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1

ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS ON BENTHIC ORGANISMS IN TEMPERATE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Efforts to enhance the efficiency of oil/gas drilling operations and to minimize hazards to marine ecosystems have resulted in the increased use of synthetic-based fluids (SBF). SBFs have performance characteristics closely related to oil-based fluids (OBF) however their lower PA...

2

Synthetic Base Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

3

Development document for proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for synthetic-based drilling fluids and other non-aqueous drilling fluids in the oil and gas extraction point source category  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this rulemaking is to amend the effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the control of discharges of certain pollutants associated with the use of synthetic-based drilling fluids (SBFs) and other non-aqueous drilling fluids in portions of the Offshore Subcategory and Cook Inlet portion of the Coastal Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category. These proposed limitations apply to discharges or effluent generated when oil and gas wells are drilled using SBFs or other non-aqueous drilling fluids (collectively referred to simply as SBFs) in coastal and offshore regions in locations where drilling wastes may be discharged.

NONE

1999-02-01

4

Synthetic Base Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated\\u000a aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and\\u000a phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene\\u000a ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance

M. Brown; J. D. Fotheringham; T. J. Hoyes; R. M. Mortier; S. T. Orszulik; S. J. Randles; P. M. Stroud

5

Induction of Fish Biomarkers by Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds  

PubMed Central

The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs.

Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

2013-01-01

6

Biomarker Response of Pink Snapper to Chronic Exposure to Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Western Australia, the discharge of drill cuttings at sea is permitted under certain conditions set by regulatory authorities. These drill cuttings are coated with the drilling muds used during the drilling process. Synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) are increasingly used in exploration drilling. However, very little is known of their long-term toxicity in the marine environment. The impetus for the

Sajida Bakhtyar; M. Monique Gagnon

2009-01-01

7

Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs)

Meinhold

1998-01-01

8

Marine Water Quality Assessment Of Synthetic-Based Drilling Waste Discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling muds or fluids used in drilling operations serve several functions: they lubricate the drill bit; maintain borehole pressure; clean and condition the hole; and flush rock cuttings to the surface. Drilling mud also adheres to rock cuttings, as can formation oil. Barite is used as a weighting agent, which approximately makes up approximately 33% of synthetic mud. It contains

Rehan Sadiq; Tahir Husain; Brian Veitch; Neil Bose

2003-01-01

9

Second-generation synthetic drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

At the start of the 1990`s, three synthetic materials were introduced: esters, ethers, and polyalphaolefins (PAO`s). Now heading toward the last half of this decade, a new generation of synthetics is gaining popularity--linear alpha olefins (LAO`s), internal or isomerized olefins (IO`s), and linear paraffins (LP`s). While similar, they also have differences, both as base fluids and as formulated drilling muds. These second-generation synthetic-based fluids (SBF`s) have benefits over their predecessors in that they have lower kinematic viscosity and are less expensive. As drilling fluids, these technical advantages give rise to a more flexible fluid to meet greater drilling demands for high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) applications, extended-reach-drilling projects, and deepwater drilling. As with the first-generation materials, environmental issues are the drivers for the development and use of these second-generation synthetics. Drilling with synthetic-based muds (SBM`s) or pseudo-oil-based muds (OBM`s) has become commonplace in both the Gulf of Mexico and North Sea areas.

Friedheim, J.E. [M-I Drilling Fluids LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-07-01

10

Additive for drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water-based gas or oil well drilling fluid is disclosed comprising an aqueous clay dispersion containing as a thinner and water loss control agent, the essentially water-soluble product obtained by heating together quebracho, lignite, gilsonite and sulfonating, methylating and causticizing agents.

Cates, A.E.

1983-09-13

11

Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid  

DOEpatents

To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

Judzis, Arnis (Salt Lake City, UT); Black, Alan D. (Coral Springs, FL); Green, Sidney J. (Salt Lake City, UT); Robertson, Homer A. (West Jordan, UT); Bland, Ronald G. (Houston, TX); Curry, David Alexander (The Woodlands, TX); Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W. (Cypress, TX)

2011-04-19

12

High temperature drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

1986-01-28

13

Humate thinners for drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The use of a particular humate to reduce the viscosity of water-based drilling fluids is described. The humate is usually found in association with rutile sand and bears a unique compositional make-up. The composition is particularly advantageous as a drilling mud thinner, imparting high temperature stability to water-based drilling muds.

Firth, W.C.

1980-11-25

14

Humate thinners for drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is of the use of a particular humate to reduce the viscosity of water-based drilling fluids. The humate is usually found in association with titanium minerals and bears a unique compositional make-up. The composition is particularly advantageous as a drilling mud thinner, imparting high temperature stability to water-based drilling muds.

Firth, W.C.

1982-01-19

15

Drilling progress. Pt. 2. How fluid properties affect drilling variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling fluids should be selected based on anticipated conditions that will be encountered while drilling. Within a given class, drilling fluids may have drastically different effects on drilling rates, hole stability, and formation evaluation. A graph is included which compares the effective individual mud properties on penetration rate. Density and solids content are the most severe rate reducers and are

S. O. Hutchison; G. W. Anderson

1974-01-01

16

Drill Pipe Corrosion Control Using an Inert Drilling Fluid  

SciTech Connect

The results of a geothermal drill pipe corrosion field test are presented. When a low-density drilling fluid was required for drilling a geothermal well because of an underpressured, fractured formation, two drilling fluids were alternately used to compare drill pipe corrosion rates. The first fluid was an air-water mist with corrosion control chemicals. The other fluid was a nitrogen-water mist without added chemicals. The test was conducted during November 1980 at the Baca location in northern New Mexico. Data from corrosion rings, corrosion probes, fluid samples and flow line instrumentation are plotted for the ten day test period. it is shown that the inert drilling fluid, nitrogen, reduced corrosion rates by more than an order of magnitude. Test setup and procedures are also discussed.

Caskey, B. C.; Copass, K. S.

1981-01-01

17

Wet Clutch Performance in a Mineral-Based and in a Partial-Synthetic-Based Automatic Transmission Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a mineral-based, commercial automatic transmission fluid (Fluid-M) and a partial-synthetic-based commercial fluid (Fluid-PS) on wet clutch performance were investigated from the viewpoints of compressibility, durability, and friction-pressure-speed-temperature (?-P-v-T) characteristics. Furthermore, the physical and chemical properties of mineral and partial-synthetic fluids were compared by the analyses of viscometry, thermo-oxidative stability, and metal-to-metal wear preventive characteristics. Friction material specifications

Bülent Ēavdar; Robert C. Lam

1998-01-01

18

Rheological properties of biopolymers drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling muds are complex fluids, generally used to clean the well, maintain hole integrity, transport the rock cuttings, lubricate the drill bit and control formation pressures. Two basic types of drilling fluids are used, water based muds (WBM) and oil based muds (OBM). OBM are very effective but polluting, and environmental regulations continue to restrict the use of oil based

Samira Baba Hamed; Mansour Belhadri

2009-01-01

19

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide which frequently becomes entrained in drilling fluid during the course of drilling operations through subterranean formations. The process consists of introducing a solid oxidant in powdered form into the circulating drilling fluid when hydrogen sulfide is encountered. The solid oxidants are selected from the group consisting of calcium hypochlorite

Gilligan Jr

1985-01-01

20

Drilling fluids design for deepwater wells  

SciTech Connect

In addition to preventing hydrate formation, glycol-based fluids give the best chance of solving solids control problems, reducing dilution rates and coping with mixing and logistical problems. Such fluids normally reduce volume requirements and have been shown to improve drilling rates and lower overall well costs. The paper discusses gas hydrate control, drilling fluid rheology, solids control, cuttings removal, logistics and process control, and drilling fluid design and selection.

Hodder, M. [Dowell Drilling Fluids, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1998-03-01

21

Drill-in fluids control formation damage  

SciTech Connect

Several factors led to development, oil company interest in, and use of payzone drilling fluids, including operator concern about maximizing well production, increasing acceptance of horizontal drilling and openhole completion popularity. This article discusses water-base drill-in'' fluid systems and applications. Payzone damage, including fine solids migration, clay swelling and solids invasion, reduces effective formation permeability, which results in lower production rates. Formation damage is often caused by invasion of normal drilling fluids that contain barite or bentonite. Drill-in systems are designed with special bridging agents to minimize invasion. Several bridging materials designed to form effective filter cake for instantaneous leak-off control can be used. Bridging materials are also designed to minimize stages and time required to clean up wells before production. Fluids with easy-to-remove bridging agents reduce completion costs. Drill-in fluid bridging particles can often be removed more thoroughly than those in standard fluids.

Halliday, W.S. (Baker Hughes Inteq, Houston, TX (United States))

1994-12-01

22

A Marine Anaerobic Biodegradation Test Applied to the Biodegradation of Synthetic Drilling Mud Base Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript describes a marine anaerobic biodegradation test and its application to testing the relative biodegradability of ester and olefin synthetic base fluids (SBF) for drilling mud. The test uses marine sediments spiked with the test SBF and incubated anaerobically in closed serum bottles. The production of gas (CO2 and CH4) from the sediment was used to monitor the progress

D. Herman; D. J. Roberts

2005-01-01

23

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

David B. Burnett

2003-08-01

24

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of used drilling fluids to embryo development was investigated to ascertain the limits of safe usage of these fluids in marine environments. Embryos used as test systems were of the teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus, and four echinoderms Echinarachnius parma, Strongylocentr...

25

Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

Meinhold, A.F.

1998-11-01

26

Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.  

PubMed

The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option. PMID:15160901

Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

2003-12-01

27

Theory and applications of drilling fluid hydraulics  

SciTech Connect

A reference on drilling fluid hydraulics, this text provides information, nomenclature and equations. Chapter 1 introduces the basic principles of fluid properties. Chapter 2 discusses the general principles, models and measurements related to fluid flow. Newtonian, Bingham, Power Law, Casson, Robertson-Stiff and Herschel-Bulkley models are all discussed. Chapters 3 through 10 analyze hydraulic problems specific to drilling fluids and the drilling process including: viscometric measurements, pressure losses, swab and surge pressures, cuttings transport, and hydraulics optimization. Each chapter concludes with a bibliography. For consistency, nomenclature remains constant and SI units are used throughout the text. All key equations using oilfield units are listed in the appendices.

Whittaker, A.

1985-01-01

28

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide which frequently becomes entrained in drilling fluid during the course of drilling operations through subterranean formations. The process consists of introducing a solid oxidant in powdered form into the circulating drilling fluid when hydrogen sulfide is encountered. The solid oxidants are selected from the group consisting of calcium hypochlorite (Ca-(OCl)/sub 2/), sodium perborate (NaBO/sub 3/), potassium permanganate (KMnO/sub 4/), and potassium peroxydisulfate (K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/). The solid oxidants are soluble in the drilling fluid, promoting fast and complete scavenging reactions without adversely altering the drilling fluid rheology.

Gilligan Jr., T. J.

1985-10-22

29

Drilling fluids based on sulfonated elastomeric polymers  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to sulfonated elastomeric polymers which are copolymers of isoprene and sodium styrene sulfonate or teropolymers of isoprene, styrene and sodium styrene sulfonate wherein these sulfonated polymers function as viscosification agents when added to oil-based drilling muds which are the fluids used to maintain pressure, cool drill bits and lift cuttings from the holes in the drilling operation for oil and gas wells. The sulfonated and elastomeric polymers have about 5 to about 100 meq. of sulfonate groups per 100 grams of the sulfonated elastomeric polymer, wherein the sulfonated groups are neutralized with a metallic cation or an amine or ammonium counterion. A polar cosolvent can optionally be added to the mixture of oil drilling mud and sulfonated elastomeric polymer, wherein the polar cosolvent increases the solubility of the sulfonated elastomeric polymer in the oil drilling mud by decreasing the strong ionic interactions between the sulfonate groups of the sulfonated polymer.

Turner, S.R.; Lundberg, R.D.; Walker, T.O.

1984-01-10

30

Theory and application of drilling fluid hydraulics  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this book are (1) to serve as a reasonably comprehensive text on the subject of drilling hydraulics and (2) to provide the field geologist with a quick reference to drilling hydraulics calculations. Chapter 1 introduces the basic principles of fluid properties, and Chapter 2 presents the general principles of fluid hydraulics. Chapters 3 through 10 analyze specific hydraulic considerations of the drilling process, such as viscometric measurements, pressure losses, swab and surge pressures, cuttings transport and hydraulic optimization. The units and nomenclature are consistent throughout the manual. Equations are given generally in consistent S.I. units; some common expressions are also given in oilfield units. Nomenclature is explained after every equation when necessary, and a comprehensive list of the nomenclature used is given in Appendix A. Units are listed in Appendix B. In Appendix C, all the important equations are given in both S.I. and oilfield units. Appendix D contains example hydraulics calculations.

Whittaker, A.

1985-01-01

31

Well drilling and completion fluid composition  

SciTech Connect

An improved well drilling and completion fluid composition which has excellent stability over a broad temperature range, has a low tubular goods corrosion rate, prevents the sloughing of clay-containing materials and is environmentally acceptable. The composition is comprised of water, a viscosity increasing agent, a fluid loss reducer and rheology stabilizer and one or more water-soluble clay-stabilizing organic salts.

Loftin, R.E.; Son, A.J.

1984-04-03

32

Well drilling and completion fluid composition  

SciTech Connect

An improved well drilling and completion fluid composition which has excellent stability over a broad temperature range, has a low tubular goods corrosion rate, prevents the sloughing of clay-containing materials and is environmentally acceptable. The composition is comprised of water, a viscosity increasing agent, a fluid loss reducer and rheology stabilizer and one or more water-soluble clay-stabilizing organic salts.

Loftin, R. E.; Son, A. J.

1985-08-20

33

TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT-INCORPORATED DRILLING FLUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calcula...

34

Lubricating wellbore fluid and method of drilling  

SciTech Connect

A wellbore fluid having improved lubricating properties for drilling in formations in the earth comprising water and a lubricant composition containing a mixture of a chlorinated component and a sulfurized component in proportions to produce a lubricant composition containing 15 to 30 weight percent chlorine and 2 to 10 weight percent sulfur.

Nance, W. B.; Calkins, J. M.

1985-05-14

35

Recent Developments in Geothermal Drilling Fluids  

SciTech Connect

In the past, standard drilling muds have been used to drill most geothermal wells. However, the harsh thermal and chemical environment and the unique geothermal formations have led to such problems as excessive thickening of the fluid, formation damage, and lost circulation. This paper describes three recent development efforts aimed at solving some of these drilling fluid problems. Each of the efforts is at a different stage of development. The Sandia aqueous foam studies are still in the laboratory phase, NL Baroid's polymeric deflocculant is soon to be field tested, and the Mudtech high-temperature mud was field tested several months ago. Low density and the capability to suspend particles at low relative velocities are two factors which make foam an attractive drilling fluid. The stability of these foams and their material properties at high temperatures are presently unknown and this lack of information has precluded their use as a geothermal drilling fluid. The aqueous foam studies being conducted at Sandia are aimed at screening available surfactants for temperature and chemical stability. Approximately 100 surfactants have been tested at temperatures of 260 and 310 C (500 and 590 F), and several of these candidates appear very promising. NL Baroid has developed a polymeric deflocculant for water-based muds which shows promise in retarding thermal degradation effects and associated gelation. Formulations containing this new polymer have shown good rheological properties up to 260 C (500 F) in laboratory testing. A high-temperature mud consisting primarily of sepiolite, bentonite, and brown coal has been developed by Mudtech, Inc. A field test of this mud was conducted in a geothermal well in the Imperial Valley of California in May 1980. The fluid exhibited good hole-cleaning characteristics and good rheological properties throughout the test.

Kelsey, J. R.; Rand, P. B.; Nevins, M. J.; Clements, W. R.; Hilscher, L. W.; Remont, L. J.; Matula, G. W.; Balley, D. N.

1981-01-01

36

Unique Microbial Community in Drilling Fluids from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of the Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to

Gengxin Zhang; Hailiang Dong; Hongchen Jiang; Zhiqin Xu; Dennis D. Eberl

2006-01-01

37

Second-Generation Synthetic Drilling Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the start of the 1990`s, three synthetic materials were introduced: esters, ethers, and polyalphaolefins (PAO`s). Now heading toward the last half of this decade, a new generation of synthetics is gaining popularity--linear alpha olefins (LAO`s), internal or isomerized olefins (IO`s), and linear paraffins (LP`s). While similar, they also have differences, both as base fluids and as formulated drilling muds.

J. E. Friedheim

1997-01-01

38

Valve latch device for drilling fluid telemetry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A latch device for controlling a valve in a mud pulse telemetry system for imparting data pulses to drilling fluids circulating in a drill string is disclosed. A latch device and valve arrangement including an improved shear type, solenoid operated valve for modulating the pressure of the circulating drilling fluid is disclosed. A latching solenoid armature is connected to the

M. L. Larronde; R. G. Hoos

1985-01-01

39

40 CFR Appendix 4 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Summary of Modifications to ISO 11734:1995 4 Appendix... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT...Summary of Modifications to ISO 11734:1995 The six modifications...synthetic base fluids as measured by ISO 11734:1995. These...

2010-07-01

40

40 CFR Appendix 4 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Summary of Modifications to ISO 11734:1995 4 Appendix... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT...Summary of Modifications to ISO 11734:1995 The six modifications...synthetic base fluids as measured by ISO 11734:1995. These...

2009-01-01

41

New and different geothermal drilling fluids system  

SciTech Connect

The traditional geothermal drilling fluid in Southern California has consisted of sepiolite clay as a viscosifier and a large quantity of lignite as a filtration control agent. Occidental Geothermal Inc., has tried and successfully tested an alternative mud system for Geothermal drilling. Its main components are IML-TEMP additive for high temperature rheological control and either CHEMTROL-X additive or DFE 104 for filtration control. The use of Wyoming bentonite, often avoided because of its tendency to gel excessively at high temperatures, can and should be used in this mud system to promote better wall cake characteristics and filtration control. An examination is made of Occidential's Rutherford No. 1 well in the East Brawley area of Southern California, a geothermal well that successfully used this alternative mud system.

Conners, J.H. II; Otto, M.J.

1980-09-01

42

State-of-the-art in coalbed methane drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The production of methane from wet coalbeds is often associated with the production of significant amounts of water. While producing water is necessary to desorb the methane from the coal, the damage from the drilling fluids used is difficult to assess, because the gas production follows weeks to months after the well is drilled. Commonly asked questions include the following: What are the important parameters for drilling an organic reservoir rock that is both the source and the trap for the methane? Has the drilling fluid affected the gas production? Are the cleats plugged? Does the 'filtercake' have an impact on the flow of water and gas? Are stimulation techniques compatible with the drilling fluids used? This paper describes the development of a unique drilling fluid to drill coalbed methane wells with a special emphasis on horizontal applications. The fluid design incorporates products to match the delicate surface chemistry on the coal, a matting system to provide both borehole stability and minimize fluid losses to the cleats, and a breaker method of removing the matting system once drilling is completed. This paper also discusses how coal geology impacts drilling planning, drilling practices, the choice of drilling fluid, and completion/stimulation techniques for Upper Cretaceous Mannville-type coals drilled within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A focus on horizontal coalbed methane (CBM) wells is presented. Field results from three horizontal wells are discussed, two of which were drilled with the new drilling fluid system. The wells demonstrated exceptional stability in coal for lengths to 1000 m, controlled drilling rates and ease of running slotted liners. Methods for, and results of, placing the breaker in the horizontal wells are covered in depth.

Baltoiu, L.V.; Warren, B.K.; Natras, T.A.

2008-09-15

43

Terpolymer composition for aqueous drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of improving high temperature fluid loss and rheology stabilization of high calcium brine clay-containing aqueous oil well drilling fluids which comprises adding a stabilizing amount of a water-soluble terpolymer composition comprising: a polymer prepared by polymerizing the following monomer ingredients; the composition containing lignin, modified lignin, brown coal or modified brown coal in an amount ranging between 5-95% with the brown coal or modified brown coal having been presented during the polymerization of the water-soluble polymer. The lignin, modified lignin, brown coal or modified brown coal is from the group consisting of lignites, sulphonated lignites, lignins, leonardites, lignosulfonates, alkali metal humic acid salts, humic acids, and sulphonated humic acids.

Giddings, D.M.; Williamson, C.D.

1987-07-07

44

TOXICITY OF USED DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Static, acute toxicity tests were conducted with mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and 11 used drilling fluids (also called drilling muds) obtained from active drilling platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Each whole mud was tested, along with three phases of each mud: a liquid phase ...

45

Properly designed underbalanced drilling fluids can limit formation damage  

SciTech Connect

Drilling fluids for underbalanced operations require careful design and testing to ensure they do not damage sensitive formations. In addition to hole cleaning and lubrication functions, these fluids may be needed as kill fluids during emergencies. PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. used a systematic approach in developing and field testing a nondamaging drilling fluid. It was for use in underbalanced operations in the Glauconitic sandstone in the Westerose gas field in Alberta. A lab study was initiated to develop and test a non-damaging water-based drilling fluid for the horizontal well pilot project. The need to develop an inexpensive, nondamaging drilling fluid was previously identified during underbalanced drilling operations in the Weyburn field in southeastern Saskatchewan. A non-damaging fluid is required for hole cleaning, for lubrication of the mud motor, and for use as a kill fluid during emergencies. In addition, a nondamaging fluid is required when drilling with a conventional rig because pressure surges during connections and trips may result in the well being exposed to short periods of near balanced or overbalanced conditions. Without the protection of a filter cake, the drilling fluid will leak off into the formation, causing damage. The amount of damage is related to the rate of leak off and depth of invasion, which are directly proportional to the permeability to the fluid.

Churcher, P.L.; Yurkiw, F.J. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bietz, R.F.; Bennion, D.B. [Hycal Energy Research Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-04-29

46

Soil properties affecting wheat yields following drilling-fluid application.  

PubMed

Oil and gas drilling operations use drilling fluids (mud) to lubricate the drill bit and stem, transport formation cuttings to the surface, and seal off porous geologic formations. Following completion of the well, waste drilling fluid is often applied to cropland. We studied potential changes in soil compaction as indicated by cone penetration resistance, pH, electrical conductivity (EC(e)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), extractable soil and total straw and grain trace metal and nutrient concentrations, and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'TAM 107') grain yield following water-based, bentonitic drilling-fluid application (0-94 Mg ha(-1)) to field test plots. Three methods of application (normal, splash-plate, and spreader-bar) were used to study compaction effects. We measured increasing SAR, EC(e), and pH with drilling-fluid rates, but not to levels detrimental to crop production. Field measurements revealed significantly higher compaction within areas affected by truck travel, but also not enough to affect crop yield. In three of four site years, neither drilling-fluid rate nor application method affected grain yield. Extractions representing plant availability and plant analyses results indicated that drilling fluid did not significantly increase most trace elements or nutrient concentrations. These results support land application of water-based bentonitic drilling fluids as an acceptable practice on well-drained soils using controlled rates. PMID:16091622

Bauder, T A; Barbarick, K A; Ippolito, J A; Shanahan, J F; Ayers, P D

2005-01-01

47

Drill-in fluid reduces formation damage, increases production rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sodium formate drill-in fluid system reduced formation damage, resulting in better-than-expected production rates for an off-shore Dutch development well. Programmed to optimize production capacity and reservoir drainage from a Rotliegend sandstone gas discovery, the 5-7\\/8-in. subhorizontal production interval was drilled and completed barefoot with a unique, rheologically engineered sodium formate drill-in fluid system. The new system, consisting of a

N. Hands; K. Kowbel; S. Maikranz; R. Nouris

1998-01-01

48

Recent developments in geothermal drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Three recent development efforts are described, aimed at solving some of these drilling fluid problems. The Sandia aqueous foam studies are still in the laboratory phase; NL Baroid's polymeric deflocculant is being field tested; and the Mudtech high temperature mud was field tested several months ago. The aqueous foam studies are aimed at screening available surfactants for temperture and chemical stability. Approximately 100 surfactants have been tested at temperatures of 260/sup 0/C and 310/sup 0/C and several of these candidates appear very promising. A polymeric deflocculant was developed for water-based muds which shows promise in laboratory tests of retarding thermal degradation effects and associated gelation. Formulations containing this new polymer have shown good rheological properties up to 500/sup 0/F. A high temperature mud consisting primarily of sepiolite, bentonite, and brown coal has been developed. A field test of this mud was conducted in a geothermal well in the Imperial Valley of California in May of last year. The fluid exhibited good hole-cleaning characteristics and good rheological properties throughout the test. (MHR)

Kelsey, J.R.; Rand, P.B.; Nevins, M.J.; Clements, W.R.; Hilscher, L.W.; Remont, L.J.; Matula, G.W.; Bailey, D.N.

1981-01-01

49

Fluid flow restrictor valve for a drill hole coring tool  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus operable on a wireline logging cable for drilling a hole in the sidewall of a drill hole which comprises a hydraulically operated backup shoe for wedging the apparatus at a selected location in the drill hole, a hydraulic motor with a drilling bit connected thereto for rotation by the hydraulic motor and hydraulic means connected to the hydraulic motor for moving the bit into drilling engagement with the sidewall of the drill hole. In the improvement of this invention, the hydraulic means for moving the bit into drilling engagement comprises a new flow restrictor valve. This flow restrictor valve has an orifice and a slender pointed rod for restricting the flow of fluid through the orifice. Opposing spring means and control fluid means engage the rod for controlling its movement toward and away from the orifice.

Mount, H.B.

1981-07-28

50

Mixed metal hydroxide drilling fluid minimizes well bore washouts  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the use of a mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid, instead of a conventional polymer-based fluid, improved well bore stability in troublesome formations in West Africa. The unique flow and suspension characteristics of the MMH fluid improved cuttings removal and decreased well bore washouts. With fewer hole problems and better cleaning in the well, the operator reduced drilling time and cost of the well. MMH compounds were developed and introduced to the drilling industry a few years ago. Initially their utility was limited by an inability to achieve reliable filtration control without destroying the unique fluid rheology. A fully functional drilling fluid system, based on this unusual line of chemistry, has been developed and used with great success in dozens of wells around the world.

Lavoix, F. (Elf Aquitaine Production, Pau (France)); Lewis, M. (International Drilling Fluids Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-09-28

51

Application of drilling fluid density detection based on intelligent sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new method to detect drilling fluid density based on intelligent sensor, the core of which is silicon resonant sensor technology. Two H model resonant beams locating single crystal silicon resonant sensor con vert differential pressure to frequency signals respectively, then difference of two frequency signals are transmitted to CPU, export 4~20mA signal corresponding drilling fluid density after D/A converter. This method get over the short comings of typical drilling fluid density detection used piezocapacitive sensor, such as low accuracy, shattered easily, easy drift ...ect., has high precision, stability and reliability characters.

He, Hong; Jia, Hengtian; Pan, Hongyan; Han, Shenglei; Cui, Xin

2008-12-01

52

DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

53

Impact of drilling fluids on seagrasses: an experimental community approach  

SciTech Connect

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth and chlorophyll content of grass and associated epiphytes, and rates of decomposition as indicated by weight loss of grass leaves in treated and untreated microcosms were compared. There were statistically significant differences in community structure and function among untreated microcosms and those receiving the clay and drilling fluid. For example, drilling fluid and clay caused a significant loss in the number of the ten most numerically abundant (dominant) macroinvertebrates, and drilling fluid decreased the rate at which Thalassia leaves decomposed.

Morton, R.D.; Duke, T.W.; Macauley, J.M.; Clark, J.R.; Price, W.A.

1985-06-01

54

IMPACT OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON SEAGRASSES: AN EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNITY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth and chlorophyll content o...

55

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid...

2013-07-01

56

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid...

2013-07-01

57

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid...

2013-07-01

58

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid...

2013-07-01

59

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid...

2013-07-01

60

40 CFR Appendix 2 to Subpart A of... - Drilling Fluids Toxicity Test  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with approximately 50 Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii per mysid. This will reduce...of Eight Drilling Fluids to Mysid Shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia ), May 1984...Generic Drilling Fluids and Mysid Shrimp [fluid N2=1] Percent...

2009-01-01

61

40 CFR Appendix 2 to Subpart A of... - Drilling Fluids Toxicity Test  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with approximately 50 Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii per mysid. This will reduce...of Eight Drilling Fluids to Mysid Shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia ), May 1984...Generic Drilling Fluids and Mysid Shrimp [fluid N2=1] Percent...

2010-07-01

62

Clay-Based Geothermal Drilling Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concent...

N. Guven L. L. Carney L. J. Lee R. P. Bernhard

1982-01-01

63

Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

1982-11-01

64

Quality requirements for industrial minerals used in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The quality of mineral additives used in a drilling field (mud) can dramatically affect the fluid's properties and the overall cost of drilling an oil or gas well. The principally used minerals are bentonite, barite, barite/hematite blends, and hematite alone. The high specific gravity minerals, barite and hematite, are used to increase drilling fluid density. Bentonite clay is used to increase drilling fluid viscosity and get strength and to provide a low permeability filter cake. A multimillion dollar investment in a well and the safety of the personnel on the drilling rig can depend on how effectively these mud additives perform with other constituents in the mud. This paper points effects caused by small amounts of certain carbonate and sulfide mineral impurities in barite or hematite and how polymeric extender additives in bentonites contribute to unpredictable behavior of a mud. Effects like these are the reason oil companies using their materials sometimes and set their own quality standards beyond those already specified in API Spec. 13A. Also discussed in this paper are the current standardization activities of API Committee 13 on these minerals.

Garrett, R.L.

1987-11-01

65

Salt stable lubricant for water base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water base drilling fluid having enhanced lubricating properties in the presence of polyvalent cations comprising a mixture of (1) water; (2) finely divided inorganic solids; (3) an alkanolamide of a saturated fatty acid having 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof, and (4) an alkanolamide of an unsaturated fatty acid having 18 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof.

Kercheville, J.D.

1981-07-28

66

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CUTTING FLUID EFFECTS IN DRILLING. (R825370C057)  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed and conducted on aluminum alloys and gray cast iron to determine the function of cutting fluid in drilling. The variables examined included speed, feed, hole depth, tool and workpiece material, cutting fluid condition, workpiece temperatures and drill...

67

An Overview of Surfactant Applications in Drilling Fluids for the Petroleum Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactants are increasingly being used in an ever-expanding variety of applications for drilling fluids. In oil-based drilling fluids, the most well-known applications of surfactants are as emulsifiers and wetting agents. In water-based drilling fluids, there is a continually-growing variety of applications that include: -oil-in-water emulsification in base fluid formulations;-shale-swelling inhibitors to prevent wellbore instabilities;-detergency to prevent cuttings sticking to drill

Lirio Quintero

2002-01-01

68

Innovative regulatory approach for synthetic-based muds.  

