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1

ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS ON BENTHIC ORGANISMS IN TEMPERATE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Efforts to enhance the efficiency of oil/gas drilling operations and to minimize hazards to marine ecosystems have resulted in the increased use of synthetic-based fluids (SBF). SBFs have performance characteristics closely related to oil-based fluids (OBF) however their lower PA...

2

Induction of Fish Biomarkers by Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds  

PubMed Central

The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs. PMID:23894492

Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

2013-01-01

3

Induction of fish biomarkers by synthetic-based drilling muds.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs. PMID:23894492

Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

2013-01-01

4

Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid  

DOEpatents

To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

Judzis, Arnis (Salt Lake City, UT); Black, Alan D. (Coral Springs, FL); Green, Sidney J. (Salt Lake City, UT); Robertson, Homer A. (West Jordan, UT); Bland, Ronald G. (Houston, TX); Curry, David Alexander (The Woodlands, TX); Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W. (Cypress, TX)

2011-04-19

5

Deep-sea meiofauna response to synthetic-based drilling mud discharge off SE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the meiofauna communities to the discharge of synthetic-based mud (SBM) cuttings from an exploratory drill was analyzed in a deep-sea site (mean depth of 890 m) in the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil. A total of 159 samples were taken on three sampling cruises: one pre- and two post-drilling (1 month and 1 year after drilling). One month after drilling, significant decreases in the meiofauna density and number of taxa were observed, as well as in nematode density and richness (number of families and genera); conversely, relative abundances of non-selective deposit-feeding nematodes, particularly the genus Sabatieria, increased significantly. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the impacts on meiofauna were not restricted to a potential area of impact predicted by a model of cuttings dispersal; meiofauna changes just after the drilling agreed with the model in showing northward dispersal but over a larger area. The meiofauna, however, showed a weak correlation with the analyzed chemical parameters, such as hydrocarbon and metal concentrations. The results suggest that the effects of SBM drill cutting discharge on the meiofauna were probably related to physical changes in the substrate. Twelve months after drilling, most of the values of the meiofauna descriptors had returned to pre-impact period values. Nonetheless, the multivariate structure of meiofauna community was still significantly different, and the number of meiofauna taxa, densities of copepods, and epigrowth-feeder nematodes increased significantly. The increase of superficial forms of meiofauna in the deep sea may last until complete disaggregation of the cuttings.

Netto, S. A.; Gallucci, F.; Fonseca, G.

2009-01-01

6

Drilling fluids design for deepwater wells  

SciTech Connect

In addition to preventing hydrate formation, glycol-based fluids give the best chance of solving solids control problems, reducing dilution rates and coping with mixing and logistical problems. Such fluids normally reduce volume requirements and have been shown to improve drilling rates and lower overall well costs. The paper discusses gas hydrate control, drilling fluid rheology, solids control, cuttings removal, logistics and process control, and drilling fluid design and selection.

Hodder, M. [Dowell Drilling Fluids, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1998-03-01

7

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

David B. Burnett

2003-08-01

8

Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

Meinhold, A.F.

1998-11-01

9

Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.  

PubMed

The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option. PMID:15160901

Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

2003-12-01

10

Handling hydrogen sulfide in drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the effectiveness of several chemical scavengers for removing hydrogen sulfide from drilling fluids. This article begins by defining what constitutes a scavenger, followed by discussion of the types of reactions by which H{sub 2}S is removed and to which of these categories each scavenger belongs. The authors outline the two types of chemical processes by which sulfides are removed from the drilling fluid.

Singh, A.K.; Kohli, B.S. (Bombay Offshore Project, Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Bombay (IN)); Wendt, R.P. (Chemistry Dept., Loyala Univ., New Orleans, LA (US))

1989-12-01

11

API rapid bioassay procedures for drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the applicability of existing rapid toxicity test methods (duration of 2 hours or less) using the sea urchin sperm test and marine luminescent bacteria assay system for testing the toxicity of drilling fluids. The correlation between the results of these two test and the results of 96-hour static acute toxicity tests conducted with mysids was also evaluated, and it was determined that it may be possible to use rapid assays to conservatively predict compliance of drilling fluid with a mysid toxicity limitation.

Not Available

1989-01-01

12

Rheological study of a water based oil well drilling fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic polymers are commonly used to control the rheology and filtrate loss required for water-based drilling fluids. An ecologically-friendly water-based drilling fluid was developed by studying the rheological behavior of tamarind gum and polyanionic cellulose on bentonite water suspensions. The effect of drilling fluid filtrate on formation damage was also analyzed. The drilling fluid that was developed has better rheological

Vikas Mahto; V. P. Sharma

2004-01-01

13

POTENTIAL IMPACT OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON ESTUARINE PRODUCTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the potential effects of drilling fluids on semienclosed bodies of water such as estuaries. Drilling fluids have been discharged into outer continental shelf waters for many years but there is some concern of potential ecological impact when drilling fluids a...

14

Drilling fluid containing a copolymer filtration control agent  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to an aqueous drilling fluid composition, a filtration control agent for utilization in said aqueous drilling fluid, and a method of forming a filter cake on the wall of a well for the reduction of filtrate from said drilling fluid, by utilization of a copolymer of: (1) a (Meth) acrylamido alkyl sulfonic acid or alkali metal salt thereof; and (2) a (Meth) acrylamide or n-alkyl (Meth) acrylamide. The copolymer may be cross-linked with a quaternary ammonium salt cross-linking agent.

Enright, D.P.; Lucas, J.M.; Perricone, A.C.

1981-10-06

15

DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

16

Effect of drilling fluid on temperatures measured in bore holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that, because of heat exchange with the drilling fluid, a bore hole must be left for some considerable time after drilling has ceased before temperature meas- urements can be made in it for the purpose of determining the geothermal flux. To test this point, a series of measurements of water temperature and flow were made during

J. C. Jaeger

1961-01-01

17

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2011-07-01

18

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2011-07-01

19

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2011-07-01

20

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2010-07-01

21

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2014-07-01

22

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2013-07-01

23

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2011-07-01

24

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2010-07-01

25

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2012-07-01

26

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2012-07-01

27

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2011-07-01

28

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2010-07-01

29

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2012-07-01

30

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

...are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2014-07-01

31

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2012-07-01

32

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2013-07-01

33

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2010-07-01

34

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2013-07-01

35

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2013-07-01

36

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2012-07-01

37

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2013-07-01

38

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2010-07-01

39

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

... false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2014-07-01

40

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

...What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2014-07-01

41

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements §...

2014-07-01

42

IMPACT OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON SEAGRASSES: AN EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNITY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth and chlorophyll content o...

43

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-print Network

Proper selection of drilling fluids plays a major role in determining the efficient completion of any drilling operation. With the increasing number of ultra-deep offshore wells being drilled and ever stringent environmental and safety regulations...

Ravi, Ashwin

2012-10-19

44

Delineation of brine drilling-fluid loss in an unsaturated zone- application to contamination monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controlled-source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) surface electromagnetic geophysical technique shows promise for delineation of zones of drilling-fluid loss and for delineating and monitoring zones of ground-water contamination in general. At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, NM, hydrology test wells are drilled with a brine drilling fluid where significant drilling-fluid losses often occur during drilling. Pre-and

Bartel

1989-01-01

45

40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix...Reference C16 -C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16 -C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used to determine the...

2010-07-01

46

Salt stable lubricant for water base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water base drilling fluid having enhanced lubricating properties in the presence of polyvalent cations comprising a mixture of (1) water; (2) finely divided inorganic solids; (3) an alkanolamide of a saturated fatty acid having 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof, and (4) an alkanolamide of an unsaturated fatty acid having 18 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof.

Kercheville, J.D.

1981-07-28

47

An Overview of Surfactant Applications in Drilling Fluids for the Petroleum Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactants are increasingly being used in an ever-expanding variety of applications for drilling fluids. In oil-based drilling fluids, the most well-known applications of surfactants are as emulsifiers and wetting agents. In water-based drilling fluids, there is a continually-growing variety of applications that include: -oil-in-water emulsification in base fluid formulations;-shale-swelling inhibitors to prevent wellbore instabilities;-detergency to prevent cuttings sticking to drill

Lirio Quintero

2002-01-01

48

An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

TerraTek

2007-06-30

49

FATE AND EFFECTS OF WHOLE DRILLING FLUIDS AND FLUID COMPONENTS IN TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Drilling fluids represent an important aspect of offshore and land based drilling operations. Periodically, the fluids must be changed or they become old and the spent fluids are disposed of in on-land facilities. Introduction into the environment of the chemically complex fluids...

50

Recent Fluids in Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluids and their origins in continental scientific drilling programs have widely been applied to the studies of crustal extension, fluid transportation paths and tectonization processes. The rare gases are good indicators of mantle fluids. The isotopes of carbon and hydrogen and the relationships between them can be used in revealing the fluid sources. And C/3He can provide more ambiguous distinguish between sources. The recent fluids in Chinese continental scientific drilling project (CCSD) have been analyzed and profiles were obtained. He, CO2, Ar, N2, O2, H2 and C1-C4 were determined by two on-line units, a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph. Cations and anions in mud samples were analyzed by an on-site high performance liquid chromatograph. Rare earth elements and other inorganic components were measured by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in our laboratory in Beijing. The isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and rare gases, especially helium, were analyzed by mass spectrometers in different laboratories. One key in studying the recent fluids in CCSD project is to identify whether the recent fluids were from the deep earth or not, even when their concentrations were higher than normal levels. Many disturbance components would usually be produced during drilling process. Such the disturbance includes many artifact gases from mud ferment, organic additive decomposition, bit erosion, etc. The analytical data of recent fluids could not be used in the investigation before removing the artifact components. It was found that the high contents of elements were related to the special rocks and minerals, such as sulfide and radiation ores. Carbon dioxide was related with carbonate. The high contents of gases were often found when the cracks or fissures occurred. The distribution of rare earth elements changed with the recent fluids. In some cases, a certain amount of helium gas was found with a high intensity of radiation detected. The high content of methane was once observed with a crystal hole in CCSD project. The samples for isotope analyses were collected in glass bottles and sent to several laboratories in China and Germany, separately. When helium and carbon isotopes in samples were found above the average values in CCSD samples, they would be measured again to confirm the safe conservation of these samples and there was no significant leak of the gases from the bottles. The isotope data show that the abnormal contents of gases found in the CCSD drilling well come from multiple sources and are related to the geological structure in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt of China.

Luo, L.; Sun, Q.; Zhan, X.; Tang, L.; He, H.; Rao, Z.

2004-12-01

51

Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives  

SciTech Connect

The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. (Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (Unites States))

1991-10-01

52

Evaluation of polymer free drill-in fluids for use in high productivity, horizontal well completions  

E-print Network

Advancements in deepwater drilling have necessitated the use of more specialized reservoir drill-in fluids (RDIF). These RDIFs must exhibit unique rheological properties while minimizing formation damage. Xanthan gum biopolymer is generally used...

Falla Ramirez, Jorge H

2012-06-07

53

Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

1981-10-01

54

Drilling fluids with scavengers help control H[sub 2]S  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining a high pH and using chemical sulfide scavengers in oil-based and water-based drilling muds can neutralize hydrogen sulfide (H[sub 2]S). Safe, successful drilling of H[sub 2]S-bearing formations requires good drilling practices, extra attention to casing design, and proper drilling fluid formulation. The drilling fluid must be capable of controlling formation pressures, protecting workers, inhibiting corrosion, limiting drilling fluid contamination, maintaining well bore stability, and removing sulfide contamination rapidly. High-alkalinity drilling fluids with excess lime are recommended to provide buffering capacity for pH neutralization. Following the detection of soluble sulfides, the fluid should be immediately treated with the applicable scavenger. Sulfide scavengers must react with soluble sulfides to form an insoluble metal sulfide precipitate. Effective scavengers must have rapid and complete reactions with H[sup 2]S, HS[sup [minus

Scott, P. (M-I Drilling Fluids Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-05-23

55

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this first Quarter of the Project, a team of five individuals was formed to characterize aphron drilling fluids, with the ultimate objectives to gain acceptance for this novel technology and decrease the costs of drilling mature and multiple-pressure formations in oil and gas wells. Aphron drilling fluids are very high low-shear-rate viscosity fluids laden with specially designed microbubbles, or

Maribella Irving; Fred Growcock

2004-01-01

56

Method for improved hydraulic jetting of drill bore holes using high pressure pulses of fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a method for generating high-pressure drilling fluid pulses through the nozzles of a directional or ''straight ahead'' drill bit. One or more balls characterized by a critical compressional force are caused to seat in a jetting nozzle and block it. The pressure in the drill string is then caused to exceed the critical compressional force of the ball

Varley

1985-01-01

57

Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content

I. A. Alekhina; J. R. Petit; V. V. Lukin; S. A. Bulat

2003-01-01

58

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON 'THALASSIA TESTUDINUM' AND ITS EPIPHYTIC ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

A flow-through microcosm system was developed to assess the potential influence of drilling fluids on Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytic algae. Two treatments (drilling fluid and a montmorillonite clay) and a control were used for seven tests: two 10-day, 200 microliter/l exp...

