These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS ON BENTHIC ORGANISMS IN TEMPERATE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Efforts to enhance the efficiency of oil/gas drilling operations and to minimize hazards to marine ecosystems have resulted in the increased use of synthetic-based fluids (SBF). SBFs have performance characteristics closely related to oil-based fluids (OBF) however their lower PA...

2

Economic analysis of proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for synthetic-based drilling fluids and other non-aqueous drilling fluids in the oil and gas extraction point source category  

SciTech Connect

The Economic Analysis (EA) report is written to address the impacts of this proposed Effluent Limitation Guidelines and Standards for Synthetic-Based and Other Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids. Currently, effluent guidelines pertaining to the discharge of drilling fluids address two specific types of fluids: Oil-based drilling fluids (OBFs) that use diesel and mineral oil, which are prohibited from being discharged; and Water-based drilling Fluids (WBFs), which can be discharged subject to meeting certain discharge requirements, including a sheen test and an aqueous toxicity test, in certain limited offshore regions. Section Two presents sources of data, Section Three presents the industry profile, Section Four discusses the regulatory costs of options under consideration for the proposed rulemaking, and Section Five discusses the impacts of the proposed rule on firms, well drilling, and production, and also briefly discusses secondary impacts such as those on employment, output, inflation, balance of trade and other industries. Section Six presents EPA`s initial regulatory flexibility analysis as required under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). Section Seven provides a brief summary of costs and benefits of the rule. Finally Appendix A documents how the per-well incremental costs were derived from EPA`s engineering cost estimates, and Appendix B presents numbers of wells estimated to be drilled annually by potentially affected firms and the resulting compliance costs associated with those firms.

NONE

1999-02-01

3

Environmental assessment of proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for synthetic-based drilling fluids and other-non aqueous drilling fluids in the oil and gas extraction point source category  

SciTech Connect

This environmental assessment consists of an evaluation of the ecological and indirect human health impacts for the discharge of cuttings contaminated with synthetic-based drilling fluids (SBFs) with respect to discharges to water. In addition, this document describes the environmental characteristics of SBF drilling wastes (e.g., toxicity, bioaccumulation, biodegradation), the types of anticipated impacts, and the pollutant modeling results for water column concentrations, pore water concentrations, and human health effects via consumption of affected seafood. The geographic areas considered under this rule are those where EPA knows SBFs are currently used and those where EPA projects SBFs will be used as a result of the SBF Effluent Guidelines. This includes the Gulf of Mexico, offshore California, and Cook Inlet, Alaska.

NONE

1999-02-01

4

Induction of Fish Biomarkers by Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds  

PubMed Central

The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs. PMID:23894492

Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

2013-01-01

5

Biomarker Response of Pink Snapper to Chronic Exposure to Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Western Australia, the discharge of drill cuttings at sea is permitted under certain conditions set by regulatory authorities. These drill cuttings are coated with the drilling muds used during the drilling process. Synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) are increasingly used in exploration drilling. However, very little is known of their long-term toxicity in the marine environment. The impetus for the

Sajida Bakhtyar; M. Monique Gagnon

2009-01-01

6

Drilling fluid  

SciTech Connect

A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

1987-11-03

7

Drilling fluid filter  

DOEpatents

A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

2007-01-23

8

Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid  

DOEpatents

To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

Judzis, Arnis (Salt Lake City, UT); Black, Alan D. (Coral Springs, FL); Green, Sidney J. (Salt Lake City, UT); Robertson, Homer A. (West Jordan, UT); Bland, Ronald G. (Houston, TX); Curry, David Alexander (The Woodlands, TX); Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W. (Cypress, TX)

2011-04-19

9

Drilling fluid thinner  

SciTech Connect

A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

Patel, B.

1989-06-27

10

40 CFR Appendix 4 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...the biodegradability of synthetic base fluids as measured by ISO 11734:1995....

2010-07-01

11

40 CFR Appendix 4 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...the biodegradability of synthetic base fluids as measured by ISO 11734:1995....

2011-07-01

12

Wet Clutch Performance in a Mineral-Based and in a Partial-Synthetic-Based Automatic Transmission Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a mineral-based, commercial automatic transmission fluid (Fluid-M) and a partial-synthetic-based commercial fluid (Fluid-PS) on wet clutch performance were investigated from the viewpoints of compressibility, durability, and friction-pressure-speed-temperature (?-P-v-T) characteristics. Furthermore, the physical and chemical properties of mineral and partial-synthetic fluids were compared by the analyses of viscometry, thermo-oxidative stability, and metal-to-metal wear preventive characteristics. Friction material specifications

Bülent Çavdar; Robert C. Lam

1998-01-01

13

Drilling fluids and thinners therefor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid comprising water, finely divided solids and a first agent and a second agent. The first agent comprises a sulfoalkylated tannin containing no complexing heavy metal. The second agent comprises at least one at least partly water-soluble metal compound comprising tin. The weight ratio of the first agent to the second agent is in the range from about 100;1 to about 1:1.

Allison, G.M. III

1986-10-21

14

Analysis of drilling fluid rheology and tool joint effect to reduce errors in hydraulics calculations  

E-print Network

.........................................................................45 V HYDRAULICS ....................................................................................49 5.1 Friction Pressure Loss Calculation..........................................50 VI TOOL JOINT... with synthetic- based mud (SBM) can be off as much as 35%.2 The possible reasons could be that friction pressure losses are functions of drilling fluid properties, which are functions of the rheological model, temperature, and well geometry.3 As a result...

Viloria Ochoa, Marilyn

2006-10-30

15

Drilling fluids design for deepwater wells  

SciTech Connect

In addition to preventing hydrate formation, glycol-based fluids give the best chance of solving solids control problems, reducing dilution rates and coping with mixing and logistical problems. Such fluids normally reduce volume requirements and have been shown to improve drilling rates and lower overall well costs. The paper discusses gas hydrate control, drilling fluid rheology, solids control, cuttings removal, logistics and process control, and drilling fluid design and selection.

Hodder, M. [Dowell Drilling Fluids, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1998-03-01

16

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

David B. Burnett

2003-08-01

17

Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

Meinhold, A.F.

1998-11-01

18

Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.  

PubMed

The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option. PMID:15160901

Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

2003-12-01

19

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of used drilling fluids to embryo development was investigated to ascertain the limits of safe usage of these fluids in marine environments. Embryos used as test systems were of the teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus, and four echinoderms Echinarachnius parma, Strongylocentr...

20

Synthetic drilling fluids - a pollution prevention opportunity for the oil and gas industry  

SciTech Connect

Offshore oil and gas operators use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as {open_quotes}muds,{close_quotes} to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

Veil, J.A.; Burke, C.J.; Moses, D.O.

1995-12-31

21

Handling hydrogen sulfide in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the effectiveness of several chemical scavengers for removing hydrogen sulfide from drilling fluids. This article begins by defining what constitutes a scavenger, followed by discussion of the types of reactions by which H{sub 2}S is removed and to which of these categories each scavenger belongs. The authors outline the two types of chemical processes by which sulfides are removed from the drilling fluid.

Singh, A.K.; Kohli, B.S. (Bombay Offshore Project, Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Bombay (IN)); Wendt, R.P. (Chemistry Dept., Loyala Univ., New Orleans, LA (US))

1989-12-01

22

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457...Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling...

2013-07-01

23

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457...Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling...

2010-07-01

24

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250.456 Section...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.456 What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? Your drilling...

2012-07-01

25

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457...Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling...

2014-07-01

26

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457...Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling...

2011-07-01

27

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250.456 Section...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.456 What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? Your drilling...

2011-07-01

28

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250.456 Section...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.456 What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? Your drilling...

2013-07-01

29

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250.456 Section...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.456 What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? Your drilling...

2014-07-01

30

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457...Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling...

2012-07-01

31

TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT-INCORPORATED DRILLING FLUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calcula...

32

Unique Microbial Community in Drilling Fluids from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of the Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to

Gengxin Zhang; Hailiang Dong; Hongchen Jiang; Zhiqin Xu; Dennis D. Eberl

2006-01-01

33

Properly designed underbalanced drilling fluids can limit formation damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling fluids for underbalanced operations require careful design and testing to ensure they do not damage sensitive formations. In addition to hole cleaning and lubrication functions, these fluids may be needed as kill fluids during emergencies. PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. used a systematic approach in developing and field testing a nondamaging drilling fluid. It was for use in underbalanced operations in

P. L. Churcher; F. J. Yurkiw; R. F. Bietz; D. B. Bennion

1996-01-01

34

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and...

2011-07-01

35

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

2011-07-01

36

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

2010-07-01

37

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and...

2013-07-01

38

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and...

2012-07-01

39

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and...

2010-07-01

40

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must...

2013-07-01

41

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

2014-07-01

42

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and...

2014-07-01

43

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must...

2011-07-01

44

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

2013-07-01

45

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must...

2012-07-01

46

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

2012-07-01

47

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must...

2014-07-01

48

Research and application of amphoteric polymers for drilling fluid  

SciTech Connect

As the inhibition ability is not strong enough and the tolerance ability of solid contamination is low for the usual polymer drilling fluids, the amphoteric polymer drilling fluid is suggested to solve these problems after analyzing and researching interactive mechanisms and components of polymer drilling fluid as well as structure character of polymer molecule. The application in 15 oilfields (nearly 4,000 wells) in China demonstrates that the amphoteric polymer drilling fluid has strong inhibition, can retard ``mud-making`` of shale formation, keeps low-solid content and is wellbore stable. The amphoteric polymer drilling fluid has excellent rheological properties to make full use of jet-bit drilling and achieve significantly increased drilling rates. The obvious results in the protection of oil formation have been achieved.

Niu Yabin; Zhang Daming [Scientific Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China); Luo Pingya; Li Jian; Xu Tongtai

1995-11-01

49

The development and field testing of a less hazardous and technically superior oil based drilling fluid  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and subsequent field results of a new invert emulsion, low toxicity, oil based drilling fluid (LTOBM). The new fluid was developed in response to the anticipated increased usage of LTOBM, and primary considerations in the development were those of working conditions, the environment, technical performance and economics. Developments in invert emulsion drilling fluids have, over recent years, been concentrated in the areas of reducing environmental impact, and improving technical performance. LTOBM have, as a result of this, been largely replaced by synthetic based drilling fluids (SBM), which exhibit similar, or improved technical performance, whilst claiming to have reduced environmental impact. This development focus has resulted in very few changes being made to LTOBM since the replacement of diesel by low toxicity mineral oil. The occupational health hazards involved in using SBM have, however, proven to be similar, or occasionally worse, than with LTOBM. Such health problems can be mainly attributed to two components; the base fluid and lime, the latter being a major contributor to skin irritation problems, and the former to both skin irritation, and inhalation problems. There has been a lack of occupational health studies carried out with respect to the use of SBM compared to LTOBM. This paper describes the laboratory testing conducted, and results obtained during the development, where several base fluids were screened, along with a multitude of fluid additives, prior to obtaining the optimal formulation. The final fluid was designed for use on high temperature high pressure wells and extended reach wells, as well as more {open_quotes}normal wells{close_quotes}. The laboratory data presented is supported by field data from the successful use of the system as a worker friendly, high performance, LTOBM drilling fluid.

Kenny, P.; Norman, M.; Friestad, A.M.; Risvik, B.

1996-12-31

50

Soil properties affecting wheat yields following drilling-fluid application.  

PubMed

Oil and gas drilling operations use drilling fluids (mud) to lubricate the drill bit and stem, transport formation cuttings to the surface, and seal off porous geologic formations. Following completion of the well, waste drilling fluid is often applied to cropland. We studied potential changes in soil compaction as indicated by cone penetration resistance, pH, electrical conductivity (EC(e)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), extractable soil and total straw and grain trace metal and nutrient concentrations, and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'TAM 107') grain yield following water-based, bentonitic drilling-fluid application (0-94 Mg ha(-1)) to field test plots. Three methods of application (normal, splash-plate, and spreader-bar) were used to study compaction effects. We measured increasing SAR, EC(e), and pH with drilling-fluid rates, but not to levels detrimental to crop production. Field measurements revealed significantly higher compaction within areas affected by truck travel, but also not enough to affect crop yield. In three of four site years, neither drilling-fluid rate nor application method affected grain yield. Extractions representing plant availability and plant analyses results indicated that drilling fluid did not significantly increase most trace elements or nutrient concentrations. These results support land application of water-based bentonitic drilling fluids as an acceptable practice on well-drained soils using controlled rates. PMID:16091622

Bauder, T A; Barbarick, K A; Ippolito, J A; Shanahan, J F; Ayers, P D

2005-01-01

51

Drill bit having replaceable nozzles directing drilling fluid at a predetermined angle  

SciTech Connect

A rotary drill bit is described for drilling a well bore. The bit consists of: a bit body adapted to be detachably secured to a drill string for rotating the bit, and to receive drilling fluid under pressure from the drill string, the bit body having depending legs at its lower end, each leg being spaced from the other legs, and nozzle means for exit of the drilling fluid from the bit body; and roller cutters, one for each leg, each roller cutter comprising a generally conical cutter body rotatably mounted on the respective leg and a plurality of cutting elements on the cutter body engageable with the bottom of the well bore; each of the nozzle means comprising a bore extending up from the underside of the bit body, an elongate nozzle member fitted in the bore, and means for detachably securing the nozzle member in the bore.

Slaughter, R.H. Jr.

1986-04-15

52

Mixed metal hydroxide drilling fluid minimizes well bore washouts  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the use of a mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid, instead of a conventional polymer-based fluid, improved well bore stability in troublesome formations in West Africa. The unique flow and suspension characteristics of the MMH fluid improved cuttings removal and decreased well bore washouts. With fewer hole problems and better cleaning in the well, the operator reduced drilling time and cost of the well. MMH compounds were developed and introduced to the drilling industry a few years ago. Initially their utility was limited by an inability to achieve reliable filtration control without destroying the unique fluid rheology. A fully functional drilling fluid system, based on this unusual line of chemistry, has been developed and used with great success in dozens of wells around the world.

Lavoix, F. (Elf Aquitaine Production, Pau (France)); Lewis, M. (International Drilling Fluids Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-09-28

53

DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

54

Effect of drilling fluid on temperatures measured in bore holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that, because of heat exchange with the drilling fluid, a bore hole must be left for some considerable time after drilling has ceased before temperature meas- urements can be made in it for the purpose of determining the geothermal flux. To test this point, a series of measurements of water temperature and flow were made during

J. C. Jaeger

1961-01-01

55

IMPACT OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON SEAGRASSES: AN EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNITY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth and chlorophyll content o...

56

Effect of Drilling Fluids on Rock Surface Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the wettability change induced by contact between porous media and drilling fluids and the possibility of eliminating such alterations by cleaning. Three porous media were studied (sandstone, shaly sandstone, and carbonate), as well as various drilling fluids (oil- and water-based). Initially strongly water-wet (hydrophilic) and initially neutral rock\\/oil\\/brine systems were evaluated. Wettability was estimated by a test

L. Cuiec

1989-01-01

57

40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart...C16 -C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16 -C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling...

2011-07-01

58

40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart...C16 -C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16 -C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling...

2012-07-01

59

40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart...C16 -C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16 -C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling...

2014-07-01

60

40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart...C16 -C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16 -C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling...

2013-07-01

61

40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart...C16 -C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16 -C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling...

2010-07-01

62

Effect of drilling fluids on rock surface properties  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the wettability change induced by contact between porous media and drilling fluids and the possibility of eliminating such alterations by cleaning. Three porous media were studied (sandstone, shaly sandstone, and carbonate), as well as various drilling fluids (oil- and water-based). Initially strongly water-wet (hydrophilic) and initially neutral rock/oil/brine systems were evaluated. Wettability was estimated by a test based on spontaneous and forced displacement experiments. The results show that all the oil-based drilling fluids used induce a wettability change inasmuch as the rock is initially water-wet. The rock surface properties are observed to be affected at a distance >0.6 in (>1.5 cm) from the rock/drilling-fluid interface. Cleaning procedures with toluene and methanol circulations can return the rock surface to the original wettability state, but the permeability remains affected. Water-based drilling fluids made no appreciable change in the wettability of the three initially highly hydrophilic porous media.

Cuiec, L.

1989-03-01

63

Catonic drilling fluid improves ROP in reactive formations  

SciTech Connect

A cationic water-based mud reduced bit balling and increased rates of penetration (ROP ) in several Gulf of Mexico wells where highly permeable sands and dispersive formation clays and shales typically cause drilling problems. The cationic polymers adsorb on the negatively charged sites on shales and clays and immediately inhibit reactive formation solids. The filtration and mud cake qualities illustrate that effective filtration control is obtainable with the cationic drilling fluid. This paper reports that field results indicate that the cationic polymer drilling fluid system: Improves shale stabilization in soft-to-medium hard shales; Minimizes or eliminates bit balling; Increases penetration rates in softer clays and shales, particularly when drilled with polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits; Exhibits stable mud properties, including filtration control; Is tolerant of solids contamination; Exhibits good permeability plugging/filter cake characteristics; and, Is nontoxic.

Hamphill, T. (Baroid Drilling Fluids, Inc., Houston, TX (US)); Velenziano, R.; Bale, P. (Baroid Drilling Fluids, Inc., New Orleans, LA (US)); Sketchler, B. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., New Orleans, LA (US))

1992-06-08

64

New drilling fluid technology--Mineral oil mud  

SciTech Connect

The use of a paraffinic based mineral oil, in place of the conventionally used diesel oil, as the continuous phase of an oil-based drilling and spotting fluid is a relatively new concept to the drilling fluid technology of the petroleum industry. Mineral oil-based fluids possess the same characteristics but also have definite advantages over diesel oil-based drilling and spotting fluids. These characteristics and advantages are shown by laboratory evaluations, laboratory toxicity studies and field case histories. Laboratory toxicity tests have been conducted in both the U.S.A. and the U.K.. Results show that mineral oil-based fluids are considerably less toxic than diesel oil-based fluids. Tests also indicate that oil retention characteristics of mineral oil-based fluids are less than diesel oil-based fluids. Government agencies in both the U.S.A. and the U.K. have consented to the use of this particular mineral oil-based fluid offshore without a cuttings washer as long as a water spray and flume type oil recovery system are used. This approval is made by the Mineral Management Services on a well by well basis and is independent from area to area.

Bennett, R.B.

1983-02-01

65

New drilling fluid technology-mineral oil mud  

SciTech Connect

The use of a paraffinic-based mineral oil, in place of the conventionally used diesel oil, as the continuous phase of an oil-based drilling and spotting fluid is a relatively new concept to the drilling fluid technology of the petroleum industry. Mineral-oil-based fluids possess the same characteristics but also have definite advantages over diesel-oilbased drilling and spotting fluids. These characteristics and advantages are shown by laboratory evaluations, laboratory toxicity studies, and field case histories. Laboratory toxicity tests have been conducted in both the U.S. and the U.K. Results show that mineral-oilbased fluids are considerably less toxic than diesel-oilbased fluids. Tests also indicate that oil retention characteristics of mineral-oil-based fluids are lower than diesel-oil-based fluids. Government agencies in both the U.S. and the U.K. have consented to the use of this particular mineral-oil-based fluid offshore without a cuttings washer as long as a water spray and flume-type oil recovery system are used. This approval is made by the U.S. Mineral Management Services (MMS) on a wellby-well basis and is independent from area to area.

Bennett, R.B.

1984-06-01

66

FATE AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL WELL DRILLING FLUIDS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential impact of drilling fluids on the marine environment is discussed. Prediction of impacts are difficult because no two drilling fluids are identical. They are custom-formulated to perform a variety of functions integral to each drilling operation. Further, drilling fl...

67

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CUTTING FLUID EFFECTS IN DRILLING. (R825370C057)  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed and conducted on aluminum alloys and gray cast iron to determine the function of cutting fluid in drilling. The variables examined included speed, feed, hole depth, tool and workpiece material, cutting fluid condition, workpiece temperatures and drill...

68

Solubilization of wellbore filtercakes formed from drill-in fluids  

E-print Network

Research was performed to study the degradation of filtercakes formed by water-based drill-in fluids (DIF), primarily sized-salt (SS) and sized-calcium carbonate (SCC) DIFs. The experiments to degrade DIF filtercakes varied temperature (43?C to 71?...

Jepson, Richard Kendall

2000-01-01

69

Salt stable lubricant for water base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water base drilling fluid having enhanced lubricating properties in the presence of polyvalent cations comprising a mixture of (1) water; (2) finely divided inorganic solids; (3) an alkanolamide of a saturated fatty acid having 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof, and (4) an alkanolamide of an unsaturated fatty acid having 18 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof.

Kercheville, J.D.

1981-07-28

70

Innovative regulatory approach for synthetic-based muds.  

SciTech Connect

The oil and gas industry has historically used water-based muds (WBMs) and oil-based muds (OBMs) in offshore drilling operations. WBMs are less expensive and are widely used. Both the WBMs and the associated drill cuttings maybe discharged from the platform to the sea provided that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discharge limitations are met. In some wells, however, difficult drilling conditions may force a switch from a WBM to an OBM. Neither the OBM nor the associated drill cuttings may be discharged. The OBM is hauled to shore, where it is processed for reuse, while the associated cuttings are injected in a disposal well at the platform or hauled to shore to a disposal facility. Both of these options are expensive. Synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are drilling fluids that use synthetic organic chemicals as base fluids. SBMs were developed to replace OBMs in difficult drilling situations. SBMs are more expensive than OBMs; however, they have superior environmental properties that may permit the cuttings to be discharged on-site. Like OBMs, SBMs are hauled ashore for processing and reuse after the well is drilled. The existing national effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs) for the offshore industry do not include requirements for SBM-cuttings since SBMs were not commonly in use at the time the ELGs were adopted. In late 1997, EPA announced that it would modify the offshore ELGs to include requirements for discharges of cuttings drilled with SBMs. For the first time in the history of the ELG program, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will lead to development of draft regulations in one year rather than the 4- to 6-year period usually needed. With direction from the federal government to stakeholders concerning information needs for the regulatory development the industry has established several working groups to collect new scientific information on SBMs. This paper describes the presumptive rulemaking process and summarizes the findings of the work groups to date.

Veil, J. A.

1998-10-22

71

Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

1982-11-01

72

Unique microbial community in drilling fluids from Chinese continental scientific drilling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of the Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 3350 m below the land surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increasing depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively, with an optimal growth temperature of 50-68??C. Seven anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing iron oxide and clay minerals to produce siderite, vivianite, and illite. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but rather to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface conditions. These findings have important implications for microbial survival and their ecological functions in the deep subsurface.

Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.; Eberl, D.D.

2006-01-01

73

An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

TerraTek

2007-06-30

74

FATE AND EFFECTS OF WHOLE DRILLING FLUIDS AND FLUID COMPONENTS IN TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Drilling fluids represent an important aspect of offshore and land based drilling operations. Periodically, the fluids must be changed or they become old and the spent fluids are disposed of in on-land facilities. Introduction into the environment of the chemically complex fluids...

75

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Drilling for Supercritical Hydrothermal Fluids is Underway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IDDP is being carried out by an international industry-government consortium in Iceland (consisting of three leading Icelandic power companies, together with the National Energy Authority), Alcoa Inc. and StatoilHydro) with the objective of investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal fluids. This will require drilling to temperatures of 400-600°C and depths of 4 to 5 km.

W. A. Elders; G. O. Fridleifsson; D. K. Bird; M. H. Reed; P. Schiffman; R. Zierenberg

2008-01-01

76

Recent Fluids in Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluids and their origins in continental scientific drilling programs have widely been applied to the studies of crustal extension, fluid transportation paths and tectonization processes. The rare gases are good indicators of mantle fluids. The isotopes of carbon and hydrogen and the relationships between them can be used in revealing the fluid sources. And C/3He can provide more ambiguous distinguish between sources. The recent fluids in Chinese continental scientific drilling project (CCSD) have been analyzed and profiles were obtained. He, CO2, Ar, N2, O2, H2 and C1-C4 were determined by two on-line units, a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph. Cations and anions in mud samples were analyzed by an on-site high performance liquid chromatograph. Rare earth elements and other inorganic components were measured by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in our laboratory in Beijing. The isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and rare gases, especially helium, were analyzed by mass spectrometers in different laboratories. One key in studying the recent fluids in CCSD project is to identify whether the recent fluids were from the deep earth or not, even when their concentrations were higher than normal levels. Many disturbance components would usually be produced during drilling process. Such the disturbance includes many artifact gases from mud ferment, organic additive decomposition, bit erosion, etc. The analytical data of recent fluids could not be used in the investigation before removing the artifact components. It was found that the high contents of elements were related to the special rocks and minerals, such as sulfide and radiation ores. Carbon dioxide was related with carbonate. The high contents of gases were often found when the cracks or fissures occurred. The distribution of rare earth elements changed with the recent fluids. In some cases, a certain amount of helium gas was found with a high intensity of radiation detected. The high content of methane was once observed with a crystal hole in CCSD project. The samples for isotope analyses were collected in glass bottles and sent to several laboratories in China and Germany, separately. When helium and carbon isotopes in samples were found above the average values in CCSD samples, they would be measured again to confirm the safe conservation of these samples and there was no significant leak of the gases from the bottles. The isotope data show that the abnormal contents of gases found in the CCSD drilling well come from multiple sources and are related to the geological structure in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt of China.

Luo, L.; Sun, Q.; Zhan, X.; Tang, L.; He, H.; Rao, Z.

2004-12-01

77

Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives  

SciTech Connect

The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))

1991-10-01

78

Combating severe fluid erosion and corrosion of drill bits using thermal spray coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally sprayed tungsten carbide based coating offers an avenue to minimize severe fluid erosion, wear and corrosion encountered on drill bits and downhole tool assemblies used in mining, oil and gas drilling. The application of high rotary speeds and weights, presence of corrosive elements in the drilling muds, and high velocity mud with entrained cuttings subject these tools and drill

K. T. Kembaiyan; Kesh Keshavan

1995-01-01

79

Fate of Drilling Fluids during the South McMurdo Sound Project (SMS) of the Antarctic Geological Drilling Program (ANDRILL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deep subsurface rock core for paleoclimate reconstruction was collected in October and November 2007 during the South McMurdo Sound Project (SMS) of the Antarctic Geological Drilling Program (ANDRILL). To allow for deeper penetration and more efficient core recovery, water-based saline drilling fluids were utilized. A total of 5.6x105 L of fluids was lost in the subsurface. The fluid was comprised of surface seawater from the sound, as the wetting agent mixed with densifying compounds (mainly potassium chloride and small amounts of fourteen other compounds including biodegradable organics). When exploring pristine locations a main goal needs to be minimizing the amount of biological and chemical contamination. Introducing a contaminant such as drilling fluids could negatively alter the in situ conditions; affecting the environment even after the exploring party has departed the system. The fate of contamination on the subsurface environment from invasive exploration methods into pristine environments is not well known. In this study, computer models (MODFLOW, SEAWAT) that are used by hydrogeologists to establish the fate and transport of contamination were utilized to determine the extent of the drilling fluid contamination from the sea floor to 1100 mbsf. In these models, previously collected logs for lithology, porosity, fracture density, drilling fluid loss, drilling fluid characteristics, and temperature were used as different parameters in the model. In addition, biodegradation and sorption constants for the drilling fluid were determined. These factors are important to determine the extent and half-life of the drilling fluids in the subsurface. Samples of drilling fluids used during coring and return fluids were collected from the drill site and were used to determine the biodegradation of the drilling fluids. The overall goal of this research project is to utilize the rich data set provided by SMS ANDRILL and some basic laboratory testing to predict and determine the potential subsurface contamination from drilling. The results of this study can be used as a reference for comparison of future studies examining newly developed, and improved, sample collecting methods in the continuing drilling in pristine environments.

Lenczewski, M.; Greer, C.; Greer, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Raimondi, E.; Carroll, M.

2011-12-01

80

Thermoporoelastic Effects of Drilling Fluid Temperature on Rock Drillability at Bit/Formation Interface  

E-print Network

fluid and the downhole formation. It is critical for drilling engineers to understand this thermal impact to optimize their drilling plans. This thesis develops a numerical model using partially coupled thermoporoelasticity to study the effects...