SciTech Connect

The oil and gas industry has historically used water-based muds (WBMs) and oil-based muds (OBMs) in offshore drilling operations. WBMs are less expensive and are widely used. Both the WBMs and the associated drill cuttings maybe discharged from the platform to the sea provided that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discharge limitations are met. In some wells, however, difficult drilling conditions may force a switch from a WBM to an OBM. Neither the OBM nor the associated drill cuttings may be discharged. The OBM is hauled to shore, where it is processed for reuse, while the associated cuttings are injected in a disposal well at the platform or hauled to shore to a disposal facility. Both of these options are expensive. Synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are drilling fluids that use synthetic organic chemicals as base fluids. SBMs were developed to replace OBMs in difficult drilling situations. SBMs are more expensive than OBMs; however, they have superior environmental properties that may permit the cuttings to be discharged on-site. Like OBMs, SBMs are hauled ashore for processing and reuse after the well is drilled. The existing national effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs) for the offshore industry do not include requirements for SBM-cuttings since SBMs were not commonly in use at the time the ELGs were adopted. In late 1997, EPA announced that it would modify the offshore ELGs to include requirements for discharges of cuttings drilled with SBMs. For the first time in the history of the ELG program, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will lead to development of draft regulations in one year rather than the 4- to 6-year period usually needed. With direction from the federal government to stakeholders concerning information needs for the regulatory development the industry has established several working groups to collect new scientific information on SBMs. This paper describes the presumptive rulemaking process and summarizes the findings of the work groups to date.

Veil, J. A.

1998-10-22

69

Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives  

SciTech Connect

The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))

1991-10-01

70

An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

TerraTek

2007-06-30

71

Extrusion of bentonite clay for fluid loss reduction in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The fluid loss and viscosity loss characteristics of a water expandable bentonite clay are substantially improved by extruding the clay through die openings while, at the same time, passing a wiper or scraping blade across the entrance of the die openings. In this manner, very inexpensive and low grade clays can be substantially improved and thus modified making such clays acceptable in fluid loss and viscosity for use in a drilling fluid or mud.

Alexander, W.; Odom, I.E.

1984-07-31

72

Identification of lift-off mechanism failure for salt drill-in drilling fluid containing polymer filter cake through adsorption\\/desorption studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling fluid's contact with the productive zone of horizontal or complex wells can reduce well productivity by fluid invasion in the borehole wall. Salted drilling drill-in fluid containing polymers has often been applied in horizontal or complex petroleum wells in the poorly consolidated sandstone reservoirs of the Campos basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This fluid usually consists of natural polymers

Denise F. S. Petri; Joćo C. de Queiroz Neto

2010-01-01

73

Aqueous foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids: 1. Screening  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous foam is a promising drilling fluid for geothermal wells because it will minimize damage to the producing formation and would eliminate the erosion problems of air drilling. Successful use of aqueous foam will require a high foaming surfactant which will: (1) be chemically stable in the harsh thermal and chemical environment, and (2) form stable foams at high temperatures and pressures. The procedures developed to generate and test aqueous foams and the effects of a 260/sup 0/C temperature cycle on aqueous surfactant solutions are presented. More than fifty selected surfactants were evaluated with representatives from the amphoteric, anionic, cationic, and nonionic classes included. Most surfactants were severely degraded by this temperature cycle; however, some showed excellent retention of their properties. The most promising surfactant types were the alkyl and alkyl aryl sulfonates and the ethoxylated nonionics.

Rand, P.B.

1980-01-01

74

Effect of temperature and pressure on the density of drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory data are presented on the changes in the densities of 11-18 lb/gal oil and water base drilling fluids in the temperature and pressure ranges of 70/sup 0/-400/sup 0/F and 0-14,000 psig. Results indicate that the change in density of a given type of drilling fluid appear to be independent of the initial density of the fluid, and as oil base drilling fluids are subjected to high temperatures and pressures, they become more dense than water base drilling fluids. The test apparatus and calibration are also described.

McMordie, W.C.; Bland, R.; Hauser, J.M.

1983-09-01

75

Study on a Surface Gas-Removing System for Weight Drilling Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gravitational separator is often used to remove gas in contaminated drilling fluid during conventional drilling but fails to meet the gas-removing need for weight drilling fluid and to maintain the stable property of fluid by high viscosity for high-pressure gas formation. Therefore, it is essential to research the surface gas-removal system. According to the existing gravitational separator and centrifugal

Z. Zhu; W. Lei; Y. Liu; C. Wang; G. Shu

2011-01-01

76

1989 guide to drilling, completion and workover fluids  

SciTech Connect

Descriptions of fluid system classifications, product functions and source companies are listed on these pages. System descriptions and product definitions have been kept as simple as possible and, wherever practical, reflect general industry practice and terminology consistent with descriptions adopted by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). Nine distinct mud systems are defined, the first seven of which are water-based, and the eighth, oil-based. The final category is a specialized one in which air or gas is the basic circulating medium. The systems are as follows: Non-dispersed; Dispersed; Calcium treated; Polymer; Low solids; Saturated salt; Workover; Oil muds; Air, mist, foam and gas. The product function classifications for each additive are those generally accepted by the Subcommittee on Drilling Fluids, IADC. Some additives have multiple uses, and for those a primary and two secondary function categories are listed. The additives are: Alkalinity, ph control additives, Bactericides; Calcium removers; Corrosion inhibitors; Defoamers; Emulsifiers; Filtrate reducers; Flocculants; Foaming agents; Lost circulation materials; Lubricants; Pipe-freeling agents; Shale-Control inhibitors; Surface active agents.

Not Available

1989-06-01

77

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Drilling for Supercritical Hydrothermal Fluids is Underway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP is being carried out by an international industry-government consortium in Iceland (consisting of three leading Icelandic power companies, together with the National Energy Authority), Alcoa Inc. and StatoilHydro) with the objective of investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal fluids. This will require drilling to temperatures of 400-600°C and depths of 4 to 5 km. Modeling suggests that supercritical water could yield an order of magnitude greater power output than that produced by conventional geothermal wells. The consortium plans to test this concept in three different geothermal fields in Iceland. If successful, major improvements in the development of high-temperature geothermal resources could result worldwide. In June 2008 preparation of the first deep IDDP well commenced in the Krafla volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. Selection of the first drill site for this well was based on geological, geophysical and geochemical data, and on the results of extensive geothermal drilling since 1971. During 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred in the caldera, involving 9 volcanic eruptions. In parts of the geothermal field acid volcanic gases made steam from some of the existing wells unsuitable for power generation for the following decade. A large magma chamber at 3-7 km depth was detected by S-wave attenuation beneath the center of the caldera, believed to be the heat source of the geothermal system. A recent MT-survey has confirmed the existence of low resistivity bodies at shallow depths within the volcano. The IDDP well will be drilled and cased to 800m depth in September, before the winter snows, and in spring 2009 it will be drilled and cased to 3.5km depth and then deepened to 4.5 km in July. Several spot cores for scientific studies will be collected between 2400m and the total depth. After the well heats, it will be flow tested and, if successful, a pilot plant for power production should follow in 2010. During 2009-19 two new wells, ~4 km deep, will be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in southern Iceland, and subsequently deepened into the supercritical zone. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater on the Reykjanes peninsula, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge comes on land. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be more similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems. Because of the considerable international scientific opportunities afforded by the IDDP, the US National Science Foundation and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program will jointly fund the coring and sampling for scientific studies. Research is underway on samples from existing wells in the targeted geothermal fields, and on active mid-ocean ridge systems that have conditions believed to be similar to those that will be encountered in deep drilling by the IDDP. Some of these initial scientific studies by US investigators are reported in the accompanying papers.

Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

2008-12-01

78

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling...an operable drilling fluid-gas separator and degasser before...areas where permafrost and/or hydrate zones are present or may be...

2009-07-01

79

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling...an operable drilling fluid-gas separator and degasser before...areas where permafrost and/or hydrate zones are present or may be...

2010-07-01

80

Converting API drilling, completion fluids standards to ISO presents challenges  

SciTech Connect

The American Petroleum Institute (API) is now submitting standards to the International Standards Organization (ISO) for adoption as international standards. This will allow development of standard within ISO that are accepted by the European Standards Committee (CEN) as European standards. There had been fears that the requirements for products in the EEC might preclude future use of API standards within Europe. ISO working groups are finding that converting API into ISO standards for drilling and completion fluids and well cements is not proving to be as simple and straightforward as originally envisaged. Results of the ISO/TC 67/SC 3 deliberations can be broken into two key categories. First, the fast-tracked draft international standards (DIS) balloted by member states have been approved as ISO standards. Secondly, a planned work program has been established.

Bensted, J. (Univ. of London (United Kingdom). Birkbeck College)

1994-07-01

81

OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP\\/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-01-01

82

Effects of Drilling Fluids on 'Thalassia testudinum' and Its Epiphytic Algae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flow-through microcosm system was developed to assess the potential influence of drilling fluids on Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytic algae. Two treatments (drilling fluid and a montmorillonite clay) and a control were used for seven tests: two 10-...

W. A. Price J. M. Macauley J. R. Clark

1986-01-01

83

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON 'THALASSIA TESTUDINUM' AND ITS EPIPHYTIC ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

A flow-through microcosm system was developed to assess the potential influence of drilling fluids on Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytic algae. Two treatments (drilling fluid and a montmorillonite clay) and a control were used for seven tests: two 10-day, 200 microliter/l exp...

84

Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium,

M. O. Benka-Coker; A. Olumagin

1995-01-01

85

Metal and hydrocarbon behavior in sediments from Brazilian shallow waters drilling activities using nonaqueous drilling fluids (NAFs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of drilling oil activities in the Brazilian Bonito Field\\/Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro) shell drilling (300 m) using\\u000a nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) was investigated with respect to Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Co, Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, V, and aliphatic\\u000a and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the sediment. Sampling took place in three different times during\\u000a approximately

Maria do Carmo R. Peralba; Dirce Pozebon; Joćo H. Z. dos Santos; Sandra M. Maia; Tānia M. Pizzolato; Giovani Cioccari; Simone Barrionuevo

2010-01-01

86

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve Rates Of Penetration (ROP) through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system...

A. Blakc A. Judzis

2004-01-01

87

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

In this report we focus on surface studies of the wetting effects of SBM components; three areas of research are covered. First we present results of tests of interfacial properties of some commercial emulsifiers that are routinely used in both oil-based and synthetic oil-based drilling fluids. These products fall into two main groups, based on their CMC and IFT trends with changing pH. All can alter the wetting of mica, but measurements vary widely depending on the details of exposure and observation protocols. Non-equilibrium effects appear to be responsible for these variations, with equilibrated fluids generally giving lower contact angles than those observed with fluids that have not been pre-equilibrated. Addition of small amounts of emulsifier can increase the tendency of a crude oil to alter wetting of mica surfaces. The effects of similar amounts of these emulsifiers can be detected in interfacial tension measurements. Next, we report on the preliminary results of a study of polyethoxylated amines of varying structures on the wetting of mica surfaces. Contact angles have been measured for unequilibrated and pre-equilibrated fluids. Reduction in contact angles was generally observed when the surfaces were washed with toluene after exposure to surfactant solutions. Atomic forces microscopy is also being used to observe the interactions between these surfactants and mica surfaces. Finally, we show the results of a study of asphaltene stability in the presence of synthetic base oils. Most of the base oils in current use are paraffinic or olefinic--the aromatic content is minimized for environmental reasons--and they destabilize asphaltenes. Tests with two crude oils show onset conditions for base oils that are comparable to n-heptane and n-pentadecane in terms of the solubility conditions at the onset. Two ester-based products, Petrofree and Petrofree LV, did not cause asphaltene flocculation in these tests. A meeting of the research groups from New Mexico Tech and the University of Wyoming, was held in Laramie on the 9th and 10th of October. All the members of the research teams presented updates on their progress and exchanged views on directions for the remainder of the project.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2003-10-01

88

Real time fluid analysis during drilling of the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project and its responding features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project was established shortly after the Wenchuan Earthquake. Several on-site laboratories were built to perform the real time fluid analysis during drilling simultaneously. The concentrations of argon, methane, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen, oxygen and radon in drilling mud gas were determined during the entirely process of drilling. The setup for real time fluid analysis was stability for long time. The mud gas such as methane and radon yielded low concentrations above the Principal Slip Zone (PSZ), whereas yielded high concentrations under the PSZ. The real time fluid data might provide the real time information for identifying and validating of the PSZ in the deep fault zone. The gas concentration showed abnormal fluctuation during the Ms 4.0 earthquake on April 27, 2010. The abnormality occurred one hour before the earthquake, and ended half an hour after the earthquake. The real time fluid analysis during drilling might have captured the signal of the Ms 4.0 earthquake at a quarter past six on April 27, one strong and nearest aftershock.

Tang, Lijun; Luo, Liqiang; Lao, Changling; Wang, Guang; Wang, Jian; Huang, Yao

2014-04-01

89

40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Offshore Subcategory Pt. 435...C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The...Analytic Methods for the Oil and Gas Extraction...

2013-07-01

90

Effect of temperature and pressure on the density of drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory data are presented on the changes in the densities of 11-18 lb\\/gal oil and water base drilling fluids in the temperature and pressure ranges of 70Ā°ā»ā“Ā°Ā°sup 0\\/F and 0-14,000 psig. Results indicate that the change in density of a given type of drilling fluid appear to be independent of the initial density of the fluid, and as oil base

W. C. McMordie; R. Bland; J. M. Hauser

1983-01-01

91

Drilling fluid effects on crop growth and iron and zinc availability  

SciTech Connect

Waste drilling fluids are often land-farmed following completion of an oil or gas well in Colorado. This material usually contains production water, bentonitic clays, formation cuttings, barite, Na compounds, and synthetic organic polymers. The authors investigated the effects of 5 to 60 dry g drilling fluid kg{sup {minus}1} soil on the growth and trace metal concentration of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench DeKalb ST-6-S sudanense) in the greenhouse. A nonlinear regression exponential-rise model fit the increased plant total dry matter yield response to increasing drilling fluid rates. Increased plant tissue Fe concentration and uptake indicated that increased plant-available Fe was primarily responsible for the yield response, but increased Zn availability was also suspected. Results from a second greenhouse study confirmed that drilling fluid can also correct Zn deficiency in corn (Zea mays L.). Soil SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) was higher with increasing drilling fluid, but was still < 1. Other trace-element concentrations in sudangrass tissue and soil pH and EC{sub sat} were not significantly increased due to application of drilling fluid. This study showed that application of controlled rates of water-based drilling fluid from operations in Weld County, Colorado, was beneficial to the growth of sorghum-sudangrass and provided evidence that land application is an acceptable method of disposal.

Bauder, T.A.; Barbarick, K.A.; Ayers, P.D.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Shanahan, J.F. [Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1999-05-01

92

Hydrodynamic analysis of field data acquired during well drilling with aerated fluid.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During conventional well drilling the circulating system consists as follow, the drilling fluid is pumped downward into the drilling pipe until the bottom of the open hole then it flows through the drill bit, and at this point formation cuttings are incorporated to the circulating fluid and carried upward to the surface. The mixture returns up to the surface by an annular flow area. However, throughout drilling operations with aerated fluid, the drilling fluid used is composed by gas and an oil-based mud. In consequence, it involves a multiphase flow hydrodynamic analysis. For achieving this, it is necessary a better understood of the flow mechanisms in drilling rig and the operational technique. Therefore, it was carried out a multiphase conservative model that includes three mass equations and a momentum equation. The mathematical model is solved by numerical conservative schemes. The real operational conditions are fed to conservative model and the results are matched up to field measurements in several oil wells. Mainly, flow rates, drilling rate, well and tool geometries are data to estimate the profiles of pressure, mixture density, equivalent circulating density, gas fraction and solid carrying capacity. Even though the problem is very complex, the model describes, properly, the hydrodynamics of drilling techniques applied at oil fields. It is supported by the field data acquired and study cases.

Lopez, Ruben; Lopez, Antonio; Herrera, Maria

2006-11-01

93

Effects of drilling fluids on soils and plants: I. Individual fluid components  

SciTech Connect

The effects of 31 drilling fluid (drilling mud) components on the growth of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Tendergreen) and sweet corn (Zea may var. saccharata (Sturtev.) Bailey, Northrup King 199) were evaluated in greenhouse studies. Plants grew well in fertile Dagor silt loam soil (Cumulic Haploxeroll) when the soil was mixed with most soil-component mixtures at disposal proportions normally expected. Vinyl acetate and maleic acid polymer (VAMA) addition caused significantly increased growth at the 95% confidence level. No statistically significant depression of plant growth occurred at normal rates with asbestos, asphalt, barite, bentonite, calcium lignosulfonate, sodium polyacrylate, a modified tannin, ethoxylated nonylphenol, a filming amine, gilsonite, a Xanthan gum, paraformaldehyde, a pipe dope, hydrolized polyacrylamide, sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium hydroxide added as pellets, and a sulfonated tall oil. Statistically significant reductions in plant yields (at the 95% confidence level) occurred at normal disposal rates with a long-chained aliphatic alcohol, sodium dichromate, diesel oil, guar gum, an iron chromelignosulfonate, lignite, a modified asphalt, a plant fibersynthetic fiber mixture, lignite, a nonfermenting starch, potassium chloride, pregelatinized starch, and sulfated triglyceride. Thirteen drilling fluid components added individually to a fluid base (water, bentonite, and barite) and then to soil were also tested for their effect on plant growth. Only the sulfated triglyceride (Torq-Trim) and the long-chain (high molecular weight) alcohol (Drillaid 405) caused no plant growth reductions at either rate added. The modified tannin (Desco) caused minimal reduction in bean growth only when added to soil in excess levels.

Miller, R.W.; Honarvar, S.; Hunsaker, B.

1980-01-01

94

Evaluating barite as a source of soluble carbonate and sulfide contamination in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Even when drilling-grade barites meet all current API specifications, they frequently are sufficiently contaminated with alkaline-soluble carbonate and sulfide minerals to cause serious drilling fluid problems. This paper describes in detail a new supplementary quality control test, based on barite caustic extraction, that can identify many of these problem barites. Widespread use of this new test should facilitate a significant improvement in the quality of barite used in drilling operations. 6 refs.

Binder, G.G. Jr.; Carlton, L.A.; Garrett, R.L.

1981-01-01

95

Evaluating barite as a source of soluble carbonate and sulfide contamination in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Even when drilling-grade barites meet all current API specifications, they frequently are contaminated sufficiently with alkaline-soluble carbonate and sulfide minerals to cause serious drilling fluid problems. This paper describes in detail a new supplementary quality control test that can identify many of these problem barites. Widespread use of this new test should facilitate a significant improvement in the quality of barite used in drilling operations. 6 refs.

Binder, G.G. Jr.; Carlton, L.A.; Garrett, R.L.

1981-12-01

96

Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

2012-12-01

97

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

Core Leak-off tests are commonly used to ascertain the ability of a drilling fluid to seal permeable rock under downhole conditions. Unfortunately, these tests are expensive and require a long time to set up. To monitor fluid invasion trends and to evaluate potential treatments for reducing fluid invasion on location, a simpler screening test is highly desirable. The Capillary Suction Time (CST) Test has been used since the 1970's as a fast, yet reliable, method for characterizing fluid filterability and the condition of colloidal materials in water treatment facilities and drilling fluids. For the latter, it has usually been applied to determine the state of flocculation of clay-bearing fluids and to screen potential shale inhibitors. In this work, the CST method was evaluated as a screening tool for predicting relative invasion rates of drilling fluids in permeable cores. However, the drilling fluids examined--DRILPLEX, FLOPRO, and APHRON ICS--are all designed to generate low fluid loss and give CST values that are so high that fluid invasion comes to be dominated by experimental artifacts, such as fluid evaporation. As described in this work, the CST procedure was modified so as to minimize such artifacts and permit differentiation of the fluids under investigation.

Tatiana Hoff; Fred Growcock

2004-12-30

98

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP\\/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP\\/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2005-01-01

99

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP\\/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP\\/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2003-01-01

100

Heavy metals contribution of non-aqueous fluids used in offshore oil drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitoring program was performed to investigate heavy metal content alteration due to exploratory drilling for oil using non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) in Brazilian offshore, 900m deep. Fourteen elements were monitored in 54 sites and it was verified that after drilling activities the average Ba concentration was remarkably increased with respect to background level, even 1 year after the activity. A

Dirce Pozebon; Eder C. Lima; Sandra M. Maia; Jandyra M. G. Fachel

2005-01-01

101

Ecosystem Perspective on Potential Impacts of Drilling Fluid Discharges on Seagrasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potential effects of oil drilling fluid discharges upon Thalassia seagrass ecosystems were examined to provide general insights and raise ecotoxicological issues relevant to problems of addressing a priori, ecolgical effects of anthropogenic actions. Micr...

J. R. Kelly T. W. Duke M. A. Harwell C. C. Harwell

1987-01-01

102

ECOSYSTEM PERSPECTIVE ON POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF DRILLING FLUID DISCHARGES ON SEAGRASSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Potential effects of oil drilling fluid discharges upon Thalassia seagrass ecosystems were examined to provide general insights and raise ecotoxicological issues relevant to problems of addressing a priori, ecolgical effects of anthropogenic actions. Microcosm experiments have de...

103

Impact of drilling fluids on seagrasses: an experimental community approach (journal version)  

SciTech Connect

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum Konig et Sims) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth, and chlorophyll content of grass and associated epiphytes, and rates of decomposition as indicated by weight loss of grass leaves in treated and untreated microcosms were compared. There were statistically significant differences in community structure and function among untreated microcosms and those receiving the clay and drilling fluid. For example, drilling fluid and clay caused a significant decrease in the numbers of the ten most numerically abundant (dominant) macroinvertebrates, and drilling fluid decreased the rate at which Thalassia leaves decomposed.

Morton, R.D.; Duke, T.W.; Macauley, J.M.; Clark, J.R.; Price, W.A.

1986-01-01

104

IMPACT OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON SEAGRASSES: AN EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNITY APPROACH (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum Konig et Sims) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth and chlorop...

105

Development and Field Results of a Unique Drilling Fluid Designed for Heavy Oil Sands Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling Heavy Oil Sands are traditionally fraught with many technical challenges. Stability of the wellbore, accretion of the tar on drill string and solids control equipment, torque- drag considerations, extreme temperature conditions, as well as the handling of oily solids are just some of the challenges that need to be met. This paper describes the development and testing of a

B. K. Warren; L. V. Baltoiu; R. G. Dyck

2005-01-01

106

Fluid-Dynamic Aspects of the Performance of Diamond Drill Bits Used in Rotary Rock Drilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As in deep-hole drilling with any other type of rock bit, drilling with diamond bits can be envisioned to consist of two more or less separate parts. The first is the breaking of the rock by the diamond cutters and the formation of rock chips, while the s...

T. R. Sundaram

1982-01-01

107

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON REEF CORALS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter reviews research on the effects of drilling mud on coral reef communities, concentrating on the major reef fauna: the reef-building or hermatypic corals. Drilling mud is an effluent introduced to the marine environment in large quantities during the typical offshore ...

108

Effect of additives and aging on the rheological properties of water-based drilling fluid  

SciTech Connect

In order to achieve the optimum performance of any mud during drilling operations, the physical as well as the chemical properties of the mud must be carefully controlled by adding sufficient quantity of additives. Viscosity, gel-strengths (initial and 10 min), and fluid loss are of particular consideration while designing a drilling fluid. This article deals with studies on effect of additives and aging on behavior of the rheological properties of the bentonite clay of the Bhavnagar area of Gujrat.

Singh, P.K.; Sharma, V.P. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826 004 (IN))

1991-01-01

109

Ecosystem perspective on potential impacts of drilling-fluid discharges on seagrasses  

SciTech Connect

Potential effects of oil drilling-fluid discharges upon Thalassia seagrass ecosystems were examined to provide general insights and raise ecotoxicological issues relevant to problems of addressing a priori, ecolgical effects of anthropogenic actions. Microcosm experiments have demonstrated effects upon both autotrophic and heterotrophic species, as well as the processes of primary productivity and decomposition. Significant ecological changes may result from disturbance effects related to the physical presence of higher particle loads, in addition to effects resulting from toxic features of drilling fluids.

Kelly, J.R.; Duke, T.W.; Harwell, M.A.; Harwell, C.C.

1987-01-01

110

Optimization of Fluids for Diamond Core Drilling of Silicates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The zeta-potential of Westerly granite and its component phases, quartz and microcline in aqueous solutions of dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) are reported together with the influence of this surfactant on the rate of drilling these materials wi...

N. H. Macmillan R. E. Jackson W. M. Mularie A. R. C. Westwood

1975-01-01

111

Comparative evaluation ofanaerobic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and fatty derivatives currently used as drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examination of a number of potential and currently used carrier fluids for invert emulsion drilling fluids in the ECETOC screening test revealed clear differences with respect to their easy anaerobic biodegradability. Fatty acid- and alcohol-based ester oils exhibited excellent anaerobic degradation to the gaseous final end products of the methanogenic degradation pathway, methane and carbon dioxide. Mineral oils, dialkyl

J. M. Limia

1995-01-01

112

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

A method is developed to monitor the rate of loss of air from aphrons at elevated pressures. This technique is used to study the effects of pressure, fluid composition and rates of pressurization and depressurization on the kinetics of air loss from aphrons in APHRON ICS{trademark} drilling fluids.

Maribella Irving; Fred Growcock

2004-11-30

113

OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION  

SciTech Connect

The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01

114

Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling  

SciTech Connect

The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-06-01

115

Practical guide for testing and maintenance of high temperature drilling fluids during drilling, coring, logging, and cementing wellbores  

SciTech Connect

Control of mud weight, fluid rheology, and loss of fluids from the mud system are the most important parameters that must be monitored and controlled during any drilling operation on a mud system. Also, alkalinity control is of paramount importance of systems where the pH is kept below 10.0 because of the differences in the chemical reactions on clays and precipitation of carbonates. Ideally, one must be able to duplicate down-hole conditions of temperature, pressure, shear stress and differential pressure between the column of fluid and the formation. Unfortunately, the instrumentation for monitoring the above is either very scarce, nonexistent, or does not completely duplicate downhole conditions. Therefore, a thorough working knowledge and understanding of chemical reactions from laboratory studies that will take place in a given system under downhole conditions is helpful. There should be a sound scientific foundation established for any phenomenon before attempting to apply it in field procedures and utilization. During the past several years the authors have conducted detailed research on a variety of clay minerals for use as a primary viscosifier for water base drilling fluids. The following is a review of their findings. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Carney, L.L.; Guven, N. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (USA). Dept. of Geosciences)

1991-02-01

116

Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore (PB99-132938, PB99-132961, and PB99-134249), alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. ...

A. F. Meinhold

1998-01-01

117

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2003-10-01

118

Monitor and Characteristics of Fluids during Chinese Wenchuan Falt Scientific Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluids from WFSD-1 and WFSD-2 drilling holes in Chinese Wenchuan Falt Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) have been monitoring on site and some changes of gas compositions recorded during drilling when aftershocks happened in the Wenchun area, which may disply some potential and possibl relationships between the fluid changes and the aftershocks. An interesting fact was that some similar changes of the fluids were observed during the last Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project (CCSD) when two big earthquakes happened. Eight gases from WFSD-1 and WFSD-2 drilling holes were determined on site, among which H2, He, CH4, Ar, CO2, N2 and O2 were determined by OminiStar Mass Spectrometer and Rn by Rad-7 Radon monitor. The gases were brought up to the surface by drilling mud. They were degazed from mud by stirring it and the minus pressure with a low vacume pump, which was also used in pumping the gases into the on-site labs. The calibration curves of H2, He, CH4, Ar, CO2, N2 and O2 were made by using a set of standard gasese and Radon calibration was done in a specical lab and then used in on-site lab. Gas components changed during drillings and some of their concentrations increased and others decreased. If an aftershock happened, the gas changes were obsereved and their features as follows, 1) The fluids changed in groups. The concentrations of He, CO2 and H2 abnormally increased, but CH4 andAr decreased. 2) Multiple peaks occurred in the recorded fluid concentration and time curves. The components He, CO2 and H2 dispayed positive peaks, but Ar did negative peak. 3) Single peak was observed. He, CO2, CH4 and H2 displayed positive peaks, but Ar did negative peak again. 4) Whether a drilling process was continuing or not, small changes of fluid components were obsered in groups. 5) If the ratios of He/CH4 and He/Ar were used, the significant changes of peaks were observed in a case of an aftershock happening. 6) When the fluid changes in WFSD and CCSD were compared, an interesting fact was found that the similar changes of the fluids were observed in Chinese continental scientific drilling project during 2001 and 2005 when two big earthquakes happened then.

Luo, L.; Tang, L.; Xu, Z.; Haibin, L.

2010-12-01

119

Post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry in the Iheya North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 investigated the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough. Several post-drilling underwater vehicle investigations were conducted over 2 years to identify post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry. Drilling-induced high-temperature hydrothermal fluid vents were identified at deep holes not only near the naturally occurring NBC hydrothermal fluid vent (Site C0016) but also at the seafloor ˜450 m distal to the NBC vent (Site C0014), where no hydrothermal fluid discharge was observed prior to drilling. A chimney structure at Hole C0016A grew rapidly at the NBC mound crest, where only small chimneys had been found before drilling. A drilling-induced diffuse hydrothermal flow region spread at Site C0014, and this area was newly colonized by the galatheid crab. From a fluid chemistry perspective, the post-drilling hydrothermal fluids were enriched in Cl relative to seawater, although this fluid chemistry was not observed during the 12 years prior to drilling. The Cl-enriched fluid reservoir underlying the subseafloor impermeable layers, observed by IODP Expedition 331, is likely source for the Cl-enriched fluids discharging from the post-drilling vents. The drilling-induced physical disturbance of subseafloor hydrogeological structures would release such fluids to the seafloor. In turn, the rapid chimney growth at the NBC mound crest may also be attributed to highly turbulent fluid flow with the enlarged artificial vent of Hole C0016A, which can contribute to the retention of the fluid-seawater mixture for a sufficiently long period to precipitate sulfide/sulfate minerals on the seafloor.

Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Ryota; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Takazo; Konno, Uta; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Hatada, Kenta; Hirayama, Hisako; Fujikura, Katsunori; Furushima, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Watsuji, Tomo-o.; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Takai, Ken

2013-11-01

120

Method for controlling lost circulation of drilling fluids with water absorbent polymers  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of reducing lost circulation of drilling fluids in a borehole penetrating an underground formation, comprising: injecting a discrete slug of a hydrocarbon fluid into a borehole, the hydrocarbon fluid having dispersed therein about 10 to about 100 pounds of a water absorbent polymer per barrel of hydrocarbon fluid which expands upon absorbing water; injecting into the borehole a discrete slug of a hydrocabon fluid after the hydrocarbon fluid and polymer slug; injecting into the borehole a slug of water after the hydrocarbon fluid slug; forcing the hydrocarbon fluid and polymer slug into a lost circulation zone; mixing the water slug with the hydrocarbon fluid and polymer slug to allow the water absorbent polymer to absorb water and expand in the formation closing off the lost circulation zone; and circulating undesired compounds out of the borehole.

Walker, C.O.

