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1

Environmental assessment of proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for synthetic-based drilling fluids and other-non aqueous drilling fluids in the oil and gas extraction point source category  

SciTech Connect

This environmental assessment consists of an evaluation of the ecological and indirect human health impacts for the discharge of cuttings contaminated with synthetic-based drilling fluids (SBFs) with respect to discharges to water. In addition, this document describes the environmental characteristics of SBF drilling wastes (e.g., toxicity, bioaccumulation, biodegradation), the types of anticipated impacts, and the pollutant modeling results for water column concentrations, pore water concentrations, and human health effects via consumption of affected seafood. The geographic areas considered under this rule are those where EPA knows SBFs are currently used and those where EPA projects SBFs will be used as a result of the SBF Effluent Guidelines. This includes the Gulf of Mexico, offshore California, and Cook Inlet, Alaska.

NONE

1999-02-01

2

Comparison of the ParTrack mud\\/cuttings release model with field data based on use of synthetic-based drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the calculation of the spreading and deposition of drilling mud and cuttings has been developed. The calculations are based on a Lagrangian particle approach, which means that the properties of the discharge are represented by moving particles in the model domain. The initialization of the particles is based on the output from an Eulerian near-field underwater plume

Henrik Rye; Mark Reed; Tone K. Frost; Toril I. Røe Utvik

2006-01-01

3

Drilling fluid additives  

SciTech Connect

The addition of magnesium oxide to a drilling fluid additive comprising bentonite and ferrochrome lignosulfonate, the drilling fluid additive having a pH of about 9.5 to 12, increases the usefulness of such a drilling fluid additive and increases considerably the yield point of the drilling fluid containing this drilling fluid additive.

Forster, J.W.; Roper, L.E.

1980-06-24

4

Toxicity assessment of individual ingredients of synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs).  

PubMed

Synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) offer excellent technical characteristics while providing improved environmental performance over other drilling muds. The low acute toxicity and high biodegradability of SBMs suggest their discharge at sea would cause minimal impacts on marine ecosystems, however, chronic toxicity testing has demonstrated adverse effects of SBMs on fish health. Sparse environmental monitoring data indicate effects of SBMs on bottom invertebrates. However, no environmental toxicity assessment has been performed on fish attracted to the cutting piles. SBM formulations are mostly composed of synthetic base oils, weighting agents, and drilling additives such as emulsifiers, fluid loss agents, wetting agents, and brine. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to individual ingredients of SBMs on fish health. To do so, a suite of biomarkers [ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, biliary metabolites, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, DNA damage, and heat shock protein] have been measured in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) exposed for 21 days to individual ingredients of SBMs. The primary emulsifier (Emul S50) followed by the fluid loss agent (LSL 50) caused the strongest biochemical responses in fish. The synthetic base oil (Rheosyn) caused the least response in juvenile fish. The results suggest that the impact of Syndrill 80:20 on fish health might be reduced by replacement of the primary emulsifier Emul S50 with an alternative ingredient of less toxicity to aquatic biota. The research provides a basis for improving the environmental performance of SBMs by reducing the environmental risk of their discharge and providing environmental managers with information regarding the potential toxicity of individual ingredients. PMID:21928151

Bakhtyar, Sajida; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

2011-09-20

5

Drilling Fluids - Operating Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Operation procedures for handling of drilling fluids; Procedure for making up initial salt water mud; Displacement of salt water system with fresh water; Procedure for adding oil to system; Making up new oil emulsion drilling fluid; Procedure fo...

1964-01-01

6

Disposal of drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

Bryson, W.R.

1983-06-01

7

Drilling fluid thinner  

SciTech Connect

A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

Patel, B.

1989-06-27

8

40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...determined by EPA Method 1644: âMethod for Conducting a Sediment Toxicity Test with Leptocheirus plumulosus and Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids or Synthetic-Based Drilling Mudsâ after sediment preparation procedures specified in EPA...

2013-07-01

9

Thermally stable drilling fluid additive  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a water soluble polymer and method for its preparation. The water soluble polymer exhibits superior thermal stability characteristics when used as an additive in aqueous drilling fluids. The polymer consists of a major portion of a catechol based monomer and a dicarboxylic acid. Other monomers and materials are added to enhance the functional characteristics of the drilling fluid additive. The method of this invention includes the mixing of monomers, polymerization of that mixture and optionally the steps of hydrolysis and sulfonation.

Patel, A. D.

1985-06-25

10

DRILLING FLUID CHALLENGES FOR OIL-WELL DEEP DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuously increasing demand for energy resources drives petroleum industry to search in very deep waters, drilling very deep wells, encountering adverse conditions of pressures and temperatures and thus having to resolve a multitude of problems. In many cases, the problems can be attributed to the performance of drilling fluids which then presents challenges to drilling fluid industry. Such problems include

Vassilios C. Kelessidis

11

Wet Clutch Performance in a Mineral-Based and in a Partial-Synthetic-Based Automatic Transmission Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a mineral-based, commercial automatic transmission fluid (Fluid-M) and a partial-synthetic-based commercial fluid (Fluid-PS) on wet clutch performance were investigated from the viewpoints of compressibility, durability, and friction-pressure-speed-temperature (?-P-v-T) characteristics. Furthermore, the physical and chemical properties of mineral and partial-synthetic fluids were compared by the analyses of viscometry, thermo-oxidative stability, and metal-to-metal wear preventive characteristics. Friction material specifications

Bülent Çavdar; Robert C. Lam

1998-01-01

12

High temperature drilling fluid component  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cross-linked starch for use in well drilling fluid which when subjected to a Brabender Viscometer test exhibits a viscosity rise toward 200 Brabender Units at a temperature between 104/sup 0/ and 144/sup 0/, and does not exhibit a viscosity of greater than 200 Brabender Units at temperatures less than 130/sup 0/C. When subjected to an American Petroleum Institute Fluid Loss Test it exhibits a decrease in fluid loss between four hours and eight hours at about 275/sup 0/F.

Francis, H.P.; De Boer, E.D.; Wermers, V.L.

1987-03-24

13

Drilling fluid bypass for marine riser  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus are described to reduce the tension required on a riser pipe used in offshore drilling between a floating vessel and a subsea wellhead. Heavy drilling fluid is circulated down a drill pipe and up the annulus between the drill pipe and the borehole wall to a point just above a subsea wellhead. From this point, a separate drilling fluid return conduit extends to the floating vessel. Means are provided to maintain a constant level of an interface between the heavy returning drilling fluid and the lightweight fluid which can be confined within the riser pipe.

Beynet, P.A.

1981-09-29

14

Drilling fluids and thinners therefor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid comprising water, finely divided solids and a first agent and a second agent. The first agent comprises a sulfoalkylated tannin containing no complexing heavy metal. The second agent comprises at least one at least partly water-soluble metal compound comprising tin. The weight ratio of the first agent to the second agent is in the range from about 100;1 to about 1:1.

Allison, G.M. III

1986-10-21

15

Drilling fluid bypass for marine riser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method and apparatus are described to reduce the tension required on a riser pipe used in offshore drilling between a floating vessel and a subsea wellhead. Heavy drilling fluid is circulated down a drill pipe and up the annulus between the drill pipe and the borehole wall to a point just above a subsea wellhead. From this point, a separate

Beynet

1981-01-01

16

Rheological properties of biopolymers drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling muds are complex fluids, generally used to clean the well, maintain hole integrity, transport the rock cuttings, lubricate the drill bit and control formation pressures. Two basic types of drilling fluids are used, water based muds (WBM) and oil based muds (OBM). OBM are very effective but polluting, and environmental regulations continue to restrict the use of oil based

Samira Baba Hamed; Mansour Belhadri

2009-01-01

17

New Drilling Fluid Technology Mineral Oil Mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a paraffinic-based mineral oil, in place of the conventionally used diesel oil, as the continuous phase of an oil-based drilling and spotting fluid is a relatively new concept to the drilling fluid technology of the petroleum industry. Mineral-oil-based fluids possess the same characteristics but also have definite advantages over diesel-oilbased drilling and spotting fluids. These characteristics and

R. B. Bennett

1984-01-01

18

Clay stabilizer composition for aqueous drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The combination of AlO(OH) and crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol can be added to aqueous drilling fluids and especially clay-based aqueous drilling fluids to prevent formation clays and shales from swelling and dispersing when contacted with aqueous drilling fluids. A potassium salt can be added to improve the result. The potassium salt can also be added by making AlO(OH) from potassium aluminate.

Block, J.

1984-05-08

19

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

David B. Burnett

2003-08-01

20

40 CFR Appendix 4 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...Subpart A of Part 435âDetermination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a...

2010-07-01

21

40 CFR Appendix 4 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...Subpart A of Part 435âDetermination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a...

2009-01-01

22

Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

Meinhold, A.F.

1998-11-01

23

Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.  

PubMed

The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option. PMID:15160901

Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

2003-12-01

24

Drag reducing additives improve drilling fluid hydraulics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of drag reducing additives helps drilling fluids develop a lower pressure gradient at a constant flow rate under turbulent flow conditions. At a constant pressure gradient a treated mud will flow faster than an untreated mud because turbulence is suppressed. The phenomenon, however, is unrelated to the lubricity functions of a drilling fluid. Drag reduction cannot be predicted

Savins

1995-01-01

25

Synthetic drilling fluids - a pollution prevention opportunity for the oil and gas industry  

SciTech Connect

Offshore oil and gas operators use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as {open_quotes}muds,{close_quotes} to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

Veil, J.A.; Burke, C.J.; Moses, D.O.

1995-12-31

26

Method for preventing fluid loss during drilling  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for preventing loss of aqueous drilling fluid to porous formations penetrated by a well bore during drilling operations for oil and gas. The method utilizes readily available pelleted cottonseed hulls as the lost circulation material which is added to the drilling fluid and pumped down the well bore. The pelleted cottonseed hulls are composed of cottonseed hulls, cottonseed meal, bentonite, a residual amount of cottonseed lint and a surface active agent. The cottonseed hulls, cottonseed meal, bentonite, residual lint and surface active agent are heated in the presence of steam and compressed to form pellets. Because the pellets are in a compressed form, they do not expand when added to the drilling fluid until they are well down the well bore. The pelleted cottonseed hulls may also contain cottonseed oil. The pelleted cottonseed hulls are well known and widely used in the dairy cattle industry as a pelleted feed material.

Cremeans, J.G.

1980-08-19

27

Method for monitoring potassium chloride concentration in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The potassium chloride concentration of a drilling fluid is monitored during well drilling operations to identify any depletion in such concentration with time. Initially, the gamma radiation measuring apparatus utilized is calibrated by making gamma radiation measurements on self-shielded drilling fluid samples having successively increasing potassium chloride concentrations. A calibration constant is derived from the measured relationship between the potassium chloride concentrations of the various drilling fluid samples and their respective gamma radiation count rates. This calibration constant is then used along with the measured gamma radiation count rates from drilling fluid taken during well drilling operations to identify drilling fluid potassium chloride concentration.

Dion, E. P.

1985-10-08

28

An environmental framework for drilling fluid disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and regulatory issues have had a significant effect on the oil and gas industry`s bottom line and will likely continue to become more stringent and expensive in the future. Drilling fluid disposal regulations have become stricter as government strives to protect the environment, especially drinking water supplies. Also, an increasing number of onshore landowners are seeking compensation through the

Judah

1997-01-01

29

TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT-INCORPORATED DRILLING FLUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calcula...

30

Valve latch device for drilling fluid telemetry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A latch device for controlling a valve in a mud pulse telemetry system for imparting data pulses to drilling fluids circulating in a drill string is disclosed. A latch device and valve arrangement including an improved shear type, solenoid operated valve for modulating the pressure of the circulating drilling fluid is disclosed. A latching solenoid armature is connected to the

M. L. Larronde; R. G. Hoos

1985-01-01

31

Drilling Fluid Considerations in Design of Engineered Horizontal Directional Drilling Installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review is presented that identifies a number of areas where procedures for the engineering design of bored installations in soil using horizontal directional drilling HDD can be improved through a more realistic consideration of drilling fluid drag effects and skin friction coefficients. The current HDD practice of calculating annular frictional pressure loss caused by drilling fluid drag based

Michael E. Baumert; Erez N. Allouche; Ian D. Moore

2005-01-01

32

New drilling fluid technology--Mineral oil mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a paraffinic based mineral oil, in place of the conventionally used diesel oil, as the continuous phase of an oil-based drilling and spotting fluid is a relatively new concept to the drilling fluid technology of the petroleum industry. Mineral oil-based fluids possess the same characteristics but also have definite advantages over diesel oil-based drilling and spotting fluids.

1983-01-01

33

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

2010-07-01

34

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

2009-07-01

35

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

2013-07-01

36

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and...

2013-07-01

37

Drag reducing additives improve drilling fluid hydraulics  

SciTech Connect

The use of drag reducing additives helps drilling fluids develop a lower pressure gradient at a constant flow rate under turbulent flow conditions. At a constant pressure gradient a treated mud will flow faster than an untreated mud because turbulence is suppressed. The phenomenon, however, is unrelated to the lubricity functions of a drilling fluid. Drag reduction cannot be predicted from the description of mud rheology obtained with conventional API test procedures, and the phenomenon is unrelated to shear thinning behavior. Flow properties predicted from the Bingham, power law, Herschel-Bulkley, or Casson models will not correlate with this phenomenon. Simple pipe flow tests can provide a direct method for detecting and quantifying drag reduction activity (provided care is taken in selecting flow conditions). Drag reduction activity can be determined without introducing complicated rheological parameters. These pipe flow tests can be helpful in comparing different types of drag reducing additives. They are also valuable in analyzing the effectiveness of a drag reducer for a particular drilling application.

Savins, J.G. (Baroid Drilling Fluids, Dallas, TX (United States))

1995-03-13

38

Aerated fluid drilling observations in geothermal operation in Luzon, Philippines  

SciTech Connect

This paper compliments the potential use of aerated fluid drilling in oilgas operation of which the techniques in application was further extended to geothermal energy drilling. Compared with the use of conventional mud in both oil-gas and geothermal drilling operation, the benefits of aerated fluid cannot be denied. However, the developed utilization of blind drilling in geothermal operation in Luzon, Philippines were observed to be more beneficial. This paper highlights the incremental costs involved in using aerated fluid compared with blind drilling with water in geothermal operation within the 8 1/2'' hole interval when total lost circulation zones are encountered.

Rizo, T.M.; Cuenca, A.P.

1984-02-01

39

40 CFR Appendix 3 to Subpart A of... - Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nontoxic (control) sediments with the base fluids that are used to formulate synthetic-based drilling fluids and other non-aqueous drilling fluids. Initially, control sediments shall be press-sieved through a 2000 micron mesh sieve...

2013-07-01

40

Effects of drilling fluids on soils and plants: II. Complete drilling fluid mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Six typical drilling fluids (muds) and a drilling fluid base were mixed with six soils at ratios of 1:1 and 1:4 volumes of liquid mud/soil; these mixtures were tested for their effects on plant growth. Green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and sweet corn (Zea mays var. succharata (Sturtev.) Bailey) in pots in the greenhouse grew normally in a few mixtures, but in most instances plants had reduced growth when compared to those growing in soil alone (controls). It was concluded that high levels of soluble salts or the high exchangeable sodium percentages were the primary causes of reduced plant growth. The high salt content in some fluids was mostly from added potassium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and sodium dichromate. Dispersion of mud-treated soils caused by high exchangeable sodium percentages occurred in these samples because of the sodium hydroxide and sodium dichromate added to typical muds.

Miller, R.W.; Pesaran, P.

1980-01-01

41

Properly designed underbalanced drilling fluids can limit formation damage  

SciTech Connect

Drilling fluids for underbalanced operations require careful design and testing to ensure they do not damage sensitive formations. In addition to hole cleaning and lubrication functions, these fluids may be needed as kill fluids during emergencies. PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. used a systematic approach in developing and field testing a nondamaging drilling fluid. It was for use in underbalanced operations in the Glauconitic sandstone in the Westerose gas field in Alberta. A lab study was initiated to develop and test a non-damaging water-based drilling fluid for the horizontal well pilot project. The need to develop an inexpensive, nondamaging drilling fluid was previously identified during underbalanced drilling operations in the Weyburn field in southeastern Saskatchewan. A non-damaging fluid is required for hole cleaning, for lubrication of the mud motor, and for use as a kill fluid during emergencies. In addition, a nondamaging fluid is required when drilling with a conventional rig because pressure surges during connections and trips may result in the well being exposed to short periods of near balanced or overbalanced conditions. Without the protection of a filter cake, the drilling fluid will leak off into the formation, causing damage. The amount of damage is related to the rate of leak off and depth of invasion, which are directly proportional to the permeability to the fluid.

Churcher, P.L.; Yurkiw, F.J. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bietz, R.F.; Bennion, D.B. [Hycal Energy Research Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-04-29

42

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to accurately determine drilling fluid volumes required to fill the hole...the relationship between drilling fluid-return flow rate and pump discharge rate...equipment to monitor the drilling fluid returns. The indicator may be...

2009-07-01

43

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to accurately determine drilling fluid volumes required to fill the hole...the relationship between drilling fluid-return flow rate and pump discharge rate...equipment to monitor the drilling fluid returns. The indicator may be...

2010-07-01

44

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to accurately determine drilling fluid volumes required to fill the hole...the relationship between drilling fluid-return flow rate and pump discharge rate...equipment to monitor the drilling fluid returns. The indicator may be...

2013-07-01

45

Viscosity and density of a two-phase drilling fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ice-core drilling projects expect to reach depths greater than 1000 m. At such depths it is necessary to fill the borehole with a fluid to compensate the ice pressure and avoid the resulting significant hole closure. Knowledge of the ice-chips and drilling-fluid circulation parameters (e.g. flow rate, pressure drop, velocity) is essential for understanding the behaviour of the fluid

O. Alemany; H. Mityar

2007-01-01

46

How to select drilling fluids for horizontal wells  

SciTech Connect

The practice of drilling horizontal (or near horizontal) to obtain more cost effective production has been very popular in recent years. A number of case histories are presented to illustrate the practical applications. The critical factors that should be considered at the well planning stage are identified, and the degree to which the different drilling fluid types affect these concerns are addressed. There is nothing absolute about drilling fluid design for use in horizontal applications. Factors requiring special consideration when drilling a vertical hole become even more critical when a horizontal hole is drilled through the same formations. There is nothing absolute about drilling fluid design for use in horizontal applications. Factors requiring special consideration when drilling a vertical hole become even more critical when a horizontal hole is drilled through the same formations. Hole cleaning, suspension, lubricity, formation stabilization, rig capability and producer protection must all be addressed as matters of primary concern. Intimate knowledge of formation types and characteristics is required for rational fluid design to be undertaken. It is possible to effectively clean lateral hole sections with fluids designed to be applied in either laminar or turbulent flow. Mechanical integrity will determine whether the latter regime may reasonably be applied.

Fraser, L.J. (International Drilling Fluids, Houston, TX (United States))

1993-05-01

47

Effect of drilling fluid on temperatures measured in bore holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that, because of heat exchange with the drilling fluid, a bore hole must be left for some considerable time after drilling has ceased before temperature meas- urements can be made in it for the purpose of determining the geothermal flux. To test this point, a series of measurements of water temperature and flow were made during

J. C. Jaeger

1961-01-01

48

IMPACT OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON SEAGRASSES: AN EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNITY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth and chlorophyll content o...

49

Corrosion fatigue behavior of carbon steel in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion fatigue of carbon steel (CS) in drilling fluids was studied using a self-made rotary bending corrosion fatigue testing apparatus under simulated drilling conditions. Mechanisms of the effects of cyclic stress, chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}), and pH of drilling fluids on corrosion fatigue of CS as well as the inhibiting action of the imidazoline inhibitor and oxygen (O{sub 2}) scavenger sodium sulfite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) on corrosion fatigue were studied. Results showed Cl{sup {minus}} and S{sup 2{minus}} promoted corrosion fatigue crack initiation and growth. Fatigue life was lengthened after reducing subjected stress, increasing the pH of the drilling fluids, or adding the inhibitor and O{sub 2} scavenger.

Chaoyang, F.; Jiashen, Z. [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

1998-08-01

50

Physical properties of drilling fluids at high temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect

Rheological and dynamic filtration properties are presented for water- and oil-based drilling fluids. The physical properties were obtained at test temperatures to 400{sup 0}F (478 K), system pressures to 15,000 psi (103 MPa), and differential pressure to 600 psi (4.1 MPa). The data indicated that the de Guzman-Andrade law can be used to describe the temperature effects on the viscosity of oil muds. The authors also observed that dynamic filtration rates of drilling fluids are greatly affected by solids plugging the pore space in the formation. Temperature and pressure affect dynamic filtration by changing the dispersion of the solids in the fluid.

Fisk, J.V.; Jamison, D.E. (Baroid Drilling Fluids, R and D Group (US))

1989-12-01

51

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

The rate and amplitude of pressure transmission of various drilling fluids--particularly aphron drilling fluids--are measured in a long conduit and in sand packs to determine how pressure transmissibility can affect fluid invasion.

Arkadiy Belkin; Fred Growcock

2004-07-31

52

Sustainable drilling for oil and gas: challenging drilling environments de- mand new formulations of bentonite based drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for multifunctional drilling fluids con- tinuously increases. In the quest for more hy- drocarbons, drilling has extended to deep water areas (now in excess of 2.000 m) and to very deep wells (now in excess of 6.000 m). In these extreme conditions, low temperatures, as low as 1-50C on the sea bed, high temperatures, in ex- cess of 200oC,

V. C. Kelessidis

53

Drilling fluid technology for horizontal wells to protect the formations in unconsolidated sandstone heavy oil reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major factors that cause damage in drilling in unconsolidated sandstone heavy oil reservoirs include: invasion of solids in drilling fluid, incompatibility between the liquid phase of drilling fluid and crude oil, and hydration and expansion of reservoir clay minerals. Therefore, a solid-free weak gel drilling fluid system for horizontal wells to protect the formations was developed that contains seawater +

Yue Qiansheng; Liu Shujie; Xiang Xingjin

2010-01-01

54

Catonic drilling fluid improves ROP in reactive formations  

SciTech Connect

A cationic water-based mud reduced bit balling and increased rates of penetration (ROP ) in several Gulf of Mexico wells where highly permeable sands and dispersive formation clays and shales typically cause drilling problems. The cationic polymers adsorb on the negatively charged sites on shales and clays and immediately inhibit reactive formation solids. The filtration and mud cake qualities illustrate that effective filtration control is obtainable with the cationic drilling fluid. This paper reports that field results indicate that the cationic polymer drilling fluid system: Improves shale stabilization in soft-to-medium hard shales; Minimizes or eliminates bit balling; Increases penetration rates in softer clays and shales, particularly when drilled with polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits; Exhibits stable mud properties, including filtration control; Is tolerant of solids contamination; Exhibits good permeability plugging/filter cake characteristics; and, Is nontoxic.

Hamphill, T. (Baroid Drilling Fluids, Inc., Houston, TX (US)); Velenziano, R.; Bale, P. (Baroid Drilling Fluids, Inc., New Orleans, LA (US)); Sketchler, B. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., New Orleans, LA (US))

1992-06-08

55

Expensive drilling fluids put focus on solids control systems  

SciTech Connect

Mobil Oil has gained extensive experience worldwide in solids control systems for expensive drilling fluids. As a result, the company has a number of observations about such systems and has developed several basic operating principles. The cost of heavyweight, oil-based, or highly treated, water-base muds is very sensitive to methods used for solids control. Recent developments in high efficiently shale shaker applications and high speed centrifuge technology have greatly widened the scope of solids control system designs that can reduce total drilling and mud costs. Mobil has applied these recent developments that remove more of the fine drilled solids while reducing surface mud volume and connected horsepower in Indonesia and elsewhere. The company has development drilling programs in some difficult drilling areas including: Mobil Bay, Ala., with high H/sub 2/S gas below 20,000 ft; the North Sea, with 60/sup 0/ holes drilled through sensitive clays with 70% montmorillonite, and the Arun field in North Sumatra, Indonesia, with temperatures over 350/sup 0/F. and sensitive shales requiring up to 17.5 ppg to control. Mobil therefore has extensive experience with handling expensive drilling fluids, especially oil muds. This article emphasizes experience and practices in the Arun field, where Mobil operates two rigs.

Muchtar, J.B.; Edelbrock, G.J.

1987-01-05

56

Unique Microbial Community in Drilling Fluids from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 5100 m below the ground surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increased depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively. Their optimal growth temperature was between 50-85-aC. Anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III) reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing Fe(III) in iron oxide and clay mineral to produce siderite and vivianite, and illite, respectively. Anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(II) oxidizing bacterial isolate was able to oxidize Fe(II) in clay structure. Biological iron redox cycles may be present in the deep subsurface. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to known cultivated species, but to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface marine environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface environments. These findings have important implications for microbial ecology in the deep subsurface . Analyzing drilling fluid might provide us with a new method to study subsurface microbiology.

Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.

2005-12-01

57

Quality requirements for industrial minerals used in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The quality of mineral additives used in a drilling field (mud) can dramatically affect the fluid's properties and the overall cost of drilling an oil or gas well. The principally used minerals are bentonite, barite, barite/hematite blends, and hematite alone. The high specific gravity minerals, barite and hematite, are used to increase drilling fluid density. Bentonite clay is used to increase drilling fluid viscosity and get strength and to provide a low permeability filter cake. A multimillion dollar investment in a well and the safety of the personnel on the drilling rig can depend on how effectively these mud additives perform with other constituents in the mud. This paper points effects caused by small amounts of certain carbonate and sulfide mineral impurities in barite or hematite and how polymeric extender additives in bentonites contribute to unpredictable behavior of a mud. Effects like these are the reason oil companies using their materials sometimes and set their own quality standards beyond those already specified in API Spec. 13A. Also discussed in this paper are the current standardization activities of API Committee 13 on these minerals.

Garrett, R.L.

1987-11-01

58

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 ?g kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. PMID:21809098

Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

2011-08-02

59

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CUTTING FLUID EFFECTS IN DRILLING. (R825370C057)  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed and conducted on aluminum alloys and gray cast iron to determine the function of cutting fluid in drilling. The variables examined included speed, feed, hole depth, tool and workpiece material, cutting fluid condition, workpiece temperatures and drill...

60

Cooperative Research-A Route To Reduce the Environmental Impact of Drilling Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing environmental constraints on the use of oil-based drilling fluids have prompted close cooperation between operators and service companies to maintain the technical performance of drilling fluids while reducing oil discharge. This paper describes how Amerada Hess Ltd. (AHL) and Intl. Drilling Fluids Ltd. (IDF) cooperated by extending laboratory developments into controlled field trials and how feedback from the field

D. J. Oakley; A. Morrison; I. Burdis; K. G. Jones

1992-01-01

61

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according...and gas monitors. Drilling fluid-handling areas must have the...0 cubic feet of air-volume flow per minute, per square foot...you must maintain the drilling fluid-handling area at a...

2013-07-01

62

Gas-hydrate formation, agglomeration and inhibition in oil-based drilling fluids for deep-water drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main challenges in deep-water drilling is gas-hydrate plugs, which make the drilling unsafe. Some oil-based drilling fluids (OBDF) that would be used for deep-water drilling in the South China Sea were tested to investigate the characteristics of gas-hydrate formation, agglomeration and inhibition by an experimental system under the temperature of 4 °C and pressure of 20 MPa,

Fulong Ning; Ling Zhang; Yunzhong Tu; Guosheng Jiang; Maoyong Shi

2010-01-01

63

Fate and effects of whole drilling fluids and fluid components in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems: a literature review. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Drilling fluids represent an important aspect of offshore and land based drilling operations. Periodically, the fluids must be changed or they become old and the spent fluids are disposed of in on-land facilities. Introduction into the environment of the chemically complex fluids has prompted effects research addressing terrestrial and freshwater habitats and their respective biological components. Studies with terrestrial plants in laboratory and field experiments show that the fluids and some fluid components exhibit phytotoxicity properties reducing seed germination, growth and yield. Phytotoxicity in whole drilling fluids is attributed to soluble salt concentrations. Preference/avoidance reactions were observed in experiments with whole drilling fluids are also discussed. The range of lethal concentrations of fluid components in toxicity studies was from < 1 to 75,000 mg/l and that for whole drilling fluids from 0.29 to 85% by volume.

Ferrante, J.G.

1981-05-01

64

Recent Fluids in Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluids and their origins in continental scientific drilling programs have widely been applied to the studies of crustal extension, fluid transportation paths and tectonization processes. The rare gases are good indicators of mantle fluids. The isotopes of carbon and hydrogen and the relationships between them can be used in revealing the fluid sources. And C/3He can provide more ambiguous distinguish between sources. The recent fluids in Chinese continental scientific drilling project (CCSD) have been analyzed and profiles were obtained. He, CO2, Ar, N2, O2, H2 and C1-C4 were determined by two on-line units, a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph. Cations and anions in mud samples were analyzed by an on-site high performance liquid chromatograph. Rare earth elements and other inorganic components were measured by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in our laboratory in Beijing. The isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and rare gases, especially helium, were analyzed by mass spectrometers in different laboratories. One key in studying the recent fluids in CCSD project is to identify whether the recent fluids were from the deep earth or not, even when their concentrations were higher than normal levels. Many disturbance components would usually be produced during drilling process. Such the disturbance includes many artifact gases from mud ferment, organic additive decomposition, bit erosion, etc. The analytical data of recent fluids could not be used in the investigation before removing the artifact components. It was found that the high contents of elements were related to the special rocks and minerals, such as sulfide and radiation ores. Carbon dioxide was related with carbonate. The high contents of gases were often found when the cracks or fissures occurred. The distribution of rare earth elements changed with the recent fluids. In some cases, a certain amount of helium gas was found with a high intensity of radiation detected. The high content of methane was once observed with a crystal hole in CCSD project. The samples for isotope analyses were collected in glass bottles and sent to several laboratories in China and Germany, separately. When helium and carbon isotopes in samples were found above the average values in CCSD samples, they would be measured again to confirm the safe conservation of these samples and there was no significant leak of the gases from the bottles. The isotope data show that the abnormal contents of gases found in the CCSD drilling well come from multiple sources and are related to the geological structure in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt of China.

Luo, L.; Sun, Q.; Zhan, X.; Tang, L.; He, H.; Rao, Z.

2004-12-01

65

An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

TerraTek

2007-06-30

66

Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives  

SciTech Connect

The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))

1991-10-01

67

Drilling fluid temperatures in a magma - penetrating wellbore  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the numerical modeling of the drilling fluid temperatures in a deep well that penetrates a magma body. The basic assumptions for the model are listed, the importance of the fluid temperature is considered, and the effect of changing the model parameters is assessed. The stratigraphy and formation temperature profile assumed for this hypothetical well are similar to Long Valley, CA, where a relatively shallow magma body is believed to exist. A major result of this modeling is demonstration of the benefit of insulated drillpipe.

Finger, J.T.

1986-01-01

68

The use of bentonite in oil and gas well drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental to the use of rotary bit drilling equipment for oil and gas drilling is the requirement to maintain a cooling and lubricating environment for the bit and a means of conveying the cuttings from the drilling operation to the surface. The vast majority of such functions are provided for by the use of water based drilling fluids, commonly known as the drilling mud. One of the basic constituents of drilling mud is bentonite, a montmorillonite clay. Bentonite, when mixed with water at approximately 6% solids, will produce a fluid which has several important features in connection with its role as a drilling mud:

Hughes, J.

1983-03-01

69

A Shear-Thickening Fluid for Stopping Unwanted Flows While Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid formulation was developed that was based on using the high shear rate of the drill bit to thicken the fluid irreversibly. This allows the fluid to be controlled for application to specific wellbore problems. This fluid was field tested in 10 different wells that had severe drilling problems. It was used successfully in a majority of those cases.