Thepchatri, Kritatee 1984-

2012-10-26

81

Drilling fluids with scavengers help control H[sub 2]S  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining a high pH and using chemical sulfide scavengers in oil-based and water-based drilling muds can neutralize hydrogen sulfide (H[sub 2]S). Safe, successful drilling of H[sub 2]S-bearing formations requires good drilling practices, extra attention to casing design, and proper drilling fluid formulation. The drilling fluid must be capable of controlling formation pressures, protecting workers, inhibiting corrosion, limiting drilling fluid contamination, maintaining well bore stability, and removing sulfide contamination rapidly. High-alkalinity drilling fluids with excess lime are recommended to provide buffering capacity for pH neutralization. Following the detection of soluble sulfides, the fluid should be immediately treated with the applicable scavenger. Sulfide scavengers must react with soluble sulfides to form an insoluble metal sulfide precipitate. Effective scavengers must have rapid and complete reactions with H[sup 2]S, HS[sup [minus

Scott, P. (M-I Drilling Fluids Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-05-23

82

Aqueous foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids: 1. Screening  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous foam is a promising drilling fluid for geothermal wells because it will minimize damage to the producing formation and would eliminate the erosion problems of air drilling. Successful use of aqueous foam will require a high foaming surfactant which will: (1) be chemically stable in the harsh thermal and chemical environment, and (2) form stable foams at high temperatures and pressures. The procedures developed to generate and test aqueous foams and the effects of a 260/sup 0/C temperature cycle on aqueous surfactant solutions are presented. More than fifty selected surfactants were evaluated with representatives from the amphoteric, anionic, cationic, and nonionic classes included. Most surfactants were severely degraded by this temperature cycle; however, some showed excellent retention of their properties. The most promising surfactant types were the alkyl and alkyl aryl sulfonates and the ethoxylated nonionics.

Rand, P.B.

1980-01-01

83

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this first Quarter of the Project, a team of five individuals was formed to characterize aphron drilling fluids, with the ultimate objectives to gain acceptance for this novel technology and decrease the costs of drilling mature and multiple-pressure formations in oil and gas wells. Aphron drilling fluids are very high low-shear-rate viscosity fluids laden with specially designed microbubbles, or

Maribella Irving; Fred Growcock

2004-01-01

84

SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS FROM GULF OF MEXICO DRILLING PLATFORMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Use of the amphipods, Leptocheirus plumulosus and Ampelisca abdita, in these bioassays presented no major difficulties in the execution of these test protocols. Sensitivity to the toxicants was exhibited by L. plumulosus and survival of control animals was good suggesting the sui...

85

Drilling fluid/formation interaction at simulated in situ geothermal conditions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of drilling fluids with a geothermal reservoir formation can result in significant permeability impairment and therefore reduced well productivity. This interaction is studied under simulated in situ geothermal conditions of overburden stress, pore fluid pressure, temperature, and pore fluid chemistry. Permeability impairment of an East Mesa KGRA reservoir material is evaluated as a function of stagnation time, drilling fluid, and temperature. Results indicate that all of these parameters contribute significantly to the magnitude and the reversibility of the impairment.

Enniss, D.O.; Bergosh, J.L.; Butters, S.W.; Jones, A.H.

1980-07-01

86

Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content

I. A. Alekhina; J. R. Petit; V. V. Lukin; S. A. Bulat

2003-01-01

87

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON 'THALASSIA TESTUDINUM' AND ITS EPIPHYTIC ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

A flow-through microcosm system was developed to assess the potential influence of drilling fluids on Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytic algae. Two treatments (drilling fluid and a montmorillonite clay) and a control were used for seven tests: two 10-day, 200 microliter/l exp...

88

Soil microbial response to waste potassium silicate drilling fluid.  

PubMed

Potassium silicate drilling fluids (PSDF) are a waste product of the oil and gas industry with potential for use in land reclamation. Few studies have examined the influence of PSDF on abundance and composition of soil bacteria and fungi. Soils from three representative locations for PSDF application in Alberta, Canada, with clay loam, loam and sand textures were studied with applications of unused, used once and used twice PSDF. For all three soils, applying ?40m(3)/ha of used PSDF significantly affected the existing soil microbial flora. No microbiota was detected in unused PSDF without soil. Adding used PSDF to soil significantly increased total fungal and aerobic bacterial colony forming units in dilution plate counts, and anaerobic denitrifying bacteria numbers in serial growth experiments. Used PSDF altered bacterial and fungal colony forming unit ratios of all three soils. PMID:25766028

Yao, Linjun; Anne Naeth, M; Jobson, Allen

2015-03-01

89

Evaluation of aqueous-foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous foams are potentially useful drilling and cleanout fluids for geothermal applications. Successful use of foams requires surfactants (foaming agents) that can survive in the high-temperature geothermal environment. In this study, solutions of aqueous-foam-forming surfactants have been exposed to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) and 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) in various chemical environments to determine if they can survive and make foams after exposure. Comparison of foams before and after exposure and the change in solution pH were used to evaluate their performance. Controlled liquid-volume-fraction foams, made in a packed-bed foam generator, were used for all tests. These tests have shown that many commercially available surfactants can survive short high-temperature cycles in mild acids, mild bases, and salt solutions as evidenced by their ability to make foams after exposure to high temperatures.

Rand, P.B.; Montoya, O.J.

1983-07-01

90

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

In this report we focus on surface studies of the wetting effects of SBM components; three areas of research are covered. First we present results of tests of interfacial properties of some commercial emulsifiers that are routinely used in both oil-based and synthetic oil-based drilling fluids. These products fall into two main groups, based on their CMC and IFT trends with changing pH. All can alter the wetting of mica, but measurements vary widely depending on the details of exposure and observation protocols. Non-equilibrium effects appear to be responsible for these variations, with equilibrated fluids generally giving lower contact angles than those observed with fluids that have not been pre-equilibrated. Addition of small amounts of emulsifier can increase the tendency of a crude oil to alter wetting of mica surfaces. The effects of similar amounts of these emulsifiers can be detected in interfacial tension measurements. Next, we report on the preliminary results of a study of polyethoxylated amines of varying structures on the wetting of mica surfaces. Contact angles have been measured for unequilibrated and pre-equilibrated fluids. Reduction in contact angles was generally observed when the surfaces were washed with toluene after exposure to surfactant solutions. Atomic forces microscopy is also being used to observe the interactions between these surfactants and mica surfaces. Finally, we show the results of a study of asphaltene stability in the presence of synthetic base oils. Most of the base oils in current use are paraffinic or olefinic--the aromatic content is minimized for environmental reasons--and they destabilize asphaltenes. Tests with two crude oils show onset conditions for base oils that are comparable to n-heptane and n-pentadecane in terms of the solubility conditions at the onset. Two ester-based products, Petrofree and Petrofree LV, did not cause asphaltene flocculation in these tests. A meeting of the research groups from New Mexico Tech and the University of Wyoming, was held in Laramie on the 9th and 10th of October. All the members of the research teams presented updates on their progress and exchanged views on directions for the remainder of the project.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2003-10-01

91

DOE helps the EPA expedite offshore regulations for synthetic-based mud.  

SciTech Connect

In the mid-1990s, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) took the lead in promoting the use of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) as a pollution-preventing technology and asked the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to revise and clarify its offshore regulations. The EPA, in cooperation with industry work groups, has chosen a streamlined approach to resolve SBM discharge regulations. Current regulations and permits do not adequately address SBM issues, a drilling fluid believed to be environmentally friendly. EPA has instead agreed to modify the offshore and coastal effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs).

Veil, J. A.; Daly, J. M.; Johnson, N.; Environmental Assessment; EPA

2000-01-01

92

Drilling fluid effects on crop growth and iron and zinc availability  

SciTech Connect

Waste drilling fluids are often land-farmed following completion of an oil or gas well in Colorado. This material usually contains production water, bentonitic clays, formation cuttings, barite, Na compounds, and synthetic organic polymers. The authors investigated the effects of 5 to 60 dry g drilling fluid kg{sup {minus}1} soil on the growth and trace metal concentration of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench DeKalb ST-6-S sudanense) in the greenhouse. A nonlinear regression exponential-rise model fit the increased plant total dry matter yield response to increasing drilling fluid rates. Increased plant tissue Fe concentration and uptake indicated that increased plant-available Fe was primarily responsible for the yield response, but increased Zn availability was also suspected. Results from a second greenhouse study confirmed that drilling fluid can also correct Zn deficiency in corn (Zea mays L.). Soil SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) was higher with increasing drilling fluid, but was still < 1. Other trace-element concentrations in sudangrass tissue and soil pH and EC{sub sat} were not significantly increased due to application of drilling fluid. This study showed that application of controlled rates of water-based drilling fluid from operations in Weld County, Colorado, was beneficial to the growth of sorghum-sudangrass and provided evidence that land application is an acceptable method of disposal.

Bauder, T.A.; Barbarick, K.A.; Ayers, P.D.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Shanahan, J.F. [Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1999-05-01

93

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2005-09-30

94

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

Core Leak-off tests are commonly used to ascertain the ability of a drilling fluid to seal permeable rock under downhole conditions. Unfortunately, these tests are expensive and require a long time to set up. To monitor fluid invasion trends and to evaluate potential treatments for reducing fluid invasion on location, a simpler screening test is highly desirable. The Capillary Suction Time (CST) Test has been used since the 1970's as a fast, yet reliable, method for characterizing fluid filterability and the condition of colloidal materials in water treatment facilities and drilling fluids. For the latter, it has usually been applied to determine the state of flocculation of clay-bearing fluids and to screen potential shale inhibitors. In this work, the CST method was evaluated as a screening tool for predicting relative invasion rates of drilling fluids in permeable cores. However, the drilling fluids examined--DRILPLEX, FLOPRO, and APHRON ICS--are all designed to generate low fluid loss and give CST values that are so high that fluid invasion comes to be dominated by experimental artifacts, such as fluid evaporation. As described in this work, the CST procedure was modified so as to minimize such artifacts and permit differentiation of the fluids under investigation.

Tatiana Hoff; Fred Growcock

2004-12-30

95

Heavy metals contribution of non-aqueous fluids used in offshore oil drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitoring program was performed to investigate heavy metal content alteration due to exploratory drilling for oil using non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) in Brazilian offshore, 900m deep. Fourteen elements were monitored in 54 sites and it was verified that after drilling activities the average Ba concentration was remarkably increased with respect to background level, even 1 year after the activity. A

Dirce Pozebon; Eder C. Lima; Sandra M. Maia; Jandyra M. G. Fachel

2005-01-01

96

Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

2012-12-01

97

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-print Network

coming into effect, it becomes necessary to examine and understand the behavior of water based drilling fluids - which are cheaper and less polluting than their oil based counterpart - under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In most...

Ravi, Ashwin

2012-10-19

98

ECOSYSTEM PERSPECTIVE ON POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF DRILLING FLUID DISCHARGES ON SEAGRASSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Potential effects of oil drilling fluid discharges upon Thalassia seagrass ecosystems were examined to provide general insights and raise ecotoxicological issues relevant to problems of addressing a priori, ecolgical effects of anthropogenic actions. Microcosm experiments have de...

99

IMPACT OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON SEAGRASSES: AN EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNITY APPROACH (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum Konig et Sims) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth and chlorop...

100

Effects of drilling fluids on soils and plants: I. Individual fluid components  

SciTech Connect

The effects of 31 drilling fluid (drilling mud) components on the growth of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Tendergreen) and sweet corn (Zea may var. saccharata (Sturtev.) Bailey, Northrup King 199) were evaluated in greenhouse studies. Plants grew well in fertile Dagor silt loam soil (Cumulic Haploxeroll) when the soil was mixed with most soil-component mixtures at disposal proportions normally expected. Vinyl acetate and maleic acid polymer (VAMA) addition caused significantly increased growth at the 95% confidence level. No statistically significant depression of plant growth occurred at normal rates with asbestos, asphalt, barite, bentonite, calcium lignosulfonate, sodium polyacrylate, a modified tannin, ethoxylated nonylphenol, a filming amine, gilsonite, a Xanthan gum, paraformaldehyde, a pipe dope, hydrolized polyacrylamide, sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium hydroxide added as pellets, and a sulfonated tall oil. Statistically significant reductions in plant yields (at the 95% confidence level) occurred at normal disposal rates with a long-chained aliphatic alcohol, sodium dichromate, diesel oil, guar gum, an iron chromelignosulfonate, lignite, a modified asphalt, a plant fibersynthetic fiber mixture, lignite, a nonfermenting starch, potassium chloride, pregelatinized starch, and sulfated triglyceride. Thirteen drilling fluid components added individually to a fluid base (water, bentonite, and barite) and then to soil were also tested for their effect on plant growth. Only the sulfated triglyceride (Torq-Trim) and the long-chain (high molecular weight) alcohol (Drillaid 405) caused no plant growth reductions at either rate added. The modified tannin (Desco) caused minimal reduction in bean growth only when added to soil in excess levels.

Miller, R.W.; Honarvar, S.; Hunsaker, B.

1980-01-01

101

Research on drilling fluids and cement slurries at Standard Oil Production Company: an internship report  

E-print Network

was established, each person at the rig would volunteer his opinion of what was causing trouble. Listening to the personnel on-site proved to be an excellent source of information. Another valuable part of my orientation in drilling fluids were the laboratory... 1986 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering Research on Drilling Fluids and Cement Slurries at Standard Oil Production Company An Internship Report by EUGENE CHARLES FLIPSE Dr. K. R. Hall Chairman, Advisory Committee Dr. A Juazis Internship...

Flipse, Eugene Charles, 1956-

2013-03-13

102

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON REEF CORALS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter reviews research on the effects of drilling mud on coral reef communities, concentrating on the major reef fauna: the reef-building or hermatypic corals. Drilling mud is an effluent introduced to the marine environment in large quantities during the typical offshore ...

103

Drilling fluids and lost circulation in hot dry rock geothermal wells at Fenton Hill  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hyrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque frictions were incurred. Several techniques were attempted to solve these problems but have met with varying degrees of success. An alternate method for drilling the upper sedimentary formations is to use cable tools. Although this does not alleviate the dual problems of hole sloughing and lost circulation, it allows casing to be set as the hole is bored. Although slower, the cable tool approach may be less costly.

Nuckols, E.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM); Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G.; Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.

1981-01-01

104

Effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a Nigerian offshore oilfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two marine bacterial isolates from drill mud cuttings obtained from Agbara oilfield, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp., were cultured aerobically in the presence of varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 75 ?g/ml) of drilling fluids to determine the effects of concentration of toxicants on their growth. With the exception of Clairsol, Enviromul, and Baroid mineral oil, which had little or no effect, the exponential growth of Bacillus sp. was depressed by all other test chemicals. Additionally, all test chemicals except Clairsol had no effect on lag phase of growth of Bacillus sp. With Staphylococcus sp. the depressive effect on the exponential phase of growth was shown by almost all test chemicals. There was enhancement of both growth rate and generation times of Staphylococcus sp. and decrease of those of Bacillus sp. with increasing concentrations of drilling fluids. These results show that while some drilling fluids may be stimulatory or depressive to bacterial growth, others may be without effect.

Okpokwasili, G. C.; Nnubia, C.

1995-11-01

105

Drilling fluids and lost circulation in hot dry rock geothermal wells at Fenton Hill  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo Formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred.

Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G.; Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.; Baroid, N.L.

1981-01-01

106

Drilling Fluids and Lost Circulation in Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320 C (608 F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred. Several techniques were attempted to solve these problems but have met with varying degrees of success.

Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G. Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.

1981-01-01

107

Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling  

SciTech Connect

The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-06-01

108

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2003-10-01

109

Recycling centrifuge for the reduction of viscosity and gel strength of drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to process and apparatus for reducing the viscosity and gel strength of drilling fluids, or muds, without any necessity of introducing additives, or chemicals, into the mud. It embodies, in particular, (I) a process wherein a hydratable clay containing drilling fluid, or mud, is contacted with a revolving, or otherwise moving, surface at an angle of contact sufficient to impart adequate compression or sheer force, or both, to dewater the hydrated clay constituent, or constituents, of said drilling fluid, or mud; and (II) an apparatus, or inertial device, constituted generally of structure inclusive of a revolvable cone within the inner surface of which a stream or spray of said hydratable clay-containing drilling fluid, or mud, can be impinged or contacted, when the cone is revolved at sufficient speed, to impart adequate compression or sheer force, or both, to dewater the hydrated clay constituent, or constituents, and thereby reduce the viscosity and gel strength of the drilling fluid, or mud.

Hartley, B.G.

1981-10-27

110

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2006-01-01

111

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and (3) to develop new approaches to restoration of wetting that will permit the use of cores drilled with SBM formulations for valid studies of reservoir properties.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2006-01-01

112

Use of Potassium\\/Lime Drilling-Fluid System in Navarin Basin Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case history of Amoco Production Co.'s use of potassium-lime mud (KLM) for drilling a series of wells in the Navarin basin. The remote location, logistical concerns, environmental regulations, and the high cost of the operation mandated that the project be carefully planned. Planning, however, was hampered because the nearest offset to any of the wells was

C. A. Holt; J. F. Brett; J. B. Johnson; T. O. Walker

1987-01-01

113

Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied. PMID:20209242

Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

2010-03-01

114

Hydrodynamics of the Fluid Filtrate on Drilling-In  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of the liquid penetrating into the formation after drilling-in has been determined on the basis of theoretical investigations. The dynamics of change in the bottom-hole pressure has been determined in this process. It has been shown that because of the water hammer, the bottom-hole pressure can be doubled in the presence of large fractures and pores closer to the well-bottom zone.

Abbasov, É. M.; Agaeva, N. A.

2014-01-01

115

Terpolymers for use as high temperature fluid loss additive and rheology stabilizer for high pressure, high temperature oil well drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel water-soluble terpolymers comprising: 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid, sodium salt (AMPS), N, N-dimethylacrylamide, and acrylonitrile These terpolymers provide high temperature fluid loss additives and rheology stabilizers for high calcium-containing brine clay drilling fluids.

D. M. Giddings; D. G. Ries; A. R. Syrinek

1985-01-01

116

Terpolymers for use as high temperature fluid loss additive and rheology stabilizer for high pressure, high temperature oil well drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel water-soluble terpolymers comprising: 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid, sodium salt (AMPS) N-vinylpyrrolidone, and acrylonitrile These terpolymers provide high temperature fluid loss additives and rheology stabilizers for high calcium-containing brine clay drilling fluids.

D. M. Giddings; D. G. Ries; A. R. Syrinek

1985-01-01

117

Terpolymers for use as high temperature fluid loss additive and rheology stabilizer for high pressure, high temperature oil well drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel water-soluble terpolymers comprising: 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid, sodium salt (AMPS), acrylamide, N, N-diallylacetamide These terpolymers provide high temperature fluid loss additives and rheology stabilizers for high calcium-containing brine clay drilling fluids.

D. M. Giddings; D. G. Ries; A. R. Syrinek

1985-01-01

118

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TWO GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS AND SIX ADDITIVES, ALONE AND COMBINED, TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...

119

DRILLING FLUIDS AND THE ARCTIC TUNDRA OF ALASKA: ASSESSING CONTAMINATION OF WETLANDS HABITAT AND THE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill s...

120

Controllable magneto-rheological fluid-based dampers for drilling  

DOEpatents

A damping apparatus and method for a drillstring comprising a bit comprising providing to the drillstring a damping mechanism comprising magnetorheological fluid and generating an electromagnetic field affecting the magnetorheological fluid in response to changing ambient conditions encountered by the bit.

Raymond, David W. (Edgewood, NM); Elsayed, Mostafa Ahmed (Youngsville, LA)

2006-05-02

121

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...gallon (1.5 pounds per cubic foot) of the drilling fluid entering...pressure of the BOP stack, and 70 percent of casing burst (or casing...rated working pressure or 70 percent of casing-burst pressure...prevention of downhole equipment problems and for kick detection....

2010-07-01

122

ACUTE TOXICITY OF EIGHT LABORATORY-PREPARED GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute toxicity tests were conducted during August-September 1983 with eight laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (also called muds) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida. Two of t...

123

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...250.198). In areas where dangerous concentrations of combustible gas may accumulate, you...ventilation system and gas monitors. Drilling fluid-handling areas must have the following...Manager; (b) Gas detectors and alarms except in open areas where adequate...

2010-07-01

124

Final report on the design and development of a Rolling Float Meter for drilling-fluid outflow measurement  

SciTech Connect

Lost circulation, which is the loss of well drilling fluids to the formation while drilling, is a common problem encountered while drilling geothermal wells. The rapid detection of the loss of well drilling fluids is critical to the successful and cost-effective treatment of the wellbore to stop or minimize lost circulation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrument to accurately measure the outflow rate of drilling fluids while drilling. This instrument, the Rolling Float Meter, has been under development at Sandia since 1991 and is now available for utilization by interested industry users. This report documents recent Rolling Float Meter design upgrades resulting from field testing and industry input, the effects of ongoing testing and evaluation both in the laboratory and in the field, and the final design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wright, E.K.; Glowka, D.A.

1998-03-01

125

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

We report on progress in three areas. In part one, the wetting effects of synthetic base oils are reported. Part two reports progress in understanding the effects of surfactants of known chemical structures, and part three integrates the results from surface and core tests that show the wetting effects of commercial surfactant products used in synthetic and traditional oil-based drilling fluids. An important difference between synthetic and traditional oil-based muds (SBM and OBM, respectively) is the elimination of aromatics from the base oil to meet environmental regulations. The base oils used include dearomatized mineral oils, linear alpha-olefins, internal olefins, and esters. We show in part one that all of these materials except the esters can, at sufficiently high concentrations, destabilize asphaltenes. The effects of asphaltenes on wetting are in part related to their stability. Although asphaltenes have some tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces from a good solvent, that tendency can be much increased near the onset of asphaltene instability. Tests in Berea sandstone cores demonstrate wetting alteration toward less water-wet conditions that occurs when a crude oil is displaced by paraffinic and olefinic SBM base oils, whereas exposure to the ester products has little effect on wetting properties of the cores. Microscopic observations with atomic forces microscopy (AFM) and macroscopic contact angle measurements have been used in part 2 to explore the effects on wetting of mica surfaces using oil-soluble polyethoxylated amine surfactants with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and extent of ethoxylation. In the absence of water, only weak adsorption occurs. Much stronger, pH-dependent adsorption was observed when water was present. Varying hydrocarbon chain length had little or no effect on adsorption, whereas varying extent of ethoxylation had a much more significant impact, reducing contact angles at nearly all conditions tested. Preequilibration of aqueous and oleic phases appeared to have little influence over surfactant interactions with the mica surface; the solubility in water of all three structures appeared to be very limited. Commercial emulsifiers for both SBM and OBM formulations are blends of tall oil fatty acids and their polyaminated derivatives. In part three of this report, we integrate observations on smooth surfaces with those in Berea sandstone cores to show the effects of low concentrations of these products with and without the added complexity of adsorbed material from crude oils. Unlike the polyethoxylated amines studied in part two, there are significant non-equilibrium effects that can occur when water first contacts oil with dissolved surfactant. Very oil-wet conditions can be produced on first contact. Surfactant dissolved in oil had less effect on wetting alteration for one combination of crude oil and surfactant, although the generality of this observation can only be assessed by additional tests with crude oils of different composition. The wettability-altering effect of surfactants on both mica and Berea sandstone was most significant when they contacted surfaces after adsorption of crude oil components. Tests without crude oil might underestimate the extent of wetting change possible with these SBM and OBM emulsifiers.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2004-05-01

126

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

During this first Quarter of the Project, a team of five individuals was formed to characterize aphron drilling fluids, with the ultimate objectives to gain acceptance for this novel technology and decrease the costs of drilling mature and multiple-pressure formations in oil and gas wells. Aphron drilling fluids are very high low-shear-rate viscosity fluids laden with specially designed microbubbles, or ''aphrons.'' The focus of the Project is to develop some understanding of the aphron structure and how aphrons and base fluid behave under downhole conditions. Four tasks were begun during this Quarter. All of these focus on the behavior of aphrons: (a) Aphron Visualization - to evaluate various methods of measuring bubble size distribution, especially Acoustic Bubble Spectroscopy (ABS), in aphron drilling fluids at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density - to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity - to determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility - to determine whether aphron networks (similar to foams) in fractures and pore networks reduce fracture propagation. The project team installed laboratory facilities and purchased most of the equipment required to carry out the tasks described above. Then work areas were combined to permit centralized data acquisition and communication with internal and external file servers, and electronic and hard copy filing systems were set up to be compatible with ISO 9001 guidelines. Initial feasibility tests for all four tasks were conducted, which led to some modification of the experimental designs so as to enable measurements with the required accuracy and precision. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization, Aphron Air Diffusivity and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has some fundamental problems that may preclude realization of its objectives; alternative experimental approaches and methods of analysis will be explored during the next Quarter.

Fred Growcock

2003-12-31

127

Application of TiO2 and fumed silica nanoparticles and improve the performance of drilling fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these experiments, two nano particles dissolved that in water, are used to inject into simulated environment and also the effect of these nano particles in water base drilling typical fluid have been investigated. Using nanoparticles in all samples has resulted in recovery increase. Finally, considering the experiments, it is demonstrated that flows with nano and in particular Titanium dioxide nano(TiO2) have the highes amount of recovery factors. So, using nanoparticles in water flooding and even some of the polymer flooding ones. Also, results of the other tests, regarding each typical drilling costs of each foot and importance of time in the operation, it is possible to replace technically and economically ordinary additional (here, the widely used sodium hydroxide) with Fumed silica nano in drilling fluid to prevent cement-contamination of the drilling fluid. The advantages of nano TiO2 are possessing suitable thermal transition qualities in the drilling fluid.

Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hemmati, Mahmood; Bazgir, Saeed

2014-03-01

128

Optimal determination of rheological parameters for herschel-bulkley drilling fluids using genetic algorithms (GAs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rheological properties of a drilling fluid directly affect flow characteristics and hydraulic performance. Drilling fluids containing bentonite mixtures exhibit non-Newtonian rheological behavior which can be described with a high degree of accuracy by the three-parameter Herschel-Bulkley (HB) model. To determine the HB parameters, standard statistical techniques, such as the non-linear regression (NL) method are routinely used. However, sometimes they provide non physically acceptable solutions which could produce wrong values of the significant hydraulic parameters which affect drilling operations. To obtain more accurate results, the Golden Section (GS) method was subsequently developed by Kelessidis et al. (2006). In this work a different technique was developed using the Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to provide an easy-to-use tool in order to determine the three parameters of the Herschel-Bulkley model more accurately. To evaluate the accuracy of the GAs method, experimental viscometric data sets of drilling fluids were taken from the literature and the results were compared with the ones obtained by using the NL and GS techniques. The results show that the GAs and the GS methods provide similar results with very high correlation coefficients and small sum of square errors for most of the samples exhibiting negative yield stress values by the NL technique, while giving similar to the NL technique for the samples that were predicted with positive yield stress. However, in some cases, the GAs method gives better and more realistic results than the GS method.

Rooki, Reza; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Moradzadeh, Ali; Mirzaei, Hossein; Kelessidis, Vassilios; Maglione, Roberto; Norouzi, Mahmood

2012-09-01

129

Effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a Nigerian offshore oilfield  

SciTech Connect

Two marine bacterial isolates from drill mud cuttings obtained from Agbara oilfield, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp., were cultured aerobically in the presence of varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 75 {mu}g/ml) of drilling fluids to determine the effects of concentration of toxicants on their growth. With the exception of Clairsol, Enviromul, and Bariod mineral oil, which had little or no effect, the exponential growth of Bacillus sp. was depressed by all other test chemicals. Additionally, all test chemicals except Clairsol had no effect on lag phase of growth of Bacillus sp. With Staphylococcus sp. the depressive effect on the exponential phase of growth was shown by almost all test chemicals. There was enhancement of both growth rate and generation times of Staphylococcus sp. and decrease of those of Bacillus sp. with increasing concentrations of drilling fluids. These results show that while some drilling fluids may be stimulatory or depressive to bacterial growth, others may be without effect. 23 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Okpokwasil, G.C.; Nnubia, C. [Univ. of Prot Harcourt (Nigeria)

1995-11-01

130

Drilling fluids and lost circulation in hot-dry-rock geothermal wells at Fenton Hill  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal hot dry rock drilling at Fenton Hill in northern New Mexico encountered problems of catastrophic lost circulation in cavernous areas of limestones in the Sandia Formation, severe corrosion due to temperatures of up to 320/sup 0/C, and torque problems caused by 35/sup 0/ hole angle and the abrasiveness of Precambrian crystalline rock. The use of polymeric flocculated bentonite fluid, clear water, fibrous material, dry drilling, oxygen scavengers, a biodegradable lubricant mixture of modified triglicerides and alcohol, and maintenance of a high pH, were some of the approaches taken toward solving these problems.

Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G.; Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.

1981-01-01

131

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): Obtaining Supercritical Geothermal Fluid from Hot Spot-Ridge Interaction.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) plans to drill one or more boreholes deep enough to penetrate into the supercritical zones believed to be present beneath three currently exploited geothermal systems in oceanic ridge-type spreading centers in Iceland. The main aim is to produce much higher enthalpy fluids for power production than are currently being utilized. The IDDP is being funded by Deep Vision, a consortium of Icelandic energy companies. A feasibility study is currently under-way and is examining three candidate sites as well as the economics and engineering issues of drilling to greater depths and higher temperatures. Responding to the invitation of Deep Vision, a meeting funded by the International Scientific Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), was held in Reykjavik in June 2001, to help define the tasks for the feasibility study and to begin planning a scientific program to take advantage of the IDDP boreholes. A Science Applications Group of Advisors (SAGA) with both Icelandic and international membership has been formed to formulate and oversee these activities. An IDDP-ICDP science workshop on the IDDP will be held in Reykjavik in March 2002 with 50-75 participants to formulate a drilling and science plan. A second workshop is being considered for 2003 and drilling is expected to take place in 2004. Iceland is a particularly favorable location for research on very high enthalpy geothermal fluids and it is hoped that such fluids can be produced at high flow rates. In Iceland the repeated seismicity and volcanic activity in the rift environments above the hot spot create high permeability and high temperatures at drillable depths. Temperatures greater than 300oC are commonly encountered in wells drilled to depths of 2 km in high-temperature geothermal fields in Iceland. The likely existence of permeable regions in brittle basaltic rock at supercritical temperatures at still greater depths beneath the candidate geothermal fields is inferred from the distribution of hypocentral depths of seismic activity that continues to below about 5 km depth. These circumstances are the product of the special geological environment of Iceland, a coincidence of a mantle plume with the divergent plate boundary at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Thus the IDDP offers the international geoscience community a unique opportunity: (a)to investigate the magmatic and fluid circulation character of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (on land) in relation to the hot spot, and (b)to study and sample fluids at supercritical conditions which resemble black smoker marine hydrothermal systems. These aspects of high-temperature hydrothermal systems have rarely been available for direct observation. International science and engineering participation is welcomed in the (IDDP).

Fridleifsson, G. O.; Elders, W. A.; Saito, S.

2001-12-01

132

Method and apparatus for testing spotting fluids for releasing stuck drill pipe  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for determining the efficacy of a spotting fluid intended to release a drill pipe which has become stuck within a borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an open vessel containing a drilling mud filter cake, which cake has a top surface; (b) a cylinder having an outer surface with at least a portion of the outer surface adhering to the cake and the cylinder having the axis thereof oriented parallel to the surface of the cake; (c) a spotting fluid applied to the cake surrounding the cylinder; (d) a means for applying a force perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder to separate the cylinder from the cake; and (e) a means for concurrently measuring and recording the force required to separate the cylinder from the cake.

Hubbard, J.C.

1989-05-16

133

Cumulative bioluminescence; A potential rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity: development study  

SciTech Connect

A new rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity is based on the spontaneous bioluminescence of Pyrocystis lunula, an easy-to-culture alga that vigorously responds to shear stress (mixing) by emitting a sharp burst of light. In contrast to other bioluminescence methods, a cumulative flux of light is measured with a photomultiplier that eliminates the effect of exposure time on test results. Light quenching, caused by the presence of a toxicant, results in the dose/response relationship (DSR) typical for the enzymatic reaction kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten (dissociation) constant is used as a direct measure of toxicity. The evaluation study involved multiple experiments with 60 samples of drilling fluids from the U.S. gulf coast, as well as such typical toxicants as diesel oil, mineral oil, and chrome lignosulfonate (CLS). In this paper, the results of the test error analysis and comparisons with the Microtox and Mysid shrimp assays are reported.

Stiffey, A.V. (Naval Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Lab. (US))

1992-03-01

134

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to crude oil in the presence of an initial brine saturation can render rocks mixed-wet. Subsequent exposure to components of synthetic oil-based drilling fluids can alter the wetting toward less water-wet or more oil-wet conditions. Mixing of the non-aromatic base oils used in synthetic oil-based muds (SBM) with an asphaltic crude oil can destabilize asphaltenes and make cores less

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2005-01-01

135

Optimization of rheological parameter for micro-bubble drilling fluids by multiple regression experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to optimize plastic viscosity of 18 mPa·s circulating micro-bubble drilling fluid formula, orthogonal and uniform\\u000a experimental design methods were applied, and the plastic viscosities of 36 and 24 groups of agent were tested, respectively.\\u000a It is found that these two experimental design methods show drawbacks, that is, the amount of agent is difficult to determine,\\u000a and the results

Li-hui Zheng; Jin-feng Wang; Xiao-peng Li; Yan Zhang; Du Li

2008-01-01

136

Experimental study of the effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental study of the effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid Ping Yang 1,2, Min-hui Wu2, Xue-wen Zhu2, Tao Deng2, Xue-qing Sun2 1. Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,China 2. Department of Geotechnical Engineering,Tongji University,Shanghai 200092,China Abstract The process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid was tested by changing the polyanionic cellulose content in low-solids drilling fluid. The effect of polyanionic cellulose on process of filtrate loss of low-solids drilling fluid was analyzed. The test results showed that when time of filtration is same, the volume of filtrate loss decreases linearly with increasing polyanionic cellulose content. When polyanionic cellulose content is same, the rate of filtrate loss decreases nonlinearly with increasing time and the rate of filtrate loss will reach a stable value.The volume of filtrate loss in 7 to 8 minutes can reaches half of the total volume of filtrate loss. At the same time, the rate of filtrate loss of drilling fluid decreases nonlinearly with increasing viscosity.When the apparent viscosity is between 3.5~4.15 MPa.s, decrease speed of rate of filtrate loss of drilling fluid is quick. The results are helpful for characteristics evaluation of filtrate loss of drilling fluid and control of filtrate loss. Keyword Polyanionic Cellulose,Drilling Fluid,Process of Filtrate Loss Acknowledgments This investigation was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (projects No. 41002093 and 41072205); the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (project No. B308), Tongji University; and the Program for Young Excellent Talents, Tongji University. The authors are extremely grateful for the financial support from these five organizations.

yang, P.

2013-12-01

137

Experimental Studies of Ilmenite as a Weighting Material in Oil-based Drilling Fluids for HPHT Operations  

E-print Network

cost, performance, and availability. A typical fundamental composition of oil-based drilling mud is: ? Mineral oil and water. ? Emulsifier. ? Lime. ? Viscosifier. ? CaCl2. ? Filtration control agent. ? Weighting material. 2.2.1 Mineral Oil.... Micronized ilmenite was supplied by Elkem A/S Company. Table 4 summarizes the components that were used to prepare the oil-based drilling fluids. The chemicals used in this work such as viscosifiers, emulsifiers and fluid loss agents were kindly supplied...

Xiao, Jie

2013-12-06

138

Comparative evaluation of the indigenous microbial diversity vs. drilling fluid contaminants in the NEEM Greenland ice core.  

PubMed

Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice. PMID:24450335

Miteva, Vanya; Burlingame, Caroline; Sowers, Todd; Brenchley, Jean

2014-08-01

139

Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1995-02-01

140

Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.  

PubMed

Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ?50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ?2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C against the Norwegian oil vapour OEL is questioned since these base oils are very similar to white spirit. To reduce exposures, relevant technical control measures in this area are to cool the drilling fluid <50°C before it enters the shale shaker units, enclose shale shakers and related equipment, in addition to careful consideration of which fluid system to use. PMID:21248050

Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

2011-05-01

141

SUMMARY OF DRILLING FLUID RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, GULF BREEZE  

EPA Science Inventory

Drilling-fluid related research at the U.S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, is summarized. The program is conducted primarily through contracts, grants, and some inhouse projects designed to assess the potential hazard to the marine environment from fluids dis...

142

Abnormal fluid pressures and fault-zone dilation in the Barbados accretionary prism: Evidence from logging while drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logs collected while drilling measured density in situ, through the accretionary prism and decollement zone of the northern Barbados Ridge. Consolidation tests relate void ratio (derived from density) to effective stress and predict a fluid pressure profile, assuming that the upper 100 m of the prism is at a hydrostatic pressure gradient. The calculated fluid pressure curve rises to >90%

J. C. Moore; T. H. Shipley; D. Goldberg; Y. Ogawa; F. Filice; A. Fisher; M.-J. Jurado; G. F. Moore; A. Rabaute; H. Yin; G. Zwart; W. Brückmann; P. Henry; J. Ashi; P. Blum; A. Meyer; B. Housen; M. Kastner; P. Labaume; T. Laier; E. C. Leitch; A. J. Maltman; S. Peacock; T. H. Steiger; H. J. Tobin; M. B. Underwood; Y. Xu; Y. Zheng

1995-01-01

143

Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.  

PubMed

The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s?¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol?¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

2014-01-01

144

Synthesis and performance evaluation of a new deoiling agent for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluids.  

PubMed

Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

2014-01-01

145

Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids  

PubMed Central

Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

2014-01-01

146

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of crude oils by surface-active agents from drilling fluids or other oil-field chemicals is more difficult to detect and quantify than bulk contamination with, for example, base fluids from oil-based muds. Bulk contamination can be detected by gas chromatography or other common analytical techniques, but surface-active contaminants can be influential at much lower concentrations that are more difficult to detect analytically, especially in the context of a mixture as complex as a crude oil. In this report we present a baseline study of interfacial tensions of 39 well-characterized crude oil samples with aqueous phases that vary in pH and ionic composition. This extensive study will provide the basis for assessing the effects of surface-active contaminant on interfacial tension and other surface properties of crude oil/brine/rock ensembles.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2004-11-01

147

Subsurface fluid pressures from drill-stem tests, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High fluid pressures are known to be associated with oil and gas fields in the Uinta Basin, Utah. Shut-in pressure measurements from drill-stem tests show how pressure varies with depth and by area within the basin. The data base used in this report incorporates over 2,000 pressure measurements from drill-stem tests in wells completed prior to 1985. However, the number of useful pressure measurements is considerably less, because many drill-stem tests fail to stabilize at the actual formation pressure if the permeability is low. By extracting the maximum pressure measurements recorded in a collection of wells within an area, the trend of formation pressure within that area can be approximated. Areal compilations of pressures from drill-stem tests show that overpressured rock formations occur throughout much of the northern and eastern areas of the Uinta Basin. In particular, significant overpressuring (0.5 < pressure gradient < 0.8 psi/ft) is found throughout much of the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths ranging from 10,000 to 13,000 ft, equivalent to 5,000 to 8,000 ft below sea level. Limited data indicate that the pressure gradient declines at depths greater than 13,000 ft. An underpressured zone appears to exist in the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths shallower than 5,000 ft. Throughout the eastern Uinta Basin, moderately overpressured zones (0.46 < pressure gradient < 0.5 psi/ft) are common, with local evidence of significantly overpressured zones, but pressure gradients greater than 0.6 psi/ft are rare.

Nelson, P.H.

2002-01-01

148

Microbial diversity in ultra-high-pressure rocks and fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China.  

PubMed

Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of approximately 0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 x 10(3) to 2.4 x 10(4) cells/g and 3.5 x 10(8) to 4.2 x 10(9) cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids. PMID:15933024

Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

2005-06-01

149

Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of ?0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 × 103 to 2.4 × 104 cells/g and 3.5 × 108 to 4.2 × 109 cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids. PMID:15933024

Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

2005-01-01

150

RESULTS OF THE DRILLING FLUIDS RESEARCH PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE GULF BREEZE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, 1976-1984, AND THEIR APPLICATION TO HAZARD ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, FL, carried out a research program to evaluate the potential impact of drilling fluids on the marine environment from 1976-1983. Results showed that drilling fluids can be toxic to marine animals at certain concentrations and ex...

151

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to crude oil in the presence of an initial brine saturation can render rocks mixed-wet. Subsequent exposure to components of synthetic oil-based drilling fluids can alter the wetting toward less water-wet or more oil-wet conditions. Mixing of the non-aromatic base oils used in synthetic oil-based muds (SBM) with an asphaltic crude oil can destabilize asphaltenes and make cores less water-wet. Wetting changes can also occur due to contact with the surfactants used in SBM formulations to emulsify water and make the rock cuttings oil-wet. Reservoir cores drilled with SBMs, therefore, show wetting properties much different from the reservoir wetting conditions, invalidating laboratory core analysis using SBM contaminated cores. Core cleaning is required in order to remove all the drilling mud contaminants. In theory, core wettability can then be restored to reservoir wetting conditions by exposure to brine and crude oil. The efficiency of core cleaning of SBM contaminated cores has been explored in this study. A new core cleaning procedure was developed aimed to remove the adsorbed asphaltenes and emulsifiers from the contaminated Berea sandstone cores. Sodium hydroxide was introduced into the cleaning process in order to create a strongly alkaline condition. The high pH environment in the pore spaces changed the electrical charges of both basic and acidic functional groups, reducing the attractive interactions between adsorbing materials and the rock surface. In cores, flow-through and extraction methods were investigated. The effectiveness of the cleaning procedure was assessed by spontaneous imbibition tests and Amott wettability measurements. Test results indicating that introduction of sodium hydroxide played a key role in removing adsorbed materials were confirmed by contact angle measurements on similarly treated mica surfaces. Cleaning of the contaminated cores reversed their wettability from oil-wet to strongly water-wet as demonstrated by spontaneous imbibition rates and Amott wettability indices.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2005-04-01

152

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 92-0361-2343, M-I Drilling Fluids, Greybull, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from the state epidemiologist in Wyoming, an investigation was begun of two cases of acute, febrile hepatitis in employees of M-I Drilling Fluids (SIC-1459), Greybull, Wyoming. The two cases of hepatitis were caused by Coxiella-burnetii, the rickettsia which causes Q-fever. A survey of 39 workers using a self-administered questionnaire and a blood test revealed seven workers with serologic evidence of infection. Three showed evidence of recent infection and four showed evidence of past infection. The major risk factor identified through the questionnaire data was sheep ownership. Risk factors suggestive of either recent or past infection included working outdoors, operating heavy equipment, and hunting.

Van Gilder, T.J.; Robinson, L.

1993-08-01

153

New environmentally safe high-temperature water-based drilling-fluid system  

SciTech Connect

A new, environmentally safe water-based polymer system has been developed for drilling applications with temperatures up to 232 C (450 F) and high pressures. The system components are newly developed synthetic polymers that do not contain chromium or other environmentally harmful materials. These new synthetic polymers are designed to perform specific functions at high temperatures and the innovative designs of these thermally stable polymers allow for the use of a minimum number of products in the formulation of high-temperature fluids. The new system consists of two basic polymeric components for rheology and filtration control at high temperatures. High-temperature fluid formulations are greatly simplified utilizing this new system, with only the two polymeric components being required, along with a pH control additive, weight material,l and small amounts of clay for filter cake quality. This simplicity is a significant advantage over traditional high-temperature systems, which normally require the use of a large number of additives to control or limit the effects of thermal degradation. The new system may be formulated with fresh water or sea water, providing flexibility for a variety of drilling environments. Excellent resistance to common contaminants, such as calcium and magnesium hardness and solids accumulation, is another important characteristic of this new system. This paper will review the previous state of the art with respect to high-temperature, water-based muds and will generically discuss the unique chemistry of the newly developed polymer system components. System formulation and application will be discussed.

Thaemlitz, C.J.; Patel, A.D.; Coffin, G.; Conn, L.

1999-09-01

154

BIOCHEMICAL MEASURES OF CORAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND MICROBIAL INFECTION WITH EXPOSURE TO OIL AND GAS WELL DRILLING FLUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform. After 6 weeks exposure, coral frag...

155

The multiphase flow system used in exploiting depleted reservoirs: water-based Micro-bubble drilling fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid, which is used to exploit depleted reservoirs, is a complicated multiphase flow system that is composed of gas, water, oil, polymer, surfactants and solids. The gas phase is separate from bulk water by two layers and three membranes. They are \\

Zheng Li-hui; He Xiao-qing; Fu Li-xia; Wang Xiang-chun

2009-01-01

156

Applied drilling engineering  

SciTech Connect

This printing includes corrections made since the original publication in 1986. The text presents petroleum engineering science fundamentals as well as example engineering applications involving those fundamentals. Subjects covered include rotary drilling, drilling fluids, cements, drilling hydraulics, rotary-drilling bits, formation pore pressure and fracture resistance, casing design, directional drilling, and deviation control.

Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Millheim, K.K.; Chenevert, M.E.; Young, F.S. Jr.

1991-01-01

157

Foam drilling simulator  

E-print Network

Although the use of compressible drilling fluids is experiencing growth, the flow behavior and stability properties of drilling foams are more complicated than those of conventional fluids. In contrast with conventional mud, the physical properties...

Paknejad, Amir Saman

2007-04-25

158

Validation and comparison of two sampling methods to assess dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil.  

PubMed

Dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil is an exposure route of concern. However, there have been no published studies describing sampling methods or reporting dermal exposure measurements. We describe a study that aimed to evaluate a wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to an oil-based drilling fluid and crude oil, as well as to investigate the feasibility of using an interception cotton glove sampler for exposure on the hands/wrists. A direct comparison of the wipe and interception methods was also completed using pigs' trotters as a surrogate for human skin and a direct surface contact exposure scenario. Overall, acceptable recovery and sampling efficiencies were reported for both methods, and both methods had satisfactory storage stability at 1 and 7 days, although there appeared to be some loss over 14 days. The methods' comparison study revealed significantly higher removal of both fluids from the metal surface with the glove samples compared with the wipe samples (on average 2.5 times higher). Both evaluated sampling methods were found to be suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil; however, the comparison study clearly illustrates that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. Further comparison of the two dermal sampling methods using additional exposure situations such as immersion or deposition, as well as a field evaluation, is warranted to confirm their appropriateness and suitability in the working environment. PMID:24598941

Galea, Karen S; McGonagle, Carolyn; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Todd, David; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez

2014-06-01

159

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

During this second Quarter of the Project, the first four tasks of Phase I--all focusing on the behavior of aphrons--were continued: (a) Aphron Visualization--evaluate and utilize various methods of monitoring and measuring aphron size distribution at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density--investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity--determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility--determine whether aphron bridges created in fractures and pore throats reduce fracture propagation. The project team expanded the laboratory facilities and purchased a high-pressure system to measure bubble size distribution, a dissolved oxygen (DO) probe and computers for data acquisition. Although MASI Technologies LLC is not explicitly ISO-certified, all procedures are being documented in a manner commensurate with ISO 9001 certification, including equipment inventory and calibration, data gathering and reporting, chemical inventory and supplier data base, waste management procedures and emergency response plan. Several opportunities presented themselves to share the latest aphron drilling fluid technology with potential clients, including presentation of papers and working exhibit booths at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and the SPE Coiled Tubing Conference & Exhibition. In addition, a brief trip to the Formation Damage Symposium resulted in contacts for possible collaboration with ActiSystems, the University of Alberta and TUDRP/ACTS at the University of Tulsa. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. Although the Aphron Air Diffusivity task has been impeded by the lack of a suitable DO probe, it is hoped to be completed on time, too. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has had significant delays caused by faulty equipment and will likely require an additional month of work. Meanwhile, an assessment of potential methodologies for the Aphron Hydrophobicity project has been initiated and is now focused on measuring wettability of the aphron surface rather than interfacial tension.

Fred Growcock

2004-03-31

160

Laser-rock-fluid interaction: application of free-electron laser (FEL) in petroleum well drilling and completions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the first year of a Gas Research Institute funded research program to study laser-rock-fluid interaction will be presented. The overall purpose of this research is to determine the feasibility, costs, benefits, and the environmental impact of using laser technology to drill and complete oil and gas wells. When drilling and completing petroleum wells, many rock types (sandstone, limestone, dolomite, granite, shale, salt, concrete) and fluids (fresh water, salt water, oil, hydrocarbon gas, drilling fluids) must be penetrated by the laser. The Free-Electron Laser (FEL) technology is attractive because of the ability to tune the laser to different wavelengths. Laser energy absorbed by rocks is related to the wavelength of the laser source. The mechanisms of rock destruction (spalling, melting and vaporization) are therefore a function of the wavelength. The ability to transmit laser energy over long distances (up to 5000 m or 15,000 ft) is also a function of wavelength. Results of tests conducted at the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Army's high power laser facilities are presented. The challenges ahead to advance a fundamental change in the methods currently used to drill and complete petroleum wells are discussed.

O'Brien, Darien G.; Graves, Ramona M.; O'Brien, Erin A.

1999-07-01

161

Evaluation of slurry injection technology for management of drilling wastes.  

SciTech Connect

Each year, thousands of new oil and gas wells are drilled in the United States and around the world. The drilling process generates millions of barrels of drilling waste each year, primarily used drilling fluids (also known as muds) and drill cuttings. The drilling wastes from most onshore U.S. wells are disposed of by removing the liquids from the drilling or reserve pits and then burying the remaining solids in place (called pit burial). This practice has low cost and the approval of most regulatory agencies. However, there are some environmental settings in which pit burial is not allowed, such as areas with high water tables. In the U.S. offshore environment, many water-based and synthetic-based muds and cuttings can be discharged to the ocean if discharge permit requirements are met, but oil-based muds cannot be discharged at all. At some offshore facilities, drilling wastes must be either hauled back to shore for disposal or disposed of onsite through an injection process.

Veil, J. A.; Dusseault, M. B.

2003-02-19

162

Mechanistic investigation of the formation damaging characteristics of mixed metal hydroxide drill-in fluids and comparison with polymer-base fluids  

SciTech Connect

Mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) fluids are highly thixotropic and have shown exceptional abilities in the areas of hole cleaning, suspension, and maintenance of good hole gauge even through very poorly consolidated sandstones. When a drill-in fluid based on an MMH has been used in reservoir sections, the ease of cleanup and the production rates have both exceeded expectations. Results have been better than those achieved on offsets where more conventional fluids have been used. Laboratory results have also shown properly formulated MMH fluids to have a low potential for formation damage. The primary objectives of the laboratory project presented in this paper were to (1) investigate the mechanisms by which filter cakes develop against sandstone faces, (2) study the natures of the cakes produced with different types of drill-in fluids, and (3) investigate the implications for cake cleanup. In a group of unweighted fluids an MMH fluid was found to be unique in its ability to form a predominantly external cake. It was further shown that the strong interactions between the MMH crystals and the bentonite platelets, which interactions provide the characteristic high shear thinning and almost instantaneous gelling behavior of such fluids, also contribute to the avoidance of damaging internal cake formation. This study demonstrates by dynamic fluid-loss measurements, imaging of dried filter cakes using an SEM, and direct imaging of wet filter cakes using an environmental SEM that the fluid is able to form mineral bridges over pore throats in a wide range of reservoir rocks. The external cake formed by the MMH fluid is easily removed by wash fluids or simply by application of backpressure as occurs when a well is brought on to production.

Fraser, L.J.; Reid, D.P.; Williamson, D. [and others

1995-12-31

163

A study of particle settling in non-Newtonian fluids; Part 1: A new method for the study of particle settling in drilling and fracturing fluids  

SciTech Connect

A drag force measurement method is presented which makes it possible to study the settling of particles in transparent and opaque fluids. A dimensionless treatment that takes into account the shear thinning effects of fluids was applied to normalize the measured drag force data. A wide range of particle Reynolds numbers can be covered by this method and a profile of friction factor versus Reynolds number can be established by the proposed dimensionless treatment. An algorithm for the prediction of settling of particles in non-Newtonian fluids was introduced. It can be executed by a computer program. With a good set of experimental data, the settling velocities predicted by the computer model are very close to the measured ones in the fluids tested. This method can be used to study the suspension properties of drilling and fracturing fluids, transparent or opaque. The wide coverage of Reynolds number range simplifies the experiment.

Jin, L.; Chenevert, M.E. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

1994-03-01

164

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (II) Isotopic Constraints on Ice Age Hydrothermal Fluids in Active High-Temperature Geothermal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Krafla, Hengill and Reykjanes geothermal systems, located along the active rift-zone of Iceland, are three sites that will be drilled to 4-5 km depth by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). We use oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in hydrothermal minerals to characterize the source, composition and evolution of hydrothermal fluids in the IDDP geothermal systems. This research is

E. C. Pope; D. K. Bird; S. Arnórsson; T. Fridriksson; W. A. Elders; G. Ø. Fridleifsson

2008-01-01

165

EFFECT OF WELL-DRILLING FLUIDS OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS AND MICROBIAL INFECTION OF THE REEF BUILDING CORAL 'MONTASTREA ANNULARIS'  

EPA Science Inventory

The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.0001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform (30 deg 7.5 min N, 85 deg 46.3 min...

166

Effects of drilling fluid invasion on hydraulic characterization of low-permeability basalt horizons: A field evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-permeability basalts at the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State, are currently being investigated for suitability\\u000a as repository horizons for the terminal storage of commercial, high-level radioactive wastes As part of on-going Basalt Waste\\u000a isolation Project (BWIP) studies, a field evaluation was conducted to assess the effect that drilling fluid invasion may have\\u000a on the hydraulic characterization of low-permeability basalts

F. A. Spane; P. D. Thorne

1985-01-01

167

Effects of exposure of crocodiles to sublethal concentrations of Petroleum waste drilling fluid in the Niger Delta basin of Midwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Static bioassay were carried out using two aquatic crocodiles (the short nosed crocodile, Osteolemus tetraspis and the Nile crocodile, Crocodilus niloticus) as test organisms in soft natural dilution water, with Petroleum waste drilling fluid as the test material, at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Comparison of results for the control and different concentrations of the waste drilling fluid were made by means of the F-statistic method. Both crocodile species exhibited a high insensitivity to the undiluted waste drilling fluid and the different dilutions. Differences in concentration of waste drilling fluid did not influence the response of crocodiles to the potential toxicant. Percentage of deaths which was never greater than 0.2% in control tanks was not significantly different from that in test tanks where mortality values of organisms was typically 1.6% or less in most cases. There was a delay toxicant-induced mortality effect. PMID:12109564

Ekpubeni, F A; Ekundayo, E O

2002-06-01

168

Laboratory tests, statistical analysis and correlations for regained permeability and breakthrough time in unconsolidated sands for improved drill-in fluid cleanup practices  

E-print Network

Empirical models for estimating the breakthrough time and regained permeability for selected nondamaging drill-in fluids (DIF's) give a clear indication of formation damage and proper cleanup treatments for reservoir conditions analyzed...

Serrano, Gerardo Enrique

2000-01-01

169

Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs  

E-print Network

tests on unconsolidated sands with sand control screens. Test variables included temperature, concentration of drill solids cleanup technique and HGS concentration. Test results have shown that the new fluids are up to 50% easier to remove from...

Chen, Guoqiang

2002-01-01

170

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the experimental results of some baseline imbibition tests on recovery of mineral oil at very strongly water wet conditions (VSWW) from sandstones with air permeability ranging from 80 to 360 md. Mixed wettability cores were prepared by adsorption from either Minnelusa or Gullfaks crude oil using either synthetic Minnelusa reservoir brine or sea water. Recovery of two synthetic-based mud (SBM) base oils, Petrofree(reg sign)SF and LVT 200 from mixed wettability cores gave results that correlated closely with results for refined oils with viscosities ranging from 3.8 to 84 cp. Two synthetic-based mud emulsifiers (LE SUPERMUL and EZ MUL(reg sign)NT) were added to mineral oil and tested for their effect on the wettability of MXW-F core samples as indicated by spontaneous imbibition. In both cases a significant decrease in water wetness was obtained.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2003-05-01

171

Eggbeater PDC drillbit design eliminates balling in water-based drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a novel polycrystalline-diamond-compact (PDC)-bit concept based on insights into PDC-bit cutting mechanism and rock behavior during drilling. The design comprises a hydraulic layout that optimizes bit cleaning and cuttings removal in soft and sticky formations. Significant improvements in performance have been achieved in Cretaceous and Triassic formations drilled with water-based muds.

