to 22 millimeters ?58 millimeters (1.1 to 0.07 foot ?0.19 foot) during the 9-year period. Changes at 10 of the 13 monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ?58 millimeters (?0.19 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred at these monuments between June 1996 and August 2005. GPS measurements made at 20 geodetic monuments in 2000 and in 2005 indicate that the elevation of the land surface changed -312 to +25 millimeters ?42 millimeters (-1.0 to +0.08 foot ?0.14 foot) during the 5-year period. Changes at 14 of the 20 monuments exceeded the maximum uncertainty of ?42 millimeters (?0.14 foot) at the 95-percent confidence level, indicating that subsidence occurred at these monuments between August 2000 and August 2005. Eight of the fourteen monuments for which subsidence rates could be compared indicate that subsidence rates increased by as much as a factor of 10 between 2000 and 2005 compared with subsidence rates before 2000. InSAR measurements made between May 7, 2003, and September 25, 2005, indicate that land subsidence, ranging from about 75 to 180 millimeters (0.25 to 0.59 foot), occurred in three areas of the Coachella Valley: near Palm Desert, Indian Wells, and La Quinta; the equivalent subsidence rates range from about 3 to more than 6 mm/month (0.01 to 0.02 ft/month). The subsiding areas near Palm Desert, Indian Wells, and La Quinta were previously identified using InSAR measurements for 1996-2000, which indicated that about 35 to 150 mm (0.11 to 0.49 ft) of subsidence occurred during the four-year period; the equivalent subsidence rates range from about 1 to 3 mm/month (0.003 to 0.01 ft/month). Comparison of the InSAR results indicates that subsidence rates have increased 2 to 4 times since 2000 in these three areas. Water-level measurements made at wells near the subsiding monuments and in the three subsiding areas generally indicated that the water levels fluctuated seasonally and declined annually between 1996 and 2005; some water levels in 2005 were at the lowest levels in their recorded histories. The coincident areas of subsidence and declining water levels suggest that aquifer-system compaction may be causing subsidence. If the stresses imposed by the historically lowest water levels exceeded the preconsolidation stress, the aquifer-system compaction and associated land subsidence may be permanent. Although the localized character of the subsidence signals is typical of the type of subsidence characteristically caused by localized ground-water pumping, the subsidence may also be related to tectonic activity in the valley.

  5. Distributed Coherent Aperture Measurements for Next Generation BMD Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Coutts; K. Cuomo; J. McHarg; F. Robey; D. Weikle

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the distributed coherent aperture work being carried out at MIT Lincoln Laboratory in support of the next generation radar (NGR) program under the direction of the Radar Systems Technology (RST) group within the Missile Defense Agency\\/Advanced Systems (MDA\\/AS) Directorate. The NGR concept achieves transportability and high-radar sensitivity by coherently combining multiple distributed radar apertures in a building

  6. Buried object detection with Synthetic Aperture Sonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Nakamura; Isao Yamaguchi; Toshiaki Tanaka; Yoshinori Hama

    2004-01-01

    This work presents the experimental results of buried objects detection with a prototype Low Frequency Synthetic Aperture Sonar (LF-SAS). The experiment was carried out to ensure motion compensation algorithm and to study the availability of target detection both on the seabed and in the sediments. The experimental system mainly consists of tow-fish and control equipment. The tow-fish has a transducer

  7. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy: Computed Imaging for Scanned Coherent Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brynmor. J.; Marks, Daniel. L.; Ralston, Tyler. S.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen. A.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional image formation in microscopy is greatly enhanced by the use of computed imaging techniques. In particular, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM) allows the removal of out-of-focus blur in broadband, coherent microscopy. Earlier methods, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), utilize interferometric ranging, but do not apply computed imaging methods and therefore must scan the focal depth to acquire extended volumetric images. ISAM removes the need to scan the focus by allowing volumetric image reconstruction from data collected at a single focal depth. ISAM signal processing techniques are similar to the Fourier migration methods of seismology and the Fourier reconstruction methods of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In this article ISAM is described and the close ties between ISAM and SAR are explored. ISAM and a simple strip-map SAR system are placed in a common mathematical framework and compared to OCT and radar respectively. This article is intended to serve as a review of ISAM, and will be especially useful to readers with a background in SAR. PMID:20948975

  8. Adaptive space\\/frequency processing for distributed aperture radars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raviraj Advea; Richard Schneibleb; Robert Mcmillan

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals a preliminary investigation into space-time-waveform adaptive processing for waveform diverse distributed apertures. The large baseline of such a distributed radar results in angular resolution that is orders of magnitude better than resolution of a monolithic system (single large radar) with the same power-aperture. This capability comes at the cost of grating lobes (multistatics with evenly spaced apertures)

  9. Constraining the slip distribution and fault geometry of the Mw 7.9, 3 November 2002, Denali fault earthquake with Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Global Positioning System data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.J.; Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Mw 7.9, Denali fault earthquake (DFE) is the largest continental strike-slip earthquake to occur since the development of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). We use five interferograms, constructed using radar images from the Canadian Radarsat-1 satellite, to map the surface deformation at the western end of the fault rupture. Additional geodetic data are provided by displacements observed at 40 campaign and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) sites. We use the data to determine the geometry of the Susitna Glacier fault, thrusting on which initiated the DFE, and to determine a slip model for the entire event that is consistent with both the InSAR and GPS data. We find there was an average of 7.3 ?? 0.4 m slip on the Susitna Glacier fault, between 1 and 9.5 km depth on a 29 km long fault that dips north at 41 ?? 0.7?? and has a surface projection close to the mapped rupture. On the Denali fault, a simple model with large slip patches finds a maximum of 8.7 ?? 0.7 m of slip between the surface and 14.3 ?? 0.2 km depth. A more complex distributed slip model finds a peak of 12.5 ?? 0.8 m in the upper 4 km, significantly higher than the observed surface slip. We estimate a geodetic moment of 670 ?? 10 ?? 10 18 N m (Mw 7.9), consistent with seismic estimates. Lack of preseismic data resulted in an absence of InSAR coverage for the eastern half of the DFE rupture. A dedicated geodetic InSAR mission could obviate coverage problems in the future.

  10. RFI at L-band in Synthetic Aperture Radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Haken, M.; Wang, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The spectral window at 1.413 GHz (L-band), set aside for passive use only, is critical for passive remote sensing of the earth from space. It is the largest spectral window available in the long wavelength end of the microwave spectrum where measurements are needed to monitor parameters of the surface such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. The sensitivity to these parameters is rapidly lost at higher frequencies and is compromised by the ionosphere and antenna size at lower frequencies. Instruments for remote sensing from space in this spectral window are being developed by NASA (Aquarius) and ESA (SMOS) and are expected to be in orbit in a few years (2006). Although the band at 1.413 GHz is protected for passive use, RFI is a common problem. For example, the synthetic aperture radiometer, ESTAR (L-band, Horizontal polarization), has frequently experienced problems with RFI. During the Southern Great Plains Experiments (1997 and 1999), ESTAR experienced RFI significant enough to warrant changes in flight lines. The largest sources of RFI were identified as originating in airports and a likely source is air traffic control radar. In experiments in the vicinity of Richmond, VA, RFI in the form of periodic spikes was recorded, again suggestive of radar. However, in most cases the sources of the RFI are unknown. RFI is a sufficiently common problem that the first step in processing ESTAR data is a screening for RFI (a filter is used to detect large, rapid changes in brightness). Recently, measurements have been made with a new synthetic aperture radiometer, 2D-STAR. Examples of RFI observed simultaneously with ESTAR and the new synthetic aperture radiometer will be presented. 2D-STAR is an airborne instrument designed to develop the technology of aperture synthesis in two dimensions. It employs dual polarized patch antennas arranged in a cross configuration (+). Synthesis in two dimensions offers the potential for optimal thinning, but because of the wide field of view of the individual antennas it is potentially more susceptible to RFI. The 2D-STAR instrument was flown together with ESTAR in a series of test flights on the NASA P-3 aircraft near the Wallops Flight Facility during the summer of 2002. Both instruments experienced RFI over common locations. Examples will be presented and a comparison between instruments presented.

  11. Three-dimensional imaging using differential synthetic aperture interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Yu; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhi, Ya'nan; Lu, Zhiyong; Xu, Qian; Sun, Zhiwei; Liu, Liren

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) can gain three-dimensional topography with high spatial resolution and height accuracy using across track interferometry[1]. Conventional InSAR produce three-dimensional images from SAR data. But when the working wavelength transit from microwave to optical wave, the transmission antenna and receive antenna become very sensitive to platform vibration and beam quality[2]. Through differential receive antenna formation, we can relax the requirement of platform and laser using synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) concept[3]. Line-of-sight motion constraints are reduced by several orders of magnitude. We introduce two distinctive forms of antenna formation according to the position of interferogram. The first architecture can simplify the interferogram processing and phase extraction algorithm under time-division multiplex operation. The second architecture can process the 2D coordinate and height coordinate at the same time. Using optical diffraction theory, a systematic theory of side-looking SAIL is mathematically formulated and the necessary conditions for assuring a correct phase history are established[4]. Based on optical transformation and regulation of wavefront, a side-looking SAIL of two distinctive architectures is invented and the basic principle, systematic theory, design equations and necessary conditions are presented. It is shown that high height accuracy can be reached and the influences from atmospheric turbulence and unmodeled line-of-sight motion can be automatically compensated.

  12. Varying FM rates in adaptive processing for distributed radar apertures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earnest Lock; Raviraj S. Adve

    2007-01-01

    Previous work in waveform diversity for distributed apertures for target detection has focused largely on orthogonal transmissions. This paper investigates an alternative approach; implementing waveform diversity based on differing slopes of the linear FM pulse to the application of target detection for a distributed radar aperture system in the presence of noise and clutter. This paper add develop the required

  13. An Analysis of Past and Future Changes in the Ice Cover of Two High-Arctic Lakes Based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Landsat Imagery

    E-print Network

    Bradley, Raymond S.