Charles Hamburger; Yuh-hwang Tsao; Betty Morrison; Evelyn Drake

1985-01-01

70

Combating severe fluid erosion and corrosion of drill bits using thermal spray coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally sprayed tungsten carbide based coating offers an avenue to minimize severe fluid erosion, wear and corrosion encountered on drill bits and downhole tool assemblies used in mining, oil and gas drilling. The application of high rotary speeds and weights, presence of corrosive elements in the drilling muds, and high velocity mud with entrained cuttings subject these tools and drill

K. T. Kembaiyan; Kesh Keshavan

1995-01-01

71

Fate of Drilling Fluids during the South McMurdo Sound Project (SMS) of the Antarctic Geological Drilling Program (ANDRILL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deep subsurface rock core for paleoclimate reconstruction was collected in October and November 2007 during the South McMurdo Sound Project (SMS) of the Antarctic Geological Drilling Program (ANDRILL). To allow for deeper penetration and more efficient core recovery, water-based saline drilling fluids were utilized. A total of 5.6x105 L of fluids was lost in the subsurface. The fluid was comprised of surface seawater from the sound, as the wetting agent mixed with densifying compounds (mainly potassium chloride and small amounts of fourteen other compounds including biodegradable organics). When exploring pristine locations a main goal needs to be minimizing the amount of biological and chemical contamination. Introducing a contaminant such as drilling fluids could negatively alter the in situ conditions; affecting the environment even after the exploring party has departed the system. The fate of contamination on the subsurface environment from invasive exploration methods into pristine environments is not well known. In this study, computer models (MODFLOW, SEAWAT) that are used by hydrogeologists to establish the fate and transport of contamination were utilized to determine the extent of the drilling fluid contamination from the sea floor to 1100 mbsf. In these models, previously collected logs for lithology, porosity, fracture density, drilling fluid loss, drilling fluid characteristics, and temperature were used as different parameters in the model. In addition, biodegradation and sorption constants for the drilling fluid were determined. These factors are important to determine the extent and half-life of the drilling fluids in the subsurface. Samples of drilling fluids used during coring and return fluids were collected from the drill site and were used to determine the biodegradation of the drilling fluids. The overall goal of this research project is to utilize the rich data set provided by SMS ANDRILL and some basic laboratory testing to predict and determine the potential subsurface contamination from drilling. The results of this study can be used as a reference for comparison of future studies examining newly developed, and improved, sample collecting methods in the continuing drilling in pristine environments.

Lenczewski, M.; Greer, C.; Greer, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Raimondi, E.; Carroll, M.

2011-12-01

72

Development and applications of solids-free oil-in-water drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing application of near balanced drilling technology to low-pressure and depleted fractured reservoirs requires\\u000a the use of low-density drilling fluids to avoid formation damage. Solids-free oil-in-water (O\\/W) emulsion drilling fluid is\\u000a one type of low-density drilling fluid suitable for depleted fractured reservoirs. In this paper, the solids-free O\\/W drilling\\u000a fluid was developed and has been successfully used in the

Qiansheng Yue; Baoguo Ma

2008-01-01

73

Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

1981-10-01

74

Aqueous foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids: 1. Screening  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous foam is a promising drilling fluid for geothermal wells because it will minimize damage to the producing formation and would eliminate the erosion problems of air drilling. Successful use of aqueous foam will require a high foaming surfactant which will: (1) be chemically stable in the harsh thermal and chemical environment, and (2) form stable foams at high temperatures and pressures. The procedures developed to generate and test aqueous foams and the effects of a 260/sup 0/C temperature cycle on aqueous surfactant solutions are presented. More than fifty selected surfactants were evaluated with representatives from the amphoteric, anionic, cationic, and nonionic classes included. Most surfactants were severely degraded by this temperature cycle; however, some showed excellent retention of their properties. The most promising surfactant types were the alkyl and alkyl aryl sulfonates and the ethoxylated nonionics.

Rand, P.B.

1980-01-01

75

Effects of exposure of aquatic snails to sublethal concentrations of waste drilling fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static bioassays were carried out using two aquatic snails (Pilia sp. and Lanistes sp.) as test organisms in soft natural dilution water, with waste drilling fluid as the test material, at 28±2°C. Comparison of results for the control and different concentrations of the waste drilling fluid were made by means of the F-statistic method. The waste drilling fluid was practically

J. A. Ekundayo; M. O. Benka-Coker

1994-01-01

76

Downhole fluid-loss measurements from drilling fluid and cement slurries  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a cooperative effort to demonstrate that direct field measurements of the fluid loss from wells are possible and yield significant results. Four wells in the Mississippi River delta were systematically shut in, and the fluid loss from the annulus was measured both with only mud in the annulus and after cement placement. The wells had extensive intervals of permeable sands, making them well-suited for fluid-loss tests. The results indicated a much lower fluid loss per unit area of permeable sands both before and after cementing compared with routine laboratory testing. Results also indicated that cement fluid loss was controlled mainly by filtration properties of the drilling-fluid mudcake.

Haberman, J.P.; Delestatius, M. (Texaco Inc. (United States))

1992-08-01

77

Metal and hydrocarbon behavior in sediments from Brazilian shallow waters drilling activities using nonaqueous drilling fluids (NAFs).  

PubMed

The impact of drilling oil activities in the Brazilian Bonito Field/Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro) shell drilling (300 m) using nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) was investigated with respect to Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Co, Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, V, and aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the sediment. Sampling took place in three different times during approximately 33 months. For the metals Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, V, and Zn, no significant variation was observed after drilling activities in most of the stations. However, an increase was found in Ba concentration--due to the drilling activity--without return to the levels found 22 months after drilling. High Ba contents was already detected prior to well drilling, probably due to drilling activities in other wells nearby. Hydrocarbon contents also suggest previous anthropogenic activities. Aliphatic hydrocarbon contents were in the range usually reported in other drilling sites. The same behavior was observed in the case of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Nevertheless, the n-alkane concentration increased sharply after drilling, returning almost to predrilling levels 22 months after drilling activities. PMID:20512618

do Carmo R Peralba, Maria; Pozebon, Dirce; dos Santos, João H Z; Maia, Sandra M; Pizzolato, Tânia M; Cioccari, Giovani; Barrionuevo, Simone

2010-05-30

78

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Drilling for Supercritical Hydrothermal Fluids is Underway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP is being carried out by an international industry-government consortium in Iceland (consisting of three leading Icelandic power companies, together with the National Energy Authority), Alcoa Inc. and StatoilHydro) with the objective of investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal fluids. This will require drilling to temperatures of 400-600°C and depths of 4 to 5 km. Modeling suggests that supercritical water could yield an order of magnitude greater power output than that produced by conventional geothermal wells. The consortium plans to test this concept in three different geothermal fields in Iceland. If successful, major improvements in the development of high-temperature geothermal resources could result worldwide. In June 2008 preparation of the first deep IDDP well commenced in the Krafla volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. Selection of the first drill site for this well was based on geological, geophysical and geochemical data, and on the results of extensive geothermal drilling since 1971. During 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred in the caldera, involving 9 volcanic eruptions. In parts of the geothermal field acid volcanic gases made steam from some of the existing wells unsuitable for power generation for the following decade. A large magma chamber at 3-7 km depth was detected by S-wave attenuation beneath the center of the caldera, believed to be the heat source of the geothermal system. A recent MT-survey has confirmed the existence of low resistivity bodies at shallow depths within the volcano. The IDDP well will be drilled and cased to 800m depth in September, before the winter snows, and in spring 2009 it will be drilled and cased to 3.5km depth and then deepened to 4.5 km in July. Several spot cores for scientific studies will be collected between 2400m and the total depth. After the well heats, it will be flow tested and, if successful, a pilot plant for power production should follow in 2010. During 2009-19 two new wells, ~4 km deep, will be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in southern Iceland, and subsequently deepened into the supercritical zone. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater on the Reykjanes peninsula, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge comes on land. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be more similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems. Because of the considerable international scientific opportunities afforded by the IDDP, the US National Science Foundation and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program will jointly fund the coring and sampling for scientific studies. Research is underway on samples from existing wells in the targeted geothermal fields, and on active mid-ocean ridge systems that have conditions believed to be similar to those that will be encountered in deep drilling by the IDDP. Some of these initial scientific studies by US investigators are reported in the accompanying papers.

Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

2008-12-01

79

SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS FROM GULF OF MEXICO DRILLING PLATFORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Use of the amphipods, Leptocheirus plumulosus and Ampelisca abdita, in these bioassays presented no major difficulties in the execution of these test protocols. Sensitivity to the toxicants was exhibited by L. plumulosus and survival of control animals was good suggesting the sui...

80

Effects of Drilling Fluids on 'Thalassia testudinum' and Its Epiphytic Algae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flow-through microcosm system was developed to assess the potential influence of drilling fluids on Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytic algae. Two treatments (drilling fluid and a montmorillonite clay) and a control were used for seven tests: two 10-...

W. A. Price J. M. Macauley J. R. Clark

1986-01-01

81

Use of Tracers To Investigate Drilling-Fluid Invasion and Oil Flushing During Coring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work develops a method in which chemical tracers in the drilling fluid help determine mud filtrate invasion and the degree of oil flushing during coring of steamed and unsteamed heavy-oil formations. Salts of iodide and bromide were added to the drilling fluid while Well TO3 was cored through the Lombardi and Aurignac zones at San Ardo field in California.

A. Brown; F. T. Marriott

1988-01-01

82

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON 'THALASSIA TESTUDINUM' AND ITS EPIPHYTIC ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

A flow-through microcosm system was developed to assess the potential influence of drilling fluids on Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytic algae. Two treatments (drilling fluid and a montmorillonite clay) and a control were used for seven tests: two 10-day, 200 microliter/l exp...

83

Geochemical monitoring of drilling fluids; A powerful tool to forecast and detect formation waters  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method based on the difference between the chemical compositions of formation and drilling fluids for analyzing drilling mud to forecast fluid-producing zones. The method was successfully applied in three boreholes in crystalline rocks in France. Subsequent geophysical logs and hydraulic tests confirmed the occurrence of flowing fractures.

Vuataz, F.D. (Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland)); Brach, M.; Criaud, A. (Ciments Francais (FR)); Fouillac, C. (Joint Institute for Geothermal Research (FR))

1990-06-01

84

Analysis of the theoretical model of drilling fluid invading into oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic gas hydrate-bearing sediment is usually porous media, with the temperature and pressure closer to the curve of hydrate phase equilibrium than those in the permafrost region. In the case of near-balanced or over-balanced drilling through this sediment, the water-based drilling fluid used invades into this sediment, and hydrates decompose with heat transfer between drilling fluid and this sediment. During

L. Zhang; F. Ning; G. Jiang; N. Wu; D. Wu

2009-01-01

85

Evaluation of aqueous-foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous foams are potentially useful drilling and cleanout fluids for geothermal applications. Successful use of foams requires surfactants (foaming agents) that can survive in the high-temperature geothermal environment. In this study, solutions of aqueous-foam-forming surfactants have been exposed to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) and 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) in various chemical environments to determine if they can survive and make foams after exposure. Comparison of foams before and after exposure and the change in solution pH were used to evaluate their performance. Controlled liquid-volume-fraction foams, made in a packed-bed foam generator, were used for all tests. These tests have shown that many commercially available surfactants can survive short high-temperature cycles in mild acids, mild bases, and salt solutions as evidenced by their ability to make foams after exposure to high temperatures.

Rand, P.B.; Montoya, O.J.

1983-07-01

86

Metal and hydrocarbon behavior in sediments from Brazilian shallow waters drilling activities using nonaqueous drilling fluids (NAFs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of drilling oil activities in the Brazilian Bonito Field\\/Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro) shell drilling (300 m) using\\u000a nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) was investigated with respect to Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Co, Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, V, and aliphatic\\u000a and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the sediment. Sampling took place in three different times during\\u000a approximately

Maria do Carmo R. Peralba; Dirce Pozebon; João H. Z. dos Santos; Sandra M. Maia; Tânia M. Pizzolato; Giovani Cioccari; Simone Barrionuevo

2010-01-01

87

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

In this report we focus on surface studies of the wetting effects of SBM components; three areas of research are covered. First we present results of tests of interfacial properties of some commercial emulsifiers that are routinely used in both oil-based and synthetic oil-based drilling fluids. These products fall into two main groups, based on their CMC and IFT trends with changing pH. All can alter the wetting of mica, but measurements vary widely depending on the details of exposure and observation protocols. Non-equilibrium effects appear to be responsible for these variations, with equilibrated fluids generally giving lower contact angles than those observed with fluids that have not been pre-equilibrated. Addition of small amounts of emulsifier can increase the tendency of a crude oil to alter wetting of mica surfaces. The effects of similar amounts of these emulsifiers can be detected in interfacial tension measurements. Next, we report on the preliminary results of a study of polyethoxylated amines of varying structures on the wetting of mica surfaces. Contact angles have been measured for unequilibrated and pre-equilibrated fluids. Reduction in contact angles was generally observed when the surfaces were washed with toluene after exposure to surfactant solutions. Atomic forces microscopy is also being used to observe the interactions between these surfactants and mica surfaces. Finally, we show the results of a study of asphaltene stability in the presence of synthetic base oils. Most of the base oils in current use are paraffinic or olefinic--the aromatic content is minimized for environmental reasons--and they destabilize asphaltenes. Tests with two crude oils show onset conditions for base oils that are comparable to n-heptane and n-pentadecane in terms of the solubility conditions at the onset. Two ester-based products, Petrofree and Petrofree LV, did not cause asphaltene flocculation in these tests. A meeting of the research groups from New Mexico Tech and the University of Wyoming, was held in Laramie on the 9th and 10th of October. All the members of the research teams presented updates on their progress and exchanged views on directions for the remainder of the project.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2003-10-01

88

Oil-base drilling fluid comprising branched chain paraffins such as the dimer of 1-decene  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a drilling fluid. It comprises at least about 30 volume percent of a non-toxic base-oil; and one or more additives, at least one of which is selected from the group consisting of emulsifiers, viscosifiers, weighting agents, oil-wetting agents, densifiers, and fluid-loss preventing agents, the base-oil content of the drilling fluid consisting of the dimer of 1-decene.

J. D. Mercer; L. L. Nesbit

1992-01-01

89

Water base drilling fluids for high-angle wells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Horizontal drilling has experimented a large increase in last years. In Brazil, two horizontal wells were drilled in Fazenda Belem and Carmopolis Fields. The first one reached a final measured depth of 1128 m and the horizontal length was 533 m. The drill...

R. Passarelli R. F. T. Lomba

1989-01-01

90

A shear-thickening fluid for stopping unwanted flows while drilling  

SciTech Connect

A fluid formulation was developed that was based on using the high shear rate of the drill bit to thicken the fluid irreversibly. This allows the fluid to be controlled for application to specific wellbore problems. This fluid was field tested in 10 different wells that had severe drilling problems. It was used successfully in a majority of those cases. In instances when it failed, the only method that worked was to set casing. Since testing this fluid, we have developed an improved formula that is easier to pump and has higher initial strength. This improved formula now has been field tested.

Tsao, Y.H.; Drake, E.N.; Morrison, M.E.

1985-03-01

91

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2005-09-30

92

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

Core Leak-off tests are commonly used to ascertain the ability of a drilling fluid to seal permeable rock under downhole conditions. Unfortunately, these tests are expensive and require a long time to set up. To monitor fluid invasion trends and to evaluate potential treatments for reducing fluid invasion on location, a simpler screening test is highly desirable. The Capillary Suction Time (CST) Test has been used since the 1970's as a fast, yet reliable, method for characterizing fluid filterability and the condition of colloidal materials in water treatment facilities and drilling fluids. For the latter, it has usually been applied to determine the state of flocculation of clay-bearing fluids and to screen potential shale inhibitors. In this work, the CST method was evaluated as a screening tool for predicting relative invasion rates of drilling fluids in permeable cores. However, the drilling fluids examined--DRILPLEX, FLOPRO, and APHRON ICS--are all designed to generate low fluid loss and give CST values that are so high that fluid invasion comes to be dominated by experimental artifacts, such as fluid evaporation. As described in this work, the CST procedure was modified so as to minimize such artifacts and permit differentiation of the fluids under investigation.

Tatiana Hoff; Fred Growcock

2004-12-30

93

Applications of strongly inhibitive silicate-based drilling fluids in troublesome shale formations in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several decades, wells drilled in Sudan Block 6 have experienced serious hole-instability problem related to drilling fluids due to the highly reactive and dispersive shales existing in the Aradeiba and Abu Gabra formations. The problem included washed out hole sections combined with tight hole, as well as serious sloughing shale. Frequent wiper trips were frequently required and logging of

Jiankang Guo; Jienian Yan; Weiwang Fan; Hongjing Zhang

2006-01-01

94

Heavy metals contribution of non-aqueous fluids used in offshore oil drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitoring program was performed to investigate heavy metal content alteration due to exploratory drilling for oil using non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) in Brazilian offshore, 900m deep. Fourteen elements were monitored in 54 sites and it was verified that after drilling activities the average Ba concentration was remarkably increased with respect to background level, even 1 year after the activity. A

Dirce Pozebon; Eder C. Lima; Sandra M. Maia; Jandyra M. G. Fachel

2005-01-01

95

IMPACT OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON SEAGRASSES: AN EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNITY APPROACH (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum Konig et Sims) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth and chlorop...

96

Thermally stable drilling fluid additive comprised of a copolymer of catechol-based monomer  

SciTech Connect

A water soluble polymer is described having thermal stability and exhibiting utility as an aqueous drilling fluid additive comprising: (a) a major portion of a catechol based monomer; (b) a minor portion of a dicarboxylic acid monomer.

Patel, A.D.

1986-06-17

97

ECOSYSTEM PERSPECTIVE ON POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF DRILLING FLUID DISCHARGES ON SEAGRASSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Potential effects of oil drilling fluid discharges upon Thalassia seagrass ecosystems were examined to provide general insights and raise ecotoxicological issues relevant to problems of addressing a priori, ecolgical effects of anthropogenic actions. Microcosm experiments have de...

98

Analysis of borehole stability and drilling fluids for SFE (staged field experiment) No. 2. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute's (GRI) Tight Gas Sands program is actively engaged in collecting geophysical data from the Travis Peak formation in the East Texas Basin. Poor-quality electrical wireline measurements and disintegrating core were observed in eight GRI cooperative wells and in the first Staged Field Experiment well. The adverse conditions contributing to the poor-quality data were attributed to unstable borehole conditions resulting from geochemical reactions between formation clays and the drilling-fluid water, causing them to swell. Tests performed on a section of core from a well within one mile of the second Staged Field Experiment well using eight different drilling fluids indicated a water-base drilling fluid with potassium chloride and a shale inhibiting polymer would enhance borehole stability. This drilling fluid system's ability to prevent clay swelling and promote geophysical data quality was determined by analyzing caliper logs, wireline log data quality and whole core.

Monson, E.R.

1988-06-01

99

Use of 'Thalassia' and Its Epiphytes for Toxicity Assessment: Effects of a Drilling Fluid and Tributyltin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concurrent 12-week laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine toxicity of the suspended particulate phase (SPP) of drilling fluid to Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytes. Test systems were treated once per week to achieve nominal concentra...

J. M. Macauley J. R. Clark A. R. Pitts

1990-01-01

100

The Drilling Fluid Hazard Assessment Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Drilling Fluids Hazard Assessment Program carried out by the Office of Research and Development of the Environmental Protection Agency is presented, from its initiation in 1976 to the planned tasks for Fiscal Year 1982. This synopsis includes discussi...

1982-01-01

101

Cationic polymer drilling fluid can sometimes replace oil-based mud  

SciTech Connect

A recently developed cationic polymer/brine drilling fluid (CBF) system, tested in a number of wells drilled in the U.S. and the North Sea, can replace oil-based fluids in certain applications. This paper reports that the field tests have shown CBF to be more inhibitive than other water-based muds used in the same areas. To date, the primary applications have been in large diameter hole sections drilled through Tertiary shales with high semectite clay content. The CBF system uses a cationic polymer and potassium chloride for shale inhibition, starch for fluid loss control, and a biopolymer for rheology. Tests have been developed to quantitatively measure the concentrations of the inhibitive additives in the fluid, allowing the fluid to be run with a high degree of control.

Beihoffer, T.W.; Dorrough, D.S.; Deem, C.K.; Schmidt, D.D.; Bray, R.P. (Amoco Production Research, Tulsa, OK (US))

1992-03-16

102

Evaluation of Some Egyptian Shales as a Drilling Fluid Additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Egyptian shales from Wadi El Natrun were tested for their potential and possibility to meet the required drilling mud properties. Activation of these shales was performed using the most popular (Na2CO3), carboxy-methylcellulose, and polymers. The drilling mud qualities of the shales from Wadi El Natrun were significantly improved with additives and upgraded to have rheological properties compatible

M. G. Temraz; I. Hassanien

2012-01-01

103

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

A method is developed to monitor the rate of loss of air from aphrons at elevated pressures. This technique is used to study the effects of pressure, fluid composition and rates of pressurization and depressurization on the kinetics of air loss from aphrons in APHRON ICS{trademark} drilling fluids.

Maribella Irving; Fred Growcock

2004-11-30

104

Formation producibility and fractional flow curves from radial resistivity variation caused by drilling fluid invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to characterize conductivity profiles due to drilling fluid invasion into a hydrocarbon formation, a model for radial fluid transport is presented. The model assumes a water-based mud and accounts for the convective movement of oil, water, and salt. A mathematical analysis of the model using the method of characteristics is given. An equivalent graphical construction is also provided.

T. S. Ramakrishnan; D. J. Wilkinson

1997-01-01

105

OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION  

SciTech Connect

The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01

106

Drilling Fluids and Lost Circulation in Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320 C (608 F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred. Several techniques were attempted to solve these problems but have met with varying degrees of success.

Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G. Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.

1981-01-01

107

Drilling fluids and lost circulation in hot dry rock geothermal wells at Fenton Hill  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo Formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred.

Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G.; Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.; Baroid, N.L.

1981-01-01

108

Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling  

SciTech Connect

The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-06-01

109

Improvement of the casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Part 1: Drilling muds and washing fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling muds, washers, and washing fluids were investigated in order to improve the casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Rheological requirements, the temperature stability of mud systems and the properties of nondamaging drilling muds were studied. For washing fluids, two test methods were developed and the necessity of filter cake removal was shown. The efficiency of several washing fluids was compared and evaluated for various mud systems (drilling muds with and without clays).

Arens, K. H.; Akstinat, M.

1982-07-01

110

Recycling centrifuge for the reduction of viscosity and gel strength of drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to process and apparatus for reducing the viscosity and gel strength of drilling fluids, or muds, without any necessity of introducing additives, or chemicals, into the mud. It embodies, in particular, (I) a process wherein a hydratable clay containing drilling fluid, or mud, is contacted with a revolving, or otherwise moving, surface at an angle of contact sufficient to impart adequate compression or sheer force, or both, to dewater the hydrated clay constituent, or constituents, of said drilling fluid, or mud; and (II) an apparatus, or inertial device, constituted generally of structure inclusive of a revolvable cone within the inner surface of which a stream or spray of said hydratable clay-containing drilling fluid, or mud, can be impinged or contacted, when the cone is revolved at sufficient speed, to impart adequate compression or sheer force, or both, to dewater the hydrated clay constituent, or constituents, and thereby reduce the viscosity and gel strength of the drilling fluid, or mud.

Hartley, B.G.

1981-10-27

111

Use of potassium/lime drilling-fluid system in Navarin basin drilling  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case history of Amoco Production Co.'s use of potassium-lime mud (KLM) for drilling a series of wells in the Navarin basin. The remote location, logistical concerns, environmental regulations, and the high cost of the operation mandated that the project be carefully planned. Planning, however, was hampered because the nearest offset to any of the wells was more than 100 miles (160 km) away. This paper describes the planning, implementation, and results of the mud system used to drill the wells. It includes a matrix of tests used to define further the nature of KLM, presents the methods used to run the system while the wells were drilled, and describes the results of using the mud in the basin. Navarin basin experience suggested that KLM should be considered when clay inhibition is needed and moderate bottomhole temperatures (BHT's) are expected.

Holt, C.A.; Brett, J.F.; Johnson, J.B.; Walker, T.O.

1987-12-01

112

Evaluating water-based drill-in-fluids for horizontal completions. Part 2: Return permeability tests  

SciTech Connect

This is the conclusion of a two-part series aimed at determining advantages and disadvantages of three drill-in fluid systems. Intent of the study was not to recommend one fluid over another, but to make available the data necessary for picking the optimum fluid for any particular application. This concluding article describes return permeability tests, evaluated with 10.5-ppg muds. The paper describes the test apparatus, experimental procedure, and results.

Ali, S.A. [Chevron USA Production Co., New Orleans, LA (United States); Dearing, H.L. [Chevron USA Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-11-01

113

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2003-10-01

114

Analysis of the theoretical model of drilling fluid invading into oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic gas hydrate-bearing sediment is usually porous media, with the temperature and pressure closer to the curve of hydrate phase equilibrium than those in the permafrost region. In the case of near-balanced or over-balanced drilling through this sediment, the water-based drilling fluid used invades into this sediment, and hydrates decompose with heat transfer between drilling fluid and this sediment. During these processes, there are inevitably energy and mass exchanges between drilling fluid and the sediment, which will affect the logging response, borehole stability and reservoir evaluation. When drilling fluid invades into this sediment, solid and liquid phases of drilling fluid permeate into the wellbore and displace original fluids and solids, and water content of formation increases. With the temperature and pressure changing, gas hydrates in the sediment decompose into gas and water, and water content of formation further changes. When the filter cakes form, the invasion of drilling fluid is weakened. This process is accompanied by the heat and mass transfer within the range from wellbore to undisturbed area, including heat conduction of rock matrix, the convective heat transfer of fluids invaded, the heat absorbing of hydrate decomposition and the mass exchange between fluids invaded and the gas and water generated by hydrate decomposition. As a result, dynamic balance is built up and there are generally four different regions from wellbore to undisturbed area, i.e. filter cakes region, filter liquor region, water/free gas region, and water/free gas/hydrate region. According to the analysis on the invasion of drilling fuild into sediment, the whole invasion process can be described as an anisothermal and unstable displacement and diffusion process coupled with phase change. Refering to models of drilling fuilds invasion into normal oil and gas formation and natrual gas production from hydrate deposit by heating, the model of the invasion of drilling fluid into hydrate-bearing sediment has been preliminarily discussed based on kinetics of hydrate dissociation , with the assumption that hydrates were viewed as a portion of pore fluids and their decomposition was taken as a water and gas source without a uniform rate. A mathematical model was built up, and key parameters used for solving the kinetic equation of hydrate dissociation, such as the coefficient of effective porosity and permeability, absolute permeability, the synthetic specific heat and heat conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediment, are discussed. This model could be used to describe the dynamic process of drilling fluids invasion by coupling modified kinetic equation of heated hydrate decomposition into mass conservation equations, and also be used to study the evolution of pore water pressure, temperature, salinity, saturation of water/gas/hydrate with the depth of invasion and time. Key words: gas hydrates-bearing sediment, drilling fluid, hydrate dissociation, invasion process, model

Zhang, L.; Ning, F.; Jiang, G.; Wu, N.; Wu, D.

2009-12-01

115

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and (3) to develop new approaches to restoration of wetting that will permit the use of cores drilled with SBM formulations for valid studies of reservoir properties.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2006-01-01

116

An ecosystem perspective on potential impacts of drilling fluid discharges on seagrasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential effects of oil drilling fluid discharges upon Thalassia seagrass ecosystems were examined using seagrass core microcosms. Observed experimental effects, summarized in this article, included changes in both autotrophic ( Thalassia and epiphyte) and heterotrophic (dominant benthic macroinvertebrates) species, and the processes of primary productivity and decomposition. The physical disturbance related to greater turbidity and sedimentation caused some effects, while others seemed a direct response to the toxic constituents of drilling fluids. Using these experimental results and the case of Thalassia and drilling fluids as a case study, we explore general methodological and philosophical issues for ecotoxicology and, furthermore, focus upon the challenge of providing a scientific basis for judging acceptability of environmental changes likely to ensue from human activities.

Kelly, John R.; Duke, Thomas W.; Harwell, Mark A.; Harwell, Christine C.

1987-08-01

117

Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied. PMID:20209242

Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

2010-03-01

118

Terpolymers for use as high temperature fluid loss additive and rheology stabilizer for high pressure, high temperature oil well drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Novel water-soluble terpolymers comprising: 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid, sodium salt (AMPS), acrylamide, N, N-diallylacetamide These terpolymers provide high temperature fluid loss additives and rheology stabilizers for high calcium-containing brine clay drilling fluids.

Giddings, D. M.; Ries, D. G.; Syrinek, A. R.

1985-03-05

119

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TWO GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS AND SIX ADDITIVES, ALONE AND COMBINED, TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...

120

Selective-placement burial of drilling fluids: 2. Effects on buffalograss and fourwing saltbrush. [Atriplex canescens; Buchloe dactyloides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface disposal of spent drilling fluids used in petroleum and natural gas exploration causes surface soil contamination that severely inhibits secondary plant succession and artificial revegetation efforts. Selective-placement burial was evaluated at two locations in western Texas for on-site disposal of drilling fluids in arid and semiarid regions. Establishment, yield, and chemical composition of fourwing saltbrush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh Nutt.))

M. L. McFarland; S. Hartmann; D. N. Ueckert; F. M. Hons

2009-01-01

121

DRILLING FLUIDS AND THE ARCTIC TUNDRA OF ALASKA: ASSESSING CONTAMINATION OF WETLANDS HABITAT AND THE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill s...

122

Drilling fluids and the arctic tundra of Alaska: Assessing contamination of wetlands habitat and the toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases, usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill sites and their reserve pits showed an increase in common and trace elements and

Daniel F. Woodward; Elaine Snyder-Conn; Robert G. Riley; Thomas R. Garland

1988-01-01

123

Drilling fluids and the arctic tundra of Alaska: assessing contamination of wetlands habitat and the toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and fish (journal version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill sites and their reserve pits showed an increase in common and trace elements and

D. F. Woodward; E. Snyder-Conn; R. G. Riley; T. R. Garland

1988-01-01

124

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (III) Hydrothermal Fluid Geobarometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP wells will penetrate high pressure geothermal reservoirs where an understanding of the pressure effects on mineral equilibria is essential. The chemical compositions of fluids from active hydrothermal systems have long been applied to estimating reservoir temperature in subaerial geothermal systems at temperatures less than 300 °C and pressures along the H2O liquid/vapor P-T curve, where the pressures are low and the pressure effects on mineral equilibria are small. At pressures of hundreds of bars beneath mid-ocean ridge black smoker springs, the effect of pressure on mineral solubilities is substantial, and can be exploited to estimate pressure and temperature from fluid composition. In practice we compute mineral saturation indices, log(Q/K), for a given fluid for a wide range of P-T combinations, then plot log(Q/K) for alteration minerals against pressure at a series of temperatures so as to identify a possible "knot" in P-T-log(Q/K) space where a group of probable alteration minerals equilibrated with the fluid. We find that saturation index surfaces distinctly converge to zero in a narrow range of pressure and temperature. As an example, we estimate that for an East Pacific Rise 21 °N NGS fluid with a vent T=273 °C and vent P=260 bar, the reservoir conditions are likely T=370-420 °C and P=480-530 bar. To explore what aspect of the fluid chemistry causes the strong pressure effect on mineral solubilities, we computed the effect of pressure change on the activities of aqueous H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and other significant species in the 21 °N NGS fluid. At 420 °C, pH changes from 8 to 5 as pressure changes from 200 to 700 bar, an effect resulting from dissociation of HCl with increasing pressure. Similarly, chloride complex dissociations yield approximately 10-fold increases in Ca2+, Na+, and K+ concentrations with a 200 to 700 bar pressure increase. In another series of calculations, we synthesized a seawater-like fluid that was equilibrated at 400 °C and 500 bar with clinopyroxene, chlorite, epidote, feldspars, and quartz, then treated the fluid as an "unknown" for estimating P-T. Even for small departures from equilibrium P-T (e.g. +/- 25 °C), the mineral saturation surfaces change markedly, thereby supporting the conclusion that pressure effects on fluid composition are large enough to enable meaningful pressure and temperature estimations in deep hydrothermal systems.

Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2007-12-01

125

ACUTE TOXICITY OF EIGHT LABORATORY-PREPARED GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute toxicity tests were conducted during August-September 1983 with eight laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (also called muds) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida. Two of t...

126

What price quality; Implementation of the API quality program for drilling-fluid materials  

SciTech Connect

In 1985, the American Petroleum Inst. (API) issued the first edition of API Spec. Q1, which dealt with new certification procedures for equipment and materials. This paper discusses API's Spec. Q1 program as it relates to drilling-fluid products and reveals the problems encountered when API Spec. 13A was modified.

Perricone, A.C. (Milpark Drilling Fluids (US))

1992-06-01

127

Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor Wp 1210 on Drilling Fluid Friction in Reducing Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final report from Pan American Petroleum Corporation recommended the use of flax meal where high temperatures are not expected and Nalco RV-13 where high temperatures may be encountered (in either fresh water or seawater as drilling fluids) to reduce ...

B. V. Randall

1965-01-01

128

Evaluation of saponite and saponite/sepiolite fluids for geothermal drilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rheology and other properties of drilling fluids containing saponite and a saponite-sepiolite mixture as the main vicosifier have been systematically evaluated in the temperature range of 300-600(degree)F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16...