59

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

In this report we focus on surface studies of the wetting effects of SBM components; three areas of research are covered. First we present results of tests of interfacial properties of some commercial emulsifiers that are routinely used in both oil-based and synthetic oil-based drilling fluids. These products fall into two main groups, based on their CMC and IFT trends with changing pH. All can alter the wetting of mica, but measurements vary widely depending on the details of exposure and observation protocols. Non-equilibrium effects appear to be responsible for these variations, with equilibrated fluids generally giving lower contact angles than those observed with fluids that have not been pre-equilibrated. Addition of small amounts of emulsifier can increase the tendency of a crude oil to alter wetting of mica surfaces. The effects of similar amounts of these emulsifiers can be detected in interfacial tension measurements. Next, we report on the preliminary results of a study of polyethoxylated amines of varying structures on the wetting of mica surfaces. Contact angles have been measured for unequilibrated and pre-equilibrated fluids. Reduction in contact angles was generally observed when the surfaces were washed with toluene after exposure to surfactant solutions. Atomic forces microscopy is also being used to observe the interactions between these surfactants and mica surfaces. Finally, we show the results of a study of asphaltene stability in the presence of synthetic base oils. Most of the base oils in current use are paraffinic or olefinic--the aromatic content is minimized for environmental reasons--and they destabilize asphaltenes. Tests with two crude oils show onset conditions for base oils that are comparable to n-heptane and n-pentadecane in terms of the solubility conditions at the onset. Two ester-based products, Petrofree and Petrofree LV, did not cause asphaltene flocculation in these tests. A meeting of the research groups from New Mexico Tech and the University of Wyoming, was held in Laramie on the 9th and 10th of October. All the members of the research teams presented updates on their progress and exchanged views on directions for the remainder of the project.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2003-10-01

60

DOE helps the EPA expedite offshore regulations for synthetic-based mud.  

SciTech Connect

In the mid-1990s, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) took the lead in promoting the use of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) as a pollution-preventing technology and asked the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to revise and clarify its offshore regulations. The EPA, in cooperation with industry work groups, has chosen a streamlined approach to resolve SBM discharge regulations. Current regulations and permits do not adequately address SBM issues, a drilling fluid believed to be environmentally friendly. EPA has instead agreed to modify the offshore and coastal effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs).

Veil, J. A.; Daly, J. M.; Johnson, N.; Environmental Assessment; EPA

2000-01-01

61

Drilling fluid effects on crop growth and iron and zinc availability  

SciTech Connect

Waste drilling fluids are often land-farmed following completion of an oil or gas well in Colorado. This material usually contains production water, bentonitic clays, formation cuttings, barite, Na compounds, and synthetic organic polymers. The authors investigated the effects of 5 to 60 dry g drilling fluid kg{sup {minus}1} soil on the growth and trace metal concentration of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench DeKalb ST-6-S sudanense) in the greenhouse. A nonlinear regression exponential-rise model fit the increased plant total dry matter yield response to increasing drilling fluid rates. Increased plant tissue Fe concentration and uptake indicated that increased plant-available Fe was primarily responsible for the yield response, but increased Zn availability was also suspected. Results from a second greenhouse study confirmed that drilling fluid can also correct Zn deficiency in corn (Zea mays L.). Soil SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) was higher with increasing drilling fluid, but was still < 1. Other trace-element concentrations in sudangrass tissue and soil pH and EC{sub sat} were not significantly increased due to application of drilling fluid. This study showed that application of controlled rates of water-based drilling fluid from operations in Weld County, Colorado, was beneficial to the growth of sorghum-sudangrass and provided evidence that land application is an acceptable method of disposal.

Bauder, T.A.; Barbarick, K.A.; Ayers, P.D.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Shanahan, J.F. [Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1999-05-01

62

Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

2012-12-01

63

Heavy metals contribution of non-aqueous fluids used in offshore oil drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitoring program was performed to investigate heavy metal content alteration due to exploratory drilling for oil using non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) in Brazilian offshore, 900m deep. Fourteen elements were monitored in 54 sites and it was verified that after drilling activities the average Ba concentration was remarkably increased with respect to background level, even 1 year after the activity. A

Dirce Pozebon; Eder C. Lima; Sandra M. Maia; Jandyra M. G. Fachel

2005-01-01

64

Influence of Fluids on the Essential Parameters of Rotary Percussive Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the work presented in this paper was to investigate the cutting efficiency with respect to drilling fluid composition by determining and comparing experimentally obtained values for specific energy and rate penetration. The description of a test rig for commercial rotary-percussion drills follows. The rig is equipped with several instruments for the continuous monitoring of the most

Louafi Messaoud

65

IMPACT OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON SEAGRASSES: AN EXPERIMENTAL COMMUNITY APPROACH (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of a used drilling fluid on an experimental seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum Konig et Sims) were measured by exposing the community to the suspended particulate phase (SPP) in laboratory microcosms. Structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblage, growth and chlorop...

66

Effect of Polymers on the Rheological Properties of KCl\\/Polymer Type Drilling Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of this research, the effect of two polymers (xanthan gum and polyanionic cellulose) on the rheological properties of KCl\\/polymer type drilling fluids was investigated. Non-Newtonian drilling fluids are conventionally characterized by rheological models (Bingham Plastic, Power Law, Casson, Herchel-Bulkley and Robertson-Stiff). In this research, forty-five KCl\\/polymer data sets of varying compositions are prepared. Polymer addition to the

MUSTAFA VERSAN KOK; TOLGA ALIKAYA

2005-01-01

67

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON REEF CORALS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter reviews research on the effects of drilling mud on coral reef communities, concentrating on the major reef fauna: the reef-building or hermatypic corals. Drilling mud is an effluent introduced to the marine environment in large quantities during the typical offshore ...

68

OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION  

SciTech Connect

The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01

69

Field test to assess the effects of drilling fluids on groundwater chemistry collected from Columbia River basalts  

SciTech Connect

The Basalt Waste Isolation Project has used water-based drilling fluids in borehole construction. Fluids begin as a mixture of Columbia River water and bentonite. Other compounds such as organic polymers, soda ash, and chromium lignosulfonate are added to attain desired fluid characteristics. A field test was conducted to assess the effects of these fluids on basaltic groundwater chemistry. A one-month hydrochemistry baseline was established for a single interlow zone in borehole DC-14. Following baseline data collection, approximately 40,000 liters of drilling fluid were injected into the interflow. Samples were collected and analyzed for anions, cations, stable and radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases, and three specific drilling fluid tracers (i.e., tritium, fluorescein, and total organic carbon), for a period of one year following injection. Nearly 8.0 million liters of fluid were removed since initiation of the test. Test results demonstrated that drilling fluid tracers are useful indicators of how well drilling fluids have been removed from a borehole. Constituents such as Na/sup +/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, and all carbon species showed increases in concentration, whereas species such as Cl/sup -/, F/sup -/, and Si demonstrated a substantial decrease in concentration as a consequence of drilling fluid injection. Stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen were insensitive to relatively small amounts (<10%) of drilling fluid contamination. However, /sup 14/C was significantly affected by the introduction of ''live'' carbon as a result of drilling fluid injection. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Graham, D.L.; Bryce, R.W.; Halko, D.J.

1984-03-01

70

Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling  

SciTech Connect

The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wright, E.K. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-06-01

71

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2003-10-01

72

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and (3) to develop new approaches to restoration of wetting that will permit the use of cores drilled with SBM formulations for valid studies of reservoir properties.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2006-01-01

73

Simulation of the Wellbore Hydraulics While Drilling, Including the Effects of Fluid Influxes and Losses and Pipe Washouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a method to simulate the circulating system while drilling a well. For any given pump rate the pressure losses through the surface system, down the drill pipe, through the bit, and up the annulus can be determined. The algorithm also has the capability of simulating a washout in the drill string, losing fluid to the formation, having

Keith Millheim; Said Tulga

1982-01-01

74

Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied. PMID:20209242

Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

2010-03-01

75

Effects of fluid rotary drilling on hydrochemical sampling results from deep boreholes in fractured Columbia River Basalt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field test was conducted at the Hanford site in south-central Washington State to assess the effects of drilling and complex drilling fluids on hydrochemical sampling results. Changes in groundwater chemistry from a pre-test baseline were related to the various fluid components. Chemical species having a source in one or more of the fluid additives increased in concentration, while those not having a source in the fluid decreased in concentration as a result of dilution within the formation. Isotopic species, primarily ? 13C and14C, were dramatically affected by the high carbon content of the drilling fluids. The use of complex drilling fluids similar to those used in this test severely limits the usefulness of these environmental isotopes. Attenuation of drilling fluid components in the formation appeared to occur by physical as well as chemical mechanisms. Mass balance calculations indicated that extensive borehole development was required before most fluid components were removed from the formation. Tracers added to, or which were components of, the drilling fluids, were used to evaluate the efficacy of well development. It was concluded that: (1) a 1000-fold decrease in tracer concentration (C/C 0 = 10 -3) or a development ratio (development volume divided by volume lost during drilling) of 100 is required for many trace constituents; (2) significantly lower development ratios may be adequate for major chemical constituents or in cases where the solute concentration is greater in the formation fluid than in the drilling fluid; (3) extensive development (a development ratio of greater than 100) may be required for certain isotopic species ( 14C, 36Cl, 129I, etc.). Unless drilling fluid losses are controlled to less than a few thousand liters in the latter case, or a non-contaminated source of drilling fluid is used, the required development may be impractical and/or cost prohibitive.

Graham, David L.; Johnson, Vernon G.

1991-11-01

76

High temperature drilling fluids based on sulfonated thermoplastic polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil-based drilling mud is described which consists of: (a) a hydrocarbon oil; (b) about 1 to about 10 parts by weight of water per 100 parts by weight of the hydrocarbon oil; (c) about 20 to about 50 lb\\/bbl of at least one emulsifier; (d) weighting material necessary to achieve the desired density; and (e) about 0.25 to about

T. O. Walker; D. G. Peiffer; R. D. Lundberg

1986-01-01

77

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TWO GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS AND SIX ADDITIVES, ALONE AND COMBINED, TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...

78

DRILLING FLUIDS AND THE ARCTIC TUNDRA OF ALASKA: ASSESSING CONTAMINATION OF WETLANDS HABITAT AND THE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill s...

79

40 CFR Appendix 7 to Subpart A of... - Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid From Drill Cuttings by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reviewed by permittee's drilling engineer and offshore installation manager...from the permittee's drilling engineer and offshore installation manager...by the permittee's drilling engineer and offshore installation...

2012-07-01

80

40 CFR Appendix 7 to Subpart A of... - Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid From Drill Cuttings by...  

...reviewed by permittee's drilling engineer and offshore installation manager...from the permittee's drilling engineer and offshore installation manager...by the permittee's drilling engineer and offshore installation...

2014-07-01

81

40 CFR Appendix 7 to Subpart A of... - Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid From Drill Cuttings by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reviewed by permittee's drilling engineer and offshore installation manager...from the permittee's drilling engineer and offshore installation manager...by the permittee's drilling engineer and offshore installation...

2013-07-01

82

USE OF THALASSIA AND ITS EPIPHYTES FOR TOXICITY ASSESSMENT: EFFECTS OF A DRILLING FLUID AND TRIBUTYLTIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Concurrent l2-week laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine toxicity of the suspended particulate phase (SPP) of drilling fluid to Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytes. est systems were treated once per week to achieve nominal concentrations of 100 mg/L SPP. hlo...

83

40 CFR Appendix 2 to Subpart A of... - Drilling Fluids Toxicity Test  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...those used for the drilling fluid tests, except that the test material was prepared by weighing...lauryl sulfate on an analytical balance, adding the chemical to a 100-milliliter...mixing this stock solution, the test mixtures are prepared by...

2011-07-01

84

40 CFR Appendix 2 to Subpart A of... - Drilling Fluids Toxicity Test (EPA Method 1619)  

...those used for the drilling fluid tests, except that the test material was prepared by weighing...lauryl sulfate on an analytical balance, adding the chemical to a 100-milliliter...mixing this stock solution, the test mixtures are prepared by...