1987-01-13

121

Hydrodynamics of the Fluid Filtrate on Drilling-In  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of the liquid penetrating into the formation after drilling-in has been determined on the basis of theoretical investigations. The dynamics of change in the bottom-hole pressure has been determined in this process. It has been shown that because of the water hammer, the bottom-hole pressure can be doubled in the presence of large fractures and pores closer to the well-bottom zone.

Abbasov, É. M.; Agaeva, N. A.

2014-01-01

122

Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied. PMID:20209242

Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

2010-03-01

123

Controllable magneto-rheological fluid-based dampers for drilling  

DOEpatents

A damping apparatus and method for a drillstring comprising a bit comprising providing to the drillstring a damping mechanism comprising magnetorheological fluid and generating an electromagnetic field affecting the magnetorheological fluid in response to changing ambient conditions encountered by the bit.

Raymond, David W. (Edgewood, NM); Elsayed, Mostafa Ahmed (Youngsville, LA)

2006-05-02

124

Terpolymers for use as high temperature fluid loss additive and rheology stabilizer for high pressure, high temperature oil well drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Novel water-soluble terpolymers comprising: 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid, sodium salt (AMPS), N, N-dimethylacrylamide, and acrylonitrile These terpolymers provide high temperature fluid loss additives and rheology stabilizers for high calcium-containing brine clay drilling fluids.

Giddings, D. M.; Ries, D. G.; Syrinek, A. R.

1985-03-05

125

Terpolymers for use as high temperature fluid loss additive and rheology stabilizer for high pressure, high temperature oil well drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Novel water-soluble terpolymers comprising: 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid, sodium salt (AMPS), acrylamide, N, N-diallylacetamide These terpolymers provide high temperature fluid loss additives and rheology stabilizers for high calcium-containing brine clay drilling fluids.

Giddings, D. M.; Ries, D. G.; Syrinek, A. R.

1985-03-05

126

Terpolymers for use as high temperature fluid loss additive and rheology stabilizer for high pressure, high temperature oil well drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Novel water-soluble terpolymers comprising: 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid, sodium salt (AMPS) N-vinylpyrrolidone, and acrylonitrile These terpolymers provide high temperature fluid loss additives and rheology stabilizers for high calcium-containing brine clay drilling fluids.

Giddings, D. M.; Ries, D. G.; Syrinek, A. R.

1985-03-05

127

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (III) Hydrothermal Fluid Geobarometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP wells will penetrate high pressure geothermal reservoirs where an understanding of the pressure effects on mineral equilibria is essential. The chemical compositions of fluids from active hydrothermal systems have long been applied to estimating reservoir temperature in subaerial geothermal systems at temperatures less than 300 °C and pressures along the H2O liquid/vapor P-T curve, where the pressures are low and the pressure effects on mineral equilibria are small. At pressures of hundreds of bars beneath mid-ocean ridge black smoker springs, the effect of pressure on mineral solubilities is substantial, and can be exploited to estimate pressure and temperature from fluid composition. In practice we compute mineral saturation indices, log(Q/K), for a given fluid for a wide range of P-T combinations, then plot log(Q/K) for alteration minerals against pressure at a series of temperatures so as to identify a possible "knot" in P-T-log(Q/K) space where a group of probable alteration minerals equilibrated with the fluid. We find that saturation index surfaces distinctly converge to zero in a narrow range of pressure and temperature. As an example, we estimate that for an East Pacific Rise 21 °N NGS fluid with a vent T=273 °C and vent P=260 bar, the reservoir conditions are likely T=370-420 °C and P=480-530 bar. To explore what aspect of the fluid chemistry causes the strong pressure effect on mineral solubilities, we computed the effect of pressure change on the activities of aqueous H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and other significant species in the 21 °N NGS fluid. At 420 °C, pH changes from 8 to 5 as pressure changes from 200 to 700 bar, an effect resulting from dissociation of HCl with increasing pressure. Similarly, chloride complex dissociations yield approximately 10-fold increases in Ca2+, Na+, and K+ concentrations with a 200 to 700 bar pressure increase. In another series of calculations, we synthesized a seawater-like fluid that was equilibrated at 400 °C and 500 bar with clinopyroxene, chlorite, epidote, feldspars, and quartz, then treated the fluid as an "unknown" for estimating P-T. Even for small departures from equilibrium P-T (e.g. +/- 25 °C), the mineral saturation surfaces change markedly, thereby supporting the conclusion that pressure effects on fluid composition are large enough to enable meaningful pressure and temperature estimations in deep hydrothermal systems.

Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2007-12-01

128

Real-Time Fluid and Gas Monitoring During Drilling of the SAFOD Main Hole in Parkfield, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the role and origin of fluids and gases associated with the San Andreas Fault zone (SAF). To gain information on fluids and gases at depth, we performed real-time mud gas monitoring during drilling of the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) Pilot Hole (PH) and Main Hole (MH). Gas extracted from returning drill mud was

T. Wiersberg; J. Erzinger

2005-01-01

129

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TWO GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS AND SIX ADDITIVES, ALONE AND COMBINED, TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...

130

Impact of drilling fluids on seagrasses: an experimental community approach (journal version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum Konig et Sims) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth, and chlorophyll content of grass and associated epiphytes, and rates of decomposition as indicated by weight loss of grass leaves in treated and

R. D. Morton; T. W. Duke; J. M. Macauley; J. R. Clark; W. A. Price

1986-01-01

131

ACUTE TOXICITY OF EIGHT LABORATORY-PREPARED GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute toxicity tests were conducted during August-September 1983 with eight laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (also called muds) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida. Two of t...

132

Evaluation of saponite and saponite/sepiolite fluids for geothermal drilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rheology and other properties of drilling fluids containing saponite and a saponite-sepiolite mixture as the main vicosifier have been systematically evaluated in the temperature range of 300-600(degree)F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16...

N. Guven D. J. Panfil L. L. Carney

1991-01-01

133

Cumulative Bioluminescence - A Potential Rapid Test of Drilling Fluid Toxicity: Development Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity is based on the spontaneous bioluminescence of Pyrocystis lunula, an easy-to-culture alga that vigorously responds to shear stress (mixing) by emitting a sharp burst of light. In contrast to other bioluminescence methods, a cumulative flux of light is measured with a photomultiplier that eliminates the effect of exposure time on test results.

A. K. Wojtanowicz; B. S. Shane; P. N. Greenlaw; A. V. Stiffey

1992-01-01

134

Fate and effects of drilling fluid and cutting discharges in shallow, nearshore waters  

SciTech Connect

The relationships between selected environmental parameters (sedimentology, trace metals, and hydrocarbons) and macroinfaunal assemblages were studied to determine the fate and effects of drilling fluid and cutting discharges from a multiple well site in a shallow nearshore environment. Results are presented.

Not Available

1989-01-01

135

USE OF THALASSIA AND ITS EPIPHYTES FOR TOXICITY ASSESSMENT: EFFECTS OF A DRILLING FLUID AND TRIBUTYLTIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Concurrent l2-week laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine toxicity of the suspended particulate phase (SPP) of drilling fluid to Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytes. est systems were treated once per week to achieve nominal concentrations of 100 mg/L SPP. hlo...

136

Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain indicating that very unusual microbes can be contained in a drilling fluid. All this testifies that kerosene film is indeed hard to remove and everyone should be aware on bacteria introduced with any drilling fluid. Our results demonstrate the necessity to have a drilling fluid data base when studying the microbial contents of ice cores.

Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

2003-04-01

137

DRILLING FLUIDS AND THE ARCTIC TUNDRA OF ALASKA: ASSESSING CONTAMINATION OF WETLANDS HABITAT AND THE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill s...

138

Tectonics, Fluids, and the Seismogenic Zone: Four Decades of Drilling at Convergent Margins (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of Tectonics, Fluids, and the Seismogenic Zone are three disciplines that have driven convergent margin drilling. Each of these major themes sequentially evolved as centerpieces of drilling as the intellectual framework and the requisite technologies developed. Each remains active today. In the 1970s and early 1980s, initial results from testing plate tectonic theory defined the nature of progressive accretion, and conversely, tectonic erosion at convergent margins. With the more robust D/V JOIDES Resolution, investigation of fluid pressure, compositions, migration paths, and sediment/rock permeability became possible. 3D seismic data, first available in the early 1990s, detailed fluid migration paths inferred from porewater geochemical anomalies, emphasizing the importance of faults as fluid conduits. 3D seismic volumes also resulted in extraordinary insights on the structure and tectonics of convergent margins. In the mid 1990s packer testing and long-term monitoring of fault zones provided the first estimates of in situ fluid pressures, permeabilities, and variation of the latter with effective stress. Experimental studies, and hydrological and geomechanical modeling have provided critical perspectives on the observational data. During the late 1990s and 2000s the convergent margin community focused on earthquake processes in the Seismogenic Zone Experiment (SEIZE). Understanding of tectonics and fluids, plus monitoring, 3D seismic imaging, Logging While Drilling technology, and D/V Chikyu riser drilling capability have all contributed to emergent accomplishments of SEIZE. Some key results of this program include 1) estimates of material flux into the seismogenic zone, 2) measurement of stress orientation and magnitude across the margin of SW Japan, 3) recognition of high velocity fault slip at shallow depths, 4) correlation of monitored variations in fluid pressure and composition with seismic events, and 5) the initiation of a deep riser hole. Currently the SEIZE program across SW Japan is the best active margin transect ever. Completion of the deep riser hole and associated monitoring will make this effort truly transformative.

Moore, J. C.; All Dsdp, Odp,; Iodp Convergent Margin Scientific Parties

2010-12-01

139

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

During this first Quarter of the Project, a team of five individuals was formed to characterize aphron drilling fluids, with the ultimate objectives to gain acceptance for this novel technology and decrease the costs of drilling mature and multiple-pressure formations in oil and gas wells. Aphron drilling fluids are very high low-shear-rate viscosity fluids laden with specially designed microbubbles, or ''aphrons.'' The focus of the Project is to develop some understanding of the aphron structure and how aphrons and base fluid behave under downhole conditions. Four tasks were begun during this Quarter. All of these focus on the behavior of aphrons: (a) Aphron Visualization - to evaluate various methods of measuring bubble size distribution, especially Acoustic Bubble Spectroscopy (ABS), in aphron drilling fluids at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density - to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity - to determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility - to determine whether aphron networks (similar to foams) in fractures and pore networks reduce fracture propagation. The project team installed laboratory facilities and purchased most of the equipment required to carry out the tasks described above. Then work areas were combined to permit centralized data acquisition and communication with internal and external file servers, and electronic and hard copy filing systems were set up to be compatible with ISO 9001 guidelines. Initial feasibility tests for all four tasks were conducted, which led to some modification of the experimental designs so as to enable measurements with the required accuracy and precision. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization, Aphron Air Diffusivity and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has some fundamental problems that may preclude realization of its objectives; alternative experimental approaches and methods of analysis will be explored during the next Quarter.

Fred Growcock

2003-12-31

140

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

We report on progress in three areas. In part one, the wetting effects of synthetic base oils are reported. Part two reports progress in understanding the effects of surfactants of known chemical structures, and part three integrates the results from surface and core tests that show the wetting effects of commercial surfactant products used in synthetic and traditional oil-based drilling fluids. An important difference between synthetic and traditional oil-based muds (SBM and OBM, respectively) is the elimination of aromatics from the base oil to meet environmental regulations. The base oils used include dearomatized mineral oils, linear alpha-olefins, internal olefins, and esters. We show in part one that all of these materials except the esters can, at sufficiently high concentrations, destabilize asphaltenes. The effects of asphaltenes on wetting are in part related to their stability. Although asphaltenes have some tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces from a good solvent, that tendency can be much increased near the onset of asphaltene instability. Tests in Berea sandstone cores demonstrate wetting alteration toward less water-wet conditions that occurs when a crude oil is displaced by paraffinic and olefinic SBM base oils, whereas exposure to the ester products has little effect on wetting properties of the cores. Microscopic observations with atomic forces microscopy (AFM) and macroscopic contact angle measurements have been used in part 2 to explore the effects on wetting of mica surfaces using oil-soluble polyethoxylated amine surfactants with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and extent of ethoxylation. In the absence of water, only weak adsorption occurs. Much stronger, pH-dependent adsorption was observed when water was present. Varying hydrocarbon chain length had little or no effect on adsorption, whereas varying extent of ethoxylation had a much more significant impact, reducing contact angles at nearly all conditions tested. Preequilibration of aqueous and oleic phases appeared to have little influence over surfactant interactions with the mica surface; the solubility in water of all three structures appeared to be very limited. Commercial emulsifiers for both SBM and OBM formulations are blends of tall oil fatty acids and their polyaminated derivatives. In part three of this report, we integrate observations on smooth surfaces with those in Berea sandstone cores to show the effects of low concentrations of these products with and without the added complexity of adsorbed material from crude oils. Unlike the polyethoxylated amines studied in part two, there are significant non-equilibrium effects that can occur when water first contacts oil with dissolved surfactant. Very oil-wet conditions can be produced on first contact. Surfactant dissolved in oil had less effect on wetting alteration for one combination of crude oil and surfactant, although the generality of this observation can only be assessed by additional tests with crude oils of different composition. The wettability-altering effect of surfactants on both mica and Berea sandstone was most significant when they contacted surfaces after adsorption of crude oil components. Tests without crude oil might underestimate the extent of wetting change possible with these SBM and OBM emulsifiers.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2004-05-01

141

40 CFR Appendix 5 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by Gas Chromatography...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... true Determination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by...Part 435āDetermination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by...determines crude (formation) oil contamination, or other petroleum oil...

2009-01-01

142

40 CFR Appendix 5 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by Gas Chromatography...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Determination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by...Part 435āDetermination of Crude Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids by...determines crude (formation) oil contamination, or other petroleum oil...

2010-07-01

143

Final report on the design and development of a Rolling Float Meter for drilling-fluid outflow measurement  

SciTech Connect

Lost circulation, which is the loss of well drilling fluids to the formation while drilling, is a common problem encountered while drilling geothermal wells. The rapid detection of the loss of well drilling fluids is critical to the successful and cost-effective treatment of the wellbore to stop or minimize lost circulation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrument to accurately measure the outflow rate of drilling fluids while drilling. This instrument, the Rolling Float Meter, has been under development at Sandia since 1991 and is now available for utilization by interested industry users. This report documents recent Rolling Float Meter design upgrades resulting from field testing and industry input, the effects of ongoing testing and evaluation both in the laboratory and in the field, and the final design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wright, E.K.; Glowka, D.A.

1998-03-01

144

Modeling the discharge of cuttings and drilling fluids in a deep-water environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discharge models allow the prediction of the potential impact associated with drilling activities based on estimates of the initial spatial extent and thickness of accumulations on the seabed. As such, they are a valuable tool for both the oil industry and regulatory agencies. In this study we present the use of the Offshore Operators Committee Mud and Produced Water Discharge Model (OOC Model) in modeling the discharge of drilling activities in a deep-water environment, from a well located in the Campos Basin, offshore Brazil, at a depth of around 900 m. Field and discharge data collected during the drilling and discharge activities allowed us to carry out a modeling based on real data, that is, hindcast modeling. The verification of the model was made by comparing the hindcast modeling results with field observations. Discharges from both riserless and riser drilling were modeled. The riserless drilling was performed with seawater and water-based fluid (WBF), and riser drilling with non-aqueous fluid (NAF). According to model estimates, the deposits with greater thickness (˜66.5 cm) were those from the riserless phase. Maximum estimated thickness for the discharge of NAF cuttings was 0.76 cm. The comparison of modeling results with field observations showed that the estimates of both the area affected by the deposits and maximum thickness are satisfactory. The configuration of the affected area is harder to predict because small uncertainties, mainly related to the discharge activity itself, introduce a significant error. Thicknesses predicted from real data by hindcast modeling agree with estimates provided by forecast modeling presented by other authors. This means that, in areas where there is certain knowledge of the hydrodynamics, the OOC Model can be a valuable tool to determine the degree of potential impact associated with drilling activities.

Pivel, M. A. G.; Freitas, C. M. D. S.; Comba, J. L. D.

2009-01-01

145

High temperature drilling fluids based on sulfonated thermoplastic polymers  

SciTech Connect

An oil-based drilling mud is described which consists of: (a) a hydrocarbon oil; (b) about 1 to about 10 parts by weight of water per 100 parts by weight of the hydrocarbon oil; (c) about 20 to about 50 lb/bbl of at least one emulsifier; (d) weighting material necessary to achieve the desired density; and (e) about 0.25 to about 4.0 lb/bbl of a water insoluble and oil insoluble neutralized sulfonated thermoplastic polymer having a molecular weight as measured by GPC of about 5,000 to about 500,000, the water insoluble and oil insoluble neutralized sulfonated thermoplastic polymer having about 5 to about 100 meq. of sulfonate groups per 100 grams of the neutralized sulfonated thermoplastic polymer. The water insoluble and oil insoluble sulfonated thermoplastic is derived from a polymer selected from the group consisting of polystyrene, poly-t-butyl-styrene, polychlorostyrene, poly-alpha methyl styrene, polyvinyl toluene and co- or terpolymers of styrene and acrylonitrile, methyl methacrylate and butadiene.

Walker, T.O.; Peiffer, D.G.; Lundberg, R.D.

1986-04-01

146

Visualization of fluid-loss polymers in drilling-mud filter cakes  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the appearance of fluid-loss polymers in freeze-dried drilling-mud filter cakes that was studied with scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) photography. Three fluid-loss polymers were studied: starch, polyanionic cellulose (PAC), and a high-temperature-(HT)-stable, sulfonate polymer. The effects of electrolyte contamination (NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) and temperature (200 to 350{degrees} F) on the appearance of the fluid-loss polymers were also studied. A correlation between API filtrate and polymer appearance was sought.

Plank, J.P. (SKW Trostberg A.G. (NO)); Gossen, F.A. (SKW Chemicals Inc. (NO))

1991-09-01

147

Application of TiO2 and fumed silica nanoparticles and improve the performance of drilling fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these experiments, two nano particles dissolved that in water, are used to inject into simulated environment and also the effect of these nano particles in water base drilling typical fluid have been investigated. Using nanoparticles in all samples has resulted in recovery increase. Finally, considering the experiments, it is demonstrated that flows with nano and in particular Titanium dioxide nano(TiO2) have the highes amount of recovery factors. So, using nanoparticles in water flooding and even some of the polymer flooding ones. Also, results of the other tests, regarding each typical drilling costs of each foot and importance of time in the operation, it is possible to replace technically and economically ordinary additional (here, the widely used sodium hydroxide) with Fumed silica nano in drilling fluid to prevent cement-contamination of the drilling fluid. The advantages of nano TiO2 are possessing suitable thermal transition qualities in the drilling fluid.

Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hemmati, Mahmood; Bazgir, Saeed

2014-03-01

148

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): Obtaining Supercritical Geothermal Fluid from Hot Spot-Ridge Interaction.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) plans to drill one or more boreholes deep enough to penetrate into the supercritical zones believed to be present beneath three currently exploited geothermal systems in oceanic ridge-type spreading centers in Iceland. The main aim is to produce much higher enthalpy fluids for power production than are currently being utilized. The IDDP is being funded by Deep Vision, a consortium of Icelandic energy companies. A feasibility study is currently under-way and is examining three candidate sites as well as the economics and engineering issues of drilling to greater depths and higher temperatures. Responding to the invitation of Deep Vision, a meeting funded by the International Scientific Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), was held in Reykjavik in June 2001, to help define the tasks for the feasibility study and to begin planning a scientific program to take advantage of the IDDP boreholes. A Science Applications Group of Advisors (SAGA) with both Icelandic and international membership has been formed to formulate and oversee these activities. An IDDP-ICDP science workshop on the IDDP will be held in Reykjavik in March 2002 with 50-75 participants to formulate a drilling and science plan. A second workshop is being considered for 2003 and drilling is expected to take place in 2004. Iceland is a particularly favorable location for research on very high enthalpy geothermal fluids and it is hoped that such fluids can be produced at high flow rates. In Iceland the repeated seismicity and volcanic activity in the rift environments above the hot spot create high permeability and high temperatures at drillable depths. Temperatures greater than 300oC are commonly encountered in wells drilled to depths of 2 km in high-temperature geothermal fields in Iceland. The likely existence of permeable regions in brittle basaltic rock at supercritical temperatures at still greater depths beneath the candidate geothermal fields is inferred from the distribution of hypocentral depths of seismic activity that continues to below about 5 km depth. These circumstances are the product of the special geological environment of Iceland, a coincidence of a mantle plume with the divergent plate boundary at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Thus the IDDP offers the international geoscience community a unique opportunity: (a)to investigate the magmatic and fluid circulation character of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (on land) in relation to the hot spot, and (b)to study and sample fluids at supercritical conditions which resemble black smoker marine hydrothermal systems. These aspects of high-temperature hydrothermal systems have rarely been available for direct observation. International science and engineering participation is welcomed in the (IDDP).

Fridleifsson, G. O.; Elders, W. A.; Saito, S.

2001-12-01

149

Optimal determination of rheological parameters for Herschel–Bulkley drilling fluids and impact on pressure drop, velocity profiles and penetration rates during drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling fluids containing bentonite and bentonite–lignite as additives exhibit non-Newtonian rheological behavior which can be described well by the three parameter Herschel–Bulkley rheological model. It is shown that determination of these parameters using standard techniques can sometimes provide non-optimal and even unrealistic solutions which could be detrimental to the estimation of hydraulic parameters during drilling. An optimal procedure is proposed

V. C. Kelessidis; R. Maglione; C. Tsamantaki; Y. Aspirtakis

2006-01-01

150

Cumulative bioluminescence; A potential rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity: development study  

SciTech Connect

A new rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity is based on the spontaneous bioluminescence of Pyrocystis lunula, an easy-to-culture alga that vigorously responds to shear stress (mixing) by emitting a sharp burst of light. In contrast to other bioluminescence methods, a cumulative flux of light is measured with a photomultiplier that eliminates the effect of exposure time on test results. Light quenching, caused by the presence of a toxicant, results in the dose/response relationship (DSR) typical for the enzymatic reaction kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten (dissociation) constant is used as a direct measure of toxicity. The evaluation study involved multiple experiments with 60 samples of drilling fluids from the U.S. gulf coast, as well as such typical toxicants as diesel oil, mineral oil, and chrome lignosulfonate (CLS). In this paper, the results of the test error analysis and comparisons with the Microtox and Mysid shrimp assays are reported.

Stiffey, A.V. (Naval Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Lab. (US))

1992-03-01

151

Method and apparatus for testing spotting fluids for releasing stuck drill pipe  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for determining the efficacy of a spotting fluid intended to release a drill pipe which has become stuck within a borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an open vessel containing a drilling mud filter cake, which cake has a top surface; (b) a cylinder having an outer surface with at least a portion of the outer surface adhering to the cake and the cylinder having the axis thereof oriented parallel to the surface of the cake; (c) a spotting fluid applied to the cake surrounding the cylinder; (d) a means for applying a force perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder to separate the cylinder from the cake; and (e) a means for concurrently measuring and recording the force required to separate the cylinder from the cake.

Hubbard, J.C.

1989-05-16

152

New techniques to measure and control corrosion and thermal stability of drilling fluids in deep wells  

SciTech Connect

Problems associated with geothermals and deep well drilling can be minimized by the proper choice and control of the drilling fluid formulation. High temperature gelation tendency of conventional muds has been avoided by employing the sepiolite (sea mud) systems. Several formulations are tested at elevated temperatures ranging from room temperature to 500/sup 0/F. Also, the pH value, flow rate and pressure were changed to examine their effect on mud stability. The drilling operation is simulated in the laboratory by two flow loops. The corrosion rate is measured under the above conditions by the weight loss technique. Three different corrosion cells were used in this study; each one is designed to suit a specific technique. Each cell is loaded with two flat coupons of mild steel (1018). The weight loss of the specimen before and after the run during a certain period of time is a measure of the corrosion rate. The corrosion rate is minimized by adjusting the pH value and the formulation of the fluid. Corrosion rates are measured using different techniques--the flow loop, rolling and static. A new mag-corrosion cell has been incorporated in the loop to combine the rotational motion and the linear flow of the fluids in the annulus. Different mud formulations have been tested. Corrosion is higher when using the mag-corrosion cell than when using the linear flow when both are exposed under the same conditions. Static technique rates are less than rolling. Critical pH values are determined for specific drilling fluids.

Moussa, M.M.

1983-03-01

153

Laser-rock-fluid interaction: application of free-electron laser (FEL) in petroleum well drilling and completions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the first year of a Gas Research Institute funded research program to study laser-rock-fluid interaction will be presented. The overall purpose of this research is to determine the feasibility, costs, benefits, and the environmental impact of using laser technology to drill and complete oil and gas wells. When drilling and completing petroleum wells, many rock types (sandstone,

Darien G. O'Brien; Ramona M. Graves; Erin A. O'Brien

1999-01-01

154

Experimental study of the effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental study of the effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid Ping Yang 1,2, Min-hui Wu2, Xue-wen Zhu2, Tao Deng2, Xue-qing Sun2 1. Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,China 2. Department of Geotechnical Engineering,Tongji University,Shanghai 200092,China Abstract The process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid was tested by changing the polyanionic cellulose content in low-solids drilling fluid. The effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid was analyzed. The test results showed that when time of filtration is same, the volume of filtrate loss decreases linearly with increasing polyanionic cellulose content. When polyanionic cellulose content is same, the rate of filtrate loss decreases nonlinearly with increasing time and the rate of filtrate loss will reach a stable value.The volume of filtrate loss in 7 to 8 minutes can reaches half of the total volume of filtrate loss. At the same time, the rate of filtrate loss of drilling fluid decreases nonlinearly with increasing viscosity.When the apparent viscosity is between 3.5~4.15 MPa.s, decrease speed of rate of filtrate loss of drilling fluid is quick. The results are helpful for characteristics evaluation of filtrate loss of drilling fluid and control of filtrate loss. Keyword Polyanionic Cellulose,Drilling Fluid,Process of Filtrate Loss Acknowledgments This investigation was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (projects No. 41002093 and 41072205); the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (project No. B308), Tongji University; and the Program for Young Excellent Talents, Tongji University. The authors are extremely grateful for the financial support from these five organizations.

yang, P.

2013-12-01

155

Nature of the changes in clay minerals of the high temperature drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The mineral reactions in the sepiolite and palygorskite-based drilling fluids were systematically examined with X-ray diffraction and analytical electron microscopy before and after hydrothermal treatments. Both sepiolite and palygorskite were converted into smectites and other mineral phases in fluids containing either chlorides or hydroxides. The conversion rate usually increased with increasing temperature. Below 600/sup 0/F, the smectite occurred as thin films with irregular outlines with a high layer charge, whereas discs or platelets with hexagonal outlines were formed above 600/sup 0/F. The conversion of sepiolite (or palygorskite) to smectite at low temperatures (< 600/sup 0/F) was accomplished through epitaxial growth of smectite films around sepiolite (or palygorskite) fibers. At higher temperatures (> 600/sup 0/F), smectites and other new mineral phases were formed through a dissolution-precipitation mechanism. Smectite formed from sepiolite was chemically and structurally a trioctahedral variety; however, smectite formed in the palygorskite fluids consisted of trioctahedral and di-trioctahedral phases. The ditrioctahedral phase with approximately equal amounts of Al and Mg in the octahedral sheets was an unusual reaction product. The rheological properties of the fluids such as viscosity and fluid loss, were related to the mineralogical changes at elevated temperatures. The formation of smectite platelets, discs, and other new mineral phases obviously exerted a detrimental effect on the rheology of the fluids.

Lee, L.J.

1984-01-01

156

SUMMARY OF DRILLING FLUID RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, GULF BREEZE  

EPA Science Inventory

Drilling-fluid related research at the U.S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, is summarized. The program is conducted primarily through contracts, grants, and some inhouse projects designed to assess the potential hazard to the marine environment from fluids dis...

157

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity With Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

The Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer has been identified as a potential method for monitoring the size distribution of aphrons in situ, such as in an oil well drilling fluid flowline.1 Research was continued from Task 1.1 of this Project, Aphron Visualization,2 in which ABS was tested against laser light scattering (Coulter Counter) and optical (visual) imaging to determine the bubble size distribution (BSD) of the aphrons at ambient temperature and pressure. Task 2.1 continued this investigation by measuring the bubble size distribution via ABS and optical imaging at elevated pressures up to 2000 psig.

Bob O'Connor; Fred Growcock

2004-12-01

158

Effects of drilling fluid/shale interactions on borehole stability: Studies using speeton shale. Topical report, June 1994-November 1996  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory equipment and procedures have been developed to permit specimens of downhole shale cored in oil-base mud to be restored to in situ temperature and stresses prior to being drilled with a fluid to be evaluated, preventing the introduction of a contaminating gaseous phase that has flawed most other laboratory investigations. These studies show that the aqueous activity of either a water-base or oil base emulsion drilling fluid can be adjusted to cause water to enter or be extracted from a low-permeability shale. The relative activities developed at downhole conditions determine the chemical potential driving force that will either support or oppose any hydraulic potential driving force caused by difference between the borehole pressure and the formation pore pressure. The results provide guidance for the development of a new class of water-base fluids that can be an environmentally acceptable alternative to hydrocarbon-base fluids for drilling troublesome shales.

Simpson, J.P.; Walker, T.O.

1996-12-01

159

Techniques for evaluating and improving the performance of the iron oxides used as barite substitutes in oil well drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Barite is the main weighting agent for drilling fluids because it has the required advantage of high specific gravity together with chemical inertness, and it is non-abrasive. In searching for a substitute for barite, this work was designed to evaluate and improve the performance of a selected group of iron oxides in drilling fluids. Iron minerals evaluated in this study were: Ilmenite, under the commercial name of Bargain; Itibirite, composed of natural hematite ore, with small amounts of quartz under the commercial name of Densimix; and Synthetic Hematite, a biproduct resulting from the processing of various iron oxides and sulphides produced by Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation. The evaluation of the various drilling mud types revealed advantages of iron oxide weighted drilling fluids over barite weighted systems. Non-dispersed iron oxide drilling fluids exhibited better rheological performance and higher stabilization characteristics at ambient and high temperature. Iron oxide weighted mud systems showed superior rheological and gel strength characteristics at high temperature. Higher penetration rates were estimated for iron oxide weighted mud types based on drilling fluids properties alone. Iron oxide muds were less reactive with shale cuttings than barite mud and therefore less liable to cause borehold problems. The mineral grain attrition of the iron oxides is slower and less destructive to mud properties. Special mud formation incorporating polymer additives can be utilized to either eliminate or reduce the mud wear effect and grain attrition of solids. This study shows evidence that there are prospects for salvage of the iron minerals from the drilling fluids after the well completion which will make the utilization of iron minerals more economical than barite.

El-Bokle, F.M.

1982-01-01

160

Transesterification Reaction for Synthesis of Palm-based Ethylhexyl Ester and Formulation as Base Oil for Synthetic Drilling Fluid.  