N. Guven D. J. Panfil L. L. Carney

1991-01-01

129

Fate and effects of drilling fluid and cutting discharges in shallow, nearshore waters  

SciTech Connect

The relationships between selected environmental parameters (sedimentology, trace metals, and hydrocarbons) and macroinfaunal assemblages were studied to determine the fate and effects of drilling fluid and cutting discharges from a multiple well site in a shallow nearshore environment. Results are presented.

Not Available

1989-01-01

130

An ecosystem perspective on potential impacts of drilling fluid discharges on seagrasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential effects of oil drilling fluid discharges uponThalassia seagrass ecosystems were examined using seagrass core microcosms. Observed experimental effects, summarized in this article, included changes in both autotrophic (Thalassia and epiphyte) and heterotrophic (dominant benthic macroinvertebrates) species, and the processes of primary productivity and decomposition. The physical disturbance related to greater turbidity and sedimentation caused some effects, while others seemed

John R. Kelly; Thomas W. Duke; Mark A. Harwell; Christine C. Harwell

1987-01-01

131

An ecosystem perspective on potential impacts of drilling fluid discharges on seagrasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential effects of oil drilling fluid discharges upon Thalassia seagrass ecosystems were examined using seagrass core microcosms. Observed experimental effects, summarized in this article, included changes in both autotrophic ( Thalassia and epiphyte) and heterotrophic (dominant benthic macroinvertebrates) species, and the processes of primary productivity and decomposition. The physical disturbance related to greater turbidity and sedimentation caused some effects, while

John R. Kelly; Thomas W. Duke; Mark A. Harwell; Christine C. Harwell

1987-01-01

132

Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain indicating that very unusual microbes can be contained in a drilling fluid. All this testifies that kerosene film is indeed hard to remove and everyone should be aware on bacteria introduced with any drilling fluid. Our results demonstrate the necessity to have a drilling fluid data base when studying the microbial contents of ice cores.

Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

2003-04-01

133

40 CFR Appendix 5 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by Gas Chromatography...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...field sample (drilling fluid) well. Transfer (weigh) a 30-g aliquot of the sample...drilling fluids) failing the RPE (fluorescence) test (indicated by the presence of fluorescence) shall be retained and classified...

2010-07-01

134

40 CFR Appendix 5 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by Gas Chromatography...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...field sample (drilling fluid) well. Transfer (weigh) a 30-g aliquot of the sample...drilling fluids) failing the RPE (fluorescence) test (indicated by the presence of fluorescence) shall be retained and classified...

2009-01-01

135

Tectonics, Fluids, and the Seismogenic Zone: Four Decades of Drilling at Convergent Margins (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of Tectonics, Fluids, and the Seismogenic Zone are three disciplines that have driven convergent margin drilling. Each of these major themes sequentially evolved as centerpieces of drilling as the intellectual framework and the requisite technologies developed. Each remains active today. In the 1970s and early 1980s, initial results from testing plate tectonic theory defined the nature of progressive accretion, and conversely, tectonic erosion at convergent margins. With the more robust D/V JOIDES Resolution, investigation of fluid pressure, compositions, migration paths, and sediment/rock permeability became possible. 3D seismic data, first available in the early 1990s, detailed fluid migration paths inferred from porewater geochemical anomalies, emphasizing the importance of faults as fluid conduits. 3D seismic volumes also resulted in extraordinary insights on the structure and tectonics of convergent margins. In the mid 1990s packer testing and long-term monitoring of fault zones provided the first estimates of in situ fluid pressures, permeabilities, and variation of the latter with effective stress. Experimental studies, and hydrological and geomechanical modeling have provided critical perspectives on the observational data. During the late 1990s and 2000s the convergent margin community focused on earthquake processes in the Seismogenic Zone Experiment (SEIZE). Understanding of tectonics and fluids, plus monitoring, 3D seismic imaging, Logging While Drilling technology, and D/V Chikyu riser drilling capability have all contributed to emergent accomplishments of SEIZE. Some key results of this program include 1) estimates of material flux into the seismogenic zone, 2) measurement of stress orientation and magnitude across the margin of SW Japan, 3) recognition of high velocity fault slip at shallow depths, 4) correlation of monitored variations in fluid pressure and composition with seismic events, and 5) the initiation of a deep riser hole. Currently the SEIZE program across SW Japan is the best active margin transect ever. Completion of the deep riser hole and associated monitoring will make this effort truly transformative.

Moore, J. C.; All Dsdp, Odp,; Iodp Convergent Margin Scientific Parties

2010-12-01

136

Final report on the design and development of a Rolling Float Meter for drilling-fluid outflow measurement  

SciTech Connect

Lost circulation, which is the loss of well drilling fluids to the formation while drilling, is a common problem encountered while drilling geothermal wells. The rapid detection of the loss of well drilling fluids is critical to the successful and cost-effective treatment of the wellbore to stop or minimize lost circulation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrument to accurately measure the outflow rate of drilling fluids while drilling. This instrument, the Rolling Float Meter, has been under development at Sandia since 1991 and is now available for utilization by interested industry users. This report documents recent Rolling Float Meter design upgrades resulting from field testing and industry input, the effects of ongoing testing and evaluation both in the laboratory and in the field, and the final design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wright, E.K.; Glowka, D.A.

1998-03-01

137

Modeling the discharge of cuttings and drilling fluids in a deep-water environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge models allow the prediction of the potential impact associated with drilling activities based on estimates of the initial spatial extent and thickness of accumulations on the seabed. As such, they are a valuable tool for both the oil industry and regulatory agencies. In this study we present the use of the Offshore Operators Committee Mud and Produced Water Discharge Model (OOC Model) in modeling the discharge of drilling activities in a deep-water environment, from a well located in the Campos Basin, offshore Brazil, at a depth of around 900 m. Field and discharge data collected during the drilling and discharge activities allowed us to carry out a modeling based on real data, that is, hindcast modeling. The verification of the model was made by comparing the hindcast modeling results with field observations. Discharges from both riserless and riser drilling were modeled. The riserless drilling was performed with seawater and water-based fluid (WBF), and riser drilling with non-aqueous fluid (NAF). According to model estimates, the deposits with greater thickness (˜66.5 cm) were those from the riserless phase. Maximum estimated thickness for the discharge of NAF cuttings was 0.76 cm. The comparison of modeling results with field observations showed that the estimates of both the area affected by the deposits and maximum thickness are satisfactory. The configuration of the affected area is harder to predict because small uncertainties, mainly related to the discharge activity itself, introduce a significant error. Thicknesses predicted from real data by hindcast modeling agree with estimates provided by forecast modeling presented by other authors. This means that, in areas where there is certain knowledge of the hydrodynamics, the OOC Model can be a valuable tool to determine the degree of potential impact associated with drilling activities.

Pivel, M. A. G.; Freitas, C. M. D. S.; Comba, J. L. D.

2009-01-01

138

Visualization of fluid-loss polymers in drilling-mud filter cakes  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the appearance of fluid-loss polymers in freeze-dried drilling-mud filter cakes that was studied with scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) photography. Three fluid-loss polymers were studied: starch, polyanionic cellulose (PAC), and a high-temperature-(HT)-stable, sulfonate polymer. The effects of electrolyte contamination (NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) and temperature (200 to 350{degrees} F) on the appearance of the fluid-loss polymers were also studied. A correlation between API filtrate and polymer appearance was sought.

Plank, J.P. (SKW Trostberg A.G. (NO)); Gossen, F.A. (SKW Chemicals Inc. (NO))

1991-09-01

139

Visualization of Fluid-Loss Polymers in Drilling-Mud Filter Cakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the appearance of fluid-loss polymers in freeze-dried drilling-mud filter cakes that was studied with scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) photography. Three fluid-loss polymers were studied: starch, polyanionic cellulose (PAC), and a high-temperature-(HT)-stable, sulfonate polymer. The effects of electrolyte contamination (NaCl, CaClâ, and MgClâ) and temperature (200 to 350° F) on the appearance of the fluid-loss polymers were also studied.

J. P. Plank; F. A. Gossen

1991-01-01

140

Optimal determination of rheological parameters for herschel-bulkley drilling fluids using genetic algorithms (GAs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rheological properties of a drilling fluid directly affect flow characteristics and hydraulic performance. Drilling fluids containing bentonite mixtures exhibit non-Newtonian rheological behavior which can be described with a high degree of accuracy by the three-parameter Herschel-Bulkley (HB) model. To determine the HB parameters, standard statistical techniques, such as the non-linear regression (NL) method are routinely used. However, sometimes they provide non physically acceptable solutions which could produce wrong values of the significant hydraulic parameters which affect drilling operations. To obtain more accurate results, the Golden Section (GS) method was subsequently developed by Kelessidis et al. (2006). In this work a different technique was developed using the Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to provide an easy-to-use tool in order to determine the three parameters of the Herschel-Bulkley model more accurately. To evaluate the accuracy of the GAs method, experimental viscometric data sets of drilling fluids were taken from the literature and the results were compared with the ones obtained by using the NL and GS techniques. The results show that the GAs and the GS methods provide similar results with very high correlation coefficients and small sum of square errors for most of the samples exhibiting negative yield stress values by the NL technique, while giving similar to the NL technique for the samples that were predicted with positive yield stress. However, in some cases, the GAs method gives better and more realistic results than the GS method.

Rooki, Reza; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Moradzadeh, Ali; Mirzaei, Hossein; Kelessidis, Vassilios; Maglione, Roberto; Norouzi, Mahmood

2012-09-01

141

Effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a Nigerian offshore oilfield  

SciTech Connect

Two marine bacterial isolates from drill mud cuttings obtained from Agbara oilfield, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp., were cultured aerobically in the presence of varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 75 {mu}g/ml) of drilling fluids to determine the effects of concentration of toxicants on their growth. With the exception of Clairsol, Enviromul, and Bariod mineral oil, which had little or no effect, the exponential growth of Bacillus sp. was depressed by all other test chemicals. Additionally, all test chemicals except Clairsol had no effect on lag phase of growth of Bacillus sp. With Staphylococcus sp. the depressive effect on the exponential phase of growth was shown by almost all test chemicals. There was enhancement of both growth rate and generation times of Staphylococcus sp. and decrease of those of Bacillus sp. with increasing concentrations of drilling fluids. These results show that while some drilling fluids may be stimulatory or depressive to bacterial growth, others may be without effect. 23 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Okpokwasil, G.C.; Nnubia, C. [Univ. of Prot Harcourt (Nigeria)

1995-11-01

142

Risk-based decision-making for drilling waste discharges using a fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore petroleum drilling wastes contain toxic substances that are potentially harmful to the marine ecosystem. Despite environmentally benign characteristics, wastes associated with synthetic-based fluids still contain a certain amount of pollutants due to contamination with formation oil and the presence of trace heavy metals in barite, which may pose risk when discharged into the marine environment. A framework is presented

Rehan Sadiq; Tahir Husain; Brian Veitch; Neil Bose

2004-01-01

143

THE EFFECT OF GAS HYDRATES DISSOCIATION AND DRILLING FLUIDS INVASION UPON BOREHOLE STABILITY IN OCEANIC GAS HYDRATES-BEARING SEDIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the condition of over-pressure drilling, the solid-phase and liquid-phase in drilling fluids immediately penetrate into the oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment, which causes the water content surrounding the borehole to increase largely. At the same time, the hydrates surrounding borehole maybe quickly decompose into water and gas because of the rapid change of temperature and pressure. The drilling practices prove

F. Ning; N. Wu; G. Jiang; L. Zhang

2009-01-01

144

Method and apparatus for testing spotting fluids for releasing stuck drill pipe  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for determining the efficacy of a spotting fluid intended to release a drill pipe which has become stuck within a borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an open vessel containing a drilling mud filter cake, which cake has a top surface; (b) a cylinder having an outer surface with at least a portion of the outer surface adhering to the cake and the cylinder having the axis thereof oriented parallel to the surface of the cake; (c) a spotting fluid applied to the cake surrounding the cylinder; (d) a means for applying a force perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder to separate the cylinder from the cake; and (e) a means for concurrently measuring and recording the force required to separate the cylinder from the cake.

Hubbard, J.C.

1989-05-16

145

Effect of Various Drilling Fluid Additives on Water Loss and Permeability of Filter Cakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study of the effect of different mud additives upon the filtration and wall-building properties of drilling fluids was conducted. Permeability of filter cakes was measured before and after addition of chemicals. A straight-line relationship was generally found to exist between water loss and mud-cake permeability, except in the case of presence of water-loss-reducing agents. Different additives affect values

S. M. SHARMA; R. C. LALL; R. M. MATHUR; G. V. CHILINGARIAN

1980-01-01

146

Controlled release dispersant for clay-thickened, water-based drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clay-thickened, water-based drilling fluid is described comprising: (a) an aqueous clay dispersion; and (b) a dispersing amount of a polymer crosslinked through Sn\\/sup ++\\/cation, the polymer prior to crosslinking possessing an average molecular weight of from 2,500 to about 1,000,000 and being derived from the polymerization of at least 60 weight percent of ethylenically unsaturated monomer units of a

J. J. Dickert; I. J. Heilwell

1987-01-01

147

Laser-rock-fluid interaction: application of free-electron laser (FEL) in petroleum well drilling and completions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the first year of a Gas Research Institute funded research program to study laser-rock-fluid interaction will be presented. The overall purpose of this research is to determine the feasibility, costs, benefits, and the environmental impact of using laser technology to drill and complete oil and gas wells. When drilling and completing petroleum wells, many rock types (sandstone,

Darien G. O'Brien; Ramona M. Graves; Erin A. O'Brien

1999-01-01

148

What separates the Big Four mud companies from Chromalloy. Chromalloy's clean-spot drilling fluid  

SciTech Connect

Clean-Spot, a mineral oil-based invert-emulsion drilling fluid, is presented as the least toxic, best-performing, and most economical oil based fluid available. The secret is a unique emulsifier package which was developed specifically for use with mineral oil. Field studies have shown that it remains stable even under extreme downhole temperatures, in excess of 475/sup 0/F. It may require only a centrifuge for reclaiming and recycling mineral oil from the cuttings prior to disposal, which, under certain environmental regulations, eliminates the need for expensive cuttings washers and detergents.

Not Available

1984-01-01

149

Evaluation of saponite and saponite/sepiolite fluids for geothermal drilling  

SciTech Connect

The rheology and other properties of drilling fluids containing saponite and a saponite-sepiolite mixture as the main vicosifier have been systematically evaluated in the temperature range of 300-600{degree}F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Saponite represents the magnesium analog of the clay mineral montmorillonite, which is the main constituent in conventional bentonite-based fluids. The fluid with 6% saponite exhibits a prominent viscosity enhancement at temperatures above 250{degree}F. This viscosity enhancement is easily controlled by salts and hydroxides of Na and K. The addition of Na-polyacrylates (low- and high-molecular weight polymers) eliminates the viscosity anomaly of pure saponite fluids. These polymers also increase the filtration control of saponite. The anomalous viscosity enhancement of saponite is significantly reduced by the addition of sepiolite (a clay mineral with a fibrous morphology). 12 refs., 31 figs., 26 tabs.

Guven, N.; Panfil, D.J.; Carney, L.L. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (USA). Dept. of Geosciences)

1991-02-01

150

Isotopic Evidence of Fluid Processes in Fault-related Rocks From TCDP Drill Cores in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faults and shear zones are generally thought to be major fluid conduits in crustal environment. Fluid circulation and migration may deposit or recrystallize clay or carbonate minerals in fracture within the fault zone. Isotopic signatures of such crack-fill materials will serve as a good indicator of both sources of fluid and processes of fluid-rock interaction. We here report results from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of calcite veins retrieved by Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Program (TCDP), which penetrated the active Chelungpu fault zone at around 1100 m depth. The calcite veins are well observed on both side of the fault zone in the drill cores and the samples between 900 and 1300 m depths have been examined. The cores are composed of the Chinshui Shale and the calcite veins mainly appear in sandstone and siltstone with several mm in width. Calcite vein samples reveal variable ?13C(PDB) values ranging from -7.0 to -2.0 permil, and ?18O(SMOW) values of 15.7 to 19.9 permil. Both of values tend to increase slightly below 1225 m in depth. The ?13C values of calcite veins are between that of marine carbonate and sedimentary rocks. Calculated ?18O values of fluids in chemical equilibrium with calcite veins are ranging from -7.9 to -2.6 permil, which are between that of seawater and meteoric water. The isotopic results indicate that the calcite veins were formed from fluids originating from meteoric water mixed with seawater and carrying bicarbonate dissolved from fossil or diagenetic carbonate. The variation of isotopic composition is not related to the appearance of major shear zone of Chelungpu fault. Depleted oxygen isotopic signature of fluids indicates no contribution of metamorphic or mantle derived sources. Both of them infer that the Chelungpu fault may not serve as a deep fluid conduit or have no widely effect on calcite vein formation in host rocks.

Wang, P.; Wu, J.; Lin, L.; Yeh, E.; Chen, Y.; Song, S.

2005-12-01

151

Rapid episodic fluid flow within the San Andreas Fault--based on drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term evolution of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system is recorded in the chemistry of the rocks. The pore fluids have recorded the last fluid event likely related to a stick-slip motion (rupture) while the solid phase chemistry is dominated by the subsequent evolution to a stable-sliding fault (creep). We constrain the timescale of localized fluid flow and mineral formation in the SAF at seismogenic depths (~2700m) near Parkfield, CA, based on drill cores samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project. Helium isotope and concentration data exclude recent upward or perpendicular fluid flow as an explanation for the weakness of the fault. However, our data indicate that shallow oxic meteoric water reached the seismogenic zone on timescales as short as <5ky forming hydrated clay minerals of similar ages that are responsible for the creeping behavior of the SAF.

Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Hemming, S. R.; Winckler, G.

2010-12-01

152

A study of the heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena in laser drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For absorbed laser intensities of around 1010--10 12 W/m2, both melting and vaporization of the target workpiece occurs. Vaporization of the melt causes a pressure rise in the melt, a recoil pressure due to the momentum of the vaporizing molecules. Radial variations in the laser intensity lead to differing amounts of vaporization over the extent of the laser beam. Due to the differences in vaporization, pressure gradients are established in the melt, and these pressure gradients act to drive the melt away from the centerline and towards the edge of the beam where melt ejection occurs. Therefore, hole drilling is a result of both material vaporization and melt expulsion. Understanding the fundamental heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena in this drilling process is the key to linking the input laser characteristics with the resulting drilled hole. The focus of this work is the development and application of semi-analytic and numerical analysis techniques to the laser drilling process accounting for recoil-pressure-driven melt expulsion as a means of material removal. Stagnation flow, integral, and Fourier analysis techniques are applied to both pulsed and continuous wave laser operation with a variety of laser powers, beam radii, pulse lengths, pulse frequencies, and pulse shapes. Drilling trends are presented both in a qualitative and quantitative manner as functions of the operating characteristics of the laser. One of the significant advances of these analyses over previous research efforts is the treatment of the melt flow due to recoil pressure. The results of the analyses for several different materials show that only a small amount of the material is vaporized. Typically less than 20% is vaporized and the rest is removed via melt expulsion, removal mechanics that result in a more energy-efficient drilling process. It was determined that operating the laser in pulsed mode results in higher pressure gradients, faster drilling speeds, and thinner melt layers when compared with cw drilling for the same average power. When compared with experimental data from the literature, reasonably good agreement is observed.

Batteh, John Jad

153

Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.  

PubMed

Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ?50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ?2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C against the Norwegian oil vapour OEL is questioned since these base oils are very similar to white spirit. To reduce exposures, relevant technical control measures in this area are to cool the drilling fluid <50°C before it enters the shale shaker units, enclose shale shakers and related equipment, in addition to careful consideration of which fluid system to use. PMID:21248050

Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

2011-01-19

154

Convert API drilling and completion fluids and well cement standards to ISO standards  

SciTech Connect

Previously, concern had arisen about the progress and direction of the international standardization of American Petroleum Institute (API) standards. This followed the withdrawal of four drilling fluids standards from the International Standardization Organization (ISO) program, the ``fast tracking`` of two obsolescent well cementing standards to ISO standardization and the chaos surrounding API Spec 10/10A. Also contribution was the withdrawal of the ISO completion fluid work group (WG) 3 and the ISO standardization of API recommended practice (RP) 39. Following a re-evaluation within ISO/Technical Committee (TC) 67.SC3 and various ISO and API initiatives, matters are now back on course for sensible international standardization. This paper reviews the standardization of those fluids and cements.

Bensted, J. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom). Birkbeck College

1995-09-01

155

Abnormal fluid pressures and fault-zone dilation in the Barbados accretionary prism: Evidence from logging while drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logs collected while drilling measured density in situ, through the accretionary prism and decollement zone of the northern Barbados Ridge. Consolidation tests relate void ratio (derived from density) to effective stress and predict a fluid pressure profile, assuming that the upper 100 m of the prism is at a hydrostatic pressure gradient. The calculated fluid pressure curve rises to >90%

J. C. Moore; T. H. Shipley; D. Goldberg; Y. Ogawa; F. Filice; A. Fisher; M.-J. Jurado; G. F. Moore; A. Rabaute; H. Yin; G. Zwart; W. Brückmann; P. Henry; J. Ashi; P. Blum; A. Meyer; B. Housen; M. Kastner; P. Labaume; T. Laier; E. C. Leitch; A. J. Maltman; S. Peacock; T. H. Steiger; H. J. Tobin; M. B. Underwood; Y. Xu; Y. Zheng

1995-01-01

156

SUMMARY OF DRILLING FLUID RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, GULF BREEZE  

EPA Science Inventory

Drilling-fluid related research at the U.S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, is summarized. The program is conducted primarily through contracts, grants, and some inhouse projects designed to assess the potential hazard to the marine environment from fluids dis...

157

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity With Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

The Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer has been identified as a potential method for monitoring the size distribution of aphrons in situ, such as in an oil well drilling fluid flowline.1 Research was continued from Task 1.1 of this Project, Aphron Visualization,2 in which ABS was tested against laser light scattering (Coulter Counter) and optical (visual) imaging to determine the bubble size distribution (BSD) of the aphrons at ambient temperature and pressure. Task 2.1 continued this investigation by measuring the bubble size distribution via ABS and optical imaging at elevated pressures up to 2000 psig.

Bob O'Connor; Fred Growcock

2004-12-01

158

Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 ?m thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 ?m thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications. PMID:22136134

Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

2011-12-13

159

Drilling fluids made from solid, free-flowing, continuously-made, water dispersible PVA-aldehyde reaction product  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a water based drilling fluid suitable for circulating in a bore hole while drilling the bore hole into subterranean formations which include water, a weighting agent and a fluid-loss controller. The improvement described here comprises that the fluid loss controlling agent is the product made by the process comprising (a) adding to a rotating continuous reactor to form a mixture (i) solid particles of polyvinyl alcohol, (ii) an aldehyde, and (iii) an aqueous salt solution adjusted to have an acidic pH; (b) mixing the mixture of step (a) in the reactor until a polyvinyl alcohol-aldehyde reaction product is obtained; and (c) drying the polyvinyl-aldehyde material. The product is present in the fluid in from about 0.1 to 15 percent by weight based on the weight of the water present in the fluid and the fluid is maintained at a pH of from 8 to 12.

Blouin, J.J.

1986-10-21

160

Subsurface fluid pressures from drill-stem tests, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High fluid pressures are known to be associated with oil and gas fields in the Uinta Basin, Utah. Shut-in pressure measurements from drill-stem tests show how pressure varies with depth and by area within the basin. The data base used in this report incorporates over 2,000 pressure measurements from drill-stem tests in wells completed prior to 1985. However, the number of useful pressure measurements is considerably less, because many drill-stem tests fail to stabilize at the actual formation pressure if the permeability is low. By extracting the maximum pressure measurements recorded in a collection of wells within an area, the trend of formation pressure within that area can be approximated. Areal compilations of pressures from drill-stem tests show that overpressured rock formations occur throughout much of the northern and eastern areas of the Uinta Basin. In particular, significant overpressuring (0.5 < pressure gradient < 0.8 psi/ft) is found throughout much of the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths ranging from 10,000 to 13,000 ft, equivalent to 5,000 to 8,000 ft below sea level. Limited data indicate that the pressure gradient declines at depths greater than 13,000 ft. An underpressured zone appears to exist in the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths shallower than 5,000 ft. Throughout the eastern Uinta Basin, moderately overpressured zones (0.46 < pressure gradient < 0.5 psi/ft) are common, with local evidence of significantly overpressured zones, but pressure gradients greater than 0.6 psi/ft are rare.

Nelson, P. H.

2002-01-01

161

Use of tracers to investigate drilling-fluid invasion and oil flushing during coring  

SciTech Connect

This work develops a method in which chemical tracers in the drilling fluid help determine mud filtrate invasion and the degree of oil flushing during coring of steamed and unsteamed heavy-oil formations. Salts of iodide and bromide were added to the drilling fluid while Well TO3 was cored through the Lombardi and Aurignac zones at San Ardo field in California. Vertical core plugs, taken from the periphery to the center of the retrieved whole core, were analyzed for tracer concentration. Tracer analyses indicated minimal filtrate invasion in the not-yet-steamflooded Lombardi zone and complete filtrate invasion in the steamflooded Aurignac zone. Tracer and oil saturation analyses showed the Lombardi zone to be uniform from top to bottom with an average oil saturation of 42.5% and an average porosity of 31.1%. Interpretation of tracer and oil saturation data permitted the construction of a layered model for the Aurignac zone. The layers ranged from an average oil saturation of 8% in the steamflooded layer to 37% in the bottom layer. The data showed that significant oil flushing (6%) occurred only in cores taken from the hot-waterflooded layer just below the steam zone. Vertical core-plug porosities and saturations, as determined by a unique calculating scheme, were compared with conventional and Elkins-corrected values. The comparison indicated that misapplication of the Elkins method in high-temperature formations may result in significant errors.

Brown, A.; Marriott, F.T. (Texaco, Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1988-11-01

162

Dispersant for water-based solids-containing fluids and a drilling fluid  

SciTech Connect

A dispersant is described for water-based, solids-containing fluids comprising a copolymer of a solufonated styrene monomer and a second monomer neutralized into having an amide substituent and being originally selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride, maleimide and dimethyl maleate, the copolymer having from 2 to 100 monomer units.

Branch, H. III

1986-04-08

163

Molecular analysis of bacterial diversity in kerosene-based drilling fluid from the deep ice borehole at Vostok, East Antarctica.  

PubMed

Decontamination of ice cores is a critical issue in phylogenetic studies of glacial ice and subglacial lakes. At the Vostok drill site, a total of 3650 m of ice core have now been obtained from the East Antarctic ice sheet. The ice core surface is coated with a hard-to-remove film of impure drilling fluid comprising a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and foranes. In the present study we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyze the bacterial content of the Vostok drilling fluid sampled from four depths in the borehole. Six phylotypes were identified in three of four samples studied. The two dominant phylotypes recovered from the deepest (3400 and 3600 m) and comparatively warm (-10 degrees C and -6 degrees C, respectively) borehole horizons were from within the genus Sphingomonas, a well-known degrader of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The remaining phylotypes encountered in all samples proved to be human- or soil-associated bacteria and were presumed to be drilling fluid contaminants of rare occurrence. The results obtained indicate the persistence of bacteria in extremely cold, hydrocarbon-rich environments. They show the potential for contamination of ice and subglacial water samples during lake exploration, and the need to develop a microbiological database of drilling fluid findings. PMID:17313578

Alekhina, Irina A; Marie, Dominique; Petit, Jean Robert; Lukin, Valery V; Zubkov, Vladimir M; Bulat, Sergey A

2007-02-01

164

An Experimental Investigation on the Chemical Stability of Selected Formation and Determination of the Proper Type of Water-Base Drilling Fluids. Part 2. Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to select the proper drilling fluid type and composition for drilling stable holes through the problems of the selected formations. This study was performed on shale samples taken from 10 wells in which hole instability was encountered to various extents during drilling the Germav formation. Both ionic and polymer inhibitions were utilized in formulating

Selcuk Erkekol; I. Hakki Gucuyener; Mustafa Versan Kok

2006-01-01

165

Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of ?0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 × 103 to 2.4 × 104 cells/g and 3.5 × 108 to 4.2 × 109 cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids.

Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

2005-01-01

166

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to crude oil in the presence of an initial brine saturation can render rocks mixed-wet. Subsequent exposure to components of synthetic oil-based drilling fluids can alter the wetting toward less water-wet or more oil-wet conditions. Mixing of the non-aromatic base oils used in synthetic oil-based muds (SBM) with an asphaltic crude oil can destabilize asphaltenes and make cores less water-wet. Wetting changes can also occur due to contact with the surfactants used in SBM formulations to emulsify water and make the rock cuttings oil-wet. Reservoir cores drilled with SBMs, therefore, show wetting properties much different from the reservoir wetting conditions, invalidating laboratory core analysis using SBM contaminated cores. Core cleaning is required in order to remove all the drilling mud contaminants. In theory, core wettability can then be restored to reservoir wetting conditions by exposure to brine and crude oil. The efficiency of core cleaning of SBM contaminated cores has been explored in this study. A new core cleaning procedure was developed aimed to remove the adsorbed asphaltenes and emulsifiers from the contaminated Berea sandstone cores. Sodium hydroxide was introduced into the cleaning process in order to create a strongly alkaline condition. The high pH environment in the pore spaces changed the electrical charges of both basic and acidic functional groups, reducing the attractive interactions between adsorbing materials and the rock surface. In cores, flow-through and extraction methods were investigated. The effectiveness of the cleaning procedure was assessed by spontaneous imbibition tests and Amott wettability measurements. Test results indicating that introduction of sodium hydroxide played a key role in removing adsorbed materials were confirmed by contact angle measurements on similarly treated mica surfaces. Cleaning of the contaminated cores reversed their wettability from oil-wet to strongly water-wet as demonstrated by spontaneous imbibition rates and Amott wettability indices.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2005-04-01

167

RESULTS OF THE DRILLING FLUIDS RESEARCH PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE GULF BREEZE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, 1976-1984, AND THEIR APPLICATION TO HAZARD ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, FL, carried out a research program to evaluate the potential impact of drilling fluids on the marine environment from 1976-1983. Results showed that drilling fluids can be toxic to marine animals at certain concentrations and ex...

168

Census and Statistical Characterization of Soil and Water Quality at Abandoned and Other Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringen...

A. R. Dutton H. S. Nance

2003-01-01

169

Use of 'Thalassia' and its epiphytes for toxicity assessment: Effects of a drilling fluid and tributyltin  

SciTech Connect

Concurrent 12-week laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine toxicity of the suspended particulate phase (SPP) of drilling fluid to Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytes. Test systems were treated once per week to achieve nominal concentrations of 100 mg/L SPP. Chlorophyll content of Thalassia leaves and epiphyte biomass and chlorophyll content were monitored during each test. Laboratory exposures were conducted in 7-L, flow-through (7 L/h) microcosms consisting of Plexiglas cylinders containing intact cores of Thalassia from a local seagrass bed. Field exposures were conducted in water-tight plexiglas chambers (2 m x 2 m x 1.5 m) placed over test plots in a seagrass bed for 24 h during SPP additions. Epiphyte biomass was reduced after 6 weeks of intermittent exposure to SPP in laboratory and field tests. After 12 weeks, epiphyte biomass had increased to densities similar to control values.

Macauley, J.M.; Clark, J.R.; Pitts, A.R.

1990-01-01

170

Effect of Non-Newtonian Behavior of Fluids in the ReSuspension of a Drilled Cuttings Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a discussio n on the role of the rheological properties of a drilling fluid in the erosion of a solids bed formed in the bottom of a horizontal annulus. A series of experimental tests conducted on a large scale flow loop with 3 different polymer solutions was used as data base for fitting a mechanistic model to

A. L. Martins; R. A. Silva

2003-01-01

171

Effects of Drilling Fluid/Shale Interactions on Borehole Stability: Studies Using Speeton Shale. Topical Report, June 1994-November 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory equipment and procedures have been developed to permit specimens of downhole shale cored in oil-base mud to be restored to in situ temperature and stresses prior to being drilled with a fluid to be evaluated, preventing the introduction of a co...