2014-07-01

85

40 CFR Appendix 2 to Subpart A of... - Drilling Fluids Toxicity Test (EPA Method 1619)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...those used for the drilling fluid tests, except that the test material was prepared by weighing...lauryl sulfate on an analytical balance, adding the chemical to a 100-milliliter...mixing this stock solution, the test mixtures are prepared by...

2012-07-01

86

40 CFR Appendix 2 to Subpart A of... - Drilling Fluids Toxicity Test (EPA Method 1619)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...those used for the drilling fluid tests, except that the test material was prepared by weighing...lauryl sulfate on an analytical balance, adding the chemical to a 100-milliliter...mixing this stock solution, the test mixtures are prepared by...

2013-07-01

87

Removal of Filter Cake Generated by Manganese Tetraoxide Water-based Drilling Fluids  

E-print Network

Three effective solutions to dissolve the filter cake created by water-based drilling fluids weighted with Mn3O4 particles were developed. Hydrochloric acid at concentration lower than 5 wt% can dissolve most of Mn3O4-based filter cake. Dissolving...

Al Mojil, Abdullah Mohammed A.

2011-10-21

88

Fate and effects of drilling fluid and cutting discharges in shallow, nearshore waters  

SciTech Connect

The relationships between selected environmental parameters (sedimentology, trace metals, and hydrocarbons) and macroinfaunal assemblages were studied to determine the fate and effects of drilling fluid and cutting discharges from a multiple well site in a shallow nearshore environment. Results are presented.

Not Available

1989-01-01

89

ACUTE TOXICITY OF EIGHT LABORATORY-PREPARED GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute toxicity tests were conducted during August-September 1983 with eight laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (also called muds) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida. Two of t...

90

Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain indicating that very unusual microbes can be contained in a drilling fluid. All this testifies that kerosene film is indeed hard to remove and everyone should be aware on bacteria introduced with any drilling fluid. Our results demonstrate the necessity to have a drilling fluid data base when studying the microbial contents of ice cores.

Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

2003-04-01

91

Final report on the design and development of a Rolling Float Meter for drilling-fluid outflow measurement  

SciTech Connect

Lost circulation, which is the loss of well drilling fluids to the formation while drilling, is a common problem encountered while drilling geothermal wells. The rapid detection of the loss of well drilling fluids is critical to the successful and cost-effective treatment of the wellbore to stop or minimize lost circulation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrument to accurately measure the outflow rate of drilling fluids while drilling. This instrument, the Rolling Float Meter, has been under development at Sandia since 1991 and is now available for utilization by interested industry users. This report documents recent Rolling Float Meter design upgrades resulting from field testing and industry input, the effects of ongoing testing and evaluation both in the laboratory and in the field, and the final design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wright, E.K.; Glowka, D.A.

1998-03-01

92

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

We report on progress in three areas. In part one, the wetting effects of synthetic base oils are reported. Part two reports progress in understanding the effects of surfactants of known chemical structures, and part three integrates the results from surface and core tests that show the wetting effects of commercial surfactant products used in synthetic and traditional oil-based drilling fluids. An important difference between synthetic and traditional oil-based muds (SBM and OBM, respectively) is the elimination of aromatics from the base oil to meet environmental regulations. The base oils used include dearomatized mineral oils, linear alpha-olefins, internal olefins, and esters. We show in part one that all of these materials except the esters can, at sufficiently high concentrations, destabilize asphaltenes. The effects of asphaltenes on wetting are in part related to their stability. Although asphaltenes have some tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces from a good solvent, that tendency can be much increased near the onset of asphaltene instability. Tests in Berea sandstone cores demonstrate wetting alteration toward less water-wet conditions that occurs when a crude oil is displaced by paraffinic and olefinic SBM base oils, whereas exposure to the ester products has little effect on wetting properties of the cores. Microscopic observations with atomic forces microscopy (AFM) and macroscopic contact angle measurements have been used in part 2 to explore the effects on wetting of mica surfaces using oil-soluble polyethoxylated amine surfactants with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and extent of ethoxylation. In the absence of water, only weak adsorption occurs. Much stronger, pH-dependent adsorption was observed when water was present. Varying hydrocarbon chain length had little or no effect on adsorption, whereas varying extent of ethoxylation had a much more significant impact, reducing contact angles at nearly all conditions tested. Preequilibration of aqueous and oleic phases appeared to have little influence over surfactant interactions with the mica surface; the solubility in water of all three structures appeared to be very limited. Commercial emulsifiers for both SBM and OBM formulations are blends of tall oil fatty acids and their polyaminated derivatives. In part three of this report, we integrate observations on smooth surfaces with those in Berea sandstone cores to show the effects of low concentrations of these products with and without the added complexity of adsorbed material from crude oils. Unlike the polyethoxylated amines studied in part two, there are significant non-equilibrium effects that can occur when water first contacts oil with dissolved surfactant. Very oil-wet conditions can be produced on first contact. Surfactant dissolved in oil had less effect on wetting alteration for one combination of crude oil and surfactant, although the generality of this observation can only be assessed by additional tests with crude oils of different composition. The wettability-altering effect of surfactants on both mica and Berea sandstone was most significant when they contacted surfaces after adsorption of crude oil components. Tests without crude oil might underestimate the extent of wetting change possible with these SBM and OBM emulsifiers.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2004-05-01

93

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

During this first Quarter of the Project, a team of five individuals was formed to characterize aphron drilling fluids, with the ultimate objectives to gain acceptance for this novel technology and decrease the costs of drilling mature and multiple-pressure formations in oil and gas wells. Aphron drilling fluids are very high low-shear-rate viscosity fluids laden with specially designed microbubbles, or ''aphrons.'' The focus of the Project is to develop some understanding of the aphron structure and how aphrons and base fluid behave under downhole conditions. Four tasks were begun during this Quarter. All of these focus on the behavior of aphrons: (a) Aphron Visualization - to evaluate various methods of measuring bubble size distribution, especially Acoustic Bubble Spectroscopy (ABS), in aphron drilling fluids at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density - to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity - to determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility - to determine whether aphron networks (similar to foams) in fractures and pore networks reduce fracture propagation. The project team installed laboratory facilities and purchased most of the equipment required to carry out the tasks described above. Then work areas were combined to permit centralized data acquisition and communication with internal and external file servers, and electronic and hard copy filing systems were set up to be compatible with ISO 9001 guidelines. Initial feasibility tests for all four tasks were conducted, which led to some modification of the experimental designs so as to enable measurements with the required accuracy and precision. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization, Aphron Air Diffusivity and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has some fundamental problems that may preclude realization of its objectives; alternative experimental approaches and methods of analysis will be explored during the next Quarter.

Fred Growcock

2003-12-31

94

Visualization of fluid-loss polymers in drilling-mud filter cakes  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the appearance of fluid-loss polymers in freeze-dried drilling-mud filter cakes that was studied with scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) photography. Three fluid-loss polymers were studied: starch, polyanionic cellulose (PAC), and a high-temperature-(HT)-stable, sulfonate polymer. The effects of electrolyte contamination (NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) and temperature (200 to 350{degrees} F) on the appearance of the fluid-loss polymers were also studied. A correlation between API filtrate and polymer appearance was sought.

Plank, J.P. (SKW Trostberg A.G. (NO)); Gossen, F.A. (SKW Chemicals Inc. (NO))

1991-09-01

95

Visualization of Fluid-Loss Polymers in Drilling-Mud Filter Cakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the appearance of fluid-loss polymers in freeze-dried drilling-mud filter cakes that was studied with scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) photography. Three fluid-loss polymers were studied: starch, polyanionic cellulose (PAC), and a high-temperature-(HT)-stable, sulfonate polymer. The effects of electrolyte contamination (NaCl, CaClâ, and MgClâ) and temperature (200 to 350° F) on the appearance of the fluid-loss polymers were also studied.

J. P. Plank; F. A. Gossen

1991-01-01

96

Optimal determination of rheological parameters for Herschel–Bulkley drilling fluids and impact on pressure drop, velocity profiles and penetration rates during drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling fluids containing bentonite and bentonite–lignite as additives exhibit non-Newtonian rheological behavior which can be described well by the three parameter Herschel–Bulkley rheological model. It is shown that determination of these parameters using standard techniques can sometimes provide non-optimal and even unrealistic solutions which could be detrimental to the estimation of hydraulic parameters during drilling. An optimal procedure is proposed

V. C. Kelessidis; R. Maglione; C. Tsamantaki; Y. Aspirtakis

2006-01-01

97

THE EFFECT OF GAS HYDRATES DISSOCIATION AND DRILLING FLUIDS INVASION UPON BOREHOLE STABILITY IN OCEANIC GAS HYDRATES-BEARING SEDIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the condition of over-pressure drilling, the solid-phase and liquid-phase in drilling fluids immediately penetrate into the oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment, which causes the water content surrounding the borehole to increase largely. At the same time, the hydrates surrounding borehole maybe quickly decompose into water and gas because of the rapid change of temperature and pressure. The drilling practices prove

F. Ning; N. Wu; G. Jiang; L. Zhang

2009-01-01

98

Virtual rheology and hydraulics improve use of oil and synthetic-based muds  

SciTech Connect

Two evolutionary concepts, virtual hydraulics and virtual rheology, have significantly improved the understanding and application of drilling fluid rheology and the hydraulics of oil-based and synthetic-based muds. When combined to form the core of a unitized suite of software modules, they provide new technology which is a step improvement over conventional approaches to calculate equivalent circulating densities (ECDs) and pump pressures for oil and synthetic-based muds (OBMs and SBMs). More-accurate predictions are now possible for downhole mud rheology, circulating and static densities, frictional pressure losses, and pump pressures. While the concepts are not new in the strictest sense, neither has been fully exploited and implemented until now. The first concept, virtual hydraulics (VH), subdivides the well into short depth segments and combines variable downhole rheology with localized downhole conditions for hydraulics calculations. This permits a unique downhole perspective of hydraulics and rheology at a single point in time. The second concept, virtual rheology (VR), takes full advantage of available field and lab data for the specific mud in use to determine downhole rheological properties as a function of temperature and pressure.

Zamora, M. [M-I Drilling Fluids LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-03-03

99

Transport in Shales and the Design of Improved Water-Based Shale Drilling Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of water and ions in shales and its impact on shale stability were studied to facilitate the improvement of water-based muds as shale drilling fluids. Transport parameters associated with flows driven by gradients in pressure and chemical potential were quantified in key laboratory and full-scale experiments. The experimental results show that the low-permeability matrices of intact, clay-rich shales can

E. van Oort; A. H. Hale; F. K. Mody; Sanjit Roy

1996-01-01

100

40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...used to determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment toxicity discharge limitation (see § 435.13) and NSPS (see § 435.15) shall be formulated to meet the specifications in Table 1 of this...

2011-07-01

101

Evaluation of saponite and saponite/sepiolite fluids for geothermal drilling  

SciTech Connect

The rheology and other properties of drilling fluids containing saponite and a saponite-sepiolite mixture as the main vicosifier have been systematically evaluated in the temperature range of 300-600{degree}F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Saponite represents the magnesium analog of the clay mineral montmorillonite, which is the main constituent in conventional bentonite-based fluids. The fluid with 6% saponite exhibits a prominent viscosity enhancement at temperatures above 250{degree}F. This viscosity enhancement is easily controlled by salts and hydroxides of Na and K. The addition of Na-polyacrylates (low- and high-molecular weight polymers) eliminates the viscosity anomaly of pure saponite fluids. These polymers also increase the filtration control of saponite. The anomalous viscosity enhancement of saponite is significantly reduced by the addition of sepiolite (a clay mineral with a fibrous morphology). 12 refs., 31 figs., 26 tabs.

Guven, N.; Panfil, D.J.; Carney, L.L. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (USA). Dept. of Geosciences)

1991-02-01

102

Comparative evaluation of the indigenous microbial diversity vs. drilling fluid contaminants in the NEEM Greenland ice core.  