    An Analysis of Past and Future Changes in the Ice Cover of Two High-Arctic Lakes Based on Synthetic Lakes suggests that recent warming in the High Arctic has forced the lakes near a threshold from a state and heat energy between a lake and its surroundings (Adams, 1981). In high-arctic lakes, changes in ice

  14. The effects of aberrations in synthetic aperture systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Hooker III

    1974-01-01

    The effect of optical aberrations on images formed by synthetic aperture optical systems is described in terms of the pupil function, the point spread function, and the transfer function. The synthetic aperture system considered is an array of six circular pupil elements positioned at equal intervals on a circle. The ratio of the synthesized pupil diameter to the diameter of

  15. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing in distributed radar apertures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earnest Lock; Raviraj S. Adve

    2008-01-01

    In previous work, frequency diversity has been shown to be an effective means of exploiting distributed radar apertures. Frequency diversity allows for each transmission to be isolated and processed independently of other frequencies. This paper presents an efficient implementation of a frequency diverse distributed radars, based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), a concept borrowed from wireless communications. OFDM allows

  16. Transient rift opening in response to multiple dike injections in the Manda Hararo rift (Afar, Ethiopia) imaged by time-dependent elastic inversion of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, R.; Socquet, A.; Doin, M.-P.; Jacques, E.; de Chabalier, J.-B.; King, G. C. P.

    2010-09-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data spanning the time intervals separating thirteen dike intrusions in the Manda Hararo-Dabbahu rift (Afar, Ethiopia) from 2005 to 2009 show that transient deformation occurs in the inter-diking period. This deformation can be explained by the presence of seven inflating or deflating pressure sources. By combining the data acquired on four different InSAR tracks, through time-dependent elastic models, we are able to track these deformation modes with a time resolution smaller than 1 month. Sustained deflation of a deep magma reservoir at Dabbahu in the 6 months following the main rifting event of 2005, and slow decelerating post-eruptive re-inflation of two shallow magma reservoirs below Dabbahu and Gabho volcanoes, are monitored. A deflation signal of deep origin on the neighboring rift system is also detected, possibly caused by outflow of material from a preexisting reservoir into the deep plate boundary. In contrast, rapidly evolving deformation is observed at the center of the Manda Hararo rift segment. Transient deformation events are monitored in the weeks/months following the diking events, with pulses of localized rift opening after the dike intrusions, followed by an exponential-like decay of opening rate. This signal may be associated with the replenishment of the central magma reservoir involved in feeding the 2005-2009 dikes. Alternatively, the predominantly horizontal mode of deformation suggests an interaction between the response of the lithosphere to tectonic strain accumulation, and the process of hydraulic connectivity within the central magma plumbing system.

  17. Discrimination of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon region based on multi-polarized L-band airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir M.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Rodrigues, Suzan W. P.; Costa, Francisco R.; Mura, José C.; Gonçalves, Fabrício D.

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the use of multi-polarized L-band images for the identification of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon coast region of northern Brazil. Data were acquired with a SAR R99B sensor from the Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM) on board a Brazilian Air Force jet. Flights took place in the framework of the 2005 MAPSAR simulation campaign, a German-Brazilian feasibility study focusing on a L-band SAR satellite. Information retrieval was based on the recognition of the interaction between a radar signal and shallow-water morphology in intertidal areas, coastal dunes, mangroves, marshes and the coastal plateau. Regarding the performance of polarizations, VV was superior for recognizing intertidal area morphology under low spring tide conditions; HH for mapping coastal environments covered with forest and scrub vegetation such as mangrove and vegetated dunes, and HV was suitable for distinguishing transition zones between mangroves and coastal plateau. The statistical results for the classification maps expressed by kappa index and general accuracy were 83.3% and 0.734 for the multi-polarized color composition (R-HH, G-HV, B-VV), 80.7% and 0.694% for HH, 79.7% and 0.673% for VV, and 77.9% and 0.645% for HV amplitude image. The results indicate that use of multi-polarized L-band SAR is a valuable source of information aiming at the identification and discrimination of distinct geomorphic targets in tropical wetlands.

  18. Resolution of synthetic-aperture imaging through turbulence.

    PubMed

    Karr, Thomas J

    2003-06-01

    A theory is developed for the resolution of an optical synthetic-aperture imaging system viewing an object through an inhomogeneous refractive medium. The inhomogeneities of the propagation medium create errors in the phase history data with resultant space-variant image effects, including geometric distortions and broadening of the impulse response or point-spread function. I relate the intensity-impulse response to the usual wave structure function. I determine the modulation transfer function for synthetic apertures of any size and exposure time, valid whenever the optical bandwidth is small compared with the carrier frequency, and derive the resolution for monostatic and bistatic synthetic apertures, valid whenever the real sampling aperture is small compared with the medium's coherence length. The results take the same form as the well-known turbulence-limited resolution of incoherent, real-aperture imaging with short exposure. Turbulence-limited synthetic-aperture resolution is somewhat better than incoherent real-aperture resolution under the same conditions. Autofocus processing improves synthetic-aperture resolution beyond this limit, and adaptive correction of higher-order phase history errors would improve it further. PMID:12801175

  19. Resolution of synthetic-aperture imaging through turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karr, Thomas J.

    2003-06-01

    A theory is developed for the resolution of an optical synthetic-aperture imaging system viewing an object through an inhomogeneous refractive medium. The inhomogeneities of the propagation medium create errors in the phase history data with resultant space-variant image effects, including geometric distortions and broadening of the impulse response or point-spread function. I relate the intensity-impulse response to the usual wave structure function. I determine the modulation transfer function for synthetic apertures of any size and exposure time, valid whenever the optical bandwidth is small compared with the carrier frequency, and derive the resolution for monostatic and bistatic synthetic apertures, valid whenever the real sampling aperture is small compared with the medium's coherence length. The results take the same form as the well-known turbulence-limited resolution of incoherent, real-aperture imaging with short exposure. Turbulence-limited synthetic-aperture resolution is somewhat better than incoherent real-aperture resolution under the same conditions. Autofocus processing improves synthetic-aperture resolution beyond this limit, and adaptive correction of higher-order phase history errors would improve it further.

  20. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: reconstruction by synthetic aperture

    E-print Network

    Feng, Dazi

    2001-01-01

    We have applied the synthetic-aperture method to linear-scanning microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography in biological tissues. A non-focused ultrasonic transducer was used to receive thermoacoustic signals, to which the delay-and-sum algorithm...

  1. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics R. Snieder,1

    E-print Network

    Snieder, Roel

    Click Here for Full Article Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics Y. Fan,1 R; accepted 7 June 2010; published 9 July 2010. [1] Controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used. Rosenquist (2010), Syn- thetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L13305

  2. Sensor calibration errors in compressive distributed-aperture radar sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter B. Tuuk; Amy C. Sharma

    2011-01-01

    As unmanned platforms become more common, the desire for lightweight, low-power, inexpensive radar systems has increased. One such solution is a distributed-aperture, multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) radar. This allows simple, lightweight antennas to work cooperatively as a larger array. Typically, this setup requires a large amount of communications bandwidth, reducing its utility. Herein, we explore compressed sensing techniques as a solution.

  3. Performance bounds of the phase gradient autofocus algorithm for synthetic aperture ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatt, Phillip; Jacob, Don; Bradford, Bert; Marron, Joe; Krause, Brian

    2009-05-01

    An important issue in synthetic aperture ladar is phase noise mitigation, since phase noise corrupts image quality. There are many phase noise contributors including, residual platform motion, local oscillator phase/frequency instability, atmospheric turbulence, and additive receiver noise. The Phase Gradient Autofocus (PGA) algorithm is a common phase noise correction algorithm utilized in synthetic aperture radar. The Cramer-Rao Lower Bound for the phase-difference estimate variance of PGA can be found in the radar literature. This lower bound describes the precision of the phasedifference estimate between any two pulses as a function of the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR). However, this lower bound does not account for speckle saturation limitations, present in both synthetic aperture ladar and radar. This paper extends the PGA performance theory to include a high CNR saturation term which accounts for speckle decorrelation. This term is shown to be proportional to the ratio of the image spot size to the laser pulse repetition frequency (PRF). This paper also describes impact of PGA estimate variance on image cross-range resolution. We show, given a fixed PRF and fixed PGA phase-difference estimate variance, that resolution initially improves with increasing dwell times but eventually saturates to a level proportional to the product of the PGA estimate variance and the laser PRF.

  4. Spaceborne bistatic synthetic aperture imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Goldstein, R.; Held, D.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of two configurations for a spaceborne bistatic SAR are examined and compared with the properties of a monostatic SAR. The two bistatic configurations considered are a system consisting of an orbiting spaceborne transmitter and a ground receiver and a system consisting of a transmitter on a geostationary satellite and a receiver or receivers on an airborne platform. The properties discussed or analyzed include imaging coordinate system, azimuth and range resolution, azimuth and range ambiguities, and swath width.

  5. Sea slicks classification by synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivero, P.; Biamino, W.; Borasi, M.; Cavagnero, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Loreggia, D.

    2014-10-01

    An automatic system called OSAD (Oil Spill Automatic Detector), able to discriminate oil spills (OS) from similar features (look-alikes - LA) in SAR images, was developed some years ago. Slick detection is based on a probabilistic method (tuned with a training dataset defined by an expert photointerpreter) evaluating radiometric and geometric characteristics of the areas of interest. OSAD also provides wind field by analyzing SAR images. With the aim to completely classify sea slicks, recently a new procedure has been added. Dark areas are identified on the image and the wind is computed inside and outside for every area: if outside wind value is less than a threshold of 2 m/s it is impossible to evaluate if damping is due to a slick. On the other hand, if outside wind is higher than the threshold and the difference between inside and outside the dark area is lower than 1 m/s we consider this reduction as wind fluctuation. Wind difference higher than 1 m/s is interpreted as damping effect due to a slick; therefore the remaining dark spots are split in OS and LA by OSAD. LA are then analyzed and separated in "biogenic" or "anthropogenic" slicks following an analogous procedure. The system performances has been tested on C-band SAR images, in particular on images having spatial resolution so high to examine details near the coastline; the obtained results confirm the efficiency of the algorithm in the classification of four types of signatures usually found on the sea surface.