PubMed

The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s(-1) and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol(-1). The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

2014-04-26

161

Effects of drill cuttings discharge on meiofauna communities of a shelf break site in the southwest Atlantic.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the effects of drill cutting discharges on the structure of meiofauna communities in an area of the shelf break at Campos Basin, Southeast Brazil. Drilling activities were operated, in a first phase, with water-based fluid and, in a second phase, with synthetic fluid paraffin-based (NAF-III). A total of 135 samples taken at a pre-drilling situation (MS1) and two post-drilling moments (MS2 and MS3-3 and 22 months post-drilling, respectively) were analyzed. Effects on meiofauna were dependent on two main factors: 1-the impact received during drilling operation, if water-based or synthetic/water-based drilling fluid and 2-the background state, if it already presented signs of previous drilling activities or not. Based on univariate and multivariate analysis, there were evidences that the most affected area after drilling was those under the influence of synthetic-based fluid and that already had signs of previous drillings activities. The region impacted only by water-based fluid was less affected and the only one that completely recovered after 22 months. Nematodes and copepods had different responses to the impact. While copepods flourish in the impacted area and recovered 22 months after drilling, nematodes were adversely affected shortly after drilling and the community structure only recovered where hydrocarbons had been depleted. PMID:20524060

Netto, Sérgio A; Fonseca, Gustavo; Gallucci, Fabiane

2010-08-01

162

Comparative evaluation of anaerobic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and fatty derivatives currently used as drilling fluids.  

PubMed

The examination of a number of potential and currently used carrier fluids for invert emulsion drilling fluids in the ECETOC screening test revealed clear differences with respect to their easy anaerobic biodegradability. Fatty acid- and alcohol-based ester oils exhibited excellent anaerobic degradation to the gaseous final end products of the methanogenic degradation pathway, methane and carbon dioxide. Mineral oils, dialkyl ethers, alpha-olefins, polyalphaolefins, linear alkylbenzenes and an acetal-derivative were not or only slowly degraded. Although the poor degradation results obtained in the stringent ECETOC screening test may not be regarded as final proof of anaerobic recalcitrance, nevertheless, these results were found to be in line with the present understanding of the structural requirements for anaerobic biodegradability of chemicals. The validity of the conclusions drawn is corroborated by published results on the anaerobic biodegradation behaviour of ester oils, mineral oils and alkylbenzenes in marine sediments. PMID:7552047

Steber, J; Herold, C P; limia, J M

1995-08-01

163

Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids  

PubMed Central

Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%.

Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

2014-01-01

164

Synthesis and performance evaluation of a new deoiling agent for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluids.  

PubMed

Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

2014-01-01

165

Subsurface fluid pressures from drill-stem tests, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High fluid pressures are known to be associated with oil and gas fields in the Uinta Basin, Utah. Shut-in pressure measurements from drill-stem tests show how pressure varies with depth and by area within the basin. The data base used in this report incorporates over 2,000 pressure measurements from drill-stem tests in wells completed prior to 1985. However, the number of useful pressure measurements is considerably less, because many drill-stem tests fail to stabilize at the actual formation pressure if the permeability is low. By extracting the maximum pressure measurements recorded in a collection of wells within an area, the trend of formation pressure within that area can be approximated. Areal compilations of pressures from drill-stem tests show that overpressured rock formations occur throughout much of the northern and eastern areas of the Uinta Basin. In particular, significant overpressuring (0.5 < pressure gradient < 0.8 psi/ft) is found throughout much of the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths ranging from 10,000 to 13,000 ft, equivalent to 5,000 to 8,000 ft below sea level. Limited data indicate that the pressure gradient declines at depths greater than 13,000 ft. An underpressured zone appears to exist in the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths shallower than 5,000 ft. Throughout the eastern Uinta Basin, moderately overpressured zones (0.46 < pressure gradient < 0.5 psi/ft) are common, with local evidence of significantly overpressured zones, but pressure gradients greater than 0.6 psi/ft are rare.

Nelson, P. H.

2002-01-01

166

Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.  

PubMed

We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage. PMID:23799238

Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

2013-08-01

167

Dispersant for water-based solids-containing fluids and a drilling fluid  

SciTech Connect

A dispersant is described for water-based, solids-containing fluids comprising a copolymer of a solufonated styrene monomer and a second monomer neutralized into having an amide substituent and being originally selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride, maleimide and dimethyl maleate, the copolymer having from 2 to 100 monomer units.

Branch, H. III

1986-04-08

168

Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1995-02-01

169

Effects of non-aqueous fluids cuttings discharge from exploratory drilling activities on the deep-sea macrobenthic communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses the effects of non-aqueous fluids (NAFs-type III) cuttings discharge from exploratory drilling activities on deep-sea macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, off the southeastern Brazilian coast, Rio de Janeiro State. One hundred and fifty nine sediment samples were taken with a 0.25 m 2 box corer at a depth of 902 m on three monitoring cruises: first cruise—before drilling (April 2001), second cruise—after drilling (July 2001), and third cruise—one year after drilling (July 2002). The results indicated no significant changes in values of density, number of families and functional groups related to drilling activities in the reference area (2500 m distance), and biological variations may be result from the natural variability of the fauna. Evidence indicates that drilling activities led to measurable effects on the community structure related to NAF cuttings discharge but were limited to a 500 m radius from the drilling well. Such effects were much more evident at isolated sites in the impact area (WBF and WBF+NAF areas) and are characterized as localized impacts. One year after drilling, a recolonization was observed, with the probable recovery of the macrobenthic community in most of the study area; only at part of the WBF+NAF area (stations 05, 24 and 36) was the community still undergoing recovery.

Santos, M. F. L.; Lana, P. C.; Silva, J.; Fachel, J. G.; Pulgati, F. H.

2009-01-01

170

Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of ?0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 × 103 to 2.4 × 104 cells/g and 3.5 × 108 to 4.2 × 109 cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids.

Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

2005-01-01

171

Microbial diversity in ultra-high-pressure rocks and fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China.  

PubMed

Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of approximately 0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 x 10(3) to 2.4 x 10(4) cells/g and 3.5 x 10(8) to 4.2 x 10(9) cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids. PMID:15933024

Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

2005-06-01

172

Use of 'Thalassia' and its epiphytes for toxicity assessment: Effects of a drilling fluid and tributyltin  

SciTech Connect

Concurrent 12-week laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine toxicity of the suspended particulate phase (SPP) of drilling fluid to Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytes. Test systems were treated once per week to achieve nominal concentrations of 100 mg/L SPP. Chlorophyll content of Thalassia leaves and epiphyte biomass and chlorophyll content were monitored during each test. Laboratory exposures were conducted in 7-L, flow-through (7 L/h) microcosms consisting of Plexiglas cylinders containing intact cores of Thalassia from a local seagrass bed. Field exposures were conducted in water-tight plexiglas chambers (2 m x 2 m x 1.5 m) placed over test plots in a seagrass bed for 24 h during SPP additions. Epiphyte biomass was reduced after 6 weeks of intermittent exposure to SPP in laboratory and field tests. After 12 weeks, epiphyte biomass had increased to densities similar to control values.

Macauley, J.M.; Clark, J.R.; Pitts, A.R.

1990-01-01

173

Census and Statistical Characterization of Soil and Water Quality at Abandoned and Other Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringen...

A. R. Dutton H. S. Nance

2003-01-01

174

CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in

Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

2003-01-01

175

Simulation of the wellbore hydraulics while drilling, including the effects of fluid influxes and losses and pipe washouts  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a method to simulate the circulating system while drilling a well. For any given pump rate the pressure losses through the surface system, down the drill pipe, through the bit, and up the annulus can be determined. The algorithm also has the capability of simulating a washout in the drill string, losing fluid to the formation, having fluid produced into the annulus, and fracturing the formation(s). It is general enough to calculate pressure losses for turbulent and laminar flow, simultaneously. Formulation of the algorithm is presented, showing how a network type of solution is used to calculate the pressures and flows. Detailed surface pressure data was obtained from 2 wells in Texas. The circulation simulation program was used to calculate pressure losses at various depths in each well for a variety of circulation rates. Results show close agreement with the field data. 19 references.

Millheim, K.K.; Tulga, S.S.

1982-01-01

176

Effects of Drilling Fluid/Shale Interactions on Borehole Stability: Studies Using Speeton Shale. Topical Report, June 1994-November 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory equipment and procedures have been developed to permit specimens of downhole shale cored in oil-base mud to be restored to in situ temperature and stresses prior to being drilled with a fluid to be evaluated, preventing the introduction of a co...

J. P. Simpson T. O. Walker

1996-01-01

177

BIOCHEMICAL MEASURES OF CORAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND MICROBIAL INFECTION WITH EXPOSURE TO OIL AND GAS WELL DRILLING FLUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform. After 6 weeks exposure, coral frag...

178

Solids-free drilling systems  

SciTech Connect

The drilling fluid industry has based its marketing, merchandising, and engineering emphasis on gel and barite as principal components in drilling fluid systems for the domestic oil industry. The detrimental effects of five drill solids in drilling fluid systems on the rotary drilling environment is well known. The development and application of clear unweighted and weighted drilling fluids has reached are advanced stage and progressive oil operators should consider the application of solids-free drilling fluids in future drilling projects. The advantages of using clear drilling fluids are pointed out.

Roberts, C.

1984-07-01

179

Fluid kinematics, fluid residence times, and rock degassing in oceanic crust determined from noble gas contents of deep sea drilling project pore waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3He, 4He, Ne, and Ar in sedimentary pore fluids, extracted in situ, were measured on samples fro Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sites 398, 410, 419, 420, 424, 436, and 438. Earlier results from DSDP leg 15 are also discussed. Where regional sediment cover prevents direct penetration of seawater into basement rocks at sites 149, 436, and 438, He

Ross O. Barnes; W. Brian Clarke

1987-01-01

180

Dynamic measurement of drilling fluid rheology at elevated temperature and pressure  

SciTech Connect

Due to instability and degradation of the conventional drilling fluids specially under high shear rate, elevated temperatures and chemically complex environments of deep and geothermal wells, it is essential to modify and develop stable batches of clay suspensions that can perform adequately under these conditions. To obtain batches, a reliable set-up should be designed and constructed to examine and measure all the properties that may possibly change under the prevailing conditions. A scaled dynamic flow loop is designed and built in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at the University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran. This set-up can simulate efficiently the bottomhole condition e.g. high temperature up to 450/sup 0/F, high shear rate up to 50,000 sec/sup -1/. The system pressure is maintained above the saturation pressure of water at the test temperature. Dynamic filteration rate and the corrosion rate is monitored instantaneously at wide range of bottomhole conditions. The flow parameters NandK,/tau/, ..gamma.. etc., are obtained by measuring ..delta..P across the 3-tube viscometer using the DP 15-150 pressure differential transducers. The ambient properties are measured by Baroid multi-speed viscometer and compared with data obtained from the loop. Two batches composed of sepiolite and polymer were tested. Effective viscosity is increased significantly at high temperature for the first and second batches. The consistency and thermal stability of these fluids may be attributed to the transfer of sepiolite to smectite at high temperature and high shear.

Moussa, M.M.; Al-Marhoun, M.A.

1985-03-01

181

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

During this second Quarter of the Project, the first four tasks of Phase I--all focusing on the behavior of aphrons--were continued: (a) Aphron Visualization--evaluate and utilize various methods of monitoring and measuring aphron size distribution at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density--investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity--determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility--determine whether aphron bridges created in fractures and pore throats reduce fracture propagation. The project team expanded the laboratory facilities and purchased a high-pressure system to measure bubble size distribution, a dissolved oxygen (DO) probe and computers for data acquisition. Although MASI Technologies LLC is not explicitly ISO-certified, all procedures are being documented in a manner commensurate with ISO 9001 certification, including equipment inventory and calibration, data gathering and reporting, chemical inventory and supplier data base, waste management procedures and emergency response plan. Several opportunities presented themselves to share the latest aphron drilling fluid technology with potential clients, including presentation of papers and working exhibit booths at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and the SPE Coiled Tubing Conference & Exhibition. In addition, a brief trip to the Formation Damage Symposium resulted in contacts for possible collaboration with ActiSystems, the University of Alberta and TUDRP/ACTS at the University of Tulsa. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. Although the Aphron Air Diffusivity task has been impeded by the lack of a suitable DO probe, it is hoped to be completed on time, too. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has had significant delays caused by faulty equipment and will likely require an additional month of work. Meanwhile, an assessment of potential methodologies for the Aphron Hydrophobicity project has been initiated and is now focused on measuring wettability of the aphron surface rather than interfacial tension.

Fred Growcock

2004-03-31

182

Simulation of the wellbore hydraulics while drilling, including the effects of fluid influxes and losses and pipe washouts  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a method to simulate the circulating system while drilling a well. For any given pump rate the pressure losses through the surface system, down the drill pipe, through the bit, and up the annulus can be determined. The algorithm also has the capability of simulating a washout in the drill string, losing fluid to the formation, having fluid produced into the annulus, and fracturing the formation(s). The algorithm is general enough to calculate pressure losses for turbulent and laminar flow, simultaneously. This covers the situation where multiple flow regimes exist in the same circulation loop. Formulation of the algorithm is presented, showing how a network type of solution is used to calculate the pressures and flows. The iterative solution converges rapidly and can be used for real time and faster than real time simulation. Detailed surface pressure data was obtained from two wells in Texas. The circulation simulation program was used to calculate pressure losses at various depths in each well for a variety of circulation rates. Results presented in this paper show close agreement with the field data. To show the versatility of the simulation algorithm a series of idealized circulation system simulations are presented. These include various downhole circulation situations such as lost circulation, circulation without returns, and fluid production response as a function of permeability and pressure, and circulating with a hole in the drill string.

Millheim, K.K.; Tulga, S.

1982-09-01

183

Compendium of regulatory requirements governing underground injection of drilling waste.  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of waste are produced when oil and gas wells are drilled. The two primary types of drilling wastes include used drilling fluids (commonly referred to as muds), which serve a variety of functions when wells are drilled, and drill cuttings (rock particles ground up by the drill bit). Some oil-based and synthetic-based muds are recycled; other such muds, however, and nearly all water-based muds, are disposed of. Numerous methods are employed to manage drilling wastes, including burial of drilling pit contents, land spreading, thermal processes, bioremediation, treatment and reuse, and several types of injection processes. This report provides a comprehensive compendium of the regulatory requirements governing the injection processes used for disposing of drilling wastes; in particular, for a process referred to in this report as slurry injection. The report consists of a narrative discussion of the regulatory requirements and practices for each of the oil- and gas-producing states, a table summarizing the types of injection processes authorized in each state, and an appendix that contains the text of many of the relevant state regulations and policies. The material included in the report was derived primarily from a review of state regulations and from interviews with state oil and gas regulatory officials.

Puder, M. G.; Bryson, B.; Veil, J. A.

2002-11-08

184

Drilling fluids and the arctic tundra of Alaska: assessing contamination of wetlands habitat and the toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and fish (journal version)  

SciTech Connect

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill sites and their reserve pits showed an increase in common and trace elements and organic hydrocarbons in ponds near to and distant from reserve pits. Ions elevated in water were Ba, Cl, Cr, K, SO4 and Zn. Concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, and Si in sediments were higher in near and distant ponds than in control ponds. The predominant organics in drill-site waters and sediments consisted of aromatic and paraffinic hydrocarbons characteristic of petroleum or a refined product of petroleum. In 96-hr exposures in the field, toxicity to Daphnia Middendorffiana was observed in water from all reserve pits, and from two of five near ponds, but not from distant ponds. In laboratory tests with Daphnia magna, growth and reproduction were reduced in dilutions of 2.5% drilling fluid (2.5 drilling fluid: 97.5 dilution water) from one reserve pit, and 25% drilling fluid from a second.

Woodward, D.F.; Snyder-Conn, E.; Riley, R.G.; Garland, T.R.

1988-01-01

185

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the experimental results of some baseline imbibition tests on recovery of mineral oil at very strongly water wet conditions (VSWW) from sandstones with air permeability ranging from 80 to 360 md. Mixed wettability cores were prepared by adsorption from either Minnelusa or Gullfaks crude oil using either synthetic Minnelusa reservoir brine or sea water. Recovery of two synthetic-based mud (SBM) base oils, Petrofree(reg sign)SF and LVT 200 from mixed wettability cores gave results that correlated closely with results for refined oils with viscosities ranging from 3.8 to 84 cp. Two synthetic-based mud emulsifiers (LE SUPERMUL and EZ MUL(reg sign)NT) were added to mineral oil and tested for their effect on the wettability of MXW-F core samples as indicated by spontaneous imbibition. In both cases a significant decrease in water wetness was obtained.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2003-05-01

186

EFFECT OF WELL-DRILLING FLUIDS OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS AND MICROBIAL INFECTION OF THE REEF BUILDING CORAL 'MONTASTREA ANNULARIS'  

EPA Science Inventory

The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.0001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform (30 deg 7.5 min N, 85 deg 46.3 min...

187

State Data Related to Abandoned Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of ...

H. S. Nance A. R. Dutton

2003-01-01

188

Eggbeater PDC drillbit design eliminates balling in water-based drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a novel polycrystalline-diamond-compact (PDC)-bit concept based on insights into PDC-bit cutting mechanism and rock behavior during drilling. The design comprises a hydraulic layout that optimizes bit cleaning and cuttings removal in soft and sticky formations. Significant improvements in performance have been achieved in Cretaceous and Triassic formations drilled with water-based muds.

Zijsling, D.H.; Illerhaus, R.

1993-12-01

189

Evaluation of slurry injection technology for management of drilling wastes.  

SciTech Connect

Each year, thousands of new oil and gas wells are drilled in the United States and around the world. The drilling process generates millions of barrels of drilling waste each year, primarily used drilling fluids (also known as muds) and drill cuttings. The drilling wastes from most onshore U.S. wells are disposed of by removing the liquids from the drilling or reserve pits and then burying the remaining solids in place (called pit burial). This practice has low cost and the approval of most regulatory agencies. However, there are some environmental settings in which pit burial is not allowed, such as areas with high water tables. In the U.S. offshore environment, many water-based and synthetic-based muds and cuttings can be discharged to the ocean if discharge permit requirements are met, but oil-based muds cannot be discharged at all. At some offshore facilities, drilling wastes must be either hauled back to shore for disposal or disposed of onsite through an injection process.

Veil, J. A.; Dusseault, M. B.

2003-02-19

190

Reactions of Attapulgite and Sepiolite in High-Temperature Drilling Fluids  

SciTech Connect

The fibrous clay minerals attapulgite and sepiolite have been subjected to hydrothermal reactions between 149 C (300 F) and 427 C (800 F). A 4% suspension of each of these clays was autoclaved for 16 to 24 hours with and without the addition of salts of NaCl and KC1 at 1% concentration. These fibrous clay minerals start to convert at 204 C (400 F) to a smectite with a lamellar morphology. In fact, attapulgite converts more readily than sepiolite, and the attapulgite-to-smectite transformation is fully completed at 316 C (600 F), whereas 20% to 50% of the sepiolite remains intact at this temperature. The conversion of the fibrous double- and triple-chain silicates of attapulgite and sepiolite to a layered silicate, such as smectite, favorably affects the rheology of the drilling fluids based on these clays. The mechanism of the conversion is, however, different for these fibrous clays. Attapulgite dissolves first and then smectite precipitates whereas this mechanism takes place for sepiolite at 316 C (600 F). Both attapulgite and sepiolite, and their reaction products, have been examined with an analytical electron microscope (JEM-100CX) in TEM, STEM, SEM, and SAD modes. The intensities of the characteristic X-ray spectra for the elements Mg, Al, Si, Fe, Ca, and K are measured. These observations indicate that (1) significant chemical differences exist between the fibrous clays and the smectites formed from them and (2) morphological features of the smectites vary with the temperature and with the presence of the salts in the system.

Guven, N.; Carney, L. L.; Lee, L-J

1981-01-01

191

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

This first semiannual report covers efforts to select the materials that will be used in this project. Discussions of crude oils, rocks, smooth mineral surfaces, and drilling mud additives are included in this report.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman r. Morrow

2002-06-01

192

Effects of fluids on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature microstructures observed in samples from SAFOD drill cores indicate fluid-related deformation and chemical reactions occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations, document open pores that formed in-situ during or after deformation. In TEM images, many pores with high aspect ratio appear to be unconnected. They were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting that elevated pore fluid pressure exist in the fault gouge, preventing pore collapse. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault rocks is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. TEM imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. In few samples syntectonic fluid-assisted overgrowth of chlorite-rich films on slickensides partly replaced sedimentary quartz grains. Quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved with sutured boundaries. Newly-formed phyllosilicates are illite-smectite phases, Mg-rich smectites and chlorite minerals. They are very fine-grained (down to 20 nm) and nucleate at grain surfaces (interfaces), which in many cases are pore or fracture walls. These relatively straight or curved crystals grow into open pore spaces and fractures. They are arranged in a card-house fabric with open pore spaces between the flakes. Locally, clay flakes are bent, folded or show sigmoidal shapes indicating that they were involved in faulting. The clay particles do not show a preferred shape orientation. The predominantly random orientation distribution of the clay minerals was confirmed by x-ray synchrotron texture analysis. Pole figures show very weak textures with maxima around 1.2 m.r.d. and minima around around 0.8 m.r.d., indicating that a majority of crystals are oriented randomly. The dominance of randomly oriented clay particles, characterized by weak fabrics, may influence the mechanical stability of fault zone rocks. Formation of secondary calcite cement reveals fluid-assisted fracture healing. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows at least three different generations of calcite veins confined to lithoclasts, displaying dissolution seams. Additionally, crack and seal processes in K-feldspar are identified. The calcite grains exhibit different degrees of deformation with evidence for twinning and crystal plasticity.

Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Morales, L. G.; Rybacki, E.; Wenk, H.; Dresen, G. H.

2011-12-01

193

Helium measurements of pore fluids obtained from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD, USA) drill cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk 4He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 ± 1.3 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 at 21°C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 × 10-18 cm2 s-1 (21°C) to 3.0 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 (150°C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of 4Hewater for matrix porosity (˜3%) and tortuosity (˜6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 (21°C) and 1 × 10-7 (120°C), effectively isolating pore fluid 4He from the 4He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 ± 0.4% (SD, n = 4) and mudstones 3.1 ± 0.8% (SD, n = 4).

Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B. M.

2011-02-01

194

A study to optimize drilling fluids to improve borehole stability in natural gas hydrate frozen ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising price of natural gas and long term energy supply problems are a global stimulus to find alternative energy sources to mitigate an impending crisis. Natural gas hydrate (NGH) is a new and promising research area in modern earth sciences and the energy industry. An important issue for the development of potential nature gas hydrate exploitation is successful drilling

Shu-qing Hao

2011-01-01

195

Ice core drilling at Vostok  

NSF Publications Database

Jane Dionne cc: Chairperson, NSF Committee on Environmental Matters Dr. Eric Saltzman Dr. Jean Jouzel Dr. A.I. Danilov DEEP ICE CORE DRILLING AT VOSTOK STATION, ANTARCTICA: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Summary Statement The deep drilling project at Vostok station Antarctica involves the use of a mixture of kerosene and Freon (CFC-11) as a drilling fluid. During each drill run approximately 30 liters of drill fluid is removed from the hole on the cable, drill, and ice core.

196

Fluid flow in sub-sea floor processes and future ocean drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies indicate that fluids are present in the Earth's crust from the surface to at least 10 to 15 km. Fluids play a vital role in linking various physical and chemical processes by transporting energy and solutes at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Below the sea floor, fluids are involved in seismogenic zone dynamics, global chemical cycles, gas hydrate formation, mid-oceanic hydrothermal systems, biological community development, and sediment diagenetic processes (Figure 1). Fluid fluxes through the sea floor and oceanland interfaces play a major role in the global water cycle, but these fluxes remain to be quantified. While the main scientific question centers on the role of fluid in transporting heat and mass in various settings, the following specific issues form the foundation for a better understanding of the role of fluids in subsea floor processes:

Ge, S.; Bekins, B.; Bredehoeft, J.; Brown, K.; Davis, E. E.; Gorelick, S. M.; Henry, P.; Kooi, H.; Moench, A. F.; Ruppel, C.; Sauter, M.; Screaton, E.; Swart, P. K.; Tokunaga, T.; Voss, C. I.; Whitaker, F.

197

Reactive fluid transport in CO2 reservoir caprocks: constraints from scientific drilling of a natural CO2 reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term performance of reservoir caprocks in geological CO2 storage sites remains uncertain due to the poorly constrained nature of field-scale fluid-mineral reaction kinetics and CO2 transport processes in low permeability rocks. Predicting the nature, rates and impacts of CO2 penetration into the caprocks from numerical modelling studies maybe undermined by their reliance on laboratory derived reaction kinetics from short-term experiments, and the complexity of the coupled reactive transport processes at the nano- and micro-scale. We report here on the early results from scientific drilling and laboratory analysis of the caprocks of a stacked sequence of natural CO2 reservoir at Green River, Utah. In summer 2012, diamond drilling to a depth of 325m, adjacent to a CO2 degassing normal fault recovered core from two major CO2 reservoirs in the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones and from the intervening Carmel Formation regional caprock. In-situ pH, CO2 concentrations and fluid element and isotope geochemistry were determined from wireline downhole sampling of pressurized fluids from the reservoirs. The fluid geochemistry provides important constraints on reservoir filling by flow of CO2-charged brines through the fault damage zone, macro-scale fluid flow in the reservoirs and the state of fluid-mineral thermodynamic disequilibrium from which the nature of the fluid-mineral reactions can be interpreted. Mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical profiles through portions of the caprocks in contact with the CO2-charged reservoirs have been used to constrain the nature and penetration depths of the CO2-promoted fluid-mineral reaction fronts. The major reactions are the dissolution of diagenetic dolomite cements and hematite grain coatings which generate porosity in the caprocks. Analysis of the generated pore structure from a variety of analytical techniques will be discussed. Stable C- and O-isotopic shifts in the composition of the carbonate cements record their dissolution-recrystallization and transport of the isotopic composition of the CO2-charged fluids into the caprocks. The mineralogical profiles combined with advective-diffusive modelling are used to constrain the rates of the fluid-mineral reactions and the propagation velocity of the reaction fronts. These reaction fronts penetrate the seals on length-scales of centimetres to tens of centimetres over the ~400,000 year history of the site, with the reservoir ages constrained by U-Th dating of carbonate veins deposited in the CO2 degassing faults. This analysis attests to the important role that fluid-mineral reactions have on retarding the reaction front velocity, limiting the impact of the CO2-charged fluids on porosity generation and degradation of the caprock geomechanical strength.

Kampman, N.; Bickle, M. J.; Bertier, P.; Busch, A.; Chapman, H.; Evans, J. P.; Graham, C.; Harrington, J.; Maskell, A.

2013-12-01

198

Drilling fluid conversion: Selection and use of Portland or blast-furnace-slag cement  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of drilling mud to oilwell cement has advanced from an unpredictable laboratory curiosity to a practical reality. Recent field introduction of polymer dispersants, organic accelerators, and an alternative cementitious material have provided two refined and practical conversion methods. Each method claims universal applicability plus performance superior to that of conventionally mixed and pumped Portland cement. Both blast-furnace-slag (BFS) and Portland cement are used for drilling-mud conversion. Portland and BFS mud conversions can use the same recently developed polymer dispersants, filtration-control materials, defoamers, and other additives that are typically used to treat high-temperature, highly-salt-contaminated drilling muds. Experience in the field and laboratory has demonstrated that conversion with BFS or Portland cement is essentially one technology from a pilot-test and application standpoint. While use of these two materials reflects essentially one technology, distinct performance and cost differences exist. These differences define the specific economic application advantages and must be considered when a decision to use BFS or Portland cement is made. Rational selection of mud-to-cement conversion depends on a detailed economic comparison of basic materials, logistics, and equipment availability.

Schlemmer, R.P.; Branam, N.E.; Edwards, T.M.; Valenziano, R.C.

1994-12-01

199

Evaluation of Geothermal Drilling Fluids Using a Commercial Bentonite and a Bentonite/Saponite Mixture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High temperature properties of two clay fluids, based on commercially available bentonite and a bentonite-saponite mixture, are evaluated at the temperature range 300-600 deg F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Bentonite fluids exhib...

N. Guven L. L. Carney B. E. Ridpath

1987-01-01

200

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (IV) Interpretations of Black Smoker Fluid Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One scientific goal of the IDDP is to understand high-temperature reaction zones such as those that feed hydrothermal fluids to active mid-ocean ridge black smoker vents. Smoker fluids emerge from a reservoir of composition, pressure and temperature resembling those expected in a supercritical IDDP well in the Reykjanes geothermal system. We have reconstructed black smoker fluids based on published analyses, and then computed mineral saturation indices, log(Q/K), for a wide range of P-T conditions, from which we identify a pressure and temperature where a group of probable alteration minerals equilibrated with the fluid. The estimated reservoir conditions commonly reflect approximately 60°C of cooling at the vent in excess of that from adiabatic decompression. Saturation index surfaces distinctly converge to zero in a narrow range of pressure and temperature, but the small angle of intersection of most curves yield substantial uncertainty, especially in pressure. Feldspars, quartz, garnet, actinolite, wairakite and chlorite have a stronger pressure dependence than do others, so they become the principal indicators of pressure, which is especially reflected in pH and silica solubility. An accurate reconstructed in situ pH is essential. In reconstructing fluids, we recompute pH to high P-T starting from the pH measured on shipboard in cooled fluid samples. Aside from temperature effects, the pH in such samples is elevated by mixing with cold seawater and lowered by precipitation of vent sulfides. To examine our understanding of pH, we scrutinized the saturation states of sulfides in the reconstructed vent fluids. For example, in 21°N EPR HG vent, we find that sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite are approximately saturated at the vent conditions (350°C, 260bar), and that pyrite is supersaturated and bornite is undersaturated. The former three are common vent sulfides. In the same fluid, silicates indicate reservoir conditions of approximately 450°C and 600 bar, at which conditions the sulfides are substantially undersaturated. These findings indicate that pH and concentrations of metals and sulfide measured in vent fluids are depressed by sulfide precipitation at and near the vent, thus an accurate estimate of the reservoir fluid properties requires a 're-dissolution' of metals and sulfide into the fluid, limited by saturation at reservoir P and T with sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite, which are common accessory minerals in seafloor-altered basalts.

Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2008-12-01

201

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

We report on a preliminary study of wetting effects of synthetic oil-based mud components on the wetting of mica surfaces using drilling mud fractions obtained from two wells drilled with synthetic oil-based muds (SBM). We have used these SBM fractions, one a filtrate and the other a centrifugate, to develop testing protocols for studies on smooth mica surfaces. Both SBM fractions changed the wetting of clean, dry mica surfaces, making them preferentially oil-wet. Solvents were tested to clean the mica with varying degrees of success. In tests designed to simulate contact between SBM fractions and reservoir pore surface, changes of wetting of mica that had previously been exposed to brine and crude oil were examined using six different crude oils in combination with several different brine formulations. Four of the six oils produced preferentially water-wet surfaces whereas two produced fairly oil-wet conditions on mica. Exposure to the SBM fractions tended to increase decane/water advancing contact angles on the more water-wet surfaces and to decrease those on the more oil-wet surfaces. Cleaning solvents were compared for their efficacy and the possibility of wettability restoration was examined for some of the cleaned surfaces.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2002-12-01

202

EFFECTS OF OIL AND GAS WELL-DRILLING FLUIDS ON THE BIOMASS AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF MICROBIOTA THAT COLONIZE SANDS IN RUNNING SEAWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Well-drilling fluid and a number of the known components (barite, clay, Aldacide, Surflo, and Dowicide, were tested for effects on the biomass and community structure of the microbiota that colonize marine sands exposed for eight weeks to running ambient seawater. Shading the mic...

203

Wettability and Prediction of Oil Recovery From Reservoirs Developed with Modern Drilling and Completion Fluids. Semiannual Report for October 1, 2004 through March 31, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exposure to crude oil in the presence of an initial brine saturation can render rocks mixed-wet. Subsequent exposure to components of synthetic oil-based drilling fluids can alter the wetting toward less water-wet or more oil-wet conditions. Mixing of the...

2005-01-01

204

Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in off-shore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. A series of 15·3 cm diameter cores of the seagrass-invertebrate community was collected from field sites for establishment and sampling of microcosms and in the sampling of field plots over time. Weekly exposures to drilling fluid were conducted in the laboratory microcosms at a mean total suspended matter concentration of 110·7 mg l -1 (± 17·7 SD), and in field plots by usage of acrylic exposure chambers at a mean concentration of 132·8 mg l -1 (±33·3 SD). Standing crop of T. testudinum was not affected by drilling fluid in the laboratory or field when measured after 6 and 12 week exposure periods. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period.

Weber, David E.; Flemer, David A.; Bundrick, Charles M.

1992-09-01

205

COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUID ON MACROBENTHIC INVERTEBRATES ASSOCIATED WITH THE SEAGRASS, THALASSIA TESTUDINUM, IN THE LABORATORY AND FIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. he research focused on: ) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in off-shore oil and...

206

Downhole fluid sampling and noble gas analysis of saline waters from the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole is situated at the NW-SE trending boundary between the Archaean and Proterozoic domains of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield (Finland). In August 2011, eight fluid samples were collected with a Leutert positive displacement sampler (PDS) from 500 m to 2480 m depth in the open bore hole. The PDS allows sampling at in situ pressures, thus minimising fractionation from degassing during sampling. At the surface, the samples were transferred into an evacuated sampling line connected with a Cu-tube and a glass bulb for gas sampling, a pressure gauge, and a thermometer. Gas was liberated with a heated ultrasonic bath and then admitted to the sampling devices. Gas/water ratios were already determined in the field during gas extraction. Saline groundwaters rich in methane, nitrogen, hydrogen and helium and with water stable isotope composition distinctive from meteoric and sea water have been found to host isolated ecosystems within the Precambrian crystalline bedrock of Outokumpu (Kietäväinen et al., 2013). In order to characterise the geochemical and microbiological evolution of the deep subsurface of the area, noble gas residence times have been calculated based on radiogenic (4He, 40Ar), nucleogenic (21Ne) and fissiogenic (134Xe, 136Xe) noble gas nuclides. Geochemical and microbiological variations together with hydrogeological and geophysical data indicate negligible vertical fluid flow in the bedrock. Moreover, noble gas diffusion models show that diffusion is not likely to affect noble gas concentrations of groundwater at or below 500 m depth in Outokumpu. Therefore in situ accumulation was assumed as a basis for the age determination. In general, residence times between 10 and 50 Ma were indicated by 4He and21Ne, while somewhat younger ages were obtained by 40Ar, using average values for porosity, density and concentration of radioactive elements in the bedrock of Outokumpu. Kietäväinen R., Ahonen L., Kukkonen I.T., Hendriksson N., Nyyssönen M. and Itävaara M. (2013), Appl. Geochem. 32, 37-51.

Wiersberg, Thomas; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Niedermann, Samuel

2014-05-01

207

Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field  

SciTech Connect

The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in offshore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period.

Weber, D.E.; Flemer, D.A.; Bundick, C.M.

1992-01-01

208

Drill, Baby, Drill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

Kerkhoff, Todd

2009-01-01

209

Polar organic compounds in pore waters of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Eyreville core hole: Character of the dissolved organic carbon and comparison with drilling fluids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cores recovered at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, were analyzed to characterize the dissolved organic carbon. After squeezing or centrifuging, a small volume of pore water, 100 ??L, was taken for analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Porewater samples were analyzed directly without filtration or fractionation, in positive and negative mode, for polar organic compounds. Spectra in both modes were dominated by low-molecular-weight ions. Negative mode had clusters of ions differing by -60 daltons, possibly due to increasing concentrations of inorganic salts. The numberaverage molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight values for the pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure are higher than those reported for other aquatic sources of natural dissolved organic carbon as determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In order to address the question of whether drilling mud fluids may have contaminated the pore waters during sample collection, spectra from the pore waters were compared to spectra from drilling mud fluids. Ions indicative of drilling mud fluids were not found in spectra from the pore waters, indicating there was no detectable contamination, and highlighting the usefulness of this analytical technique for detecting potential contamination during sample collection. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

Rostad, C. E.; Sanford, W. E.

2009-01-01

210

Evaluation of slurry injection technology for management of drilling wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, thousands of new oil and gas wells are drilled in the United States and around the world. The drilling process generates millions of barrels of drilling waste each year, primarily used drilling fluids (also known as muds) and drill cuttings. The drilling wastes from most onshore U.S. wells are disposed of by removing the liquids from the drilling

J. A. Veil; M. B. Dusseault

2003-01-01

211

Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (VI) Fluid-rock Interactions in the Reykjanes Geothermal System as Indicated by Alteration Mineralogy and Sulfur Isotopes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and salinity of geothermal fluids at Reykjanes resemble evolved seawater, suggesting that subsurface conditions at Reykjanes may be analogous to sea-floor black smokers. The high temperature reaction zone that is presumed to control the composition of the hydrothermal fluid is interpreted to occur deeper than the present depth of drilling, which reached just over 3 km in the well RN-17, during the initial stage of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project. The geothermal fluids deposit massive sulfide scale in production pipes with sulfur isotope values ranging from 2.0° to 4.4°, similar to black smoker sulfide deposits. Sulfur isotope values from altered basalt in drill cuttings range from 4.3° to 10.5°, suggesting a larger component of reduced seawater sulfate in the shallow up-flow zone relative to the H2S in the high temperature hydrothermal fluid. Minor element distributions in the samples suggest the presence of two or more lava series with varying degrees of differentiation. The cutting samples are primarily composed of glassy hyaloclastites, holocrystalline basalt flows, and hypabyssal diabasic intrusives. An assemblage of greenschist facies alteration minerals, including actinolite, prehnite and epidote, that implies temperatures reached at least 250°C, is found at depths as shallow as 350 m. This requires hydrostatic pressures that exceed the boiling point to depth curve, and therefore it must record alteration at higher fluid pressures when Reykjanes was covered by a Pleistocene ice sheet. These alteration phases are presumed to have formed from meteoric waters, rather than from the presently active seawater-recharged system. There is a profound disparity in the intensity of alteration within the two dominant rock types even at greenschist grades. The holocrystalline basalts/intrusives have undergone only limited alteration: plagioclase is mostly unalbitized and uralitization of clinopyroxene is very limited. In contrast, the hyaloclastites show intense alteration with calc- silicate alteration assemblages comprising calcic plagioclase, grandite garnet, prehnite, epidote, hydrothermal clinopyroxe, and titanite. These assemblages indicate higher water-rock ratios, and much higher aCa++/aH+2 in accompanying hydrothermal fluids than typically encountered during normal seafloor alteration, possibly reflecting the higher glass content of the basaltic rocks in Reykjanes relative to normal seafloor crust. Future core drilling at depths up to 5 km, into the high temperature reaction zone, will provide the opportunity to trace the evolution of the dominant fluids in the system from meteoric water to seawater.

Marks, N.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2006-12-01

212

Hydrothermal fluid-mineral interactions within volcanic sediment layer revealed by shallow drilling in active seafloor hydrothermal fields in the mid-Okinawa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TAIGA11 Expedition of R/V Hakurei-maru No.2 was conducted in June, 2011 to study subseafloor environment below active hydrothermal fields using a shallow drilling system (called as Benthic Multi-coring System, BMS). Three active hydrothermal fields at Iheya North Knoll (27 47'N, 126 54'E), at Izena Hole Jade site (27 16'N, 127 05'E) and at Izena Hole Hakurei site (27 15'N, 127 04'E) were selected as exploration targets, to focus on a hydrothermal fluid circulation system that develops in sediment consists of volcaniclastic and hemipelagic materials. In this presentation, we will report mineralogy of hydrothermal precipitates and altered clay minerals together with geochemistry of pore fluids, to discuss hydrothermal interactions beneath an active hydrothermal field. In the Iheya North Knoll hydrothermal field, the BMS drilling successfully attained to 453 cmbsf at the station 200 meters apart from the central mound area. The obtained core consisted almost entirely of grayish white altered mud that was identified as kaolinite by XRD. Pore fluid from the corresponding depth showed enrichment in major cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and Cl, which may be explained as a result of involvement of water into the kaolinite. Since kaolinite is considered as stable in rather acidic environment, its abundant occurrence beneath the seafloor would be attributed to a unique hydrothermal interaction. A possible scenario is intrusion of the vapor-rich hydrothermal component that has experienced phase separation. In the Jade hydrothermal fields in the Izena Hole, the BMS drilling successfully attained to 529 cmbsf at the marginal part of a hydrothermal field. The obtained core comprised grayish white hydrothermal altered mud below 370 cmbsf. Occurrence of native sulphur is also identified. Unfortunately, pore fluid could not be extracted from the intense alteration layer. In the Hakurei hydrothermal fields in the Izena Hole, the BMS drilling successfully attained to 610 cmbsf near one of of large massive sulfide spires. The obtained core showed evidence for sulfide/sulfate mineralization below 223 cmbsf. Pore fluid from corresponding depth show enrichement in Si, K, Ca and NH4, which could be attributed to lateral intrusion of the hydrothermal component. This result suggests the mineralization is related with fluid mixing between the hydrothermal component and seawater component within the sediment layer beneath the seafloor.

Ishibashi, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Omori, E.; Takahashi, Y.; Furuzawa, Y.; Yamanaka, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Yoshizumi, R.; Urabe, T.

2012-12-01

213

An investigation of fretting behaviour of several synthetic base oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and physical properties are quite different for mineral oil and synthetic oil. Compared to the investigation of mineral oil, less work on fretting behaviour of synthetic oils was reported. In this paper, a study of typical synthetic base oils such as polyalkylene glycol (PAG), polyalphaolefin (PAO) and silicone oil has been conducted. The contact consisted of a fixed

Z. A. Wang; Z. R. Zhou

2009-01-01

214

Geochemical evidence for fluid flow in the upper and subducting plates of the Costa Rica margin: Results from CRISP drilling during Exp. 334 and 344 (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CRISP (Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project) is designed to investigate the processes that control fault zone behavior during earthquake nucleation and rupture propagation at erosional subduction zones. Fluids and associated diagenetic reactions are key components of this project, as they can have a profound impact on the shallow thermal structure and fluid content of the subducting and upper plates; fault zone stability and seismogenesis; and the transfer of elements and isotopes to the ocean, volcanic arc, and mantle. The pore fluid geochemistry at sites drilled in the upper and middle slope of the Costa Rica margin document fluid advection along fault zones in the upper plate, and demarcate a horizontal fluid transport zone along the discontinuity between the slope apron and underlying upper plate sediments that is continuous between Sites U1378 and U1379. Fluid flow at these sites overprints the general geochemical profiles that are influenced by in situ diagenetic reactions such as ion exchange, microbial metabolic processes, volcanic ash alteration, and carbonate diagenesis. Site U1379, drilled on the upper slope above the locked portion of the plate boundary, intersected a coarser-grained sediment interval with pervasive faulting at ~600 to 800 mbsf. Here a decrease in the concentration of Cl and of other major elements, and maxima in thermogenic hydrocarbon concentrations are observed. Based on the geothermal gradient at this site the temperature is too low to support the in situ production of thermogenic hydrocarbons or for extensive clay dehydration, thus these geochemical signals indicate a deeper source for the fluid and migration along the permeable horizons. These deep-sourced fluid signatures are even more pronounced at Sites U1378 and 1380, drilled in the middle slope, above the unlocked portion of the plate boundary. Here the horizontal transport zone is well confined to a shear zone that extends from ~480 to 550 mbsf, at the boundary between lithologic Units I and II that defines the interface between the slope sediment cover and deeper upper plate material. The Cl, Li, and hydrocarbon concentration data indicate that this fluid originated from a source temperature greater than 90°C. Within the well-cemented sediments below the slope cover, there is a more pervasive non-foccussed transport of a fluid, fresher than seawater, having a strong signature of ash/basalt interaction (high Ca, low Mg), and a marked increase in C1/C2+ ratio, indicating either a more biogenic signature of the gases or/and an extensive migration effect on the gas composition. Geochemical data at two sites drilled on the incoming plate, reveal fluid flow within the permeable upper oceanic crust. At Site U1381, the sulfate concentration profile shows a reversal below ~40 mbsf, with a steady increase in concentration with depth. This observation is similar to that previously reported at the nearby incoming sediment section offshore the Nicoya Peninsula, and reflect diffusional communication with a fluid with seawater-like chemistry in the igneous basement. The sulfate concentration profile at Site U1414 is unusual in that it displays a second minimum at 330 mbsf, which corresponds to a sharp minimum in calcium and a maximum in barium concentrations. These data suggest lateral flow of fluid originating landward of Site U1414 where microbial oxidation of methane and/or other organic carbon sources has depleted dissolved sulfate.

Torres, M. E.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Harris, R. N.; Formolo, M.; Choi, J.; Berg, R. D.; Nuzzo, M.

2013-12-01

215

High temperature drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A partially amidated terpolymer is described which consists of: (a) maleic anhydride; (b) styrene; and (c) acrylic or methacrylic acid; Wherein the molecular ratio of the components (a), (b) and (c) is from about 30:10:60 to about 50:40:10; and wherein from about 1-42 percent of carboxylic functionality has been converted to amide functionality by treatment with ammonia, ammonium hydroxide or primary or secondary lower alkyl amines having from about 1-5 carbon atoms in each alkyl group; the weight average molecular weight of the partially amidated terpolymer being from about 500-10,000.

Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

1986-07-22

216

Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling  

SciTech Connect

A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional drilling costs; and downhole weight-on-bit and drilling torque for diagnosing drill bit performance. In general, any measurement that could shed light on the downhole environment would give us a better understanding of the drilling process and reduce drilling costs.

FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

1999-10-07

217

Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.  

PubMed

This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions. PMID:24622553

Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

218

Drilling Microneedle Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rotating microneedles and microneedle arrays are disclosed that 'drill' holes into a biological barrier, such as skin. The holes can of controlled depth and diameter and suitable for microsurgery, administering drugs and withdrawal of body fluids.

M. R. Prausnitz P. M. Wang

2004-01-01

219

Geothermal drilling research in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Current research and development in the following areas are presented: geothermal roller cone bits, polycrystalline diamond compact bits, a continuous chain drill, drilling fluids test equipment, mud research, inert fluids, foam fluids, lost circulation control, completion technology, and advanced drilling and completion systems. (MHR)

Varnado, S.G.

1980-01-01

220

Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan  

SciTech Connect

Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

1980-12-01

221

Drill Presses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

222

Geothermal drilling research in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the development of this resource. The Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE), is conducting an R and D program directed at reducing well costs through improvements in geothermal drilling and completion technology. This program includes R and D activities in high temperature drilling hardware, drilling fluids, lost circulation control methods, completion technology, and advanced drilling systems. An overview of the program is presented.

Varnado, S.G.; Maish, A.B.

1980-01-01

223

Well drilling  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for drilling wellbores in at least one producing formation in an oil and/or gas field for maximum development of the field with the least number of wellbores. The improvement described here comprises providing at least two spaced apart longitudinally extending drilling zones which are essentially parallel to one another. The two drilling zones extend across a substantial portion of the field. A first downwardly extending wellbore from a first site on a first of the drilling zones is drilled. The first wellbore curves toward the second of the drilling zones, straightening the first wellbore when it reaches a predetermined producing formation.

Schuh, F.J.

1986-11-11

224

Solids control evaluated during oil-based-mud drilling  

SciTech Connect

Esso Resources' Beaufort Sea drilling program revealed that oil retention on cuttings is most dependent on the size of the cuttings produced, which is dependent on the nature of the formation drilled. Topics considered in this paper include offshore drilling, drilling fluids, cuttings removal, size, drill bits, oil wells, natural gas wells, and offshore platforms.

Johancsik, C.A.; Grieve, W.R.

1987-05-04

225

Dynamic and static filtrate-loss techniques for monitoring filter-cake quality improves drilling-fluid performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes properties that are desirable in a water-based filter cake and test methods that can be used to measure these properties. One method uses a dynamic filtrate-loss apparatus that stirs the fluid mechanically during filtration. Test results show that the initial dynamic filter-cake formation is very important in controlling all future filtration properties and cake quality. The various factors affecting filter-cake quality and how they can be controlled to give better field performance are discussed.

Chesser, B.G.; Clark, D.E.; Wise, W.V.

1994-09-01

226

Arctic drilling base  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arctic drilling barge is disclosed to perform offshore activities in the shallow water, fast ice regions of the arctic seas. Optimal ice interaction is obtained by shaping the hull of the barge in the form of an upright frustum. Ice which does adhere to the barge is detached and melted by circulating fluid through a plurality of interior hull

G. H. Reusswig; J. D. Bozeman; D. R. Ray

1978-01-01

227

The Elastohydrodynamic Traction of Synthetic Base Oil Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) properties of lubricant blends. Three base fluids of very similar viscosities, a polyalphaolefin, a diester and an alky lated aromatic, have been obtained and their EHD film thickness and traction behavior measured at a range of pressures. Blends of these fluids have been prepared and the influence of blending

A. R. Lafountain; G. J. Johnston; H. A. Spikes

2001-01-01

228

Spacer fluids  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a conduit extends, the wellbore having a space occupied by a drilling fluid. It comprises displacing the drilling fluid from the space with a spacer fluid comprising: sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, bentonite, welan gum, surfactant and a weighting agent; and displacing the spacer composition and filling the wellbore space with a settable cement composition.

Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.; Wilton, B.S.; Carpenter, R.B.

1992-05-19

229

Comparison of hydrogeochemical logging of drilling fluid during coring with the results from geophysical logging and hydraulic testing Example of the Morte-Mérie scientific borehole, Ardčche-France, Deep Geology of France Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 980-m-deep well was cored on the Ardčche border of the Southeastern basin of France as part of the Deep Geology of France (GPF) programme. Hydrogeochemical logging was carried out during drilling, which involved the monitoring of physico-chemical parameters (pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity), and chemical parameters (concentrations of He, Rn, CO 2, CH 4, O 2 Ca, Cl and SiO 2) of the drilling fluid permanently circulating in the well. This logging programme was complemented by geophysical logging and two hydraulic tests. The combination of these measurements enabled identification of a transmissive interval due to fractures in the Jurassic carbonates, and of fluid inflow both at the base of the porous and slightly permeable Triassic sandstones and from an open fracture in the Permian conglomerates. These intervals are marked by changes in the drilling-fluid chemistry, such as an increase in chemical species content, or a drop in pH. The degree of modification depends on the natural permeability of the fractures and the salinity of the fluids. The porous and permeable intervals are also marked by He anomalies, which act as a tracer for these zones. Comparison between the geophysical and hydrogeochemical logs reveals that the latter provide information on the liquid phase, whether the fractures are productive or not, whereas the geophysical logs are more directly related to the solid phase.

Aquilina, L.; Eberschweiler, C.; Perrin, J.; Deep Geology of France Team

1996-11-01

230

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established an Extreme Drilling Lab to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 feet. This paper details the challenges of ultra-deep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL’s Research and Development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Their physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480 °F around a single drill cutter. This simulator will not yet be operational by the planned conference dates; therefore, the results will be limited to identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL’s test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Lab’s studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T

2007-06-01

231

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

232

Disaster Drill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bus disaster drills have been held all over country for years. A drill in Blairsville, Pennsylvania, taught officials important lessons: (1) keep roster of students and stops in designated area on bus, and ensure emergency workers know where location; (2) send at least three school officials to accident scene; (3) provide school officials with…

Jones, Rebecca

1998-01-01

233

Lockdown Drills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

234

Drilling reorganizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

Richman, Barbara T.

235

DOSECC Continental Scientific Drilling Program  

SciTech Connect

Deep Observation and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC, for short) is a nonprofit corporation, currently composed of 41 member universities, that was founded to manage continental Scientific Drilling Programs somewhat as Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Inc., manages the Ocean Drilling Program. Funding is provided by the National Science Foundation, with additional support from the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Department of Energy (DOE). DOSECC currently has two projects in actual operation and several under development. The long-term DOSECC program can be separated into categories based either on drilling depth or on objectives. The first category consists of shallow- to intermediate-depth drilling (up to about 5 km) designed to attain targets related to a better understanding of active processes in the continental crust. The second category of targets push the limit of drilling technology in terms of depth and sometimes with respect to temperature, pressure, and/or corrosive fluid environments. Ultimately DOSECC drilling projects are expected to achieve depths exceeding 15 km. Such ultradeep holes will not only examine dynamic processes in the crust but will also explore crustal history, structures, and conditions at depth. Current budgets allow the drilling of projects in the first category, and planning for eventual deeper drilling at a number of locations is in progress. This paper describes the first hole in the DOSECC program that is presently being drilled at Cajon Pass on the San Andreas fault near San Bernardino in central California.

Not Available

1987-01-01

236

Reservoir screening criteria for underbalanced drilling  

SciTech Connect

Properly designed and executed underbalanced drilling operations can eliminate or significantly reduce formation damage, mud or drill solids invasion, lost circulation, fluid entrainment and trapping effects, and potential adverse reactions of drilling fluids with the reservoir matrix or in-situ reservoir fluids. The key to selecting appropriate reservoir candidates is achieving a balance of technical, safety and economic factors. Not every reservoir is an ideal candidate for an underbalanced drilling operation and in some cases distinct disadvantages may exist in trying to execute an underbalanced drilling operation in comparison to a simpler more conventional overbalanced application. Extensive field experience has played an important role in determining the following key criteria and design considerations that should be examined when evaluating a well. Screening criteria are also provided to help operators ascertain if a given formation is, in fact, a viable underbalanced drilling candidate.

Bennion, D.B. [Hycal Energy Research Labs. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1997-02-01

237

EPA speeds regs for offshore regulations for synthetic-based mud.  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in unusual cooperation with industry work groups, has chosen a streamlined approach to resolve synthetic-based mud (SBM) discharge regulations for offshore operations.

Veil, J. A.; Daly, J. M.; Johnson, N.; Environmental Assessment; EPA; DOE

1999-09-13

238

Drilling of Arun gas field  

SciTech Connect

The Arun gas field was discovered in late 1971 when the discovery Well Arun A-1 penetrated the thick Arun limestone reef. During the following 3 years, 12 delineation wells were drilled. Three of these delineation wells are used for observation wells, five for dry gas injection, one for condensate water disposal, and three are abandoned. Clustered development well drilling started in Sept. 1976. At this writing 40 wells have been drilled to delineate and develop the field. Drilling continues so that the growing demand from the expanding liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is met. The problems of high temperatures, abnormally highpressured shales, and saltwater sands overlying the lower-pressured Arun limestone have been conquered by numerous technique changes. The current techniques include the use of inverted oil emulsion muds, cements containing 35% silica flour, high-strength heavyweight tubulars, and clear packer fluids. The evolution of drilling and completion practices are discussed in the paper.

Bolt, L.H.; Soepardi, M.; Suherman, D.

1984-05-01

239

Continental drilling  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop on Continental Drilling was convened to prepare a report for submission to the US Geodynamics Committee with respect to the contribution that could be made by land drilling to resolve major problems of geodynamics and consider the mechanisms by which the responsibility for scientific planning, establishment of priorities, administration, and budgeting for a land-drilling program within the framework of the aims of the Geodynamics Project would best be established. A new and extensive program to study the continental crust is outlined in this report. The Workshop focused on the following topics: processes in the continental crust (mechanism of faulting and earthquakes, hydrothermal systems and active magma chambers); state and structure of the continental crust (heat flow and thermal structure of the crust; state of ambient stress in the North American plate; extent, regional structure, and evolution of crystalline continental crust); short hole investigations; present state and needs of drilling technology; drill hole experimentation and instrumentation; suggestions for organization and operation of drilling project; and suggested level of effort and funding. Four recommendations are set down. 8 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

Shoemaker, E.M. (ed.)

1975-01-01

240

Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by explorescience.com called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

241

Use of Downhole Motors in Geothermal Drilling in the Philippines  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of downhole motors in the Tiwi geothermal field in the Philippines, The discussion includes the application Of a Dyna-Drill with insert-type bits for drilling through surface alluvium. The economics of this type of drilling are compared to those of conventional rotary drilling. The paper also describes the use of a turbodrill that drills out scale as the well produces geothermal fluids.

Pyle, D. E.

1981-01-01

242

Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.  

PubMed

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

2008-06-01

243

Drill Instructor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was designed to develop a stress coping program for drill instructors. The program consists of (1) 6 videotaped modules on key times concerning stress and coping, (2) 8 vignettes on recurrent problem situations and how to handle them, and (3)...

I. G. Sarason

1988-01-01

244

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Las Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2000-01-01

245

Multi-gradient drilling method and system  

DOEpatents

A multi-gradient system for drilling a well bore from a surface location into a seabed includes an injector for injecting buoyant substantially incompressible articles into a column of drilling fluid associated with the well bore. Preferably, the substantially incompressible articles comprises hollow substantially spherical bodies.

Maurer, William C. (Houston, TX); Medley, Jr., George H. (Spring, TX); McDonald, William J. (Houston, TX)

2003-01-01

246

A smart computer helps solve drilling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proper application of drilling fluids technology remains one of the most demanding aspects of drilling, yet one that is still highly dependent on the individual experiences and knowledge of each wellsite mud technologist. With the development and introduction of a new artificial intelligence or expert computer system, the field representative will now routinely be able to ''discuss'' the particular

C. L. Stark; J. K. Bergen

1985-01-01

247

Drills for mining applications  

SciTech Connect

Drills are the most universal mining tools, with applications both above and below ground in exploration, blasting, and a sampling. The criteria considered in the design of drills is economical energy usage, simple handling, and extensive use of mechanization and automation. The operation and performance of drills in down-hole drilling, underground drilling, and exploration are discussed. Drill accessories are also discussed.

Not Available

1984-02-01

248

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2001-09-25

249

Update on onshore disposal of offshore drilling wastes  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing effluent limitations guidelines to govern discharges of cuttings from wells drilled using synthetic-based muds. To support this rulemaking, Argonne National Laboratory was asked by EPA and the US Department of Energy (DOE) to collect current information about those onshore commercial disposal facilities that are permitted to receive offshore drilling wastes. Argonne contacted state officials in Louisiana, Texas, California and Alaska to obtain this information. The findings, collected during October and November 1999, are presented by state.

Veil, J. A.

1999-11-29

250

Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01

251

Loaded Transducer Fpr Downhole Drilling Component  

DOEpatents

A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force," urging them closer together.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2005-07-05

252

Constraints on mineralization, fluid-rock interaction, and mass transfer during faulting at 2–3 km depth from the SAFOD drill hole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralogical and geochemical changes in mudrock cuttings from two segments of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drill hole (3066–3169 and 3292–3368 m measured depth) are analyzed in this study. Bulk rock samples and hand-picked fault-related grains characterized by polished surfaces and slickensides were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and geochemical analysis. The elemental changes in fault-related

Anja M. Schleicher; Sara N. Tourscher; Ben A. van der Pluijm; Laurence N. Warr

2009-01-01

253

Conquering Alaska's Arctic drilling problems. Part I. Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, drilling operators in the huge Prudhoe Bay field have drastically cut the time required to drill and complete an Arctic development well. A well that took 80 days to complete 10 years ago now takes only 25-30 days because of a new approach to hydraulics, larger and more efficient mud pumps, jet nozzle bits, improved drilling fluids

1981-01-01

254

ResonantSonic drilling. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The technology of ResonantSonic drilling is described. This technique has been demonstrated and deployed as an innovative tool to access the subsurface for installation of monitoring and/or remediation wells and for collection of subsurface materials for environmental restoration applications. The technology uses no drilling fluids, is safe and can be used to drill slant holes.

NONE

1995-04-01

255

Minimum quantity lubrication drilling of aluminium–silicon alloys in water using diamond-like carbon coated drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry drilling of aluminium alloys (without using cutting fluids) is an environmentally friendly machining process but also an exceedingly difficult task due to aluminium's tendency to adhere to the drills made of conventional materials such as the high-speed steel (HSS). Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings improve the dry drilling performance due to their adhesion mitigating properties. In this work, improvements

Sukanta Bhowmick; Ahmet T. Alpas

2008-01-01

256

Lithological Classification by Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many drilling tasks in which drill monitoring is used to improve the quality of a product: detecting tool breakage in manufacturing drilling, exploratory drilling for oil and natural gas reservoirs, collecting soil samples on Mars with a robotic drill. However, in many applications, a human is partially or entirely responsible for controlling and analyzing the interaction between the

Diana LaBelle

257

WRITING ORAL DRILLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

NEY, JAMES W.

258

Monitoring of barite sag important in deviated drilling  

SciTech Connect

Very low shear rate and oscillation rheometry techniques provide insight into the properties of drilling fluids that are associated with barite sag observed during drilling operations. This paper provides detailed study of the rheological behavior of four field muds completed with a controlled-stress rheometer. The techniques verified that detailed rheological studies of muds are needed to explain barite sag. Barite sag can be the source of severe drilling and well control problems during the drilling of deviated wells. In a deviated well this phenomenon results from the gravitationally induced settling of the barite to form either a density gradient or a barite sedimentation bed. Barite sag results if the rheological properties of the drilling fluid are inadequate to keep the weighting agent suspended. Improved rheological characterization of drilling fluids leads to a better understanding of barite sag and to the improvement of fluid properties that prevent sag.

Saasen, A.; Marken, C.; Sterri, N. (Rogaland Research, Stavanger (NO)); Jakobsen, J. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (NO))

1991-08-26

259

Quantification of subsurface pore pressure through IODP drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is critical to understand the magnitude and distribution of subsurface pore fluid pressure: it controls effective stress and thus mechanical strength, slope stability, and sediment compaction. Elevated pore pressures also drive fluid flows that serve as agents of mass, solute, and heat fluxes. The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have provided important avenues to

D. M. Saffer; P. B. Flemings

2010-01-01

260

Thermal Spallation Drilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal spallation drilling is an underdeveloped process with great potential for reducing the costs of drilling holes and mining shafts and tunnels in most very hard rocks. Industry has used this process to drill blast holes for emplacing explosives and ...