PubMed

Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice. PMID:24450335

Miteva, Vanya; Burlingame, Caroline; Sowers, Todd; Brenchley, Jean

2014-08-01

103

Effects of drill cuttings discharge on meiofauna communities of a shelf break site in the southwest Atlantic.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the effects of drill cutting discharges on the structure of meiofauna communities in an area of the shelf break at Campos Basin, Southeast Brazil. Drilling activities were operated, in a first phase, with water-based fluid and, in a second phase, with synthetic fluid paraffin-based (NAF-III). A total of 135 samples taken at a pre-drilling situation (MS1) and two post-drilling moments (MS2 and MS3-3 and 22 months post-drilling, respectively) were analyzed. Effects on meiofauna were dependent on two main factors: 1-the impact received during drilling operation, if water-based or synthetic/water-based drilling fluid and 2-the background state, if it already presented signs of previous drilling activities or not. Based on univariate and multivariate analysis, there were evidences that the most affected area after drilling was those under the influence of synthetic-based fluid and that already had signs of previous drillings activities. The region impacted only by water-based fluid was less affected and the only one that completely recovered after 22 months. Nematodes and copepods had different responses to the impact. While copepods flourish in the impacted area and recovered 22 months after drilling, nematodes were adversely affected shortly after drilling and the community structure only recovered where hydrocarbons had been depleted. PMID:20524060

Netto, Sérgio A; Fonseca, Gustavo; Gallucci, Fabiane

2010-08-01

104

Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.  

PubMed

Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ?50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ?2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C against the Norwegian oil vapour OEL is questioned since these base oils are very similar to white spirit. To reduce exposures, relevant technical control measures in this area are to cool the drilling fluid <50°C before it enters the shale shaker units, enclose shale shakers and related equipment, in addition to careful consideration of which fluid system to use. PMID:21248050

Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

2011-05-01

105

Abnormal fluid pressures and fault-zone dilation in the Barbados accretionary prism: Evidence from logging while drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logs collected while drilling measured density in situ, through the accretionary prism and decollement zone of the northern Barbados Ridge. Consolidation tests relate void ratio (derived from density) to effective stress and predict a fluid pressure profile, assuming that the upper 100 m of the prism is at a hydrostatic pressure gradient. The calculated fluid pressure curve rises to >90%

J. C. Moore; T. H. Shipley; D. Goldberg; Y. Ogawa; F. Filice; A. Fisher; M.-J. Jurado; G. F. Moore; A. Rabaute; H. Yin; G. Zwart; W. Brückmann; P. Henry; J. Ashi; P. Blum; A. Meyer; B. Housen; M. Kastner; P. Labaume; T. Laier; E. C. Leitch; A. J. Maltman; S. Peacock; T. H. Steiger; H. J. Tobin; M. B. Underwood; Y. Xu; Y. Zheng

1995-01-01

106

SUMMARY OF DRILLING FLUID RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, GULF BREEZE  

EPA Science Inventory

Drilling-fluid related research at the U.S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, is summarized. The program is conducted primarily through contracts, grants, and some inhouse projects designed to assess the potential hazard to the marine environment from fluids dis...

107

Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.  

PubMed

The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s?¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol?¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

2014-01-01

108

Drilling fluids made from solid, free-flowing, continuously-made, water dispersible PVA-aldehyde reaction product  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a water based drilling fluid suitable for circulating in a bore hole while drilling the bore hole into subterranean formations which include water, a weighting agent and a fluid-loss controller. The improvement described here comprises that the fluid loss controlling agent is the product made by the process comprising (a) adding to a rotating continuous reactor to form a mixture (i) solid particles of polyvinyl alcohol, (ii) an aldehyde, and (iii) an aqueous salt solution adjusted to have an acidic pH; (b) mixing the mixture of step (a) in the reactor until a polyvinyl alcohol-aldehyde reaction product is obtained; and (c) drying the polyvinyl-aldehyde material. The product is present in the fluid in from about 0.1 to 15 percent by weight based on the weight of the water present in the fluid and the fluid is maintained at a pH of from 8 to 12.

Blouin, J.J.

1986-10-21

109

Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids  

PubMed Central

Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

2014-01-01

110

Synthesis and performance evaluation of a new deoiling agent for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluids.  

PubMed

Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

2014-01-01

111

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of crude oils by surface-active agents from drilling fluids or other oil-field chemicals is more difficult to detect and quantify than bulk contamination with, for example, base fluids from oil-based muds. Bulk contamination can be detected by gas chromatography or other common analytical techniques, but surface-active contaminants can be influential at much lower concentrations that are more difficult to detect analytically, especially in the context of a mixture as complex as a crude oil. In this report we present a baseline study of interfacial tensions of 39 well-characterized crude oil samples with aqueous phases that vary in pH and ionic composition. This extensive study will provide the basis for assessing the effects of surface-active contaminant on interfacial tension and other surface properties of crude oil/brine/rock ensembles.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2004-11-01

112

Subsurface fluid pressures from drill-stem tests, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High fluid pressures are known to be associated with oil and gas fields in the Uinta Basin, Utah. Shut-in pressure measurements from drill-stem tests show how pressure varies with depth and by area within the basin. The data base used in this report incorporates over 2,000 pressure measurements from drill-stem tests in wells completed prior to 1985. However, the number of useful pressure measurements is considerably less, because many drill-stem tests fail to stabilize at the actual formation pressure if the permeability is low. By extracting the maximum pressure measurements recorded in a collection of wells within an area, the trend of formation pressure within that area can be approximated. Areal compilations of pressures from drill-stem tests show that overpressured rock formations occur throughout much of the northern and eastern areas of the Uinta Basin. In particular, significant overpressuring (0.5 < pressure gradient < 0.8 psi/ft) is found throughout much of the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths ranging from 10,000 to 13,000 ft, equivalent to 5,000 to 8,000 ft below sea level. Limited data indicate that the pressure gradient declines at depths greater than 13,000 ft. An underpressured zone appears to exist in the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths shallower than 5,000 ft. Throughout the eastern Uinta Basin, moderately overpressured zones (0.46 < pressure gradient < 0.5 psi/ft) are common, with local evidence of significantly overpressured zones, but pressure gradients greater than 0.6 psi/ft are rare.

Nelson, P.H.

2002-01-01

113

Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.  

PubMed

We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage. PMID:23799238

Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

2013-08-01

114

RESULTS OF THE DRILLING FLUIDS RESEARCH PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE GULF BREEZE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, 1976-1984, AND THEIR APPLICATION TO HAZARD ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, FL, carried out a research program to evaluate the potential impact of drilling fluids on the marine environment from 1976-1983. Results showed that drilling fluids can be toxic to marine animals at certain concentrations and ex...

115

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 92-0361-2343, M-I Drilling Fluids, Greybull, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from the state epidemiologist in Wyoming, an investigation was begun of two cases of acute, febrile hepatitis in employees of M-I Drilling Fluids (SIC-1459), Greybull, Wyoming. The two cases of hepatitis were caused by Coxiella-burnetii, the rickettsia which causes Q-fever. A survey of 39 workers using a self-administered questionnaire and a blood test revealed seven workers with serologic evidence of infection. Three showed evidence of recent infection and four showed evidence of past infection. The major risk factor identified through the questionnaire data was sheep ownership. Risk factors suggestive of either recent or past infection included working outdoors, operating heavy equipment, and hunting.

Van Gilder, T.J.; Robinson, L.

1993-08-01

116

BIOCHEMICAL MEASURES OF CORAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND MICROBIAL INFECTION WITH EXPOSURE TO OIL AND GAS WELL DRILLING FLUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform. After 6 weeks exposure, coral frag...

117

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

During this second Quarter of the Project, the first four tasks of Phase I--all focusing on the behavior of aphrons--were continued: (a) Aphron Visualization--evaluate and utilize various methods of monitoring and measuring aphron size distribution at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density--investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity--determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility--determine whether aphron bridges created in fractures and pore throats reduce fracture propagation. The project team expanded the laboratory facilities and purchased a high-pressure system to measure bubble size distribution, a dissolved oxygen (DO) probe and computers for data acquisition. Although MASI Technologies LLC is not explicitly ISO-certified, all procedures are being documented in a manner commensurate with ISO 9001 certification, including equipment inventory and calibration, data gathering and reporting, chemical inventory and supplier data base, waste management procedures and emergency response plan. Several opportunities presented themselves to share the latest aphron drilling fluid technology with potential clients, including presentation of papers and working exhibit booths at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and the SPE Coiled Tubing Conference & Exhibition. In addition, a brief trip to the Formation Damage Symposium resulted in contacts for possible collaboration with ActiSystems, the University of Alberta and TUDRP/ACTS at the University of Tulsa. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. Although the Aphron Air Diffusivity task has been impeded by the lack of a suitable DO probe, it is hoped to be completed on time, too. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has had significant delays caused by faulty equipment and will likely require an additional month of work. Meanwhile, an assessment of potential methodologies for the Aphron Hydrophobicity project has been initiated and is now focused on measuring wettability of the aphron surface rather than interfacial tension.

Fred Growcock

2004-03-31

118

Validation and comparison of two sampling methods to assess dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil.  

PubMed

Dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil is an exposure route of concern. However, there have been no published studies describing sampling methods or reporting dermal exposure measurements. We describe a study that aimed to evaluate a wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to an oil-based drilling fluid and crude oil, as well as to investigate the feasibility of using an interception cotton glove sampler for exposure on the hands/wrists. A direct comparison of the wipe and interception methods was also completed using pigs' trotters as a surrogate for human skin and a direct surface contact exposure scenario. Overall, acceptable recovery and sampling efficiencies were reported for both methods, and both methods had satisfactory storage stability at 1 and 7 days, although there appeared to be some loss over 14 days. The methods' comparison study revealed significantly higher removal of both fluids from the metal surface with the glove samples compared with the wipe samples (on average 2.5 times higher). Both evaluated sampling methods were found to be suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil; however, the comparison study clearly illustrates that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. Further comparison of the two dermal sampling methods using additional exposure situations such as immersion or deposition, as well as a field evaluation, is warranted to confirm their appropriateness and suitability in the working environment. PMID:24598941

Galea, Karen S; McGonagle, Carolyn; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Todd, David; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez

2014-06-01

119

Evaluation of slurry injection technology for management of drilling wastes.  

SciTech Connect

Each year, thousands of new oil and gas wells are drilled in the United States and around the world. The drilling process generates millions of barrels of drilling waste each year, primarily used drilling fluids (also known as muds) and drill cuttings. The drilling wastes from most onshore U.S. wells are disposed of by removing the liquids from the drilling or reserve pits and then burying the remaining solids in place (called pit burial). This practice has low cost and the approval of most regulatory agencies. However, there are some environmental settings in which pit burial is not allowed, such as areas with high water tables. In the U.S. offshore environment, many water-based and synthetic-based muds and cuttings can be discharged to the ocean if discharge permit requirements are met, but oil-based muds cannot be discharged at all. At some offshore facilities, drilling wastes must be either hauled back to shore for disposal or disposed of onsite through an injection process.

Veil, J. A.; Dusseault, M. B.

2003-02-19

120

Mechanistic investigation of the formation damaging characteristics of mixed metal hydroxide drill-in fluids and comparison with polymer-base fluids  

SciTech Connect

Mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) fluids are highly thixotropic and have shown exceptional abilities in the areas of hole cleaning, suspension, and maintenance of good hole gauge even through very poorly consolidated sandstones. When a drill-in fluid based on an MMH has been used in reservoir sections, the ease of cleanup and the production rates have both exceeded expectations. Results have been better than those achieved on offsets where more conventional fluids have been used. Laboratory results have also shown properly formulated MMH fluids to have a low potential for formation damage. The primary objectives of the laboratory project presented in this paper were to (1) investigate the mechanisms by which filter cakes develop against sandstone faces, (2) study the natures of the cakes produced with different types of drill-in fluids, and (3) investigate the implications for cake cleanup. In a group of unweighted fluids an MMH fluid was found to be unique in its ability to form a predominantly external cake. It was further shown that the strong interactions between the MMH crystals and the bentonite platelets, which interactions provide the characteristic high shear thinning and almost instantaneous gelling behavior of such fluids, also contribute to the avoidance of damaging internal cake formation. This study demonstrates by dynamic fluid-loss measurements, imaging of dried filter cakes using an SEM, and direct imaging of wet filter cakes using an environmental SEM that the fluid is able to form mineral bridges over pore throats in a wide range of reservoir rocks. The external cake formed by the MMH fluid is easily removed by wash fluids or simply by application of backpressure as occurs when a well is brought on to production.

Fraser, L.J.; Reid, D.P.; Williamson, D. [and others

1995-12-31

121

Identification and quantification of alkene-based drilling fluids in crude oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.  