J. P. Simpson T. O. Walker

1996-01-01

172

Laser-rock-fluid interaction: application of free-electron laser (FEL) in petroleum well drilling and completions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the first year of a Gas Research Institute funded research program to study laser-rock-fluid interaction will be presented. The overall purpose of this research is to determine the feasibility, costs, benefits, and the environmental impact of using laser technology to drill and complete oil and gas wells. When drilling and completing petroleum wells, many rock types (sandstone, limestone, dolomite, granite, shale, salt, concrete) and fluids (fresh water, salt water, oil, hydrocarbon gas, drilling fluids) must be penetrated by the laser. The Free-Electron Laser (FEL) technology is attractive because of the ability to tune the laser to different wavelengths. Laser energy absorbed by rocks is related to the wavelength of the laser source. The mechanisms of rock destruction (spalling, melting and vaporization) are therefore a function of the wavelength. The ability to transmit laser energy over long distances (up to 5000 m or 15,000 ft) is also a function of wavelength. Results of tests conducted at the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Army's high power laser facilities are presented. The challenges ahead to advance a fundamental change in the methods currently used to drill and complete petroleum wells are discussed.

O'Brien, Darien G.; Graves, Ramona M.; O'Brien, Erin A.

1999-07-01

173

Compendium of regulatory requirements governing underground injection of drilling waste.  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of waste are produced when oil and gas wells are drilled. The two primary types of drilling wastes include used drilling fluids (commonly referred to as muds), which serve a variety of functions when wells are drilled, and drill cuttings (rock particles ground up by the drill bit). Some oil-based and synthetic-based muds are recycled; other such muds, however, and nearly all water-based muds, are disposed of. Numerous methods are employed to manage drilling wastes, including burial of drilling pit contents, land spreading, thermal processes, bioremediation, treatment and reuse, and several types of injection processes. This report provides a comprehensive compendium of the regulatory requirements governing the injection processes used for disposing of drilling wastes; in particular, for a process referred to in this report as slurry injection. The report consists of a narrative discussion of the regulatory requirements and practices for each of the oil- and gas-producing states, a table summarizing the types of injection processes authorized in each state, and an appendix that contains the text of many of the relevant state regulations and policies. The material included in the report was derived primarily from a review of state regulations and from interviews with state oil and gas regulatory officials.

Puder, M. G.; Bryson, B.; Veil, J. A.

2002-11-08

174

Drilling fluids and the arctic tundra of Alaska: assessing contamination of wetlands habitat and the toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and fish (journal version)  

SciTech Connect

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill sites and their reserve pits showed an increase in common and trace elements and organic hydrocarbons in ponds near to and distant from reserve pits. Ions elevated in water were Ba, Cl, Cr, K, SO4 and Zn. Concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, and Si in sediments were higher in near and distant ponds than in control ponds. The predominant organics in drill-site waters and sediments consisted of aromatic and paraffinic hydrocarbons characteristic of petroleum or a refined product of petroleum. In 96-hr exposures in the field, toxicity to Daphnia Middendorffiana was observed in water from all reserve pits, and from two of five near ponds, but not from distant ponds. In laboratory tests with Daphnia magna, growth and reproduction were reduced in dilutions of 2.5% drilling fluid (2.5 drilling fluid: 97.5 dilution water) from one reserve pit, and 25% drilling fluid from a second.

Woodward, D.F.; Snyder-Conn, E.; Riley, R.G.; Garland, T.R.

1988-01-01

175

Reduction of erosion rate by particle size distribution ( PSD) modification of hematite as weighting agent for oil based drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural hematite (Fe2O3) and barite (Ba2SO4) are usually employed as weighting agents for oil based drilling fluids in several venezuelan fields. Hematite has shown some physico-chemical advantages with respect to barite: a greater specific gravity and solubility in acid media and lower attrition rate. However, the most challenging issue related to hematite field applications has been to reduce its high

G. Quercia; R. Belisario; R. Rengifo

2009-01-01

176

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the experimental results of some baseline imbibition tests on recovery of mineral oil at very strongly water wet conditions (VSWW) from sandstones with air permeability ranging from 80 to 360 md. Mixed wettability cores were prepared by adsorption from either Minnelusa or Gullfaks crude oil using either synthetic Minnelusa reservoir brine or sea water. Recovery of two synthetic-based mud (SBM) base oils, Petrofree(reg sign)SF and LVT 200 from mixed wettability cores gave results that correlated closely with results for refined oils with viscosities ranging from 3.8 to 84 cp. Two synthetic-based mud emulsifiers (LE SUPERMUL and EZ MUL(reg sign)NT) were added to mineral oil and tested for their effect on the wettability of MXW-F core samples as indicated by spontaneous imbibition. In both cases a significant decrease in water wetness was obtained.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2003-05-01

177

Effects of exposure of crocodiles to sublethal concentrations of Petroleum waste drilling fluid in the Niger Delta basin of Midwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Static bioassay were carried out using two aquatic crocodiles (the short nosed crocodile, Osteolemus tetraspis and the Nile crocodile, Crocodilus niloticus) as test organisms in soft natural dilution water, with Petroleum waste drilling fluid as the test material, at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Comparison of results for the control and different concentrations of the waste drilling fluid were made by means of the F-statistic method. Both crocodile species exhibited a high insensitivity to the undiluted waste drilling fluid and the different dilutions. Differences in concentration of waste drilling fluid did not influence the response of crocodiles to the potential toxicant. Percentage of deaths which was never greater than 0.2% in control tanks was not significantly different from that in test tanks where mortality values of organisms was typically 1.6% or less in most cases. There was a delay toxicant-induced mortality effect. PMID:12109564

Ekpubeni, F A; Ekundayo, E O

2002-06-01

178

Avaliacao do Comportamento Reologico de Fluidos de Perfuracao no Escoamento Anular (Evaluation of the Rheological Behavior of Drilling Fluids in Annular Flow Conditions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rheological behavior of drilling fluids during annular flow in a physical simulator well (Surface Hydraulic System - SHS) was investigated. Measurement of volumetric flow and pressure drop the 10-meter simulator well was used to assess applicability o...

M. das Gracas Pena Silva A. L. Martins A. A. J. de Oliveira

1988-01-01

179

THE EFFECT OF GAS HYDRATES DISSOCIATION AND DRILLING FLUIDS INVASION UPON BOREHOLE STABILITY IN OCEANIC GAS HYDRATES-BEARING SEDIMENT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the condition of over-pressure drilling, the solid-phase and liquid-phase in drilling fluids immediately penetrate into the oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment, which causes the water content surrounding the borehole to increase largely. At the same time, the hydrates surrounding borehole maybe quickly decompose into water and gas because of the rapid change of temperature and pressure. The drilling practices prove that this two factors may change the rock characteristics of wellbore, such as rock strength, pore pressure, resistivity, etc., and then affect the logging response and evaluation, wellbore stability and well safty. The invasion of filtrate can lower the angle of friction and weaken the cohesion of hydrates-bearing sediment,which is same to the effect of invading into conventional oil and gas formation on borehole mechnical properties. The difference is that temperature isn’t considered in the invasion process of conventional formations while in hydrates-bearing sediments, it is a factor that can not be ignored. Temperature changes can result in hydrates dissociating, which has a great effect on mechanical properties of borehole. With the application of numerical simulation method, we studied the changes of pore pressure and variation of water content in the gas hydrates-bearing sediment caused by drilling fluid invasion under pressure differential and gas hydrate dissociation under temperature differential and analyzed their influence on borehole stability.The result of simulation indicated that the temperature near borehole increased quickly and changed hardly any after 6 min later. About 1m away from the borehole, the temperature of formation wasn’t affected by the temperature change of borehole. At the place near borehole, as gas hydrate dissociated dramatically and drilling fluid invaded quickly, the pore pressure increased promptly. The degree of increase depends on the permeability and speed of temperature rise of formation around bohole. If the formation has a low permeability and is heated quickly, the dissociated gas and water couldn’t flow away in time, which is likely to bring a hazard of excess pore pressure. Especially in the area near the wall of borehole, the increase degree of pore pressure is high than other area because the dissociation of gas hydrates is relatively violent and hydraulic gradient is bigger. We also studied the distribution of water saturation around borehole after 10min, 30min and 60min respectively. It revealed that along with the invasion of drilling fluid and dissociation of gas hydrate, the degree of water saturation increased gradually. The effect of gas hydrate dissociation and drilling fluids invasion on borehole stability is to weaken mechanical properties of wellbore and change the pore pressure, then changes the effective stress of gas hydrates-bearing sediment. So temperature, pressure in the borehole and filter loss of drilling fluids should be controlled strictly to prevent gas hydrates from decomposing largely and in order to keep the borehole stability in the gas hydrates-bearing formations.

Ning, F.; Wu, N.; Jiang, G.; Zhang, L.

2009-12-01

180

Reactions of Attapulgite and Sepiolite in High-Temperature Drilling Fluids  

SciTech Connect

The fibrous clay minerals attapulgite and sepiolite have been subjected to hydrothermal reactions between 149 C (300 F) and 427 C (800 F). A 4% suspension of each of these clays was autoclaved for 16 to 24 hours with and without the addition of salts of NaCl and KC1 at 1% concentration. These fibrous clay minerals start to convert at 204 C (400 F) to a smectite with a lamellar morphology. In fact, attapulgite converts more readily than sepiolite, and the attapulgite-to-smectite transformation is fully completed at 316 C (600 F), whereas 20% to 50% of the sepiolite remains intact at this temperature. The conversion of the fibrous double- and triple-chain silicates of attapulgite and sepiolite to a layered silicate, such as smectite, favorably affects the rheology of the drilling fluids based on these clays. The mechanism of the conversion is, however, different for these fibrous clays. Attapulgite dissolves first and then smectite precipitates whereas this mechanism takes place for sepiolite at 316 C (600 F). Both attapulgite and sepiolite, and their reaction products, have been examined with an analytical electron microscope (JEM-100CX) in TEM, STEM, SEM, and SAD modes. The intensities of the characteristic X-ray spectra for the elements Mg, Al, Si, Fe, Ca, and K are measured. These observations indicate that (1) significant chemical differences exist between the fibrous clays and the smectites formed from them and (2) morphological features of the smectites vary with the temperature and with the presence of the salts in the system.

Guven, N.; Carney, L. L.; Lee, L-J

1981-01-01

181

Drilling Systems for Extraterrestrial Subsurface Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an

K. Zacny; Y. Bar-Cohen; M. Brennan; G. Briggs; G. Cooper; K. Davis; B. Dolgin; D. Glaser; B. Glass; S. Gorevan; J. Guerrero; C. McKay; G. Paulsen; C. Stoker

2008-01-01

182

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

This first semiannual report covers efforts to select the materials that will be used in this project. Discussions of crude oils, rocks, smooth mineral surfaces, and drilling mud additives are included in this report.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman r. Morrow

2002-06-01

183

Effects of fluids on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature microstructures observed in samples from SAFOD drill cores indicate fluid-related deformation and chemical reactions occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations, document open pores that formed in-situ during or after deformation. In TEM images, many pores with high aspect ratio appear to be unconnected. They were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting that elevated pore fluid pressure exist in the fault gouge, preventing pore collapse. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault rocks is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. TEM imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. In few samples syntectonic fluid-assisted overgrowth of chlorite-rich films on slickensides partly replaced sedimentary quartz grains. Quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved with sutured boundaries. Newly-formed phyllosilicates are illite-smectite phases, Mg-rich smectites and chlorite minerals. They are very fine-grained (down to 20 nm) and nucleate at grain surfaces (interfaces), which in many cases are pore or fracture walls. These relatively straight or curved crystals grow into open pore spaces and fractures. They are arranged in a card-house fabric with open pore spaces between the flakes. Locally, clay flakes are bent, folded or show sigmoidal shapes indicating that they were involved in faulting. The clay particles do not show a preferred shape orientation. The predominantly random orientation distribution of the clay minerals was confirmed by x-ray synchrotron texture analysis. Pole figures show very weak textures with maxima around 1.2 m.r.d. and minima around around 0.8 m.r.d., indicating that a majority of crystals are oriented randomly. The dominance of randomly oriented clay particles, characterized by weak fabrics, may influence the mechanical stability of fault zone rocks. Formation of secondary calcite cement reveals fluid-assisted fracture healing. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows at least three different generations of calcite veins confined to lithoclasts, displaying dissolution seams. Additionally, crack and seal processes in K-feldspar are identified. The calcite grains exhibit different degrees of deformation with evidence for twinning and crystal plasticity.

Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Morales, L. G.; Rybacki, E.; Wenk, H.; Dresen, G. H.

2011-12-01

184

Drill string shock absorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A telescopic shock absorber for use in a drill string includes a resilient arrangement to cushion telescopic contraction and extension of the shock absorber in response to shock loads and vibrations imparted during drilling. The shock absorber operates independently of the drilling fluid pressure conducted through the structure during drilling operations. A dampening system assists in cushioning the shock loads

E. A. Anderson; D. D. Webb

1985-01-01

185

Drilling symposium 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the drilling of oil and natural gas wells. Topics considered at the conference included the biodegradation of oilbased drilling muds and production pit sludges, a centrifuging technique for oilfield production pit closure, waste disposal, drilling fluid hydrodynamics, the friction factor for drilling muds, gas seal tightness, the design of a

1987-01-01

186

Impact drilling tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid operated impact drilling tool has a hammer slidably mounted in a casing connected to a string of drilling pipe. Inside the casing above the hammer is mounted a valve. Both the valve and hammer have reciprocal sliding movement along the longitudinal axis of the tool to substantially interrupt flow of a drilling fluid therethrough. Movement of the valve

J. W. Harris; R. Bassinger; G. Bassinger

1977-01-01

187

Helium measurements of pore fluids obtained from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD, USA) drill cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk 4He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 ± 1.3 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 at 21°C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 × 10-18 cm2 s-1 (21°C) to 3.0 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 (150°C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of 4Hewater for matrix porosity (˜3%) and tortuosity (˜6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 (21°C) and 1 × 10-7 (120°C), effectively isolating pore fluid 4He from the 4He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 ± 0.4% (SD, n = 4) and mudstones 3.1 ± 0.8% (SD, n = 4).

Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B. M.

2011-02-01

188

Gas lift system for marine drilling riser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore drilling method and apparatus are described which prevent formation fracture caused by excessive hydrostatic pressure in a drilling riser. Gas is injected into the riser to provide the lift necessary to return the drilling fluid to the surface and to reduce the density of the drilling fluid. The rate of gas injection overlifts the drilling fluid to the

Maus

1978-01-01

189

Artificial lift system for marine drilling riser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore drilling method and apparatus are described which are particularly useful in preventing formation fracture caused by excessive hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid in a drilling riser. One or more flowlines are used to withdraw drilling fluid from the upper portion of the riser pipe. Gas injected into the flowlines reduces the density of the drilling fluid and

Maus

1978-01-01

190

Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

Forrest, G.T.

1992-02-11

191

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What safe practices...INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling... § 250.456 What safe practices...Before starting out of the hole...omit this practice if documentation in... (d) You must run and pull...

2013-07-01

192

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false What safe practices...INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling... § 250.456 What safe practices...Before starting out of the hole...omit this practice if documentation in... (d) You must run and pull...

2009-07-01

193

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What safe practices...INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling... § 250.456 What safe practices...Before starting out of the hole...omit this practice if documentation in... (d) You must run and pull...

2010-07-01

194

Modeling the discharge of cuttings and drilling fluids in a deep-water environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge models allow the prediction of the potential impact associated with drilling activities based on estimates of the initial spatial extent and thickness of accumulations on the seabed. As such, they are a valuable tool for both the oil industry and regulatory agencies. In this study we present the use of the Offshore Operators Committee Mud and Produced Water Discharge

M. A. G. Pivel; C. M. D. S. Freitas; J. L. D. Comba

2009-01-01

195

Project Mohole Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor Wp 1210 on Drilling Fluid Friction Reducing Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of WP 1210 corrosion inhibitor in either fresh water or synthetic sea water containing flax meal or RV-13 decreased the amount of friction reduction obtained an average of three percent in a V-150 drill string. A concentration of 0.2 percent RV-13...

B. V. Randall

1965-01-01

196

USE OF DRILLING FLUIDS IN MONITORING WELL NETWORK INSTALLATION: LANL AND OPEN DISCUSSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) were requested by EPA Region 6 to provide a technical analysis of the impacts of well drilling practices implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the development of their grou...

197

The wellsite use of luminescence fingerprinting to differentiate oil-base drilling fluid and native hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The development of a procedure, based on the application of synchronous luminescence spectrometry to the problem of differentiating crude oil and oil base drilling mud, is described. Its performance is illustrated by reference to field data from several North Sea wells. This 'fingerprinting' tool effectively simplifies interpretation of formation samples which are otherwise confused by the presence of oil mud filtrate.

Summers, C.F.; Bell, R.E.B.; Geraghty, S.; Holliday, G.C.

1984-10-01

198

A study to optimize drilling fluids to improve borehole stability in natural gas hydrate frozen ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising price of natural gas and long term energy supply problems are a global stimulus to find alternative energy sources to mitigate an impending crisis. Natural gas hydrate (NGH) is a new and promising research area in modern earth sciences and the energy industry. An important issue for the development of potential nature gas hydrate exploitation is successful drilling

Shu-qing Hao

2011-01-01

199

Real-Time Fluid and Gas Monitoring During Drilling of the SAFOD Main Hole in Parkfield, CA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the role and origin of fluids and gases associated with the San Andreas Fault zone (SAF). To gain information on fluids and gases at depth, we performed real-time mud gas monitoring during drilling of the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) Pilot Hole (PH) and Main Hole (MH). Gas extracted from returning drill mud was piped into a nearby laboratory trailer and analyzed on-line. Permanent gases were detected using a portable mass spectrometer, hydrocarbons with a gas chromatograph, and the 222Rn-activity with a Lucas-Cell detector. When significant amounts of non-atmospheric gases were detected, off-line gas samples were collected from the gas line for further isotope studies. The SAFOD PH and MH were drilled in only a few meter distance, but in contrast to the straight PH, which penetrates through 768 m of sediments into granites down to 2168 m target depth (TD), the nearby MH is deviated towards the SAF and returns into sedimentary strata below 1930 m. The MH drilled sedimentary rocks down to 3987 m TD, approximately 45 m northeast of the surface trace of the SAF. From surface to 1930 m, the depth distribution of gas is similar for SAFOD PH and MH. Shear zones, identified by geophysical logging, are often characterized by elevated concentrations of CH4, CO2, H2, Rn, and He. The same gases were found in the MH below 1930 m, but their concentrations were, with the exception of He, significantly higher: CH4, CO2, and H2 sometimes reach several volume percent. Generally, the gas composition is partly controlled by the lithology. Variation in the methane concentration in several depth intervals reflects the changes in lithology from low gas abundance in clays and silts to more gas rich shales, which are the source rocks for hydrocarbons. Highly porous and permeable sandstone yield the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons (up to 15 vol% methane), and may be regarded as reservoir rocks. We interpret high radon activities in mud gas as indicator for circulating fluids entering the borehole via fractures. These fluids are also rich in hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, but only low concentrated in helium. Such intervals could be identified in several depth intervals (2675-2750 m, 2825-2900 m, and 3550-3650 m depth, and below 3700 m). The hydrocarbons in the surrounding rocks show a similar composition as those associated with fault zones. In addition to the low helium concentration, these results demonstrate fluid migration from the nearby with only little evidence for gas migration from a deeper source. A striking observation is the high amount of hydrogen found in these intervals. We can exclude a significant contribution of artificial hydrogen (drilling artifact) and mantle hydrogen. From soil gas studies, it is known that fault zones sometimes show enhanced concentration of hydrogen. As a possible source of hydrogen, the interaction of water with freshly ground rock, caused by fault zone movement, is discussed. Isotopic studies on hydrogen in combination with laboratory experiments are ongoing to test hydrogen synthesis by rock-water interaction. First isotopic studies on ?13C of methane indicate mixing of microbial methane with only small amounts of methane generated by thermal degradation of organic matter in the shallower depth (down to ~2500 m). Below this depth, the concentration of heavy hydrocarbons increases. CH4/(C2H6+C3H8) significantly drops from >100 to values <30 towards the bottom of the MH, and, methane becomes isotopically heavier, which is more typical for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

Wiersberg, T.; Erzinger, J.

2005-12-01

200

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (4) A Quartz Fluid Inclusion Tool for Sampling Supercritical Geothermal Fluids Downhole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical analyses of in situ samples of supercritical geothermal fluids would provide a uniquely good measure of fluid composition at depth relative to compositions reconstructed from analyses of gas and liquid sampled at wellheads. Fluids sampled at the wellhead are commonly a mixture from multiple aquifers and, in many circumstances, they lack components such as sulfate, sulfide, Ca, Cu, Zn, and Fe that precipitated in scale minerals where the fluids boiled or cooled during their ascent. To circumvent the above problems and the failings of downhole mechanical samplers at temperatures exceeding 300°C and to obtain total fluid samples at supercritical conditions in the IDDP wells, we plan to trap fluids in fluid inclusions formed in fractured quartz that we suspend in a geothermal well on a wireline. In a series of hydrothermal laboratory experiments at 450°C and 600 bar and spanning 6 hr to 5 days in length, thermal shock fractures in natural and synthetic quartz crystals heal, forming ragged fluid inclusions in one day and many well formed inclusions in three days. Amorphous silica is added to the experimental charge, without which, fractures heal little and only 1-2 micron inclusions form. Microthermometry measurements on the inclusions produced in experiments return the run temperature within 20°C at the experimental pressure, indicating that inclusions formed and sealed at the run conditions. The fluid inclusion tool (FIT) consists of a perforated stainless steel pipe containing multiple stainless steel mesh canisters with non-mesh ends to minimize vertical fluid flow. The canisters contain 10mm-scale chunks of fractured quartz surrounded by ground quartz glass. The perforated pipe will be fixed within a one-meter outer perforated stainless steel housing that is suspended on a stainless steel slick line. The FIT is weighed by one or more 10kg lead sinker bars. The entire assembly is lowered into the well from a lubricator fitted on the wellhead, thus enabling sampling under high temperatures and pressures. In the initial field testing runs, the contents of the mesh canisters will be varied to examine the effects of ground glass grain size, and the suitability of clear natural quartz vs synthetic quartz, both with respect to fluid inclusion development and chemical analyses of inclusions. Inclusions will be analyzed by various bulk methods and by LA-ICP-MS on individual inclusions. Once we optimize the fluid inclusion tool configuration in field tests and by analytical results, the volume of sampling quartz can be scaled up as needed to provide for optimum sampling and analyses.

Reed, M. H.; Grist, H.; Fridriksson, T.; Danielsen, P.; Senkovich, D.; Johnston, A.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2009-12-01

201

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

H. Seay Nance

2003-03-01

202

Drilling fluid conversion: Selection and use of Portland or blast-furnace-slag cement  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of drilling mud to oilwell cement has advanced from an unpredictable laboratory curiosity to a practical reality. Recent field introduction of polymer dispersants, organic accelerators, and an alternative cementitious material have provided two refined and practical conversion methods. Each method claims universal applicability plus performance superior to that of conventionally mixed and pumped Portland cement. Both blast-furnace-slag (BFS) and Portland cement are used for drilling-mud conversion. Portland and BFS mud conversions can use the same recently developed polymer dispersants, filtration-control materials, defoamers, and other additives that are typically used to treat high-temperature, highly-salt-contaminated drilling muds. Experience in the field and laboratory has demonstrated that conversion with BFS or Portland cement is essentially one technology from a pilot-test and application standpoint. While use of these two materials reflects essentially one technology, distinct performance and cost differences exist. These differences define the specific economic application advantages and must be considered when a decision to use BFS or Portland cement is made. Rational selection of mud-to-cement conversion depends on a detailed economic comparison of basic materials, logistics, and equipment availability.

Schlemmer, R.P.; Branam, N.E.; Edwards, T.M.; Valenziano, R.C.

1994-12-01

203

Evaluation of Geothermal Drilling Fluids Using a Commercial Bentonite and a Bentonite/Saponite Mixture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High temperature properties of two clay fluids, based on commercially available bentonite and a bentonite-saponite mixture, are evaluated at the temperature range 300-600 deg F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Bentonite fluids exhib...

N. Guven L. L. Carney B. E. Ridpath

1987-01-01

204

Bayesian spatial prediction of the area affected by drilling discharges from an exploratory well using water-based and non-aqueous-based fluids in Campos Basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic drilling fluids and cutting discharges from oil and gas wells adversely affect local environment near the well site. To determine their effects on benthic communities, it is essential to know both the fate of the discharged materials and the chemical concentrations to which biota were exposed during and after drilling. This paper describes a mapping procedure using Bayesian spatial models to define the deposition area of drilling cuttings and fluids from an exploratory well in a deep-sea site in the Campus Basin, RJ, Brazil, taking into account the concentrations of barium and light hydrocarbons used as chemical tracers. The statistical procedures used allow comparisons between sampled sites and the prediction of results at unsampled sites, as well as the delineation of affected areas. The probable impact of the use of non-aqueous fluid (NAF) was measured through observed changes in sea-floor sediments by using Before-After Control-Impact comparisons in a study with three moments: one before drilling and two after drilling.

Pulgati, F. H.; Fachel, J. M. G.; Ayup-Zouain, R. N.; Landau, L.

2009-01-01

205

Does Earthquake Rupturing Initiate in Fluid-Overpressured Crust? - The Case for Scientific Drilling in NE Honshu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland earthquakes in Japan arise from rupturing within an upper crustal seismogenic zone that is typically 10-20 km deep. Because such events may occur in close proximity to cities or critical facilities, giving rise to particularly intense ground motions, they contribute significantly to the aggregate seismic hazard. Since 2003, five strong crustal earthquakes (6.3 < M < 6.9) have ruptured steep reverse faults (dips > 45°) both west and east of the Ou Backbone Range hosting the volcanic front in NE Honshu. The earthquakes generally nucleated within the lower seismogenic zone at depths of 5 - 15 km. Several earlier events in the region (e.g. 1964 M7.5 Niigata earthquake) are of similar character. These steep reverse ruptures appear to be part of the ongoing compressional inversion of Miocene rift basins associated with arc-normal shortening that began at c. 3.5 Ma. Hazard from such compressional inversion earthquakes is difficult to assess because potential seismogenic faults (often with low net displacement) tend to be blanketed by post-rift deposition within sedimentary basins (e.g. the 2004 M6.6 Mid-Niigata and M6.6 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake sequences). The compressional regime of NE Honshu is an optimal setting for ‘holding-in’ fluid overpressure. Frictional mechanics suggests that reactivation of inherited normal faults as steep reverse faults requires pore-fluid pressure elevated above hydrostatic to near-lithostatic pressures at the depth of rupture initiation. Oil-field drilling has shown that aqueous overpressures above hydrostatic exist at depths > 2-3 km in the Niigata sedimentary basin which has hosted several of the rupture sequences. In addition, local geophysical anomalies (high electrical conductivity, seismic low velocities, bright-spot S-wave reflectors, Vp/Vs) in NE Honshu point to heterogeneous fluid overpressuring in the vicinity of the active faults in the lower seismogenic zone. Whether or not earthquake ruptures initiate in fluid overpressured crust is important because cycling of fluid-pressure and fault frictional strength through fault-valve action (postseismic discharge along rupture zones from overpressured portions of the crust) likely affects the nucleation and recurrence of successive earthquakes. A program of investigatory scientific drilling coupled to high-resolution geophysical investigations is proposed to target the lower seismogenic zone at depths of 5-10 km where larger inland earthquakes commonly initiate. It would aim to establish: (1) whether overpressuring extends throughout the full depth of sedimentary basins adjacent to active fault structures; (2) whether overpressures also exist in underlying basement assemblages; (3) whether overpressures are localized around the active fault structures; and, (4) the calibration of physical conditions responsible for observed geophysical anomalies. Unequivocal demonstration of overpressured pore fluids in basement rocks adjacent to an active fault would highlight the role of fluids in fault processes, providing important insights into the balance between stress-driven and fluid-driven failure, and critical variables affecting rupture nucleation and recurrence. Borehole measurements would also help to calibrate geophysical anomalies attributed to fluid overpressuring.

Sibson, R. H.

2009-12-01

206

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

We report on a preliminary study of wetting effects of synthetic oil-based mud components on the wetting of mica surfaces using drilling mud fractions obtained from two wells drilled with synthetic oil-based muds (SBM). We have used these SBM fractions, one a filtrate and the other a centrifugate, to develop testing protocols for studies on smooth mica surfaces. Both SBM fractions changed the wetting of clean, dry mica surfaces, making them preferentially oil-wet. Solvents were tested to clean the mica with varying degrees of success. In tests designed to simulate contact between SBM fractions and reservoir pore surface, changes of wetting of mica that had previously been exposed to brine and crude oil were examined using six different crude oils in combination with several different brine formulations. Four of the six oils produced preferentially water-wet surfaces whereas two produced fairly oil-wet conditions on mica. Exposure to the SBM fractions tended to increase decane/water advancing contact angles on the more water-wet surfaces and to decrease those on the more oil-wet surfaces. Cleaning solvents were compared for their efficacy and the possibility of wettability restoration was examined for some of the cleaned surfaces.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2002-12-01

207

Effects of non-aqueous fluids-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the effects of non-aqueous fluids (NAF)-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, off the southeast Brazilian coast, Rio de Janeiro State. Samples were taken with a 0.25-m2 box corer from surrounding two oil and gas wells on three monitoring cruises: before drilling, three months after drilling, and 22 months after drilling. Statistical methodologies used Bayesian geostatistical and analysis of variance models to evaluate the effects of the NAF-associated drill cuttings discharge and to define the impact area. The results indicated that marked variations were not observed in the number of families between cruises, though there were changes in the fauna composition. The changes seen in biological descriptors in both control and background situation areas were not considered significant, showing a temporal homogeneity in means. The impact area presented changes in biological descriptors of communities and trophic structure during the three cruises and such changes were correlated to chemical and physical variables related to the drilling activities, as a result of the mix of drill cuttings and sediment and the anoxic conditions established in the substrate. In that area, three months after drilling, a decrease in diversity and an increase in density, motile deposit-feeders and Pol/Crp ratio, and dominance of opportunistic organisms, such as the capitellid Capitella sp., were observed and, 22 months after drilling, an increase of diversity, reduction of dominance of capitellid polychaete, changes in the fauna composition, and a dominance of opportunistic burrowing and tube-building organisms were observed, indicating an ecological succession process. PMID:20524059

Santos, Maria Fernanda L; Silva, Janete; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Pulgati, Fernando H

2010-06-05

208

PDC applications in the Gulf of Mexico with water-base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a recent study conducted to determine application and operating requirements for Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits in the Gulf of Mexico. This study evaluated PDC bit usage in Miocene sections of the Gulf of Mexico and has resulted in a savings of over $1.4 MM based on twenty two bit runs. As a result of this study, operational guidelines for PDC bits were established and drilling costs per foot were significantly reduced. In addition, a relationship was found to exist between shale reactivity, strength and density. This proved to be an effective aid in bit selection and determination of hydraulic requirements and verified the results of the study.

Gault, A.D.; Knowlton, H.; Goodman, H.E.; Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.

1986-01-01

209

PDC applications in the Gulf of Mexico with water-based drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a recent study conducted to determine application and operating requirements for polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits in the Gulf of Mexico. This study evaluated PDC-bit usage in Miocene sections of the Gulf of Mexico and has resulted in a saving of more than $1.4 million based on 22 bit runs. As a result of this study, operational guidelines for PDC bits were established and drilling costs per foot were significantly reduced. In addition, a relationship was found between shale reactivity, strength, and density. This proved to be an effective aid in bit selection and determination of hydraulic requirements and verified the results of the study.

Gault, A.D.; Knowlton, H.; Goodman, H.E.; Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.

1988-06-01

210

Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor Wp 1210 ON Drilling Fluid Friction Reducing Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made to determine what effect, if any, the use of corrosion inhibitors would have on the recommended fluid friction additives in either fresh water or seawater. The corrosion inhibitor selected for testing was Weilmuenster's Inc., WP 1210. The...