Zijsling, D.H.; Illerhaus, R.

1993-12-01

172

Drilling the centre of the Thuringian Basin, Germany, to decipher potential interrelation between shallow and deep fluid systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To shed light on the coupled dynamics of near surface and deep fluids in a sedimentary basin on various scales, ranging from the pore scale to the extent of an entire basin, is of paramount importance to understand the functioning of sedimentary basins fluid systems and therefore e.g. drinking water supply. It is also the fundamental goal of INFLUINS (INtegrated FLuid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins), a research initiative of several groups from Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena and their partners. This research association is focusing on the nearby Thuringian basin, a well confined, small intra-continental sedimentary basin in Germany, as a natural geo laboratory. In a multidisciplinary approach, embracing different fields of geophysics like seismic reflection profiling or airborne geomagnetics, structural geology, sedimentology, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydrology, remote sensing, microbiology and mineralogy, among others, and including both, field-based, laboratory-based and computer-based research, an integral INFLUINS topic is the potential interaction of aquifers within the basin and at its rims. The Thuringian basin, which is composed of sedimentary rocks from the latest Paleozoic and mainly Triassic, is particularly suited to undertake such research as it is of relative small size, about 50 to 100 km, easily accessible, and quite well known from previous studies, and therefore also a perfect candidate for deep drilling. After the acquisition of 76 km seismic reflection data in spring 2011, to get as much relevant data as possible from a deep drilling at the cross point between two seismic profiles with a limited financial budget, an optimated core sampling and measuring strategy including partial coring, borehole geophysics and pump tests as well as a drill hole design, which enables for later continuation of drilling down to the basement, had been developed. Drilling Triassic rocks from Keuper to lower Buntsandstein was successfully realised down to a final depth of 1179 m from late June to mid-September 2013. Here, we give an introduction into the layout of INFLUINS deep drilling together with a summary of preliminary results, e.g. on the nature of the boundaries between Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein, and between upper and middle Buntsandstein, a complete core recovery of upper Buntsandstein saliniferous formations as well as unexpectedly low porosity and permeability of potential aquifers.

Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Abratis, Michael; Habisreuther, Annett; Ward, Timothy; Influins Drilling-Team

2014-05-01

173

A review of the environmental acceptability and the toxicity of diesel oil substitutes in drilling fluid systems  

SciTech Connect

The passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969 and heightened concern for the environment has led to increased government regulation, especially in environmentally sensitive areas such as the Georges Bank, The Flower Gardens, and offshore California. At the same time oil exploration and drilling in these areas have been increasing. The discharge of diesel oils and cuttings containing diesel oil from offshore drilling platforms is a major concern since diesel oil is known to be toxic to marine life. Current regulations prohibit the discharge of oil based muds and unwashed cuttings from drill rigs. The primary bases for determining the environmental acceptability of an oil, are the regional, national, and international water quality criteria for discharges. Any potential substitutes for diesel oil must be acceptable to the operator as well as the regulating agencies. A comparison of the composition, chemical and physical characteristics, and toxicity of various animal, vegetable, and petroleum oils suggests that white mineral oil (a highly refined petroleum oil) is a potential substitute for diesel oil in drilling fluid systems. Diesel oil and white mineral oils are compared in a review of toxicity, and environmental impact studies including persistence, degradation, and bioaccumulation data. The paraffinic, cycloparaffinic, aromatic and polynuclear composition of diesel oil and white mineral oils are examined.

Thoresen, K.M.; Hinds, A.A.

1983-02-01

174

Solids diverter for a downhole drilling motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A downhole drilling motor located near the end of a rotary drill string is operated by the drilling mud for driving a rotary drill bit to drill an oil or gas well or the like. Fluid lubricated bearings are employed and a portion of the drilling fluid is diverted through the bearings of the downhole motor with the balance of

1981-01-01

175

Effects of fluids on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature microstructures observed in samples from SAFOD drill cores indicate fluid-related deformation and chemical reactions occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations, document open pores that formed in-situ during or after deformation. In TEM images, many pores with high aspect ratio appear to be unconnected. They were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting that elevated pore fluid pressure exist in the fault gouge, preventing pore collapse. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault rocks is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. TEM imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. In few samples syntectonic fluid-assisted overgrowth of chlorite-rich films on slickensides partly replaced sedimentary quartz grains. Quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved with sutured boundaries. Newly-formed phyllosilicates are illite-smectite phases, Mg-rich smectites and chlorite minerals. They are very fine-grained (down to 20 nm) and nucleate at grain surfaces (interfaces), which in many cases are pore or fracture walls. These relatively straight or curved crystals grow into open pore spaces and fractures. They are arranged in a card-house fabric with open pore spaces between the flakes. Locally, clay flakes are bent, folded or show sigmoidal shapes indicating that they were involved in faulting. The clay particles do not show a preferred shape orientation. The predominantly random orientation distribution of the clay minerals was confirmed by x-ray synchrotron texture analysis. Pole figures show very weak textures with maxima around 1.2 m.r.d. and minima around around 0.8 m.r.d., indicating that a majority of crystals are oriented randomly. The dominance of randomly oriented clay particles, characterized by weak fabrics, may influence the mechanical stability of fault zone rocks. Formation of secondary calcite cement reveals fluid-assisted fracture healing. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows at least three different generations of calcite veins confined to lithoclasts, displaying dissolution seams. Additionally, crack and seal processes in K-feldspar are identified. The calcite grains exhibit different degrees of deformation with evidence for twinning and crystal plasticity.

Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Morales, L. G.; Rybacki, E.; Wenk, H.; Dresen, G. H.

2011-12-01

176

Applied drilling engineering. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses petroleum engineering. Engineering science fundamentals and engineering applications involving these fundamentals are presented. Subjects covered include rotary drilling, drilling fluids, cements, drilling hydraulics, rotary drilling bits, formation pore pressure and fracture resistance, casing design, directional drilling and deviation control, plus two appendices and numerous examples.

Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Millheim, K.K.; Chenevert, M.E.; Young, F.S. Jr.

1986-01-01

177

EXPERIENCE WITH STRATAPAX DRILL BITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline Diamond Comocct (PDC) bits have been extensively used in oil field drilling for sometime. Major performance gains have been reported for use of these bits in oil based drilling fluids, operating on mud motors. This paper describes the experience in Sarawak and Sabah Shell Operations with PDC bits in water based drilling fluids and with rotary drilling. It represents

Myo Thant

1984-01-01

178

USE OF DRILLING FLUIDS IN MONITORING WELL NETWORK INSTALLATION: LANL AND OPEN DISCUSSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) were requested by EPA Region 6 to provide a technical analysis of the impacts of well drilling practices implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the development of their grou...

179

STARCH-LUBRICANT COMPOSITION FOR IMPROVED LUBRICITY AND FLUID LOSS IN WATER-BASED DRILLING MUDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-based mud systems that approach the performance of oil-based muds are an ongoing effort. Starch-lubricant compositons were developed as environmentally safe, non-toxic, stable dispersions in water-based drilling muds. Starch-lubricant compositions were prepared by jet cooking mixtures of wat...

180

STARCH-LUBRICANT COMPOSITIONS FOR IMPROVED LUBRICITY AND FLUID LOSS IN WATER-BASED DRILLING MUDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of water-based mud systems that approach the performance of oil-based muds in lubricity, rate of penetration and borehole stability is an ongoing effort. The use of starch-lubricant compositions as environmentally safe, non-toxic, stable dispersions in water-based drilling muds was ...

181

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

H. Seay Nance

2003-03-01

182

Real-Time Fluid and Gas Monitoring During Drilling of the SAFOD Main Hole in Parkfield, CA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the role and origin of fluids and gases associated with the San Andreas Fault zone (SAF). To gain information on fluids and gases at depth, we performed real-time mud gas monitoring during drilling of the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) Pilot Hole (PH) and Main Hole (MH). Gas extracted from returning drill mud was piped into a nearby laboratory trailer and analyzed on-line. Permanent gases were detected using a portable mass spectrometer, hydrocarbons with a gas chromatograph, and the 222Rn-activity with a Lucas-Cell detector. When significant amounts of non-atmospheric gases were detected, off-line gas samples were collected from the gas line for further isotope studies. The SAFOD PH and MH were drilled in only a few meter distance, but in contrast to the straight PH, which penetrates through 768 m of sediments into granites down to 2168 m target depth (TD), the nearby MH is deviated towards the SAF and returns into sedimentary strata below 1930 m. The MH drilled sedimentary rocks down to 3987 m TD, approximately 45 m northeast of the surface trace of the SAF. From surface to 1930 m, the depth distribution of gas is similar for SAFOD PH and MH. Shear zones, identified by geophysical logging, are often characterized by elevated concentrations of CH4, CO2, H2, Rn, and He. The same gases were found in the MH below 1930 m, but their concentrations were, with the exception of He, significantly higher: CH4, CO2, and H2 sometimes reach several volume percent. Generally, the gas composition is partly controlled by the lithology. Variation in the methane concentration in several depth intervals reflects the changes in lithology from low gas abundance in clays and silts to more gas rich shales, which are the source rocks for hydrocarbons. Highly porous and permeable sandstone yield the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons (up to 15 vol% methane), and may be regarded as reservoir rocks. We interpret high radon activities in mud gas as indicator for circulating fluids entering the borehole via fractures. These fluids are also rich in hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, but only low concentrated in helium. Such intervals could be identified in several depth intervals (2675-2750 m, 2825-2900 m, and 3550-3650 m depth, and below 3700 m). The hydrocarbons in the surrounding rocks show a similar composition as those associated with fault zones. In addition to the low helium concentration, these results demonstrate fluid migration from the nearby with only little evidence for gas migration from a deeper source. A striking observation is the high amount of hydrogen found in these intervals. We can exclude a significant contribution of artificial hydrogen (drilling artifact) and mantle hydrogen. From soil gas studies, it is known that fault zones sometimes show enhanced concentration of hydrogen. As a possible source of hydrogen, the interaction of water with freshly ground rock, caused by fault zone movement, is discussed. Isotopic studies on hydrogen in combination with laboratory experiments are ongoing to test hydrogen synthesis by rock-water interaction. First isotopic studies on ?13C of methane indicate mixing of microbial methane with only small amounts of methane generated by thermal degradation of organic matter in the shallower depth (down to ~2500 m). Below this depth, the concentration of heavy hydrocarbons increases. CH4/(C2H6+C3H8) significantly drops from >100 to values <30 towards the bottom of the MH, and, methane becomes isotopically heavier, which is more typical for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

Wiersberg, T.; Erzinger, J.

2005-12-01

183

Reactive fluid transport in CO2 reservoir caprocks: constraints from scientific drilling of a natural CO2 reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term performance of reservoir caprocks in geological CO2 storage sites remains uncertain due to the poorly constrained nature of field-scale fluid-mineral reaction kinetics and CO2 transport processes in low permeability rocks. Predicting the nature, rates and impacts of CO2 penetration into the caprocks from numerical modelling studies maybe undermined by their reliance on laboratory derived reaction kinetics from short-term experiments, and the complexity of the coupled reactive transport processes at the nano- and micro-scale. We report here on the early results from scientific drilling and laboratory analysis of the caprocks of a stacked sequence of natural CO2 reservoir at Green River, Utah. In summer 2012, diamond drilling to a depth of 325m, adjacent to a CO2 degassing normal fault recovered core from two major CO2 reservoirs in the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones and from the intervening Carmel Formation regional caprock. In-situ pH, CO2 concentrations and fluid element and isotope geochemistry were determined from wireline downhole sampling of pressurized fluids from the reservoirs. The fluid geochemistry provides important constraints on reservoir filling by flow of CO2-charged brines through the fault damage zone, macro-scale fluid flow in the reservoirs and the state of fluid-mineral thermodynamic disequilibrium from which the nature of the fluid-mineral reactions can be interpreted. Mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical profiles through portions of the caprocks in contact with the CO2-charged reservoirs have been used to constrain the nature and penetration depths of the CO2-promoted fluid-mineral reaction fronts. The major reactions are the dissolution of diagenetic dolomite cements and hematite grain coatings which generate porosity in the caprocks. Analysis of the generated pore structure from a variety of analytical techniques will be discussed. Stable C- and O-isotopic shifts in the composition of the carbonate cements record their dissolution-recrystallization and transport of the isotopic composition of the CO2-charged fluids into the caprocks. The mineralogical profiles combined with advective-diffusive modelling are used to constrain the rates of the fluid-mineral reactions and the propagation velocity of the reaction fronts. These reaction fronts penetrate the seals on length-scales of centimetres to tens of centimetres over the ~400,000 year history of the site, with the reservoir ages constrained by U-Th dating of carbonate veins deposited in the CO2 degassing faults. This analysis attests to the important role that fluid-mineral reactions have on retarding the reaction front velocity, limiting the impact of the CO2-charged fluids on porosity generation and degradation of the caprock geomechanical strength.

Kampman, N.; Bickle, M. J.; Bertier, P.; Busch, A.; Chapman, H.; Evans, J. P.; Graham, C.; Harrington, J.; Maskell, A.

2013-12-01

184

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (4) A Quartz Fluid Inclusion Tool for Sampling Supercritical Geothermal Fluids Downhole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical analyses of in situ samples of supercritical geothermal fluids would provide a uniquely good measure of fluid composition at depth relative to compositions reconstructed from analyses of gas and liquid sampled at wellheads. Fluids sampled at the wellhead are commonly a mixture from multiple aquifers and, in many circumstances, they lack components such as sulfate, sulfide, Ca, Cu, Zn, and Fe that precipitated in scale minerals where the fluids boiled or cooled during their ascent. To circumvent the above problems and the failings of downhole mechanical samplers at temperatures exceeding 300°C and to obtain total fluid samples at supercritical conditions in the IDDP wells, we plan to trap fluids in fluid inclusions formed in fractured quartz that we suspend in a geothermal well on a wireline. In a series of hydrothermal laboratory experiments at 450°C and 600 bar and spanning 6 hr to 5 days in length, thermal shock fractures in natural and synthetic quartz crystals heal, forming ragged fluid inclusions in one day and many well formed inclusions in three days. Amorphous silica is added to the experimental charge, without which, fractures heal little and only 1-2 micron inclusions form. Microthermometry measurements on the inclusions produced in experiments return the run temperature within 20°C at the experimental pressure, indicating that inclusions formed and sealed at the run conditions. The fluid inclusion tool (FIT) consists of a perforated stainless steel pipe containing multiple stainless steel mesh canisters with non-mesh ends to minimize vertical fluid flow. The canisters contain 10mm-scale chunks of fractured quartz surrounded by ground quartz glass. The perforated pipe will be fixed within a one-meter outer perforated stainless steel housing that is suspended on a stainless steel slick line. The FIT is weighed by one or more 10kg lead sinker bars. The entire assembly is lowered into the well from a lubricator fitted on the wellhead, thus enabling sampling under high temperatures and pressures. In the initial field testing runs, the contents of the mesh canisters will be varied to examine the effects of ground glass grain size, and the suitability of clear natural quartz vs synthetic quartz, both with respect to fluid inclusion development and chemical analyses of inclusions. Inclusions will be analyzed by various bulk methods and by LA-ICP-MS on individual inclusions. Once we optimize the fluid inclusion tool configuration in field tests and by analytical results, the volume of sampling quartz can be scaled up as needed to provide for optimum sampling and analyses.

Reed, M. H.; Grist, H.; Fridriksson, T.; Danielsen, P.; Senkovich, D.; Johnston, A.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2009-12-01

185

Drilling fluid conversion: Selection and use of Portland or blast-furnace-slag cement  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of drilling mud to oilwell cement has advanced from an unpredictable laboratory curiosity to a practical reality. Recent field introduction of polymer dispersants, organic accelerators, and an alternative cementitious material have provided two refined and practical conversion methods. Each method claims universal applicability plus performance superior to that of conventionally mixed and pumped Portland cement. Both blast-furnace-slag (BFS) and Portland cement are used for drilling-mud conversion. Portland and BFS mud conversions can use the same recently developed polymer dispersants, filtration-control materials, defoamers, and other additives that are typically used to treat high-temperature, highly-salt-contaminated drilling muds. Experience in the field and laboratory has demonstrated that conversion with BFS or Portland cement is essentially one technology from a pilot-test and application standpoint. While use of these two materials reflects essentially one technology, distinct performance and cost differences exist. These differences define the specific economic application advantages and must be considered when a decision to use BFS or Portland cement is made. Rational selection of mud-to-cement conversion depends on a detailed economic comparison of basic materials, logistics, and equipment availability.

Schlemmer, R.P.; Branam, N.E.; Edwards, T.M.; Valenziano, R.C.

1994-12-01

186

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (II) Fluid Origin and Evolution in the Reykjanes Geothermal System - A Stable Isotope Study of Hydrothermal Epidote  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reykjanes geothermal system, located on the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in southeast Iceland, provides an on-land proxy to the hydrothermal systems of oceanic spreading centers and is a candidate for future deep drilling into the supercritical zone. In preparation for study of supercritical fluids from this region, an understanding of hydrothermal processes at shallower levels is necessary.

E. C. Pope; D. K. Bird; S. Arnórsson; T. Fridriksson; W. A. Elders; G. O. Fridleifsson

2007-01-01

187

Trade-offs in traditional criteria vs environmental acceptability in product development: an example of the drilling fluids industry's response to environmental regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coevolution of increased energy needs and a heightened environmental awareness within the past decade has been fraught with direct conflicts. Often, these conflicts were necessary to solidify boad policy acts or challenge nebulous or unclear regulations. The drilling fluids industry, a vital part of petroleum exploration and production, has recognized the need for avoiding future conflicts and for insuring

M. Jones; C. Collins; D. Havis

1980-01-01

188

COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUID ON MACROBENTHIC INVERTEBRATES ASSOCIATED WITH THE SEAGRASS, THALASSIA TESTUDINUM, IN THE LABORATORY AND FIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. he research focused on: ) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in off-shore oil and...

189

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

We report on a preliminary study of wetting effects of synthetic oil-based mud components on the wetting of mica surfaces using drilling mud fractions obtained from two wells drilled with synthetic oil-based muds (SBM). We have used these SBM fractions, one a filtrate and the other a centrifugate, to develop testing protocols for studies on smooth mica surfaces. Both SBM fractions changed the wetting of clean, dry mica surfaces, making them preferentially oil-wet. Solvents were tested to clean the mica with varying degrees of success. In tests designed to simulate contact between SBM fractions and reservoir pore surface, changes of wetting of mica that had previously been exposed to brine and crude oil were examined using six different crude oils in combination with several different brine formulations. Four of the six oils produced preferentially water-wet surfaces whereas two produced fairly oil-wet conditions on mica. Exposure to the SBM fractions tended to increase decane/water advancing contact angles on the more water-wet surfaces and to decrease those on the more oil-wet surfaces. Cleaning solvents were compared for their efficacy and the possibility of wettability restoration was examined for some of the cleaned surfaces.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2002-12-01

190

Evaluation of polymer free drill-in fluids for use in high productivity, horizontal well completions  

E-print Network

. 1. Breakthrough Time 4. 2. 2. Regained Permeability 4. 3. Using HCI as Cleaning Fluid 4. 3. 1. Breakthrough Time 4. 3. 2. Regained Permeability 4. 4. Using Acetic Acid as Cleaning Fluid. 4. 4. 1. Breakthrough Time . 4. 4. 2. Regained... after HCl cleaning treatment (DS = 6%, HC1 = 2% case) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4. 7 Breakthrough time correlation for acetic acid cleaning treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4. 8 Ceramic discs after breakthrough time tests using acetic...

Falla Ramirez, Jorge H

2001-01-01

191

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): Deep Fluid Sampling in Fractured Quartz, Reykjanes Geothermal System, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July of 2011 a fluid inclusion tool (FIT) was deployed in well RN-17b of the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland, with the goal of sampling fluids in situ at the deepest feed point in the well. The tool consists of a perforated stainless steel pipe containing eight stainless steel mesh canisters, each loaded with 10mm-scale blocks of thermally fractured quartz. Except for one control canister, in each canister the fractured quartz blocks were surrounded by a different grain size of SiO¬2 glass that ranged in size from 10?m-scale glass wool to cm-scale glass shards. The FIT was left in the well on a wireline at a depth of 2768m and retrieved after three weeks. The fluid at 2768m depth is known from November 2010 well logs to have a temperature of about 330°C and pressure of 170 bars, a pressure ~40 bar too high for boiling at that temperature. After retrieval, quartz in all of the canisters contained liquid-dominated fluid inclusions, but their quantity and size differed by canister. Groups of inclusions occur in healed fractures and both healed and open fracture surfaces are visible within single quartz blocks. Measurements on a heating and cooling stage yield approximant inclusion homogenization temperatures of 332°C and freezing points of -2.0°C. These measurements and a pressure of 170 bars yield trapping temperatures of 335°C and a NaCl weight percent of 3.4, both of which match known values, thus verifying that the device trapped fluids as intended. In upcoming studies, these fluids will be analyzed using bulk methods and LA-ICP-MS on individual inclusions. The glass added to the quartz blocks in the canisters allowed the Reykjanes fluids to precipitate enough quartz to heal fractures and trap fluids despite the fluid undersaturation in quartz. Almost all of the glass that was added to the canisters, 27 to 66 grams in each (except glass wool), was consumed in the experiment. Remaining glass was in the non-mesh bottom caps of the canisters where fluid flux may have been minimal, indicating that most of the dissolved SiO2 was carried away with flowing fluid. This may explain why not all fractures were healed, as they were in our previous closed-system laboratory experiments. Upon recovery from the well, the FIT and the canister contents were covered in fine black particles, the greatest quantity by far occurring in canisters that had contained glass wool as the SiO2 source. Preliminary SEM-EDS analyses show that the particles contain silica, iron, magnesium, and small amounts of zinc sulfide. The precipitation of sulfides from the fluid sampled in the quartz fractures provides a valuable constraint on interpretation of the fluid inclusion compositions.

Seward, R. J.; Reed, M. H.; Grist, H. R.; Fridriksson, T.; Danielsen, P.; Thorhallsson, S.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2011-12-01

192

PDC applications in the Gulf of Mexico with water-based drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a recent study conducted to determine application and operating requirements for polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits in the Gulf of Mexico. This study evaluated PDC-bit usage in Miocene sections of the Gulf of Mexico and has resulted in a saving of more than $1.4 million based on 22 bit runs. As a result of this study, operational guidelines for PDC bits were established and drilling costs per foot were significantly reduced. In addition, a relationship was found between shale reactivity, strength, and density. This proved to be an effective aid in bit selection and determination of hydraulic requirements and verified the results of the study.

Gault, A.D.; Knowlton, H.; Goodman, H.E.; Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.

1988-06-01

193

PDC applications in the Gulf of Mexico with water-base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a recent study conducted to determine application and operating requirements for Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits in the Gulf of Mexico. This study evaluated PDC bit usage in Miocene sections of the Gulf of Mexico and has resulted in a savings of over $1.4 MM based on twenty two bit runs. As a result of this study, operational guidelines for PDC bits were established and drilling costs per foot were significantly reduced. In addition, a relationship was found to exist between shale reactivity, strength and density. This proved to be an effective aid in bit selection and determination of hydraulic requirements and verified the results of the study.

Gault, A.D.; Knowlton, H.; Goodman, H.E.; Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.

1986-01-01

194

Microbial Communities in Ultra-High Pressure Rocks and Fluids From Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD): A Unique Opportunity to Study Microbial Adaptation and Survival  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major obstacle to understanding the subsurface biosphere has been our limited ability to access the deep subsurface, to acquire uncontaminated samples and to place our knowledge of isolated microorganisms into environmental context. We studied deep subsurface microbiology by taking an advantage of the Chinese continental scientific drilling (CCSD) project currently underway in China. The project is to drill a 5-km deep borehole in the Dabie-Sulu ultra high-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt in China that is located at the convergent plate boundary between Sino-Korean and Yangtze Plate. The collision began at ~240 Ma ago followed by exhumation ~220 Ma ago. The products of such a plate convergence are the formation of unique UHP rocks and minerals. These rocks are typically separated by a series of structurally weak shear zones and faults. The macroscopic shear zones/faults are potential storage space for large pockets of fluids/gases and they may serve as a potential microbial habitat. Fluids/gas bubbles also exist inside minerals, and they are called fluid/gas inclusions. The inclusions are microscopic and they serve as another potential habitat for microbes. The 5-km contiguous drilling intercepts both habitats and spans a range of environmental gradients. Our cultivation and SSU rRNA gene analyses appear to indicate that unique microbial communities may exist in both habitats. A variety of methods were used to assess possible contamination, and contamination was minimal. Acridine orange direct count method was employed to determine the total number of cells in the rocks, and the results indicated that the biomass ranged from 5.2 x 103 to 2.4 x 104 cells/g (dry weight). Total counts indicated a much higher biomass in the drilling fluids, ranging from 3.5 x 108 to 4.2 x 109 cells/g (wet weight). The PLFA profiles for one rock and multiple drilling fluids indicated the presence of sulfate and metal reducers. Cultivation attempts have identified the presence of mesophilic Fe(III) reducers in the rocks, but thermophilic (37 to 68oC) and alkaliphilic metal reducers and fermenters in the drilling fluids. SSU rRNA gene analyses detected clone sequences in the rocks that have previously been isolated from cold, alkaline and saline environments (including mesophilic, facultative, heterotrophic, halotolerant or halophilic nitrate and Fe(III) reducers). These microbial growth habitats are inconsistent with the present day geochemical conditions (geothermal gradient, for example). We speculate that these microbes reside in mineral fluid/gas inclusions. Because the inclusions are isolated and heat conductivity is low, microenvironment inside the inclusions may be out of equilibrium with the bulk subsurface conditions. The microbial communities in the drilling fluids include anaerobic, alkaliphilic, chemoorganotrophic or chemolithoautotrophic, halotolerant or halophilic Fe(III) and sulfate reducers, fermenters, acetogens, and methanogens/methanotrophs. This microbial growth habitat suggests that the detected microbes in the drilling fluids may be of different origin, and they may be derived from macroscopic fluids/gases associated with structurally weak shear zones/faults. Because of possible connectivity to flow channels and shear zones, these fluids/gases may be in equilibrium with the in-situ subsurface conditions, and microbes from this habitat are expected to change in environmental gradients.

Dong, H.; Zhang, G.; Xu, Z.

2004-12-01

195

Drill string shock absorber  

SciTech Connect

A telescopic shock absorber for use in a drill string includes a resilient arrangement to cushion telescopic contraction and extension of the shock absorber in response to shock loads and vibrations imparted during drilling. The shock absorber operates independently of the drilling fluid pressure conducted through the structure during drilling operations. A dampening system assists in cushioning the shock loads and vibrations and the dampening system and resilient arrangement are deactivated when jarring impacts are delivered to the well string by a drilling jar carried therein. The resilient arrangement provides a combination mechanical and hydraulic system for cushioning the impact loads and vibrations encountered.

Anderson, E. A.; Webb, D. D.

1985-11-12

196

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-print Network

ingredient functional categories (NRC 1983) Functional Categories Weighting materials Viscosifiers Thinners, dispersants Alkalinity, pH control additives Batercides Calcium reducers Corrosion inhibitors Defoamers Emulsifiers Filtrate reducers Flocculants... and engineered to be suitable for HT/HP environments. Typical WBMs contain water, clay, and a variety of additional components to control fluid loss and rheological stability. Almost all formulated WBMs consist of weighting materials, viscosifiers, thinners...