R. E. Williams

1985-01-01

261

CHIP MORPHOLOGY AND HOLE SURFACE TEXTURE IN THE DRILLING OF CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS. (R825370C057)  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of cutting fluid and other process variables on chip morphology when drilling cast aluminium alloys are investigated. The effects of workpiece material, speed, feed, hole depth, cutting-fluid presence and percentage oil concentration, workpiece temperature, drill t...

262

Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

Pitts, E. A.

1976-01-01

263

Distribution of arsenic and copper in sediment pore water: an ecological risk assessment case study for offshore drilling waste discharges.  

PubMed

Due to the hydrophobic nature of synthetic based fluids (SBFs), drilling cuttings are not very dispersive in the water column and settle down close to the disposal site. Arsenic and copper are two important toxic heavy metals, among others, found in the drilling waste. In this article, the concentrations of heavy metals are determined using a steady state "aquivalence-based" fate model in a probabilistic mode. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to determine pore water concentrations. A hypothetical case study is used to determine the water quality impacts for two discharge options: 4% and 10% attached SBFs, which correspond to the best available technology option and the current discharge practice in the U.S. offshore. The exposure concentration (CE) is a predicted environmental concentration, which is adjusted for exposure probability and bioavailable fraction of heavy metals. The response of the ecosystem (RE) is defined by developing an empirical distribution function of predicted no-effect concentration. The pollutants' pore water concentrations within the radius of 750 m are estimated and cumulative distributions of risk quotient (RQ=CE/RE) are developed to determine the probability of RQ greater than 1. PMID:14641903

Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

2003-12-01

264

Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other (presumably low-temperature) silicates in inclusions is highly disordered and spectrally resembles kerogens. This graphite probably was deposited during later greenschist-facies retrograde metamorphism at about 400-500??C. The degree of crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is shown to be a much more complex function of temperature than is the crystallinity of metamorphic graphite. To some extent, experiments can provide temperature-calibration of the crystallinity index. However, the difference in time scales between experimental runs and geologic processes makes it difficult to infer specific temperatures for naturally precipitated graphite. Copyright ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Pasteris, J. D.; Chou, I. -M.

1998-01-01

265

Drilling technology, 2000  

SciTech Connect

Great strides have been made in drilling during the nineties, but many operators are unaware of many of the exciting capabilities and potential offered by today` drilling technology. As people move toward the year 2000, they see drilling providers refine these capabilities, broaden their applications, and increase operator awareness of their availability and usefulness. Thus, to see where drilling will be in the year 2000, people need to look at where the drilling forefront lies today. This paper discusses the trends in technology associated with horizontal drilling, re-entry techniques, coiled-tubing, extended-reach drilling, multilateral drilling and general well development technologies.

Offenbacher, L.

1996-05-01

266

Arctic well completion. Part 2. Arctic drilling operations present unique problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling through deep permafrost involves a complex thermal\\/mechanical interaction among the fluids, drill string, and formation. Improper drilling procedures can result in extensive washouts, bottom fill, and stuck pipe. Special driling fluids designed for adequate hole cleaning increase penetration rates through the permafrost, thus minimizing thaw. Both soft-formation bits and turbodrills effectively penetrate the permafrost. North Pole effects on magnetic

1977-01-01

267

Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

1996-06-01

268

Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

1997-11-01

269

Velocidade de Sedimentacao de Particulas Nao Esfericas em Fluidos de Perfuracao (Settling Speed of Non-Spherical Particles in Drilling Fluid).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the paper, the authors develop a correlation for the calculation of the drift coefficient of non-spherical particles settling in non-Newtonian fluids, regardless of time. The use of Dimensional Analysis and of a great amount of experimental data coveri...

C. C. Santana M. B. Laruccia E. E. Maidla

1989-01-01

270

New muds are specially tailored for deepwater drilling  

SciTech Connect

There are three things in life that are certain: death, taxes and encountering gumbo clay while drilling offshore Gulf of Mexico oil and gas fields. The concomitant torque and drag define the goals of offshore drilling fluid design. Additionally, some deepwater projects require hydrate suppression, resulting in a challenging list of barriers to drilling success confronting the aspiring engineer. Specially tailored water-base muds have been developed for deepwater drilling. Each DeepDrill{trademark} fluid is custom designed for the specific project, in accordance with the particular conditions and degree of difficulty that will be experienced. This family of engineered drilling fluids is based on New100N{trademark} polyol chemistry.

Kenney, N.P. [Newpark Drilling Fluids Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-04-01

271

Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling risks and costs. This procedure enables a timely, efficient and accurate data access and exchange among the rig site data acquisition system, office-based software applications and data storage. The loading of real-time data has to be quick and efficient in order to refine the model and learn the lessons for the next drilling operations.

Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

2013-04-01

272

Drill Drive Mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scrol...

M. O. Dressel

1979-01-01

273

Rotary blasthole drilling update  

SciTech Connect

Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2008-02-15

274

Test drilling in basalts, Lalamilo area, South Kohala District, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Test drilling has determined that a downhole-percussion airhammer can be used effectively to drill basalts in Hawaii. When used in conjunction with a foam-type drilling fluid, the hammer-bit penetration rate was rapid. Continuous drill cuttings from the materials penetrated were obtained throughout the borehole except from extremely fractured or weathered basalt zones where circulation was lost or limited. Cementing of these zones as soon as encountered reduced problems of stuck tools, washouts, and loss of drill-cuttings. Supplies and logistics on the Hawaiian Islands, always a major concern, require that all anticipated drilling supplies, spare rig and tool parts, drilling muds and additives, foam, and miscellaneous hardware be on hand before starting to drill. If not, the resulting rig downtime is costly in both time and money. (USGS)

Teasdale, Warren E.

1980-01-01

275

Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

2001-05-01

276

HP-41CV applied drilling engineering manual  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this manual are as follows: average diameter of an open hole; pump cycle, pump factor, and annulus capacity; drilling-time and penetration rate predictions; nozzle selection; direction well survey; viscosity of drilling fluids; barite requirements with solids dilution; solids analysis and recommended flow properties; evaluation of hydrocyclones; frictional pressure loss; surge and swab pressures; pressure and average density of a gas column; cement additive requirements; kick tolerance, severity, length and density; and pump pressure schedule for well control operations.

Chenevert, M.; Williams, F.; Hekimian, H.

1983-01-01

277

Geothermal drilling technology update  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

Glowka, D.A.

1997-04-01

278

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (V) Mineral Saturation States and Log(Q/K) Geothermometry in Krafla and Namafjall Dilute Geothermal Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Log(Q/K) geothermometry of dilute fluids from existing wells in the Krafla and adjacent Nįmafjall geothermal systems in N. Iceland, yields estimated temperatures in variable agreement with results obtained by others for various different geothermometers. Those geothermometers yielded variations in temperature within a single well of up to 130°C, and in general, order from low to high temperature as follows: Na-K-Ca, Na-K, quartz, H2S, H2, CO2; the larger ranges in temperature occur in the higher temperature wells. Log(Q/K) geothermometry yields temperatures (200-290°C) generally in good agreement with the Na-K-Ca geothermometer, in part because computed log(Q/K) temperatures depend on saturation states of minerals containing those elements. Fluid compositions at depth are reconstructed by combining data from fluid and gas analyses obtained at the surface in ratios determined by trial and error. Measured Al concentrations, which are commonly in error because of low concentration and analytical imprecision, are reconstructed by forcing equilibration with an Al- bearing alteration mineral such as K-feldspar over the temperature range considered. Mineral saturation states, i.e. log(Q/K), of likely alteration minerals are then computed and plotted vs. temperature; pressure is taken to be hydrostatic at the mean depth of the producing horizons. The temperature at which selected minerals are at, or near, saturation is the predicted equilibration temperature. The method is complicated in some wells by production from more than one aquifer, yielding a range of equilibration temperatures rather than a single temperature. Minerals that are diagnostic of equilibrium, depending on temperature, include quartz, chalcedony, calcite, laumontite, wairakite, chlorite, prehnite, albite, K-feldspar, wollastonite, and grossular. Pyrite, pyrrhotite, daphnite, actinolite, and epidote are supersaturated in most wells, which likely results from uncertainty in the stability constants of Fe-bearing aqueous species.

Palandri, J.; Reed, M. H.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2006-12-01

279

Potassium acetate adds flexibility to drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

Potassium acetate (KC/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/, or simply KAC), since 1986, has proven effective as a drilling fluid additive in over 30 wells both onshore and offshore South Texas. KAC has given potassium-base drilling fluids more flexibility, improved efficiency, and offered an environmentally acceptable alternative to potassium chloride (KCl) muds. The use of soluble potassium in drilling fluids has been successful in controlling troublesome shales. The potassium ion has a stabilizing effect that inhibits the swelling and dispersion of water-sensitive shale formations. KAC is completely soluble in fresh or saltwater and provides 40%, by weight, potassium. This compares favorably with other potassium-containing materials.

Gillenwater, K.E.; Ray, C.R.

1989-03-20

280

Volume requirements for aerated mud drilling  

SciTech Connect

Aerated mud drilling has been recognized as having many advantages over conventional mud drilling, such ass higher penetration rate, less formation damage, minimized lost circulation, and lower drilling cost. In some areas, the use of aerated mud as a circulating medium for drilling oil and gas wells is becoming an attractive practice. Maintaining an optimum combination of liquid and air flow rates is important in aerated drilling operations. However, most drilling operators are unclear on what constitutes the ``optimum combination of the liquid and air flow rates.`` Guo et al. presented a mathematical approach to determining the flowing bottomhole pressure (BHP) for aerated mud drilling. This paper addresses the use of Guo et al.`s mathematical model to determine liquid and air volume requirements considering wellbore stability, pipe sticking, and formation damage as well as the cuttings-carry capacity of the aerated mud. For a formation-damage-prevention point of view, the liquid fraction in the fluid stream should e as low as possible. However, a sufficient mud flow rate is always required to make the hole stable and to maintain the cuttings-carrying capacity of the aerated mud without injecting much air volume. This paper provides a simple approach to determining the liquid and air volume requirements for aerated mud drilling.

Guo, B.; Rajtar, J.M. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-09-01

281

Drill bit direct drive for deep well drilling tools  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a drill bit direct drive for deep well drilling tools with a tubular casing, a rotary machine that can be driven by oil well fluid flowing through it and is mounted inside the casing, a radially mounted shaft joined to this rotary machine and to a rotary drill bit and with at least one friction bearing that is exposed to the oil well fluid and is provided for axial mounting of the shaft and includes at least one trace ring supported on the shaft plus at least one bearing ring supported on the casing so it interacts with one trace ring and has a number of bearing segments distributed regularly around its periphery and including a bearing body supported with respect to the bearing ring so it can be tilted and shifted axially to a limited extent against the action of restoring force. It is characterized by the fact that each bearing segment includes a support part mounted in an axial bore of the bearing ring and a slender axial straight compression spring rod supporting the supporting part in the middle on the rear and in turn arranged in an axial bore of the bearing ring which has a reduced diameter than that within which the support part is mounted and secured against buckling in the axial bore and supported with its end that faces away from the support part on an abutment.

Kruger, V.; Daenicke, H.

1989-08-08

282

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

283

Robotic Planetary Drill Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

2010-01-01

284

Overflow valve of drill string  

SciTech Connect

An overflow valve of a drill string is described comprising a hollow body with side ports, a seat, a shut-off element fitted in the hollow body, characterized in that the shut-off element is in fact an elastic sleeve fitted in the hollow body with an upper end of said elastic sleeve being the first one on the way of drilling fluid flow, and said elastic sleeve being positioned within said hollow body so as to form a gap there between, said elastic sleeve being adapted for expanding from a normal state to a second state upon drilling fluid flow there through, wherein in the second state the side ports are closed by said elastic sleeve and a lower end of said elastic sleeve positioned below the side ports is placed in contact with the seat which is part of the inner surface of the hollow body, said elastic sleeve including an expansion enhancer provided at the lower end of the elastic sleeve in an area of the seat.

Vshivkov, A.N.; Kochnev, A.M.; Schelkonogov, G.A.; Goldobin, V.B.; Bobrov, M.G.

1993-07-20

285

Well drilling fluids and process for drilling wells  

SciTech Connect

A composition is described comprised of: (a) a aqueous base, (b) a clayey material suspended in the aqueous base, (c) a water-soluble sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer having a molecular weight of about 500 to about 10,000, (d) a water-soluble methacrylate copolymer having a molecular weight of about 500 to about 30,000 consisting of polymerized units of an alkali metal salt of acrylic acid and an alkali metal salt of methacrylic acid, the combined total weight of the polymers of (c) and (d) present in the composition being in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.0 pounds per barrel of composition and the weight ratio of the polymer of (c) to the polymer of (d) being in the range of about 90:10 to about 5:95.

Hale, A.H.; Lawson, H.F.

1988-04-26

286

Robotic Planetary Drill Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture b...

B. J. Glass G. Paulsen S. Thompson

2010-01-01

287

Ovarian Drilling for Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... drilling and how does it work? Women with PCOS usually have ovaries with a thick outer layer. The ovaries make more testosterone. High testosterone levels can lead to irregular menstrual periods, acne, and extra body hair. Ovarian drilling works by ...

288

Drill Sergeant Candidate Transformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While Drill Sergeant Schools (DSSs) are charged with preparing Noncommissioned Officers (NCOs) for the role and responsibilities of Drill Sergeants (DS), few attempts have been made to systematically examine the impact this training actually has on its gr...

D. Sluss G. Cobb R. Ployhart R. Rutti S. T. Muraca

2009-01-01

289

Deep Sea Drilling Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

Kaneps, Ansis

1977-01-01

290

Drill pin failure-analysis report  

SciTech Connect

A cracked drill pin was received from ENEL's Sasso 22 geothermal well with a request for failure analysis. Failure reportedly occurred during temperature measurements inside the drill pipe. This drill pipe had been put into the 4000 meter (13,124 ft.) hole for instrument protection about 80 hours before temperature measurements. The temperature measured at the bottom of the hole was 380/sup 0/C (716/sup 0/F). The liquid level was at 2000 meters (6562 feet) depth, and the temperature at that depth was 95/sup 0/C (203/sup 0/F). Information on the depth where failure of this pin occurred was not given. Numerous drill string failures of this type have been reported at depths greater than 3000 meters (9843 feet) by ENEL. A mixture of 70% river water and 30% condensate from a nearby geothermal power plant was being used as drilling fluid. The average chemical composition of the power plant wastewater is given. This region of Italy is known as the Boraciferous Region. The average chemistry of the Boraciferous geothermal fluid is given. The failed drill pin was reportedly made of 38 NC D4 steel.

Anliker, D.

1980-07-01

291

Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

Not Available

1986-12-01

292

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: a search for deep unconventional geothermal resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is a long-term program to improve the economics of geothermal energy by producing supercritical hydrous fluids from drillable depths. Producing supercritical fluids will require the drilling of wells and the sampling of fluids and rocks to depths of 3.5–5km, and at temperatures of 450–600°C. The IDDP plans to drill and test a series of

Gudmundur O. Fridleifsson; Wilfred A. Elders

2005-01-01

293

Blind drilling down under  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a fresh air shaft for an Australian mine which, when completed, was the largest hole ever blind drilled in hard rock, 14 feet in diameter and 2,460 feet deep. Blind drilling is now being done in one pass, using air-assisted reverse circulation in a dual wall pipe to remove the drill cuttings. Speed and safety are the

1985-01-01

294

Thermal spallation drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal spallation drilling is an underdeveloped process with great potential for reducing the costs of drilling holes and mining shafts and tunnels in most very hard rocks. Industry has used this process to drill blast holes for emplacing explosives and to quarry granite. Some theoretical work has been performed, and many signs point to a great future for this process.

1985-01-01

295

Drill Clamp and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A drill clamp comprising a clamp mechanism and a hole-locating pin. The clamp mechanism has a first clamp portion and a second clamp portion. The second clamp portion includes a drill-receiving opening sized for receiving a drill bit. The hole-locating pi...

J. L. Morrison K. W. Bates T. O. Blanksenship

2004-01-01

296

Drilling technique for crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

1977-01-01

297

Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting  

DOEpatents

An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

2013-07-02

298

Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting  

DOEpatents

An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

2012-09-04

299

Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products. Topical report, September 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses the development and testing of two products designed to advance the application of underbalanced drilling techniques. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment. The program predicts pressure and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test well measurements, and field data. This model does not handle air or mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. An incompressible drilling fluid was developed that utilizes lightweight solid additives (hollow glass spheres) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. This fluid is designed for underbalanced drilling situations where compressible lightweight fluids are inadequate. In addition to development of these new products, an analysis was performed to determine the market potential of lightweight fluids, and a forecast of underbalanced drilling in the USA over the next decade was developed. This analysis indicated that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30 percent of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the USA within the next ten years.

Medley, G.H., Jr; Maurer, W.C.; Liu, G.; Garkasi, A.Y.

1995-09-01

300

Effects of Oxygen, Salt, and pH Level on Corrosion Rate of Drill-Stem Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique proposed to control corrosion of the drill pipe is removal of oxygen from the drilling fluid. One approach to oxygen reduction is to substitute an anaerobic gas for air in the drilling fluid. A critical question to be answered when designing t...

L. J. Weirick

1982-01-01

301

Combination offshore drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with respect to such barge hull, the cantilever structure being so located relative to the drilling slot as to be movable horizontally into a position in vertical alignment with the drilling slot, a derrick and drilling machinery mounted to the cantilever structure and movable into a position above the drilling slot whereby well drilling operations may be conducted through the drilling slot, the cantilever structure also being movable horizontally to a position which locates the derrick and the drilling machinery outboard of the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, whereby a drilling operations may be conducted outside of the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means mounted on the barge hull for moving the cantilever structure horizontally to different positions relative to the barge hull.

Lorenz, D.B.; Laid, J.S. II

1986-07-29

302

Removable drill string stabilizers  

SciTech Connect

A stabilizer sleeve, or other sleeve, to be releasably mounted on a drill collar for centering a drill string in a well bore, includes an outer stabilizer sleeve to be mounted on the cylindrical periphery of the drill collar and having an internally threaded bore, the threads of which have conical roots , receiving an externally threaded yieldable sleeve member placed over the drill collar, the crests of the external threads also being conical, rotation of the yieldable member threading it into the stabilizer sleeve and effecting its contraction until its internal surface contacts the periphery of the drill collar, further rotation and tightening of the sleeve member in the stabilizer sleeve compressing the sleeve member against the drill collar periphery, with the crests bearing against the root portions of the internal sleeve threads to secure the sleeve frictionally in position on the drill collar.

Manuel, T.

1981-01-20

303

Inhibition of gas hydrates in water-based drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a series of thermodynamic experiments were run on 16 simulated drilling muds and associated test fluids to improve the understanding of the equilibrium conditions for hydrate formation in water-based drilling fluids. Results indicated that, to a first approximation, the salt and glycerol contents of water in mud dominated hydrate formation. Other mud additives, such as bentonite, barite, and polymers, collectively promoted hydrate formation to a lesser degree.

Kotkoskie, T.S.; Al-Ubaidi, B.; Wildeman, T.R.; Sloan, E.D. Jr. (Colorado School of Mines (US))

1992-06-01

304

Oil well drilling clay conditioners and method of their preparation  

SciTech Connect

Drilling fluid additives are prepared by oxidation of sulfonated lignin-containing materials with manganese dioxide under highly acidic conditions to make manganese lignosulfonates. Additional improvements in the rheological properties of the additives may be obtained by complexing the manganese lignosulfonate so obtained with a heavy metal cation (preferably iron or copper), by, for example, addition of ferrous sulfate or ferric sulfate to the manganese lignosulfonate. These products show the requisite combination of rheological properties for a satisfactory drilling fluid additive or conditioner.

Detroit, W.J.

1984-05-08

305

Oil well drilling clay conditioners and method of their preparation  

SciTech Connect

Improved drilling fluid additives or conditioners are obtained by oxidation of sulfonated lignin-containing materials with manganese dioxide and boron addition either before or after the oxidation step. The resulting manganese-boron lignosulfonates are more thermally stable and they are rheologically suitable as drilling fluid additives. Additional improvements in thermal stability and rheological properties are realized by complexing the manganese-boron lignosulfonates with a heavy metal cation, notably, iron, preferably used as ferrous sulfate.

Detroit, W.J.

1984-07-03

306

Advanced drilling systems study  

SciTech Connect

This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

Pierce, K.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants, San Diego, CA (United States)

1995-03-01

307

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX) [Kingwood, TX; Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT) [Durham, CT; Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT) [Middletown, CT; Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT) [Middletown, CT

2008-05-27

308

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2007-05-22

309

Responses of macrobenthos colonizing estuarine sediments contaminated with drilling mud containing diesel oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling muds are used in offshore exploration for gas and oil to bring up drill cuttings, to maintain hydrostatic pressure, to cool and lubricate the bit, and to seal the well. Large amounts are discharged and deposited in the marine environment during drilling. In addition, as many as 30 ingredients may be used in a single well to control fluid

Marlin E. Tagatz; Gayle R. Plaia; Christine H. Deans

1985-01-01

310

Critical Investigation of Wear Behaviour of WC Drill Bit Buttons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining and petroleum drill bits are subjected to highly abrasive rock and high-velocity fluids that cause severe wear and erosion in service. To augment the rate of penetration and minimize the cost per foot, such drill bits are subjected to increasing rotary speeds and weight. A rotary/percussive drill typically hits the rock 50 times per second with hydraulic impact pressure of about 170-200 bar and feed pressure of about 90-100 bar, while rotating at 75-200 rpm. The drill rig delivers a high-velocity flow of drilling fluid onto the rock surface to dislodge cuttings and cool the bit. The impingement of high-velocity drilling fluid with entrained cuttings accelerates the erosion rate of the bit. Also, high service temperature contributes to softening of the rock for increased penetration. Hence, there is a need to optimize the drilling process and balance the wear rate and penetration rate simultaneously. This paper presents an experimental scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of electroplated (nickel-bonded) diamond drills for different wear modes.

Gupta, Anurag; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

2013-01-01

311

Mud tracer test during soft rock drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on groundwater and aquifer conditions is essential for the analysis of groundwater systems. Fluid sampling and pumping tests in boreholes are used as the standard methods for collecting this information. However, the contamination of groundwater by invaded drilling mud is a serious problem when taking samples from boreholes. While drilling a research borehole in the saltwater-freshwater transition zone on the German North Sea coast, uranine tracer was added to the drilling mud to identify possible contamination. Push-pull-type pumping tests were carried out in the open borehole at depths of 53 and 87 m using a new test design. The uranine concentration of the pumped water decreased exponentially with increasing recovery volume and dropped to 1% of initial concentration after the recovery of 10 invasion volumes. The total fluid loss in the test interval was calculated from the test results and supports the assumption that mud loss can be mainly attributed to the deepest (freshly drilled) part of the borehole. Breakthrough curves from two-dimensional numerical calculations using FEFLOW were fitted to the test data by varying the dispersivity ? and the effective groundwater velocity va. The best results were achieved when ? = 0.02 m and va = 0.28 m/d (values which correspond well with the scale of the experiment and other determinations of groundwater velocity). Thus the mud tracer test procedure not only provides information on the fate of the drilling mud but also on aquifer properties.

Panteleit, B.; Kessels, W.; Binot, F.

2006-11-01

312

Mars Science Laboratory Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

Okon, Avi B.

2010-01-01

313

Geothermal Drilling Organization  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), founded in 1982 as a joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Industry organization, develops and funds near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling costs. Sandia National Laboratories administers DOE funds to assist industry critical cost-shared projects and provides development support for each project. GDO assistance to industry is vital in developing products and procedures to lower drilling costs, in part, because the geothermal industry is small and represents a limited market.

Sattler, A.R.

1999-07-07

314

Controlling barite sag can reduce drilling problems  

SciTech Connect

A new method for tracking drilling fluid density variations helps detect barite sag, which may contribute to drilling problems. The method is based in part on continuously measuring fluid density during the first circulation after the fluid has been static for some time. In deviated wells or wells with weighted fluids, barite sag has aggravated or caused drilling problems such as lost circulation, stuck pipe, high torque and drag, poor cement jobs, logging difficulties, and well-control difficulties. Sag is defined as a significant variation in mud density measured during the first bottoms-up circulation after a weighted mud has remained static for some time in a directional well. The density variations are caused in part by slumping of beds formed when weight material settles to the low side of the hole. Furthermore, the bed formation occurs while the fluid is circulating and not just during static conditions. The paper discusses the following: sag mechanisms, complex flow, field measurements, laboratory studies, sag index, and minimizing sag.

Zamora, M.; Jefferson, D. (M-I Drilling Fluids Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-14

315

Remote drill bit loader  

DOEpatents

A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

Dokos, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

316

Remote drill bit loader  

DOEpatents

A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

Dokos, J.A.

1997-12-30

317

Horizontal drilling developments  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

Gust, D.

1997-05-01

318

8. annual international energy week conference and exhibition: Conference papers. Book 3: Drilling and production operations  

SciTech Connect

The three volumes within this book are subdivided as follows: (1) Drilling Technology -- underbalanced drilling; field and laboratory testing; drilling systems and dynamics; advances in drill bits; coiled tubing and tubulars; advances in drilling fluids; novel/scientific drilling; and drillstrings; (2) Petroleum Production Technology -- environmental health and safety issues; production technology for deepwater; disposal methods for production waste; and offshore facility abandonment; and (3) Offshore Engineering and Operations -- floating production systems; strategic service alliance; offshore facility abandonment; offshore development economics; heavy construction, transportation, and installation for offshore fields; and subsea technology. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1997-07-01

319

Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

Hyne, N.J.

1984-01-01

320

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

1980-01-01

321

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

1980-04-01

322

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1999-05-25

323

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

1999-05-25

324

ANALYSIS OF SOIL REMEDIATION REQUIREMENTS OF ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this reporting period our project focused on (1) review of case studies of remediation of centralized and commercial drilling fluid disposal (CCDD) sites in Texas, and (2) information transfer with preparation of a proceedings paper and a workshop\\/short course. Texas remediation of certain drilling-fluid disposal sites includes examples at CCDD sites as well as commercial oil reclamation sites and

H. Seay Nance; Alan R. Dutton; Jerry Mullican

2002-01-01

325

Measuring while drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of measuring lithology, and other underground conditions, while drilling bores into the earth employing the repetitive firing of projectiles to fracture rock and penetrate the earth and detecting the high intensity acoustic signals being produced as the drill progressively penetrates.

Dardick

1984-01-01

326

Drilling continues upward momentum  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses how the drilling recovery that began during the second half of 1989 is continuing into 1990. On top of this, the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait has caused disarray in oil markets, driving up oil prices, and disrupting access to oil supplies. Potentially, this upheaval could lead to an upward spike in worldwide drilling activity.

Moritis, G.

1990-09-24

327

Ocean Drilling Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

Program, Ocean D.; Texas A&M University

328

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

Harvey, Jill (editor)

1989-01-01

329

Status Report: Prospect Drilling Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt is made to give a survey of the available drilling systems (processes and equipment), which are used in prospect drilling. Starting from the diamond core drilling technique system, the systems are described which can be distinguished according ...

J. Behrens C. Marx H. Schlueter

1981-01-01

330

1991 drill bit classifier  

SciTech Connect

Whether drilling soft, swelling gumbo formations along the Gulf Coast, harder Green River shales in Wyoming or really tough and abrasive quartzite, basalt or Devonian chert deposits in the Permian basin, choosing the best bit for the job is important if optimum drilling and cost efficiency are to be maintained. To make the selection process easier, WORLD OIL has compiled a comprehensive, yet simple-to-use guide for classifying bits. This paper is divided into six major formation categories roughly corresponding to those used by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). Within these are listed virtually all commonly available drilling and coring bits by type and manufacturer. To use the guide, simply identify the formation to be drilled, decide whether a rock, diamond, PDC or hybrid bit is most appropriate, choose the manufacturer and scan the bits available. In fact, bits from all manufacturers can readily be compared.

Not Available

1991-09-01

331

Advanced drilling systems  

SciTech Connect

Drilling is ubiquitous in oil, gas, geothermal, minerals, water well, and mining industries. Drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing power from geothermal energy. Reduced drilling costs will reduce the cost of electricity produced from geothermal resources. Undoubtedly, there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied. However, the breadth and depth of previous efforts in this area almost guarantee that any new efforts will at least initially build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts, coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems, provide the basis for this study.

Pierce, K.G.; Finger, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants, San Diego, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

332

SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

Sass, J. H.; Elders, W. A.

1986-01-01

333

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31

334

30 CFR 550.213 - What general information must accompany the EP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...exploration activities. (b) Drilling fluids. A table showing...e., water-based, oil-based, synthetic-based) of drilling fluid you plan to use to...

2013-07-01

335

Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system  

SciTech Connect

Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

Westmoreland, J.

1994-04-01

336

Drilling Advanced Aircraft Structures with PCD (Poly Crystalline Diamond) Drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased usage of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) in the newest generation of commercial aircraft, the opportunity for using PCD drills has also increased. PCD has long been the preferred solution for the drilling of CFRP. However, given the manufacturing demands of commercial aircraft, a single drilling solution would be required to drill all possible material stack combinations

Richard Garrick

337

Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock  

SciTech Connect

The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

Rowley, J.C.

1984-01-01

338

Development of a Standardized Screening Procedure for Bioremediation of Drill Cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling fluid technology has advanced to meet the growing environmental concerns of the industry. As new fluid and treatment technologies are developed with beneficial reuse as the focused objective, new evaluation tests are needed to assess environmental performance. This paper describes a new lab-scale compost screening tool and compares performances of older style fluids to advanced fluid designs. This new

Kayli Clements; Stephen Rabke; Steve Young

339

Research provides clues to hydrate formation and drilling-hazard solutions  

SciTech Connect

Hydrate formation is a growing safety concern for offshore drilling programs, but, despite extensive laboratory research, pragmatic information is still lacking. Formation of hydrates in drilling fluids during a shut-in is the most likely hydrate-associated hazard in deep-water drilling, although the number of documented incidents is small. In addition to the known naturally forming hydrates, laboratory experiments have also identified heavier hydrocarbons found in oil and gas condensate systems and a new hydrate structure. These two factors may increase the range from which hydrate formation can occur. The paper discusses safety concerns, hydrate structures, modeling hydrates, hydrate stability, naturally occurring hydrates, techniques for drilling hydrates, hydrate formation while drilling, drilling fluids and hydrates, and completion fluids.

Szczepanski, R.; Edmonds, B. [Infochem Computer Services Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Brown, N.; Hamilton, T. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom). Offshore Safety Div.