B. V. Randall

1965-01-01

211

Microbial Communities in Ultra-High Pressure Rocks and Fluids From Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD): A Unique Opportunity to Study Microbial Adaptation and Survival  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major obstacle to understanding the subsurface biosphere has been our limited ability to access the deep subsurface, to acquire uncontaminated samples and to place our knowledge of isolated microorganisms into environmental context. We studied deep subsurface microbiology by taking an advantage of the Chinese continental scientific drilling (CCSD) project currently underway in China. The project is to drill a 5-km deep borehole in the Dabie-Sulu ultra high-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt in China that is located at the convergent plate boundary between Sino-Korean and Yangtze Plate. The collision began at ~240 Ma ago followed by exhumation ~220 Ma ago. The products of such a plate convergence are the formation of unique UHP rocks and minerals. These rocks are typically separated by a series of structurally weak shear zones and faults. The macroscopic shear zones/faults are potential storage space for large pockets of fluids/gases and they may serve as a potential microbial habitat. Fluids/gas bubbles also exist inside minerals, and they are called fluid/gas inclusions. The inclusions are microscopic and they serve as another potential habitat for microbes. The 5-km contiguous drilling intercepts both habitats and spans a range of environmental gradients. Our cultivation and SSU rRNA gene analyses appear to indicate that unique microbial communities may exist in both habitats. A variety of methods were used to assess possible contamination, and contamination was minimal. Acridine orange direct count method was employed to determine the total number of cells in the rocks, and the results indicated that the biomass ranged from 5.2 x 103 to 2.4 x 104 cells/g (dry weight). Total counts indicated a much higher biomass in the drilling fluids, ranging from 3.5 x 108 to 4.2 x 109 cells/g (wet weight). The PLFA profiles for one rock and multiple drilling fluids indicated the presence of sulfate and metal reducers. Cultivation attempts have identified the presence of mesophilic Fe(III) reducers in the rocks, but thermophilic (37 to 68oC) and alkaliphilic metal reducers and fermenters in the drilling fluids. SSU rRNA gene analyses detected clone sequences in the rocks that have previously been isolated from cold, alkaline and saline environments (including mesophilic, facultative, heterotrophic, halotolerant or halophilic nitrate and Fe(III) reducers). These microbial growth habitats are inconsistent with the present day geochemical conditions (geothermal gradient, for example). We speculate that these microbes reside in mineral fluid/gas inclusions. Because the inclusions are isolated and heat conductivity is low, microenvironment inside the inclusions may be out of equilibrium with the bulk subsurface conditions. The microbial communities in the drilling fluids include anaerobic, alkaliphilic, chemoorganotrophic or chemolithoautotrophic, halotolerant or halophilic Fe(III) and sulfate reducers, fermenters, acetogens, and methanogens/methanotrophs. This microbial growth habitat suggests that the detected microbes in the drilling fluids may be of different origin, and they may be derived from macroscopic fluids/gases associated with structurally weak shear zones/faults. Because of possible connectivity to flow channels and shear zones, these fluids/gases may be in equilibrium with the in-situ subsurface conditions, and microbes from this habitat are expected to change in environmental gradients.

Dong, H.; Zhang, G.; Xu, Z.

2004-12-01

212

Downhole fluid sampling at the SSSDP (Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project) California State 2-14 well, Salton Sea, California  

SciTech Connect

In situ fluid sampling activities were conducted at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) well during late December 1985 and late March 1986 to obtain unflashed samples of Salton Sea brine. In late December, three sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 1800 m and temperatures of 300/sup 0/C. In late March, 10 sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 3150 m and temperatures of 350/sup 0/C. In brief, the Los Alamos tool obtained samples from four of eight runs; the Lawrence Berkeley tool obtained samples from one of one run; the Leutert Instruments, Inc., tool obtained samples from zero of three runs; and the USGS quartz crystal experiment was lost in the well. The most complete sample was obtained from run No. 11, using the Los Alamos sampler and Sandia battery pack/controller on a wireline. About 1635 ml of brine, two noble gas samples, and two bulk gas samples were collected from this run. Samples of brine and gas from productive runs have been distributed to about 15 researchers for various types of analyses. Chemical analyses by the Los Alamos and US Geological Survey analytical teams are presented in this report, although they are not corrected for flashing and precipitation.

Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Grigsby, C.O.; Dennis, B. (eds.)

1987-07-01

213

Controlling barite sag can reduce drilling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for tracking drilling fluid density variations helps detect barite sag, which may contribute to drilling problems. The method is based in part on continuously measuring fluid density during the first circulation after the fluid has been static for some time. In deviated wells or wells with weighted fluids, barite sag has aggravated or caused drilling problems such

M. Zamora; D. Jefferson

1994-01-01

214

Selection of drilling fluids for minimizing coalbed damage. Final report, December 1981February 1983. [Effect on permeability of coal bed near the well  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following conclusions have been drawn from work performed in this project: (1) both of the fluids tested (a KC1\\/CaCl2 brine and drilling mud filtrate) caused a loss in permeability when flowed through coal; (2) the damage mechanism for brine is undetermined, but the major part of the damage from mud filtrate appears to be related to particulate matter plugging

R. E. Rose; S. E. Foh; C. G. Hayden; P. L. Randolph

1983-01-01

215

Polar organic compounds in pore waters of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Eyreville core hole: Character of the dissolved organic carbon and comparison with drilling fluids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cores recovered at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, were analyzed to characterize the dissolved organic carbon. After squeezing or centrifuging, a small volume of pore water, 100 ??L, was taken for analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Porewater samples were analyzed directly without filtration or fractionation, in positive and negative mode, for polar organic compounds. Spectra in both modes were dominated by low-molecular-weight ions. Negative mode had clusters of ions differing by -60 daltons, possibly due to increasing concentrations of inorganic salts. The numberaverage molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight values for the pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure are higher than those reported for other aquatic sources of natural dissolved organic carbon as determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In order to address the question of whether drilling mud fluids may have contaminated the pore waters during sample collection, spectra from the pore waters were compared to spectra from drilling mud fluids. Ions indicative of drilling mud fluids were not found in spectra from the pore waters, indicating there was no detectable contamination, and highlighting the usefulness of this analytical technique for detecting potential contamination during sample collection. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

Rostad, C. E.; Sanford, W. E.

2009-01-01

216

Evaluation of slurry injection technology for management of drilling wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, thousands of new oil and gas wells are drilled in the United States and around the world. The drilling process generates millions of barrels of drilling waste each year, primarily used drilling fluids (also known as muds) and drill cuttings. The drilling wastes from most onshore U.S. wells are disposed of by removing the liquids from the drilling

J. A. Veil; M. B. Dusseault

2003-01-01

217

Method for preventing drill pipe from sticking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an improved method for preventing the occurrence of differentially stuck drill pipe wherein a well is being drilled into a formation using a liquid drilling fluid and wherein there is a pronounced tendency for the pipe to become stuck to the wall of the well. The improvement consists of incorporating into the drilling fluid about 10 to 30

J. L. Lummus; P. P. Jr. Scott

1965-01-01

218

Transient fluid flow through the toe of the Barbados accretionary complex: Constraints from Ocean Drilling Program leg 110 heat flow studies and simple models  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-four sediment and mud line temperatures were collected from six drill holes on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) leg 110 near the toe of the Barbados accretionary complex. When combined with thermal conductivity measurements from sediment cores and results from earlier surveys, these data delineate the complicated thermal structure on the edge of this convergent margin. Heat flow values at the seafloor of 92-192 mW/m{sup 2} are 80-300% higher than those predicted by standard heat flow versus age models for oceanic crust but are compatible with earlier seafloor measurements made in this area at the same latitude. Heat flow tends to decrease downhole at four sites, suggesting the presence of heat sources within the sediments. These results are consistent with the flow of warm fluids through the complex along high permeability conduits, including thrust faults, the major decollement zone, and sandy intervals. Simple calculations suggest that this fluid flow is transient, occurring on time scales of tens of thousands of years. Fluid flow velocities along the decollement zone, estimated with a simple thermal model, are about 10{sup {minus}7} m/s, 100 times faster than predicted by numerical, steady state analyses. The estimated maximum sediment permeability within the decollement zone, which was based on the above fluid flow velocity, is about 10{sup {minus}12} m{sup 2}, also 100 times higher that that calculated numerically. High heat flow in the vicinity of 15{degree}30{prime}N and not elsewhere along the deformation front suggests that the leg 110 drill sites may be situated over a prism-water discharge zone, with dewatering more active here than elsewhere along the accretionary complex.

Fisher, A.T. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)); Hounslow, M.W. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (England))

1990-06-10

219

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (II) Isotopic Constraints on Ice Age Hydrothermal Fluids in Active High-Temperature Geothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Krafla, Hengill and Reykjanes geothermal systems, located along the active rift-zone of Iceland, are three sites that will be drilled to 4-5 km depth by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). We use oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in hydrothermal minerals to characterize the source, composition and evolution of hydrothermal fluids in the IDDP geothermal systems. This research is essential to effectively characterizing geochemical and hydrologic processes occurring at depth within these regions, especially in the high latitudes of Iceland, where periods of glaciation can have long lasting impacts on geothermal environments. Recent studies of the stable isotope composition of hydrothermal epidote in the Reykjanes geothermal system indicate a complex history of fluid source and fluid-rock interaction since at least the Pleistocene. The chlorine concentration of modern Reykjanes geothermal fluids indicate that they are hydrothermally modified seawater. However, measured hydrogen isotope values of these fluids are as low as -23‰. ?D values of hydrothermal epidote analyzed from four wells in Reykjanes range from -60 to - 78‰. These values are not in isotopic equilibrium with present day geothermal fluids, and retain an isotopic signature of a glacially-dominated fluid source early in the evolution of the geothermal system. If the Reykjanes system was initially sub-glacial, the depth of boiling in the basalt would have been more shallow due to the overburden of a thick insulating ice sheet. This may explain the presence of epidote and garnet mineralization at levels as shallow as 500 m in some wells. Additionally, estimates of the water-rock ratio and modal abundance of hydrous alteration minerals in the system suggest that there is enough relict (Ice Age) hydrogen in hydrothermally altered basalt to diffusionally exchange with modern geothermal fluids and lower the fluid hydrogen isotope composition by as much as 20‰. This study shows that hydrogen isotopes of geothermal waters cannot be used independently to trace the origin of these fluids. The age of the geothermal system and the extent of alteration through water-rock interaction are also critical in determining the fluid source and isotope composition. In previous studies of the Krafla geothermal system, fluids had an average ?D value of -89‰, which closely reflect isotope values of local precipitation. However, geothermal fluids of the Nesjavellir system (near Hengill) are ~ -79‰, 10-20‰ lower than local meteoric water. Structural and hydrologic interpretations of the region make it unlikely that this difference is due to fluid flow from the nearby Langjökull ice sheet. Preliminary analyses of hydrothermal epidote in these systems (~ -125‰ in Krafla and -115‰ in Nesjavellir) suggest that they are in isotopic equilibrium with the hydrothermal fluids. Further analyses of mineral-mineral and mineral-fluid fractionation will help determine the relative input of nearby and distal modern meteoric fluids as well as the potential for relict glacially-derived fluids as a source for the observed values in both systems.

Pope, E. C.; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. Ø.

2008-12-01

220

Helium measurements of pore fluids obtained from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD, USA) drill cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

4He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples\\u000a are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been\\u000a adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault\\u000a Observatory at

S. Ali; M. Stute; T. Torgersen; G. Winckler; B. M. Kennedy

2011-01-01

221

Drilling mud additive  

SciTech Connect

A processor is described for drilling a borehole that encounters a water-sensitive shale, with the borehole being drilled by operating a drilling means, and circulating therein a drilling fluid, when the encountering of borehole instability due to the interaction of the water and water-sensitive shale is at least imminent, circulating as the drilling fluid an aqueous brine solution that contains from about 0.2 to about 2.0 pounds of an additive per barrel. The additive comprises: 27% by weight of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylate-polyacrylamide copolymer having a molecular weight of at least three million and which is from about 20 to about 50% hydrolyzed; and 70% by weight of potassium chloride.

Halliday, W.S.; Thielen, V.M.

1987-05-12

222

Drilling tool  

SciTech Connect

A drilling tool is disclosed which has a drilling shaft member, a crown drilling member with an annular wall provided with a plurality of cutting edges and detachably mounted on the shaft member, a center drilling member detachably mounted on the shaft member inside the crown drilling member and having a further cutting edge, and elements for limiting a drilling depth of the tool when the center drilling member is mounted on the shaft member. Thereby, the operator of the drilling tool, after drilling a guiding groove in a rock, is forced to remove the center drilling member from the drilling tool and drill further without the center drilling member, which increases the drilling efficiency.

Baumann, O.; Dohse, H.P.; Reibetanz, W.; Wanner, K.

1983-09-27

223

Proper planning improves flow drilling  

SciTech Connect

Underbalanced operations reduce formation damage, especially in horizontal wells where zones are exposed to mud for longer time periods. Benefits, risks, well control concerns, equipment and issues associated with these operations are addressed in this paper. Flow drilling raises many concerns, but little has been published on horizontal well control and flow drilling operations. This article covers planning considerations for flow drilling, but does not address horizontal ''overbalanced'' drilling because considerations and equipment are the same as in vertical overbalanced drilling and many references address that subject. The difference in well control between vertical and horizontal overbalanced drilling is fluid influx behavior and how that behavior affects kill operations.

Collins, G.J. (Marathon Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-10-01

224

Method of deep drilling  

DOEpatents

Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

Colgate, Stirling A. (4616 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

225

Biochemical measures of coral metabolic activity, nutritional status, and microbial infection with exposure to oil- and gas-well drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil- and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform. After 6 weeks exposure, coral fragments of 30 to 60 sq cm surface area were broken off, rinsed in seawater, and extracted in a one-phase chloroform-methanol seawater extract and returned to the laboratory, the lipids were analyzed for their phospholipid content, alkyl fatty acid composition, and neutral lipid triglyceride glycerol. The aqueous phase was analyzed for free amino acid composition. Biochemical evidence of stress was reflected in the cessation of growth as measured in depressed diacyl phospholipid. Detailed analysis of the acyl fatty acid composition by capillary gas chromatography showed changes in polyenoic fatty acids, suggesting possible changes in the metabolism of the fatty acids induced by the exposure to the drilling fluids.

White, D.C.; Nickels, J.S.; Gehron, M.J.; Parker, J.H.; Martz, R.F.

1987-03-01

226

Deep-slab fluids fuel extremophilic Archaea on a Mariana forearc serpentinite mud volcano: Ocean Drilling Program Leg 195  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Mariana forearc it releases water that hydrates the overlying mantle wedge, converting it to serpentinite that protrudes to form mud volcanoes at the seafloor. Excess H2O ascends through these mud volcanoes and exits as cold springs at their summits. The composition of this deep-slab derived water has been determined by drilling on two

Michael J. Mottl; Stephen C. Komor; Patricia Fryer; Craig L. Moyer

2003-01-01

227

Measurement and modeling of methane dissolution in synthetic liquids applied to drilling fluid formulation for deep and ultradeep water wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the Brazilian oil and gas reserves are located in offshore fields. There is also a great production potential in offshore reservoirs in deep and ultradeep water depths. The drilling scenario at those depths is quite complex and the risk of blowouts should be mitigated. A well control problem would incur in loss of human lives, equipment and catastrophic

Paulo R. Ribeiro; Pedro A. Pessôa-Filho; Rosana F. T. Lomba; Euclides J. Bonet

2006-01-01

228

A Review of the Environmental Acceptability and the Toxicity of Diesel Oil Substitutes in Drilling Fluid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969 and heightened concern for the environment has led to increased government regulation, especially in environmentally sensitive areas such as the Georges Bank, The Flower Gardens, and offshore California. At the same time oil exploration and drilling in these areas have been increasing. The discharge of diesel oils and cuttings

K. M. Thoresen; A. A. Hinds

1983-01-01

229

CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

2003-06-01

230

Drilling head  

SciTech Connect

A drilling head is disclosed that includes a tubular body having removable means for sealing the body to a kelly or other drive tube, a drive bushing releasably mounted in the sealing means to turn the sealing means with the drive tube, the sealing means including a seal tube having a rotating seal means for sealing with the body and a non-rotating seal means for sealing with the drive tube, both seal means being releasably held to the seal tube by common retainer means, such sealing means being rotatably mounted on the body on removable outboard mono-stratum double acting antifriction thrust bearing means at the top of the body, the outer bearing race being held between annular flanges, one flange being integral with the body and the other releasably connected to the body, and the inner bearing race being held between annular plates releasably connected to the seal tube, the body having a side outlet and flange connection for the drilling fluid return line substantially flush with the body.

Garrett, W.R.

1981-08-04

231

The Compatibility of Egyptian Bentonite during Drilling Shale Formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling fluid is a vital element of the drilling process, and any drilling fluid must have common properties that facilitate safe and satisfactory completion of the well. The main component of water-based mud is clay (mostly bentonite). The present consumption of bentonite clay in drilling operations alone can reach over 100,000 tons a year and all of it is imported.

M. I. Abdou; H. E.-S. Ahmed

2011-01-01

232

Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (IV) Fluid Inclusion Microthermometry of the Geitafell Hydrothermal System - a Possible Analog of the Active Krafla System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miocene Geitafell volcanic complex in southeast Iceland hosts an extinct high temperature hydrothermal system that provides an excellent opportunity for study of the interior of an analog to the Krafla and Hengill active systems, which will be penetrated by IDDP drilling. The Geitafell volcano formed on the central Icelandic rift zone at approximately 5-6 Ma. Glacial erosion has exposed the deep interior of the volcano, revealing a complex of tholeitic lavas, hyaloclastites and rhyolites, cut by 12 intrusive phases and a sequence of seven related vein sets with distinct vein fillings and alteration haloes. Mineralogical studies by Fridleifsson (1983) show that when Geitafell was active, it hosted a supercritical hydrothermal system with fluids exceeding 400°°C at pressures up to 300 bar. We have begun fluid inclusion microthermometry studies of this system with the goal to define the specific relationship of the vein sequence to vein temperatures and alteration haloes, and thereby improve the understanding of supercritical hydrothermal systems . We have sampled veins in a basaltic lava from Fridleifsson's vein sets 2 and 3, and a quartz-filled amygdale tied to vein set 2. Vein set 2 is bordered by a narrow (5-10mm) dark alteration halo of chlorite and albite; set 3 veins have cm-scale epidote-rich envelopes. Fluid inclusions were not visible in the quartz and epidote of vein set 3, but quartz in vein set 2 contains abundant fluid inclusions 5 to 15 micrometers in size with vapor bubbles ranging from 10 to 60 vol%. In the amygdale, fluid inclusions are 5 to 30 micronmeters in size with vapor bubbles ranging from 25 to 60 vol%. The average freezing point depression for vein set 2 and amygdale inclusions is 0.1°°C, indicating a salinity of 0.2 wt% NaCl equivalent--largely fresh water. Fluid inclusions homogenize to liquid or to vapor at temperatures ranging from approximately 300 to 394°°C. Most liquid-dominated inclusions homogenize between 300 and 380°°C. The coexisting vapor rich and liquid rich inclusions and the homogenization behavior indicate a boiling hydrothermal system at a temperature of at least 380°°C.

Troyer, R.; Reed, M. H.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2007-12-01

233

HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

2002-11-01

234

Spacer fluids  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a conduit extends, the wellbore having a space occupied by a drilling fluid. It comprises displacing the drilling fluid from the space with a spacer fluid comprising: sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, bentonite, welan gum, surfactant and a weighting agent; and displacing the spacer composition and filling the wellbore space with a settable cement composition.

Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.; Wilton, B.S.; Carpenter, R.B.

1992-05-19

235

A fossil, serpentinization-related hydrothermal vent, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 173, Site 1068 (Iberia Abyssal Plain): Some aspects of mineral and fluid chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basement at Site 1068, Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 173 (serpentinized peridotite in fault contact with overlying amphibolite-clast-dominated sedimentary and tectonic breccias) is host to a hydrothermal system rooted in serpentinization reactions occurring at depth. The serpentinite grades downward from cataclasites at the fault, through brecciated, recrystallized, tochilinite-bearing serpentinite, to awaruite-bearing massive, mesh-textured serpentinite. Andradite is common throughout and is a major sink for iron. The breccias are similarly zoned, from tectonized rocks near the fault upward into sedimentary breccias. Mg-silicate vein assemblages and rodingitized amphibolite clasts near the fault give way to calcite veins and nonpervasive albite-chlorite alteration upsection. Marcasite (± pyrrhotite at the fault) is the sulfide phase and occurs only in the tectonic breccias. Fe oxides are magnetite near the fault and hematite and ferric oxyhydroxides upsection. The zonation reflects mixing of seawater with a fluid whose composition (low fO2, fS2 Si, CO2, high Ca, Fe, Ca/Mg, pH) is controlled by serpentinization reactions. The deepest serpentinites have strongly reduced mineral assemblages that are unusual in a totally serpentinized peridotite. This probably reflects equilibration with a fluid derived from ongoing serpentinization at depth. The upper serpentinites, on through the mineral sequences seen in the breccias reflect increasing input from seawater upsection. Increased fO2 and fS2 stabilizes increasingly S- and O-rich assemblages. Calcite (and ferric oxide) precipitation decreases pH, stabilizing marcasite. Relative to mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, fluids in serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems are poor in S and rich in Mg and are unlikely to host large sulfide ore deposits.

Beard, James S.; Hopkinson, Laurence

2000-07-01

236

Wettability and Prediction of Oil Recovery from Reservoirs Developed with Modern Drilling and Completion Fluids. Semiannual Report, October 1, 2003-March 31, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report on progress in three areas. In part one, the wetting effects of synthetic base oils are reported. Part two reports progress in understanding the effects of surfactants of known chemical structures, and part three integrates the results from surf...

J. S. Buckley N. R. Morrow

2004-01-01

237

Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

1992-06-01

238

Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

1992-01-01

239

Constraints on mineralization, fluid-rock interaction, and mass transfer during faulting at 2-3 km depth from the SAFOD drill hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralogical and geochemical changes in mudrock cuttings from two segments of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drill hole (3066-3169 and 3292-3368 m measured depth) are analyzed in this study. Bulk rock samples and hand-picked fault-related grains characterized by polished surfaces and slickensides were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and geochemical analysis. The elemental changes in fault-related grains along the sampled San Andreas Fault are attributed to dissolution of detrital grains (particularly feldspar and quartz) and local precipitation of illite-smectite and/or chlorite-smectite mixed layers in fractures and veins. Assuming ZrO2 and TiO2 to be immobile elements, systematic differences in element concentrations show that most of the elements are depleted in the fault-related grains compared to the wall rock lithology. Calculated mass loss between the bulk rock and picked fault rock ranges from 17 to 58% with a greater mass transport in the shallow trace of the sampled fault that marks the upper limit the fault core. The relatively large amount of element transport at temperatures of ˜110-114°C recorded throughout the core requires extensive fluid circulation during faulting. Whereas dissolution/precipitation may be partly induced by the disequilibrium between fluids and rocks during diagenetic processes, stress-induced dissolution at grain contacts is proposed as the main mechanism for extensive mineral transformation in the fault rocks and localization of neomineralization along grain interface slip surfaces.

Schleicher, Anja M.; Tourscher, Sara N.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.; Warr, Laurence N.

2009-04-01

240

Drilling Mechanics: Consequences and Relevance of Drill string Vibration on Wellbore Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wellbore instability problems have been attributed mainly to rock-fluid interaction, especially when drilling shaley formations with water-base fluids. However, recent studies showed that other events during drilling may contribute much more decisively in causing the problems than the rock-fluid interaction and swelling. The Study presents a conceptual model to analyze wellbore stability based on energy. The Drill string vibration concern

A. A. Ibrahim; T. A. Musa; A. M. Fadoul

2004-01-01

241

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

242

Drilling mud proposal  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the disposal of drilling fluids from Texas oil fields was presented. The most common is the transport of the drilling mud to approved landfills. This requires that the waste be fresh waste base mud only, contained in the pit, and be maintained oil free. Other approved methods of disposal include treatment with discharge of effluent to surface streams, land application on farm land (with owner's permission), and subsurface disposal. Some common illegal disposal methods included dumping on roadsides or private property (without owner's permission).

Steed, W.

1981-12-01

243

Removal of cuttings in deep ice electromechanical drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thorough removal of cuttings is one of the key requirements for successful drilling in ice. Otherwise cuttings can form packed ice rings above and near the drill head and can eventually result in a stuck drill. In deep ice electromechanical drilling, the cuttings are removed from the bottom of the hole by the fluid flow from a down-hole pump

P. G. Talalay

2006-01-01

244

The propagation of sound waves in drill strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep wells are commonly drilled while steering the drill bit. The steering process is completely controlled by the drilling-rig operator. A key element of this procedure is the measurement and communication of navigation information from the bottom of the well to the operator. Pressure pulses modulated onto the flow of the drill fluid are now employed in some cases to

Douglas S. Drumheller; S. D. Knudsen

1995-01-01

245

An Experimental Investigation on the Chemical Stability of Selected Formation and Determination of the Proper Type of Water-Base Drilling Fluids. Part 1. Descriptive Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify the descriptive tests for drilling stable holes through the problems of the selected formations. This study was performed on the shale samples taken from 10 wells in which hole instability was encountered to various extents during drilling the Germav formation. A total of 13 formation samples, characterizing the problematic intervals of the

Selcuk Erkekol; I. Hakki Gucuyener; Mustafa Versan Kok

2006-01-01

246

Transient fluid flow through the toe of the Barbados accretionary complex: Constraints from Ocean Drilling Program leg 110 heat flow studies and simple models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four sediment and mud line temperatures were collected from six drill holes on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) leg 110 near the toe of the Barbados accretionary complex. When combined with thermal conductivity measurements from sediment cores and results from earlier surveys, these data delineate the complicated thermal structure on the edge of this convergent margin. Heat flow values at the

A. T. Fisher; M. W. Hounslow

1990-01-01

247

Microbiological Assessment of Circulation Mud Fluids During the First Operation of Riser Drilling by the Deep-Earth Research Vessel Chikyu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality assurance and control (QA\\/QC) is significant for the scientific drilling in order to accurately characterize physical, geochemical, and biological properties in the cored deep subseafloor materials. To explore the deep subseafloor life and its biosphere, identification and control of microbial contamination in drilling cores is critical for highly sensitive molecular analyses as well as cultivations, especially for the evaluation

Noriaki Masui; Yuki Morono; Fumio Inagaki

2008-01-01

248

Drilled Shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This session will provide an overview of drilled shaft design and construction, including general design principles, construction methods, and construction quality assurance. Project examples will be used to illustrate the types of bridge structures and subsurface conditions where drilled shafts should be considered.

Elizabeth Dwyre

2012-01-01

249

Underbalanced drilling guidelines improve safety, efficiency  

SciTech Connect

In underbalanced drilling, the primary means of well control, the hydrostatic head of the drilling fluid, is lost either unavoidably because of hole problems (such as abnormally high pressure or lost circulation) or intentionally because of economics or to prevent formation damage. Because of complications with underbalanced drilling, however, several rigs have been destroyed by fire. Operational guidelines are being developed in close cooperation with industry. The final guidelines will be consistent with the existing standards of well control practices in Alberta, yet applicable for underbalanced drilling operations world-wide. Until formal guidelines are completed in Alberta, operators interested in underbalanced drilling should work closely with the Energy Resources Conservation Board in preparing site-specific programs. Although underbalanced drilling is often associated with horizontal wells, the majority of underbalanced drilling operations in Alberta are conducted on vertical wells. The paper describes underbalanced drilling, blowout prevention, surface BOP equipment (stripper, annular pack off, rotating head, rotating BOP, coiled tubing), subsurface BOP, drilling fluids, nitrified drilling fluids, surface equipment, well-site supervision, well control equipment, and the surface handling of fluids.

Eresman, D. (Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1994-02-28

250

Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by explorescience.com called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

251

Drilling of Arun gas field  

SciTech Connect

The Arun gas field was discovered in late 1971 when the discovery Well Arun A-1 penetrated the thick Arun limestone reef. During the following 3 years, 12 delineation wells were drilled. Three of these delineation wells are used for observation wells, five for dry gas injection, one for condensate water disposal, and three are abandoned. Clustered development well drilling started in Sept. 1976. At this writing 40 wells have been drilled to delineate and develop the field. Drilling continues so that the growing demand from the expanding liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is met. The problems of high temperatures, abnormally highpressured shales, and saltwater sands overlying the lower-pressured Arun limestone have been conquered by numerous technique changes. The current techniques include the use of inverted oil emulsion muds, cements containing 35% silica flour, high-strength heavyweight tubulars, and clear packer fluids. The evolution of drilling and completion practices are discussed in the paper.

Bolt, L.H.; Soepardi, M.; Suherman, D.

1984-05-01

252

Estimation of scattering and intrinsic seismic attenuation parameters with radiative transfer theory: Application to fluid-induced seismicity at the KTB Deep Drilling Hole, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity and seismic absorption properties of a geothermal reservoir may be estimated by inverting seismogram envelopes of fluid-induced micro-earthquakes occurring during hydraulic stimulation and/or production. Synthetic coda envelopes are computed using radiative transfer theory (RTT). RTT describes the propagation of wave energy in scattering random media and has the important advantage of being adapted from a physical model of the scattering process that produces the seismic coda. The heterogeneous medium is characterized by the total scattering coefficient g0 and intrinsic absorption coefficient b. In addition, information about effective source energy W and site response factors R can also be obtained by means of seismogram envelopes inversion. Nevertheless, the present study focuses on the properties of the propagation medium. It aims to separate the effects of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in order to characterize the small-scale heterogeneities that are the fractured geothermal reservoir. The inversion uses grid search over the model space for scattering coefficient, and least-square inversion for the remaining parameters. The merit of this integrated approach is to be independent of external information and applicable to smaller events, likely to occur during hydraulic fracturing. To speed up inversion we use an analytic approximation to the equation of radiative transfer. Currently, we restrict ourselves to isotropic scattering of S-waves in a half-space with an isotropic source. In the framework of adapting seismological techniques to the field of geothermal reservoir characterization (part of the German research program "Geothermal Energy and High Performance Drilling"), the method is applied to a passive seismic data set obtained during the hydraulic fracturing treatment at the KTB Deep Drilling Hole in 2000. During the long-term stimulation experiment (August to November 2000), seismicity was recorded downhole with a borehole sonde at 4 km depth and with a temporal seismic surface network, consisting of 40 stations, at epicentral distances less than 20 km. The analyzed micro-earthquakes possess magnitudes between 0.5 ? Ml ? 1, and exhibit coda-lengths between 20 - 50 seconds. We invert the traces in 6 frequency bands between 1 and 64 Hz with center frequencies at 1.5 ± 0.5 Hz, 3 ± 1 Hz, 6 ± 2 Hz, 12 ± 4 Hz, 24 ± 8 Hz, 48 ± 16 Hz. Scattering coefficient g0 and intrinsic attenuation parameter b show weak frequency dependency in the range from 12 - 48 Hz, increasing with frequency, by taking a power-law form. From the frequency dependence of the attenuation parameters we also inferred that a von Kármán type of random medium is a good model for representing the small-scale heterogeneities at the KTB. Finally, we compare estimated scattering coefficients with values, derived from earthquake recordings of the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) for Southern Germany and from stochastic analysis of KTB sonic log data.

Fielitz, D.; Wegler, U.

2011-12-01

253

Drilling head  

SciTech Connect

Drilling head incorporating downwardly facing lip type bearing seals, stationary seal cartridge for head seal, rotating replaceable seal bushing for head seal, and optional screw connection for removable side outlet.

Young, D. E.

1985-07-02

254

Production drilling  

SciTech Connect

This paper is actually a composite of two papers dealing with automation and computerized control of underground mining equipment. The paper primarily discusses drills, haulage equipment, and tunneling machines. It compares performance and cost benefits of conventional equipment to the new automated methods. The company involved are iron ore mining companies in Scandinavia. The papers also discusses the different equipment using air power, water power, hydraulic power, and computer power. The different drill rigs are compared for performance and cost.

Not Available

1993-03-01

255

Utilization in the Attaka field of a new four component drilling system  

SciTech Connect

Unocal Indonesia has significantly reduced drilling times and costs by introducing a new four-component drilling system in the Attaka field. This drilling system includes using polycrystal line diamond compact bits, a low toxic oil base mud drilling fluid, a measurement while drilling survey tool, and a steerable positive displacement mud motor. A case study showing the performance and advantages of the new Attaka drilling system over the conventional drilling technique is outlined.

Sawolo, N. (Unocal Indonesia Ltd. (ID))

1988-01-01

256

Biopolymer fluids eliminate horizontal well problems  

SciTech Connect

Drilling fluids clean the hole while circulating. However, cleaning and lubricity problems can start when circulation stops, and cuttings settle out of the drilling fluid. High cuttings suspension and transport capacity have proved to be the key fluid characteristic for improved drilling operations. On the contrary, poor cutting suspension will lead to downhole drilling problems, and solids accumulation will increase friction and reduce bit weight transfer ability. This paper reports how switching from conventional drilling fluids to completion fluids with superior suspension capacity and nondamaging characteristics resolved drilling and production problems with several onshore horizontal wells.