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-10-19

197

Drill, Baby, Drill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

Kerkhoff, Todd

2009-01-01

198

Downhole fluid sampling and noble gas analysis of saline waters from the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole is situated at the NW-SE trending boundary between the Archaean and Proterozoic domains of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield (Finland). In August 2011, eight fluid samples were collected with a Leutert positive displacement sampler (PDS) from 500 m to 2480 m depth in the open bore hole. The PDS allows sampling at in situ pressures, thus minimising fractionation from degassing during sampling. At the surface, the samples were transferred into an evacuated sampling line connected with a Cu-tube and a glass bulb for gas sampling, a pressure gauge, and a thermometer. Gas was liberated with a heated ultrasonic bath and then admitted to the sampling devices. Gas/water ratios were already determined in the field during gas extraction. Saline groundwaters rich in methane, nitrogen, hydrogen and helium and with water stable isotope composition distinctive from meteoric and sea water have been found to host isolated ecosystems within the Precambrian crystalline bedrock of Outokumpu (Kietäväinen et al., 2013). In order to characterise the geochemical and microbiological evolution of the deep subsurface of the area, noble gas residence times have been calculated based on radiogenic (4He, 40Ar), nucleogenic (21Ne) and fissiogenic (134Xe, 136Xe) noble gas nuclides. Geochemical and microbiological variations together with hydrogeological and geophysical data indicate negligible vertical fluid flow in the bedrock. Moreover, noble gas diffusion models show that diffusion is not likely to affect noble gas concentrations of groundwater at or below 500 m depth in Outokumpu. Therefore in situ accumulation was assumed as a basis for the age determination. In general, residence times between 10 and 50 Ma were indicated by 4He and21Ne, while somewhat younger ages were obtained by 40Ar, using average values for porosity, density and concentration of radioactive elements in the bedrock of Outokumpu. Kietäväinen R., Ahonen L., Kukkonen I.T., Hendriksson N., Nyyssönen M. and Itävaara M. (2013), Appl. Geochem. 32, 37-51.

Wiersberg, Thomas; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Niedermann, Samuel

2014-05-01

199

Polar organic compounds in pore waters of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Eyreville core hole: Character of the dissolved organic carbon and comparison with drilling fluids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cores recovered at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, were analyzed to characterize the dissolved organic carbon. After squeezing or centrifuging, a small volume of pore water, 100 ??L, was taken for analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Porewater samples were analyzed directly without filtration or fractionation, in positive and negative mode, for polar organic compounds. Spectra in both modes were dominated by low-molecular-weight ions. Negative mode had clusters of ions differing by -60 daltons, possibly due to increasing concentrations of inorganic salts. The numberaverage molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight values for the pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure are higher than those reported for other aquatic sources of natural dissolved organic carbon as determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In order to address the question of whether drilling mud fluids may have contaminated the pore waters during sample collection, spectra from the pore waters were compared to spectra from drilling mud fluids. Ions indicative of drilling mud fluids were not found in spectra from the pore waters, indicating there was no detectable contamination, and highlighting the usefulness of this analytical technique for detecting potential contamination during sample collection. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

Rostad, C.E.; Sanford, W.E.

2009-01-01

200

Correlation between filter cake structure and filtration properties of model drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken in order to correlate the filtration behavior of water based muds with the structural properties of the cake. The structure of the cake is analyzed by cryo scanning electron microscopy that enables the visualization of a section of the frozen cake. Static and dynamic filtration experiments were performed both through rock slices and paper filters. On rock slices it is possible to visualize the structure of the internal cakes that invade the pores of the rock and in particular to show a selective filtration of the polymer when using a formulation containing bentonite and a fluid loss reducer. When compared to static filtration, dynamic filtration of a clay suspension gives higher filtrate volumes but leads to a cake texture characterized by a more regular network and smaller pore size. The augmentation of the filtrate volumes with shear rates is the result of both a decrease of the cake thickness and a diminution of connections between the clay sheets induced by shear rates. When polymer is added the structure of the pore walls seems less affected by shear rates, probably because of the high degree of dispersion already reached in the suspension by addition of the polymer and the ability of polymer to establish connections between particles.

Li, Y.; Rosenberg, E.; Argillier, J.F. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Durrieu, J.; Montes, J.

1995-11-01

201

Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.  

PubMed

This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions. PMID:24622553

Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

202

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (II) Fluid Origin and Evolution in the Reykjanes Geothermal System - A Stable Isotope Study of Hydrothermal Epidote  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Reykjanes geothermal system, located on the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in southeast Iceland, provides an on-land proxy to the hydrothermal systems of oceanic spreading centers and is a candidate for future deep drilling into the supercritical zone. In preparation for study of supercritical fluids from this region, an understanding of hydrothermal processes at shallower levels is necessary. Previous studies of elemental composition and salinity have shown that Reykjanes geothermal fluids are likely hydrothermally modified seawater. However, hydrogen isotope properties of these fluids indicate a significant component of meteoric water, with ?DFLUID values as low as -23‰. Here we constrain the origin of hydrothermal solutions by analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of geothermal epidote from drilling wells within the Reykjanes system at depths between 1 and 3 km. ?DEPIDOTE values range from -64 to - 70‰ in well RN-10 between 1.0 and 2.1 km depths, from -63 to -78‰ in well RN-17 at .95 to 3.0 km depth, and between -61‰ and -63‰ in well RN-9 between 1.0 and 1.3 km depth. Published ?DEPIDOTE values from well RN-8 at 1.6 km depth are -48‰. At the same depths, ?18OEPIDOTE range from 1.8 to -0.4‰ in well RN-10, from 2.3 to -0.1‰ in well RN-17, and from 0.2 to -3.0‰ in well RN-9. ?D values of epidote progressively increase moving away from the geothermal upflow zone at well RN-10, whereas ?18O values decrease. For comparative analysis, the Nesjavellir and Krafla geothermal systems, which are dominated by meteoric water and have a ?DFLUID of approximately -79‰ and -89‰ respectively, have a ?DEPIDOTE of -115‰ and -125‰. However, ?DEPIDOTE from the mixed meteoric-seawater Svartsengi geothermal system is -68‰; comparable to ?DEPIDOTE from well RN-10. Stable isotope compositions of geothermal fluids are computed based upon the measured isotope composition of Reykjanes epidotes and temperatures approximated from the boiling point curve with depth, and are compared to the published temperature dependent isotope fractionation curves of epidote. Calculated ?D and ?18O of geothermal fluids are less than 0‰, suggesting that fluids of meteoric origin are an important component of the hydrothermal solutions. Additionally, variations between wells suggest a heterogeneous evolution of fluid flow or fluid source within the system. These results, in conjunction with the hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition and elemental chemistry of modern geothermal fluids, allow evaluation of the relative influence that fluid source, mixing, rock-fluid interaction and boiling have had on the geochemical evolution of the Reykjanes geothermal system.

Pope, E. C.; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2007-12-01

203

Method of deep drilling  

DOEpatents

Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

Colgate, Stirling A. (4616 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

204

Apparatus for washing drill cuttings  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

Lott, W. G.

1985-10-15

205

Downhole temperature prediction for drilling geothermal wells  

SciTech Connect

Unusually high temperatures are encountered during drilling of a geothermal well. These temperatures affect every aspect of drilling, from drilling fluid properties to cement formulations. Clearly, good estimates of downhole temperatures during drilling would be helpful in preparing geothermal well completion designs, well drilling plans, drilling fluid requirements, and cement formulations. The thermal simulations in this report were conducted using GEOTEMP, a computer code developed under Sandia National Laboratories contract and available through Sandia. Input variables such as drilling fluid inlet temperatures and circulation rates, rates of penetration, and shut-in intervals were obtained from the Imperial Valley East Mesa Field and the Los Alamos Hot Dry Rock Project. The results of several thermal simulations are presented, with discussion of their impact on drilling fluids, cements, casing design, and drilling practices.

Mitchell, R.F.

1981-01-01

206

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (II) Isotopic Constraints on Ice Age Hydrothermal Fluids in Active High-Temperature Geothermal Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Krafla, Hengill and Reykjanes geothermal systems, located along the active rift-zone of Iceland, are three sites that will be drilled to 4-5 km depth by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). We use oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in hydrothermal minerals to characterize the source, composition and evolution of hydrothermal fluids in the IDDP geothermal systems. This research is essential to effectively characterizing geochemical and hydrologic processes occurring at depth within these regions, especially in the high latitudes of Iceland, where periods of glaciation can have long lasting impacts on geothermal environments. Recent studies of the stable isotope composition of hydrothermal epidote in the Reykjanes geothermal system indicate a complex history of fluid source and fluid-rock interaction since at least the Pleistocene. The chlorine concentration of modern Reykjanes geothermal fluids indicate that they are hydrothermally modified seawater. However, measured hydrogen isotope values of these fluids are as low as -23‰. ?D values of hydrothermal epidote analyzed from four wells in Reykjanes range from -60 to - 78‰. These values are not in isotopic equilibrium with present day geothermal fluids, and retain an isotopic signature of a glacially-dominated fluid source early in the evolution of the geothermal system. If the Reykjanes system was initially sub-glacial, the depth of boiling in the basalt would have been more shallow due to the overburden of a thick insulating ice sheet. This may explain the presence of epidote and garnet mineralization at levels as shallow as 500 m in some wells. Additionally, estimates of the water-rock ratio and modal abundance of hydrous alteration minerals in the system suggest that there is enough relict (Ice Age) hydrogen in hydrothermally altered basalt to diffusionally exchange with modern geothermal fluids and lower the fluid hydrogen isotope composition by as much as 20‰. This study shows that hydrogen isotopes of geothermal waters cannot be used independently to trace the origin of these fluids. The age of the geothermal system and the extent of alteration through water-rock interaction are also critical in determining the fluid source and isotope composition. In previous studies of the Krafla geothermal system, fluids had an average ?D value of -89‰, which closely reflect isotope values of local precipitation. However, geothermal fluids of the Nesjavellir system (near Hengill) are ~ -79‰, 10-20‰ lower than local meteoric water. Structural and hydrologic interpretations of the region make it unlikely that this difference is due to fluid flow from the nearby Langjökull ice sheet. Preliminary analyses of hydrothermal epidote in these systems (~ -125‰ in Krafla and -115‰ in Nesjavellir) suggest that they are in isotopic equilibrium with the hydrothermal fluids. Further analyses of mineral-mineral and mineral-fluid fractionation will help determine the relative input of nearby and distal modern meteoric fluids as well as the potential for relict glacially-derived fluids as a source for the observed values in both systems.

Pope, E. C.; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. Ø.

2008-12-01

207

Intrinsic and scattering attenuation as derived from fluid induced microseismicity at the German Continental Deep Drilling site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulically induced microseismicity is used to study high-frequency attenuation properties (6-72 Hz) in an enhanced geothermal system. Intrinsic and scattering attenuation are separated by jointly inverting seismogram envelopes for structural parameters, source and site effects. Modelling of synthetic envelopes is based on radiative transfer theory. To speed up inversion, an analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for a 3-D isotropic scattering medium is implemented. In order to compensate for the actual anisotropic scattering, a smoothing algorithm is applied to introduce envelope broadening and peak delay. The approach is tested with seismic data from four fluid-induced earthquakes (Mw ? 1) recorded by a temporary seismic network at the German Continental Deep Drilling (KTB) site at epicentral distances of less than 20 km. Full S-wave envelopes are inverted in 12 overlapping frequency bands with centre frequencies between 1.5 and 72 Hz. With data sampling at 200 Hz and high-frequency S-wave sources, attenuation estimates are obtained for the rarely probed frequency range between 30 and 70 Hz. From the inversion, we infer average values of the transport scattering coefficient g*, and the intrinsic absorption parameter b, as well as corresponding quality factors Qs and Qi. By comparison with attenuation estimates from regions with different tectonic activities, we see that both Qs and Qi for the investigated geothermal region fit best to moderate scattering and intrinsic regimes as obtained in tectonically active regions. A comparison with a regional attenuation model for southern Germany proves that attenuation estimates are scale-dependent. To compare intrinsic and scattering attenuation in the KTB region the transport mean free path (TMFP) and the absorption length (la) are calculated. For both, we find a clear frequency dependence proportional to f -0.8 (TMFP) and f -0.3 (la). TMFP decreases from 340 km at 6 Hz to 60 km at 72 Hz, whereas absorption length drops from 40 to 20 km, respectively. Thus, intrinsic absorption dominates over scattering attenuation by at least one order of magnitude. The influence of scattering becomes more significant towards higher frequencies. Moreover, comparing the apparent attenuation (inverse sum of TMFP and la) to values estimated with the spectral ratio technique, achieves a good agreement with mean deviations in the order of 3-5 per cent. From the frequency dependence of TMFP, it can be inferred that a von Karman-type of random medium with a Hurst exponent of ? = 0.11 is a good model for representing the stimulated reservoir at the KTB. The fractal distribution of scatterers agrees well with results derived from independent analysis of acoustic logs.

Fielitz, D.; Wegler, U.

2015-06-01

208

Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

1986-01-01

209

Propagation of sound waves in drill strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep wells are commonly drilled while steering the drill bit. The steering process is completely controlled by the drilling-rig operator. A key element of this procedure is the measurement and communication of navigation information from the bottom of the well to the operator. Pressure pulses modulated onto the flow of the drill fluid are now employed in some cases to

D. S. Drumheller; S. D. Knudsen

1995-01-01

210

Experience with stratapax drill bits  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline Diamond Comocct (PDC) bits have been extensively used in oil field drilling for sometime. Major performance gains have been reported for use of these bits in oil based drilling fluids, operating on mud motors. This paper describes the experience in Sarawak and Sabah Shell Operations with PDC bits in water based drilling fluids and with rotary drilling. It represents the results of over 80 individual PDC bit runs incorporating over 30,000' of 8 1/2'' hole drilled with 4 types of PDC bits from 3 manufacturers, and over 14,000' of 12 1/4'' hole with 8 bit types from 4 manufacturers. The paper discusses the PDC bit runs made, the performance in relation to conventional tri-cone bits, the effects of conventional hydraulics on PDC bit performance and the design of the PDC bits in terms of cutter density and placement, number of nozzles and their placement, and construction methods. The outlook for future designs of PDC bit with respect to use in water base drilling fluids and on rotary drilling is presented. The experience presented can be applied to drilling operations in a wide variety of areas to optimise usage of PDC bits in water based drilling fluids and on rotary drilling. As a result of extensive testing within Sarawak and Sabah Shell operations, the use of 8 1/2'' PDC bits in water based drilling fluids on rotary drilling can now be considered a proven application when drilling both clastics and carbonates. Only modest success has been achieved in 12 1/4'' hole where tricone bit performance (Cost/ft) in generally softer clastic formations has proven more difficult to match with PDC bits.

Thant, M.

1984-02-01

211

Biochemical measures of coral metabolic activity, nutritional status, and microbial infection with exposure to oil- and gas-well drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil- and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform. After 6 weeks exposure, coral fragments of 30 to 60 sq cm surface area were broken off, rinsed in seawater, and extracted in a one-phase chloroform-methanol seawater extract and returned to the laboratory, the lipids were analyzed for their phospholipid content, alkyl fatty acid composition, and neutral lipid triglyceride glycerol. The aqueous phase was analyzed for free amino acid composition. Biochemical evidence of stress was reflected in the cessation of growth as measured in depressed diacyl phospholipid. Detailed analysis of the acyl fatty acid composition by capillary gas chromatography showed changes in polyenoic fatty acids, suggesting possible changes in the metabolism of the fatty acids induced by the exposure to the drilling fluids.

White, D.C.; Nickels, J.S.; Gehron, M.J.; Parker, J.H.; Martz, R.F.

1987-03-01

212

Drilling operations change gear  

SciTech Connect

Predicts that several technological developments (e.g. measurement-while-drilling tools, computer data-gathering systems, improved drill bits, muds, downhole mud motors, and more efficient rigs) will have a major effect on drilling operations in the not-too-distant future. While several companies manufacture MWD systems and most can boast of successful runs, the major problem with the MWD system is cost. Manufacturers continue to make advances in both turbine and positive displacement mud motors. As the life span of downhole mud motors improves, these motors can economically compete with a rotary rig in drilling certain straight-hole intervals. Prototype bit designs include the use of lasers, electronic beams, flames, sparks, explosives, rocket exhaust, chains, projectiles, abrasive jets, and high-pressure erosion. Because drilling fluids are taking a large share of the drilling budget, mud engineers are trying to optimize costs, while maintaining well bore stability and increasing penetration rates. Many companies are taking the strategy of designing the simplest mud program possible and increasing additives only as needed. Air and foam drilling techniques are gaining attention. Concludes that as crude oil prices increase and the rig count begins to rebound, attention will once again turn to drilling technology and methodology.

Moore, S.D.

1982-08-01

213

CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

2003-06-01

214

HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

2002-11-01

215

Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 103 to 2.4 104 cells\\/g and 3.5 108 to 4.2 109 cells\\/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks

Gengxin Zhang; Hailiang Dong; Zhiqin Xu; Donggao Zhao; Chuanlun Zhang

2005-01-01

216

Drill report  

SciTech Connect

North Slope drilling activity is described. As of November 14, 1984, four rigs were actively drilling in the Kuparuk River field with another two doing workovers. Only one rig was drilling in the Prudhoe Bay field, with another doing workovers and one on standby.

Not Available

1984-12-01

217

Transducer for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

2006-05-30

218

Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian

2015-01-01

219

Deep-slab fluids fuel extremophilic Archaea on a Mariana forearc serpentinite mud volcano: Ocean Drilling Program  

E-print Network

Deep-slab fluids fuel extremophilic Archaea on a Mariana forearc serpentinite mud volcano: Ocean that hydrates the overlying mantle wedge, converting it to serpentinite that protrudes to form mud volcanoes at the seafloor. Excess H2O ascends through these mud volcanoes and exits as cold springs at their summits

Moyer, Craig

220

Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

1982-08-10

221

Apparatus for drilling enlarged boreholes  

SciTech Connect

A rotary bore hole enlarging bit is connected to a rotary pipe string having a drilling fluid flow path and an actuator flow path. The bit comprises a body structure including inner and outer telescopic body sections, expansible and retractible arms carrying cutters on the outer body section and an expander on the inner body section engageable with the arms to expand the arms and cutters upon telescopic movement of body sections in one relative direction. A piston and cylinder is provided between the inner and outer body sections to secure relative telescopic movement between the body sections. A first passage is disposed in the body structure and expansible arms and cutters for conducting drilling fluid to the cutters from the drilling fluid flow path, there being a second passage in the body structure for conducting actuator fluid to the piston and cylinder from the actuator fluid flow path.

Johnson, G.R.

1982-10-19

222

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

223

Dynamic and static filtrate-loss techniques for monitoring filter-cake quality improves drilling-fluid performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes properties that are desirable in a water-based filter cake and test methods that can be used to measure these properties. One method uses a dynamic filtrate-loss apparatus that stirs the fluid mechanically during filtration. Test results show that the initial dynamic filter-cake formation is very important in controlling all future filtration properties and cake quality. The various factors affecting filter-cake quality and how they can be controlled to give better field performance are discussed.

Chesser, B.G.; Clark, D.E.; Wise, W.V.

1994-09-01

224

The propagation of sound waves in drill strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep wells are commonly drilled while steering the drill bit. The steering process is completely controlled by the drilling-rig operator. A key element of this procedure is the measurement and communication of navigation information from the bottom of the well to the operator. Pressure pulses modulated onto the flow of the drill fluid are now employed in some cases to

Douglas S. Drumheller; S. D. Knudsen

1995-01-01

225

Lockdown Drills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

226

Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010. This report also describes the data—extraction/aggregation processing steps, field names and descriptions, field types and sources. An associated scientific investigation report (Gallegos and Varela, 2014) provides a detailed analysis of the data presented in this data series and comparisons of the data and trends to the literature.

Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian

2015-01-01

227

Wellbore fluid  

SciTech Connect

A clay-based or clay-free aqueous thixotropic wellbore fluid having improved fluid loss control, desirable flow characteristics and low shale sensitivity for use in drilling a well comprising water or a brine base including an effective amount of an additive comprising a crosslinked potato starch, a heteropolysaccharide derived from a carbohydrate by bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas, and hydroxyethylcellulose or carboxymethylcellulose, is disclosed. This drilling fluid has been found to be nondamaging to the formations through which the well is drilled.

Dorsey, D.L.; Corley, W.T.

1983-12-27

228

Fundamental Investigation of Pore Pressure Prediction During Drilling from the Mechanical Behavior of Rock  

E-print Network

pressure (the pore pressure of the undisturbed rock) can be determined at the drill bit from drilling and environmental parameters, as well as solid and pore fluid properties. Several drilling situations were analyzed to develop models relating pore...

Rivas Cardona, Juan 1980-

2011-07-18

229

Thickness optimization of drilling fluid filter cakes for cement slurry filtrate control and long-term zonal isolation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the long-term isolation characteristics of two typical filter-cake systems in a gas or water environment are investigated. The test models were designed to measure the sealing capability of a premium cement and filter-cake system used to prevent hydraulic communication at a permeable-nonpermeable boundary. The test models represented the area of a sandstone/shale layer in an actual well. In a real well, sandstone is a water- or gas-bearing formation, and sealing the annulus at the shale formation would prevent hydraulic communication to an upper productive zone. To simulate these conditions, the test models remained in a gas or water environment at either 80 or 150 F for periods of 3, 4, 30, and 90 days before the hydraulic isolation measurements were conducted. Models without filter cake, consisting of 100% cement, were tested for zonal isolation with the filter-cake models to provide reference points. These results show how critical filter-cake removal is to the long-term sealing of the cemented annulus. Results indicate that complete removal of the filter cake provides the greatest resistance to fluid communication in most of the cases studied.

Griffith, J.E.; Osisanya, S.

1995-12-31

230

EPA speeds regs for offshore regulations for synthetic-based mud.  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in unusual cooperation with industry work groups, has chosen a streamlined approach to resolve synthetic-based mud (SBM) discharge regulations for offshore operations.

Veil, J. A.; Daly, J. M.; Johnson, N.; Environmental Assessment; EPA; DOE

1999-09-13

231

Microbial Communities in UltraHigh Pressure Rocks and Fluids From Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD): A Unique Opportunity to Study Microbial Adaptation and Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle to understanding the subsurface biosphere has been our limited ability to access the deep subsurface, to acquire uncontaminated samples and to place our knowledge of isolated microorganisms into environmental context. We studied deep subsurface microbiology by taking an advantage of the Chinese continental scientific drilling (CCSD) project currently underway in China. The project is to drill a

H. Dong; G. Zhang; Z. Xu

2004-01-01

232

Microbiological Assessment of Circulation Mud Fluids During the First Operation of Riser Drilling by the Deep-Earth Research Vessel Chikyu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality assurance and control (QA\\/QC) is significant for the scientific drilling in order to accurately characterize physical, geochemical, and biological properties in the cored deep subseafloor materials. To explore the deep subseafloor life and its biosphere, identification and control of microbial contamination in drilling cores is critical for highly sensitive molecular analyses as well as cultivations, especially for the evaluation

Noriaki Masui; Yuki Morono; Fumio Inagaki

2008-01-01

233

Use of Downhole Motors in Geothermal Drilling in the Philippines  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of downhole motors in the Tiwi geothermal field in the Philippines, The discussion includes the application Of a Dyna-Drill with insert-type bits for drilling through surface alluvium. The economics of this type of drilling are compared to those of conventional rotary drilling. The paper also describes the use of a turbodrill that drills out scale as the well produces geothermal fluids.

Pyle, D. E.

1981-01-01

234

Utilization in the Attaka field of a new four component drilling system  

SciTech Connect

Unocal Indonesia has significantly reduced drilling times and costs by introducing a new four-component drilling system in the Attaka field. This drilling system includes using polycrystal line diamond compact bits, a low toxic oil base mud drilling fluid, a measurement while drilling survey tool, and a steerable positive displacement mud motor. A case study showing the performance and advantages of the new Attaka drilling system over the conventional drilling technique is outlined.

Sawolo, N. (Unocal Indonesia Ltd. (ID))

1988-01-01

235

Utilization in the Attaka field of a new four component drilling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unocal Indonesia has significantly reduced drilling times and costs by introducing a new four-component drilling system in the Attaka field. This drilling system includes using polycrystal line diamond compact bits, a low toxic oil base mud drilling fluid, a measurement while drilling survey tool, and a steerable positive displacement mud motor. A case study showing the performance and advantages of

Sawolo

1988-01-01

236

Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products  

SciTech Connect

The first objective of this project is to develop a user-friendly, PC, foam drilling computer model, FOAM, which will accurately predict frictional pressure drops, cuttings lifting velocity, foam quality, and other drilling variables. The model will allow operating and service companies to accurately predict pressures and flow rates required at the surface and downhole to efficiently drill oil and gas wells with foam systems. The second objective of this project is to develop a lightweight drilling fluid that utilizes hollow glass spheres to reduce the density of the fluid and allow drilling underbalanced in low-pressure reservoirs. Since the resulting fluid will be incompressible, hydraulics calculations are greatly simplified, and expensive air compressors and booster pumps are eliminated. This lightweight fluid will also eliminate corrosion and downhole fire problems encountered with aerated fluids. Many tight-gas reservoirs in the US are attractive targets for underbalanced drilling because they are located in hard-rock country where tight, low-permeability formations compound the effect of formation damage encountered with conventional drilling fluids.

Maurer, W.; Medley, G. Jr.

1995-07-01

237

Horizontal well construction/completion process in a Gulf of Mexico unconsolidated sand: development of baseline correlations for improved drill-in fluid cleanup practices  

E-print Network

This thesis examines, in detail, the procedures and practices undertaken in the drilling and completion phases of a Gulf of Mexico horizontal well in an unconsolidated sand. In particular, this thesis presents a detailed case history analysis...

Lacewell, Jason Lawrence

1999-01-01

238

Down hole drilling motor with pressure balanced bearing seals  

SciTech Connect

A downhole drilling motor, e.g., a turbodrill is described, which is connected to a string of drill pipe has a rotating shaft for driving a drill bit which may be a rotary bit or a high speed solid head diamond bit. The turbine section has rotor and stator blades which are crescent shaped in cross section with each blade having an exit angle of 14-23/sup 0/ for maximum turbine efficiency. The drilling motor may alternatively be a positive displacement motor. The bearing shaft is provided with chevron rotary seals positioned below the rotary bearings carrying both radial and vertical thrust. Fluid lubricant fills the space from the rotary seals to a predetermined level above the bearings. A piston seals the lubricant chamber and is pressurized by drilling fluid (i.e. mud) flowing through the tool. A layer of lubricant fluid overlies the first piston and has a second piston covering said fluid and transmitting pressure from the drilling fluid to the lubricant fluid surrounding the bearings. The drilling mud is divided into two streams, one of which rotates the drill bit, and the other of which passes through the drill bit. The pressure drop across the drilling motor equals the pressure drop across the drill bit, thus balancing the pressure on the bearing seals.

Maurer, W.C.

1980-09-30

239

Update on onshore disposal of offshore drilling wastes  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing effluent limitations guidelines to govern discharges of cuttings from wells drilled using synthetic-based muds. To support this rulemaking, Argonne National Laboratory was asked by EPA and the US Department of Energy (DOE) to collect current information about those onshore commercial disposal facilities that are permitted to receive offshore drilling wastes. Argonne contacted state officials in Louisiana, Texas, California and Alaska to obtain this information. The findings, collected during October and November 1999, are presented by state.

Veil, J. A.

1999-11-29

240

Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01

241

TI-59 Drilling engineering manual. [Texas Instruments-59 Calculator Programs  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven drilling engineering programs to be used with the Texas Instruments 59 programmable calculator are given, with step-by-step explanations on how to input these on the calculator. Programs for basic drilling engineering, drilling fluid viscosity and circulation, hydrostatic pressure due to gas, surge and swab pressure, and well control are given. (JMT)

Chenevert, M.E.; Hollo, R.

1981-01-01

242

ResonantSonic drilling. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The technology of ResonantSonic drilling is described. This technique has been demonstrated and deployed as an innovative tool to access the subsurface for installation of monitoring and/or remediation wells and for collection of subsurface materials for environmental restoration applications. The technology uses no drilling fluids, is safe and can be used to drill slant holes.

NONE

1995-04-01

243

Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force, urging them closer together."

Hall, David R.; Hall Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael A.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

2006-02-21

244

Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is impossible to imagine daily critical care practice without intravenous fluids, yet as a safe and dependable form of\\u000a treatment, it is a relatively new phenomenon. The need for fluid administration and its importance has been recognized since\\u000a ancient times, but the ancients had no recourse to intravenous administration. Fluids of various kinds, particularly blood,\\u000a have fascinated the medical

Malcolm Fisher

245

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Las Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2000-01-01

246

Development and Testing of Insulated Drill Pipe  

SciTech Connect

This project has comprised design, analysis, laboratory testing, and field testing of insulated drill pipe (IDP). This paper will briefly describe the earlier work, but will focus on results from the recently-completed field test in a geothermal well. Field test results are consistent with earlier analyses and laboratory tests, all of which support the conclusion that insulated drill pipe can have a very significant effect on circulating fluid temperatures. This will enable the use of downhole motors and steering tools in hot wells, and will reduce corrosion, deterioration of drilling fluids, and heat-induced failures in other downhole components.