  6. Synthetic aperture radar correlator phase histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This report supplements the design of the following subsystems: (1) zoom azimuth telescope, zooming range from 3X to 6X. (2) range curvature correcting lenses. (3) Sphero-cylindrical shift lens. (4) Auxiliary lenses (tilted cylinder and matching lens).

  7. The Relationship Between Ocean Surface Structure and the Synthetic Aperature Radar Imagery of Ocean Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel D. Evans

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of ocean waves and the ocean surface structure is discussed. The effects of ocean surface motion on SAR images is given. A generalization of conventional SAR correlation techniques is developed to provide imagery with the minimum possible degradation and distortion. The modeling of such imagery is discussed and an analytically tractable example

  8. Real aperture side-looking airborne radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Lopez

    1983-01-01

    The history and modern evolution of SLAR, its geometry and equations, and the dynamic range problems are considered, in addition to the ways of performing radar imagery. A special technique for image speckle reduction used in the Vigie SLAR is described and illustrated. Calibration strategy is discussed around the following themes: relative or absolute; internal or external; distributed area or

  9. Implementation of swept synthetic aperture imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottenus, Nick; Jakovljevic, Marko; Boctor, Emad; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging of deep targets is limited by the resolution of current ultrasound systems based on the available aperture size. We propose a system to synthesize an extended effective aperture in order to improve resolution and target detectability at depth using a precisely-tracked transducer swept across the region of interest. A Field II simulation was performed to demonstrate the swept aperture approach in both the spatial and frequency domains. The adaptively beam-formed system was tested experimentally using a volumetric transducer and an ex vivo canine abdominal layer to evaluate the impact of clutter-generating tissue on the resulting point spread function. Resolution was improved by 73% using a 30.8 degree sweep despite the presence of varying aberration across the array with an amplitude on the order of 100 ns. Slight variations were observed in the magnitude and position of side lobes compared to the control case, but overall image quality was not significantly degraded as compared by a simulation based on the experimental point spread function. We conclude that the swept aperture imaging system may be a valuable tool for synthesizing large effective apertures using conventional ultrasound hardware.

  10. Detection/Tracking of moving targets with synthetic aperture Gregory E. Newstadta, Edmund Zelniob, LeRoy Gorhamb, and Alfred O. Hero IIIa

    E-print Network

    Hero, Alfred O.

    moving targets with airborne radar is a problem that has drawn considerable interest from bothDetection/Tracking of moving targets with synthetic aperture radars Gregory E. Newstadta, Edmund for small patches within the field of view. Probability densities are derived as priors on the moving target

  11. Space-Time-Waveform Adaptive Processing for Frequency Diverse Distributed Radar Apertures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raviraj S. Adve; Lorne Applebaum; Michael C. Wicks; Richard A. Schneible

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the field of adaptive processing for frequency diverse, distributed, radar apertures. The large baseline of such a distributed radar results in angular resolution that is orders of magnitude better than the resolution of a single large radar. This capability comes at the cost of grating lobes (multistatics with evenly spaced apertures) or high sidelobes

  12. Synthetic aperture interferometric microwave radiometry for remote sensing of mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Robert J.; Bender, Robert L.; Stratton, Suzanne R.

    1999-08-01

    A study was conducted for the use of a synthetic aperture interferometric radiometer for mine detection at near-field ranges using a two-element, 1.4-GHz laboratory prototype. Images are presented of an aluminum plate buried at different depths, generate using a backpropagation technique. The parameters required for mine detection are also discussed.

  13. Synthetic aperture interferometric microwave radiometry for remote sensing of mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Tan; Robert L. Bender; Suzanne R. Stratton

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted for the use of a synthetic aperture interferometric radiometer for mine detection at near-field ranges using a two-element, 1.4-GHz laboratory prototype. Images are presented of an aluminum plate buried at different depths, generate using a backpropagation technique. The parameters required for mine detection are also discussed.

  14. Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Inversion for Arbitrary Flight Trajectories

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Inversion for Arbitrary Flight Trajectories Can Evren Yarman, Birsen knowledge, the acquisition geometry of bistatic SAR studies for the case of poor antenna directivity for bistatic SAR (Bi-SAR).10 In particular, we present a new filtered-backprojection (FBP) type Bi

  15. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: Reconstruction by synthetic aperture

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lihong

    Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: Reconstruction by synthetic aperture Dazi Feng, Yuan thermoacoustic signals, to which the delay-and-sum algorithm was applied for image reconstruc- tion. We greatly-induced thermoacoustic tomography based on focused transducers. Two mi- crowave sources, which had frequencies of 9 and 3

  16. In-vivo synthetic aperture flow imaging in medical ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetoslav Ivanov Nikolov; Jmgen Arendt Jensen

    2003-01-01

    A new method for acquiring flow images using synthetic aperture techniques in medical ultrasound is presented. The new approach makes it possible to have a continuous acquisition of flow data throughout the whole image simultaneously, and this can significantly improve blood velocity estimation. Any type of filter can be used for discrimination between tissue and blood flow without initialization, and

  17. RFI at L-band in synthetic aperture radiometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Le Vine; M. Haken

    2003-01-01

    The spectral window at 1.413 GHz (L-band) is critical for passive remote sensing of soil moisture and sea surface salinity. Although this band is protected for passive use, RFI is a common problem. The problem is exacerbated for synthetic aperture radiometers which tend to use relatively small antennas with a wide field of view. Examples are presented here from observations

  18. BATHYMETRY RECONSTRUCTION FOR A FREE-TOWED SYNTHETIC APERTURE SONAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Barclay; M. P. Hayes; P. T. Gough

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses bathymetric image reconstruc- tion for a Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) with an em- phasis on interferometric phase errors. The effect of misregistration between the receivers is shown to be the dominant source of error and is corrected by estimat- ing the time delay between receivers at each range bin. Results are shown for a simulated seafloor.

  19. Concepts for synthetic aperture sonar performance prediction and mission planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Campbell; E. Chang

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) is an emerging technology capable of providing high resolution sea floor imaging. One remarkable property of SAS is that its azimuthal resolution is theoretically independent of range and wavelength. Consequently SAS is particularly well suited for classifying bottom mines at standoff ranges. SAS processing technology has matured sufficiently in the recent years that it is now

  20. Region-Enhanced Imaging for Sparse-Aperture Passive Radar Mujdat Cetina and Aaron D. Lantermanb

    E-print Network

    Çetin, Müjdat

    results using data based on electromagnetic simulations. Keywords: Passive radar, multistatic radar. Such passive multistatic radar systems have been developed to detect and track aircraft. If one couldRegion-Enhanced Imaging for Sparse-Aperture Passive Radar M¨ujdat C¸etina and Aaron D. Lantermanb a

  1. Space-Time-Waveform Adaptive Processing for Frequency Diverse Distributed Radar Apertures

    E-print Network

    Adve, Raviraj

    in such a multistatic radar results in extremely narrow antenna beams, in turn providing angular resolution orders discusses a waveform diverse multistatic radar. Consider a distributed radar system comprising NSpace-Time-Waveform Adaptive Processing for Frequency Diverse Distributed Radar Apertures Raviraj S

  2. Synthetic aperture imaging by scanning acoustic microscopy with vector contrast

    PubMed

    Ndop; Kim; Grill; Pluta

    2000-03-01

    Based on phase sensitive scanning acoustic microscopy (PSAM), a novel scheme suitable for volume imaging has been developed. The method employs synthetic aperture insonification combined with synthetic aperture imaging. Excitation and detection are performed by planar scanning of two focusing transducer and vector (phase and amplitude) detectors for the ultrasonic wave packages observed in transmission. Examples for applications of the scheme, including technically relevant simplifications based on reduced dimensions of the scan ranges, are presented. Detection schemes already applied for non-destructive testing (NDT) and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of the mechanical properties of functionally graded materials are an example for the application of the generalised approach presented here with reduced dimensions of the scan. The technique is suitable for NDT and NDE imaging respectively with three-dimensional resolution. PMID:10829651

  3. An algorithm for inverse synthetic aperture imaging lidar based on sparse signal representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, X. Z.; Sun, X. M.

    2014-12-01

    In actual applications of inverse synthetic aperture imaging lidar, the issue of sparse aperture data arises when continuous measurements are impossible or the collected data during some periods are not valid. Hence, the imaging results obtained by traditional methods are limited by high sidelobes. Considering the sparse structure of actual target space in high frequency radar application, a novel imaging method based on sparse signal representation is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the range image is acquired by traditional pulse compression of the optical heterodyne process. Then, the redundant dictionary is constructed through the sparse azimuth sampling positions and the signal form after the range compression. Finally, the imaging results are obtained by solving an ill-posed problem based on sparse regularization. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Laboratory demonstrations of interferometric and spotlight synthetic aperture ladar techniques.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Stephen; Barber, Zeb W

    2012-10-22

    A variety of synthetic-aperture ladar (SAL) imaging techniques are investigated on a table-top laboratory setup using an ultra-broad bandwidth (>3 THz) actively linearized chirp laser centered at 1.55 microns. Stripmap and spotlight mode demonstrations of SAL in monstatic and bistatic geometries are presented. Interferometric SAL for 3D topographical relief imaging is demonstrated highlighting the coherent properties of the SAL imaging technique. PMID:23187186

  5. WIDE AREA, FINE RESOLUTION SAR FROM MULTI-APERTURE RADAR ARRAYS

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    WIDE AREA, FINE RESOLUTION SAR FROM MULTI-APERTURE RADAR ARRAYS James M. Stiles(1) and Nathan A affecting clutter rank. If a sufficient number of spatial elements are available, a SAR image can be formed on traditional (single aperture) SAR. However, in a multi- aperture design, this total area does not determine