Scheult, M.; Grebe, L. II (Kelco Oil Field Group, Inc., Houston, TX (US)); Traweek, J.E. Jr. (WCS Oil and Gas Corp. Giddings, TX (US)); Dudley, M. (Rebel Petroleum Services, Giddings, TX (US))

1990-01-01

257

Porewater geochemical evidence for fluid flow in Miocene Peri-platform Sediments of the Marion Plateau, Leg 194 Ocean Drilling Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the goals of studying the Marion Plateau was to use the sediments and pore fluids recovered to investigate fluid circulation in ancient carbonate platforms of the plateau. The extensive dolomitization found in both platforms is itself indirect evidence for past fluid circulation in the platform. But when and how fluids may have circulated and the nature of the

S. J. Burns

2001-01-01

258

Fluid sampling tool  

SciTech Connect

A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Las Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2000-01-01

259

Active seismic monitoring of changes of the reflection response of a crystalline shear zone due to fluid injection in the crust at the Continental Deep Drilling Site, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In theory and in the laboratory variations of the hydraulic pressure can be detected with seismic methods: A lowering of the hydraulic pressure leads to the closure of micro-cracks within the rock (increase of the differential or effective pressure). Subsequently, the seismic velocities increase. An increase of the hydraulic pressure leads to reverse seismic effects. Consequently, seismic impedance contrasts and associated reflection amplitudes vary in the case of a propagating fluid pressure front in a rock matrix with inhomogeneous permeability - as is the case at shear zones. The largest amplitude changes can be expected with vertical ray inclination on the impedance contrast. Generally, the expected effects are small however (Kaselow, 2004). The practical utilization of active seismics for the detection of pressure changes at large scale in hard rock is currently being studied at the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB). The injection of water (200 l/min) in a depth of about 4000 m into the so-called SE2 shear zone in the KTB pilot hole was monitored with active seismics between May 2004 and April 2005. The core of the experiment layout is a fixed 5-arm geophone array consisting of 24 3-component geophones, buried at about 70 cm depth. The source signal is a vertical vibrator sweep of 30 s length with the spectrum 30-120 Hz. The signal is sent into the ground 32 times during each cycle, detected with the array and recorded separately for each geophone channel, without prior correlation with the source signal. This allows maximum post-processing with seismic processing and analysis tools and especially permits the use of array properties to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Critical parameters of the experiment are the repeatability of the source signal as well as the stability of the receiver properties. Another pivot is the hydraulic pressure and its distribution built up within the rock matrix. Estimations based on model calculations show that a change of seismic reflections can be detected above a well head pressure of about 15 MPa (Kaselow, 2004). Additionally, the fluid pressure at depth must be distributed within at least the first Fresnel-Zone of the seismic wavefront. After one year of injection only about 12 MPa were reached at the well head of the KTB pilot hole. One consequence is in particular that sensitive seismic signal processing needs to be applied. The standard deviation of the amplitude spectra of the raw data recorded with the array shows values around 36% if the strong direct waves are integrated in the analysis. The weak reflection signals from the target zone show values around 78%. The latter is due to the relatively low level of the wanted signals with respect to the ambient noise level. Band-pass filters and the application of the so-called diversity stack can reduce the errors. Another improvement can be achieved with selective, time-window based amplitude-dependent signal suppression before correlation (Polom, 1999) in an improved manner. References: KASELOW, A. 2004. The Stress Sensitivity Approach: Theory and Application. Dissertation, Freie Universitat Berlin. POLOM, U. 1999. Elimination of Noise Caused by Spikes and Bursts in Vibroseis Data. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 156, 319-344.

Beilecke, T.; Kurt, B.; Stefan, B.

2005-12-01

260

Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.  

PubMed

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

2008-06-01

261

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid

Mark Ellsworth Wassell; William Evans Turner; Daniel E. Burgess; Carl Allison Perry

2007-01-01

262

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid

Mark Ellsworth Wassell; William Evans Turner; Daniel E. Burgess; Carl Allison Perry

2008-01-01

263

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid

Mark Ellsworth Wassell; William Evans Turner; Daniel E. Burgess; Carl Allison Perry

2011-01-01

264

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2001-09-25

265

Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products  

SciTech Connect

The first objective of this project is to develop a user-friendly, PC, foam drilling computer model, FOAM, which will accurately predict frictional pressure drops, cuttings lifting velocity, foam quality, and other drilling variables. The model will allow operating and service companies to accurately predict pressures and flow rates required at the surface and downhole to efficiently drill oil and gas wells with foam systems. The second objective of this project is to develop a lightweight drilling fluid that utilizes hollow glass spheres to reduce the density of the fluid and allow drilling underbalanced in low-pressure reservoirs. Since the resulting fluid will be incompressible, hydraulics calculations are greatly simplified, and expensive air compressors and booster pumps are eliminated. This lightweight fluid will also eliminate corrosion and downhole fire problems encountered with aerated fluids. Many tight-gas reservoirs in the US are attractive targets for underbalanced drilling because they are located in hard-rock country where tight, low-permeability formations compound the effect of formation damage encountered with conventional drilling fluids.

Maurer, W.; Medley, G. Jr.

1995-07-01

266

Fluid/rock interaction and mass transfer in continental subduction zones: constraints from trace elements and isotopes (Li, B, O, Sr, Nd, Pb) in UHP rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Program, Sulu, East China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better understand the role of fluids during subduction and subsequent exhumation, we have investigated whole-rock and mineral chemistry (major and trace elements) and Li, B as well as O, Sr, Nd, Pb isotopes on selected continuous drill-core profiles through contrasting lithological boundaries from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CCSD) in Sulu, China. Four carefully selected sample sets have been chosen to investigate geochemical changes as a result of fluid mobilization during dehydration, peak metamorphism, and exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust. Our data reveal that while O and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions remain more or less unchanged, significant Li and/or B isotope fractionations occur between different lithologies that are in close contact during various metamorphic stages. Samples that are supposed to represent prograde dehydration as indicated by veins formed at high pressures (HP) are characterized by element patterns of highly fluid-mobile elements in the veins that are complementary to those of the host eclogite. A second sample set represents a UHP metamorphic crustal eclogite that is separated from a garnet peridotite by a thin transitional interface. Garnet peridotite and eclogite are characterized by a >10% difference in MgO, which, together with the presence of abundant hydroxyl-bearing minerals and compositionally different clinopyroxene grains demonstrate that both rocks have been derived from different sources that have been tectonically juxtaposed during subduction, and that hydrous silicate-rich fluids have been added from the subducting slab to the mantle. Two additional sample sets, comprising retrograde amphibolite and relatively fresh eclogite, demonstrate that besides external fluids, internal fluids can be responsible for the formation of amphibolite. Li and B concentrations and isotopic compositions point to losses and isotopic fractionation during progressive dehydration. On the other hand, fluids with isotopically heavier Li and B are added during retrogression. On a small scale, mantle-derived rocks may be significantly metasomatized by fluids derived from the subducted slab. Our study indicates that during high-grade metamorphism, Li and B may show different patterns of enrichment and of isotopic fractionation.

Xiao, Yilin; Hoefs, Jochen; Hou, Zhenhui; Simon, Klaus; Zhang, Zeming

2011-10-01

267

Analysis of water and geothermal-well shallow drilling data via drilling software allows for rock drillability assessment and drill bit performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling maybe the most expensive part of an exploration campaign for production of miner- als, geothermal fluids, water and hydrocarbons. Significant advances have been made on devel- oping drilling bits and equipment as well as drilling techniques, with hydrocarbon exploita- tion industry leading the way but no such ad- vances have been made on modeling rock-bit interaction. Some models have

P. Dalamarinis; V. C. Kelessidis; V. Chatzistamou; G. Karydakis

268

Drilling head  

SciTech Connect

A drilling head comprises a tubular body adapted for connection above a well head and having a removable side outlet with a replaceable wear bushing. An assembly removably secured in the head includes a stator and rotor with bearing means and rotating seal means therebetween. A replaceable tubular, kelly seal boot or stripper carried by the rotor includes an enlarged upper end which diverts drilling mud away from the rotating seal and toward the side outlet. Lubricating means is provided for the rotating seal.

Garrett, W. R.

1984-11-06

269

Natural Frequencies of Marine Drilling Risers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data relating the first five natural frequencies of marine drilling risers to typical riser and drilling parameters. The riser is idealized as a vertical flexible beam with pinned supports. Variable tension and fluid environment make the mathematics different from classical beam theory, leading to a differential equation that perhaps is unique to the oil industry. Exact natural

D. W. Dareing; T. Huang

1976-01-01

270

Effect of bit hydraulic horsepower on the drilling rate of a polycrystalline diamond bit  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory drilling program was conducted to measure the effect of bit hydraulic horsepower on the drilling rate obtained with a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit. Drilling tests were conducted under simulated downhole conditions with an 8 1/2-inch diameter PDC bit fitted with four sets of 5 equal-sized nozzles. Mancos shale, Pierre shale, and Berea sandstone were drilled with both water-base and oil-base drilling fluids to determine the interactions among bit hydraulics, rock characteristics, and the drilling fluid. For the range of drilling conditions and rocks examined, the results indicated that bit hydraulic horsepower had a significant effect on the drilling rate.

Holster, J.L.; Kipp, R.J.

1983-10-01

271

Drill report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has approved an industry proposal to conduct reflection seismic studies for oil and gas on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain. The plan submitted by Geophysical Services Inc. (GSI) was approved, subject to modifications aimed at safeguarding the environment. A listing of current drilling activities in Alaska is provided.

Not Available

1983-11-01

272

Drilling head  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drilling head is disclosed that includes a tubular body having removable means for sealing the body to a kelly or other drive tube, a drive bushing releasably mounted in the sealing means to turn the sealing means with the drive tube, the sealing means including a seal tube having a rotating seal means for sealing with the body and

1981-01-01

273

Drilling head  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drilling head comprises a tubular body adapted for connection above a well head and having a removable side outlet with a replaceable wear bushing. An assembly removably secured in the head includes a stator and rotor with bearing means and rotating seal means therebetween. A replaceable tubular, kelly seal boot or stripper carried by the rotor includes an enlarged

1984-01-01

274

Drainhole drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a method for drilling from a primary wellbore at least one lateral drainhole wellbore, the drainhole extending out into a liquid producing geologic formation which is overlaid with a gas cap, the improvement is described comprising hydraulically fracturing the formation to form fractures which extend above and below the drainhole, the fracturing being carried out using a fracturing liquid

Emery

1988-01-01

275

Are oil- and gas-well drilling, production, and associated waste disposal practices potential pollutants of the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor drilling and well completion practices and improperly abandoned wells provide potential avenues for pollution. Prime pollutants were found to be brine, petroleum, drilling muds, well completion chemicals, drilling fluids, and production-associated chemicals.

1970-01-01

276

The Berkner Island (Antarctica) ice-core drilling project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a project to retrieve a 948 m deep ice core from Berkner Island, Antarctica. Using relatively lightweight logistics and a small team, the drilling operation over three austral summer seasons used electromechanical drilling technology, described in detail, from a covered shallow pit and a fluid-filled borehole. A basal temperature well below pressure-melting point meant that no drilling problems

Robert Mulvaney; Olivier Alemany; Philippe Possenti

2007-01-01

277

ResonantSonic drilling. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The technology of ResonantSonic drilling is described. This technique has been demonstrated and deployed as an innovative tool to access the subsurface for installation of monitoring and/or remediation wells and for collection of subsurface materials for environmental restoration applications. The technology uses no drilling fluids, is safe and can be used to drill slant holes.

NONE

1995-04-01

278

Columbia Gas preserves wetlands with directional drilling  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the use of directional drilling to install a 12 inch natural gas pipeline near Avon, Ohio. As a result of increased demand, the utility decided that it would need additional lines for pressure control with the only feasible route being through a forested and scrub/shrub wetland. This paper reviews the permitting requirements along with the directional drilling design and operation. Unfortunately during drilling, bentonite drilling fluids came to the surface requiring remedial action procedures. The paper then provides a detailed clean up strategy and makes recommendations on how to prevent such a break through in the future.

Luginbuhl, K.K. [Columbia Gas Distribution Companies, Columbus, OH (United States); Gartman, D.K. [Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1995-10-01

279

Fluid induced seismicity guided by a continental fault: Injection experiment of 2004\\/2005 at the German Deep Drilling Site (KTB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent hydraulic experiments at the KTB site have shown that seismicity induced by long-term fluid injection directly into a continental crustal fault remains guided by this fault. The seismicity is triggered by pressure perturbations as low as 0.01-1 bars at the hypocenters. A combination of sequential one-year fluid extraction (2002\\/2003) and one-year fluid injection (2004\\/2005) experiments has shown that only

S. A. Shapiro; J. Kummerow; C. Dinske; G. Asch; E. Rothert; J. Erzinger; H.-J. Kümpel; R. Kind

2006-01-01

280

Constraints on mineralization, fluid-rock interaction, and mass transfer during faulting at 2–3 km depth from the SAFOD drill hole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralogical and geochemical changes in mudrock cuttings from two segments of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drill hole (3066–3169 and 3292–3368 m measured depth) are analyzed in this study. Bulk rock samples and hand-picked fault-related grains characterized by polished surfaces and slickensides were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and geochemical analysis. The elemental changes in fault-related

Anja M. Schleicher; Sara N. Tourscher; Ben A. van der Pluijm; Laurence N. Warr

2009-01-01

281

Minimum quantity lubrication drilling of aluminium–silicon alloys in water using diamond-like carbon coated drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry drilling of aluminium alloys (without using cutting fluids) is an environmentally friendly machining process but also an exceedingly difficult task due to aluminium's tendency to adhere to the drills made of conventional materials such as the high-speed steel (HSS). Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings improve the dry drilling performance due to their adhesion mitigating properties. In this work, improvements

Sukanta Bhowmick; Ahmet T. Alpas

2008-01-01

282

Steerable percussion air drilling system  

SciTech Connect

The cost-sharing contract between the US Department of Energy and Smith International provides the funding to further develop this concept into two complete steerable percussion air drilling system prototypes, each integrated with a navigation tool (wireline steering tool), a bend sub, stabilizing devices, and to conduct laboratory and field testing necessary to prepare the system for commercial realization. Such a system would make available for the first time the ability to penetrate earthen formations by the percussion method, using compressed air as the drilling fluid, and at the same time allow the directional control and steering of the drill bit. While the drill string is not rotating (slide mode), one can orient to build angle in the desired direction at a predictable rate. This build rate can be in the range of 1--20 degrees per one hundred feet and proceeds until the desired inclination or direction has been obtained. The drill pipe is then set in rotation, nullifying the effect of the bend angle, and causes the assembly to drill straight. The sliding procedure can be repeated as often as corrections for hole`s inclination or direction are needed.

Bui, H.D.; Oliver, M.S.; Gray, M.A.

1993-12-31

283

An Introduction to Deepwater Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is an introduction to deepwater drilling, some of the nomenclature, processes, and "how things work," including illustrations of several of the more complex and technically challenging operational situations encountered in deepwater drilling operations. Drilling and well construction activities are carried out in water depths from just a few feet, to over 10,000 feet. Subsurface pressures encountered may be as high as 35,000 psi, with temperatures over 500 degrees F. Some of the technical aspects of deep water drilling include: 1) locating the well 2) rig types 3) well types 4) rig components 5) drill bits, drill string assemblies, bottom-hole assemblies 6) inclined and horizontal well trajectories 7) anisotropic in-situ earth stresses and operationally induced stresses 8) anisotropic, non-linear, hysteretic, and time-dependent rock behavior 9) steady-state and transient fluid flow and formation pressures 10) complex static and dynamic temperature distributions 11) eccentric wellbore geometries 12) wellbore stability 13) lost circulation 14) formation pressure control 15) sea floor completions 16) robotic operations

Gray, Kenneth

2011-04-01

284

CHIP MORPHOLOGY AND HOLE SURFACE TEXTURE IN THE DRILLING OF CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS. (R825370C057)  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of cutting fluid and other process variables on chip morphology when drilling cast aluminium alloys are investigated. The effects of workpiece material, speed, feed, hole depth, cutting-fluid presence and percentage oil concentration, workpiece temperature, drill t...

285

Quantification of subsurface pore pressure through IODP drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is critical to understand the magnitude and distribution of subsurface pore fluid pressure: it controls effective stress and thus mechanical strength, slope stability, and sediment compaction. Elevated pore pressures also drive fluid flows that serve as agents of mass, solute, and heat fluxes. The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have provided important avenues to

D. M. Saffer; P. B. Flemings

2010-01-01

286

Methane solubility in synthetic oil-based drilling muds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new drilling technologies and the reinforcement of environmental legislations require improvements of drilling fluid formulations. In particular, mineral oil-based muds have been recently replaced by low toxic or substitution oil-based muds (SBM). The molecular composition of these oils is adapted to the fluid property requirements. Very little is known on methane solubility in these oils and in

N Berthezene; J.-C de Hemptinne; A Audibert; J.-F Argillier

1999-01-01

287

Roof drilling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A roof-drilling system for use in subterranean mining applications and the like in which the drill head of a roof drilling machine is arranged such that the receiving cavity of its chuck is configured having a lost motion association with the drive-in portion of starter and driver drill steel rods. The lower surface of a retainer fixed to the drill

McSweeney

1980-01-01

288

WRITING ORAL DRILLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

NEY, JAMES W.

289

40 CFR Appendix 5 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by Gas Chromatography...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and through analysis of quality control samples. 3...continuousâphase is a water immiscible fluid such...to protect the air, water, and land by minimizing...Handbook of Analytical Quality Control in Water and Wastewater...

2011-07-01

290

Distribution of arsenic and copper in sediment pore water: an ecological risk assessment case study for offshore drilling waste discharges.  

PubMed

Due to the hydrophobic nature of synthetic based fluids (SBFs), drilling cuttings are not very dispersive in the water column and settle down close to the disposal site. Arsenic and copper are two important toxic heavy metals, among others, found in the drilling waste. In this article, the concentrations of heavy metals are determined using a steady state "aquivalence-based" fate model in a probabilistic mode. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to determine pore water concentrations. A hypothetical case study is used to determine the water quality impacts for two discharge options: 4% and 10% attached SBFs, which correspond to the best available technology option and the current discharge practice in the U.S. offshore. The exposure concentration (CE) is a predicted environmental concentration, which is adjusted for exposure probability and bioavailable fraction of heavy metals. The response of the ecosystem (RE) is defined by developing an empirical distribution function of predicted no-effect concentration. The pollutants' pore water concentrations within the radius of 750 m are estimated and cumulative distributions of risk quotient (RQ=CE/RE) are developed to determine the probability of RQ greater than 1. PMID:14641903

Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

2003-12-01

291

Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, October 1980-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development.

Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

1981-03-01

292

Shaft drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

1986-06-17

293

Directional drilling azimuth control system  

SciTech Connect

A downhole anchor assembly is described for absorbing reaction torque from a downhole mud motor in a directional drill string so as to minimize azimuthal deviation from such reaction torque, the anchor assembly comprising: an elongated, generally cylindrical housing having upper and lower ends with tool joints thereon for coupling the body into a directional drill string and having a drilling fluid passage extending longitudinally through its length; at least one elongated chain support body longitudinally mounted in the housing; an elongated, endless anchor chain supported on the body, the chain having an elongated portion thereof longitudinally arranged and generally radially exposed externally of the body, the exposed chain portion being freely longitudinally movable along the body; the body being generally radially shiftable between a retracted position in which the exposed chain portion is substantially recessed in the housing; and actuating means in the housing engageable with the body for shifting the body from the retracted position to its extended position.

Cheek, A.E.

1986-09-23

294

Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans  

SciTech Connect

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

295

Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

1996-06-01

296

Drilling program for Long Valley Caldera  

SciTech Connect

In September of this year, we will begin the first of four drilling phases in the Magma Energy Exploratory Well that is planned to reach a depth near 20,000 feet. This well will be used to verify the configuration of the magma body and to calibrate surface geophysical techniques against downhole data. It will also provide information of several kinds that is of interest to several groups: we will resolve geologic uncertainties---such as the location of fractured and abnormally pressured zones, chemistry of rocks and produced fluids, and magnitude of creep in the deep basement---that affect the drilling of any subsequent well, we will test drilling technology---e. g., high temperature drilling fluid, bits, coring, logging tools and tubulars---in a realistic environment, and we will gain insight on the history of collapse, resurgence, and intrusion in a major young caldera. 4 figs.

Finger, J.T.

1988-01-01

297

Drilling discharges in the marine environment  

SciTech Connect

The charge to the panel was to establish a credible technical basis for decisions about discharging drilling fluids and cuttings in the marine environment. The panel proceeded by reviewing and critically appraising the available knowledge concerning the fates and effects of drilling fluids and cuttings on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). It assessed the adequacy and applicability of existing research and the transferability of research results to different sites and hydrodynamic regimes. The panel also considered additional needed research as well as various means to mitigate the potential effects of drilling discharges. In agreement with its charge, the panel focused on discharges made during exploratory and development drilling, as opposed to those made during other phases of OCS operations.

Not Available

1983-01-01

298

Iceland deep drilling project, exploration of supercritical geothermal resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iceland deep drilling project (IDDP) is a long-term research and development program aimed to improve the efficiency and economics of geothermal power generation by harnessing deep natural supercritical hydrous fluids obtained at drillable depths. Producing supercritical fluids will require drilling wells and sampling fluids and rocks to depths of 3.5 to 5 km, and at temperatures of 450-600degC. The

Björn Stefánsson; Bjarni Pálsson; G. O. Fridleifsson

2008-01-01

299

Blind shaft drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mining of various minerals from the earth, large mining shafts extending from the surface down to the deposited mineral layers or seams in the earth can be provided through the use of large diameter bore hole drilling equipment. With the drilling equipment stationed on the surface of the earth, a drilling member is drilled down into the earth

P. Richardson; D. C. Albers; D. A. Whitley

1985-01-01

300

Drainhole drilling  

SciTech Connect

In a method for drilling from a primary wellbore at least one lateral drainhole wellbore, the drainhole extending out into a liquid producing geologic formation which is overlaid with a gas cap, the improvement is described comprising hydraulically fracturing the formation to form fractures which extend above and below the drainhole, the fracturing being carried out using a fracturing liquid which has a viscosity which is not substantially greater than that of diesel oil. The fracturing liquid carries a solid subdivided propping agent to be deposited in the fractures to prevent same from closing, whereby due to the low viscosity of the fracturing liquid the propping agent preferentially settles into fractures which extend downwardly from the drainhole thereby allowing fractures which extend upwardly from the drainhole to close up and prevent premature flow of gas into the drainhole by way of the upwardly extending fractures while leaving the downwardly extending fractures permanently propped open for enhanced production of liquid from the formation into the drainhole.

Emery, L.W.

1988-02-09

301

Rotary blasthole drilling update  

SciTech Connect

Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2008-02-15

302

Drill string safety valve  

SciTech Connect

A multi position safety valve is disclosed retainable within an internal portion of a drill string casing (s) and responsive to the greater differential pressure in an internal fluid passage to displace a valve head relative to a valve seat (VS) from its normal partially open position to either a wide open or a closed position. The valve head is attached to a valve stem that extends through a valve chamber and slideably mounted in opposite closed ends of a valve body and returnable to and maintained in the partially open position by opposing compression springs situated between opposite ends of the valve body and one side of an intermediate abutment of the valve stem and an intervening disc on the opposite side thereof. The disc 38 is moveable into and out of seating engagement with an intermediate stop by one spring and the intermediate abutment of the valve stem respectively.

Aumann, J.T.

1983-07-05

303

Geothermal drilling technology update  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

Glowka, D.A.

1997-04-01

304

Drill string enclosure  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a drill string enclosure which consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

1992-12-31

305

Potassium acetate adds flexibility to drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

Potassium acetate (KC/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/, or simply KAC), since 1986, has proven effective as a drilling fluid additive in over 30 wells both onshore and offshore South Texas. KAC has given potassium-base drilling fluids more flexibility, improved efficiency, and offered an environmentally acceptable alternative to potassium chloride (KCl) muds. The use of soluble potassium in drilling fluids has been successful in controlling troublesome shales. The potassium ion has a stabilizing effect that inhibits the swelling and dispersion of water-sensitive shale formations. KAC is completely soluble in fresh or saltwater and provides 40%, by weight, potassium. This compares favorably with other potassium-containing materials.

Gillenwater, K.E.; Ray, C.R.

1989-03-20

306

Volume requirements for aerated mud drilling  

SciTech Connect

Aerated mud drilling has been recognized as having many advantages over conventional mud drilling, such ass higher penetration rate, less formation damage, minimized lost circulation, and lower drilling cost. In some areas, the use of aerated mud as a circulating medium for drilling oil and gas wells is becoming an attractive practice. Maintaining an optimum combination of liquid and air flow rates is important in aerated drilling operations. However, most drilling operators are unclear on what constitutes the ``optimum combination of the liquid and air flow rates.`` Guo et al. presented a mathematical approach to determining the flowing bottomhole pressure (BHP) for aerated mud drilling. This paper addresses the use of Guo et al.`s mathematical model to determine liquid and air volume requirements considering wellbore stability, pipe sticking, and formation damage as well as the cuttings-carry capacity of the aerated mud. For a formation-damage-prevention point of view, the liquid fraction in the fluid stream should e as low as possible. However, a sufficient mud flow rate is always required to make the hole stable and to maintain the cuttings-carrying capacity of the aerated mud without injecting much air volume. This paper provides a simple approach to determining the liquid and air volume requirements for aerated mud drilling.

Guo, B.; Rajtar, J.M. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-09-01

307

Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto  

SciTech Connect

To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

1981-01-01

308

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM); Lundin, Ralph L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

309

Introduction to drilling technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial drilling technology is reviewed. The general requirements for a drilling system are given and conventional drilling techniques (rotary drag-bit, rotary roller-bit, percussive, rotary percussive) are described. Unconventional techniques for penetrating solids are outlined, including thermal drilling (spalling or melting), projectile penetration, high pressure liquid jets, explosive jets, erosion by projectile streams, and chemical penetration. Special attention is given to drilling in ice and frozen soils, performance data are given, including values for penetration rate and specific energy consumption. The principles, theory and equipment relating to each drilling technique are indicated by means of diagrams.

Mellor, Malcom

1989-12-01

310

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: a search for deep unconventional geothermal resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is a long-term program to improve the economics of geothermal energy by producing supercritical hydrous fluids from drillable depths. Producing supercritical fluids will require the drilling of wells and the sampling of fluids and rocks to depths of 3.5–5km, and at temperatures of 450–600°C. The IDDP plans to drill and test a series of

Gudmundur O. Fridleifsson; Wilfred A. Elders

2005-01-01

311

Horizontal flow drilling requires focus on well control  

SciTech Connect

Horizontal wells drilled underbalanced or while flowing must have surface equipment and a blow-out preventer stack specially designed for circulating operations. Functional well control methods for drilling horizontal wells have been developed in specific regions worldwide. Special safety equipment and procedures, however, are still required in most horizontal development applications. The challenge for horizontal drilling development and underbalanced drilling is to overcome the obstacles of government regulation, reduce pollution dangers, and improve personnel and equipment safety. Well control techniques tailored to the demands of each field can help overcome these challenges. Several well control elements must be addressed carefully on each horizontal well: drilling fluid requirements, well control procedures and equipment, and surface equipment and special considerations for handling hydrocarbons produced while drilling. The paper discusses each of these elements for underbalanced horizontal drilling.

Tangedahl, M.J. (RBOP Oil Tools International Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-06-13

312

Well drilling fluids and process for drilling wells  

SciTech Connect

A composition is described, comprised of (a) an aqueous base, (b) a clayey material suspended in the aqueous base, (c) a water-soluble sulfonated styrene-maleimide copolymer having a molecular weight of about 500 to about 15,000, and (d) a water-soluble copolymer having a molecular weight of about 500 to about 30,000 prepared from alkali metal salts of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid.

Lawson, H.F.; Hale, A.H.

1989-03-14

313

Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products. Topical report, September 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses the development and testing of two products designed to advance the application of underbalanced drilling techniques. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment. The program predicts pressure and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test well measurements, and field data. This model does not handle air or mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. An incompressible drilling fluid was developed that utilizes lightweight solid additives (hollow glass spheres) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. This fluid is designed for underbalanced drilling situations where compressible lightweight fluids are inadequate. In addition to development of these new products, an analysis was performed to determine the market potential of lightweight fluids, and a forecast of underbalanced drilling in the USA over the next decade was developed. This analysis indicated that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30 percent of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the USA within the next ten years.

Medley, G.H., Jr; Maurer, W.C.; Liu, G.; Garkasi, A.Y.

1995-09-01

314

Flow instability and shear localization in a drilling mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

To have a better knowledge of problems occurring with drilling fluids in complex wells, we carried out a detailed rheological analysis of a typical drilling mud at low shear rates using both conventional rheometry and MRI velocimetry. We show the existence of a viscosity bifurcation effect: Below a critical stress value, the mud tends to completely stop flowing, whereas beyond

Alexandre Ragouilliaux; Benjamin Herzhaft; François Bertrand; Philippe Coussot

2006-01-01

315

USA program in geothermal drilling and completion research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program objective is to conduct long-range R and D aimed at developing advanced geothermal drilling and completion systems to expand resource utilization. The program is organized into four broad categories: (1) rock penetration mechanics, (2) drilling fluids, (3) borehole mechanics, and (4) diagnostics technology. Although much effort has been concentrated on bit development under rock penetration mechanics, current work

C. C. Carson; B. C. Caskey

1982-01-01

316

A borehole temperature during drilling in a fractured rock formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling in brittle crystalline rocks is often accompanied by a fluid loss through the finite number of the major fractures intercepting the borehole. These fractures affect the flow regime and temperature distributions in the borehole and rock formation. In this study, the problem of borehole temperature variation during drilling of the fractured rock is analyzed analytically by applying the approximate

S. Fomin; T. Hashida; V. Chugunov; A. V. Kuznetsov

2005-01-01

317

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... impacts that could accrue from the use of cooling liquids during rock drilling. Our discussion of ...

318

Drill and exercise manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Drill and Exercise Manual establishes the organization, responsibilities, and methodology for developing, conducting, and evaluating drills and exercises at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The procedures established in this manual will ensure that DOE...

G. W. Bequette

1992-01-01

319

Drill String Failure Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains analyses of major drill string failures incurred during 15 years of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) wireline coring operations. Operating experience and means to reduce such losses is also described. This operational experience and fa...

M. N. A. Peterson

1983-01-01

320

Microwave drilling of bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Derby et ab, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under ?200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of ?1 mm\\/s. The

Yael Eshet; Ronit Rachel Mann; Abby Anaton; Tomer Yacoby; Amit Gefen; Eli Jerby

2006-01-01

321

Control drilling solves surface hole problems  

SciTech Connect

Drilling surface hole offshore is one aspect of drilling practice that should command greater planning and design. Surface hole could be crucial if the well is in an area with a chance of shallow gas, or if it is required to run a 30-in. pin corrector and a long string of riser back to surface. The problem grows more critical with deeper water and a longer riser which in turn gives a longer column of drilling fluid. Consequently, the hydrostatic pressure is much higher at the 30-in. casing shoe. Higher pressure increases the chance of exceeding the fracture gradient and may result in the loss of returns around the 30-in. shoe. This article describes a simple practice which can eliminate some surface hole problems. A control-drilling equation sets the maximum drilling rate (MDR) based on maximum permitted pressures at the casing shoe. Eliminating lost circulation will ultimately save rig downtime due to retrieving the conductor pipe and base plate, relocating the rig, and respudding the hole after suffering losses. This technique also has been successful while drilling out below drive pipe on jack ups and platform wells. Control drilling is most effectively used on these types of wells because only a friction seal (instead of cement coverage) exists around the bottom of the drive pipe.

Jean, T.W.

1986-08-01

322

Drill and exercise manual  

SciTech Connect

The Drill and Exercise Manual establishes the organization, responsibilities, and methodology for developing, conducting, and evaluating drills and exercises at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The procedures established in this manual will ensure that DOE Order 5500.3A requirements for a coordinated program if drills and exercises as an integral part of emergency management are met.

Bequette, G.W.

1992-07-01

323

Churn-drill performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are given of a series of tests conducted at various quarries to evaluate various factors affecting churndrill performance. Factors examined included drillability of rock, weight of drill tools, length of stroke, number of strokes per minute, diameter of bit, amount of drilling water added periodically, and specific gravity of drilling sludge. Numerous charts and interpretative data on tests conducted

J. R. Thoenen; E. J. Lintner

1947-01-01

324

Drill Clamp and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A drill clamp comprising a clamp mechanism and a hole-locating pin. The clamp mechanism has a first clamp portion and a second clamp portion. The second clamp portion includes a drill-receiving opening sized for receiving a drill bit. The hole-locating pi...