PubMed

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC x GC-FID) was used to measure alkene-based drilling fluids in crude oils. Compared to one-dimensional gas chromatography, GC x GC-FID is more robust for detecting alkenes due to the increased resolution afforded by second dimension separations. Using GC x GC-FID to analyze four oil samples from one reservoir contaminated with the same drilling fluid, C(15), C(16), C(17), C(18) and C(20) alkenes were identified. The drilling fluid that contaminated these samples also differed from another commercially obtained fluid, which only contained C(16) and C(18) alkenes. These results should motivate the petroleum industry to consider GC x GC-FID for measuring drilling fluids. PMID:17376464

Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Sylva, Sean P; Xu, Li; Peacock, Emily A; Raghuraman, Bhavani; Mullins, Oliver C

2007-04-27

122

Drilling Systems for Extraterrestrial Subsurface Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an

K. Zacny; Y. Bar-Cohen; M. Brennan; G. Briggs; G. Cooper; K. Davis; B. Dolgin; D. Glaser; B. Glass; S. Gorevan; J. Guerrero; C. McKay; G. Paulsen; C. Stoker

2008-01-01

123

Environmental study to assess the effect of drilling fluids on water quality parameters during high-rate, high-volume discharges to the ocean  

SciTech Connect

A drilling mud dispersion field test showed that as a result of rapid settling and dilution, suspended-solids and tracer-metal concentrations in the water column decrease rapidly with distance from the discharge source. It is concluded that drilling fluids have a negligible effect on open-ocean water quality even during high-rate, high-volume discharges. 8 refs.

Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Meek, R.P.; Sauer, T.C. Jr.; Stuebner, D.O.

1982-01-01

124

An Environmental Study To Assess the Effect of Drilling Fluids on Water Quality Parameters During High-Rate, High-Volume Discharges to the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drilling mud dispersion field test showed that as a result of rapid settling and dilution, suspended-solids and tracer-metal concentrations in the water column decrease rapidly with distance from the discharge source. It is concluded that drilling fluids have a negligible effect on open-ocean water quality even during high-rate, high-volume discharges. 8 refs.

Robert Ayers Jr.; Robert Meek; Theodor Sauer Jr.; David Stuebner

1982-01-01

125

Comparative performance of Cassava Starch to PAC as Fluid Loss Control Agent in Water Based Drilling Mud  

E-print Network

Cassava starch was extracted from 46.5kg of TMS 98/0505 species of fresh cassava tubers and characterized to establish the physicochemical properties The analytical results showed the following; moisture content (4.11%), pH (7), dispersion (poly dispersed), bulk density (617.34kg/m 33) and particle size distribution (fine). It was also compared to the standard Polyanionic Cellulose (PAC) used in the oil and Gas industry for water based mud (WBM) formulation. The result also indicated closer similarity between TMS 98/0505 and PAC. It was therefore employed in the production of drilling mud. Different ratios (100:0 and 100:0) of cassava starch and PAC and used to formulate standard drilling mud. The fluid loss properties of the different drilling mud samples were tested. The filtrate volume (fluid loss) obtained for various samples using a concentration of 2g/bbl of starch/PAC were 9.2 ml and 4.2ml, while that obtained at 4g/bbl,6g/bbl, 8g/bbl of Cassava starch (100:0) were 8.0ml,7.2ml and 6.0 ml. The result also showed that the amount of cassava starch used is indirectly proportional to the filtrate volume. Conclusively, cassava starch could be used as a fluid loss additive and improved to yield a better performance in terms of its water retention capability.

Egun Il; Achadu M Abah

126

Reactions of Attapulgite and Sepiolite in High-Temperature Drilling Fluids  

SciTech Connect

The fibrous clay minerals attapulgite and sepiolite have been subjected to hydrothermal reactions between 149 C (300 F) and 427 C (800 F). A 4% suspension of each of these clays was autoclaved for 16 to 24 hours with and without the addition of salts of NaCl and KC1 at 1% concentration. These fibrous clay minerals start to convert at 204 C (400 F) to a smectite with a lamellar morphology. In fact, attapulgite converts more readily than sepiolite, and the attapulgite-to-smectite transformation is fully completed at 316 C (600 F), whereas 20% to 50% of the sepiolite remains intact at this temperature. The conversion of the fibrous double- and triple-chain silicates of attapulgite and sepiolite to a layered silicate, such as smectite, favorably affects the rheology of the drilling fluids based on these clays. The mechanism of the conversion is, however, different for these fibrous clays. Attapulgite dissolves first and then smectite precipitates whereas this mechanism takes place for sepiolite at 316 C (600 F). Both attapulgite and sepiolite, and their reaction products, have been examined with an analytical electron microscope (JEM-100CX) in TEM, STEM, SEM, and SAD modes. The intensities of the characteristic X-ray spectra for the elements Mg, Al, Si, Fe, Ca, and K are measured. These observations indicate that (1) significant chemical differences exist between the fibrous clays and the smectites formed from them and (2) morphological features of the smectites vary with the temperature and with the presence of the salts in the system.

Guven, N.; Carney, L. L.; Lee, L-J

1981-01-01

127

Research on drilling fluids and cement slurries at Standard Oil Production Company: an internship report  

E-print Network

. An experienced mud engineer can judge the quality of an oil mud by looking at the sheen on the surface of the mud. The smell can reveal decomposition of water wet emulsifiers and viscosifiers. The ability of the oil mud to wet the skin gives another... attended a solids separation technology seminar presented by Geolograph Pioneer. They presented the most common methods for separating drill solids from the drilling mud. These methods included hydrocyclones, centrifuges and seive screens. Methods...

Flipse, Eugene Charles, 1956-

2013-03-13

128

Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (8) A Fluid Inclusion Study of Magmatic Gases at the Krafla Geothermal Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal production in Krafla has a history of problems due to contamination by magmatic gases causing increased NCGs as well as forming highly acidic production fluids responsible for corrosion of casing. Recent drilling of well KJ-39 and IDDP-1 encountered a fresh magma body at depth, exemplifying this risk. Multiple wells from the Krafla geothermal field in NE Iceland were investigated to identify regions of elevated magmatic gas compositions. Cold-crush fluid inclusion gas analyses were performed on well cuttings collected at 50m intervals using a quadrapole mass spectrometer analyzing for major compounds including H2, He, CH4, H2O, N2, O2, H2S, Ar, O2, SO2 and C1-C4 alkanes and alkenes, cyclopentane, toluene and benzene. Well KJ-39 encountered a magmatic intrusion of intermediate composition at approximately 2800m depth. Elevated mol% CO2 and total gas compositions (>60%) in fluid inclusions are observed from 2300m and increase exponentially nearing the intrusion. Anomalously high He/(Ar+N2) values are observed from a feed zone at 2650m (R=2.8) indicative of a mantle-rich gas component. Quenched glass from the intrusion exhibit elevated N2/Ar ratios (~190) resembling arc-type magmatic volatile compositions. This is unexpected in Icelandic magmas hence contamination from drilling fluids may be suspected. Well KJ-17 is located in close proximity to the well KJ-39, yet appears to be uninfluenced by the magmatic intrusion found below, exhibiting lower mol% CO2 and total gas compositions in the trapped fluids at comparable depths. The dynamics of magmatic gas contamination in this region appear to be strongly compartmentalized or are the result of more recent intrusions of shallow magmas in the area. Well KJ-25 is located adjacent to the site of IDDP-1, which also encountered a rhyolitic intrusion at 2104m in spring 2009. CO2 mol%, H2 mol % and total gas concentrations in KJ25 are elevated from 1850m towards bottom hole, indicative of a possible magmatic intrusion at depth, similar to KJ-39. The melt intrusion encountered in IDDP-1 may extend laterally below KJ-25 which would explain this gas signature. Fluid inclusion analysis of IDDP-1 cuttings and vein material are ongoing to determine the gas signatures associated with the interaction of fresh magma and geothermal production fluids. For all wells studied, H2 gas geothermometers based on fluid inclusion gas compositions parallel temperature profiles presented by alteration mineral assemblages recording higher temperatures in the past, particularly above 1500m. CO2 gas geothermometers more reflect modern formation temperatures, corresponding with calcite overprinting in cooler zones.

Owens, L. B.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmunsson, A.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2009-12-01

129

Thermoporoelastic Effects of Drilling Fluid Temperature on Rock Drillability at Bit/Formation Interface  

E-print Network

.......................................................... 12 2.3 Rock Failure and Bit-Rock Drilling Mechanisms ......................................... 21 2.4 Fourier-Assisted Finite-Element Method ...................................................... 26 CHAPTER III FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS... of Poroelasticity ................................................................................ 40 3.4 Theory of Thermoelasticity ........................................................................... 42 3.5 Rock Failure Criteria...

Thepchatri, Kritatee 1984-

2012-10-26

130

STARCH-LUBRICANT COMPOSITION FOR IMPROVED LUBRICITY AND FLUID LOSS IN WATER-BASED DRILLING MUDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-based mud systems that approach the performance of oil-based muds are an ongoing effort. Starch-lubricant compositons were developed as environmentally safe, non-toxic, stable dispersions in water-based drilling muds. Starch-lubricant compositions were prepared by jet cooking mixtures of wat...

131

USE OF DRILLING FLUIDS IN MONITORING WELL NETWORK INSTALLATION: LANL AND OPEN DISCUSSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) were requested by EPA Region 6 to provide a technical analysis of the impacts of well drilling practices implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the development of their grou...

132

Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

Forrest, G.T.

1992-02-11

133

Real-Time Fluid and Gas Monitoring During Drilling of the SAFOD Main Hole in Parkfield, CA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the role and origin of fluids and gases associated with the San Andreas Fault zone (SAF). To gain information on fluids and gases at depth, we performed real-time mud gas monitoring during drilling of the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) Pilot Hole (PH) and Main Hole (MH). Gas extracted from returning drill mud was piped into a nearby laboratory trailer and analyzed on-line. Permanent gases were detected using a portable mass spectrometer, hydrocarbons with a gas chromatograph, and the 222Rn-activity with a Lucas-Cell detector. When significant amounts of non-atmospheric gases were detected, off-line gas samples were collected from the gas line for further isotope studies. The SAFOD PH and MH were drilled in only a few meter distance, but in contrast to the straight PH, which penetrates through 768 m of sediments into granites down to 2168 m target depth (TD), the nearby MH is deviated towards the SAF and returns into sedimentary strata below 1930 m. The MH drilled sedimentary rocks down to 3987 m TD, approximately 45 m northeast of the surface trace of the SAF. From surface to 1930 m, the depth distribution of gas is similar for SAFOD PH and MH. Shear zones, identified by geophysical logging, are often characterized by elevated concentrations of CH4, CO2, H2, Rn, and He. The same gases were found in the MH below 1930 m, but their concentrations were, with the exception of He, significantly higher: CH4, CO2, and H2 sometimes reach several volume percent. Generally, the gas composition is partly controlled by the lithology. Variation in the methane concentration in several depth intervals reflects the changes in lithology from low gas abundance in clays and silts to more gas rich shales, which are the source rocks for hydrocarbons. Highly porous and permeable sandstone yield the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons (up to 15 vol% methane), and may be regarded as reservoir rocks. We interpret high radon activities in mud gas as indicator for circulating fluids entering the borehole via fractures. These fluids are also rich in hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, but only low concentrated in helium. Such intervals could be identified in several depth intervals (2675-2750 m, 2825-2900 m, and 3550-3650 m depth, and below 3700 m). The hydrocarbons in the surrounding rocks show a similar composition as those associated with fault zones. In addition to the low helium concentration, these results demonstrate fluid migration from the nearby with only little evidence for gas migration from a deeper source. A striking observation is the high amount of hydrogen found in these intervals. We can exclude a significant contribution of artificial hydrogen (drilling artifact) and mantle hydrogen. From soil gas studies, it is known that fault zones sometimes show enhanced concentration of hydrogen. As a possible source of hydrogen, the interaction of water with freshly ground rock, caused by fault zone movement, is discussed. Isotopic studies on hydrogen in combination with laboratory experiments are ongoing to test hydrogen synthesis by rock-water interaction. First isotopic studies on ?13C of methane indicate mixing of microbial methane with only small amounts of methane generated by thermal degradation of organic matter in the shallower depth (down to ~2500 m). Below this depth, the concentration of heavy hydrocarbons increases. CH4/(C2H6+C3H8) significantly drops from >100 to values <30 towards the bottom of the MH, and, methane becomes isotopically heavier, which is more typical for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

Wiersberg, T.; Erzinger, J.