  6. Adaptive Space/Frequency Processing for Distributed Aperture Radars Raviraj Advea

    E-print Network

    Adve, Raviraj

    or orthogonal signals). Multistatic radars can provide significantly improved target tracking and interferenceAdaptive Space/Frequency Processing for Distributed Aperture Radars Raviraj Advea , Richard baseline of such a distributed radar results in angular resolution that is orders of magnitude better than

  7. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Imaging Using Synthetic Aperture Focusing and Holographical Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Joseph Tobias

    2005-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) methods have shown great potential for determining material composition in composite structures, determining material thickness or debond thickness between two layers, and determining the location and size of flaws, defects, and anomalies. The same testing methods have also shown great potential to produce relatively high-resolution images of voids inside Spray On Foam Insulation (SOFI) test panels using real focused methods employing lens antennas. An alternative to real focusing methods are synthetic focusing methods. The essence of synthetic focusing is to match the phase of the scattered signal to measured points spaced regularly on a plane. Many variations of synthetic focusing methods have already been developed for radars, ultrasonic testing applications, and microwave concealed weapon detection. Two synthetic focusing methods were investigated; namely, a) frequency-domain synthetic aperture focusing technique (FDSAFT), and b) wide-band microwave holography. These methods were applied towards materials whose defects were of low dielectric contrast like air void in SOFI. It is important to note that this investigation used relatively low frequencies from 8.2 GHz to 26.5 GHz that are not conducive for direct imaging of the SOFI. The ultimate goal of this work has been to demonstrate the capability of these methods before they are applied to much higher frequencies such as the millimeter wave frequency spectrum (e.g., 30-300 GHz).

  8. GNSS-based passive airborne radar: hybrid-aperture sensing and airborne test plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Randall; Suarez, Hernan; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Yih-Ru; Tyler, Mansur

    2014-05-01

    The past two decades has witnessed a renaissance in passive radar research. One of the areas of research in passive radar that has received recent attention is the use of reflected GNSS signals as the signal-of-opportunity for bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BSAR), known as space-surface BSAR (SS-BSAR) [1-7]. SS-BSAR is unique because it uses GNSS signals, which, in the case of the US owned and operated Global Positioning System (GPS), provide almost constant coverage to almost the entire earth [8-10]. Furthermore, the GPS satellites transmit left and right-hand circularly polarized signals combined during transmission to form a right-hand circularly polarized (RHCP) signal; the benefits being, when compared to horizontal or vertical polarized waveforms, is the signal reflection re-radiates in the opposite, or left-hand circularly polarized (LHCP), polarization with signal loss ranging from 15 to 20 dB [5, 10]. One major drawback to using GPS as the signal-of-opportunity is that the received signal level is extremely low, and lower when reflected (see Table 1).

  9. Diffraction-limited performance and aberration tolerance of a sparse optical synthetic aperture imaging system with four sub-apertures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengqian Wang; Changhui Rao; Wenhan Jiang

    2008-01-01

    An investigation is made for a four-aperture, sparse optical synthetic aperture imaging system. The characteristics of both the diffraction-limited performance and the effects of aberrations on this system are obtained. According to the coverage range of optical transfer function, the space distribution's restrictive condition of sub-apertures and the diffraction-limited performance are deduced. The wavefront aberrations are classed as three types

  10. Initial Images of the Synthetic Aperture Radiometer 2D-STAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initial results obtained using a new synthetic aperture radiometer, 2D-STAR, a dual polarized, L-band radiometer that employs aperture synthesis in two dimensions are presented and analyzed. This airborne instrument is the natural evolution of a previous design that employed employs aperture synthes...

  11. Target detection and identification using synthetic aperture acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Mary; Tantum, Stacy; Collins, Leslie

    2014-05-01

    Recent research has shown that synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) imaging may be useful for object identification. The goal of this work is to use SAA information to detect and identify four types of objects: jagged rocks, river rocks, small concave capped cylinders, and large concave capped cylinders. More specifically, we examine the use of frequency domain features extracted from the SAA images. We utilize Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for target detection, where an SVM is trained on target and non-target (background) examples for each target type. Assuming perfect target detection, we then compare multivariate Gaussian models for target identification. Experimental results show that SAA-based frequency domain features are able to detect and identify the four types of objects.

  12. Partially coherent illumination in full-field interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    E-print Network

    Bhargava, Rohit

    Partially coherent illumination in full-field interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy Daniel and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) systems employing full-field frequency-scanned illumination for ISAM has been found for many scanning geometries and types of illumination, including low [3] and high

  13. Increasing the sensitivity of controlled-source electromagnetics with synthetic aperture

    E-print Network

    Snieder, Roel

    Increasing the sensitivity of controlled-source electromagnetics with synthetic aperture Y. Fan1 Controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a derisking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration indus- try. We apply the concept of synthetic aperture to the low- frequency electromagnetic field

  14. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: tissue structure inferred by computed imaging techniques

    E-print Network

    Bhargava, Rohit

    Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: tissue structure inferred by computed imaging Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM)1 is an optical microscopy computed-imaging technique for measuring and muscle using a real-time implementation of ISAM in conjunction with a clinical cart Optical Coherence

  15. Waveform design for distributed aperture in through-the-wall radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fauzia Ahmad; Moeness G. Amin

    2009-01-01

    Distributed aperture allows the implementation of matched illumination waveform design for improved target detection in through-the-wall radar imaging and sensing applications. We consider a multistatic radar system for detection of stationary targets with known impulse responses behind walls. The stationary and slowly moving nature of typical indoor targets relaxes the orthogonality requirement on the waveforms, thereby allowing sequential transmissions from

  16. Emerging technology of synthetic aperture focusing for ultrasonic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, L. J.; Doctor, S. R.; Collins, H. D.

    1984-06-01

    The capabilities of synthetic aperture focusing techniques for ultrasonic testing (SAFT-UT) as a nondestructive testing technique are presented. SAFT-UT is a digital ultrasonic imaging method, which can be adapted to many different materials, specimen geometries, and wave propagation modes. The process allows each point within the inspected volume to be focused upon by mathematically simulating the action of a lens, specifically formed for imaging that point in the volume. All points are therefore imaged at the maximum available resolution. The PNL effort in SAFT-UT is a continuation of a program started earlier by the NRC at the University of Michigan. The objectives of the present program are: (1) to engineer and evaluate a real-time flaw detection and imaging system based on SAFT-UT for inservice inspection of all required LWR components; (2) to establish calibration and field test procedures; (3) to demonstrate and validate the system through field reactor inspections, and (4) to gain ASME Code acceptance of the real-time SAFT-UT technique.

  17. Title: Satellite Radar Interferometry in the Earth Sciences Instructor: Falk Amelung

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    Title: Satellite Radar Interferometry in the Earth Sciences Instructor: Falk Amelung Credits: 3 Description of course: Spaceborne interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has become an important. This course will review the principles of radar, of synthetic aperture radar of interferometric

  18. Radar Signatures of Sahelian Surfaces in Mali Using ENVISAT-ASAR Data

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Terms--Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR), ENVISAT, global monitoring, radar, sahel, soil moistureRadar Signatures of Sahelian Surfaces in Mali Using ENVISAT-ASAR Data Frédéric Baup, Eric Mougin an analysis of ENSIVAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar data acquired over a Sahe- lian region located

  19. SAR Imaging from Partial-Aperture Data with Frequency-Band Omissions

    E-print Network

    Willsky, Alan S.

    and multistatic imaging. One scenario is a bistatic/multistatic radar operation, in which a distant standoff," demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Keywords: synthetic aperture radar, wide-angle imaging Traditional image formation techniques for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) rely on data on a narrow

  20. Millimeter Wave Synthetic Aperture Imaging System with a Unique Rotary Scanning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghasr, M. T.; Case, J. T.; McClanahan, A. D.; Abou-Khousa, M.; Guinn, K.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Afaki-Beni, A.; DePaulis, F.; Pommerenke, D.

    2008-01-01

    This is the video that accompanies the "Millimeter Wave Synthetic Aperture Imaging System with a Unique Rotary Scanning System" presentation. It shows the operation of the scanning system, and reviews the results of the scanning of a sample.

  1. Demonstration of the Detection of Buried Mines with Real-Aperture Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Craddock; E. McCutcheon; R. Benjamin; G. N. Crisp

    2001-01-01

    Recent work by the authors has produced a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system for the detection of buried landmines. This system employs a number of novel synthetic focusing concepts in order to optimize the resolution and anti-clutter performance of the radar. Previous contributions have described the focusing principle and herein these concepts are only briefly restated, before moving on to

  2. Obtaining an approximation to radio-brightness distribution from observations using synthetic-aperture systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Koniukov

    1983-01-01

    Methods for processing synthetic-aperture data in order to obtain radio-brightness distributions are examined. It is shown that the most flexible and universal method is that based on the solution of Kantorovich's problem of moments. The advantages of this approach include insensitivity to the type of interferometer used in the synthetic-aperture system, the evaluation of noise effects on interferometer response, and

  3. In vivo real-time volumetric synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten F.; Brandt, Andreas H.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2015-03-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological. This paper investigates the in vivo applicability and sensitivity of volumetric SA imaging. Utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual point sources, a frame rate of 25 Hz for a 90° × 90° field-of-view was achieved. data were obtained using a 3.5 MHz 32 × 32 elements 2-D phased array transducer connected to the experimental scanner (SARUS). Proper scaling is applied to the excitation signal such that intensity levels are in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for in vivo ultrasound imaging. The measured Mechanical Index and spatial-peak-temporal-average intensity for parallel beam-forming (PB) are 0.83 and 377.5mW/cm2, and for SA are 0.48 and 329.5mW/cm2. A human kidney was volumetrically imaged with SA and PB techniques simultaneously. Two radiologists for evaluation of the volumetric SA were consulted by means of a questionnaire on the level of details perceivable in the beam-formed images. The comparison was against PB based on the in vivo data. The feedback from the domain experts indicates that volumetric SA images internal body structures with a better contrast resolution compared to PB at all positions in the entire imaged volume. Furthermore, the autocovariance of a homogeneous area in the in vivo SA data, had 23.5% smaller width at the half of its maximum value compared to PB.