J. L. Morrison K. W. Bates T. O. Blanksenship

2004-01-01

325

Roof drilling system  

SciTech Connect

A roof-drilling system for use in subterranean mining applications and the like in which the drill head of a roof drilling machine is arranged such that the receiving cavity of its chuck is configured having a lost motion association with the drive-in portion of starter and driver drill steel rods. The lower surface of a retainer fixed to the drill head and having a non-circular aperture formed therein serves to define one bearing surface for utilizing the drill head itself to pull the assemblage of drill steel from a completed bore. To remove the drill steel driver component from the drill head chuck, the miner grasps the lowermost portion and rotates it a relatively small amount, for example about 1/8 turn. To provide for interlocking of the various components of the drill steel, I.E. Driver component, extension components finishing rods and the like, the tip of the male ends of each component are formed having a shallow groove and each corresponding female socket is provided with a corresponding transversely oriented bore. Conventional wire or its' equivalent is inserted within the bore by the miner in the course of assembling the drill steel during a drilling operation.

McSweeney, L.H.

1980-10-07

326

Combination offshore drilling rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with

D. B. Lorenz; J. S. II Laid

1986-01-01

327

HydroPulse Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

J.J. Kolle

2004-04-01

328

Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a highly efficient tool that both delivers high level of force for the pressure available and inherently increases downhole reliability because parts are less subject to contamination. The On-Off feature is essential to drilling to allow the Driller to turn off the tractor and pull back while circulating in cleanout runs that keep the hole clean of drilling debris. The gripping elements have wide contact surfaces to the formation to allow high loads without damage to the formation. As part of the development materials evaluations were conducted to verify compatibility with anticipated drilling and well bore fluids. Experiments demonstrated that the materials of the tractor are essentially undamaged by exposure to typical drilling fluids used for horizontal coiled tubing drilling. The design for the MDT was completed, qualified vendors identified, parts procured, received, inspected, and a prototype was assembled. As part of the assembly process, WWT prepared Manufacturing instructions (MI) that detail the assembly process and identify quality assurance inspection points. Subsequent to assembly, functional tests were performed. Functional tests consisted of placing the MDT on jack stands, connecting a high pressure source to the tractor, and verifying On-Off functions, walking motion, and operation over a range of pressures. Next, the Shop Demonstration Test was performed. An existing WWT test fixture was modified to accommodate operation of the 3.38 inch diameter MDT. The fixture simulated the tension applied to a tractor while walking (pulling) inside 4.0 inch diameter pipe. The MDT demonstrated: (1) On-off function, (2) Pulling forces proportional to available differential pressure up to 4000 lbs, (3) Walking speeds to 1100 ft/hour. A field Demonstration of the MDT was arranged with a major oil company operating in Alaska. A demonstration well with a Measured Depth of approximately 15,000 ft was selected; however because of problems with the well drilling was stopped before the planned MDT usage. Alternatively, functional and operational tests were run with the MDT insi

Western Well Tool

2007-07-09

329

Inhibition of gas hydrates in water-based drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a series of thermodynamic experiments were run on 16 simulated drilling muds and associated test fluids to improve the understanding of the equilibrium conditions for hydrate formation in water-based drilling fluids. Results indicated that, to a first approximation, the salt and glycerol contents of water in mud dominated hydrate formation. Other mud additives, such as bentonite, barite, and polymers, collectively promoted hydrate formation to a lesser degree.

Kotkoskie, T.S.; Al-Ubaidi, B.; Wildeman, T.R.; Sloan, E.D. Jr. (Colorado School of Mines (US))

1992-06-01

330

Oil well drilling clay conditioners and method of their preparation  

SciTech Connect

Drilling fluid additives are prepared by oxidation of sulfonated lignin-containing materials with manganese dioxide under highly acidic conditions to make manganese lignosulfonates. Additional improvements in the rheological properties of the additives may be obtained by complexing the manganese lignosulfonate so obtained with a heavy metal cation (preferably iron or copper), by, for example, addition of ferrous sulfate or ferric sulfate to the manganese lignosulfonate. These products show the requisite combination of rheological properties for a satisfactory drilling fluid additive or conditioner.

Detroit, W.J.

1984-05-08

331

Shaft drilling machine  

SciTech Connect

A shaft drilling machine has a circularly moving drilling head. The drilling head is angularly oriented with respect to the longitudinal axis of the shaft sought to be drilled. Loosened material is transported from the lower portion of the shaft by pickup means, moving with the drilling head, and taken to the upper portion of the angularly oriented bottom of the shaft, whereupon the loosened material or borings slide, by gravity, to a centrally located vertical conveyor mechanism for final removal of the material or borings from the shaft.

Hennecke, J.; Horst, H.; Podellek, H.

1984-11-20

332

Effective use of water in a system for water driven hammer drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling with water driven down-the-hole (DTH) hammers is a recently developed method for competitive production of boreholes. In order to prevent large amounts of water being used during operation, the drilling fluid is here directly processed into a quality acceptable for reuse. The effectiveness is evaluated in well drilling with a mobile prototype water cleaning and pressurising unit. Especially the

Göran Tuomas

2004-01-01

333

Responses of macrobenthos colonizing estuarine sediments contaminated with drilling mud containing diesel oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling muds are used in offshore exploration for gas and oil to bring up drill cuttings, to maintain hydrostatic pressure, to cool and lubricate the bit, and to seal the well. Large amounts are discharged and deposited in the marine environment during drilling. In addition, as many as 30 ingredients may be used in a single well to control fluid

Marlin E. Tagatz; Gayle R. Plaia; Christine H. Deans

1985-01-01

334

Improve your solids control. [Management of solids during oil and gas well drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

With today's emphasis on the environmental impact of drilling operations, minimization of drilling fluid and drill cuttings waste is critical. This can be achieved using proper solids removal equipment -- such as high performance shale shakers, hydrocyclones, and centrifuges -- and proper pre-well planning. The method described here is founded in decision matrix theory and focuses on several key variables.

M. S. Montgomery; W. W. Love

1993-01-01

335

A study of the built-up edge in drilling with indexable coated carbide inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indexable drills, with different geometry and coating materials on carbide inserts, manifest significant differences in drilling performance, including hole quality and tool wear. Though drilling was done at 71 m\\/min in a copious cutting fluid environment, a large built-up edge and not secondary shear formation was observed, contrary to our expectations. On the other hand, when turning under the same

V. C. Venkatesh; W. Xue

1996-01-01

336

Numerical Model of Countercurrent Spontaneous Imbibition in Underbalanced Drilling: Formation Damage Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mud filtrate invasion is mostly concerned in overbalanced drilling (OBD), it is shown that it also occurs during underbalanced drilling (UBD) operations. UBD is a drilling operation in which the hydrostatic head of a mud column is maintained at a pressure less than that of fluid in the porous medium. Formation damage due to mud invasion in OBD could

R. Arabjamaloei; S. Shadizadeh; M. Ekramzadeh; A. Hamzei; M. Azad

2011-01-01

337

Method of using a spacer for well control fluid  

SciTech Connect

A spacer comprising the water-in-oil emulsion portion of a shear-thickening well control fluid is used to separate drilling mud from the shear-thickening fluid in the drill pipe in the well bore to avoid premature thickening of the shear thickening fluid in the drill pipe. The shear-thickening well control fluid comprises a water-in-oil emulsion in which is dispersed granular particles of hydratable, water expandable clay.

Drake, E.N.; Tsao, Y.H.

1984-05-01

338

Mud tracer test during soft rock drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on groundwater and aquifer conditions is essential for the analysis of groundwater systems. Fluid sampling and pumping tests in boreholes are used as the standard methods for collecting this information. However, the contamination of groundwater by invaded drilling mud is a serious problem when taking samples from boreholes. While drilling a research borehole in the saltwater-freshwater transition zone on the German North Sea coast, uranine tracer was added to the drilling mud to identify possible contamination. Push-pull-type pumping tests were carried out in the open borehole at depths of 53 and 87 m using a new test design. The uranine concentration of the pumped water decreased exponentially with increasing recovery volume and dropped to 1% of initial concentration after the recovery of 10 invasion volumes. The total fluid loss in the test interval was calculated from the test results and supports the assumption that mud loss can be mainly attributed to the deepest (freshly drilled) part of the borehole. Breakthrough curves from two-dimensional numerical calculations using FEFLOW were fitted to the test data by varying the dispersivity ? and the effective groundwater velocity va. The best results were achieved when ? = 0.02 m and va = 0.28 m/d (values which correspond well with the scale of the experiment and other determinations of groundwater velocity). Thus the mud tracer test procedure not only provides information on the fate of the drilling mud but also on aquifer properties.

Panteleit, B.; Kessels, W.; Binot, F.

2006-11-01

339

San Andreas drilling sites selected  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new initiative for drilling and coring directly into the San Andreas fault at depths up to 10 km is being proposed by an international team of scientists led by Mark Zoback, Stanford University; Steve Hickman and Bill Ellsworth, U.S. Geological Survey; and Lee Younker, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. In addition to exhuming samples of fault rock and fluids from seismogenic depths, the hole will be used to make a wide range of geophysical measurements within the fault zone and to monitor the fault zone over time. Four areas along the San Andreas have been selected as candidates for deep drilling: the Mojave segment of the San Andreas between Leona Valley and Big Pine, the Carrizo Plain, the San Francisco Peninsula between Los Altos and Daly City, and the Northern Gabilan Range between the Cienga winery and Melendy Ranch. These sites were chosen from an initial list compiled at the International Fault Zone Drilling Workshop held in Asilomar, Calif., in December 1992 and at meetings held this winter and spring in Menlo Park, Calif.

Ellsworth, Bill; Zoback, Mark

340

Rotary Steerable Horizontal Directional Drilling: Red River Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sperry-Sun Drilling, a Halliburton company provides engineering solutions and sets new records for Horizontal and Vertical Displacement Drilling (HVDD). Halliburton Sperry Drilling, Casper, WY, allowed one student to participate in 12-week experiential learning program this summer as HVDD engineer. HVDD is the science of drilling non-vertical wells and can be differentiated into three main groups; Oilfield Directional Drilling (ODD), Utility Installation Directional Drilling (UIDD) and in-seam directional Drilling. Sperry-Sun prior experience with rotary drilling established a number of principles for the configuration of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that would be prone to drilling crooked hole [1]. Combining Measurement While Drilling survey tools (MWD tools) and BHA designs made HVDD possible. Geologists use the MWD survey data to determine the well placement in the stratigraphic sequence. Through the analysis of this data, an apparent dip of the formation can be calculated, and the bit is directed to stay in the target zone of production. Geological modeling assists in directing the well by creating a map of the target zone surface, an Isopach map. The Isopach map provides contour intervals and changes in formation dip. When the inclination of the formation changes the geologist informs the directional drillers to adjust the drill bits. HVDD provides Halliburton the opportunity to reach more production intervals in a given formation sequence [1]. The Down hole motors powered by fluid flow through the drill string create horsepower and rotation of the bit which enables the use of a bend element in the BHA to create the tilt necessary to deviate the wellbore from vertical displacement drilling path. The rotation of Down hole motors is influenced by temperature and aromatics found in water, oil and diesel based mud. The development of HVDD Rotary Steerable tools hold promise to have almost a complete automated process for drilling highly deviated production well holes.

Cherukupally, A.; Bergevin, M.; Jones, J.

2011-12-01

341

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

1980-04-01

342

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are reported. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

Varnado, S.G.

1980-07-01

343

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1979-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

1980-11-01

344

Geothermal drilling ad completion technology development program. Semi-annual progress report, April-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

1980-05-01

345

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

1980-01-01

346

Advances in drilling covered at conference in Southeast Asia  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in drilling technology include new applications for various polymer-based drilling fluids, an analytical evaluation of certain gas control additives for light cement slurries, the use of a new wellhead connector, and the development of a unique completion tool for slim hole wells. This paper reports on these topics which were covered in several papers prepared for the Offshore South East Asia 9th Conference and Exhibition held Dec. 1-4, 1992, in Singapore. Drilling fluids formulated with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were used successfully and economically to control well bore problems in a development drilling program in southeast Asia. Another paper presented results on the use of various cationic and anionic materials to control shale stability problems common to areas offshore western Australia. Another paper presented results of an evaluation of five common additives used to control gas migration problems in light-weight cements. In addition to these fluid topics, recent mechanical developments were covered.

Not Available

1993-02-01

347

Asia drilling on upswing  

SciTech Connect

Significant increases in development and appraisal drilling in the Southeast Asia offshore sector are helping to push the regions sagging economy upward. An estimated 13% decline in Indonesian activity is being countered by increases elsewhere in the Southeast Asian region. Energy consumption is up in several countries and development appraisal drilling was up in 1985, ending a long regional drought in such activities. Analysts are predicting even more drilling activity in 1986.

Not Available

1986-01-01

348

Geothermal Drilling Organization  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), founded in 1982 as a joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Industry organization, develops and funds near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling costs. Sandia National Laboratories administers DOE funds to assist industry critical cost-shared projects and provides development support for each project. GDO assistance to industry is vital in developing products and procedures to lower drilling costs, in part, because the geothermal industry is small and represents a limited market.

Sattler, A.R.

1999-07-07

349

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string using a magnetorheological damper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a magnetorheological fluid valve assembly having a supply of a magnetorheological fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding

Mark Ellsworth Wassell; Daniel E. Burgess; Jason R. Barbely

2012-01-01

350

ANALYSIS OF SOIL REMEDIATION REQUIREMENTS OF ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this reporting period our project focused on (1) review of case studies of remediation of centralized and commercial drilling fluid disposal (CCDD) sites in Texas, and (2) information transfer with preparation of a proceedings paper and a workshop\\/short course. Texas remediation of certain drilling-fluid disposal sites includes examples at CCDD sites as well as commercial oil reclamation sites and

H. Seay Nance; Alan R. Dutton; Jerry Mullican

2002-01-01

351

Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

Hyne, N.J.

1984-01-01

352

New procedure determines drilling fluid surge pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method of determining swab and surge pressures using mud compressibility which does away with the problem of estimating mud properties in the hole several hours after circulation has ceased. Development of this new surge prediction method is based on the observation that a significant amount of pipe is run in or out of the hole

Broussard

1982-01-01

353

New procedure determines drilling fluid surge pressures  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new method of determining swab and surge pressures using mud compressibility which does away with the problem of estimating mud properties in the hole several hours after circulation has ceased. Development of this new surge prediction method is based on the observation that a significant amount of pipe is run in or out of the hole before mud runs out of, or drops into, the bell nipple during trips. Since the hole is full of mud during these trips it must be compressed (going into the hole) by an incremental volume equal to the feet of pipe run in the hole (assuming a closed pipe) before mud flows out of the bell nipple. A table is presented showing comparison of surges in the top and bottom portion of a well. The paper offers a simple procedure to determine incremental volume going in the hole: (1) determine lag time for mud to flow out of bell nipple to shaker, (2) time by stop watch (or count) the time from slip pulling to slip set, noting time at which mud appears at shaker. Surge pressures can be calculated using a program developed for the Hewlett-Packard 67, 97, or 41C programmable calculators.

Broussard, M.L.

1982-09-01

354

DRILLING FLUID CHEMICALS AND EARTHWORM TOXICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms can be used to assess toxicity in terrestrial systems and the survival rate of the worms, or changes in other parameters such as biomass, can be used to calculate an LC50 value (lethal concentration to 50% of the population) for test chemicals spiked into soil. This type of information can be useful in predicting the likely toxicological effect of

Karen McCosh; Jonathan Getliff

355

Horizontal drilling developments  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

Gust, D.

1997-05-01

356

Technologies for measurement while drilling  

SciTech Connect

Technology for measurement while drilling in the ocean margin drilling program is discussed. Mud pulse telemetry, hardwire telemetry, detection needs for well control, pressure measurements downhole while drilling, and continuous wave mud telemetry are considered. Data utilization from measurement while drilling in seismic calibrations, drilling efficiency measurements, directional control with regard to telemetry, and measurement while coring are also reviewed.

Not Available

1982-01-01

357

Technologies for Measurement While Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology for measurement while drilling in the ocean margin drilling program is discussed. Mud pulse telemetry, hardwire telemetry, detection needs for well control, pressure measurements downhole while drilling, and continuous wave mud telemetry are considered. Data utilization from measurement while drilling in seismic calibrations, drilling efficiency measurements, directional control with regard to telemetry, and measurement while coring are also reviewed.

358

Diverter including apparatus for breaking up large pieces of formation carried to the surface by the drilling mud  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a diverter for drilling mud having a packer-housing mounted on the upper end of a riser through which drilling mud flows to the surface between the riser and the pipe string extending through the riser and a packer located in the packer-housing. The packer has a body of resilient material, and means for moving the resilient material into sealing engagement with a pipe string to divert drilling fluid laterally into a mud return line. The improvement described here comprises: conduits extending vertically through the packer, each conduit including a flexible section extending through the body of resilient material to move with the resilient material as it is moved into and out of sealing engagement with the drill string, means supplying the upper ends of the conduits with drilling fluid, and nozzles located in the lower ends of the conduits to direct the drilling fluid into the drilling fluid below the packer.

Davis, H.D.

1987-02-03

359

HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS AFFECTING CUTTINGS TRANSPORT FOR HORIZONTAL COILED TUBING DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. SUMMARY A niche market for the exploration and development of oil and gas fields is drilling horizontal wells with continuous tubing, the coiled tubing. Among the many challenges that require engineering solutions is a fluid mechanics challenge, the effective transport of the solid particles from downhole to the surface. This is achieved with fluid circulation through the annulus and

V. C. Kelessidis

2004-01-01

360

Automatic drilling control system  

SciTech Connect

An automatic drilling control system is described for a drilling apparatus having a rig with a crown block and a traveling block. A draw works include an engine, a drum powered by the engine, clutches, and controls, a drilling line wound on the drum and rolled up or fed out during drilling by the engine. The drilling line extends through the crown block and the traveling block and connects to a fixed point. The line portion from the crown block to the fixed point is the dead line. The crown block and traveling block form a pulley system for supporting a drill pipe to raise or lower the same during drilling. A hydraulic pressure sensor connects to the dead line to measure the tension. A weight indicator gauge adjacent to the controls connects to the pressure sensor by a hydraulic line. A brake, having a brake handle, controls the rate of feed out of the drilling line to determine the tension on the dead line.

Ball, J.W.

1987-05-05

361

The Microwave-Drill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. The microwave drill is a novel method to cut and drill into hard non-conductive materials by localized microwave energy. The method has been tested on various materials, including concrete, glass, silicon, ceramics, and ceramic coatings. It yields holes in diameters from 0.3 mm to > 10 mm (in concrete). A theoretical model simulates the

E. Jerby; V. Dikhtyar; O. Aktushev; U. Grosglick

2002-01-01

362

Energetics of Percussive Drills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines performed drill calibration tests on two industrial percussive drills of 2-5/8- and 3-1/2-inch piston diameters to determine operating characteristics for their use in conjunction with penetration rate data in developing drillability e...

W. E. Bruce J. Paone

1969-01-01

363

Ocean Drilling Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

Program, Ocean D.; Texas A&M University

364

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31

365

Dimethyl siloxane oils as an alternative borehole fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding a new safe and ecologically friendly borehole fluid is one of the most pressing problems for forthcoming ice-drilling projects. Not all recent borehole fluids qualify as intelligent choices from safety, environmental and other technological standpoints. We propose the use of silicone oils as the borehole fluid. The most suitable type of silicone oils for deep ice drilling are low-molecular

P. G. Talalay

2007-01-01

366

Advanced drilling systems  

SciTech Connect

Drilling is ubiquitous in oil, gas, geothermal, minerals, water well, and mining industries. Drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing power from geothermal energy. Reduced drilling costs will reduce the cost of electricity produced from geothermal resources. Undoubtedly, there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied. However, the breadth and depth of previous efforts in this area almost guarantee that any new efforts will at least initially build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts, coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems, provide the basis for this study.

Pierce, K.G.; Finger, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants, San Diego, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

367

Drilling and producing offshore  

SciTech Connect

Hall and his team of authors share technically detailed state-of-the-art designs, equipment and techniques, focusing on fixed-platform operations. This book provides explicit data on offshore equipment and procedures. Contents: Development drilling structures -- template, concrete gravity, and other platforms; Development drilling systems -- through-the-leg drilling, floating drilling, tension-leg platform drilling, template utilization, and mud-line casing suspension and casing support systems; Completion systems -- platform completions, through-the-leg completions, tension-leg completions, multiwell subsea completions, and subsea satellite completion systems; Production control -- wellhead control systems and subsea production control systems; Offshore oil-field diving operations and equipment -- commercial diving, history of diving, international offshore oil-field diving, physiological constraints in diving, diving capabilities and equipment, future trends.

Hall, R.S.

1983-01-01

368

Session 16: Geothermal Drilling and Completion; Research and Development Program  

SciTech Connect

One of the major factors presently inhibiting the exploitation of geothermal energy is the high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells. The cost of these wells typically ranges from $1 M to $3 M, which are several times that of an oil or gas well of comparable depth. These high costs are primarily driven by the harsh environment associated with geothermal reservoirs. The high temperatures which are inherent to the resource cause rapid degradation of conventional drill bits and preclude the use of conventional drilling fluids. Geothermal formations are typically hard and highly fractured. This results in low rates of penetration, high rates of drilling fluid loss, and difficulties in obtaining competent completions. The chemical composition of the downhole geothermal fluids causes extensive scaling, and combined with high temperatures, cause corrosion of drill pipe, casing, and logging equipment. Current activities include development of high temperature drilling fluids, methods for plugging lost circulation zones, advanced rock cutting techniques, and borehole instrumentation. Three specific projects which are being pursued, each at a different stage of development include: a method for locating fractures which do not intersect the wellbore, a laboratory for simulating lost circulation zones--to be used for development of new materials and techniques, and the understanding of the capabilities and limitations of PDC bits in the geothermal environment.

Kelsey, James R.; Allen, David A.

1983-12-01

369

A Ship for Scientific Drilling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

1982-01-01

370

Research provides clues to hydrate formation and drilling-hazard solutions  

SciTech Connect

Hydrate formation is a growing safety concern for offshore drilling programs, but, despite extensive laboratory research, pragmatic information is still lacking. Formation of hydrates in drilling fluids during a shut-in is the most likely hydrate-associated hazard in deep-water drilling, although the number of documented incidents is small. In addition to the known naturally forming hydrates, laboratory experiments have also identified heavier hydrocarbons found in oil and gas condensate systems and a new hydrate structure. These two factors may increase the range from which hydrate formation can occur. The paper discusses safety concerns, hydrate structures, modeling hydrates, hydrate stability, naturally occurring hydrates, techniques for drilling hydrates, hydrate formation while drilling, drilling fluids and hydrates, and completion fluids.

Szczepanski, R.; Edmonds, B. [Infochem Computer Services Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Brown, N.; Hamilton, T. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom). Offshore Safety Div.

1998-03-09

371

Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system  

SciTech Connect

Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

Westmoreland, J.

1994-04-01

372

Review of downhole measurement-while-drilling systems  

SciTech Connect

Several downhole measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems are currently being developed and some are already in use on a commercial basis. These devices all have sensors located immediately above, or near, the drill bit to monitor drilling variables and, in some cases, formation properties. Information is collected downhole, and sent (telemetered) to the surface through either the drilling fluid, electrical conductors, the drillpipe, or the earth. The systems provide essentially real-time information for monitoring and controlling the drilling operation. Applications of MWD systems include monitoring and controlling the directional-drilling operation, assistance in detection of abnormal pressure zones, correlation logging, preliminary evaluation of some possible producing zones, and monitoring of weight on bit (WOB) and drilling torque at the bit. Operating experience indicates that the MWD systems are being accepted in the industry and are providing useful information. Several examples of information obtained are shown. MWD systems are reliable, useful, and costeffective additions to the drilling industry. Data rates are adequate for telemetry of directional information. Data rate of the continuous-wave system is adequate to transmit several variables at least once per foot for drilling rates up to 60 to 90 ft/hr or more. Data rates will be improved and additional sensors added within the next few years.

Gravley, W.

1983-08-01

373

Measurement while drilling: a new tool  

SciTech Connect

Measurement while drilling (MWD) is the downhole measurement of important parameters and (in most cases) the simultaneous transmission of those measurements to the surface while drilling. In the past, hole-making and formation evaluation processes have been accomplished with different technologies, separated in time. Drilling (hole-making) is a complicated technological process with many uncertainties. Ignorance of what is taking place downhole during this process has caused it to be viewed more as an art than as a science. The most important parameters controlling this process are the physical properties of the formation (and the pore fluid) being drilled, which are largely unknown at the time of drilling. The big mistakes that involve the loss of well control (blowouts) are well known. The many ''small'' mistakes (kicks, lost circulation, stuck pipe, lost cones, twistoffs, etc.) are not so well known, but cost considerable time and money. The conventional (wireline) formation evaluation process, while very important to the geologist, the petrophysicist, and the reservoir engineer, is also very expensive in terms of rig time and trouble cost.

Fontenot, J.E.

1986-02-01

374

Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock  

SciTech Connect

The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

Rowley, J.C.

1984-01-01

375

Information on commercial disposal facilities that may have received offshore drilling wastes.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations that would establish requirements for discharging synthetic-based drill cuttings from offshore wells into the ocean. Justification for allowing discharges of these cuttings is that the environmental impacts from discharging drilling wastes into the ocean may be less harmful than the impacts from hauling them to shore for disposal. In the past, some onshore commercial facilities that disposed of these cuttings were improperly managed and operated and left behind environmental problems. This report provides background information on commercial waste disposal facilities in Texas, Louisiana, California, and Alaska that received or may have received offshore drilling wastes in the past and are now undergoing cleanup.

Gasper, J. R.; Veil, J. A.; Ayers, R. C., Jr.

2000-08-25

376

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes...emptied and cleaned before each drilling test is started. (d) Holes...Holes designated as âhorizontalâ shall be drilled to...

2013-07-01

377

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes...emptied and cleaned before each drilling test is started. (d) Holes...Holes designated as âhorizontalâ shall be drilled to...

2010-07-01

378

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes...emptied and cleaned before each drilling test is started. (d) Holes...Holes designated as âhorizontalâ shall be drilled to...

2009-07-01

379

Balanced Pressure Techniques Applied to Geothermal Drilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study is to evaluate balanced pressure drilling techniques for use in combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling. Drilling techniques evaluated are: aerated drilling mud, parasite tubing, concentric drill pipe, jet sub, and low...

D. W. Dareing

1981-01-01

380

AC drives for drilling  

SciTech Connect

Until now direct-current motors fed by thyristor rectifiers have dominated as variable-speed drive systems for oil-drilling applications. During drilling of a test well at Rogaland Research Center in Stavanger, Norway, a new drilling system ''The Power Swivel'' was tested and the conventional DC motor/SCR system was replaced by an asynchronous motor fed by a GTO frequency converter. Whilst an enclosure of protection class Ex(P) is required for DC motors operating in hazardous area, asynchronous motors can also be built to protection class Ex(d), (e), or (n) for this type of application.

Olsen, S.O.; Knudsen, S.

1985-01-01

381

A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area), and a DD-line between drilling area and dielectric fluid droplet on the electrode tip. Accordingly, image processing techniques are employed to extract a tool electrode image, and the centroid, eigenvector, and principle axis of the tool electrode are determined. The developed detection line algorithm (DLA) is then used to detect the baseline, ND-line, and DD-line along the direction of the principle axis. Finally, the tool electrode length and drilling depth of the workpiece are estimated via detected baseline, ND-line, and DD-line. Experimental results show good accuracy and efficiency in estimation of the tool electrode length and drilling depth under different conditions. Hence, this research may provide a reference for industrial application in EDM drilling measurement.

Huang, Kuo-Yi

2008-01-01

382

Test off Philippines boosts horizontal drilling technology  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a testing program conducted on the Galoc la horizontal well located offshore Manila. It involved a single multi-rate test to assess the well's flow potential. The problems encountered were low flow rates, high solids and water production, and major loss of drilling fluid to the formation between tests. Results of the testing are discussed and recommendations based on this experience are presented.

Beckett, T. (AB Engineering (US)); Hoffpauir, L. (Drilex Systems, Inc. (US))

1989-11-01

383

Use of bicenter PDC bit reduces drilling cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of bicenter polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit technology, dual-power-head down-hole motors, and oil-based drilling fluids helped save significant costs on a recent well drilled in the Gulf of Mexico. Not only has underreaming been eliminated, but the overall rate of penetration has been significantly increased. Directional control problems experienced during one phase of the well may limit use

R. G. Casto; M. Senese

1995-01-01

384

Overview of Ice Drilling Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant advances in ice drilling technology since the Ice-Core Drilling technology since the Ice-Core Drilling Symposium at Lincoln, Neb., in August 1974 are reviewed. Three examples are: the flame jet and hot water drilling through the Ross Ice Shelf...

B. L. Hansen

1984-01-01

385

Well drilling operation control procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a test procedure carried out during well drilling operations for monitoring rotary type well drilling operations, by means of a drill string fitted at its lower end with a bit and suspended by its upper end, at the surface, from a hook from the drill rig. It comprises: applying a certain initial weight to the bit; keeping

Bourdon

1989-01-01

386

Drilling and production technology symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on well drilling. Topics considered at the conference included ice island drilling structures, artificial intelligence, electric motors, mud pumps, bottom hole assembly failures, oil spills, corrosion, wear characteristics of drill bits, two-phase flow in marine risers, the training of drilling personnel, and MWD systems.

1986-01-01

387

New Drilling Core Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Department of Energy (DOE) facility, dedicated to curating samples, cores, and other materials obtained under the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP), will become available early in 1985 in Grand Junction, Colo. The facility will be operated by DOE in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Science Foundation. The three agencies are working together on continental scientific drilling in the United States under their formally adopted Interagency Accord on Scientific Drilling.From the time they are gathered at the drill site, these samples and routine logging data will be protected under Curatorial Policy Guidelines and Procedures. These guidelines and procedures are intended to provide maximum sample study opportunity, to preserve samples for future study, and to ensure longrange continuing service to the principle investigator and to the geoscience community.

388

Innovative drilling system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal project objectives were the following: To demonstrate the capability of the Ultrashort Radius Radial System to drill and complete multiple horizontal radials in a heavy oil formation which had a production history of thermal operations. To s...

J. Nees E. Dickinson W. Dickinson H. Dykstra

1991-01-01

389

The microwave drill.  

PubMed

We present a drilling method that is based on the phenomenon of local hot spot generation by near-field microwave radiation. The microwave drill is implemented by a coaxial near-field radiator fed by a conventional microwave source. The near-field radiator induces the microwave energy into a small volume in the drilled material under its surface, and a hot spot evolves in a rapid thermal-runaway process. The center electrode of the coaxial radiator itself is then inserted into the softened material to form the hole. The method is applicable for drilling a variety of nonconductive materials. It does not require fast rotating parts, and its operation makes no dust or noise. PMID:12386331

Jerby, E; Dikhtyar, V; Aktushev, O; Grosglick, U

2002-10-18

390

Drill pipe protector development  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R. [Regal International Corp., Corsicanna, TX (United States); Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [ed.] [and others

1996-03-01

391

Thermal spallation drilling  

SciTech Connect

Thermal spallation drilling is an underdeveloped process with great potential for reducing the costs of drilling holes and mining shafts and tunnels in most very hard rocks. Industry has used this process to drill blast holes for emplacing explosives and to quarry granite. Some theoretical work has been performed, and many signs point to a great future for this process. The Los Alamos National Laboratory has studied the theory of the spallation process and is conducting experiments to prove out the system and to adapt it for use with a conventional rotary rig. This report describes work that has been accomplished at the Laboratory on the development of thermal spallation drilling and some work that is projected for the future on the system. 3 references, 3 figures.

Williams, R.E.

1985-01-01

392

Use of bicenter PDC bit reduces drilling cost  

SciTech Connect

The use of bicenter polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit technology, dual-power-head down-hole motors, and oil-based drilling fluids helped save significant costs on a recent well drilled in the Gulf of Mexico. Not only has underreaming been eliminated, but the overall rate of penetration has been significantly increased. Directional control problems experienced during one phase of the well may limit use of the technique in difficult directional wells. This article discusses both the successes and the failures of this technique during the drilling of two phases of the same Gulf of Mexico well.

Casto, R.G.; Senese, M. [Agip Petroleum Co. Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-11-13

393

Directional drilling pipelay  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

Langner, C.G.

1987-10-20

394

Micro borehole drilling platform  

SciTech Connect

This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

NONE

1996-10-01

395

In Congress: Drilling resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following is the text of the resolution on continental scientific drilling passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives and signed into law by President Reagan on October 12.“…That to express the sense of the Congress that the Continental Scientific Drilling Program is an important national scientific endeavor, benefiting the commerce of the Nation, which should be vigorously pursued by government and the private sector.