2005-12-01

134

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

H. Seay Nance

2003-03-01

135

Reactive fluid transport in CO2 reservoir caprocks: constraints from scientific drilling of a natural CO2 reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term performance of reservoir caprocks in geological CO2 storage sites remains uncertain due to the poorly constrained nature of field-scale fluid-mineral reaction kinetics and CO2 transport processes in low permeability rocks. Predicting the nature, rates and impacts of CO2 penetration into the caprocks from numerical modelling studies maybe undermined by their reliance on laboratory derived reaction kinetics from short-term experiments, and the complexity of the coupled reactive transport processes at the nano- and micro-scale. We report here on the early results from scientific drilling and laboratory analysis of the caprocks of a stacked sequence of natural CO2 reservoir at Green River, Utah. In summer 2012, diamond drilling to a depth of 325m, adjacent to a CO2 degassing normal fault recovered core from two major CO2 reservoirs in the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones and from the intervening Carmel Formation regional caprock. In-situ pH, CO2 concentrations and fluid element and isotope geochemistry were determined from wireline downhole sampling of pressurized fluids from the reservoirs. The fluid geochemistry provides important constraints on reservoir filling by flow of CO2-charged brines through the fault damage zone, macro-scale fluid flow in the reservoirs and the state of fluid-mineral thermodynamic disequilibrium from which the nature of the fluid-mineral reactions can be interpreted. Mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical profiles through portions of the caprocks in contact with the CO2-charged reservoirs have been used to constrain the nature and penetration depths of the CO2-promoted fluid-mineral reaction fronts. The major reactions are the dissolution of diagenetic dolomite cements and hematite grain coatings which generate porosity in the caprocks. Analysis of the generated pore structure from a variety of analytical techniques will be discussed. Stable C- and O-isotopic shifts in the composition of the carbonate cements record their dissolution-recrystallization and transport of the isotopic composition of the CO2-charged fluids into the caprocks. The mineralogical profiles combined with advective-diffusive modelling are used to constrain the rates of the fluid-mineral reactions and the propagation velocity of the reaction fronts. These reaction fronts penetrate the seals on length-scales of centimetres to tens of centimetres over the ~400,000 year history of the site, with the reservoir ages constrained by U-Th dating of carbonate veins deposited in the CO2 degassing faults. This analysis attests to the important role that fluid-mineral reactions have on retarding the reaction front velocity, limiting the impact of the CO2-charged fluids on porosity generation and degradation of the caprock geomechanical strength.

Kampman, N.; Bickle, M. J.; Bertier, P.; Busch, A.; Chapman, H.; Evans, J. P.; Graham, C.; Harrington, J.; Maskell, A.

2013-12-01

136

Bayesian spatial prediction of the area affected by drilling discharges from an exploratory well using water-based and non-aqueous-based fluids in Campos Basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic drilling fluids and cutting discharges from oil and gas wells adversely affect local environment near the well site. To determine their effects on benthic communities, it is essential to know both the fate of the discharged materials and the chemical concentrations to which biota were exposed during and after drilling. This paper describes a mapping procedure using Bayesian spatial models to define the deposition area of drilling cuttings and fluids from an exploratory well in a deep-sea site in the Campus Basin, RJ, Brazil, taking into account the concentrations of barium and light hydrocarbons used as chemical tracers. The statistical procedures used allow comparisons between sampled sites and the prediction of results at unsampled sites, as well as the delineation of affected areas. The probable impact of the use of non-aqueous fluid (NAF) was measured through observed changes in sea-floor sediments by using Before-After Control-Impact comparisons in a study with three moments: one before drilling and two after drilling.

Pulgati, F. H.; Fachel, J. M. G.; Ayup-Zouain, R. N.; Landau, L.

2009-01-01

137

Hydraulic energy drill bit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drill bit for drilling a rock foundation is provided having a bit face matrix for supporting a plurality of cutters, the matrix having one or more fluid passages for discharging a fluid to flow over the bit face. To enhance the cleaning and cooling of the plurality of cutters, the bit face matrix includes a nozzle for restricting the

Creighton

1985-01-01

138

Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs  

E-print Network

The increasing number of open hole horizontal well completions in low-pressure and depleted reservoirs requires the use of non-damaging low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) to avoid formation damage and realize optimum well productivity. To address...

Chen, Guoqiang

2002-01-01

139

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (IV) Interpretations of Black Smoker Fluid Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One scientific goal of the IDDP is to understand high-temperature reaction zones such as those that feed hydrothermal fluids to active mid-ocean ridge black smoker vents. Smoker fluids emerge from a reservoir of composition, pressure and temperature resembling those expected in a supercritical IDDP well in the Reykjanes geothermal system. We have reconstructed black smoker fluids based on published analyses, and then computed mineral saturation indices, log(Q/K), for a wide range of P-T conditions, from which we identify a pressure and temperature where a group of probable alteration minerals equilibrated with the fluid. The estimated reservoir conditions commonly reflect approximately 60°C of cooling at the vent in excess of that from adiabatic decompression. Saturation index surfaces distinctly converge to zero in a narrow range of pressure and temperature, but the small angle of intersection of most curves yield substantial uncertainty, especially in pressure. Feldspars, quartz, garnet, actinolite, wairakite and chlorite have a stronger pressure dependence than do others, so they become the principal indicators of pressure, which is especially reflected in pH and silica solubility. An accurate reconstructed in situ pH is essential. In reconstructing fluids, we recompute pH to high P-T starting from the pH measured on shipboard in cooled fluid samples. Aside from temperature effects, the pH in such samples is elevated by mixing with cold seawater and lowered by precipitation of vent sulfides. To examine our understanding of pH, we scrutinized the saturation states of sulfides in the reconstructed vent fluids. For example, in 21°N EPR HG vent, we find that sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite are approximately saturated at the vent conditions (350°C, 260bar), and that pyrite is supersaturated and bornite is undersaturated. The former three are common vent sulfides. In the same fluid, silicates indicate reservoir conditions of approximately 450°C and 600 bar, at which conditions the sulfides are substantially undersaturated. These findings indicate that pH and concentrations of metals and sulfide measured in vent fluids are depressed by sulfide precipitation at and near the vent, thus an accurate estimate of the reservoir fluid properties requires a 're-dissolution' of metals and sulfide into the fluid, limited by saturation at reservoir P and T with sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite, which are common accessory minerals in seafloor-altered basalts.

Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2008-12-01

140

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

We report on a preliminary study of wetting effects of synthetic oil-based mud components on the wetting of mica surfaces using drilling mud fractions obtained from two wells drilled with synthetic oil-based muds (SBM). We have used these SBM fractions, one a filtrate and the other a centrifugate, to develop testing protocols for studies on smooth mica surfaces. Both SBM fractions changed the wetting of clean, dry mica surfaces, making them preferentially oil-wet. Solvents were tested to clean the mica with varying degrees of success. In tests designed to simulate contact between SBM fractions and reservoir pore surface, changes of wetting of mica that had previously been exposed to brine and crude oil were examined using six different crude oils in combination with several different brine formulations. Four of the six oils produced preferentially water-wet surfaces whereas two produced fairly oil-wet conditions on mica. Exposure to the SBM fractions tended to increase decane/water advancing contact angles on the more water-wet surfaces and to decrease those on the more oil-wet surfaces. Cleaning solvents were compared for their efficacy and the possibility of wettability restoration was examined for some of the cleaned surfaces.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2002-12-01

141

Effects of non-aqueous fluids-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the effects of non-aqueous fluids (NAF)-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, off the southeast Brazilian coast, Rio de Janeiro State. Samples were taken with a 0.25-m2 box corer from surrounding two oil and gas wells on three monitoring cruises: before drilling, three months after drilling, and 22 months after drilling. Statistical methodologies used Bayesian geostatistical and analysis of variance models to evaluate the effects of the NAF-associated drill cuttings discharge and to define the impact area. The results indicated that marked variations were not observed in the number of families between cruises, though there were changes in the fauna composition. The changes seen in biological descriptors in both control and background situation areas were not considered significant, showing a temporal homogeneity in means. The impact area presented changes in biological descriptors of communities and trophic structure during the three cruises and such changes were correlated to chemical and physical variables related to the drilling activities, as a result of the mix of drill cuttings and sediment and the anoxic conditions established in the substrate. In that area, three months after drilling, a decrease in diversity and an increase in density, motile deposit-feeders and Pol/Crp ratio, and dominance of opportunistic organisms, such as the capitellid Capitella sp., were observed and, 22 months after drilling, an increase of diversity, reduction of dominance of capitellid polychaete, changes in the fauna composition, and a dominance of opportunistic burrowing and tube-building organisms were observed, indicating an ecological succession process. PMID:20524059

Santos, Maria Fernanda L; Silva, Janete; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Pulgati, Fernando H

2010-08-01

142

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-print Network

ingredient functional categories (NRC 1983) Functional Categories Weighting materials Viscosifiers Thinners, dispersants Alkalinity, pH control additives Batercides Calcium reducers Corrosion inhibitors Defoamers Emulsifiers Filtrate reducers Flocculants... and engineered to be suitable for HT/HP environments. Typical WBMs contain water, clay, and a variety of additional components to control fluid loss and rheological stability. Almost all formulated WBMs consist of weighting materials, viscosifiers, thinners...

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-10-19

143

Drill, Baby, Drill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

Kerkhoff, Todd

2009-01-01

144

Hydraulic Pulsed Cavitating Jet-Assisted Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to improve drilling rate in deep wells has been a hot subject. Based on modulating pulse jet and cavitating jet, a new drilling tool is designed which couples advantages of both pulse jet and cavitating jet. When drilling fluid flows through the tool during the drilling process, fluid is modulated to pulse and cavitate. Thus, pulse cavitating jet is

G. Li; H. Shi; H. Liao; Z. Shen; J. Niu; Z. Huang; H. Luo

2009-01-01

145

Downhole fluid sampling and noble gas analysis of saline waters from the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole is situated at the NW-SE trending boundary between the Archaean and Proterozoic domains of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield (Finland). In August 2011, eight fluid samples were collected with a Leutert positive displacement sampler (PDS) from 500 m to 2480 m depth in the open bore hole. The PDS allows sampling at in situ pressures, thus minimising fractionation from degassing during sampling. At the surface, the samples were transferred into an evacuated sampling line connected with a Cu-tube and a glass bulb for gas sampling, a pressure gauge, and a thermometer. Gas was liberated with a heated ultrasonic bath and then admitted to the sampling devices. Gas/water ratios were already determined in the field during gas extraction. Saline groundwaters rich in methane, nitrogen, hydrogen and helium and with water stable isotope composition distinctive from meteoric and sea water have been found to host isolated ecosystems within the Precambrian crystalline bedrock of Outokumpu (Kietäväinen et al., 2013). In order to characterise the geochemical and microbiological evolution of the deep subsurface of the area, noble gas residence times have been calculated based on radiogenic (4He, 40Ar), nucleogenic (21Ne) and fissiogenic (134Xe, 136Xe) noble gas nuclides. Geochemical and microbiological variations together with hydrogeological and geophysical data indicate negligible vertical fluid flow in the bedrock. Moreover, noble gas diffusion models show that diffusion is not likely to affect noble gas concentrations of groundwater at or below 500 m depth in Outokumpu. Therefore in situ accumulation was assumed as a basis for the age determination. In general, residence times between 10 and 50 Ma were indicated by 4He and21Ne, while somewhat younger ages were obtained by 40Ar, using average values for porosity, density and concentration of radioactive elements in the bedrock of Outokumpu. Kietäväinen R., Ahonen L., Kukkonen I.T., Hendriksson N., Nyyssönen M. and Itävaara M. (2013), Appl. Geochem. 32, 37-51.

Wiersberg, Thomas; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Niedermann, Samuel

2014-05-01

146

Downhole fluid sampling at the SSSDP (Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project) California State 2-14 well, Salton Sea, California  

SciTech Connect

In situ fluid sampling activities were conducted at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) well during late December 1985 and late March 1986 to obtain unflashed samples of Salton Sea brine. In late December, three sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 1800 m and temperatures of 300/sup 0/C. In late March, 10 sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 3150 m and temperatures of 350/sup 0/C. In brief, the Los Alamos tool obtained samples from four of eight runs; the Lawrence Berkeley tool obtained samples from one of one run; the Leutert Instruments, Inc., tool obtained samples from zero of three runs; and the USGS quartz crystal experiment was lost in the well. The most complete sample was obtained from run No. 11, using the Los Alamos sampler and Sandia battery pack/controller on a wireline. About 1635 ml of brine, two noble gas samples, and two bulk gas samples were collected from this run. Samples of brine and gas from productive runs have been distributed to about 15 researchers for various types of analyses. Chemical analyses by the Los Alamos and US Geological Survey analytical teams are presented in this report, although they are not corrected for flashing and precipitation.

Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Grigsby, C.O.; Dennis, B. (eds.)

1987-07-01

147

Soil Remediation Requirements Related to Abandoned Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas  

SciTech Connect

This study was a compilation and summary of information on active and inactive centralized or commercial drilling-fluid disposal sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The objective of the analysis of these sites wass to gain insight into the probable behavior of contaminants at poorly documented abandoned drilling fluid disposal sites. Available information being reported in this study includes number and acreage of pits, delivered waste volumes, and levels of selected constituents in the solid waste, in the water overlying the solids, and groundwater monitored at on-site wells. For many sites, dated constituent analyses for specific monitor wells are available for time-series mapping and graphing of variable concentrations.

Dutton, Alan R.

2002-03-20

148

Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling  

SciTech Connect

A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional drilling costs; and downhole weight-on-bit and drilling torque for diagnosing drill bit performance. In general, any measurement that could shed light on the downhole environment would give us a better understanding of the drilling process and reduce drilling costs.

FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

1999-10-07

149

Geothermal drilling research in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Current research and development in the following areas are presented: geothermal roller cone bits, polycrystalline diamond compact bits, a continuous chain drill, drilling fluids test equipment, mud research, inert fluids, foam fluids, lost circulation control, completion technology, and advanced drilling and completion systems. (MHR)

Varnado, S.G.

1980-01-01

150

Method of deep drilling  

DOEpatents

Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

Colgate, Stirling A. (4616 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

151

Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.  

PubMed

This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions. PMID:24622553

Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

152

Apparatus for washing drill cuttings  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

Lott, W. G.

1985-10-15

153

Lithium, boron, and their isotopes in sediments and pore waters of Ocean Drilling Program Site 808, Nankai Trough: Implications for fluid expulsion in accretionary prisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from a comprehensive study of B, ?11B, Li, and ?6Li distributions in both sediment and pore-water samples of Ocean Drilling Program Site 808, Nankai Trough, Japan, show a strong correlation between Li and B concentrations, in agreement with previously published information from surface-marine sediments, suggesting similar geochemical behavior in sedimentary environments. The ?6Li and ?11B analyses provide additional data on the systematics of Li and B in marine sediments. Our results provide information on fluid-expulsion activity that has occurred at this drill site. Anomalies in all these constituents in the vicinity of the decollement zone (˜960 m below sea floor [m bsf]) suggest an influx of deeply generated fluids having distinct chemical compositions. The maximum concentrations of B and Li in bulk sediment, as well as their corresponding isotopic compositions, suggest uptake of both elements via chemisorption or secondary-mineral formation near the fluid conduit associated with the decollement zone. The low ?11B in pore waters suggests contribution of exchangeable plus lattice-bound B from greater depths. The corresponding high ?6Li similarly indicates mobilization from sediment under high-temperature conditions.

You, C.-F.; Chan, L. H.; Spivack, A. J.; Gieskes, J. M.

1995-01-01

154

Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

1986-01-01

155

The effect of various mixers on the viscosity and flow properties of an oil well drilling fluid  

E-print Network

on the 300 rpm Farm V-G Meter Reading 15 The Effect of Various Mixers on the 600 rpm Farm V-G Meter Reading 15 The Effect of Various Mixers on the Plastic Viscosity of a Bentonite Mud 16 Temperature Variation of the Drilling Mud Mixed in Variou... to Its Original Value . 18 12. The Effect of Aging on a B entonite Mud, 20 LIST OF TABLES Page I. The Effect of Various Mixers on the Viscosity of a Bentonite Mud . I I. Temperature Variation of the Drilling Mud Mixed in Various Mixers 26 I II...

Spannagel, Johnny Allen

1957-01-01

156

Biochemical measures of coral metabolic activity, nutritional status, and microbial infection with exposure to oil- and gas-well drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil- and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform. After 6 weeks exposure, coral fragments of 30 to 60 sq cm surface area were broken off, rinsed in seawater, and extracted in a one-phase chloroform-methanol seawater extract and returned to the laboratory, the lipids were analyzed for their phospholipid content, alkyl fatty acid composition, and neutral lipid triglyceride glycerol. The aqueous phase was analyzed for free amino acid composition. Biochemical evidence of stress was reflected in the cessation of growth as measured in depressed diacyl phospholipid. Detailed analysis of the acyl fatty acid composition by capillary gas chromatography showed changes in polyenoic fatty acids, suggesting possible changes in the metabolism of the fatty acids induced by the exposure to the drilling fluids.

White, D.C.; Nickels, J.S.; Gehron, M.J.; Parker, J.H.; Martz, R.F.

1987-03-01

157

CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

2003-06-01

158

HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

2002-11-01

159

Formation damage studies of lubricants used with drill-in fluids systems on horizontal open-hole wells  

E-print Network

of polymer filtration control agents provides a low leak-off rate that produces a thin, erosion-resistant, lubricating SCC filtercake. Biopolymers are used as viscosifiers, and potassium chloride (KCI) as part of the brine is used for inhibition... Fluid-loss control additive Viscosifier Buffer to maintain alkaline pH (8-12) Bridging and weighting Fluid-loss control additive Reduce foaming action Table 2 - Formulation of the SS and SCC Systems Type of Fluid Sized-Salt Composition 329...

Gutierrez, Fernando A

2000-01-01

160

Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian

2015-01-01

161

Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (IV) Fluid Inclusion Microthermometry of the Geitafell Hydrothermal System - a Possible Analog of the Active Krafla System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miocene Geitafell volcanic complex in southeast Iceland hosts an extinct high temperature hydrothermal system that provides an excellent opportunity for study of the interior of an analog to the Krafla and Hengill active systems, which will be penetrated by IDDP drilling. The Geitafell volcano formed on the central Icelandic rift zone at approximately 5-6 Ma. Glacial erosion has exposed the deep interior of the volcano, revealing a complex of tholeitic lavas, hyaloclastites and rhyolites, cut by 12 intrusive phases and a sequence of seven related vein sets with distinct vein fillings and alteration haloes. Mineralogical studies by Fridleifsson (1983) show that when Geitafell was active, it hosted a supercritical hydrothermal system with fluids exceeding 400°°C at pressures up to 300 bar. We have begun fluid inclusion microthermometry studies of this system with the goal to define the specific relationship of the vein sequence to vein temperatures and alteration haloes, and thereby improve the understanding of supercritical hydrothermal systems . We have sampled veins in a basaltic lava from Fridleifsson's vein sets 2 and 3, and a quartz-filled amygdale tied to vein set 2. Vein set 2 is bordered by a narrow (5-10mm) dark alteration halo of chlorite and albite; set 3 veins have cm-scale epidote-rich envelopes. Fluid inclusions were not visible in the quartz and epidote of vein set 3, but quartz in vein set 2 contains abundant fluid inclusions 5 to 15 micrometers in size with vapor bubbles ranging from 10 to 60 vol%. In the amygdale, fluid inclusions are 5 to 30 micronmeters in size with vapor bubbles ranging from 25 to 60 vol%. The average freezing point depression for vein set 2 and amygdale inclusions is 0.1°°C, indicating a salinity of 0.2 wt% NaCl equivalent--largely fresh water. Fluid inclusions homogenize to liquid or to vapor at temperatures ranging from approximately 300 to 394°°C. Most liquid-dominated inclusions homogenize between 300 and 380°°C. The coexisting vapor rich and liquid rich inclusions and the homogenization behavior indicate a boiling hydrothermal system at a temperature of at least 380°°C.

Troyer, R.; Reed, M. H.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2007-12-01

162

Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

1992-01-01

163

Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

1992-06-01

164

Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

1982-08-10

165

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established an Extreme Drilling Lab to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 feet. This paper details the challenges of ultra-deep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL’s Research and Development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Their physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480 °F around a single drill cutter. This simulator will not yet be operational by the planned conference dates; therefore, the results will be limited to identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL’s test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Lab’s studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T

2007-06-01

166

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established the Extreme Drilling Laboratory to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 ft. This paper details the challenges of ultradeep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL's research and development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Its physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480°F around a single drill cutter. This simulator is not yet operational; therefore, the results will be limited to the identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL's test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Laboratory's studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T.H.

2008-12-01

167

Comparison of hydrogeochemical logging of drilling fluid during coring with the results from geophysical logging and hydraulic testing Example of the Morte-Mérie scientific borehole, Ardèche-France, Deep Geology of France Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 980-m-deep well was cored on the Ardèche border of the Southeastern basin of France as part of the Deep Geology of France (GPF) programme. Hydrogeochemical logging was carried out during drilling, which involved the monitoring of physico-chemical parameters (pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity), and chemical parameters (concentrations of He, Rn, CO 2, CH 4, O 2 Ca, Cl and SiO 2) of the drilling fluid permanently circulating in the well. This logging programme was complemented by geophysical logging and two hydraulic tests. The combination of these measurements enabled identification of a transmissive interval due to fractures in the Jurassic carbonates, and of fluid inflow both at the base of the porous and slightly permeable Triassic sandstones and from an open fracture in the Permian conglomerates. These intervals are marked by changes in the drilling-fluid chemistry, such as an increase in chemical species content, or a drop in pH. The degree of modification depends on the natural permeability of the fractures and the salinity of the fluids. The porous and permeable intervals are also marked by He anomalies, which act as a tracer for these zones. Comparison between the geophysical and hydrogeochemical logs reveals that the latter provide information on the liquid phase, whether the fractures are productive or not, whereas the geophysical logs are more directly related to the solid phase.

Aquilina, L.; Eberschweiler, C.; Perrin, J.; Deep Geology of France Team

1996-11-01

168

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

169

A successful borehole drilled by cryogenic drilling in an arid, unconsolidated soil with boulders  

SciTech Connect

An 80 foot deep borehole was drilled using a novel cryogenic drilling method. The freeze while drilling technique stabilizes the borehole wall while drilling by using conventional air rotary methods but with low temperature nitrogen gas (as cold as {minus}196 C) as the drilling fluid. The location of the field test was a semi-arid alluvial unconsolidated sedimentary formation at the Aerojet, Inc. site in Rancho Cordova, California. The geology was a sandy soil matrix containing cobbles and boulders. The test goal was to drill to 100 feet (30 m), but the test was terminated at 80 feet due to a failure of the swivel shaft and drill bit resulting from the very rough drilling conditions. No safety, technical, or operational problems were encountered that could prevent cryogenic drilling from becoming a standard technique for drilling in unstable near-surface formations.

Cavagnaro, P.; Simon, R.D.; Cooper, G.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

1997-07-01

170

Lockdown Drills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

171

The propagation of sound waves in drill strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep wells are commonly drilled while steering the drill bit. The steering process is completely controlled by the drilling-rig operator. A key element of this procedure is the measurement and communication of navigation information from the bottom of the well to the operator. Pressure pulses modulated onto the flow of the drill fluid are now employed in some cases to

Douglas S. Drumheller; S. D. Knudsen

1995-01-01

172

Spacer fluids  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a conduit extends, the wellbore having a space occupied by a drilling fluid. It comprises displacing the drilling fluid from the space with a spacer fluid comprising: sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, bentonite, welan gum, surfactant and a weighting agent; and displacing the spacer composition and filling the wellbore space with a settable cement composition.

Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.; Wilton, B.S.; Carpenter, R.B.

1992-05-19

173

Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010. This report also describes the data—extraction/aggregation processing steps, field names and descriptions, field types and sources. An associated scientific investigation report (Gallegos and Varela, 2014) provides a detailed analysis of the data presented in this data series and comparisons of the data and trends to the literature.

Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian

2015-01-01

174

Drilling update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At its March 31 meeting the governing board of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (JOI), designated Texas A&M University to direct scientific operations for the new phase of scientific ocean drilling. William Merrell, associate dean of geosciences at Texas A&M, is leading an interim planning team in implementing the recommendations of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Crustal Studies (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). The ad hoc group, chaired by Charles Drake, recommended that scientific ocean drilling be pursued not with the Glomar Challenger or the Glomar Explorer, but with one of the roughly half-dozen commercial drilling ships that have become available with the slackening of the commercial drilling market.Foremost of the tasks facing the interim planning team is to write a request for proposals (RFP) for a drill ship and to define performance criteria for a commercial drilling platform. The RFP is expected to be issued by Texas A&M in 6-8 weeks, according to Philip Rabinowitz, acting project director and a professor in the university's oceanography department. Once those tasks are completed and a successful bidder is found, a formal proposal will be made to NSF through JOI. The proposal will be subject to the usual NSF peer review process. If the proposal is approved, Rabinowitz said that Texas A&M would expect actual drilling to begin in October 1984. In addition to Merrell and Rabinowitz, the interim planning team also includes acting chief scientist Stefan Gartner.