  4. Detection performance analysis for MIMO radar with distributed apertures in Gaussian colored noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Guan; Yong Huang

    2009-01-01

    This paper establishes the classic linear model of signal of the MIMO radar system with distributed apertures. Based on this\\u000a model, the design principle and detection performance of MIMO radar detector is investigated under conditions of Gaussian\\u000a colored noise and partially correlated observation channels. First, the research on design principle of detector shows that\\u000a the clutter suppression and matched filtering

  5. ESTAR: a synthetic aperture microwave radiometer for remote sensing applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID M. LE VINE; ANDREW J. GRIFFIS; CALVIN T. SWIFT; THOMAS J. JACKSON

    1994-01-01

    ESTAR represents a new technology being developed for passive microwave remote sensing of the environment from space. The instrument employs an interferometric technique called aperture synthesis in which the coherent product from pairs of antennas is measured as a function of pair spacing. Substantial reductions in the antenna aperture needed for a given spatial resolution can be achieved with this

  6. Bandwidth assignment for target tracking in coherent distributed aperture radar networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Deaett; Leonid Naimark

    2010-01-01

    Multiple target tracking using networks of coherently integrated radar apertures is a current research topic that promises improved tracking accuracy and more efficient system implementations. The design of such tracking systems is complicated by the multiple subsystem functions involved in overall system performance. The separate isolated design of these functions results in suboptimal system performance. In this paper we consider

  7. Observations of the marine environment from spaceborne side-looking real aperture radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalmykov, A. I.; Velichko, S. A.; Tsymbal, V. N.; Kuleshov, Yu. A.; Weinman, J. A.; Jurkevich, I.

    1993-01-01

    Real aperture, side looking X-band radars have been operated from the Soviet Cosmos-1500, -1602, -1766 and Ocean satellites since 1984. Wind velocities were inferred from sea surface radar scattering for speeds ranging from approximately 2 m/s to those of hurricane proportions. The wind speeds were within 10-20 percent of the measured in situ values, and the direction of the wind velocity agreed with in situ direction measurements within 20-50 deg. Various atmospheric mesoscale eddies and tropical cyclones were thus located, and their strengths were inferred from sea surface reflectivity measurements. Rain cells were observed over both land and sea with these spaceborne radars. Algorithms to retrieve rainfall rates from spaceborne radar measurements were also developed. Spaceborne radars have been used to monitor various marine hazards. For example, information derived from those radars was used to plan rescue operations of distressed ships trapped in sea ice. Icebergs have also been monitored, and oil spills were mapped. Tsunamis produced by underwater earthquakes were also observed from space by the radars on the Cosmos 1500 series of satellites. The Cosmos-1500 satellite series have provided all weather radar imagery of the earths surface to a user community in real time by means of a 137.4 MHz Automatic Picture Transmission channel. This feature enabled the radar information to be used in direct support of Soviet polar maritime activities.

  8. Detection of ocean wave groupiness from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Nieto Borge; S. Lehner; A. Niedermeier; J. Schulz-Stellenfleth

    2004-01-01

    In recent years a number of remote sensing techniques capable to provide two-dimensional information of the sea surface have been applied to describe sea states. This information is obtained from the estimation of the directional wave number spectrum. However, the wave number spectrum is not sufficient for a complete description of sea states. The analysis of some phenomena such as

  9. MEASUREMENT OF SOIL MOISTURE WITH SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR1

    E-print Network

    Kerekes, John

    Laboratory MassachusettsInstituteof Technology ABSTRACT An experiment was performed in Northern Maine recently to evaluate the area on two days and at three different depression angles collecting a multifrequency and multiangle caused problems, a proportional relationship was observed between the backscatter coefficient

  10. Synthetic aperture radar observations of the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, K.; Crawford, J. P.; Bindschadler, R.; Drinkwater, M. R.; Kwok, R.

    1990-01-01

    Results of preliminary analyses of aircraft polarimetric SAR data acquired over the Greenland Ice Sheet are presented. Data were collected in August 1989 by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) multifrequency, polarimetric SAR using the NASA DC-8 aircraft over southern Greenland. Data of this kind are the first to be acquired over an ice sheet. They are complementary to the limited coverage provided by the SEASAT satellite SAR in 1978, and more recent aircraft X-band SAR image coverage. Frequency and polarization dependencies observed in the P-, L-, and C-band image products are attributed to large-scale variations in the snow and ice surface characteristics. At this time of year, during the ablation season, ice topography exerts a strong influence upon drainage and other hydrological features on the ice sheet surface. Systematic trends in backscatter strength observed across regions of changing snow facies are suggestive of a capability to map areas of snow wetness. Trends observed at C-band indicate that algorithms could possibly be developed which have the ability to delineate areas of significant melt.

  11. Monitoring coastal inundation with Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Rangoonwala, Amina; Ramsey, Elijah W., III

    2011-01-01

    When mapping day-to-day coastal inundation extents, results indicate that SAR systems operating at C-band frequencies are not as effective as those operating at L-band frequencies; however, multiple factors not related to frequency also reduced the effectiveness of C-Band in detecting subcanopy inundation. C-band has performed and continues to perform exceedingly well in applications for response to dramatic events and when strategic collections are available; however, L-band seems to be more suitable for day-to-day mapping of coastal inundation.

  12. Volcanology: lessons learned from synthetic aperture radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinel, Virginie; Poland, Michael P.; Hooper, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years of continuous Earth observation by satellite SAR have resulted in numerous new insights into active volcanism, including a better understanding of subsurface magma storage and transport, deposition of volcanic materials on the surface, and the structure and development of volcanic edifices. This massive archive of data has resulted in fundamental leaps in our understanding of how volcanoes work – for example, identifying magma accumulation at supposedly quiescent volcanoes, even in remote areas or in the absence of ground-based data. In addition, global compilations of volcanic activity facilitate comparison of deformation behavior between different volcanic arcs and statistical evaluation of the strong link between deformation and eruption. SAR data are also increasingly used in timely hazard evaluation thanks to decreases in data latency and growth in processing and analysis techniques. The existing archive of SAR imagery is on the cusp of being enhanced by a new generation of satellite SAR missions, in addition to ground-based and airborne SAR systems, which will provide enhanced temporal and spatial resolution, broader geographic coverage, and improved availability of data to the scientific community. Now is therefore an opportune time to review the contributions of SAR imagery to volcano science, monitoring, and hazard mitigation, and to explore the future potential for SAR in volcanology. Provided that the ever-growing volume of SAR data can be managed effectively, we expect the future application of SAR data to expand from being a research tool for analyzing volcanic activity after the fact, to being a monitoring and research tool capable of imaging a wide variety of processes on different temporal and spatial scales as those processes are occurring. These data can then be used to develop new models of how volcanoes work and to improve quantitative forecasts of volcanic activity as a means of mitigating risk from future eruptions.

  13. Multifrequency synthetic aperture radar antenna comparison study. [for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Three multifrequency, dual polarization SAR antenna designs are reviewed. The SAR antenna design specifications were for a "straw man' SAR which would approximate the requirements for projected shuttle-based SAR's. Therefore, the physical dimensions were constrained to be compatible with the space shuttle. The electrical specifications were similar to those of SIR-A and SIR-B with the addition of dual polarization and the addition of C and X band operation. Early in the antenna design considerations, three candidate technologies emerged as having promise. They were: (1) microstrip patch planar array antennas, (2) slotted waveguide planar array antennas, and (3) open-ended waveguide planar array antennas.

  14. GPU-accelerated synthetic aperture radar backprojection in CUDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Fasih; Timothy Hartley

    2010-01-01

    Pleasingly parallel algorithms such as filtered back-projection have been documented to enjoy significant speedups when ported to run on a graphics processor instead of a standard CPU. Presented here is a two-dimensional SAR backprojection implementation for a single GPU using the NVIDIA CUDA framework. Given that input range projections may be too large to fit in graphics memory, our implementation

  15. Space-Time Adaptive Processing for Distributed Aperture Radars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raviraj S. Adve; Richard A. Schneible; Michael C. Wicks; Robert McMillan

    This paper furthers the development of signal pro- cessing for distributed, waveform diverse, antenna ar- rays. The long term goal is to develop practical waveform-time-space adaptive processing algorithms for distributed apertures. A crucial issue identified in previous works is that, in practice, the target and interfering sources are within the near-field of the an- tenna array. As a first step

  16. Nonparaxial vector-field modeling of optical coherence tomography and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brynmor J. Davis; Simon C. Schlachter; Daniel L. Marks; Tyler S. Ralston; Stephen A. Boppart; P. Scott Carney

    2007-01-01

    A large-aperture, electromagnetic model for coherent microscopy is presented and the inverse scattering prob- lem is solved. Approximations to the model are developed for near-focus and far-from-focus operations. These approximations result in an image-reconstruction algorithm consistent with interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM): this validates ISAM processing of optical-coherence-tomography and optical-coherence- microscopy data in a vectorial setting. Numerical simulations confirm that

  17. Application of a matched filter approach for finite aperture transducers for the synthetic aperture imaging of defects.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayan, L; Muralidharan, Ajith; Krishnamurthy, Chittivenkata; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2010-06-01