Champness, T.; Finger, J.; Jacobson, R.

1999-07-07

247

Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by explorescience.com called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

248

Drill bit benchmarking improves drilling performance  

SciTech Connect

A practical method for standardizing drill bit selection reduced drilling costs by $5.5 million on the North Slope of Alaska. Shared Services Drilling (SSD), a consortium of BP Exploration Alaska and ARCO Alaska Inc., developed a benchmarking system that improved drilling performance across the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU). The process involved input from drill bit manufacturers, rig crews, and the operator. The paper discusses well configurations, bit standardization, benchmarking strategy, bit performance, PDC bits, and results.

Brown, L.A. Jr. [Hughes Christensen Co., The Woodlands, TX (United States); Stoltz, D.S. [ARCO Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Nims, D.G. [BP Exploration Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-06-02

249

Effects of drilling fluids (muds) and turbidity on the metabolic state of the coral Acropora cervicornis: calcification rate and protein concentration  

SciTech Connect

The effects of ten used drilling muds on coral health have been examined by monitoring changes in calcification rates and soluble tissue protein in the coral Acropora cervicornis. Exposure to 25-ppm (v/v) of one mud for 24 h reduced calcification rate in the growing tips by as much as 63%. Soluble tissue protein concentration dropped sig

Kendall, J.J. Jr.

1983-01-01

250

Measuring skin while drilling  

SciTech Connect

A new model is proposed to characterize the variation in skin effect along a horizontal well. Typically, a cylindrical-shaped damaged region is assumed; however, this work describes the damaged region as a combination cylindrical-conical shape. The shape of the damaged region and the severity of the damage is governed by the contact time of the drilling fluid with the formation. This time is a function of the drilling rate penetration (ROP) and the mud filtrate invasion rate. Simple, empirical models are used to provide ROP and mud filtrate invasion rate. The effects of anisotropy ratio, penetration rates, and horizontal length are included in the analysis. Anisotropy and increasing penetration rate both will result in a decrease in the skin effect. Any horizontal well length greater than the equivalent horizontal length of the cone-shaped damage region will result in a constant cylindrical-shaped damage region, which can be evaluated using Hawkins` formula. The cone-shaped damage region will exist at the furthest end of the horizontal length. The time to transform the cone-shaped damage region to a cylinder is the circulation time after drilling to the total length. This circulation time is determined for the various anisotropy ratios and penetration rates.

Engler, T.W.; Osisanya, S.; Tiab, D.

1995-12-31

251

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (III) Origin of Hydrothermal Fluids in the Reykjanes Geothermal System Based on Stable Isotope Composition of Epidote  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reykjanes geothermal field, located on the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, offers a rare opportunity to investigate the nature and extent of rock-fluid interaction in hydrothermal systems similar to those of oceanic spreading centers. Previous studies of elemental composition and salinity have shown that Reykjanes geothermal fluids are likely hydrothermally modified seawater. However, hydrogen isotopes of these fluids

E. C. Pope; D. K. Bird; S. Arnórsson; T. Fridriksson; W. A. Elders; G. O. Fridleifsson

2006-01-01

252

Apparatus and method for logging wells while drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a measurement while drilling apparatus for detecting and communicating information relative to down-hole parameters and\\/or characteristics of the earth strata via an electrically conductive drill string. The drill string is composed of lengths of metallic pipe connected end-to-end in series and a drilling fluid is caused to flow through it and return to the surface through the

Mac Leod

1986-01-01

253

Steerable percussion air drilling system  

SciTech Connect

The cost-sharing contract between the US Department of Energy and Smith International provides the funding to further develop this concept into two complete steerable percussion air drilling system prototypes, each integrated with a navigation tool (wireline steering tool), a bend sub, stabilizing devices, and to conduct laboratory and field testing necessary to prepare the system for commercial realization. Such a system would make available for the first time the ability to penetrate earthen formations by the percussion method, using compressed air as the drilling fluid, and at the same time allow the directional control and steering of the drill bit. While the drill string is not rotating (slide mode), one can orient to build angle in the desired direction at a predictable rate. This build rate can be in the range of 1--20 degrees per one hundred feet and proceeds until the desired inclination or direction has been obtained. The drill pipe is then set in rotation, nullifying the effect of the bend angle, and causes the assembly to drill straight. The sliding procedure can be repeated as often as corrections for hole`s inclination or direction are needed.

Bui, H.D.; Oliver, M.S.; Gray, M.A.

1993-12-31

254

Drilling optimization -- The driller`s role  

SciTech Connect

For any given drilling operation, several drilling technologies are available to optimize the process of producing a usable borehole. The intent of this process is to conduct the drilling safely and in the most cost-effective manner possible. The industry has made significant progress in developing improved technologies such as real-time formation evaluation, directional control while drilling, improved bottomhole assembly (BHA) components, and drilling fluids. These and other new technologies have added the requirement for specialized staff at the wellsite and, at the same time, have often reduced the role of the driller. The challenge facing the industry for the foreseeable future is to find a more efficient method of utilizing these technologies while simultaneously reducing the need for certain specialized staff. This paper analyzes the driller`s role and emphasizes his role as the critical link in safely and efficiently drilling a borehole. As the industry moves toward the more cost-effective technologies of computer-based instrumentation, power-handling tools, and automated drilling, the driller`s role will need to evolve from one of basic drilling mechanics into that of a real-time drilling supervisor. In this way, the driller (the only 100% real-time link with the drilling process) should become an active member of the wellsite management team, thereby reducing some need for specialized advisory staff.

Reinhold, W.B.; Close, D.A.

1997-03-01

255

Vibrator-assisted well and mineral exploratory drilling, and drilling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Well and exploratory drilling apparatus whose rotary motion is modified by a vibrator to provide lateral movement of its bit. There is also disclosed a universal movement which enables such action to occur in a steerable assembly, while providing a passage for a conduit to supply motive fluid to the vibrator, and isolating the drill rod from at least some of the vibrating forces.

Sartor, E.R.

1981-01-06

256

Simulation of two phase flow of liquid - solid in the annular space in drilling operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling cutting transfer is an important factor in oil and gas wells drilling. So that success drilling operation is directly dependent on the quality of clean the wellbore drilling operation. In this paper, modeled upward flow of liquid - solid in the annular concentric and non-concentric in the well drilling by Euler two - fluid model and then analysis using numerical method. Numerical simulation of liquid - solid flow evaluated initially with a Newtonian fluid (water) and then a non-Newtonian fluid (CMC solution 0.4%). After that, investigated the effect of parameters such as flow rate, rotating drill pipe and out of centered on drilling operations. The results show that drilling cutting transfer is improve due to the rotation of drill pipe particularly in drilling operations.

Kootiani, Reza Cheraghi; Samsuri, Ariffin Bin

2014-10-01

257

Water based drilling mud additive  

SciTech Connect

A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

McCrary, J.L.

1983-12-13

258

Drill string enclosure  

DOEpatents

The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

1993-03-02

259

Drill string enclosure  

DOEpatents

The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

Jorgensen, Douglas K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kuhns, Douglass J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wiersholm, Otto (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

260

CHIP MORPHOLOGY AND HOLE SURFACE TEXTURE IN THE DRILLING OF CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS. (R825370C057)  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of cutting fluid and other process variables on chip morphology when drilling cast aluminium alloys are investigated. The effects of workpiece material, speed, feed, hole depth, cutting-fluid presence and percentage oil concentration, workpiece temperature, drill t...

261

Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, October 1980-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development.

Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

1981-03-01

262

Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, January 1981-March 1981  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods as they apply to advanced drilling systems.

Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

1981-06-01

263

Drilling equipment to shrink  

SciTech Connect

Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

Silverman, S.

2000-01-01

264

Directional drilling azimuth control system  

SciTech Connect

A downhole anchor assembly is described for absorbing reaction torque from a downhole mud motor in a directional drill string so as to minimize azimuthal deviation from such reaction torque, the anchor assembly comprising: an elongated, generally cylindrical housing having upper and lower ends with tool joints thereon for coupling the body into a directional drill string and having a drilling fluid passage extending longitudinally through its length; at least one elongated chain support body longitudinally mounted in the housing; an elongated, endless anchor chain supported on the body, the chain having an elongated portion thereof longitudinally arranged and generally radially exposed externally of the body, the exposed chain portion being freely longitudinally movable along the body; the body being generally radially shiftable between a retracted position in which the exposed chain portion is substantially recessed in the housing; and actuating means in the housing engageable with the body for shifting the body from the retracted position to its extended position.

Cheek, A.E.

1986-09-23

265

Drilling technology, 2000  

SciTech Connect

Great strides have been made in drilling during the nineties, but many operators are unaware of many of the exciting capabilities and potential offered by today` drilling technology. As people move toward the year 2000, they see drilling providers refine these capabilities, broaden their applications, and increase operator awareness of their availability and usefulness. Thus, to see where drilling will be in the year 2000, people need to look at where the drilling forefront lies today. This paper discusses the trends in technology associated with horizontal drilling, re-entry techniques, coiled-tubing, extended-reach drilling, multilateral drilling and general well development technologies.

Offenbacher, L.

1996-05-01

266

Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

1997-11-01

267

Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

1996-06-01

268

New muds are specially tailored for deepwater drilling  

SciTech Connect

There are three things in life that are certain: death, taxes and encountering gumbo clay while drilling offshore Gulf of Mexico oil and gas fields. The concomitant torque and drag define the goals of offshore drilling fluid design. Additionally, some deepwater projects require hydrate suppression, resulting in a challenging list of barriers to drilling success confronting the aspiring engineer. Specially tailored water-base muds have been developed for deepwater drilling. Each DeepDrill{trademark} fluid is custom designed for the specific project, in accordance with the particular conditions and degree of difficulty that will be experienced. This family of engineered drilling fluids is based on New100N{trademark} polyol chemistry.

Kenney, N.P. [Newpark Drilling Fluids Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-04-01

269

Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling risks and costs. This procedure enables a timely, efficient and accurate data access and exchange among the rig site data acquisition system, office-based software applications and data storage. The loading of real-time data has to be quick and efficient in order to refine the model and learn the lessons for the next drilling operations.

Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

2013-04-01

270

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (III) Origin of Hydrothermal Fluids in the Reykjanes Geothermal System Based on Stable Isotope Composition of Epidote  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Reykjanes geothermal field, located on the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, offers a rare opportunity to investigate the nature and extent of rock-fluid interaction in hydrothermal systems similar to those of oceanic spreading centers. Previous studies of elemental composition and salinity have shown that Reykjanes geothermal fluids are likely hydrothermally modified seawater. However, hydrogen isotopes of these fluids indicate a significant component of meteoric water, with ?D values as low as -23‰. To help characterize the origin of hydrothermal solutions, we have analyzed hydrogen isotope compositions of geothermal epidote (?DEPIDOTE) from wells RN-10 and RN-17 within the Reykjanes system at depths of 1-3 km. ?DEPIDOTE values from well RN-10 range from -64 to -70‰ between 1.0 and 2.1 km depths. ?DEPIDOTE is -74.1‰ in well RN-17 at 3.0 km depth, and published ?DEPIDOTE values from well RN-8 at 1.6 km depth are -48‰. ?DEPIDOTE from the Reykjanes geothermal system is higher than values from other high-temperature geothermal systems in southern Iceland further inland. For example, the Nesjavellir geothermal system, which is dominated by meteoric water and has a ?DFLUID of approximately -79‰, has a ?DEPIDOTE of -115‰. However, ?DEPIDOTE values from the Svartsengi geothermal system of - 68‰ are comparable to those from well RN-10, although Svartsengi fluids are considered to be a mixed meteoric and seawater system with a salinity of about two thirds that of the Reykjanes geothermal fluids. Hydrogen isotope compositions of geothermal fluids in equilibrium with Reykjanes epidotes are predicted using the temperature dependence of epidote-water H/D fractionations reported by Chacko et al. (1999, Geochim cosmochim Acta, 63) and measured down-hole temperatures or temperatures approximated from the boiling point curve at depth. Results suggest that epidotes formed in the Reykjanes geothermal system (?DFLUID values between -29 and -35‰) are not in equilibrium with present-day geothermal fluids (?DFLUID ~ -20‰) or hydrothermally altered seawater, but with fluids that are intermediate between local meteoric water (?D ~ -48‰) and modern geothermal fluid. Additionally, spatial variability seen in the isotopic composition of epidotes indicates a more complex hydrothermal evolution of the Reykjanes system than previously suggested. To understand the nature and origin of hydrothermal fluids in the Reykjanes geothermal system further investigation of the relative importance of fluid mixing, rock-fluid interaction and evaporation is required.

Pope, E. C.; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2006-12-01

271

78 FR 72688 - Information Collection Activities: Application for Permit To Drill; Proposed Collection; Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...lessee's or operator's plan and equipment for drilling, sidetracking, or deepening operations. This includes the adequacy of the proposed casing design, casing setting depths, drilling fluid (mud) programs, cementing...

2013-12-03

272

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling for Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Proceedings Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part A, 28(3):251­268. doi:10.1016/0198- 0149(81)90066-2 [] Aagaard, K., 1989

273

Drilling mud cleaning machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a multiple-function cleaning, desilting and desanding machine for cleaning drilling muds which contain unwanted solid waste materials entrained during drilling processes. The machine comprises: supportive frame means adapted to be disposed upon a supportive surface for securely positioning the machine at a selected drilling site; a cyclone chamber having means for receiving dirty drilling mud from a

W. L. Spruiell; J. L. Spruiell

1987-01-01

274

Optically Aligned Drill Press  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

Adderholdt, Bruce M.

1994-01-01

275

HP-41CV applied drilling engineering manual  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this manual are as follows: average diameter of an open hole; pump cycle, pump factor, and annulus capacity; drilling-time and penetration rate predictions; nozzle selection; direction well survey; viscosity of drilling fluids; barite requirements with solids dilution; solids analysis and recommended flow properties; evaluation of hydrocyclones; frictional pressure loss; surge and swab pressures; pressure and average density of a gas column; cement additive requirements; kick tolerance, severity, length and density; and pump pressure schedule for well control operations.

Chenevert, M.; Williams, F.; Hekimian, H.

1983-01-01

276

Rotary blasthole drilling update  

SciTech Connect

Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2008-02-15

277

Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

2001-05-01

278

HydroPulse Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure

J. J. Kolle

2004-01-01

279

Fluid motor and telemetry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A motor for driving a rotary drilling bit within a well through which mud is circulated during a drilling operation, with the motor being driven by a secondary fluid which is isolated from the circulating mud but derives energy therefrom to power the motor. A pressure drop in the circulating mud across a choke in the drill string is utilized

1984-01-01

280

Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other (presumably low-temperature) silicates in inclusions is highly disordered and spectrally resembles kerogens. This graphite probably was deposited during later greenschist-facies retrograde metamorphism at about 400-500??C. The degree of crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is shown to be a much more complex function of temperature than is the crystallinity of metamorphic graphite. To some extent, experiments can provide temperature-calibration of the crystallinity index. However, the difference in time scales between experimental runs and geologic processes makes it difficult to infer specific temperatures for naturally precipitated graphite. Copyright ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Pasteris, J.D.; Chou, I.-M.

1998-01-01

281

Volume requirements for aerated mud drilling  

SciTech Connect

Aerated mud drilling has been recognized as having many advantages over conventional mud drilling, such ass higher penetration rate, less formation damage, minimized lost circulation, and lower drilling cost. In some areas, the use of aerated mud as a circulating medium for drilling oil and gas wells is becoming an attractive practice. Maintaining an optimum combination of liquid and air flow rates is important in aerated drilling operations. However, most drilling operators are unclear on what constitutes the ``optimum combination of the liquid and air flow rates.`` Guo et al. presented a mathematical approach to determining the flowing bottomhole pressure (BHP) for aerated mud drilling. This paper addresses the use of Guo et al.`s mathematical model to determine liquid and air volume requirements considering wellbore stability, pipe sticking, and formation damage as well as the cuttings-carry capacity of the aerated mud. For a formation-damage-prevention point of view, the liquid fraction in the fluid stream should e as low as possible. However, a sufficient mud flow rate is always required to make the hole stable and to maintain the cuttings-carrying capacity of the aerated mud without injecting much air volume. This paper provides a simple approach to determining the liquid and air volume requirements for aerated mud drilling.

Guo, B.; Rajtar, J.M. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-09-01

282

Microbial Community Stratification Controlled by the Subseafloor Fluid Flow and Geothermal Gradient at the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331)  

PubMed Central

The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (?90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

2014-01-01

283

Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).  

PubMed

The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (?90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

2014-10-01

284

Robotic Planetary Drill Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

2010-01-01

285

Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto  

SciTech Connect

To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

1981-01-01

286

Down hole drilling motor with pressure balanced bearing seals  

SciTech Connect

A down hole drilling motor, e.g., A turbodrill, which is connected to a string of drill pipe has a rotating shaft for driving a drill bit which may be a rotary bit or a high speed solid head diamond bit. The turbine section has rotor and stator blades which are crescent shaped in cross section with each blade having an exit angle of 14*-23* for maximum turbine efficiency. The bearing shaft is provided with chevron rotary seals positioned below the rotary bearings carrying both radial and vertical thrust. Fluid lubricant fills the space from the rotary seals to a predetermined level above the bearings. A piston seals the lubricant chamber and is pressurized by drilling fluid (I.E. Mud) flowing through the tool. A layer of lubricant fluid overlies the first piston and has a second piston covering said fluid and transmitting pressure from the drilling fluid to the lubricant fluid surrounding the bearings. The drilling mud that causes the turbodrill to rotate is pumped away from the bearing seals by pump means operated by the drilling motor to balance the pressure on the upper and lower bearing seals.

McDonald, W.J.

1981-01-27

287

Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

Not Available

1986-12-01

288

75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...701-TA-474 and 731-TA-1176 (Preliminary)] Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the...with material injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in...

2010-03-08

289

Deep Sea Drilling Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

Kaneps, Ansis

1977-01-01

290

Plug and drill template  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device installs plugs and then drills them after sandwich face sheets are in place. Template guides drill bit into center of each concealed plug thereby saving considerable time and fostering weight reduction with usage of smaller plugs.

Orella, S.

1979-01-01

291

Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products. Topical report, September 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses the development and testing of two products designed to advance the application of underbalanced drilling techniques. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment. The program predicts pressure and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test well measurements, and field data. This model does not handle air or mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. An incompressible drilling fluid was developed that utilizes lightweight solid additives (hollow glass spheres) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. This fluid is designed for underbalanced drilling situations where compressible lightweight fluids are inadequate. In addition to development of these new products, an analysis was performed to determine the market potential of lightweight fluids, and a forecast of underbalanced drilling in the USA over the next decade was developed. This analysis indicated that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30 percent of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the USA within the next ten years.

Medley, G.H., Jr; Maurer, W.C.; Liu, G.; Garkasi, A.Y.

1995-09-01

292

Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting  

SciTech Connect

An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

2013-07-02

293

Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting  

DOEpatents

An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

2012-09-04

294

Means for generating electricity during drilling of a borehole  

SciTech Connect

A generator is claimed for providing electric energy in a borehole during drilling thereof, the generator comprising an anchor which is movable in a reciprocating mode in response to pressure pulses in the drilling fluid caused by rapidly opening or closing a valve.

Kamp, A.W.

1985-01-01

295

Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

1994-10-01

296

Lake Van deep drilling project PALEOVAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ?600,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) was drilled in 2010 supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. This introductory paper provides background information of the deep drilling project and an overview of the studies presented in this special volume by the PALEOVAN science team dealing with chronology, paleomagnetism, paleoenvironmental proxies, geophysical and petrophysical investigations as well as pore-water and fluid transport.

Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

2014-11-01

297

DRILLING MACHINES GENERAL INFORMATION  

E-print Network

or angled drilled. The base of the drilling machine supports the entire machine and when bolted to the floor parts. Follow the manufacturer's manual for proper lubrication methods. Clean each machine after useTC 9-524 Chapter 4 DRILLING MACHINES GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSE This chapter contains basic

Gellman, Andrew J.

298

Combination offshore drilling rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with

D. B. Lorenz; J. S. II Laid

1986-01-01

299

HydroPulse Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

J.J. Kolle

2004-04-01

300

Drilling at Advanced Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

Case, Doug

1977-01-01

301

Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a highly efficient tool that both delivers high level of force for the pressure available and inherently increases downhole reliability because parts are less subject to contamination. The On-Off feature is essential to drilling to allow the Driller to turn off the tractor and pull back while circulating in cleanout runs that keep the hole clean of drilling debris. The gripping elements have wide contact surfaces to the formation to allow high loads without damage to the formation. As part of the development materials evaluations were conducted to verify compatibility with anticipated drilling and well bore fluids. Experiments demonstrated that the materials of the tractor are essentially undamaged by exposure to typical drilling fluids used for horizontal coiled tubing drilling. The design for the MDT was completed, qualified vendors identified, parts procured, received, inspected, and a prototype was assembled. As part of the assembly process, WWT prepared Manufacturing instructions (MI) that detail the assembly process and identify quality assurance inspection points. Subsequent to assembly, functional tests were performed. Functional tests consisted of placing the MDT on jack stands, connecting a high pressure source to the tractor, and verifying On-Off functions, walking motion, and operation over a range of pressures. Next, the Shop Demonstration Test was performed. An existing WWT test fixture was modified to accommodate operation of the 3.38 inch diameter MDT. The fixture simulated the tension applied to a tractor while walking (pulling) inside 4.0 inch diameter pipe. The MDT demonstrated: (1) On-off function, (2) Pulling forces proportional to available differential pressure up to 4000 lbs, (3) Walking speeds to 1100 ft/hour. A field Demonstration of the MDT was arranged with a major oil company operating in Alaska. A demonstration well with a Measured Depth of approximately 15,000 ft was selected; however because of problems with the well drilling was stopped before the planned MDT usage. Alternatively, functional and operational tests were run with the MDT insi

Western Well Tool

2007-07-09

302

Study of downward communication receiver in rotary steerable drilling tool based on turbine generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the existence issues of underground information receiving at drilling, such as the installation space in the drill collar, installation location, and connections to the measurement circuit, etc., turbine generator as detection devices was proposed to achieve downward information received. The instruction encoding was built, and the effective downhole control instruction was generated by the use of drilling fluid pump

Huo Aiqing; He Yuyao; Wang Yuelong; Tang Nan; Cheng Weibin

2010-01-01

303

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E; Perry, Carl Allison

2014-03-04

304

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingswood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2012-08-14

305

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2011-08-16

306

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2008-05-27

307

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2007-05-22

308

Critical Investigation of Wear Behaviour of WC Drill Bit Buttons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining and petroleum drill bits are subjected to highly abrasive rock and high-velocity fluids that cause severe wear and erosion in service. To augment the rate of penetration and minimize the cost per foot, such drill bits are subjected to increasing rotary speeds and weight. A rotary/percussive drill typically hits the rock 50 times per second with hydraulic impact pressure of about 170-200 bar and feed pressure of about 90-100 bar, while rotating at 75-200 rpm. The drill rig delivers a high-velocity flow of drilling fluid onto the rock surface to dislodge cuttings and cool the bit. The impingement of high-velocity drilling fluid with entrained cuttings accelerates the erosion rate of the bit. Also, high service temperature contributes to softening of the rock for increased penetration. Hence, there is a need to optimize the drilling process and balance the wear rate and penetration rate simultaneously. This paper presents an experimental scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of electroplated (nickel-bonded) diamond drills for different wear modes.

Gupta, Anurag; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

2013-01-01

309

8. annual international energy week conference and exhibition: Conference papers. Book 3: Drilling and production operations  

SciTech Connect

The three volumes within this book are subdivided as follows: (1) Drilling Technology -- underbalanced drilling; field and laboratory testing; drilling systems and dynamics; advances in drill bits; coiled tubing and tubulars; advances in drilling fluids; novel/scientific drilling; and drillstrings; (2) Petroleum Production Technology -- environmental health and safety issues; production technology for deepwater; disposal methods for production waste; and offshore facility abandonment; and (3) Offshore Engineering and Operations -- floating production systems; strategic service alliance; offshore facility abandonment; offshore development economics; heavy construction, transportation, and installation for offshore fields; and subsea technology. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1997-07-01

310

Rotary Steerable Horizontal Directional Drilling: Red River Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sperry-Sun Drilling, a Halliburton company provides engineering solutions and sets new records for Horizontal and Vertical Displacement Drilling (HVDD). Halliburton Sperry Drilling, Casper, WY, allowed one student to participate in 12-week experiential learning program this summer as HVDD engineer. HVDD is the science of drilling non-vertical wells and can be differentiated into three main groups; Oilfield Directional Drilling (ODD), Utility Installation Directional Drilling (UIDD) and in-seam directional Drilling. Sperry-Sun prior experience with rotary drilling established a number of principles for the configuration of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that would be prone to drilling crooked hole [1]. Combining Measurement While Drilling survey tools (MWD tools) and BHA designs made HVDD possible. Geologists use the MWD survey data to determine the well placement in the stratigraphic sequence. Through the analysis of this data, an apparent dip of the formation can be calculated, and the bit is directed to stay in the target zone of production. Geological modeling assists in directing the well by creating a map of the target zone surface, an Isopach map. The Isopach map provides contour intervals and changes in formation dip. When the inclination of the formation changes the geologist informs the directional drillers to adjust the drill bits. HVDD provides Halliburton the opportunity to reach more production intervals in a given formation sequence [1]. The Down hole motors powered by fluid flow through the drill string create horsepower and rotation of the bit which enables the use of a bend element in the BHA to create the tilt necessary to deviate the wellbore from vertical displacement drilling path. The rotation of Down hole motors is influenced by temperature and aromatics found in water, oil and diesel based mud. The development of HVDD Rotary Steerable tools hold promise to have almost a complete automated process for drilling highly deviated production well holes.

Cherukupally, A.; Bergevin, M.; Jones, J.

2011-12-01

311

Optimisation of EDM fast hole drilling for aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) fast hole drilling is a thermo-electric manufacturing process in which material removal is achieved by sparks taking place between a tool electrode and the workpiece being drilled; both covered in dielectric fluid and connected to a generator delivering periodic pulses of energy at very high frequencies. There is no physical contact between the workpiece and the electrode, and the small gap separating them is maintained under servo control. EDM fast hole drilling plays a vital role in the aerospace industry. The operating temperatures of aero-engine often exceed the melting point of the materials used in its components. Hence, it is required to artificially cool different types of components including turbine blades. This is accomplished by directing bypass air into internal passages of the blade; the air flows continuality through small holes, having diameters ranging from 0.4 to 3mm and are drilled at steep angles to the baled surfaces. With EDM it is possible to drill these holes. The EDM drilling, however, operates with very high levels of relative electrode wear and high variations in cycle times making the process rather inconsistent. Using the DOE (Design of Experiments) approach, a series of studies have been carried out with the purpose of optimising the drilling process through the evaluation of water-based dielectric fluids and electrode materials, via analysis of drilling time, electrode wear, surface integrity, dimensional accuracy and costs. Factors such as the electrode length, geometry and dielectric flushing have also been studied. This work has shown that drilling times and electrode wear can be reduced by 50% and 35% respectively depending on the type of dielectric fluid/electrode material used and on the optimisation criteria employed. Significant reductions in the variations of drilling times have also been observed. Moreover, drilling time and electrode wear can be decreased by 165% and 25% respectively, depending on the electrode geometry employed.

Leao, F. N.

312

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are reported. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

Varnado, S.G.

1980-07-01

313

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

1980-01-01

314

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1979-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

1980-11-01

315

Geothermal drilling ad completion technology development program. Semi-annual progress report, April-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

1980-05-01

316

Mars Science Laboratory Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

Okon, Avi B.

2010-01-01

317

Geothermal Drilling Organization  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), founded in 1982 as a joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Industry organization, develops and funds near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling costs. Sandia National Laboratories administers DOE funds to assist industry critical cost-shared projects and provides development support for each project. GDO assistance to industry is vital in developing products and procedures to lower drilling costs, in part, because the geothermal industry is small and represents a limited market.