396

Developers set drilling pace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thums four man-made islands each have a rock perimeter - 160,000 tons of granite - and an inner core of 900,000 yards of hydraulically placed dredged-sand fill. Because of the shallow depths of Long Beach Harbor, islands were constructed instead of installing conventional drilling and production platforms. The majority of drilling rigs and their equipment - casing racks and mud

McNally

1981-01-01

397

Chevron tackles urban drilling  

SciTech Connect

Chevron USA transformed a landfill in Pacioma, Calif., into an urban drill site for a field expected to produce 2,400 b/d of oil and 24 MMcfd of natural gas within 3 years. Chevron's foremost challenges in developing the Paxton drill site were to drill and produce oil and gas within a limited, 2.7-acre spacing and with minimum impact to the immediate environment. To meet these goals, Chevron: Used offshore technology for the well cellar layout and rig design and construction. Performed extensive research in soil mechanics, noise abatement, and safety. Employed state-of-the-art computer technology for monitoring and controlling different operating systems. Concealed the drilling derrick in a 10-story tower that resembles a Spanish mission. Hid other structures, including offices, a computerized control room, and gas processing facilities, behind a 12-ft fence. The Paxton site, located a few miles north of Los Angeles, is Chevron's fifth compressed urban drill site. The other sites, all in the Los Angeles area, are San Vicente, Packard, Broadway, and Garey. Chevron's experience in drilling 173 wells at these four facilities was beneficial, since the same engineering and technology were applied to the Paxton site.

Moore, S.

1984-01-01

398

MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

2010-01-23

399

Controllable pneumatic drill  

SciTech Connect

Pneumatic drills--self-propelled pneumatic shock machines for drilling holes and tunnels in the ground--are widely used in construction, mining and other industries. High performance and reliability, as well as easy service and the applicability in restrictive conductions, are the main advantages of these machines. A controllable machine will make it possible to drill long straight holes and excavate drifts with a given trajectory. The authors describe only the basic mechanisms of the controllable pneumatic drill without the design details. The efficiency of the various types of working members was measured in situ using a standard pneumatic drill IP4603. The pneumatic drill PDU130 is described and has four operation modes, which succeed one another in a certain sequence according to the signals from the control board. The method of remote control signal transmission in the PDU130 makes it possible to transmit all the commands through a single communication channel--the air hose. The original device, developed for this control method, is simple, highly reliable, and universal. It can be used with any type of working member and any pneumatic drive.

Kostylev, A.D.; Cherednikov, E.N.; Karavaev, A.T.; Tupitsyn, K.K.

1986-05-01

400

Time Dependent Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)|

Collyer, A. A.

1974-01-01

401

3. A SYNOPSIS OF THE BAHAMAS DRILLING PROJECT: RESULTS FROM TWO DEEP CORE BORINGS DRILLED ON THE GREAT BAHAMA BANK 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two continuous cores (Unda and Clino) drilled during the initial phase of the Bahamas Drilling Project on top of the west- ern Great Bahama Bank (GBB) penetrated proximal portions of prograding seismic sequences. As such, these cores provide the shallow-water record of sea-level changes and fluid flow of the Bahamas Transect that was completed with the deeper water sites of

G. P. Eberli; P. K. Swart; D. F. McNeill; J. A. M. Kenter; F. S. Anselmetti; L. A. Melim; R. N. Ginsburg

402

Application of perfluorocarbon tracers to microbial sampling in subsurface environments using mud-rotary and air-rotary drilling techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorocarbon compounds were used as chemical tracers of drilling fluids during microbial sampling via mud-rotary and air-rotary drilling. Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) was injected directly into the mud-rotary drilling fluid using a chromatography pump, to achieve a background concentration of 1.5 ?g PFT g?1 mud. The detection limit in samples was 1 ng PFT g?1. Muds associated with sidewall cores contained

J. P. McKinley; F. S. Colwell

1996-01-01

403

Exploration-sampling drilling system  

SciTech Connect

A mobile, exploration mineral sample drilling rig is described comprising a mobile carrier, a drill mast mounted on the mobile carrier, drill mast mounting means adjustably mounting the drill mast on the carrier whereby sample holes may be drilled at various positions around the carrier and at various angles, and a drill head mounted by the drill mast: the drill mast comprising a drill head frame, a mast support frame connected to the upper and bottom portions of the drill head frame and positioning the drill head frame outwardly from the carrier, the drill mast mounting means being operably-connected to and extending inwardly of the mast support frame; the drill bead frame comprising a pair of side beams, an upper cross beam connecting the upper portions of the side beams, a generally V-shaped lower cross beam connecting the lower portions of the side beams with its apex oriented downward, the lower cross beam having an opening there through; the drill head being so constructed and arranged that it is slidably mounted to and between the drill head frame side beams to define a drill string axis as extending longitudinally of the drill head frame side beams, between the planes formed by the inner and outer faces of the drill head frame side beams, and through the lower cross beam opening; the mast support frame being so constructed and arranged that it is positioned inwardly from the drill head frame a sufficient distance that the drill head and any apparatus or piping or hosing associated therewith may traverse the drill head frame side beams free of interference from the mast support frame and its connections to the drill head frame; the drill mast mounting means including trunnion means slidably mounting the mast support means whereby the drill mast may be moved upwardly and downwardly relative to the trunnion means, being so constructed and arranged to provide a pivot axis about which the drill mast may be rotated relative to the trunnion means.

Heller, M.H.

1993-05-25

404

Environmental monitoring of offshore drilling for petroleum exploration (MAPEM): A brief overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Deep-Sea Research II includes the results of the Project Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Drilling for Petroleum Exploration—MAPEM, conducted between 2001 and 2003, in a deep-water location at Campos Basin, Brazil, subjected to the effects of the discharge of non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) impregnated drill cuttings.The exploratory program for the marine area includes the drilling of an expressive

Elírio E. Toldo Jr.; Ricardo N. Ayup Zouain

2009-01-01

405

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol

2009-07-13

406

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol; Magazine, Astrobiology

407

Continental scientific drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep Observation and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust, Inc. (DOSECC), held its annual board and corporation meetings March 2-3 in Chandler, Ariz. DOSECC is the university consortium, supported by the National Science Foundation, that plans, coordinates and implements U.S. continental scientific drilling.Actions taken at the meetings will enable DOSECC to continue to provide scientific and engineering support for NSF-approved drilling projects and to participate in coordinated continental scientific drilling program (CSDP) activities of NSF, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Department of Energy. To facilitate development of a truly national CSDP, DOSECC member representatives unanimously agreed to broaden the consortium membership to include nonuniversity entities of the Earth sciences community from private industry, state geological surveys, and government and national laboratories. Interested parties can obtain information on Affiliate Membership from DOSECC's Washington office (1755 Massachusetts Avenue N.W., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036-2102, tel. 202-234-2100).

Friedman, Melvin

408

Ocean drilling surveys planned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a continuation of the International Phase of Ocean Drilling (IPOD), the Glomar Challenger is slated to drill in the Pacific and North Atlantic oceans during 1982-83. In preparation for the drilling, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Inc. will manage the site survey program during 1981-82. These site surveys will be focused to support four programs: a hydrogeology study on the equatorial East Pacific Rise flank; a study of Mesozoic sediments in the western Pacific; a study in sedimentation of the equatorial Pacific basin; and a study of the geochemistry of the North Atlantic ocean crust.JOI has issued a request for proposals for the United States site survey program. Proposal deadline is March 5. For additional information, contact JOI, Inc., 2600 Virginia Avenue, N.W., Suite 512, Washington, D.C. 20037.

409

Drilling and production yearbook  

SciTech Connect

Of the numerous drill bit entries submitted this year, 301 set net world records, compared to 227 last year. There were 73 new single footage records, 79 new cumulative footage records, 63 new penetration rate records and 86 new records for hours on a single bit. Many bit runs were submitted for more than one category. In addition to the drill bit records, world records for offshore developments, horizontal wells, coiled tubing applications, stimulation, casing strings, production, seismic shoots, and completions are listed in separate sections in the Yearbook. This year, the categories with the most records submitted were horizontal wells and offshore developments, reflecting the increased activity in these areas. Records set in previous years that remain unbroken are also included so that the Drilling and Production Yearbook will be a complete reference for the industry.

Perdue, J.M.; Kunkel, B.

1998-03-01

410

13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

411

Hydrodynamic lubricant seal for drill bits  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a rotary cone type drill bit having a cone support structure incorporating a body structure forming a liquid lubricant supply and a plurality of bit support legs, each leg having an axle supporting a roller cone cutter element in rotatable relation thereon. The improvement consists of: (a) a seal chamber being defined cooperatively by the roller cone cutter element and the cone support structure and being formed in part by a circular relatively rotatably movable sealing surface; (b) a resilient circular hydrodynamic sealing element disposed about the axle and within the seal chamber and maintaining a seal between the roller cone cutter element and the cone support structure and forming a sealed partition establishing a drilling fluid interface and a lubricant interface, the circular sealing element establishing a sealing interface with the circular rotatably moveable sealing surface; (c) the lubricant interface being of a configuration acting cooperatively with the liquid lubricant to hydrodynamically induce lubricant wedging causing controlled unidirectional hydrodynamic pumping of lubricant from the lubricant interface through the sealing interface to the drilling fluid interface responsive to rotation of the roller cone cutter element about the axle for lubrication at the sealing interface and for lubricant flushing of solid particulates from the sealing surface.

Kalsi, M.S.

1986-09-09

412

Plans for ocean drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international ocean drilling community plans to meet in July 1987 to decide on some of the scientific goals of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) for the next 5 years. An all-day Union session is being held at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., “to organize and energize the U.S. marine science community” in preparation for that meeting, according to session chairman Garrett Brass, of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami (Miami, Fla.).

Katzoff, Judith A.

413

Continental Scientific Drilling Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Second Continental Scientific Drilling Program Workshop took place June 12-14, 1986, on the campus of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in Rapid City. Like the workshop held in Houston a year earlier, the Rapid City workshop was sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NSF portion of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) is administered by a consortium of 36 universities through a nonprofit corporation named Deep Observation and Sampling of the Earth' Continental Crust, Inc., or more simply, DOSECC.

Papike, J. J.; Stehli, F. G.

414

Critique of Drilling Research  

SciTech Connect

For a number of years the Department of Energy has been funding research to reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells. Generally that research has been effective and helped to make geothermal energy economically attractive to developers. With the increased competition for the electrical market, geothermal energy needs every advantage it can acquire to allow it to continue as a viable force in the marketplace. In drilling related research, there is essentially continuous dialogue between industry and the national laboratories. Therefore, the projects presented in the Program Review are focused on subjects that were previously recommended or approved by industry.

Hamblin, Jerry

1992-03-24

415

Deepwater drilling riser system  

SciTech Connect

The principal focus of this paper is to discuss and summarize, from the manufacturer's perspective, the primary milestones in the development of the marine riser system used to drill in record water depths off the U.S. east coast. This riser system is unique in that it used advanced designs, material technology, and quality control to enable safe operation in water depths beyond the capability of conventional drilling riser systems. Experience and research have led to design improvements that are now being incorporated in new riser systems that have the potential of expanding the frontiers to increasingly deeper water.

Chastain, T.; Stone, D.

1986-08-01

416

31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

417

Microbiological Profiles of Deep Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks Revealed by an Aseptic Drilling Procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike the near-surface environments, it is difficult to determine the community structure and biogeochemical functions of microorganisms in the deep subsurface mainly due to accessibility without contamination and disturbance. In an inland fore-arc basin in central Japan, we applied a new drilling procedure using deoxygenated and/or filter-sterilized drilling fluid(s). Although DNA-stained and cultivable cell numbers and the contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) all indicated the presence of metabolically active microbial populations in sedimentary rocks at a depth range from 200 to 350 m, it was not successful to extract DNA from the drilled core samples. During drilling, drilling fluid used for drilling and coring in the borehole was collected from the borehole bottom and subjected to DNA extraction. Quantitative fluorogenic PCR revealed that bacterial DNA were detected in drilling fluid samples when drilling was performed for siltstone and silty sandstone layers with the limited flow of drilling fluid. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the drilling fluid samples below a depth of 324 m were mostly related to Pseudomonas putida or Flavobacterium succinicans, while those related to other Pseudomonas spp. were predominant at depths of 298 and 299m. PLFA profiles of core samples from a depth range between 250 and 351 m showed the abundance of 16:0, 16:1?7 and 18:1?9 fatty acids, which are known as major cellular lipid components of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium spp. From these results, it was suggested that the members of the genera Pseudomonas and F. succinicans might represent dominant microbial populations that inhabit the deep terrestrial sedimentary rocks in Central Japan. This study was supported by grants from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

Suzuki, Y.; Suko, T.; Fukuda, A.; Kouduka, M.; Nanba, K.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.

2009-12-01

418

78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pipe and Drill Collars from China AGENCY: United States International...pipe and drill collars from China. For further information concerning...Pipe and Drill Collars from China, 701-TA-474 & 731-TA-1176...in ways that indicate further expansion is imminent,' and the...

2013-09-30

419

Development of an expert system for underbalanced drilling using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the development of an expert system for screening wells that could be drilled underbalanced, and for aiding in the preliminary selection of appropriate underbalanced drilling fluids for a given range of wellbore and reservoir conditions. This approach combines a qualitative rule-based analysis for assessing formation damage and lost circulation potentials with quantitative analysis for assessing wellbore stability

Ali A. Garrouch; Haitham M. S. Lababidi

2001-01-01

420

Manual of the Drilling Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first chapter presents historical details and the definition of the various drills and drilling methods, whereas, the second chapter mainly contains geological tables (historical time- and information table, cycle of rocks, etc.) as well as informatio...

1979-01-01

421

Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this joint horizontal drilling effort by the US DOE and Belden & Blake in the complex, low permeability Clinton Sandstone will focus on the following objectives: (1) apply horizontal drilling technology in hard, abrasive, and tight Clint...

W. F. Murray L. A. Schrider C. D. Haynes R. L. Mazza

1992-01-01

422

Stroke Drills for Swimming Instructors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stroke drills to be used by swimming instructors to teach four competitive swim strokes are described. The drills include: one arm swims; (2) alternative kicks; (3) fist swims; and (4) catch-up strokes. (JN)

Cahill, Peter J.

1982-01-01

423

Handbook 1: Introduction to drilling mud systems  

SciTech Connect

This is the first of the 11 handbook that make up the IADC Mud Equipment Manual. The manual is designed to provide information on all pieces of drilling rig equipment from the flow line to the mud pump section. This book focuses on drilling fluids and their properties and treatment, and thoroughly examines mud solid characteristics. Methods of controlling formation pore pressure, and cut points, as well as cuttings removal (viscosity, yield point, gel strengths, hole cleaning, etc.), are followed by a discussion of solid sizes and solid size distribution. Special features include a glossary of mud terms, a section on ''hard-to-find'' information such as gold concentration, wind forces, and AC motor current requirements, and a comprehensive index for all 11 handbooks.

Not Available

1985-01-01

424

Diffractions reveal drilling hazards  

SciTech Connect

Seismic waves are diffracted where there is a sudden change of curvature or acoustic impedance along a surface such as boulders embedded in clay, across faults, the eroded edges of channels, and at the edges of shallow gas drilling hazards. Diffractions reveal these situations, especially if they are enhanced at the expense of reflections and refractions and organized as in an Offset Panel. The Offset Panel was introduced by Fulton and Darr (1981) as a powerful tool for the analysis of seismic data. Their paper described a method by which conventional exploration seismic data are used to detect shallow gas drilling hazards. The work of Berryhill indicates that boulders, which are one-half the dominant wavelength in size, can be expected to generate diffractions. Hazard seismic data from the North Sea presented here show energy in the 500-700 Hertz band corresponding to wavelengths of 11 to 8 feet. Unfortunately, the spacial sampling of the hazard data is four wavelengths, much too great to resolve boulders. A spacial sampling of 2 to 3 feet would be more appropriate for these data and may allow for the detection of individual boulders or zones containing fewer boulders. Experience with the Offset Panel to detect shallow gas drilling hazards along the line of the profile suggested the Diffraction Panel to detect gas hazards nearby. In this report the authors demonstrate the use of the Diffraction Panel to detect buried channels and shallow gas drilling hazards.

Fulton, T.K.; Hsiao, R.T.

1983-05-01

425

Push, pull and drill  

SciTech Connect

One piece of equipment has remained virtually unchanged since the beginning of the century--the drilling derrick itself. Some developments have taken place--steel has replaced wood, for example--but the basic concept has remained the same, until now. The paper describes mechanical innovations, the land rig design philosophy, and benefits of these new designs.

Silverman, S.

2000-02-01

426

Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

427

Deepwater Drilling Riser System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal focus of this paper is to discuss and summarize, from the manufacturer's perspective, the primary milestones in the development of the marine riser system used to drill in record water depths off the U.S. east coast. This riser system is unique in that it used advanced designs, material technology, and quality control to enable safe operation in water

T. Chastain; D. Stone

1986-01-01

428

Red Sea Drillings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

David A. Ross; Robert B. Whitmarsh; Syed A. Ali; Joseph E. Boudreaux; Robert Coleman; Robert L. Fleisher; Ronald Girdler; Frank Manheim; Albert Matter; Catherine Nigrini; Peter Stoffers; Peter R. Supko

1973-01-01

429

Analysis of temperature distribution and performance of polycrystalline diamond compact bits under field drilling conditions  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of laboratory tests on full-scale fieldworn polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits showed the frictional heat at the rock/bit interface to be largely generated at the diamond cutting edges of the PDCs. Inspection of the observed wear of the PDCs together with the analysis revealed that the diamond layer attacks the formation at a large negative rake angle and that rock flour accumulates under the cutting edge during drilling, forming a stable buildup edge. The results showed that for effective cooling of the PDCs fluid velocities of at least 50 m/s are required along the diamond surfaces when drilling with oil-based fluids. With water-based drilling fluids, higher velocities should be used to prevent bit balling or boiling of the drilling fluid at the diamond surface of the PDCs.

Zijsling, O.H.

1984-09-01

430

Acoustical properties of drill strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of petrochemical and geothermal resources requires extensive drilling of wells to increasingly greater depths. Real-time collection and telemetry of data about the drilling process while it occurs thousands of feet below the surface is an effective way of improving the efficiency of drilling operations. Unfortunately, due to hostile down-hole environments, telemetry of this data is an extremely difficult

Drumheller

1988-01-01

431

Acoustical properties of drill strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of petrochemical and geothermal resources requires extensive drilling of wells to increasingly greater depths. Real-time collection and telemetry of data about the drilling process while it occurs thousands of feet below the surface is an effective way of improving the efficiency of drilling operations. Unfortunately, due to hostile down-hole environments, telemetry of this data is an extremely difficult

Douglas S. Drumheller

1989-01-01

432

Drilling head method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A rotary drilling head wherein rotary friction between the rotary spindle assembly and the spindle housing is limited by improvements in bearing and seal lubrication and by seal structure such that the gripping action of a resiliently flexible packer on a drill string provides a rotary drive connection sufficient to impart rotation to the spindle assembly through rotation of the drill string.

Johnston, V. R.

1985-07-30

433

Technology in Deep Ocean Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper principally discusses deep-water drilling technology for hydrocarbon exploration, employing floating vessels and marine risers (connecting the seabed to the surface). This is a more exacting technology than is required for riserless drilling for sub-seabed sampling, such as used by the Glomar Challenger. A floating drilling unit is subject to six degrees of freedom and offhole translation. The corresponding

M. D. Pennock

1982-01-01

434

Mechatronical system of drill testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The created system of twist drill testing enables one to increase drill quality and provides for competitive ability in the market. The mechatronical system of drill testing consists of the sum total of apparatus and program means, i.e. the hydro station, control valves, an electronically controlled pressure regulator, control block, force and displacement transducers, a computer with a plate leading-in

V. Vekteris; M. Jurevichius; A. Trumpa

2005-01-01

435

Optimizing remote offshore drilling operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company's experience in using mini-computers as an aid in controlling drilling operations has been an unqualified success. Current uses include optimization of drilling operations, storage and retrieval of well data and word processing of standard programs. As a result, overall drilling costs, problems and manpower requirements have been lessened. This work discusses the computer system, its

W. F. Deerhake; F. Khalaf; J. A. Seehafer

1981-01-01

436

Offshore Drilling From Ice Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method successfully developed for drilling offshore from a floating ice platform. This method has allowed exploration wells to be drilled economically in the Canadian Arctic islands without years of waiting for sophisticated offshore drilling vessels to be developed, financed, and built to operate in the severe ice conditions prevalent in the area.

G. L. Hood; H. J. Strain; D. J. Baudais

1976-01-01

437

The rock melting approach to drilling  

SciTech Connect

During the early and mid-1970`s the Los Alamos National Laboratory demonstrated practical applications of drilling and coring using an electrically-heated graphite, tungsten, or molybdenum penetrator that melts a hole as it is slowly pushed through the rock or soil. The molten material consolidates into a rugged glass lining that prevents hole collapse; minimizes the potential for cross-flow, lost circulation, or the release of hazardous materials without casing operations; and produces no cuttings in porous or low density (<1.7 g/cc) formations. Because there are no drilling fluids required, the rock melting approach reduces waste handling, treatment and disposal. Drilling by rock melting has been demonstrated to depths up to 30 m in caliche, clay, alluvium, cobbles, sand, basalt, granite, and other materials. Penetrating large cobbles without debris removal was achieved by thermal stress fracturing and lateral extrusion of portions of the rock melt into the resulting cracks. Both horizontal and vertical holes in a variety of diameters were drilled in these materials using modular, self-contained field units that operate in remote areas. Because the penetrator does not need to rotate, steering by several simple approaches is considered quite feasible. Melting is ideal for obtaining core samples in alluvium and other poorly consolidated soils since the formed-in-place glass liner stabilizes the hole, encapsulates volatile or hazardous material, and recovers an undisturbed core. Because of the relatively low thermal conductivity of rock and soil materials, the heat-affected zone beyond the melt layer is very small, <1 inch thick. Los Alamos has begun to update the technology and this paper will report on the current status of applications and designs for improved drills.

Cort, G.E.; Goff, S.J.; Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W. Jr.; Dreesen, D.S.; Winchester, W.

1993-09-01

438

Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures  

DOEpatents

A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

Mansure, Arthur James (Alburquerque, NM); Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona (The Woodlands, TX)

2010-11-30

439

An introduction to deepwater floating drilling operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deepwater drilling is discussed from selecting vessels and hardware to safety precautions and personnel. The contents include drilling from a floating vessel; planning and organizing deepwater drilling operations; drill vessels; drilling systems; mooring systems; auxiliary vessels; well-control and communications; subsea guide bases; subsea blowout preventers; marine-riser systems; drill-stem testing; safety and efficiency; and future developments. (JMT)

1972-01-01

440

PDC drill bit design and field application evolution  

SciTech Connect

This paper traces the development of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits from their introduction in 1973. Such design features as body materials, crown profiles, cutter density, and cutter exposure and their effect on bit performance are discussed. In addition, the paper reviews various aspects of bit applications engineering, including bit hydraulics, drilling fluids, directional behavior, and formation types.

Kerr, C.J.

1988-03-01

441

A Model for Laser Hole Drilling in Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct computer simulation technique is developed to analyze quantitatively the influence of the fluid flow and heat transfer in the transient development of a laser drilled hole in a turbine airfoil material, where the material removal is effected by vaporization and melt ejection. The coupled conduction heat transfer in the solid and the advection-diffusion heat transfer in the liquid

Ram K. Ganesh; Wallace W. Bowley; Robert R. Bellantone; Yukap Hahn

1996-01-01

442

Mud to cement technology proven in offshore drilling project  

Microsoft Academic Search

One problem with conventional cements is the incompatibility of Portland cement and the drilling mud. Expensive preflushes and spacer fluids have been used, often with limited success, to attempt to separate mud and Portland cement effectively. Under downhole conditions, most spacers are ineffective in preventing high viscosities and cement contamination problems which lead to poor primary cement jobs. One solution

K. Javanmardi; K. D. Flodberg; J. J. Nahm

1993-01-01

443

TEMLOPI: a thermal simulator for estimation of drilling mud and formation temperatures during drilling of geothermal wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and application of the numerical code TEMLOPI v1.0, a useful tool for estimating the temperature distribution of the fluids employed for drilling geothermal wells. The simulator also allows estimation of the thermal disturbance of the surrounding rock caused by fluid circulation and well shut-in. TEMLOPI v1.0 is based on a mathematical model which considers the

A. Garcia; I Hernandez; G Espinosa; E Santoyo

1998-01-01

444

Congress asks for drilling plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Interagency Coordinating Group on Continental Scientific Drilling develops policy to guide long-term drilling plans for the Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and U.S. Geological Survey. ICG has already cooperated on several drilling projects, such as those at Salton Sea, Long Valley, and Cajon Pass in California, and Valles caldera in New Mexico.Congress will soon pass the Continental Scientific Drilling and Exploration Act, S. 52 and H.R. 2737. The bill requires ICG to prepare a report that outlines a national program of scientific drilling.

Andrews, Robert S.

445

Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Belden & Blake and the US DOE will cofund a horizontal well to be drilled in the Clinton Sandstone as part of the DOE`s multi well program titled ``Horizontal Drilling in Shallow Geologic Complex Reservoirs.`` This well will be located in Mahoning County, Ohio in an area which has demonstrated above average Clinton gas production. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first horizontal well drilled to the Clinton Sand formation in Ohio. Since many of the remaining Clinton Sand drilling sites are of poorer reservoir quality, they may not be developed unless technology such as horizontal drilling can be successfully demonstrated.

Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; McCallister, J.V.; Mazza, R.L.

1993-12-31

446

Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling  

SciTech Connect

Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

1996-03-01

447

Drilling and Coring Methods That Minimize the Disturbance of Cuttings, Core, and Rock Formation in the Unsaturated Zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A drilling-and-casing method (Odex 115 system) utilizing air as a drilling fluid was used successfully to drill through various rock types within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper describes this method and the equipment used to ra...

D. P. Hammermeister D. O. Blout J. C. McDaniel

1985-01-01

448

Geochemical Mud Logging of geothermal drilling  

SciTech Connect

The experience and results described in the present paper were developed over nearly two decades, with a major R&D project around 1980. The expression Geochemical Mud Logging (GML) has ill defined meaning in the geothermal industry, and ought to be specified. We refer here to GML as featuring mud and formation fluid tracer(s) and temperature as the bare essentials and with specified accuracies. Air and water logging are expected to be less demanding with regard to analysis accuracy, but are not discussed in this report. During application of GML to several drill holes with low formation permeabilities and under conditions of high temperature and high mud weight, GML as specified, revealed unexpected influx of formation brine. Such influx was a recurring feature that has been referenced to individual fractures and reflects both fracture size and permeability. As a consequence, continuous or subcontinuous sampling of mud systems appears more cost effective than trying to keep up with cumulative changes of bulk mud composition; although, the latter approach is more sensitive to extremely low rate, steady, inflow of formation fluid into the mud system. It appears, that based on this influx of formation fluid, permeability can be estimated well before mud losses are detected and/or drill strings are stuck. The main advantages of GML are: (1) the capability to assess formation temperature and permeability in nearly real time, resulting in (a) assessments of undisturbed formation and (b) having data in hand for holes lost during drilling operations and (2) being effective under conditions of very high temperatures where electrical logs are very costly and less reliable. Estimated cost for GML is $1500 per day (1982) based on assessments of R&D operations. However, extrapolating to larger scale services and to different operating conditions is indeed difficult. GML cost is probably the only significant point of controversy with regard to GML being a viable evaluation tool.

Tonani, F.B.; Guidi, M.; Johnson, S.D.

1988-01-01

449

An evaluation of flowmeters for the detection of kicks and lost circulation during drilling  

SciTech Connect

An independent evaluation of current industry standard and state-of-the-art drilling fluid inflow and outflow meters was conducted during the drilling of a geothermal exploratory well. Four different types of fluid inflow meters and three different types of fluid outflow meters were tested and evaluated during actual drilling operations. The tested drilling fluid inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flow meters, and a Doppler ultrasonic flow meter. On the return flow line, a standard paddle meter, an acoustic level meter, and a prototype rolling float meter were evaluated to measure drilling fluid outflow rates. The prototype outflow meter utilizes a rolling float which rides on the surface of the flow thereby measuring the fluid height in the pipe. Both the prototype meter and the conventional paddle meter were also extensively tested under a variety of drilling conditions in a full-scale laboratory test facility. The meters were evaluated and compared on the basis of reliability and accuracy, and the results are presented in the paper.

Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, K.E. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

450

Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

1980-01-01

451

Rotary drilling head  

SciTech Connect

A rotary drilling head for a rotary drilling apparatus including a hollow or tubular base including a discharge outlet and a lower end adapted to be mounted on a well casing, or the like, and a housing with a rotatable spindle therein insertable into the base in a sealed relationship with the spindle including a stripper rubber at the lower end thereof, and a non-metallic driving connection with the kelly bar at the upper end and journaled internally of the housing through thrust bearing assemblies and sealed in relation thereto by a plurality of unique seal arrangements. Pressurized lubrication is communicated with a passageway defined between the housing and rotatable spindle to provide continuous pressurized lubrication by an air-oil mist. The housing is removably secured to the base by a split clamp structure to facilitate assembly and disassembly of the housing and spindle components with respect to the base.

Hunter, J.M.

1982-12-14

452

Horizontal drilling spurs optimism  

SciTech Connect

1990 proved to be an exciting year for horizontal wells. This budding procedure appears to be heading for the mainstream oil and gas market, because it can more efficiently recover hydrocarbons from many reservoirs throughout the world. This paper reports on an estimated 1,000 wells that were drilled horizontally (all laterals) in 1990, with the Austin Chalk formation of Texas accounting for about 65% of all world activity. The Bakken Shale play in Montana and North Dakota proved to be the second most active area, with an estimated 90 wells drilled. Many operators in this play have indicated the bloom may be off the Bakken because of poor results outside the nose of the formation, further complicated by some of the harshest rock, reservoir and completion problems posed to horizontal technology.

Crouse, P.C. (Philip C. Crouse and Associates, Inc., Horizontal Advisors Unit, Dallas, TX (US))

1991-02-01

453

In focus: Downhole drilling  

SciTech Connect

Down-the-hole (DTH), popular for its accuracy and simplicity, is getting faster and more efficient. Kyran Castell beings this feature on DTH drilling and reports on Ingersoll-Rand's QL4, and the new QL6. News follows on Atlas Copco, Halco, Sandvik, and Numa, with a brief update on Wassara waterpowered DTHs. The paper compares economics of DTH with rotary and the designs of various DTH hammers.

Not Available

1994-10-01

454

Continental scientific drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep Observation and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust, Inc. (DOSECC), held its annual board and corporation meetings March 2-3 in Chandler, Ariz. DOSECC is the university consortium, supported by the National Science Foundation, that plans, coordinates and implements U.S. continental scientific drilling.Actions taken at the meetings will enable DOSECC to continue to provide scientific and engineering support for NSF-approved

Melvin Friedman

1989-01-01

455

Rotary drill bit seal  

SciTech Connect

An improved seal for a rotary drill bit includes a pair of ring seals comprised of dissimilar materials disposed axially, adjacently to one another intermediate a stationary journal and a rotating cutter to present multiple sealing interfaces so that one or more of the ring seals may rotate with respect to another or the journal or rotating cutter. One of the ring seals may preferrably be fabricated of material exhibiting elastomeric characteristics.

Klima, F. J.

1985-11-12

456

Drilling mud disposal technique  

SciTech Connect

A disposable slurry is described comprising: (a) a slurry selected from the group consisting of water based drilling muds, brine slurries, muds from industrial evaporation ponds, and flocculated by-products of water treatment ponds; (b) a water-soluble crosslinkable polymer; and (c) a crosslinking agent, wherein the slurry is substantially devoid of inert non-packing, highly porous water-trapping, aggregate particles.

Dovan, H.T.

1993-05-25

457

Continental margin drilling program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial responses from OMB, Congress, and industry have been overwhelmingly positive in support of a proposed major drilling program along the U.S. offshore coastal areas in deep water.The extensive sedimentary deposits located along the U.S. continental slopes are, as yet, unexplored. There have been numerous suggestions that there is a significant potential for extensive reserves of hydrocarbons, but these

Peter M. Bell

1980-01-01

458

High temperature piezoelectric drill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460°C), high pressure (~9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000°C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600°C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500°C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500°C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

2009-03-01

459

Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.  

PubMed

This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth. PMID:24117079

Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

2014-01-01

460

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

1992-04-01