    The suitability of the synthetic aperture imaging of defects using a matched filter approach on finite aperture transducers was investigated. The first part of the study involved the use a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm to simulate the phased array ultrasonic wave propagation in an aluminum block and its interaction with side-drilled hole-like defects. B-scans were generated using the FDTD method for three active aperture transducer configurations of the phased array (a) single element and (b) 16-element linear scan mode, and (c) 16-element steering mode. A matched filter algorithm (MFA) was developed using the delay laws and the spatial impulse response of a finite size rectangular phased array transducer. The conventional synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) algorithm and the MFA were independently applied on the FDTD signals simulated with the probe operating at a center frequency of 5 MHz and the processed B-scans were compared. The second part of the study investigated the capability of the MFA approach to improve the SNR. Gaussian white noise was added to the FDTD generated defect signals. The noisy B-scans were then processed using the SAFT and the MFA and the improvements in the SNR were estimated. The third part of the study investigated the application of the MFA to image and size surface-crack-like defects in pipe specimens obtained using a 45 degrees steered beam from a phased array probe. These studies confirm that MFA is an alternative to SAFT with little additional computational burden. It can also be applied blindly, like SAFT, to effect synthetic focusing with distinct advantages in treating finite transducer effects, and in handling steered beam inspections. Finally, limitations of the MFA in dealing with larger-sized transducers are discussed. PMID:20529712

  18. Operations Manager Tim Miller checks out software for the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Tim Miller checks out software for the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). He was the AIRSAR operations manager for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The AIRSAR produces imaging data for a range of studies conducted by the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  19. Radar: The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Elachi; M. D. Allison; L. Borgarelli; P. Encrenaz; E. Im; M. A. Janssen; W. T. K. Johnson; R. L. Kirk; R. D. Lorenz; J. I. Lunine; D. O. Muhleman; S. J. Ostro; G. Picardi; F. Posa; C. G. Rapley; L. E. Roth; R. Seu; L. A. Soderblom; S. Vetrella; S. D. Wall; C. A. Wood; H. A. Zebker

    2004-01-01

    The Cassini RADAR instrument is a multimode 13.8 GHz multiple-beam sensor that can operate as a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imager, altimeter, scatterometer, and radiometer. The principal objective of the RADAR is to map the surface of Titan. This will be done in the imaging, scatterometer, and radiometer modes. The RADAR altimeter data will provide information on relative elevations in selected

  20. Prototype development of a Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer, GeoSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, A. B.; Wilson, W. J.; Kangaslahti, P. P.; Lambrigsten, B. H.; Dinardo, S. J.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Ruf, C. S.; Rogacki, S.; Gross, S. M.; Musko, S.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary details of a 2-D synthetic aperture radiometer prototype operating from 50 to 55 GHz will be presented. The laboratory prototype is being developed to demonstrate the technologies and system design needed to do millimeter-wave atmospheric soundings with high spatial resolution from Geostationary orbit. The concept is to deploy a large thinned aperture Y-array on a geostationary satellite, and to use aperture synthesis to obtain images of the Earth without the need for a large mechanically scanned antenna. The laboratory prototype consists of a Y-array of 24 horn antennas, MMIC receivers, and a digital cross-correlation sub-system.

  1. Near-field synthetic aperture interferometric microwave radiometry for remote sensing of mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Tan; Robert Bender

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted for the use of a synthetic aperture interferometric radiometer (SAIR) for mine detection at near-field ranges using a 1.4-GHz laboratory prototype. Images of a buried aluminum plate, generated using a backprojection technique, are presented and compared to theory

  2. PERFORMANCE SIMULATIONS FOR A SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADIOMETER MEASURING PEAK SURFACE WIND SPEED IN HURRICANES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruba Amarin; Christopher Ruf; James Johnson; W. Linwood Jones

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a multi-frequency microwave radiometer at C-band that uses synthetic aperture thinned array technology to create a wide swath version of the proven Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) (1) that will provide complete images of ocean surface winds and rain in hurricanes. This technology is currently under development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

  3. Initial Results In The Development Of A Synthetic Aperture Microwave Radiometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID M. LE VINE; MICHAEL KAO; C. T. Swift; A. Griffis; A. B. Tanner

    1990-01-01

    Abstruct-The Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Massachusetts have been developing a synthetic aperture radiometer for microwave remote sensing of the earth. The radiometer measures the complex correlation of the voltage from pairs of antennas at many different baselines. Each baseline produces a sample point in the Fourier transform of the scene, and a map of the scene

  4. A Prototype Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR) for Atmospheric Temperature Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Alan B.; Lambrigsten, B. H.; Brown, S. T.; Wilson, W. J.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Ruf, C. S.; Lim, B.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of a prototype Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR) for atmospheric temperature sounding is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview; 2) Requirements & Error allocations; 3) Design; 4) Problems, and How We Solved Them; and 5) Results

  5. Performance Improvement of Algorithms Based on the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, P.; Sotomayor, A.; Moreno, E.

    An analysis to improve the performance of the ultrasonic synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) on a PC platform is presented in this paper. Some useful processing techniques like apodization, dynamic focusing, envelope detection and image composition are used to improve the quality of the image. Finally, results of the algorithm implemented using MATLAB and C/C++ and the respective images are presented

  6. Using synthetic aperture lensless Fourier digital holography to enhance DMD display holographic reconstructed image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Te Hu; Xiao-Fan Qian

    2011-01-01

    A signification characteristic is found by analyzing lensless Fourier digital hologram and synthetic aperture holography that is the imaging surface of reconstructed image of lensless Fourier digital hologram just is focus plane of positive lens that is unrelated with wavelength of restruction and recording and their ratio. The nature is propitious to resolve the problem of DMD display caused by

  7. SEPARABLE BEAMFORMING FOR 3-D SYNTHETIC APERTURE ULTRASOUND IMAGING Ming Yang, Richard Sampson*

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    . INTRODUCTION Ultrasound imaging is one of the most popular medical imaging modalities; it is inexpensiveSEPARABLE BEAMFORMING FOR 3-D SYNTHETIC APERTURE ULTRASOUND IMAGING Ming Yang, Richard Sampson ultrasound imaging, but power constraints have precluded practical implementation of high- resolution 3-D

  8. On the use of higher order statistics in SAS imagery [synthetic aperture sonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Maussang; J. Chanussot; A. Hetet

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) imagery is largely used in detection, location and classification of underwater mines laying on or buried in the sea bed. This paper proposes a detection method using higher order statistics (HOS) on SAS images. The proposed method can be divided into two steps. Firstly, the HOS (skewness and kurtosis) are locally estimated using a square sliding

  9. REDUCING THE COMPLEXITY OF ORTHOGONAL CODE BASED SYNTHETIC APERTURE ULTRASOUND SYSTEMS*

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    according to motion velocity, so that motion artifacts were significantly reduced. Unfortunately the motion motion. We reduce the complexity of motion compensation first by doing the calcu- lations in polar domainREDUCING THE COMPLEXITY OF ORTHOGONAL CODE BASED SYNTHETIC APERTURE ULTRASOUND SYSTEMS* Ming Yang

  10. PUBLISHED VERSION Synthetic aperture microwave imaging with active probing for fusion plasma diagnostics

    E-print Network

    PUBLISHED VERSION Synthetic aperture microwave imaging with active probing for fusion plasma://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/1612?ver=pdfcov Published by the AIP Publishing Articles you may be interested in Recent advancements. 1612, 53-60 (2014); doi: 10.1063/1.4894024 2014 AIP Publishing LLC 978-0-7354-1248-4/$30.00 53This

  11. Synthetic aperture laser optical feedback imaging using a translational scanning with galvanometric mirrors.

    PubMed

    Glastre, Wilfried; Jacquin, Olivier; Hugon, Olivier; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Lacot, Eric

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we present an experimental setup based on laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI) and on synthetic aperture with translational scanning by galvanometric mirrors for the purpose of making deep and resolved images through scattering media. We provide real two-dimensional optical synthetic aperture image of a fixed scattering target with a moving aperture and an isotropic resolution. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that we can keep microscope resolution beyond the working distance. A photometric balance is made, and we show that the number of photons participating in the final image decreases with the square of the reconstruction distance. This degradation is partially compensated by the high sensitivity of LOFI. PMID:23201879

  12. GeoSTAR - A Synthetic Aperture Microwave Sounder for Geostationary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Wilson, William; Tanner, Alan; Kangaslahti, Pekka

    2004-01-01

    The Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR) is a new microwave atmospheric sounder under development. It will bring capabilities similar to those now available on low-earth orbiting environmental satellites to geostationary orbit - where such capabilities have not been available. GeoSTAR will synthesize the multimeter aperture needed to achieve the required spatial resolution, which will overcome the obstacle that has prevented a GEO microwave sounder from being implemented until now. The synthetic aperture approach has until recently not been feasible, due to the high power needed to operate the on-board high-speed massively parallel processing system required for 2D-synthesis, as well as a number of system and calibration obstacles. The development effort under way at JPL, with important contributions from the Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Michigan, is intended to demonstrate the measurement concept and retire much of the technology risk.

  13. A radar tour of Venus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Beatty

    1985-01-01

    The surface of Venus is briefly characterized in a summary of results obtained by the Soviet Venera 15 and 16 8-cm synthetic-aperture radars, IR radiometers, and radar altimeters. A series of radar images, mainly from Kotelnikov et al. (1984), are presented and discussed, and the descent vehicles to be released by the two Vega spacecraft as they pass Venus in

  14. Millimeter Wave Synthetic Aperture Imaging System with a Unique Rotary Scanning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghasr, M. T.; Pommerenke, D.; Case, J. T.; McClanahan, A. D.; Afaki-Beni, A.; Abou-Khousa, M.; Guinn, K.; DePaulis, F.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, millimeter wave imaging techniques, using synthetic aperture focusing and holographical approaches, have shown tremendous potential for nondestructive testing applications, involving materials and structures used in space vehicles, including the space shuttle external fuel tank spray on foam insulation and its acreage heat tiles. The ability of signals at millimeter wave frequencies (30 - 300 GHz) to easily penetrate inside of low loss dielectric materials, their relatively small wavelengths, and the possibility of detecting coherent (magnitude and phase) reflections make them suitable for high resolution synthetic aperture focused imaging the interior of such materials and structures. To accommodate imaging requirements, commonly a scanning system is employed that provides for a raster scan of the desired structure. However, most such scanners, although simple in design and construction, are inherently slow primarily due to the need to stop and start at the beginning and end of each scan line. To this end, a millimeter wave synthetic aperture focusing system including a custom-designed transceiver operating at 35 - 45 GHz (Q-band) and unique and complex rotary scanner was designed and developed. The rotary scanner is capable of scanning an area with approximately 80 cm in diameter in less than 10 minutes at step sizes of 3 mm and smaller. The transceiver is capable of producing accurate magnitude and phase of reflected signal from the structure under test. Finally, a synthetic aperture focusing algorithm was developed that translates this rotary-obtained magnitude and phase into a synthetic aperture focusing image of inspected structures. This paper presents the design of the transceiver and the rotary scanning system along with showing several images obtained with this system from various complicated structures.