Sattler, A.R.

1999-07-07

318

Drilling operations change gear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicts that several technological developments (e.g. measurement-while-drilling tools, computer data-gathering systems, improved drill bits, muds, downhole mud motors, and more efficient rigs) will have a major effect on drilling operations in the not-too-distant future. While several companies manufacture MWD systems and most can boast of successful runs, the major problem with the MWD system is cost. Manufacturers continue to make

1982-01-01

319

Roller cone drill bit  

SciTech Connect

A roller bit is disclosed for use with a drill string, having at least two cutters which are generally conically shaped; each cutter includes one or more teeth in inclined planes across a conical surface. The bit is attached to the drill string with the axis of rotation of the cutter angled with respect to the longitudinal axis of the drill string. The teeth on each cutter are arranged for maximum cuttings size and penetration rate.

Munson, B.E.

1983-10-11

320

Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

Hyne, N.J.

1984-01-01

321

Horizontal drilling developments  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

Gust, D.

1997-05-01

322

Remote drill bit loader  

DOEpatents

A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

Dokos, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

323

Remote drill bit loader  

DOEpatents

A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

Dokos, J.A.

1997-12-30

324

The analysis of fluid inclusions in halite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique has been developed to drill into fluid inclusions in halite, to extract the inclusion fluids, and to determine the concentration of all of the major and some of the minor constituents in these fluids. The minimum diameter of usable fluid inclusions is ca . 250 m. After dilution, the fluids are analyzed by ion chromatography and coulometry. Uncertainties

Boaz Lazar; Heinrich D. Holland

1988-01-01

325

Drill-motor holding fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

1980-01-01

326

Diverter including apparatus for breaking up large pieces of formation carried to the surface by the drilling mud  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a diverter for drilling mud having a packer-housing mounted on the upper end of a riser through which drilling mud flows to the surface between the riser and the pipe string extending through the riser and a packer located in the packer-housing. The packer has a body of resilient material, and means for moving the resilient material into sealing engagement with a pipe string to divert drilling fluid laterally into a mud return line. The improvement described here comprises: conduits extending vertically through the packer, each conduit including a flexible section extending through the body of resilient material to move with the resilient material as it is moved into and out of sealing engagement with the drill string, means supplying the upper ends of the conduits with drilling fluid, and nozzles located in the lower ends of the conduits to direct the drilling fluid into the drilling fluid below the packer.

Davis, H.D.

1987-02-03

327

Ocean Drilling Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

Ocean Drilling Program

328

Drilling Square Holes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

Smith, Scott G.

1993-01-01

329

Reverse laser drilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

330

Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

1998-01-01

331

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

Harvey, Jill (editor)

1989-01-01

332

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31

333

Distributed downhole drilling network  

DOEpatents

A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

Hall, David R.; Hall Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

2006-11-21

334

Advanced drilling systems study.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis (Livesay Consultants, Encintas, CA)

1996-05-01

335

1991 drill bit classifier  

SciTech Connect

Whether drilling soft, swelling gumbo formations along the Gulf Coast, harder Green River shales in Wyoming or really tough and abrasive quartzite, basalt or Devonian chert deposits in the Permian basin, choosing the best bit for the job is important if optimum drilling and cost efficiency are to be maintained. To make the selection process easier, WORLD OIL has compiled a comprehensive, yet simple-to-use guide for classifying bits. This paper is divided into six major formation categories roughly corresponding to those used by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). Within these are listed virtually all commonly available drilling and coring bits by type and manufacturer. To use the guide, simply identify the formation to be drilled, decide whether a rock, diamond, PDC or hybrid bit is most appropriate, choose the manufacturer and scan the bits available. In fact, bits from all manufacturers can readily be compared.

Not Available

1991-09-01

336

A Ship for Scientific Drilling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

1982-01-01

337

Information on commercial disposal facilities that may have received offshore drilling wastes.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations that would establish requirements for discharging synthetic-based drill cuttings from offshore wells into the ocean. Justification for allowing discharges of these cuttings is that the environmental impacts from discharging drilling wastes into the ocean may be less harmful than the impacts from hauling them to shore for disposal. In the past, some onshore commercial facilities that disposed of these cuttings were improperly managed and operated and left behind environmental problems. This report provides background information on commercial waste disposal facilities in Texas, Louisiana, California, and Alaska that received or may have received offshore drilling wastes in the past and are now undergoing cleanup.

Gasper, J. R.; Veil, J. A.; Ayers, R. C., Jr.

2000-08-25

338

DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY Drilling for seawater  

E-print Network

Water Desalination Fuel Production Waste Water Treatment Increased CO2 Absorbtion Agriculture & Mari) of cold water pipe WAS LOST 3 TIMES before demonstrating power generation #12;DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY BACKGROUND After a 2006 earthquake on the Big Island The NELHA cold water pipe cracked allowing warm water

339

Research provides clues to hydrate formation and drilling-hazard solutions  

SciTech Connect

Hydrate formation is a growing safety concern for offshore drilling programs, but, despite extensive laboratory research, pragmatic information is still lacking. Formation of hydrates in drilling fluids during a shut-in is the most likely hydrate-associated hazard in deep-water drilling, although the number of documented incidents is small. In addition to the known naturally forming hydrates, laboratory experiments have also identified heavier hydrocarbons found in oil and gas condensate systems and a new hydrate structure. These two factors may increase the range from which hydrate formation can occur. The paper discusses safety concerns, hydrate structures, modeling hydrates, hydrate stability, naturally occurring hydrates, techniques for drilling hydrates, hydrate formation while drilling, drilling fluids and hydrates, and completion fluids.

Szczepanski, R.; Edmonds, B. [Infochem Computer Services Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Brown, N.; Hamilton, T. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom). Offshore Safety Div.

1998-03-09

340

Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock  

SciTech Connect

The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

Rowley, J.C.

1984-01-01

341

Gas Well Drilling and Water Resources Regulated by the Pennsylvania Oil and  

E-print Network

used in drilling and fracking · Recent increase in permit fee to fund new DEP enforcement · Permit fluids ­ return fluids from fracking ­ mixture of water, sand and chemicals Production fluids ­ fluids, manganese, barium, arsenic, etc.) Surfactants/detergents Total suspended solids Oil/Grease Fracking

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

342

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1999-05-25

343

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

1999-05-25

344

Rotary drilling drill string stabilizer-cuttings grinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arrangement for alleviating the problem of differential sticking of a drill string in rotary drilling of a highly deviated borehole by grinding and reducing the size of the cuttings generated by the drilling operation to enable the mudreturn flow to better remove the cuttings from the wellbore. At least one full gage, rotating stabilizer-grinder is placed along the drill

T. B. Dellinger; J. J. Kelly

1983-01-01

345

76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Nos. 701-TA-474 and 731-TA-1176 (Final)] Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the...threatened with material injury by reason of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for...

2011-03-03

346

DRILLING FLUID CHEMICALS AND EARTHWORM TOXICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms can be used to assess toxicity in terrestrial systems and the survival rate of the worms, or changes in other parameters such as biomass, can be used to calculate an LC50 value (lethal concentration to 50% of the population) for test chemicals spiked into soil. This type of information can be useful in predicting the likely toxicological effect of

Karen McCosh; Jonathan Getliff

347

AC drives for drilling  

SciTech Connect

Until now direct-current motors fed by thyristor rectifiers have dominated as variable-speed drive systems for oil-drilling applications. During drilling of a test well at Rogaland Research Center in Stavanger, Norway, a new drilling system ''The Power Swivel'' was tested and the conventional DC motor/SCR system was replaced by an asynchronous motor fed by a GTO frequency converter. Whilst an enclosure of protection class Ex(P) is required for DC motors operating in hazardous area, asynchronous motors can also be built to protection class Ex(d), (e), or (n) for this type of application.

Olsen, S.O.; Knudsen, S.

1985-01-01

348

Horizontal drainhole drilling update  

SciTech Connect

Since mid-1979, ARCO Oil and Gas Co. has drilled and produced 4 horizontal drainholes in the Empire Abo Unit, Lea County, N. Mex. These horizontal holes were drilled into the lower part of the oil column to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing gas coning during production. Studies had indicated that reducing coning would lead to higher oil recovery per well. Drilling improvements achieved during these 4 operations are discussed. The production history for the first well is compared with that of conventional offset wells. 14 references.

Striegler, J.H.

1982-01-01

349

Rapid and Quiet Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

2007-01-01

350

Visualization of Stress Distribution on Ultrasonic Vibration Aided Drilling Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrasonically assisted machining is suitable to achieve sub-millimeter drilling on difficult-to-cut materials such as ceramics, hardened steel, glass and heat-resistant steel. However, it is difficult to observe the high-frequency and micron-scale phenomenon of ultrasonic cutting. In this report, high speed camera based on photoelastic analysis realized the visualization of stress distribution on drilling process. For the conventional drilling, the stress distribution diagram showed the intensive stress occurred under the chisel because the chisel edge of drill produces large plastic deformation. On the other hand, the ultrasonic drilling produced spread stress distribution and stress boundary far away from the chisel. Furthermore, chipping or cracking of inner wall of silica glass was influenced considerably by cutting fluid.

Isobe, Hiromi; Uehara, Yusuke; Okada, Manabu; Horiuchi, Tomio; Hara, Keisuke

351

A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area), and a DD-line between drilling area and dielectric fluid droplet on the electrode tip. Accordingly, image processing techniques are employed to extract a tool electrode image, and the centroid, eigenvector, and principle axis of the tool electrode are determined. The developed detection line algorithm (DLA) is then used to detect the baseline, ND-line, and DD-line along the direction of the principle axis. Finally, the tool electrode length and drilling depth of the workpiece are estimated via detected baseline, ND-line, and DD-line. Experimental results show good accuracy and efficiency in estimation of the tool electrode length and drilling depth under different conditions. Hence, this research may provide a reference for industrial application in EDM drilling measurement.

Huang, Kuo-Yi

2008-01-01

352

Evaluating control designs for co-ordinating pump rates and choke valve during managed pressure drilling operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

When drilling into a petroleum reservoir it is critical to maintain a required downhole pressure to avoid well bore fracture or influx of petroleum fluids. Drilling into mature and often depleted petroleum fields may be difficult due to tight pressure margins. This paper evaluates various automatic control designs for co-ordinating pump rates and choke valve during managed pressure drilling operations.

O. Breyholtz; Gerhard Nygaard; John-Morten Godhavn; Erlend H. Vefring

2009-01-01

353

Drilling and production technology symposium  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on well drilling. Topics considered at the conference included ice island drilling structures, artificial intelligence, electric motors, mud pumps, bottom hole assembly failures, oil spills, corrosion, wear characteristics of drill bits, two-phase flow in marine risers, the training of drilling personnel, and MWD systems.

Welch, R.

1986-01-01

354

Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection  

E-print Network

Managed Pressure Drilling now at the pinnacle of the 'Oil Well Drilling' evolution tree, has itself been coined in 2003. It is an umbrella term for a few new drilling techniques and some preexisting drilling techniques, all of them aiming to solve...

Nauduri, Anantha S.

2010-07-14

355

Use of bicenter PDC bit reduces drilling cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of bicenter polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit technology, dual-power-head down-hole motors, and oil-based drilling fluids helped save significant costs on a recent well drilled in the Gulf of Mexico. Not only has underreaming been eliminated, but the overall rate of penetration has been significantly increased. Directional control problems experienced during one phase of the well may limit use

R. G. Casto; M. Senese

1995-01-01

356

Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers an economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.

Lindstrom, Jason

2010-01-31

357

Sub-Ocean Drilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

1981-01-01

358

Subsurface drill string  

DOEpatents

A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

Casper, William L. (Rigby, ID); Clark, Don T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grover, Blair K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mathewson, Rodney O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seymour, Craig A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-10-07

359

Deep-Sea Drilling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

White, Stan M.

1979-01-01

360

Drill pipe protector development  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R. [Regal International Corp., Corsicanna, TX (United States); Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [ed.] [and others

1996-03-01

361

Drilling Productivity Report  

EIA Publications

Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

2015-01-01

362

Use of bicenter PDC bit reduces drilling cost  

SciTech Connect

The use of bicenter polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit technology, dual-power-head down-hole motors, and oil-based drilling fluids helped save significant costs on a recent well drilled in the Gulf of Mexico. Not only has underreaming been eliminated, but the overall rate of penetration has been significantly increased. Directional control problems experienced during one phase of the well may limit use of the technique in difficult directional wells. This article discusses both the successes and the failures of this technique during the drilling of two phases of the same Gulf of Mexico well.

Casto, R.G.; Senese, M. [Agip Petroleum Co. Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-11-13

363

While drilling system and method  

DOEpatents

A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

2007-02-20

364

Ocean drilling ship chosen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sedco\\/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and

Barbara T. Richman

1984-01-01

365

Developers set drilling pace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thums four man-made islands each have a rock perimeter - 160,000 tons of granite - and an inner core of 900,000 yards of hydraulically placed dredged-sand fill. Because of the shallow depths of Long Beach Harbor, islands were constructed instead of installing conventional drilling and production platforms. The majority of drilling rigs and their equipment - casing racks and mud

McNally

1981-01-01

366

Micro borehole drilling platform  

SciTech Connect

This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

NONE

1996-10-01

367

Update on slimhole drilling  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories manages the US Department of Energy program for slimhole drilling. The principal objective of this program is to expand proven geothermal reserves through increased exploration made possible by lower-cost slimhole drilling. For this to be a valid exploration method, however, it is necessary to demonstrate that slimholes yield enough data to evaluate a geothermal reservoir, and that is the focus of Sandia`s current research.

Finger, J.T.

1996-01-01

368

Spreadsheet programming simplifies drilling calculations  

SciTech Connect

Programming complex drilling equations for use on common computer spreadsheets can help an engineer solve complex problems quickly and correctly. Although many off-the-shelf software packages are readily available and relatively inexpensive, an engineer may still have to create his own programs or modify these commercial programs for specific problems. Thus, engineers should not only be familiar with the common spreadsheet programs but also be able to program them for individual applications. The paper briefly describes various spreadsheet programs and then illustrates two typical engineering problems. The first problem is the calculation of particle slip velocity, and the second is the calculation of total fluid friction pressure losses in a hole using the Bingham plastic model.

Mian, M.A. (Qatar General Petroleum Corp., Doha (Qatar))

1993-02-08

369

Controllable pneumatic drill  

SciTech Connect

Pneumatic drills--self-propelled pneumatic shock machines for drilling holes and tunnels in the ground--are widely used in construction, mining and other industries. High performance and reliability, as well as easy service and the applicability in restrictive conductions, are the main advantages of these machines. A controllable machine will make it possible to drill long straight holes and excavate drifts with a given trajectory. The authors describe only the basic mechanisms of the controllable pneumatic drill without the design details. The efficiency of the various types of working members was measured in situ using a standard pneumatic drill IP4603. The pneumatic drill PDU130 is described and has four operation modes, which succeed one another in a certain sequence according to the signals from the control board. The method of remote control signal transmission in the PDU130 makes it possible to transmit all the commands through a single communication channel--the air hose. The original device, developed for this control method, is simple, highly reliable, and universal. It can be used with any type of working member and any pneumatic drive.

Kostylev, A.D.; Cherednikov, E.N.; Karavaev, A.T.; Tupitsyn, K.K.

1986-05-01

370

MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

2010-01-23

371

Effect of eccentricity of twist drill and candle stick drill on delamination in drilling composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling is the most frequently employed operation of secondary machining for fiber-reinforced materials owing to the need for structure joining. Delamination is one of the serious concerns during drilling. Practical experience shows that an eccentric twist drill or an eccentric candle stick drill can degrade the quality of the fiber reinforced material. Comprehensive delamination models for the delamination induced by

C. C. Tsao; H. Hocheng

2005-01-01

372

Effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil development on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years of development drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes effects of drilling with water and synthetic-based drilling muds on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. As such, the paper provides insight on the effects of relatively new synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs), and makes an important contribution to our understanding of the long-term chronic effects of drilling on benthic communities. The Terra Nova Field is located approximately 350 km offshore on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada). Sediment and invertebrate samples were collected in 1997 (baseline) prior to drilling, and subsequently in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations were sampled in each year at distances of less than 1 to approximately 20 km from drill centres. Summary benthic invertebrate community measures examined were total abundance, biomass, richness, diversity and multivariate measures of community composition based on non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (nMDS). Decreases in abundance, biomass and richness were noted at one station located nearest (0.14 km) to a drill centre in some environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years. These decreases coincided with higher levels of tracers of drill muds in sediments (barium and >C10-C21 hydrocarbons). Abundances of selected individual taxa were also examined to help interpret responses when project-related effects on summary measures occurred. Enrichment effects on some tolerant taxa (e.g., the polychaete family Phyllodocidae and the bivalve family Tellinidae) and decreased abundances of sensitive taxa (e.g., the polychaete families Orbiniidae and Paraonidae) were detected to within approximately 1-2 km from discharge source. Lagged responses three to five years after drilling started were noted for Phyllodocidae and Tellinidae, suggesting chronic or indirect effects. Overall, results of benthic community analyses at Terra Nova indicate that effects on summary measures of community composition were spatially limited but, as seen elsewhere, some taxa were more sensitive to drilling discharges.

Paine, Michael D.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Pocklington, Patricia; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

2014-12-01

373

Self-balancing drilling assembly and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a self-balancing apparatus for automatically compensating certain imbalances which tend to cause vibrations in a rotating drill bit. It comprises: a support body including two ends and first and second circular races defined circumferentially around said support body. The first race disposed near one end of said support body and said second race disposed nearer the other end of said support body; a fluid received in said first race; a fluid received in said second race; pressure compensating means for compensating for pressure differentials between said fluids and a fluid external to said support body; a first plurality of movable balls or rollers disposed in said first race; a second plurality of movable balls or rollers disposed in said second race; a first sleeve receiving the portion of said support body where said first race is defined; and a second sleeve receiving the portion of said support body where said second race is defined.

Beynet, P.A.; Brett, J.F.; Warren, T.M.

1990-03-06

374

New Zealand Geothermal Investigations - Drilling into the Eighties  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 3 decades, some 243 wells (180 km [112 mi]) have been drilled in various fields within New Zealand to investigate and utilize geothermal energy. This number does not include wells drilled for minor industrial and domestic uses. Drilling and completion techniques have been evolved such that no structural failures or uncontrollable blowouts have occurred with wells drilled in the past 10 years. However, there is still room for further improvement to effect more rapid and economical completion of future wells. Drilling techniques, equipment, and materials currently in use in New Zealand are described, including surface and downhole drilling equipment, drilling fluids, cementing, and casing programs, together with proposed improvements. Recent work, including drilling a deviated well, recementing production casing after the original cementing had failed, cementing a sleeve into a well which had broken casing, removing calcite deposition from a production well, and isolating a cool inflow into a well, thus bringing the well back into production, is also described. Proposals to modify an existing well, enabling separate production from two production horizons, are outlined.

Fooks, E. L. D.

1981-01-01

375

Advanced Seismic While Drilling System  

SciTech Connect

A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

2008-06-30

376

Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the cores were scanned for compositional variations using an XRF core scanner at the BGR lab and scan images of the slabbed surfaces were performed. The average core recovery rate was very high at nearly 100%. Altogether, we gained 533 m of excellent core material including sandstones, siltstones and claystones, carbonates, sulfates and chlorides. This provides valuable insight into the stratigraphic column of the Thuringian Syncline.

Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

2014-05-01

377

Compact drilling and sample system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

1998-01-01

378

Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs  

SciTech Connect

Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

1995-12-31

379

Designing underbalanced drilling operations for dynamic effects  

SciTech Connect

In most underbalanced drilling operations, Nitrogen or other type of gas is used to lift the annular hydrostatic column. The gas can be introduced into the well through several means, e.g., drillstring gas injection, annulus gas injection via parasite string/casing. Due to the high compressibility nature of gaseous phase and interruptions to the system, the flowing system is a non-steady state one, especially when jointed pipes are used. This is experienced by the varying liquid and gas flow-out rates and the spikes in the bottomhole pressure. These dynamic pressures have been observed and documented in field UBD operations. This paper will present an extensive examination of the dynamic effects during an underbalanced operation. The dynamic effects are often associated with drilling operations, like starting/stopping circulation, gas injection kick-in, changing fluids circulation rates, making connections, tripping, and deployment of BHA and downhole tools. Secondly, the authors present the design considerations that are necessary to avoid the excessive peak loading of the surface facilities, the excessive wellhead pressures, and accidental overbalanced situations downhole. These are developed based on the field experience and simulation results from a dynamic underbalanced drilling simulator. The authors also demonstrate how a dynamic underbalanced drilling simulator can be used to improve the understanding of the physical process involved and be useful in designing operations.

Wang, Z.; Rommetveit, R. [RF-Rogaland Research, Bergen (Norway); Bijleveld, A. [Shell RTS, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Maglione, R. [Agip Spa, Milano (Italy); Gazaniol, D. [Elf Aquitaine, Pau (France)

1997-07-01

380

75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nor does it include unfinished tubes for casing or tubing covered by any other antidumping...filed effective December 31, 2009, by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX; Rotary Drilling Tools, Beasley, TX; Texas Steel...

2010-09-09

381

Environmental monitoring of offshore drilling for petroleum exploration (MAPEM): A brief overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Deep-Sea Research II includes the results of the Project Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Drilling for Petroleum Exploration—MAPEM, conducted between 2001 and 2003, in a deep-water location at Campos Basin, Brazil, subjected to the effects of the discharge of non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) impregnated drill cuttings.The exploratory program for the marine area includes the drilling of an expressive

Elírio E. Toldo Jr.; Ricardo N. Ayup Zouain

2009-01-01

382

Drilling mud cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is disclosed for cleaning cutting-laden drilling mud utilizes an upwardly inclined traveling belt screen. Successive portions of the screen are established as a planar screen surface supported by an underlying grille. A vibration unit attached to the grille imparts vibrating movement to the screen to more effectively separate cuttings from drilling mud deposited thereon. A vibratory plate is immersed in the puddle of mud which forms over an aft section of the inclined planar screen surface and acts to compact the mud and enhance its penetration therethrough. An auxiliary gas break-up screen disposed in the path of mud being directed toward the belt screen causes the release of gases contained in the cutting-laden drilling mud, and a blower driven vented enclosure hood placed over the gas break-up screen captures and exhausts released gases.

Lee, J.E.

1982-09-21

383

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Henry Bortman

384

Mars Drilling Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

2002-01-01

385

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

1989-01-01

386

Deep Drilling at Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science News for Kids article provides an image-rich overview of a deep-sea drilling project off the coast of British Columbia. The article guides students through the exploration, explaining how deep sediment cores are taken, what researchers find in the cores, and details of what life is like on a research ship. It features links to an online poll, an opportunity for students to submit comments, a deep-sea drilling word find, and links to supplementary reading questions and related sites.

Kate Ramsayer

387

Combination drilling and skiving tool  

DOEpatents

A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

Stone, William J. (Kansas City, MO)

1989-01-01

388

30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources...Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall...

2010-07-01

389

Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

1986-01-01

390

Establishment of the Coast Range ophiolite microbial observatory (CROMO): drilling objectives and preliminary outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project aimed to establish a subsurface microbial observatory in ultramafic rocks, by drilling into an actively serpentinizing peridotite body, characterizing cored rocks, and outfitting the boreholes for a program of long-term observation and experimentation to resolve the serpentinite-hosted subsurface biosphere. We completed drilling in August 2011, drilling two boreholes with core recovery and possibility for down-hole experimentation, and six smaller-diameter monitoring wells arrayed around the two primary holes, in the Coast Range ophiolite (CRO) locality in the UC-Davis McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Lower Lake, CA. Every effort was made during drilling to keep the cores and wells as free of drilling-induced contamination as possible: clean, purified water was used as drilling fluid, fluorescent microbead tracers were suspended in that water for quantification of drilling fluid penetration into the cores, and high resolution next generation sequencing approaches were used to characterize the microbial populations in the drill fluids and core materials. In December 2011, we completed installation of well pumps (slow flow bladder pumps) in the monitoring wells, and have deployed a set of in situ incubation experiments in the two uncased boreholes. Preliminary findings illustrate natural variability in actively serpentinizing strata, and confirm distinct groundwater flow regimes and microbial ecosystems in (a) shallow, surface-impacted soil water horizons and (b) deeper, ultramafic bedrock-sourced formation fluids.

Cardace, D.; Hoehler, T.; McCollom, T.; Schrenk, M.; Carnevale, D.; Kubo, M.; Twing, K.

2013-11-01

391

Study and Implement of Downward Communication Function in Rotary Steerable Drilling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rotary steerable drilling system, there should be a downward communication channel to send the guided control command from ground monitor to downhole steeling tool. The downward command word has been transmitted by negative pulse of mud drilling fluid and encoded by a characteristic of three-descending and three-ascending. Downward communication receiving function in downhole tool detects the change of underground

Tang Nan; Huo Aiqing; Wang Yaolong; Cheng Weibin

2009-01-01

392

Key technology research of downward communication receiving system in rotary steerable drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The downward communication receiving system in rotary steerable is a hot research topic today. Several key technologies for its implementation, namely, transmission channel, the ground command code, underground detection devices, and underground instruction decoding were studied in this paper. After comprehensive drilling technology, command transmission time, underground communication recognition accuracy, etc., the drilling fluid pulse transmission is selected as a

Huo Ai-qing; He Yu-yao; Wang Yue-long; Tang Nan; Cheng Wei-bin

2010-01-01

393

Laser Oil and Gas Well Drilling Demonstration Videos  

DOE Data Explorer

ANL's Laser Applications Laboratory and collaborators are examining the feasibility of adapting high-power laser technology to drilling for gas and oil. The initial phase is designed to establish a scientific basis for developing a commercial laser drilling system and determine the level of gas industry interest in pursuing future research. Using lasers to bore a hole offers an entirely new approach to mechanical drilling. The novel drilling system would transfer light energy from lasers on the surface, down a borehole by a fiber optic bundle, to a series of lenses that would direct the laser light to the rock face. Researchers believe that state-of-the-art lasers have the potential to penetrate rock many times faster than conventional boring technologies - a huge benefit in reducing the high costs of operating a drill rig. Because the laser head does not contact the rock, there is no need to stop drilling to replace a mechanical bit. Moreover, researchers believe that lasers have the ability to melt the rock in a way that creates a ceramic sheath in the wellbore, eliminating the expense of buying and setting steel well casing. A laser system could also contain a variety of downhole sensors, including visual imaging systems that could communicate with the surface through the fiber optic cabling. Earlier studies have been promising, but there is still much to learn. One of the primary objectives of the new study will be to obtain much more precise measurements of the energy requirements needed to transmit light from surface lasers down a borehole with enough power to bore through rocks as much as 20,000 feet or more below the surface. Another objective will be to determine if sending the laser light in sharp pulses, rather than as a continuous stream, could further increase the rate of rock penetration. A third aspect will be to determine if lasers can be used in the presence of drilling fluids. In most wells, thick fluids called "drilling muds" are injected into the borehole to wash out rock cuttings and keep water and other fluids from the underground formations from seeping into the well. The technical challenge will be to determine whether too much laser energy is expended to clear away the fluid where the drilling is occurring. (Copied with editing from http://www.ne.anl.gov/facilities/lal/laser_drilling.html). The demonstration videos, provided here in QuickTime format, are accompanied by patent documents and PDF reports that, together, provide an overall picture of this fascinating project.

394

Handbook 1: Introduction to drilling mud systems  

SciTech Connect

This is the first of the 11 handbook that make up the IADC Mud Equipment Manual. The manual is designed to provide information on all pieces of drilling rig equipment from the flow line to the mud pump section. This book focuses on drilling fluids and their properties and treatment, and thoroughly examines mud solid characteristics. Methods of controlling formation pore pressure, and cut points, as well as cuttings removal (viscosity, yield point, gel strengths, hole cleaning, etc.), are followed by a discussion of solid sizes and solid size distribution. Special features include a glossary of mud terms, a section on ''hard-to-find'' information such as gold concentration, wind forces, and AC motor current requirements, and a comprehensive index for all 11 handbooks.