1998-03-09

340

Information on commercial disposal facilities that may have received offshore drilling wastes.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations that would establish requirements for discharging synthetic-based drill cuttings from offshore wells into the ocean. Justification for allowing discharges of these cuttings is that the environmental impacts from discharging drilling wastes into the ocean may be less harmful than the impacts from hauling them to shore for disposal. In the past, some onshore commercial facilities that disposed of these cuttings were improperly managed and operated and left behind environmental problems. This report provides background information on commercial waste disposal facilities in Texas, Louisiana, California, and Alaska that received or may have received offshore drilling wastes in the past and are now undergoing cleanup.

Gasper, J. R.; Veil, J. A.; Ayers, R. C., Jr.

2000-08-25

341

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

... as the antifreeze agent. I do not sanction use of any other antifreeze agent, at this time. In ... no rock drilling or use of antifreeze agents at Linneaus Terrace, Wright Valley (Site of Special ...

342

New Drilling Core Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Department of Energy (DOE) facility, dedicated to curating samples, cores, and other materials obtained under the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP), will become available early in 1985 in Grand Junction, Colo. The facility will be operated by DOE in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Science Foundation. The three agencies are working together on continental scientific drilling in the United States under their formally adopted Interagency Accord on Scientific Drilling.From the time they are gathered at the drill site, these samples and routine logging data will be protected under Curatorial Policy Guidelines and Procedures. These guidelines and procedures are intended to provide maximum sample study opportunity, to preserve samples for future study, and to ensure longrange continuing service to the principle investigator and to the geoscience community.

343

Drill pipe protector development  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R. [Regal International Corp., Corsicanna, TX (United States); Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [ed.] [and others

1996-03-01

344

A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area), and a DD-line between drilling area and dielectric fluid droplet on the electrode tip. Accordingly, image processing techniques are employed to extract a tool electrode image, and the centroid, eigenvector, and principle axis of the tool electrode are determined. The developed detection line algorithm (DLA) is then used to detect the baseline, ND-line, and DD-line along the direction of the principle axis. Finally, the tool electrode length and drilling depth of the workpiece are estimated via detected baseline, ND-line, and DD-line. Experimental results show good accuracy and efficiency in estimation of the tool electrode length and drilling depth under different conditions. Hence, this research may provide a reference for industrial application in EDM drilling measurement.

Huang, Kuo-Yi

2008-01-01

345

Test off Philippines boosts horizontal drilling technology  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a testing program conducted on the Galoc la horizontal well located offshore Manila. It involved a single multi-rate test to assess the well's flow potential. The problems encountered were low flow rates, high solids and water production, and major loss of drilling fluid to the formation between tests. Results of the testing are discussed and recommendations based on this experience are presented.

Beckett, T. (AB Engineering (US)); Hoffpauir, L. (Drilex Systems, Inc. (US))

1989-11-01

346

Directional drilling pipelay  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

Langner, C.G.

1987-10-20

347

Micro borehole drilling platform  

SciTech Connect

This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

NONE

1996-10-01

348

Visualization of Stress Distribution on Ultrasonic Vibration Aided Drilling Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrasonically assisted machining is suitable to achieve sub-millimeter drilling on difficult-to-cut materials such as ceramics, hardened steel, glass and heat-resistant steel. However, it is difficult to observe the high-frequency and micron-scale phenomenon of ultrasonic cutting. In this report, high speed camera based on photoelastic analysis realized the visualization of stress distribution on drilling process. For the conventional drilling, the stress distribution diagram showed the intensive stress occurred under the chisel because the chisel edge of drill produces large plastic deformation. On the other hand, the ultrasonic drilling produced spread stress distribution and stress boundary far away from the chisel. Furthermore, chipping or cracking of inner wall of silica glass was influenced considerably by cutting fluid.

Isobe, Hiromi; Uehara, Yusuke; Okada, Manabu; Horiuchi, Tomio; Hara, Keisuke

349

MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

2010-01-23

350

Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers an economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.

Lindstrom, Jason

2010-01-31

351

Soil Contamination by Oil and Gas Drilling and Production Operations in Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples from 18 oil and gas drilling and production sites located in Padre Island National Seashore were analyzed for contaminating substances associated with drilling fluids and petroleum products. The results of the investigation indicate that soil contamination from these sources is widespread and persistent but generally localized in the immediate vicinity of drilling and production activity. Sixteen sites were

E. G. Carls; Dennis B. Fenn; Scott A. Chaffey

1995-01-01

352

Sources of mercury and cadium in offshore drilling discharges  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed regulations that would set limits of 1.5 mg/kg mercury and 2.5 mg/kg cadmium for drilling-waste discharges. This paper reports that to determine potential sources of cadmium and mercury in drilling-waste discharges, samples of barite (barium sulfite), formation cores, and commercially available pipe-dope samples were analyzed for total and extractable levels of cadmium and mercury. From this analysis, most of the cadmium and mercury in drilling-fluid discharges are not available.

Candler, J.E.; Leuterman, A.J.J.; Wong, S.Y.L.; Stephens, M.P. (M-1 Drilling Fluids Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-12-01

353

Method of changing well fluid  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of changing well fluid. It comprises: performing well drilling operations with a first drilling fluid and then setting casing; inserting around an inner tubular member which does not include drill bit attached to the lower end thereof an elastomeric annular wiper plug into an annular space between the well casing and the inner tubular member. The annular wiper plug having inner and outer ribs the outer ribs adapted to fit snugly into the well casing and the inner ribs adapted to fit snugly around the inner tubular member the annular space substantially filled with a first well fluid; circulating a second well fluid downwardly through the annular space between the casing and inner tubular member above the wiper plug. The wiper plug wiping the outside of the inner tubular member with the inner ribs and the inside of the casing with the outer ribs the wiper plug preventing the mixing of the first well fluid and the second well fluid; tripping out to attach a drill bit to the lower end of the inner tubular member, and tripping back in; and performing well drilling operations with the second well fluid.

Alexander, R.L.

1990-01-16

354

Advanced Seismic While Drilling System  

SciTech Connect

A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

2008-06-30

355

The single steel drilling caisson: A new arctic drilling system  

SciTech Connect

Dome's experience with a new mobile drilling unit - the Single Steel Drilling Caisson (SSDC) - is described. The SSDC was designed to enable offshore drilling operations in the Beaufort Sea to continue beyond the short open-water season during which drillships are capable of working. The operator's requirements for storage facilities and rig equipment are discussed with reference to the SSDC, which proved to be well suited to offshore arctic operations. The drilling and testing of the first well are described to illustrate the successful operation of this innovative drilling unit. Problems associated with Beaufort Sea operations are discussed with specific reference to ice management and drilling problems.

Hippman, A.; Kelly, W.; Merritt, C.

1983-10-01

356

3. A SYNOPSIS OF THE BAHAMAS DRILLING PROJECT: RESULTS FROM TWO DEEP CORE BORINGS DRILLED ON THE GREAT BAHAMA BANK 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two continuous cores (Unda and Clino) drilled during the initial phase of the Bahamas Drilling Project on top of the west- ern Great Bahama Bank (GBB) penetrated proximal portions of prograding seismic sequences. As such, these cores provide the shallow-water record of sea-level changes and fluid flow of the Bahamas Transect that was completed with the deeper water sites of

G. P. Eberli; P. K. Swart; D. F. McNeill; J. A. M. Kenter; F. S. Anselmetti; L. A. Melim; R. N. Ginsburg

357

Compact drilling and sample system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

1998-01-01

358

Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the cores were scanned for compositional variations using an XRF core scanner at the BGR lab and scan images of the slabbed surfaces were performed. The average core recovery rate was very high at nearly 100%. Altogether, we gained 533 m of excellent core material including sandstones, siltstones and claystones, carbonates, sulfates and chlorides. This provides valuable insight into the stratigraphic column of the Thuringian Syncline.

Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

2014-05-01

359

Drilling technology/GDO  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

Kelsey, J.R.

1985-01-01

360

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol

2009-07-13

361

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol; Magazine, Astrobiology

362

Mars Drilling Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

2002-01-01

363

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

1989-01-01

364

Hydraulic drilling machine  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hydraulic drilling machine comprises a drill tool (1) connected to a hydraulic motor (3), a hydraulic percussive mechanism (4) connected via a hydraulic distributor (15) to a hydraulic pressure line (11) and to a hydraulic discharge line (21), and a means (16) for sucking the liquid from the working chamber of the hydraulic percussive mechanism (4) during its idle stroke. The means (16) includes a mixing chamber (17) connected to the discharge line of the hydraulic percussive mechanism, an ejector (18) connected to the discharge line of the hydraulic motor (3), and a diffuser (19) connected to the hydraulic discharge line (21) and accommodating a nozzle of the ejector (18).

1991-04-30

365

75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673b). The investigations were requested in a petition filed effective December 31, 2009, by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX; Rotary Drilling Tools, Beasley, TX; Texas Steel Conversions, Inc., Houston, TX;...

2010-09-09

366

76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...these investigations effective December 31, 2009, following receipt of a petition filed with the Commission and Commerce by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX; Rotary Drilling Tools, Beasley, TX; Texas Steel Conversions, Inc., Houston, TX;...

2011-03-03

367

Effects of drill cuttings discharge on meiofauna communities of a shelf break site in the southwest Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the effects of drill cutting discharges on the structure of meiofauna communities in an area\\u000a of the shelf break at Campos Basin, Southeast Brazil. Drilling activities were operated, in a first phase, with water-based\\u000a fluid and, in a second phase, with synthetic fluid paraffin-based (NAF-III). A total of 135 samples taken at a pre-drilling\\u000a situation (MS1)

Sérgio A. Netto; Gustavo Fonseca; Fabiane Gallucci

2010-01-01

368

Conquering Alaska's arctic drilling problems - 2. Drilling procedures  

SciTech Connect

A discussion is presented of ARCO's solutions to the drilling problems an oil company faces in developing an arctic oil and gas field. Outlined are the following topics: surface casing hole; direcitonal drilling; Fondu cement; intermediate casing; downsqueeze procedure; and, drilling to TD.

Moore, S.D.

1981-06-01

369

Conquering Alaska's arctic drilling problems - 2. Drilling procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is presented of ARCO's solutions to the drilling problems an oil company faces in developing an arctic oil and gas field. Outlined are the following topics: surface casing hole; direcitonal drilling; Fondu cement; intermediate casing; downsqueeze procedure; and, drilling to TD.

1981-01-01

370

The single steel drilling caisson: A new arctic drilling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dome's experience with a new mobile drilling unit - the Single Steel Drilling Caisson (SSDC) - is described. The SSDC was designed to enable offshore drilling operations in the Beaufort Sea to continue beyond the short open-water season during which drillships are capable of working. The operator's requirements for storage facilities and rig equipment are discussed with reference to the

A. Hippman; W. Kelly; C. Merritt

1983-01-01

371

Combination drilling and skiving tool  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

Stone, W.J.

1989-09-26

372

Combination drilling and skiving tool  

DOEpatents

A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

Stone, William J. (Kansas City, MO)

1989-01-01

373

Ocean Drilling Program (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... FOR GEOSCIENCES (GEO) OCEAN SCIENCES (OCE) Ocean Drilling Program The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP ... scale, the Earth's crust beneath the ocean in order to learn more about the composition, structure ...

374

Red sea drillings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present - and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

Ross, D. A.; Whitmarsh, R. B.; Ali, S. A.; Boudreaux, J. E.; Coleman, R.; Fleisher, R. L.; Girdler, R.; Manheim, F.; Matter, A.; Nigrini, C.; Stoffers, P.; Supko, P. R.

1973-01-01

375

IODP drilling at Chicxulub  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrestrial record is the only source of 3-D ground truth observations on the lithological and structural character of natural impact structures. Of the three largest known impact craters on Earth, Chicxulub is the best preserved because of a slow burial on a tectonically quiet carbonate platform. Our proposal is to drill two wells that address fundamental issues about the

J. Morgan; J. Urrutia; S. Gulick; R. Grieve; M. Rebolledo; J. Melosh; M. Warner; G. Christeson; P. Barton

2005-01-01

376

Drill sergeant selection model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to strengthen the current utility of the Warrior Attributes Inventory (WAI), formerly known as the Non Commissioned Officer Leadership Skills Inventory (NLSI). The end state of the research is to create a model that will accurately predict potential drill sergeant performance based upon WAI scores and biographical data. The research leverages statistical learning methods and the United

T. Barker; S. Gouthro; J. Jarvis; R. Markham; J. Halstead

2008-01-01

377

New generation drill rigs  

SciTech Connect

Six new drilling rigs, all designed for use under arctic conditions, are described briefly as to use, proposed location, construction company, and state of completion. Better ideas for all phases of arctic operations have been incorporated into design of these rigs. Some of the rigs are adaptable for Beaufort Sea offshore operations. (BLM)

Not Available

1980-06-01

378

Offshore oil drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accelerated offshore leasing plan proposed by the US government will involve huge areas containing marine biological resources of considerable economic, ecological, social, and aesthetic value. Offshore drilling and onshore refining\\/processing facilities can mar the scenic beauty of an area and gradually change seabed and water conditions, while always posing the threat of a major oil spill. Environmentalists currently disagree

Hileman

1981-01-01

379

Mars Science Laboratory Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the bit is a thick-walled maraging steel collection tube allowing the powdered sample to be augured up the hole into the sample chamber. For robustness, the wall thickness of the DBA was maximized while still ensuring effective sample collection. There are four recesses in the bit tube that are used to retain the fresh bits in their bit box. The rotating bit is supported by a back-to-back duplex bearing pair within a housing that is connected to the outer DBA housing by two titanium diaphragms. The only bearings on the drill in the sample flow are protected by a spring-energized seal, and an integrated shield that diverts the ingested powdered sample from the moving interface. The DBA diaphragms provide radial constraint of the rotating bit and form the sample chambers. Between the diaphragms there is a sample exit tube from which the sample is transferred to the CHIMRA. To ensure that the entire collected sample is retained, no matter the orientation of the drill with respect to gravity during sampling, the pass-through from the forward to the aft chamber resides opposite to the exit tube.

Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

2012-01-01

380

Drilling mud cleaning system  

SciTech Connect

A mud cleaning system is described for removal of drill cuttings and recovery of drilling mud coming from an oil well. The mud slurry may be made up essentially of barite particles having a specific gravity of 4.2 or more and a particle size mostly under 200 mesh, drill cuttings having a specific gravity of 2-3, and varying particle sizes ranging from 200 mesh to 1/2 inch or more, and water. The system comprises: a. a first screen means having a top end and a bottom end and a screen member extending therebetween having openings therein. b. first sump means for collecting the underflow mud slurry passing through the openings in the screen member of the first screen means; c. a spiral separator having an upper end having an inlet for receiving the underflow mud slurry, a lower end having outlet for discharging substantially all of the barite particles separately from a majority of the drill cuttings and the water in the received underflow mud slurry, and a spiral chute interconnecting the upper and lower ends of the spiral separator along which the received underflow mud slurry flows; d. second sump means for collecting the drill cuttings and the water passing from the spiral separator; e. second screen means for receiving and dewatering a slurry; f. valve means having an inlet, a first outlet and a second outlet for receiving the underflow mud slurry from the first sump means; g. a fourth transport line interconnecting the second sump means to the second screen means.

Elmquist, S.A.; Boesger, L.E.

1987-09-29

381

Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

1986-01-01

382

Drilling Precise Orifices and Slots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reaction control thrustor injector requires precisely machined orifices and slots. Tooling setup consists of rotary table, numerical control system and torque sensitive drill press. Components used to drill oxidizer orifices. Electric discharge machine drills fuel-feed orifices. Device automates production of identical parts so several are completed in less time than previously.

Richards, C. W.; Seidler, J. E.

1983-01-01

383

Friction drilling of cast metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the friction drilling process, a nontraditional hole-making technique, for cast metals. In friction drilling, a rotating conical tool is applied to penetrate work-material and create a bushing in a single step without generating chip. The cast aluminum and magnesium alloys, two materials studied, are brittle compared to the ductile metal workpiece material used in previous friction drilling

Scott F. Miller; Jia Tao; Albert J. Shih

2006-01-01

384

Advancements in thermal spallation drilling technology  

SciTech Connect

Thermal spallation of hard rocks has been used commercially for many years to cut granite in quarries and to produce blasting holes in taconite mines. It is potentially an economic process for creating cavities in hard rocks that are difficult to drill or mine by conventional methods. These cavities might have application for storage of liquids and gases and of energy in several forms. They may also be used as high-pressure, naturally heated retorts for certain chemical processes. This report describes the spallation process, including the fluid dynamics and heat transfer from flame jets to the rock and subsequent rock failure. Our model of the spallation process predicts with good accuracy the surface temperatures and heat-transfer rates required to maintain desired drilling rates. Field tests, including site selection, equipment, field operations, and accomplishments, are also described in detail. 31 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Williams, R.E.; Dey, T.; Rauenzahn, R.; Kranz, R.; Tester, J.; Potter, R.; Murphy, H.

1988-09-01

385

Microbiological Profiles of Deep Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks Revealed by an Aseptic Drilling Procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike the near-surface environments, it is difficult to determine the community structure and biogeochemical functions of microorganisms in the deep subsurface mainly due to accessibility without contamination and disturbance. In an inland fore-arc basin in central Japan, we applied a new drilling procedure using deoxygenated and/or filter-sterilized drilling fluid(s). Although DNA-stained and cultivable cell numbers and the contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) all indicated the presence of metabolically active microbial populations in sedimentary rocks at a depth range from 200 to 350 m, it was not successful to extract DNA from the drilled core samples. During drilling, drilling fluid used for drilling and coring in the borehole was collected from the borehole bottom and subjected to DNA extraction. Quantitative fluorogenic PCR revealed that bacterial DNA were detected in drilling fluid samples when drilling was performed for siltstone and silty sandstone layers with the limited flow of drilling fluid. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the drilling fluid samples below a depth of 324 m were mostly related to Pseudomonas putida or Flavobacterium succinicans, while those related to other Pseudomonas spp. were predominant at depths of 298 and 299m. PLFA profiles of core samples from a depth range between 250 and 351 m showed the abundance of 16:0, 16:1?7 and 18:1?9 fatty acids, which are known as major cellular lipid components of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium spp. From these results, it was suggested that the members of the genera Pseudomonas and F. succinicans might represent dominant microbial populations that inhabit the deep terrestrial sedimentary rocks in Central Japan. This study was supported by grants from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

Suzuki, Y.; Suko, T.; Fukuda, A.; Kouduka, M.; Nanba, K.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.

2009-12-01

386

Laser Oil and Gas Well Drilling Demonstration Videos  

DOE Data Explorer

ANL's Laser Applications Laboratory and collaborators are examining the feasibility of adapting high-power laser technology to drilling for gas and oil. The initial phase is designed to establish a scientific basis for developing a commercial laser drilling system and determine the level of gas industry interest in pursuing future research. Using lasers to bore a hole offers an entirely new approach to mechanical drilling. The novel drilling system would transfer light energy from lasers on the surface, down a borehole by a fiber optic bundle, to a series of lenses that would direct the laser light to the rock face. Researchers believe that state-of-the-art lasers have the potential to penetrate rock many times faster than conventional boring technologies - a huge benefit in reducing the high costs of operating a drill rig. Because the laser head does not contact the rock, there is no need to stop drilling to replace a mechanical bit. Moreover, researchers believe that lasers have the ability to melt the rock in a way that creates a ceramic sheath in the wellbore, eliminating the expense of buying and setting steel well casing. A laser system could also contain a variety of downhole sensors, including visual imaging systems that could communicate with the surface through the fiber optic cabling. Earlier studies have been promising, but there is still much to learn. One of the primary objectives of the new study will be to obtain much more precise measurements of the energy requirements needed to transmit light from surface lasers down a borehole with enough power to bore through rocks as much as 20,000 feet or more below the surface. Another objective will be to determine if sending the laser light in sharp pulses, rather than as a continuous stream, could further increase the rate of rock penetration. A third aspect will be to determine if lasers can be used in the presence of drilling fluids. In most wells, thick fluids called "drilling muds" are injected into the borehole to wash out rock cuttings and keep water and other fluids from the underground formations from seeping into the well. The technical challenge will be to determine whether too much laser energy is expended to clear away the fluid where the drilling is occurring. (Copied with editing from http://www.ne.anl.gov/facilities/lal/laser_drilling.html). The demonstration videos, provided here in QuickTime format, are accompanied by patent documents and PDF reports that, together, provide an overall picture of this fascinating project.

387

The rock melting approach to drilling  

SciTech Connect

During the early and mid-1970`s the Los Alamos National Laboratory demonstrated practical applications of drilling and coring using an electrically-heated graphite, tungsten, or molybdenum penetrator that melts a hole as it is slowly pushed through the rock or soil. The molten material consolidates into a rugged glass lining that prevents hole collapse; minimizes the potential for cross-flow, lost circulation, or the release of hazardous materials without casing operations; and produces no cuttings in porous or low density (<1.7 g/cc) formations. Because there are no drilling fluids required, the rock melting approach reduces waste handling, treatment and disposal. Drilling by rock melting has been demonstrated to depths up to 30 m in caliche, clay, alluvium, cobbles, sand, basalt, granite, and other materials. Penetrating large cobbles without debris removal was achieved by thermal stress fracturing and lateral extrusion of portions of the rock melt into the resulting cracks. Both horizontal and vertical holes in a variety of diameters were drilled in these materials using modular, self-contained field units that operate in remote areas. Because the penetrator does not need to rotate, steering by several simple approaches is considered quite feasible. Melting is ideal for obtaining core samples in alluvium and other poorly consolidated soils since the formed-in-place glass liner stabilizes the hole, encapsulates volatile or hazardous material, and recovers an undisturbed core. Because of the relatively low thermal conductivity of rock and soil materials, the heat-affected zone beyond the melt layer is very small, <1 inch thick. Los Alamos has begun to update the technology and this paper will report on the current status of applications and designs for improved drills.

Cort, G.E.; Goff, S.J.; Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W. Jr.; Dreesen, D.S.; Winchester, W.

1993-09-01

388

Identification of leak zone pre-drilling based on fuzzy control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key factor of plugging operation is how to identify leak zone as well as the difficult point for drilling operation in complex formation. Drilling fluids leakage and reservoir contamination frequently occurred due to the traditional method of identification of leak zone that lost circulation had already happened before detected. In this paper, the difficult problem of technology in identification

Yunhu Lu; Mian Chen; Yan Jin; Bing Hou; Lichun Jia; Hui

2011-01-01

389

Development of an expert system for underbalanced drilling using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the development of an expert system for screening wells that could be drilled underbalanced, and for aiding in the preliminary selection of appropriate underbalanced drilling fluids for a given range of wellbore and reservoir conditions. This approach combines a qualitative rule-based analysis for assessing formation damage and lost circulation potentials with quantitative analysis for assessing wellbore stability

Ali A. Garrouch; Haitham M. S. Lababidi

2001-01-01

390

Improved diamond coring bits developed for dry and chip-flush drilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two rotary diamond bit designs, one operating with a chip-flushing fluid, the second including auger section to remove drilled chips, enhance usefulness of tool for exploratory and industrial core-drilling of hard, abrasive mineral deposits and structural masonry.

Decker, W. E.; Hampe, W. R.; Hampton, W. H.; Simon, A. B.

1971-01-01

391

Influence of pore pressure on drilling response in hard shales  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from laboratory drilling studies of two different hard shales similar to those found in some areas of the North Sea. Two laboratory drilling machines will milled-tooth bits were used. Pore pressure was measured in all the experiments, and in some it was reduced to several megapascals below bottomhole pressure (BHP). Pore-pressure reduction was achieved by allowing the pore fluid to drain out of the shale while external stresses were maintained constant. The influence of BHP was studied for values from 3 to 33 MPa (435 to 4,786 psi). The differential pressure, which equals BHP minus pore pressure, ranged from near balance to > 10 MPa (>1,450 psi). BHP was found to have a strong influence on drilling response, but differential pressure did not, contrary to conventional wisdom. The results are compared with other drilling experiments and single-cutting experiments in the literature.

Gray-Stephens, D.; Cook, J.M.; Sheppard, M.C.

1994-12-01

392

Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures  

DOEpatents

A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

Mansure, Arthur James (Alburquerque, NM) [Alburquerque, NM; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona (The Woodlands, TX) [The Woodlands, TX

2010-11-30

393

Fluid Power Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the fundamental concepts important to fluid power, which includes both pneumatic (gas) and hydraulic (liquid) systems. Both systems contain four basic components: reservoir/receiver, pump/compressor, valve, cylinder. Students learn background information about fluid powerāboth pneumatic and hydraulic systemsāincluding everyday applications in our world (bulldozers, front-end loaders, excavators, chair height lever adjustors, door closer dampers, dental drills, vehicle brakes) and related natural laws. After a few simple teacher demos, they learn about the four components in all fluid power systems, watch two 26-minute online videos about fluid power, complete a crossword puzzle of fluid power terms, and conduct a task card exercise. This prepares them to conduct the associated hands-on activity, using the Portable Fluid Power Demonstrator (teacher-prepared kits) to learn more about the properties of gases and liquids in addition to how forces are transmitted and multiplied within these systems.

Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power, College of Agriculture and Biological Engineering,

394

Basic Concepts of Laser Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the technology of µs pulse laser applications is dominated by single pulse drilling, percussion drilling and even trepanning used for high speed drilling with melt expulsion. However, short ps pulses have to be addressed anyway, since there are technical aspects in addition to achieve high speeds in drilling, namely, structuring and tapering while maintaining the mechanical integrity of operation. As an example, to avoid delamination of thermal barrier coatings while structuring the inlet of cooling holes in turbine manufacturing as well as to avoid cracking at the drilled wall forces the scientist to take into consideration the mechanisms of short pulse ablation at least in the case of ps pulses.

Schulz, Wolfgang; Eppelt, Urs

395

Analysis of temperature distribution and performance of polycrystalline diamond compact bits under field drilling conditions  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of laboratory tests on full-scale fieldworn polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits showed the frictional heat at the rock/bit interface to be largely generated at the diamond cutting edges of the PDCs. Inspection of the observed wear of the PDCs together with the analysis revealed that the diamond layer attacks the formation at a large negative rake angle and that rock flour accumulates under the cutting edge during drilling, forming a stable buildup edge. The results showed that for effective cooling of the PDCs fluid velocities of at least 50 m/s are required along the diamond surfaces when drilling with oil-based fluids. With water-based drilling fluids, higher velocities should be used to prevent bit balling or boiling of the drilling fluid at the diamond surface of the PDCs.

Zijsling, O.H.

1984-09-01

396

Blasthole drilling technology  

SciTech Connect

Drilling in Appalachian coal overburdens presents challenges to conventional tricone bit operations due to the high rates of advance. In 2005, design engineers Atlas Copco BHMT (formerly Baker Hughes Mining Tools) began creating and testing a new lug design for bits used in these coalfields. The design was aided by use of computational flow dynamics. The article describes the design development and testing. Average footage drilled per bit by the new streamlined lug increased an average of 32.3% at Coal Mine No. 1 and 34.5% at Coal Mine No. 2 over the standard lug previously used. Average bit life increased by 32.3% at Coal Mine No.1 and 34.5% at Coal Mine No. 2. 3 figs., 2 photos.

Zink, C. [Atlas Copco BHMT, Inc., Grand Prairie, TX (United States)

2006-09-15

397

Drilling mud dispersants  

SciTech Connect

Dispersants useful in aqueous drilling mud formulations employed in the drilling of subterranean wells where high temperature and high pressure environments are encountered are disclosed. The dispersants, when used in amounts of about 0.1 to 25 ppb provide muds containing colloidal material suspended in an aqueous medium with improved high temperature and high pressure stability. The dispersants are water soluble sulfonated vinyl toluene-maleic anhydride copolymers which have a molar ratio of vinyl toluene to maleic anhydride of about 1:1 to less than about 2:1, a molecular weight of 1,000 to 25,000 and at least about 0.7 sulfonic acid groups per vinyl toluene unit.

Gleason, P. A.; Brase, I. E.

1985-05-21

398

Marine drilling rigs '94  

SciTech Connect

Listings in this paper contain performance data for each of 582 mobile offshore drilling units in the worldwide competitive and nationalized fleet. For the four categories shown, the totals are: jackups (372); semi-submersibles (137); drillships and barges (57); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (16). Owners and their rigs are listed alphabetically. Units of the same class are grouped under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. An index of rig names is also provided.

Not Available

1994-12-01

399

U. S. Geological Survey core drilling on the Atlantic shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first broad program of scientific shallow drilling on the US Atlantic continental shelf has delineated rocks of Pleistocene to Late Cretaceous age, including phosphoritic Miocene strata, widespread Eocene carbonate deposits that serve as reflective seismic markers, and several regional unconformities. Two sites, off Maryland and New Jersey, showed light hydrocarbon gases having affinity to mature petroleum. Pore fluid studies

J. C. Hathaway; C. W. Poag; P. C. Valentine; R. E. Miller; D. M. Schultz; F. T. Manheim; F. A. Kohout; M. H. Bothner; D. A. Sangrey

1979-01-01

400

Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

1980-01-01

401

Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter  

DOEpatents

A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

Glowka, David A. (Austin, TX); Raymond, David W. (Edgewood, NM)

2002-01-01

402

An evaluation of flowmeters for the detection of kicks and lost circulation during drilling  

SciTech Connect

An independent evaluation of current industry standard and state-of-the-art drilling fluid inflow and outflow meters was conducted during the drilling of a geothermal exploratory well. Four different types of fluid inflow meters and three different types of fluid outflow meters were tested and evaluated during actual drilling operations. The tested drilling fluid inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flow meters, and a Doppler ultrasonic flow meter. On the return flow line, a standard paddle meter, an acoustic level meter, and a prototype rolling float meter were evaluated to measure drilling fluid outflow rates. The prototype outflow meter utilizes a rolling float which rides on the surface of the flow thereby measuring the fluid height in the pipe. Both the prototype meter and the conventional paddle meter were also extensively tested under a variety of drilling conditions in a full-scale laboratory test facility. The meters were evaluated and compared on the basis of reliability and accuracy, and the results are presented in the paper.

Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, K.E. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

403

Hematite adds weight to fluid additive controversy  

SciTech Connect

The controversy over the use of various iron oxides as weight material in drilling fluids has raged for years. Different forms of iron oxide had been employed prior to and during World War II when barite was considered a compound essential to the U.S. war effort and wartime economy. After the war when the government relaxed its requirements, barite again became the weighting material of choice for cements and drilling fluids.

Malachosky, E.

1986-07-01

404

Method for detecting drilling events from measuremt while drilling sensors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for determining subsurface conditions encountered by a drill bit while drilling a borehole. It comprises: during the drilling process, determining rate of penetration and generation a signal indicative thereof; during the drilling process, determining downhole torque and generating a signal indicative thereof; in response to signals indicative of rate of penetration and downhole torque, generating an indication of the occurrence of a subsurface condition selected from the group comprising high formation porosity, a damaged bit bearing and the development of an undergauge bit.

Bible, M.; Lesage, M., Falconer, I.