  15. SUBMITTED TO IEE PROCEEDINGS RADAR, SONAR & NAVIGATION 1 Region-Enhanced Passive Radar Imaging

    E-print Network

    Willsky, Alan S.

    SUBMITTED TO IEE PROCEEDINGS RADAR, SONAR & NAVIGATION 1 Region-Enhanced Passive Radar Imaging M;SUBMITTED TO IEE PROCEEDINGS RADAR, SONAR & NAVIGATION 2 Abstract We adapt and apply a recently-developed region-enhanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image reconstruction technique to the problem of passive

  16. Impulse response function (IPR) estimation method using detected synthetic aperature radar (SAR) mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinard, Mark S.; Farnung, Charles E.; Kopacz, Peter; Miettinen, Kristo S.

    2002-08-01

    Eastman Kodak Company conducts image quality monitoring of U.S. Government-operated Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors. Our quality assurance methodology uses automated metrics in parallel with human analyst scoring of image quality factors to track quality trends in an image chain. A key feature of the program is that analysis is performed periodically on images selected from actual mission data. Historically, tasking the sensors to fly over calibrated test sites on such a regular basis has failed because of contention for collection resources from higher priority jobs. In addition, detected, 8-bit NITF data is often the only image product that is distributed. The scarcity of high radar cross-section (RCS) individual point scatterers as well as the lack of complex data provides challenges to the ability to estimate a key image quality parameter, the impulse response function (IPR). This paper discusses a method to isolate and aggregate signatures of multiple low signal-to-noise ratio IPRs in detected mission imagery. Measures of -3dB and -15dB IPR widths in range and azimuth have been realized along with estimates of far sidelobe levels.

  17. Three-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy using synthetic aperture imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Youngwoon; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Sung, Yongjin; Kim, Kwanhyung; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.; Choi, Wonshik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We implement differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy using high-speed synthetic aperture imaging that expands the passband of coherent imaging by a factor of 2.2. For an aperture synthesized coherent image, we apply for the numerical post-processing and obtain a high-contrast DIC image for arbitrary shearing direction and bias retardation. In addition, we obtain images at different depths without a scanning objective lens by numerically propagating the acquired coherent images. Our method achieves high-resolution and high-contrast 3-D DIC imaging of live biological cells. The proposed method will be useful for monitoring 3-D dynamics of intracellular particles. PMID:22463035

  18. Spaceborne radar design equations and concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Hovanessian; L. B. Jocic; J. M. Lopez

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne radar systems (SBR) can be designed for several modes of operation including airborne moving target indication (AMTI), ground moving target indication (GMTI), and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mapping. Each application imposes a different design constraint, in addition to the nominal power-aperture requirements. AMTI and GMTI modes include consideration of such requirements as area coverage and minimum detectable velocity (MDV).

  19. Prototype Development of a Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer, GeoSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Alan B.; Wilson, William J.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Lambrigsten, Bjorn H.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Ruf, Christopher S.; Rogacki, Steven; Gross, S. M.; Musko, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary details of a 2-D synthetic aperture radiometer prototype operating from 50 to 58 GHz will be presented. The instrument is being developed as a laboratory testbed, and the goal of this work is to demonstrate the technologies needed to do atmospheric soundings with high spatial resolution from Geostationary orbit. The concept is to deploy a large sparse aperture Y-array from a geostationary satellite, and to use aperture synthesis to obtain images of the earth without the need for a large mechanically scanned antenna. The laboratory prototype consists of a Y-array of 24 horn antennas, MMIC receivers, and a digital cross-correlation sub-system. System studies are discussed, including an error budget which has been derived from numerical simulations. The error budget defines key requirements, such as null offsets, phase calibration, and antenna pattern knowledge. Details of the instrument design are discussed in the context of these requirements.

  20. Multi-carrier synthetic aperture communication in shallow water: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taehyuk; Song, H C; Hodgkiss, W S

    2011-12-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications in the presence of motion is investigated using data collected from the Kauai Acomms MURI 2008 (KAM08) experiment, conducted off the western side of Kauai, Hawaii, in June-July 2008. The experiment involved a vertical array moored in 106 m deep shallow water and a source towed at a speed of 3 knots at ranges between 600 m and 6 km. In order to attain reliable communications with only a single receive element, a synthetic aperture approach is applied. After combining multiple transmissions, an error-free reception is achieved with a low-density parity-check code, confirming the feasibility of coherent synthetic aperture communications using OFDM. PMID:22225037

  1. Free-viewpoint images captured using phase-shifting synthetic aperture digital holography.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Tatsuya; Matsushima, Kyoji

    2008-07-01

    Free-viewpoint images obtained from phase-shifting synthetic aperture digital holography are given for scenes that include multiple objects and a concave object. The synthetic aperture technique is used to enlarge the effective sensor size and to make it possible to widen the range of changing perspective in the numerical reconstruction. The lensless Fourier setup and its aliasing-free zone are used to avoid aliasing errors arising at the sensor edge and to overcome a common problem in digital holography, namely, a narrow field of view. A change of viewpoint is realized by a double numerical propagation and by clipping the wave field by a given pupil. The computational complexity for calculating an image in the given perspective from the base complex-valued image is estimated at a double fast Fourier transform. The experimental results illustrate the natural change of appearance in cases of both multiple objects and a concave object. PMID:18594569

  2. Anti-reverberation target detection and identification in synthetic aperture sonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cong Weihua; Huo Guozheng; Zheng Yiming

    2000-01-01

    When synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) is used for mine hunting, effective anti-reverberation detection before acoustic imaging is very important. A new combined anti-reverberation detection and identification technique based on WVD time-frequency spectrum characteristic matching processing is presented in this paper. We make use of the characteristics of additive Gaussian distribution of seafloor reverberation and the difference between reverberation (involving false

  3. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: tissue structure inferred by computed imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Daniel L.; Ralston, Tyler S.; Davis, Brynmor J.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2008-02-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM)1 is an optical microscopy computed-imaging technique for measuring the optical properties of three-dimensional structures and biological tissues. In this work, the principle of ISAM is reviewed, and its application to imaging tissue properties in various scanning geometries and instrument configurations is explored. The practicality of ISAM is demonstrated by imaging a rat heart and muscle using a real-time implementation of ISAM in conjunction with a clinical cart Optical Coherence Tomography instrument.

  4. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: tissue structure inferred by computed imaging techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Marks; Tyler S. Ralston; Brynmor J. Davis; P. Scott Carney; Stephen A. Boppart

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM)1 is an optical microscopy computed-imaging technique for measuring the optical properties of three-dimensional structures and biological tissues. In this work, the principle of ISAM is reviewed, and its application to imaging tissue properties in various scanning geometries and instrument configurations is explored. The practicality of ISAM is demonstrated by imaging a rat heart and muscle

  5. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy: tissue structure inferred by computed imaging techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Marks; Tyler S. Ralston; Brynmor J. Davis; P. Scott Carney; Stephen A. Boppart

    2008-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM)1 is an optical microscopy computed-imaging technique for measuring the optical properties of three-dimensional structures and biological tissues. In this work, the principle of ISAM is reviewed, and its application to imaging tissue properties in various scanning geometries and instrument configurations is explored. The practicality of ISAM is demonstrated by imaging a rat heart and muscle

  6. Sizing of cracks embedded in sub-cladding using the ultrasonic synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sony Baby; T. Balasubramanian; R. J. Pardikar; K. V. Rajkumar; T. Jayakumar; Baldev Raj

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental work carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of ultrasonic Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) to obtain improved detection and sizing of vertical\\/inclined (10° and 15°) simulated cracks underneath different claddings. Crack heights ranging from 1.68mm to 19.04mm underneath stainless steel, Inconel and ferritic steel cladding could be sized with an accuracy of ±0.1 to

  7. Implementation of adaptive and synthetic-aperture processing schemes in integrated active-passive sonar systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STERGIOS STERGIOPOULOS

    1998-01-01

    Progress in the implementation of state-of-the-art signal processing schemes in sonar systems is limited mainly by the moderate advance made in sonar computing architectures and the lack of operational evaluation of the advanced processing schemes. Until recently, matrix-based processing techniques, such as adaptive and synthetic-aperture processing, could not be efficiently implemented in the current type of sonar systems, even though

  8. Using synthetic aperture lensless Fourier digital holography to enhance DMD display holographic reconstructed image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Te; Qian, Xiao-fan

    2011-06-01

    A signification characteristic is found by analyzing lensless Fourier digital hologram and synthetic aperture holography that is the imaging surface of reconstructed image of lensless Fourier digital hologram just is focus plane of positive lens that is unrelated with wavelength of restruction and recording and their ratio. The nature is propitious to resolve the problem of DMD display caused by unstable holographic imaging surface. Zero order diffraction image is focused on nearby center of focal surface and imaging zone is rapidly contracted that largely improved quality of reconstructed image. Meanwhile, position of holographic reconstructed image is not to be altered when parallel moving lensless Fourier digital holography on the holographic image plane that is easier to improve hologram duty cycle, DMD availability and quality of reconstructed image with theory of synthetic aperture that attained by single illumination. According to this analysis, a new method is proposed that combine lensless Fourier digital holography with synthetic aperture that could improve quality of DMD reconstructed image. We provided laboratory results and verified all theory analysis that totally proved the method is available and feasible.