Not Available

1985-01-01

395

Drilling waste minimization in the Hugoton field, southwest Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The described drilling waste minimization program implemented by Mobil in the Hugoton gas field is significant because it represents a successful application of technology previously unseen in the Kansas Mid-Continent area. This drilling waste minimization program significantly reduces pollution potential, improves compliance assurance, and decreases overall waste-related costs. The key element of this program is a mechanical solids control system consisting of a semi-closed loop centrifuge flocculation dewatering process that removes drilling solids for burial on location. The system provides environmental (80 percent reduced waste volumes and 70 percent reduction in fresh water usage) and economic ($307,000/358 well program) incentives, as well as numerous indirect benefits over conventionally used drilling solids control methods. Indirect benefits include more accurate formation evaluation (less solids interference with wireline logs), minimized wellbore damage (reduced fluid loss and washout), and goodwill and improved relations with regulators and landowners. The described drilling program is complemented by other operations-oriented waste management initiatives and validated by tracking waste volumes and costs. Mobil and its drilling and mud contractors partnered the initiative. The described improved drilling solids control technology is now available for use in the Kansas Mid-Continent area by Mobil and other operators and has resulted in improved operations efficiency.

Robb, A.J. III [Mobil Business Resources Corp., Dallas, TX (United States). Remediation Services; Beaty, T.D. [Miller and Associates, Evangeline, LA (United States)

1997-07-01

396

Drill bit technology -- Still at the cutting edge  

SciTech Connect

Ideas to improve drilling efficiency are as innovative and diverse as ever. But no matter what is done to improve rigs, drilling fluids, tubulars and BHAs, it all starts where the steel meets the rock. To find out what`s new at the tool face, the editor went straight to the bit builders. This paper consists of several articles. The first describes efforts of British Bit Ltd. to design a more effective cuttings removal system to extend drill bit service life. The second article focuses on custom-designed rock bits to solve specific problems. The third describes steel body PDC bits which delivered record-setting performances. Other articles describe a new bit design which addresses specific directional problems in deep Gulf wells, a unique PDC bit design for directional drilling, and new generation motor bits which increase rate of penetration and reduce costs. The last article discusses the introduction of new steerable PDC technology.

Ghiselin, D.

1998-02-01

397

Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

398

Proposed Drill Sites  

SciTech Connect

Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

Lane, Michael

2013-06-28

399

Proposed Drill Sites  

DOE Data Explorer

Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

Lane, Michael

400

Red sea drillings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present - and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

Ross, D.A.; Whitmarsh, R.B.; Ali, S.A.; Boudreaux, J.E.; Coleman, R.; Fleisher, R.L.; Girdler, R.; Manheim, F.; Matter, A.; Nigrini, C.; Stoffers, P.; Supko, P.R.

1973-01-01

401

Drill Press Work Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic machine shop I. (The course is based on the entry level of the drill press operator.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for…

Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

402

Offshore Drilling From Ice Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method successfully developed for drilling offshore from a floating ice platform. This method has allowed exploration wells to be drilled economically in the Canadian Arctic islands without years of waiting for sophisticated offshore drilling vessels to be developed, financed, and built to operate in the severe ice conditions prevalent in the area.

G. L. Hood; H. J. Strain; D. J. Baudais

1976-01-01

403

Optimizing remote offshore drilling operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company's experience in using mini-computers as an aid in controlling drilling operations has been an unqualified success. Current uses include optimization of drilling operations, storage and retrieval of well data and word processing of standard programs. As a result, overall drilling costs, problems and manpower requirements have been lessened. This work discusses the computer system, its

W. F. Deerhake; F. Khalaf; J. A. Seehafer

1981-01-01

404

Mars Science Laboratory Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the bit is a thick-walled maraging steel collection tube allowing the powdered sample to be augured up the hole into the sample chamber. For robustness, the wall thickness of the DBA was maximized while still ensuring effective sample collection. There are four recesses in the bit tube that are used to retain the fresh bits in their bit box. The rotating bit is supported by a back-to-back duplex bearing pair within a housing that is connected to the outer DBA housing by two titanium diaphragms. The only bearings on the drill in the sample flow are protected by a spring-energized seal, and an integrated shield that diverts the ingested powdered sample from the moving interface. The DBA diaphragms provide radial constraint of the rotating bit and form the sample chambers. Between the diaphragms there is a sample exit tube from which the sample is transferred to the CHIMRA. To ensure that the entire collected sample is retained, no matter the orientation of the drill with respect to gravity during sampling, the pass-through from the forward to the aft chamber resides opposite to the exit tube.

Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

2012-01-01

405

30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth...be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed formations...estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients, proposed drilling fluid...

2010-07-01

406

30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth...be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed formations...estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients, proposed drilling fluid...

2012-07-01

407

30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth...be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed formations...estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients, proposed drilling fluid...

2013-07-01

408

30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth...be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed formations...estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients, proposed drilling fluid...

2014-07-01

409

30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth...be used below various casing strings; fracture gradients of the exposed formations...estimated pore pressures, formation fracture gradients, proposed drilling fluid...

2011-07-01

410

Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures  

DOEpatents

A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

Mansure, Arthur James (Alburquerque, NM); Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona (The Woodlands, TX)

2010-11-30

411

Low solids well servicing fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emulsifying composition for preparing low solids drilling fluids containing a mixture of polyoxyethylene glycol 500 mono-tallate, nonyl phenol ethoxylate containing approximately 43% by weight of oxyethylene groups and nonyl phenol ethoxylate containing approximately 65% by weight of oxyethylene groups; a well servicing fluid comprising an aqueous medium, a liquid hydrocarbon coating agent and an emulsifying amount of the emulsifying

D. G. Pomerleau; D. E. Slocombe; K. H. Watts

1983-01-01

412

Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.  

PubMed

Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24698045

Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

2014-04-01

413

Mud to cement technology proven in offshore drilling project  

Microsoft Academic Search

One problem with conventional cements is the incompatibility of Portland cement and the drilling mud. Expensive preflushes and spacer fluids have been used, often with limited success, to attempt to separate mud and Portland cement effectively. Under downhole conditions, most spacers are ineffective in preventing high viscosities and cement contamination problems which lead to poor primary cement jobs. One solution

K. Javanmardi; K. D. Flodberg; J. J. Nahm

1993-01-01

414

PDC drill bit design and field application evolution  

SciTech Connect

This paper traces the development of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits from their introduction in 1973. Such design features as body materials, crown profiles, cutter density, and cutter exposure and their effect on bit performance are discussed. In addition, the paper reviews various aspects of bit applications engineering, including bit hydraulics, drilling fluids, directional behavior, and formation types.

Kerr, C.J.

1988-03-01

415

Blasthole drilling technology  

SciTech Connect

Drilling in Appalachian coal overburdens presents challenges to conventional tricone bit operations due to the high rates of advance. In 2005, design engineers Atlas Copco BHMT (formerly Baker Hughes Mining Tools) began creating and testing a new lug design for bits used in these coalfields. The design was aided by use of computational flow dynamics. The article describes the design development and testing. Average footage drilled per bit by the new streamlined lug increased an average of 32.3% at Coal Mine No. 1 and 34.5% at Coal Mine No. 2 over the standard lug previously used. Average bit life increased by 32.3% at Coal Mine No.1 and 34.5% at Coal Mine No. 2. 3 figs., 2 photos.

Zink, C. [Atlas Copco BHMT, Inc., Grand Prairie, TX (United States)

2006-09-15

416

High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

2012-01-01

417

Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

1980-01-01

418

Marine drilling rigs '94  

SciTech Connect

Listings in this paper contain performance data for each of 582 mobile offshore drilling units in the worldwide competitive and nationalized fleet. For the four categories shown, the totals are: jackups (372); semi-submersibles (137); drillships and barges (57); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (16). Owners and their rigs are listed alphabetically. Units of the same class are grouped under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. An index of rig names is also provided.

Not Available

1994-12-01

419

Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism  

E-print Network

Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism Chen-Feng Youa, *, Joris. M prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 m the accretionary prisms. Recent Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drill holes in the Barbados ridge complex, the Peru

Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

420

Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter  

DOEpatents

A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

Glowka, David A. (Austin, TX); Raymond, David W. (Edgewood, NM)

2002-01-01

421

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

1992-04-01

422

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF UNDERBALANCED DRILLING PRODUCTS. Final Report, Oct 1995 - July 2001  

SciTech Connect

Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s and coiled-tubing drilling in the 1990s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses developments under this DOE project to develop products aimed at overcoming these problems. During Phase I of the DOE project, market analyses showed that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30% of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the U.S.A. within the next ten years. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment during Phase I. FOAM predicts circulating pressures and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test data and field data. This model does not handle two-phase flow or air and mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. This FOAM model was greatly expanded during Phase II including adding an improved foam rheological model and a ''matching'' feature that allows the model to be field calibrated. During Phase I, a lightweight drilling fluid was developed that uses hollow glass spheres (HGS) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. HGS fluids have several advantages over aerated fluids, including they are incompressible, they reduce corrosion and vibration problems, they allow the use of mud-pulse MWD tools, and they eliminate high compressor and nitrogen costs. Phase II tests showed that HGS significantly reduce formation damage with water-based drilling and completion fluids and thereby potentially can increase oil and gas production in wells drilled with water-based fluids. Extensive rheological testing was conducted with HGS drilling and completion fluids during Phase II. These tests showed that the HGS fluids act similarly to conventional fluids and that they have potential application in many areas, including underbalanced drilling, completions, and riserless drilling. Early field tests under this project are encouraging. These led to limited tests by industry (which are also described). Further field tests and cost analyses are needed to demonstrate the viability of HGS fluids in different applications. Once their effectiveness is demonstrated, they should find widespread application and should significantly reduce drilling costs and increase oil and gas production rates. A number of important oilfield applications for HGS outside of Underbalanced Drilling were identified. One of these--Dual Gradient Drilling (DGD) for deepwater exploration and development--is very promising. Investigative work on DGD under the project is reported, along with definition of a large joint-industry project resulting from the work. Other innovative products/applications are highlighted in the report including the use of HGS as a cement additive.

William C. Maurer; William J. McDonald; Thomas E. Williams; John H. Cohen

2001-07-01

423

Fluid Power Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the fundamental concepts important to fluid power, which includes both pneumatic (gas) and hydraulic (liquid) systems. Both systems contain four basic components: reservoir/receiver, pump/compressor, valve, cylinder. Students learn background information about fluid power—both pneumatic and hydraulic systems—including everyday applications in our world (bulldozers, front-end loaders, excavators, chair height lever adjustors, door closer dampers, dental drills, vehicle brakes) and related natural laws. After a few simple teacher demos, they learn about the four components in all fluid power systems, watch two 26-minute online videos about fluid power, complete a crossword puzzle of fluid power terms, and conduct a task card exercise. This prepares them to conduct the associated hands-on activity, using the Portable Fluid Power Demonstrator (teacher-prepared kits) to learn more about the properties of gases and liquids in addition to how forces are transmitted and multiplied within these systems.

2014-09-18

424

Apparatus in a drill string  

DOEpatents

An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Alpine, UT); Hall, Jr., Tracy H. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Lehi, UT); Pixton, David S. (Provo, UT)

2007-07-17

425

Equipment for drilling miniature holes  

SciTech Connect

Miniature holes are produced on 16 different types of mechanical drilling equipment. Each equipment type has significant advantages for a specific type of part. The basic capabilities vary greatly between equipment types. Some produce very precise holes and others produce very high volumes of commercial tolerance holes. At the present time machines are available for mechanicaly drilling up to 100,000 miniature holes per hour. Lasers currently are drilling as many as 15,000,000 ultra-miniature holes per hour.

Gillespie, L K

1981-04-01

426

Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this joint horizontal drilling effort by the US DOE and Belden Blake in the complex, low permeability Clinton Sandstone will focus on the following objectives: (1) apply horizontal drilling technology in hard, abrasive, and tight Clinton Sandstone; (2) evaluate effects of multiple hydraulic fracturing in a low permeability horizontal wellbore; (3) assess economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Clinton and similar tight gas sands.

Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; Haynes, C.D.; Mazza, R.L.

1992-01-01

427

Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this joint horizontal drilling effort by the US DOE and Belden & Blake in the complex, low permeability Clinton Sandstone will focus on the following objectives: (1) apply horizontal drilling technology in hard, abrasive, and tight Clinton Sandstone; (2) evaluate effects of multiple hydraulic fracturing in a low permeability horizontal wellbore; (3) assess economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Clinton and similar tight gas sands.

Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; Haynes, C.D.; Mazza, R.L.

1992-06-01

428

Portable rapid and quiet drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand-held drilling device, and method for drilling using the device, has a housing, a transducer within the housing, with the transducer effectively operating at ultrasonic frequencies, a rotating motor component within the housing and rigid cutting end-effector rotationally connected to the rotating motor component and vibrationally connected to the transducer. The hand-held drilling device of the present invention operates at a noise level of from about 50 decibels or less.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mireca (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Chang, Zenshea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

2010-01-01

429

Geothermal corehole drilling and operations, Platanares, Honduras, Central America  

SciTech Connect

Two slim exploration coreholes to depths of 650 m and 428 m, respectively, have been completed at the Platanares geothermal site, Honduras, Central America. A third corehole is now being drilled. These boreholes have provided information on the stratigraphy, temperature variation with depth, nature and compositions of fluids, fracturing, permeability, and hydrothermal alterations associated with the geothermal reservoir. Eruptions of hot water occurred during the drilling of both the first and third boreholes. Recovery of >98% core has been obtained even under difficult superheated conditions.

Goff, S.; Rufenacht, H.D.; Laughlin, A.W.; Adams, A.; Planner, H.; Ramos, N.

1987-01-01

430

IODP drilling at Chicxulub  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial record is the only source of 3-D ground truth observations on the lithological and structural character of natural impact structures. Of the three largest known impact craters on Earth, Chicxulub is the best preserved because of a slow burial on a tectonically quiet carbonate platform. Our proposal is to drill two wells that address fundamental issues about the structure of the Chicxulub impact crater and its environmental effects. CHICX-01A will focus on constraining the environmental effects of the impact. Current emphasis is on the potential effects of vapor species derived from shocked carbonates and sulfates. Chicx-01A will supply a complete litho-stratigraphic section of the offshore sedimentary portion of the target. Anhydrite is likely to be the most lethal component of the target rocks, but estimates of its constituent percentage range between 10 and 40 %. Half of the crater lies offshore, and seismic indicate that the Mesozoic section is > 1-km thicker offshore than onshore. The thicker the sedimentary layer, the greater the volume of potential pollutants released. If we drill Chicx-01A, we will be able to calibrate the marine reflection data, in terms of depth, strata and lithology, and be better able to convert travel-time to depth for the entire marine reflection dataset. Onshore drilling at Yaxcopoil-1 penetrated 600 m of late Cretaceous calcarenite, dolomite and anhydrite rocks. These data are of significant value in establishing the chemistry of the uppermost section of target rock, and will serve as a baseline for onshore-offshore comparisons if Chicx-01A is drilled. CHICX-02A is specifically designed to sample the peak ring and provide information to constrain formational processes. It is widely believed that peak rings form from hydrodynamic collapse in some form of extension of the structural uplift process that leads to central peaks in smaller complex craters. However, annular rings within terrestrial craters correspond to different morphological elements and this diversity, as well as a lack of common understanding as to what constitutes the planetary equivalent of a peak ring, means that there is currently no consensual agreement on the nature of a topographic peak ring. Drilling through the peak ring at Chicxulub will answer this fundamental cratering question. Geophysical property measurements on the core will be used to improve 3D structural models of the central crater. Of particular interest is the source of the short-wavelength magnetic anomalies that appear to track the peak ring, and may represent enhanced hydrothermal circulation. Our high-resolution 3-D seismic survey, shot in early 2005, will place the drill-hole in its correct structural context. Understanding the mechanism for peak-ring formation is fundamental to understanding cratering. When we can model crater formation in detail, we can better use craters as a diagnostic tool for understanding the surface evolution of the other terrestrial planets. Subtle differences in crater morphology between different planetary bodies provide clues to their near-surface rheology.

Morgan, J.; Urrutia, J.; Gulick, S.; Grieve, R.; Rebolledo, M.; Melosh, J.; Warner, M.; Christeson, G.; Barton, P.

2005-05-01

431

Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling  

SciTech Connect

An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

Kenneth Oglesby

2008-12-01

432

Attenuation of sound waves in drill strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

During drilling of deep wells, digital data are often transmitted from sensors located near the drill bit to the surface. Development of a new communication system with increased data capacity is of paramount importance to the drilling industry. Since steel drill strings are used, transmission of these data by elastic carrier waves traveling within the drill pipe is possible, but

Douglas S. Drumheller

1993-01-01

433

30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral...and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

2010-07-01

434

30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral...Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

2010-07-01

435

Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm

William E. Turner; Carl A. Perry; Mark E. Wassell; Jason R. Barbely; Daniel E. Burgess; Martin E. Cobern

2008-01-01

436

Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm

William E. Turner; Carl A. Perry; Mark E. Wassell; Jason R. Barbely; Daniel E. Burgess; Martin E. Cobern

2010-01-01

437

Lunar drill and test apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.

Norrington, David W.; Ardoin, Didier C.; Alexander, Stephen G.; Rowland, Philip N.; Vastakis, Frank N.; Linsey, Steven L.

1988-01-01

438

Spectroscopic Analysis of Hydrothermal Alteration in Geothermal Drill Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water geochemistry can vary with depth and location within a geothermal reservoir, owing to natural factors such as changing rock type, gas content, fluid source and temperature. The interaction of these variable fluids with the host rock will cause changes in the host rock and create a variety of alteration minerals and precipitates. These alteration products can suggest regions of past fluid flow in the subsurface and their mineralogy can be used to determine fluid temperature. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly good at identifying a wide variety of hydrothermal alteration minerals, requires no sample preparation, and is especially helpful in discrimination among clay minerals. We have applied traditional remote sensing hyperspectral techniques in several pilot studies of geothermal drill core and chip analysis. We have surveyed a variety of samples, including drill chip boards, boxed core, and drill cuttings from envelopes and chip trays. Alteration mineralogy can indicate both the presence of thermal fluids and the hottest fluid temperature. These preliminary studies have established reliable methods for core/chip surveys that can rapidly measure samples with high depth resolution and show the efficiency of the technique to sample continuously and provide alteration logs similar to geophysical logs. We have successfully identified a wide variety of phyllosilicates, zeolites, opal, calcite, and iron oxides and hydroxides in drill core and cuttings from geothermal wells. In high vertical resolution measurements (every 10') we note depth-associated changes in alteration minerals, patterns or zones. Temperature dependent mineral assemblages are found, both gradational with depth and as narrow zones associated with vein or fracture fill. Amorphous silica is clearly identified and seen only in the highest temperature wells. We can readily identify montmorillonite/illite transitions that may be associated with Na/Ca/K variation and may eventually be used for geothermometry. We will present an overview of these past studies, with specific comparisons to other geochemical analysis for the Humboldt House location.

Calvin, W. M.; Littlefield, E. F.

2012-12-01

439

Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

2014-12-01

440

Comparative toxicity of offshore and oil-added drilling muds to larvae of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes intermedius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore drilling fluids (muds) varied widely in their toxicity to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes intermedius) larvae. The 96-hr LC50s for the eleven drilling muds tested ranged from 142 to >100,000 ppm (µl\\/L). There was a significant correlation between oil content of the drilling muds and their toxicity. Furthermore, addition of diesel oil (No. 2 fuel oil) or mineral oil to an

Philip J. Conklin; K. Ranga Rao

1984-01-01

441

Spills, drills, and accountability  

SciTech Connect

NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

NONE

1993-12-31

442

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of...

2014-07-01

443

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of...

2012-07-01

444

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of...

2010-07-01

445

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of...

2013-07-01

446

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of...

2011-07-01

447

Managed pressure drilling techniques and tools  

E-print Network

these problems, the economics of drilling the wells will improve, thus enabling the industry to drill wells that were previously uneconomical. Managed pressure drilling (MPD) is a new technology that enables a driller to more precisely control annular pressures...

Martin, Matthew Daniel

2006-08-16

448

Directional drilling azimuth control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A downhole anchor assembly is described for absorbing reaction torque from a downhole mud motor in a directional drill string so as to minimize azimuthal deviation from such reaction torque, the anchor assembly comprising: an elongated, generally cylindrical housing having upper and lower ends with tool joints thereon for coupling the body into a directional drill string and having a

Cheek

1986-01-01

449

Middle Dam (Maine) Well Drilling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist Martha Nielsen examines cuttings as a drill crew works to drill a new monitoring well at USGS station 443647070552303 (ME-OW400A) near Middle Dam on Lower Richardson Lake. The existing well heaved due to frost and had to be replaced....

450

Drill and Blast Tunneling Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance drill and blast methods for tunnel construction require that each of the individual working elements that constitute the construction process are optimized and considered as a system of sequential and parallel activities. The advantage of integrating the logistic backup systems facilitates an increase in performance. To achieve increased production, it is necessary to improve the drilling, explosive loading, temporary

Gerhard Girmscheid; Cliff Schexnayder

2002-01-01

451

Subterranean drilling and slurry mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for drilling and mining one or more layers of granular ore without withdrawing the apparatus from the well cavity between the drilling and mining phases. One or more mining nozzles direct a high pressure jet of liquid into a granular ore matrix to reduce the ore to a slurry which is thereafter pumped to the surface

Bunnelle

1977-01-01

452

Undergraduate Student Research with the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program on Expedition 301  

Microsoft Academic Search

I was invited to participate as a shipboard scientist on board the JOIDES Resolution during Expedition 301 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). The scientific objectives of this expedition were to establish borehole observatories to evaluate the hydrogeologic properties within oceanic crust, determine how fluid pathways are distributed within an active hydrothermal system, establish linkages between fluid circulation, alteration,

L. K. Hawkins; B. A. Housen; W. W. Sager

2004-01-01

453

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Status and Future Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IDDP represents a challenging step forward in the worldwide development of geothermal energy by assessing the potential of power production from natural supercritical fluids. A feasibility study in 2003 concluded that in order to reach fluids at temperatures of >400°C drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km is necessary, but the resultant superheated steam should have a power

W. A. Elders; G. O. Fridleifsson; D. K. Bird; P. Schiffman; R. Zierenberg; M. H. Reed

2006-01-01

454

OM300 Direction Drilling Module  

SciTech Connect

OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

MacGugan, Doug

2013-08-22

455

Molecular analysis of bacterial diversity in kerosene-based drilling £uid from the deep ice borehole at Vostok, East Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decontamination of ice cores is a critical issue in phylogenetic studies of glacial ice and subglacial lakes. At the Vostok drill site, a total of 3650m of ice core have now been obtained from the East Antarctic ice sheet. The ice core surface is coated with a hard-to-remove film of impure drilling fluid comprising a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic

Irina A. Alekhina; Dominique Marie; Jean Robert Petit; Valery V. Lukin; Vladimir M. Zubkov; Sergey A. Bulat

456

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF OFFSHORE AND OIL-ADDED DRILLING MUDS TO LARVAE OF THE GRASS SHRIMP 'PALAEMONETES INTERMEDIUS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Offshore drilling fluids (muds) varied widely in their toxicity to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes intermedius) larvae. The 96-hr LC50S for the eleven drilling muds tested ranged from 142 to >100,000 ppm (microliters/L). There was a significant correlation between oil content of the d...

457

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP):(I) Drilling at Krafla encountered Rhyolitic Magma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP aims to produce supercritical hydrothermal fluids from depths of 4-5 km and temperatures of >400°C as modeling suggests that supercritical water could generate an energy output about 10 times that of a typical geothermal well. This could lead to major improvements in developing high-temperature geothermal resources worldwide. The first IDDP well was located in the Krafla caldera in the active central rift zone of NE Iceland, where during 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred that involved 9 distinct volcanic eruptions. At Krafla there has been extensive production drilling since 1971 to supply steam to a geothermal power plant. Within the caldera a large magma chamber was detected by S-wave attenuation at 3-7 km depth, and a recent MT-survey determined its location. The IDDP-1 was located to reach to 4.5 km to end above the magma chamber. When the drilling had reached 2075 m depth multiple drilling problems ensued, including a failed coring attempt, twist offs, and sidetracks to bypass drill string lost in the hole. An anchor casing was set at 1950 m to case off the trouble zones. However drilling problems continued and another twist off and sidetrack followed. Drilling then penetrated a mixture of fresh basalt and granophyre until 24th June 2009, when at about 2100 m the bit became stuck. However, circulation was maintained and rhyolitic glass was returned to the surface. Rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole filling the bottom 10 m. The glass cuttings returned were at first pumiceous then homogeneous, sparsely phyric obsidian. The petrology of this glass is described in accompanying posters. The intrusion responsible was evidently below the resolution of available geophysical surveys. We decided to terminate drilling and test the well and so a 9 5/8 inch sacrificial production casing was cemented inside the anchor casing with a 9 5/8 inch slotted liner below. The well is now heating, and will be flow tested in late November 2009. If the flow tests are successful, a pilot plant to test power production could follow in 2010. The IDDP has engendered considerable scientific interest. Some of the research underway on samples from the IDDP-1 and from other wells at Krafla and from wells in the Reykjanes geothermal field, also targeted by the IDDP, is reported in accompanying posters. Subject to funding, two new IDDP wells, >4 km deep, are to be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields during 2010-2012 to search for supercritical fluid. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system in SW Iceland, on the landward extension of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, produces hydrothermally modified seawater. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be quite similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems.

Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmunsson, A.; Gudmundsson, B.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.

2009-12-01

458

Offshore underbalanced drilling system could revive field developments. Part 2: Making this valuable reservoir drilling/completion technique work on a conventional offshore drilling platform  

SciTech Connect

Part 1, presented in the July issue, discussed the emerging trend to move underbalanced drilling (UBD) operations into the offshore arena, following its successful application in many onshore areas. This concluding article delves into the details of applying UBD offshore. Starting with advantages the technique offers in many maturing or complex/marginal prospects, the UBD system for offshore platforms use is described. This involves conversion of the conventional rotary system, use of rotating diverters, design of the surface fluid separation system and the necessary gas (nitrogen or natural gas) injection system to lighten the fluid column. Commonly faced operational challenges for offshore UBD are listed along with recommended solutions.

Nessa, D.O.; Tangedahl, M.J.; Saponja, J.

1997-10-01

459

Microgravity Drill and Anchor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of microspine toes that independently find holes and ledges on a rock to create an anchor. Once the system is anchored, a linear translation mechanism moves the drill axially into the surface while maintaining the proper WOB. The linear translation mechanism is composed of a ball screw and stepper motor that can translate a carriage with high precision and applied load. The carriage slides along rails using self-aligning linear bearings that correct any axial misalignment caused by bending and torsion. The carriage then compresses a series of springs that simultaneously transmit the load to the drill along the bit axis and act as a suspension that compensates for the vibration caused by percussive drilling. The drill is a compacted, modified version of an off-the-shelf rotary percussive drill, which uses a custom carbide-tipped coring bit. By using rotary percussive drilling, the drill time is greatly reduced. The percussive action fractures the rock debris, which is removed during rotation. The final result is a 0.75-in. (.1.9- cm) diameter hole and a preserved 0.5- in. (.1.3-cm) diameter rock core. This work extends microspine technology, making it applicable to astronaut missions to asteroids and a host of robotic sampling concepts. At the time of this reporting, it is the first instrument to be demonstrated using microspine anchors, and is the first self-contained drill/anchor system to be demonstrated that is capable of drilling in inverted configurations and would be capable of drilling in microgravity.

Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

460

Ocean Drilling Program Legacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) conducted basic research into Earth processes by recovering sediment and rock samples from below the ocean floor and using the resulting holes to perform downhole measurements and experiments. The program, which lasted from 1983 to 2003, published thousands of pages of data and reports, which are now available online. The materials include information on sampling procedures, permanent core archives, repositories, and micropaleontological reference centers. Available publications include ODP proceedings and scientific results; initial and preliminary reports; technical notes and reports; citations; the ODP bibliography, dictionary, and editorial guide; and issues of the JOIDES (Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling) Journal from 1975 to 2004. There are also links to ODP core data and logs and extensive data documentation. Other links access ODP outreach materials, information on engineering and science operations, cruise leg summaries and discovery highlights, and information on the administration of the program.