1989-10-31

405

Apparatus in a drill string  

DOEpatents

An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Alpine, UT); Hall, Jr., Tracy H. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Lehi, UT); Pixton, David S. (Provo, UT)

2007-07-17

406

IODP drilling at Chicxulub  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial record is the only source of 3-D ground truth observations on the lithological and structural character of natural impact structures. Of the three largest known impact craters on Earth, Chicxulub is the best preserved because of a slow burial on a tectonically quiet carbonate platform. Our proposal is to drill two wells that address fundamental issues about the structure of the Chicxulub impact crater and its environmental effects. CHICX-01A will focus on constraining the environmental effects of the impact. Current emphasis is on the potential effects of vapor species derived from shocked carbonates and sulfates. Chicx-01A will supply a complete litho-stratigraphic section of the offshore sedimentary portion of the target. Anhydrite is likely to be the most lethal component of the target rocks, but estimates of its constituent percentage range between 10 and 40 %. Half of the crater lies offshore, and seismic indicate that the Mesozoic section is > 1-km thicker offshore than onshore. The thicker the sedimentary layer, the greater the volume of potential pollutants released. If we drill Chicx-01A, we will be able to calibrate the marine reflection data, in terms of depth, strata and lithology, and be better able to convert travel-time to depth for the entire marine reflection dataset. Onshore drilling at Yaxcopoil-1 penetrated 600 m of late Cretaceous calcarenite, dolomite and anhydrite rocks. These data are of significant value in establishing the chemistry of the uppermost section of target rock, and will serve as a baseline for onshore-offshore comparisons if Chicx-01A is drilled. CHICX-02A is specifically designed to sample the peak ring and provide information to constrain formational processes. It is widely believed that peak rings form from hydrodynamic collapse in some form of extension of the structural uplift process that leads to central peaks in smaller complex craters. However, annular rings within terrestrial craters correspond to different morphological elements and this diversity, as well as a lack of common understanding as to what constitutes the planetary equivalent of a peak ring, means that there is currently no consensual agreement on the nature of a topographic peak ring. Drilling through the peak ring at Chicxulub will answer this fundamental cratering question. Geophysical property measurements on the core will be used to improve 3D structural models of the central crater. Of particular interest is the source of the short-wavelength magnetic anomalies that appear to track the peak ring, and may represent enhanced hydrothermal circulation. Our high-resolution 3-D seismic survey, shot in early 2005, will place the drill-hole in its correct structural context. Understanding the mechanism for peak-ring formation is fundamental to understanding cratering. When we can model crater formation in detail, we can better use craters as a diagnostic tool for understanding the surface evolution of the other terrestrial planets. Subtle differences in crater morphology between different planetary bodies provide clues to their near-surface rheology.

Morgan, J.; Urrutia, J.; Gulick, S.; Grieve, R.; Rebolledo, M.; Melosh, J.; Warner, M.; Christeson, G.; Barton, P.

2005-05-01

407

An innovative drilling system  

SciTech Connect

The principal project objectives were the following: To demonstrate the capability of the Ultrashort Radius Radial System to drill and complete multiple horizontal radials in a heavy oil formation which had a production history of thermal operations. To study the effects that horizontal radials have on steam placement at specific elevations and on reducing gravity override. To demonstrate that horizontal radials could be utilized for cyclic production, i.e. for purposes of oil production as well as for steam injection. Each of these objectives was successfully achieved in the project. Early production results indicate that radials positively influenced cyclic performance. This report documents those results. 15 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

Nees, J.; Dickinson, E.; Dickinson, W.; Dykstra, H.

1991-05-01

408

How offshore arctic conditions affect drilling mud disposal  

SciTech Connect

Reports on a series of studies and tests, covering a time period from early 1979 to mid-1981, conducted to examine both below-ice and above-ice discharge. Local, state, and federal concern has been expressed over the discharge of drilling effluent in shallow arctic seas contiguous to the northern coast of Alaska. The 1979 studies included monitoring environmental boundary conditions, test discharges of drilling effluents above and below the ice, analysis of drilling effluents, benthic studies, and toxicity testing. Studies in 1980 and 1981 included grain size, trace metal, and hydrocarbon analysis of drilling effluents and seafloor sediments, depositional monitoring, and photographic monitoring of individual aboveice sites. Results show that the fate of drilling fluids disposed of on top of the ice will vary with location within the lease area. Drilling effluents discharged in nearshore areas subject to overflow flooding from major rivers would be widely dispersed during the initial stages of breakup. Depending on the movement of the parent ice sheet during the later stages of breakup, solids may either be deposited on the seafloor beneath the disposal site or be carried with the broken ice sheet and be widely (spatially) and thinly deposited on the seafloor.

Miller, R.C.; Britch, R.P.; Hillman, S.O.; Shafer, R.V.

1982-12-01

409

Drilling Boreholes and Installing Strainmeters in Yellowstone National Park.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fall of 2007 and the summer of 2008 UNAVCO, with the assistance of the NPS and YVO, installed five strainmeter/seismometer/tiltmeter sites and one seismometer/tiltmeter site. Due to the unique geology of Yellowstone; Unavco, the NPS, and the drilling contractor implemented a stringent drilling plan. Our primary concerns were the safety of the work crews, protecting the hydrothermal resources and finding the best zone in the bore hole to install a strainmeter. The plan while drilling involved sampling the temperature of the discharged fluids, sampling cuttings every five feet, and taking water samples when encountering increased flow Geophysical logging was done the night before casing was set and every night while drilling bellow the casing. In the mornings, a high resolution temperature survey was made of the hole. This allowed finding install zones while the drill rig was onsite. A blow out preventer was available at all times. A comprehensive plan to control and contain high pressure and high temperature steam was tailored for each site. The installation of strainmeters in relatively high temperature holes (65C) led to a change in our procedures. Unavco personnel devised techniques to temporarily cool the bore hole so that the grout the strainmeter is set in did not set up too quickly. The drilling plan was resource intensive, but it led to five successful strainmeter installations.

Johnson, W.; Gottlieb, M.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Mencin, D.; Mueller, R.; Stair, J.; van Boskirk, E.; Venator, S.

2008-12-01

410

Lunar drill and test apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.

Norrington, David W.; Ardoin, Didier C.; Alexander, Stephen G.; Rowland, Philip N.; Vastakis, Frank N.; Linsey, Steven L.

1988-01-01

411

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF UNDERBALANCED DRILLING PRODUCTS. Final Report, Oct 1995 - July 2001  

SciTech Connect

Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s and coiled-tubing drilling in the 1990s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses developments under this DOE project to develop products aimed at overcoming these problems. During Phase I of the DOE project, market analyses showed that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30% of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the U.S.A. within the next ten years. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment during Phase I. FOAM predicts circulating pressures and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test data and field data. This model does not handle two-phase flow or air and mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. This FOAM model was greatly expanded during Phase II including adding an improved foam rheological model and a ''matching'' feature that allows the model to be field calibrated. During Phase I, a lightweight drilling fluid was developed that uses hollow glass spheres (HGS) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. HGS fluids have several advantages over aerated fluids, including they are incompressible, they reduce corrosion and vibration problems, they allow the use of mud-pulse MWD tools, and they eliminate high compressor and nitrogen costs. Phase II tests showed that HGS significantly reduce formation damage with water-based drilling and completion fluids and thereby potentially can increase oil and gas production in wells drilled with water-based fluids. Extensive rheological testing was conducted with HGS drilling and completion fluids during Phase II. These tests showed that the HGS fluids act similarly to conventional fluids and that they have potential application in many areas, including underbalanced drilling, completions, and riserless drilling. Early field tests under this project are encouraging. These led to limited tests by industry (which are also described). Further field tests and cost analyses are needed to demonstrate the viability of HGS fluids in different applications. Once their effectiveness is demonstrated, they should find widespread application and should significantly reduce drilling costs and increase oil and gas production rates. A number of important oilfield applications for HGS outside of Underbalanced Drilling were identified. One of these--Dual Gradient Drilling (DGD) for deepwater exploration and development--is very promising. Investigative work on DGD under the project is reported, along with definition of a large joint-industry project resulting from the work. Other innovative products/applications are highlighted in the report including the use of HGS as a cement additive.

William C. Maurer; William J. McDonald; Thomas E. Williams; John H. Cohen

2001-07-01

412

Spectroscopic Analysis of Hydrothermal Alteration in Geothermal Drill Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water geochemistry can vary with depth and location within a geothermal reservoir, owing to natural factors such as changing rock type, gas content, fluid source and temperature. The interaction of these variable fluids with the host rock will cause changes in the host rock and create a variety of alteration minerals and precipitates. These alteration products can suggest regions of past fluid flow in the subsurface and their mineralogy can be used to determine fluid temperature. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly good at identifying a wide variety of hydrothermal alteration minerals, requires no sample preparation, and is especially helpful in discrimination among clay minerals. We have applied traditional remote sensing hyperspectral techniques in several pilot studies of geothermal drill core and chip analysis. We have surveyed a variety of samples, including drill chip boards, boxed core, and drill cuttings from envelopes and chip trays. Alteration mineralogy can indicate both the presence of thermal fluids and the hottest fluid temperature. These preliminary studies have established reliable methods for core/chip surveys that can rapidly measure samples with high depth resolution and show the efficiency of the technique to sample continuously and provide alteration logs similar to geophysical logs. We have successfully identified a wide variety of phyllosilicates, zeolites, opal, calcite, and iron oxides and hydroxides in drill core and cuttings from geothermal wells. In high vertical resolution measurements (every 10') we note depth-associated changes in alteration minerals, patterns or zones. Temperature dependent mineral assemblages are found, both gradational with depth and as narrow zones associated with vein or fracture fill. Amorphous silica is clearly identified and seen only in the highest temperature wells. We can readily identify montmorillonite/illite transitions that may be associated with Na/Ca/K variation and may eventually be used for geothermometry. We will present an overview of these past studies, with specific comparisons to other geochemical analysis for the Humboldt House location.

Calvin, W. M.; Littlefield, E. F.

2012-12-01

413

Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling  

SciTech Connect

An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

Kenneth Oglesby

2008-12-01

414

40 CFR Appendix 6 to Subpart A of... - Reverse Phase Extraction (RPE) Method for Detection of Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids (NAF) (GC/MS) (EPA Method 1670) 6 Appendix 6 to Subpart A of Part 435...Oil Contamination in Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids (NAF) (GC/MS) (EPA Method 1670) 1.0Scope and Application...

2012-07-01

415

Dry Valley Drilling Project (DVDP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the second of a series to be issued as work on the Dry Valley Drilling Project proceeds. It contains the results of preliminary studies of core samples from the first two boreholes drilled into the volcanic rocks of Ross I., summaries of se...

1973-01-01

416

Drill and Blast Tunneling Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance drill and blast methods for tunnel construction require that each of the individual working elements that constitute the construction process are optimized and considered as a system of sequential and parallel activities. The advantage of integrating the logistic backup systems facilitates an increase in performance. To achieve increased production, it is necessary to improve the drilling, explosive loading, temporary

Gerhard Girmscheid; Cliff Schexnayder

2002-01-01

417

Deep well drilling and completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A history of the drilling of the discovery well of the Hamon (Ellenberger Field, Reeves County, Texas, is presented. In spite of considerable time in planning, many problems arose in the drilling of this well and setting the various strings of casing utilized in the casing program. At the time the well was completed, it was the world's deepest producer,

Massey

1966-01-01

418

Developments in Direct Drilling Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report outlines methods and techniques of measuring in-groove r.h.% in the direct drilled seed micro-environment, as an indirect performance assessment tool for evaluating seed drill openers. A number of laboratory and field experiments, which used va...

M. A. Choudhary C. J. Baker

1985-01-01

419

Novel technology increases drilling potential  

SciTech Connect

This article examines such innovations in drilling technology as a giant semi-submersible rig for Arctic operation; an all-weather jack-up rig; float on/float-off rig transports; environmentally clean oil-based drilling mud; 15,000 psi BOP hardware; a compact subsea test tree; a satellite rig monitor/communications system and a digital driller training system.

Dempsey, P.

1982-07-01

420

Dry Valley Drilling Project (DVDP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bulletin no. 7 contains a statement of sample distribution policy, nine papers relating to Dry Valley Drilling Project (DVDP) research, and the program of DVDP Seminar II held in Wellington, New Zealand. Drilling from annual ice into western McMurdo Sound...

1976-01-01

421

Reinforcement and Drill by Microcomputer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out why drill work has a role in the language arts classroom, explores the possibilities of using a microcomputer to give children drill work, and discusses the characteristics of a good software program, along with faults found in many software programs. (FL)

Balajthy, Ernest

1984-01-01

422

Arizona expects more wildcat drilling  

SciTech Connect

Wildcat oil drilling is on the rise in Arizona. Several remote tests have drawn a considerable amount of industry attention, and could account for a moderate increase in activity. A 3900-ft. Devonian test is planned on High Plains Petroleum Corp.'s Apache County acreage south of the Navajo reservation. This article discusses the oil drilling activity planned for the state this year.

Stremel, K.

1984-01-01

423

Suspension Core Drill - Project DRACO,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A diamond core drill suspended by a single hose and powered by a water turbine has been developed and tested. For deep hole use, quick access and withdrawal are achieved as drill pipe is not used. 1-1/4-inch cores have been taken from blocks of Barre gran...

J. A. Browning

1985-01-01

424

30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Drilling requirements. ...OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR... Ā§ 250.1605 Drilling requirements. ...minerals (e.g., oil and gas) in the...normal course of drilling. Directional...

2013-07-01

425

30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER...71 Directional drilling. In accordance...such circumstances, drilling shall be...

2013-07-01

426

30 CFR 556.71 - Directional drilling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Directional drilling. 556.71 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER...71 Directional drilling. In accordance...such circumstances, drilling shall be...

2013-07-01

427

Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

2010-01-01

428

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP):(I) Drilling at Krafla encountered Rhyolitic Magma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP aims to produce supercritical hydrothermal fluids from depths of 4-5 km and temperatures of >400°C as modeling suggests that supercritical water could generate an energy output about 10 times that of a typical geothermal well. This could lead to major improvements in developing high-temperature geothermal resources worldwide. The first IDDP well was located in the Krafla caldera in the active central rift zone of NE Iceland, where during 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred that involved 9 distinct volcanic eruptions. At Krafla there has been extensive production drilling since 1971 to supply steam to a geothermal power plant. Within the caldera a large magma chamber was detected by S-wave attenuation at 3-7 km depth, and a recent MT-survey determined its location. The IDDP-1 was located to reach to 4.5 km to end above the magma chamber. When the drilling had reached 2075 m depth multiple drilling problems ensued, including a failed coring attempt, twist offs, and sidetracks to bypass drill string lost in the hole. An anchor casing was set at 1950 m to case off the trouble zones. However drilling problems continued and another twist off and sidetrack followed. Drilling then penetrated a mixture of fresh basalt and granophyre until 24th June 2009, when at about 2100 m the bit became stuck. However, circulation was maintained and rhyolitic glass was returned to the surface. Rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole filling the bottom 10 m. The glass cuttings returned were at first pumiceous then homogeneous, sparsely phyric obsidian. The petrology of this glass is described in accompanying posters. The intrusion responsible was evidently below the resolution of available geophysical surveys. We decided to terminate drilling and test the well and so a 9 5/8 inch sacrificial production casing was cemented inside the anchor casing with a 9 5/8 inch slotted liner below. The well is now heating, and will be flow tested in late November 2009. If the flow tests are successful, a pilot plant to test power production could follow in 2010. The IDDP has engendered considerable scientific interest. Some of the research underway on samples from the IDDP-1 and from other wells at Krafla and from wells in the Reykjanes geothermal field, also targeted by the IDDP, is reported in accompanying posters. Subject to funding, two new IDDP wells, >4 km deep, are to be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields during 2010-2012 to search for supercritical fluid. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system in SW Iceland, on the landward extension of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, produces hydrothermally modified seawater. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be quite similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems.

Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmunsson, A.; Gudmundsson, B.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.

2009-12-01

429

Microgravity Drill and Anchor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of microspine toes that independently find holes and ledges on a rock to create an anchor. Once the system is anchored, a linear translation mechanism moves the drill axially into the surface while maintaining the proper WOB. The linear translation mechanism is composed of a ball screw and stepper motor that can translate a carriage with high precision and applied load. The carriage slides along rails using self-aligning linear bearings that correct any axial misalignment caused by bending and torsion. The carriage then compresses a series of springs that simultaneously transmit the load to the drill along the bit axis and act as a suspension that compensates for the vibration caused by percussive drilling. The drill is a compacted, modified version of an off-the-shelf rotary percussive drill, which uses a custom carbide-tipped coring bit. By using rotary percussive drilling, the drill time is greatly reduced. The percussive action fractures the rock debris, which is removed during rotation. The final result is a 0.75-in. (.1.9- cm) diameter hole and a preserved 0.5- in. (.1.3-cm) diameter rock core. This work extends microspine technology, making it applicable to astronaut missions to asteroids and a host of robotic sampling concepts. At the time of this reporting, it is the first instrument to be demonstrated using microspine anchors, and is the first self-contained drill/anchor system to be demonstrated that is capable of drilling in inverted configurations and would be capable of drilling in microgravity.

Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

430

Offshore underbalanced drilling system could revive field developments. Part 2: Making this valuable reservoir drilling/completion technique work on a conventional offshore drilling platform  

SciTech Connect

Part 1, presented in the July issue, discussed the emerging trend to move underbalanced drilling (UBD) operations into the offshore arena, following its successful application in many onshore areas. This concluding article delves into the details of applying UBD offshore. Starting with advantages the technique offers in many maturing or complex/marginal prospects, the UBD system for offshore platforms use is described. This involves conversion of the conventional rotary system, use of rotating diverters, design of the surface fluid separation system and the necessary gas (nitrogen or natural gas) injection system to lighten the fluid column. Commonly faced operational challenges for offshore UBD are listed along with recommended solutions.

Nessa, D.O.; Tangedahl, M.J.; Saponja, J.

1997-10-01

431

Drilling and evaluation of Ascension #1, a geothermal exploration well on Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deep (3126 m) geothermal exploration well (Ascension #1) was drilled on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean as the culmination of an exploration program that began in 1982. Ascension #1 encountered several geothermal fluid entries below a depth of 2400 m, and had a bottomhole temperature approaching 250°C. However, the fluid flow rate was limited. While attempting to

Dennis L. Nielson; Susan G. Stiger

1996-01-01

432

Cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill: Design and Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directly obtaining the subglacial bedrock samples is one of the most important tasks of Antarctic exploration in the future, which has great significance to research the formation and evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, research the environment at the junction of the ice and bedrock, and research the geologic structure in Polar Regions. To drill through ice and bedrock, a new modified version of the cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill 'IBED' is designed. IBED drill has modulus construction. The upper part includes four sections: cable termination, slip rings section, antitorque system, electronic pressure chamber. The motor-gear system is differed by rotation speed of the output shaft of the gear-reducer. All modulus contain 3 kW AC3 × 380 V submersible motor. Gear-reducer for drilling in ice lowers the drill bit rotation speed to 100 rpm; gear reducer for subglacial drilling lowers the drill bit rotation speed to 500 rpm. In addition, module for dry core drilling contains vacuum pump for near bottom air reverse circulation instead of liquid-driven pump that is installed into other two variants. The rotation speed of air-driven pump is increased by the gear to 6000 rpm. In modules for drilling with liquid the gear pump is used with capacity of 38-41 L/min and maximal pressure of 0.2 MPa. IBED lower part for drilling in ice consists from two parts: chip chamber for filtration of drilling fluid and collecting chips, and core barrel with the drill bit. The outer/inner diameter of the ice core drill bit is 134/110 mm. Length of the core barrel is 2.5 m. Lower part of the bedrock drill is adapted for coring bedrock and contains standard 2-m length core barrel borrowed from conventional diamond drill string, chip chamber for gravity separation of rock cuttings and dead weights (appr. 200 kg) for increasing of the load on the diamond drill bit. The outer/inner diameters of the diamond bit are 59/41 mm. The IBED drill was tested in order to solve three different tasks: 1) dry core drilling of upper snow-firn layer with bottom-air reverse circulation; 2) fluid core drilling of glacial ice with bottom-fluid reverse circulation; 3) bedrock core drilling. The preliminary tests showed that sawtooth-shape impregnated diamond bit could penetrate into the granite with average rate of 3.18 m/h at low load (3 kN) and torque (28.8 Nm), and the groove-shape impregnated diamond drill bit could penetrate into the same rock with rate of 1.1 m/h at load of 2.3 kN. Moreover, the special control and measurement system of the drill was designed and tested to ensure the safety of drilling.

Wang, Rusheng; Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Chen; Xu, Huiwen; Xue, Hong; Xue, Jun; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Gong, Da; Liu, Chunpeng; Han, Junjie; Yu, Chengfeng; Hong, Jialing; Wang, Lili

2014-05-01

433

Real-time mud gas analysis during drilling of various holes from WFSD project in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main investigation goal of Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD, held in Nov. 2008) project is the mechanism of earthquake, especially aftershock of Wenchuan Earthquake and Longmen Shan Fault zone. which was the most rapid scientific drilling and would provide the critical data of earthquake. The on-site labs with various holes were built by NRCGA to make real-time drilling mud gas analysis, which applied Mass Spectrometer (MS) and Rn. Until now, the labs had real-time analyzed the drilling mud gas for nearly 4 years, the data of more than 4000 meters of drilling depth were attained and nearly 400 gas samples were collected, which had been more studied out of the field. The various gas abnormity, that was the high frequency and great intensity of abnormity, were achieved by on-site lab. And the component He, the most difficult to disturb by drilling, was also detected frequently, all of above could indicate that the real-time fluid analysis was important for geological research and would possibly gain the scientific investigation. As the WFSD project would drill through the Longmen Shan fault zone, especially the deep main fracture. The responding features of drilling mud gas analysis had been attained. The abnormity of multi-components of mud gas simultaneously appeared and the intensity of the anomaly was great. The range of mud gas abnormity and that of the main fracture zone in drilling core are almost the same, and the abnormal intensity of mud gas varies with the thickness of fault gouge of the drilling hole. In addition, the multi-components of mud gas are extreme abnormity (maximum or minimum), showing the same responding result as the fault gouge in the main fracture zone. The result above would be very helpful for the whole drilling project and the timely collection of drilling core, when core collection was difficult and no used during drilling. Lately, the identification, origin and explanation of the abnormity of mud gas during drilling to underground structure would be deep investigated. The corresponding relation of real-time mud gas change and the material, lithology of drilling core of different depth, underground structural activity, drilling parameter would be compared. And the mud gas isotopic geochemistry during drilling of main fracture zone in various drilling hole of WFSD would be analyzed specially.

Tang, L.; Luo, L.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.

2012-12-01

434

Molecular analysis of bacterial diversity in kerosene-based drilling £uid from the deep ice borehole at Vostok, East Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decontamination of ice cores is a critical issue in phylogenetic studies of glacial ice and subglacial lakes. At the Vostok drill site, a total of 3650m of ice core have now been obtained from the East Antarctic ice sheet. The ice core surface is coated with a hard-to-remove film of impure drilling fluid comprising a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic

Irina A. Alekhina; Dominique Marie; Jean Robert Petit; Valery V. Lukin; Vladimir M. Zubkov; Sergey A. Bulat

435

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF OFFSHORE AND OIL-ADDED DRILLING MUDS TO LARVAE OF THE GRASS SHRIMP 'PALAEMONETES INTERMEDIUS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Offshore drilling fluids (muds) varied widely in their toxicity to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes intermedius) larvae. The 96-hr LC50S for the eleven drilling muds tested ranged from 142 to >100,000 ppm (microliters/L). There was a significant correlation between oil content of the d...

436

Correlation Between Optimal Swelling Model Identification and Structural-Mineralogical Data of Some Pre-Adriatic Albanian Drilling Muds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the swelling deformation model of clays under the influence of the active phase of drilling fluids is important in determining their interaction with particular clay minerals which are exposed to the walls of the well. The necessary time of maximal swelling of an ingredient of drilling mud (clay, polymer, filler etc.) has a specific degree which often is relatively

Marie Dede; Fatmir Shehu; Bashkim Ēela; Bardhyl Guda

2010-01-01

437

Artic ice and drilling structures  

SciTech Connect

The sea ice in the southern Beaufort Sea is examined and subdivided into three zones: the fast ice zone, the seasonal pack-ice zone, an the polar pack ice zone. Each zone requires its own type of system. Existing floating drilling systems include ice-strengthened drill ships, conical drilling systems, and floating ice platforms in deep-water land-fast ice. The development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic presents great challenges to engineers, since the structures are required to operate safely under various conditions. Significant progress has yet to be made in understanding the behavior of ice.

Sodhl, D.S.

1985-04-01

438

Geothermal drilling problems and their impact on cost  

SciTech Connect

Historical data are presented that demonstrate the significance of unexpected problems. In extreme cases, trouble costs are the largest component of well costs or severe troubles can lead to abandonment of a hole. Drilling experiences from US geothermal areas are used to analyze the frequency and severity of various problems. In addition, average trouble costs are estimated based on this analysis and the relationship between trouble and depth is discussed. The most frequent drilling and completion problem in geothermal wells is lost circulation. This is especially true for resources in underpressured, fractured formations. Serious loss of circulation can occur during drilling - because of this, the producing portions of many wells are drilled with air or aerated drilling fluid and the resulting corrosion/erosion problems are tolerated - but it can also affect the cementing of well casing. Problems in bonding the casing to the formation result from many other causes as well, and are common in geothermal wells. Good bonds are essential because of the possibility of casing collapse due to thermal cycling during the life of the well. Several other problems are identified and their impacts are quantified and discussed.

Carson, C.C.

1982-01-01

439

Drilling mud degasser  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are an apparatus and method for degassing drilling mud. The apparatus includes a pressure vessel having an inlet and an outlet. A vertically oriented tube is axially rotatably mounted within the pressure vessel. The tube has an open lower end communicating with the inlet and a closed upper end having a plurality of ports therebelow. A rotor is mounted to the tube for rotation therewith and includes an upwardly facing conical surface below the ports which slopes upwardly and outwardly toward a rim. An impingement ring is mounted within the pressure vessel about and radially spaced apart from the rim. An upwardly facing conical film tray is mounted within the pressure vessel below the rotor and impingement ring and has a surface sloping downwardly and inwardly toward a central opening. A collecting bowl is mounted below the central opening for rotation with the tube. The collecting bowl includes an upwardly and inwardly turned wall. A pickup tube is mounted within the pressure vessel for communication with the outlet of the pressure vessel. The pickup tube includes an inlet positioned within the collecting bowl adjacent the wall. A pump is provided for creating a substantial vacuum within the pressure vessel and a motor is provided to rotate the tube, thereby to rotate the rotor and collecting bowl.

Egbert, G.L.

1982-12-28

440

Blasthole drills: Better by design  

SciTech Connect

In the upside-down world of blasthole drilling, success is measured not by how fast you rise to the top, but how quickly you can hit bottom. For most mine operators, the tools of choice for achieving this inverted objective are the large, crawler-mounted rotary drills that dot the benches of open-pit mines everywhere. The past five years or so have brought a gradual change in the landscape of the drill manufacturing industry. Some well-known lines have disappeared, others have been taken over in whole or in part, and yet other endure on the market fringe where equipment that was originally developed for nonmining applications, such as water-well drilling, has been adapted for mine production duty, particularly in coal operations.

Carter, R.A.

1993-02-01

441

The Iceland Research Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research contains the collected results of the initial studies of a 3-km vertical section of Icelandic crust. The material described in these papers was largely presented at a meeting of the investigators working in this project held in Reykjavķk, Iceland, from May 13 to May 15, 1980 Iceland presents a very well exposed example of crust formed at an accretional plate margin, the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The desirability of a detailed study of a long vertical section of Icelandic crust by deep drilling has been expressed in proposals and recommendations of scientists and international scientific committees since the early 1960's. A formal proposal with descriptions of several alternative drill sites was presented in 1975 [Working Group on Deep Crustal Drilling in Iceland, 1975], but difficulties in financing a drill hole that would penetrate into crustal layer 3 (Vp = 6.5 km/s) delayed implementation of the recommendations.

Fridleifsson, Ingvar B.; Gibson, Ian L.; Hall, J. M.; Johnson, H. Paul; Christensen, N. I.; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; SchöNharting, Gunther

1982-08-01

442

Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure depicts a portable, hand-held power drill with its attached power-supply unit, in which ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, are used to store energy. This ultra capacitor-powered drill is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy-consuming devices in optimal configurations.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2007-01-01

443

Qualifying drillstring components for deep drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep, hard or directional drilling imposes extraordinary stresses on drill string components. Because of the additional economic risks of deep drilling, the use of drill string components should be based upon their compliance with API or user acceptance standards. Inspection procedures which provide the highest probability of finding and eliminating unacceptable components should also be employed. Often, too much reliance

T. H. Hill; R. C. Money; C. R. Palmer

1984-01-01

444

PAO lubricant inhibits bit balling, speeds drilling  

SciTech Connect

For drilling operations, a new polyalphaolefin (PAO) lubricant improves penetration rates by reducing bit balling tendencies in water-based mud. The additive also reduces drillstring drag. This enables the effective transmission of weight to the bit and thereby increases drilling efficiency in such applications as directional and horizontal drilling. The paper describes drilling advances, bit balling, laboratory testing, and test analysis.

Mensa-Wilmot, G. [GeoDiamond, Houston, TX (United States); Garrett, R.L. [Garrett Fluid Technology, The Woodlands, TX (United States); Stokes, R.S. [Coastal Superior Solutions Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States)

1997-04-21

445

DAME: Planetary-Prototype Drilling Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME

B. Glass; H. Cannon; M. Branson; S. Hanagud; G. Paulsen

2008-01-01

446

Suicide attempts involving power drills.  

PubMed

A 61-year-old man was found dead next to a power drill soiled with blood and bone dust. A 5 mm circular wound of the forehead corresponded to the size of the drill bit. Subarachnoid haemorrhage was present over the anterior pole of the left frontal lobe with a penetrating injury extending 75 mm into the frontal lobe white matter towards, but not involving, the basal ganglia. No major intracranial vessels had been injured and there was no significant intraparenchymal haemorrhage. Death was due to haemorrhage from self-inflicted stab wounds to the abdomen with an associated penetrating intracranial wound from a power drill. Deaths due to power drills are rare and are either accidents or suicides. Wounds caused by power drills may be mistaken for bullet entrance wounds, and the marks around a wound from the drill chuck as muzzle imprints. A lack of internal bevelling helps to distinguish the entrance wound from that due to a projectile. Significant penetration of the brain may occur without lethal injury. PMID:24237814

Byard, Roger W

2013-11-01

447

JOI to manage drilling program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (JOI), has been awarded a 5-year, $141 million contract by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to manage and operate the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The international scientific program follows the 15-year Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and is expected to last a decade. JOI, founded in 1976 to manage scientific services and planning functions for DSDP, is based in Washington, D.C., and consists of 10 major oceano