  9. Estimating Radar Cross Section using Bayesian Image Restoration Richard O. Lane

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    Estimating Radar Cross Section using Bayesian Image Restoration Richard O. Lane QinetiQ Malvern-dimensional radar cross section (RCS) of a vehicle given a radar image of the vehicle. A Markov chain Monte Carlo, the method may be applied to any type of radar image such as those produced by a synthetic aperture radar

  10. Radar interferometry for monitoring land subsidence and coastal change in the Nile Delta, Egypt 

    E-print Network

    Aly, Mohamed Hassan

    2009-05-15

    vertical accuracy and measure surface deformation with 1 mm level accuracy. Radar interferometry has been employed in this dissertation to measure urban subsidence and coastal change in the Nile Delta. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data of 5.66 cm...

  11. Radar studies related to the earth resources program. [remote sensing programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, J.

    1972-01-01

    The radar systems research discussed is directed toward achieving successful application of radar to remote sensing problems in such areas as geology, hydrology, agriculture, geography, forestry, and oceanography. Topics discussed include imaging radar and evaluation of its modification, study of digital processing for synthetic aperture system, digital simulation of synthetic aperture system, averaging techniques studies, ultrasonic modeling of panchromatic system, panchromatic radar/radar spectrometer development, measuring octave-bandwidth response of selected targets, scatterometer system analysis, and a model Fresnel-zone processor for synthetic aperture imagery.

  12. Joint approach of the sub-holograms in on-axis lensless Fourier phase-shifting synthetic aperture digital holography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyan Li; Liyun Zhong; Zhijian Ma; Xiaoxu Lu

    2011-01-01

    In on-axis lensless Fourier phase-shifting synthetic aperture digital holography, to compose all of the phase-shifting sub-holograms to a large synthetic aperture digital hologram effectively, firstly, the cross-correlation algorithm of the object waves is presented to correct the joint misplacement of the sub-holograms. Secondly, to make the phase-shifting synchronization matching of different sequence phase-shifting holograms, the cross-correlation algorithm of the phase-shifting

  13. STORM: A New Airborne Polarimetric Real-Aperture Radar for Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvin, D. Hauser. T.; Dechambre, M.; Valentin, R.; Caudal, G.; Daloze, J.-F.

    2003-04-01

    The successful launch of the Envisat in March 2002 offers new possibilities for estimating geophysical quantities characterizing continental or sea surface using the multi-polarization ASAR. In addition, in the context of the preparation of future missions which will embark polarimetric SAR (e.g. RADARSAT2) it is important to better assess the benefit of multi-polarization or polarimetric SAR systems. Airborne radar systems remain a very useful way to validate satellite measurements and to develop or validate algorithms needed to retrieve geophysical quantities from the radar measurements. CETP has designed and developed a new airborne radar called STORM] , which has a full polarimetric capability. STORM is derived from two previous versions of airborne radars developed at CETP, namely RESSAC (Hauser et al, JGR 1992) and RENE (Leloch-Duplex et al, Annales of Telecommunications, 1996). STORM is a real-aperture, C-Band system with a FM/CW transmission and with a rotating antenna to explore in azimuth. It offers a polarization diversity, receiving the complex signal in amplitude and phase simultaneously in H and V polarizations, which makes it possible to analyze the radar cross-section in HH, VV, HV, and other cross-polarized terms related to the scattering matrix. The antenna are pointed towards the surface with a mean incidence angle of 20° and a 3-dB aperture of about 30° in elevation and 8° in azimuth. The backscattered signal is analyzed from nadir to about 35° along the look-direction in 1012 range gates every 1.53m. The first tests with this system have been carried out in October 2001 over corner reflectors , over grass and ocean. In this workshop, we will present a validation of this system based on the results obtained with this first data set. In particular, we will present the calibration method of the complex signal (amplitude, phase), and distribution of phase differences (HH/VV, HV/VH) obtained over the different scatters (corner reflectors, grass, ocean). Comparison of results obtained with forward and side looking antenna will be discussed.

  14. Photoacoustic reconstruction using beamformed RF data: a synthetic aperture imaging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haichong K.; Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun Jae; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is becoming an important tool for various clinical and pre-clinical applications. Acquiring pre-beamformed channel ultrasound data is essential to reconstruct PA images. Accessing these pre-beamformed channel data requires custom hardware to allow parallel beam-forming, and is available for only few research ultrasound platforms. However, post-beamformed radio frequency (RF) data is readily available in real-time and in several clinical and research ultrasound platforms. To broaden the impact of clinical PA imaging, our goal is to devise new PA reconstruction approach based on these post-beamformed RF data. In this paper, we propose to generate PA image by using a single receive focus beamformed RF data. These beamformed RF data are considered as pre-beamformed input data to a synthetic aperture beamforming algorithm, where the focal point per received RF line is a virtual element. The image resolution is determined by the fixed focusing depth as well as the aperture size used in fixed focusing. In addition, the signal-to-noise (SNR) improvement is expected because beamforming is performed twice with different noise distribution. The performance of the proposed method is analyzed through simulation, the practical feasibility is validated experimentally. The results indicate that the post-beamformed RF data has potential to be re-beamformed to a PA image using the proposed synthetic aperture beamformer.

  15. The sensitivity of synthetic aperture radiometers for remote sensing applications from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Aperture synthesis offers a means of realizing the full potential microwave remote sensing from space by helping to overcome the limitations set by antenna size. The result is a potentially lighter, more adaptable structure for applications in space. However, because the physical collecting area is reduced, the signal-to-noise ratio is also reduced and may adversely affect the radiometric sensitivity. Sensitivity is an especially critical issue for measurements from low earth orbit because the motion of the platform (about 7 km/s) limits the integration time available for forming an image. The purpose of this paper is to develop expressions for the sensitivity of remote sensing systems which use aperture synthesis. The objective is to develop basic equations general enough to be used to obtain the sensitivity of the several variations of aperture synthesis which have been proposed for sensors in space. The conventional microwave imager (a scanning total power radiometer) is treated as a special case, and the paper concludes with a comparison of three synthetic aperture configurations with the conventional imager.

  16. Synthetic aperture engineering for super-resolved microscopy in digital lensless Fourier holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micó, Vicente; Granero, Luis; Zalevsky, Zeev; García, Javier

    2011-05-01

    We present a method capable to improve the resolution limit of an imaging system in digital lensless Fourier holographic configuration. The method is based on angular- and time-multiplexing of the object's spatial frequency information. On one hand, angular multiplexing is implemented by using tilted beam illumination to get access to high order spectral frequency bands of the of the object's spectrum. And, on the other hand, time multiplexing is needed to cover different directions at the spatial frequency domain. This combination of angular- and time- multiplexing in addition with holographic recording allows the complex amplitude recovery of a set of elementary apertures covering different portions of the object's spectrum. Finally, the expanded synthetic aperture (SA) is generated by coherent addition of the set of recovered elementary apertures. Such SA expands up the cut-off frequency limit of the imaging system and allows getting a superresolved image of the input object. Moreover, if a priori knowledge about the input object is available, customized SA shaping is possible by considering the addition of those elementary apertures corresponding with only the directions of interest and, thus, reducing the whole consuming time of the approach. We present experimental results in concordance with theoretical predictions for two different resolution test objects, for different SA shapes, and considering different resolution gain factors.

  17. Synthetic aperture ladar imaging demonstrations and information at very low return levels.

    PubMed

    Barber, Zeb W; Dahl, Jason R

    2014-08-20

    We present synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) imaging demonstrations where the return-signal level from the target is near the single-photon level per resolved pixel. Scenes consisting of both specular-point targets and diffuse-reflection, fully speckled targets are studied. Artificial retro-reflector-based phase references and/or phase-gradient-autofocus (PGA) algorithms were utilized for compensation of phase errors during the aperture motion. It was found that SAL images could reliably be formed with both methods even when the final max pixel intensity was at the few photon level, which means the SNR before azimuth compression is below unity. Mutual information-based comparison of SAL images show that average mutual information is reduced when the PGA is utilized for image-based phase compensation. The photon information efficiency of SAL and coherent imaging is discussed. PMID:25321130

  18. International Radar Conference, Arlington, VA, May 6-9, 1985, Record and Supplement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-12-01

    The topics discussed in this volume include advanced antennas and transmitters, targets and environments, signal processing, specialized radars adn techniques, synthetic aperture radar, and radar automation, as well as some novel radar system designs. Papers are presented on an efficient three-dimensional radar design, monitoring and calibration of active phased arrays, the solid state transmitter for the AN/SPS-40 radar system, and the superresolution application in tracking radar. Consideration is given to Doppler estimation accuracy of linear FM waveforms, a bistatic pulse-Doppler intruder detection radar, detectability of low flying targets in real terrain using a diffraction model, a technique for adaptive polarization filtering in radars, and the effects of polarization on the marine radar detection of icebergs. In addition, strategies for radar frequency selection, low probability of intercept radar, synthetic aperture imaging airborne radar, and optical techniques for signal distribution and control in phased array radars are discussed.

  19. Removal of RFI in wideband radars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. C. Le; S. Hensley; E. Chapin

    1998-01-01

    The least-mean-square (LMS) adaptive filter is applied to suppress narrow-band radiofrequency interference (RFI) in wideband synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signals. Simulation is used to show the working principles of the adaptive filter and to obtain the optimum filter's parameters. The algorithm is tested with P-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected by the NASA\\/JPL airborne SAR (AIRSAR) in different noisy

  20. Adaptive synthetic-aperture focusing technique for microvasculature imaging using photoacoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zilin; Yang, Xiaoquan; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming

    2012-03-26

    To improve the lateral resolution of the blood vessels along arbitrary direction out of focus in photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), we propose an adaptive synthetic-aperture focusing technique (ASAFT) for microvasculature imaging which can be automatically applied to each branch of blood vessels, based on our previous two-dimensional (2D) SAFT. The ASAFT is validated both in the phantom study and in vivo imaging. The results demonstrate that ASAFT can provide images of blood vessels with better lateral resolution both at different depths and along various directions compared with one-dimensional and 2D SAFT. PMID:22453434