Richman, Barbara T.

175

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

176

EPA speeds regs for offshore regulations for synthetic-based mud.  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in unusual cooperation with industry work groups, has chosen a streamlined approach to resolve synthetic-based mud (SBM) discharge regulations for offshore operations.

Veil, J. A.; Daly, J. M.; Johnson, N.; Environmental Assessment; EPA; DOE

1999-09-13

177

Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.  

PubMed

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

2008-06-01

178

Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products  

SciTech Connect

The first objective of this project is to develop a user-friendly, PC, foam drilling computer model, FOAM, which will accurately predict frictional pressure drops, cuttings lifting velocity, foam quality, and other drilling variables. The model will allow operating and service companies to accurately predict pressures and flow rates required at the surface and downhole to efficiently drill oil and gas wells with foam systems. The second objective of this project is to develop a lightweight drilling fluid that utilizes hollow glass spheres to reduce the density of the fluid and allow drilling underbalanced in low-pressure reservoirs. Since the resulting fluid will be incompressible, hydraulics calculations are greatly simplified, and expensive air compressors and booster pumps are eliminated. This lightweight fluid will also eliminate corrosion and downhole fire problems encountered with aerated fluids. Many tight-gas reservoirs in the US are attractive targets for underbalanced drilling because they are located in hard-rock country where tight, low-permeability formations compound the effect of formation damage encountered with conventional drilling fluids.

Maurer, W.; Medley, G. Jr.

1995-07-01

179

Multi-gradient drilling method and system  

DOEpatents

A multi-gradient system for drilling a well bore from a surface location into a seabed includes an injector for injecting buoyant substantially incompressible articles into a column of drilling fluid associated with the well bore. Preferably, the substantially incompressible articles comprises hollow substantially spherical bodies.

Maurer, William C. (Houston, TX); Medley, Jr., George H. (Spring, TX); McDonald, William J. (Houston, TX)

2003-01-01

180

Effect of bit hydraulic horsepower on the drilling rate of a polycrystalline diamond bit  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory drilling program was conducted to measure the effect of bit hydraulic horsepower on the drilling rate obtained with a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit. Drilling tests were conducted under simulated downhole conditions with an 8 1/2-inch diameter PDC bit fitted with four sets of 5 equal-sized nozzles. Mancos shale, Pierre shale, and Berea sandstone were drilled with both water-base and oil-base drilling fluids to determine the interactions among bit hydraulics, rock characteristics, and the drilling fluid. For the range of drilling conditions and rocks examined, the results indicated that bit hydraulic horsepower had a significant effect on the drilling rate.

Holster, J.L.; Kipp, R.J.

1983-10-01

181

Update on onshore disposal of offshore drilling wastes  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing effluent limitations guidelines to govern discharges of cuttings from wells drilled using synthetic-based muds. To support this rulemaking, Argonne National Laboratory was asked by EPA and the US Department of Energy (DOE) to collect current information about those onshore commercial disposal facilities that are permitted to receive offshore drilling wastes. Argonne contacted state officials in Louisiana, Texas, California and Alaska to obtain this information. The findings, collected during October and November 1999, are presented by state.

Veil, J. A.

1999-11-29

182

Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01

183

Hydraulic wellbore erosion while drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first to identify nozzle hydraulic effects in a field evaluation of hole erosion. Common practice normally identifies annular velocity as the culprit for excessive hole washout. But field tests in this article clearly identify excessive nozzle hydraulics as the cause for hole erosion. Both oil-based and water-based drilling fluids were used during the field test. The

B. Chemerinski; L. Robinson

1996-01-01

184

TI-59 Drilling engineering manual. [Texas Instruments-59 Calculator Programs  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven drilling engineering programs to be used with the Texas Instruments 59 programmable calculator are given, with step-by-step explanations on how to input these on the calculator. Programs for basic drilling engineering, drilling fluid viscosity and circulation, hydrostatic pressure due to gas, surge and swab pressure, and well control are given. (JMT)

Chenevert, M.E.; Hollo, R.

1981-01-01

185

Hydraulic inner barrel in a drill string coring tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hydraulic lift apparatus for use in combination with a drill string and a coring bit used for coring. The drill string is characterized by including an outer tube connected to a coring bit and having pressurized hydraulic fluid forced through the outer tube, the drill string further characterized by an inner tube for receiving and lifting

K. Knighton; J. S. Davis; S. R. Radford

1987-01-01

186

Loaded Transducer Fpr Downhole Drilling Component  

DOEpatents

A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force," urging them closer together.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2005-07-05

187

Drilling optimization using drilling simulator software  

E-print Network

simulator with the capacity for reproducing the drilling performance observed in the drilled wells. Cooper et al.4,6,7 describe a drilling simulator software built around a drilling-mechanics model that predicts the rate of penetration and rate of wear... ROP PredictionsBits Wear DeterminationCost per Foot Drilling Data Recorded(Offset Well) Drilling ROP Model Labs Test and Correlations GDL (Unconfined Rock Strength) Drilling ROP Model New Set Operational Parameters and Bits ROP PredictionsBits Wear...

Salas Safe, Jose Gregorio

2004-09-30

188

Minimum quantity lubrication drilling of aluminium–silicon alloys in water using diamond-like carbon coated drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry drilling of aluminium alloys (without using cutting fluids) is an environmentally friendly machining process but also an exceedingly difficult task due to aluminium's tendency to adhere to the drills made of conventional materials such as the high-speed steel (HSS). Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings improve the dry drilling performance due to their adhesion mitigating properties. In this work, improvements

Sukanta Bhowmick; Ahmet T. Alpas

2008-01-01

189

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Las Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2000-01-01

190

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2001-09-25

191

Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by explorescience.com called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

192

Drill string enclosure  

DOEpatents

The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

Jorgensen, Douglas K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kuhns, Douglass J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wiersholm, Otto (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

193

Drill string enclosure  

DOEpatents

The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

1993-03-02

194

Methane solubility in synthetic oil-based drilling muds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new drilling technologies and the reinforcement of environmental legislations require improvements of drilling fluid formulations. In particular, mineral oil-based muds have been recently replaced by low toxic or substitution oil-based muds (SBM). The molecular composition of these oils is adapted to the fluid property requirements. Very little is known on methane solubility in these oils and in

N Berthezene; J.-C de Hemptinne; A Audibert; J.-F Argillier

1999-01-01

195

Distribution of arsenic and copper in sediment pore water: an ecological risk assessment case study for offshore drilling waste discharges.  

PubMed

Due to the hydrophobic nature of synthetic based fluids (SBFs), drilling cuttings are not very dispersive in the water column and settle down close to the disposal site. Arsenic and copper are two important toxic heavy metals, among others, found in the drilling waste. In this article, the concentrations of heavy metals are determined using a steady state "aquivalence-based" fate model in a probabilistic mode. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to determine pore water concentrations. A hypothetical case study is used to determine the water quality impacts for two discharge options: 4% and 10% attached SBFs, which correspond to the best available technology option and the current discharge practice in the U.S. offshore. The exposure concentration (CE) is a predicted environmental concentration, which is adjusted for exposure probability and bioavailable fraction of heavy metals. The response of the ecosystem (RE) is defined by developing an empirical distribution function of predicted no-effect concentration. The pollutants' pore water concentrations within the radius of 750 m are estimated and cumulative distributions of risk quotient (RQ=CE/RE) are developed to determine the probability of RQ greater than 1. PMID:14641903

Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

2003-12-01

196

Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection  

E-print Network

System DD Directional Drilling DwC Drilling with Casing DGD Dual Gradient Drilling ECD Equivalent Circulation Density EMW Equivalent Mudweight ERD Extended Reach Drilling ft Feet/Foot x Fp Fracture-Pressure GOM Gulf of Mexico HazID Hazard..., in the last few decades, technologies like ?Horizontal Drilling? (HD), ?Directional Drilling? (DD), ?Extended Reach Drilling? (ERD), ?Casing Drilling? / ?Drilling with Casing? (DwC), ?Coiled Tube Drilling? (CTD), Underbalanced Drilling (UBD) , and Managed...

Nauduri, Anantha S.

2010-07-14

197

Drilling equipment to shrink  

SciTech Connect

Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

Silverman, S.

2000-01-01

198

Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

Pitts, E. A.

1976-01-01

199

Drilling technology, 2000  

SciTech Connect

Great strides have been made in drilling during the nineties, but many operators are unaware of many of the exciting capabilities and potential offered by today` drilling technology. As people move toward the year 2000, they see drilling providers refine these capabilities, broaden their applications, and increase operator awareness of their availability and usefulness. Thus, to see where drilling will be in the year 2000, people need to look at where the drilling forefront lies today. This paper discusses the trends in technology associated with horizontal drilling, re-entry techniques, coiled-tubing, extended-reach drilling, multilateral drilling and general well development technologies.

Offenbacher, L.

1996-05-01

200

Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans  

SciTech Connect

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

201

Instruments and Methods New technique for access-borehole drilling in shelf glaciers using  

E-print Network

.P. NICOLAS1 1 Byrd Polar Research Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA E-mail: zagorodnov.1 insures the lowest environ- mental impact and requires less logistic support than drilling with fluid. The depth of dry and semi-fluid borehole drilling is limited due to the risk of losing the drill as a result

Howat, Ian M.

202

Phase equilibria of (methane-long chain ester cuts) systems in drilling conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the drilling operation, the drilling fluid interacts with the formation at the well bore leading to the dissolution of hydrocarbons in the mud.Berthezene et al. [J. Petroleum Sci. Eng. 23 (1999) 71] studied the methane solubility in different fluids representing the drilling mud. They concluded that the ester remains immiscible with methane up to very high pressures.Additional experimental work

Nathalie Bureau; Denis Defiolle; Jean-Charles de Hemptinne

2002-01-01

203

Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

1996-06-01

204

New muds are specially tailored for deepwater drilling  

SciTech Connect

There are three things in life that are certain: death, taxes and encountering gumbo clay while drilling offshore Gulf of Mexico oil and gas fields. The concomitant torque and drag define the goals of offshore drilling fluid design. Additionally, some deepwater projects require hydrate suppression, resulting in a challenging list of barriers to drilling success confronting the aspiring engineer. Specially tailored water-base muds have been developed for deepwater drilling. Each DeepDrill{trademark} fluid is custom designed for the specific project, in accordance with the particular conditions and degree of difficulty that will be experienced. This family of engineered drilling fluids is based on New100N{trademark} polyol chemistry.

Kenney, N.P. [Newpark Drilling Fluids Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-04-01

205

Hydraulic downhole drilling motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is the first major engineering reference in English on the design and application of downhole drilling motors, turbodrills, and helidrills. While this equipment has often been used to drill in hard formations or deviated holes, the technology is being used more in ''conventional'' drilling operations because its overall efficiency and reduced drill bit consumption offer major savings in

Tiraspoiski

1985-01-01

206

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry.

E. L. Duran; R. L. Lundin

1989-01-01

207

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry.

E. L. Duran; R. L. Lundin

1988-01-01

208

Rotary blasthole drilling update  

SciTech Connect

Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2008-02-15

209

New approaches to subglacial bedrock drilling technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling to bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities to research processes acting at the bed for paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental recording, basal sliding studies, subglacial geology and tectonics investigations, prospecting and exploration for minerals covered by ice. Retrieving bedrock samples under ice sheets and glaciers is a very difficult task. Drilling operations are complicated by extremely low temperature at the surface of, and within glaciers, and by glacier flow, the absence of roads and infrastructures, storms, winds, snowfalls, etc. In order to penetrate through the ice sheet or glacier up to the depth of at least 1000 m and to pierce the bedrock to the depth of several meters from ice - bedrock boundary the development activity already has been started in Polar Research Center at Jilin University, China. All drilling equipment (two 50-kW diesel generators, winch, control desk, fluid dumping station, etc.) is installed inside a movable sledge-mounted warm-keeping and wind-protecting drilling shelter that has dimensions of 8.8 ×2.8 × 3.0 m. Mast has two positions: horizontal for transportation and vertical working position (mast height is 12 m). Drilling shelter can be transported to the chosen site with crawler-tractor, aircraft or helicopter. In case of carriage by air the whole drilling shelter was designed to be disassembled into pieces "small" enough to ship by aircraft. Weight and sizes of each component has been minimized to lower the cost of transportation and to meet weight restrictions for transportation. Total weight of drilling equipment (without drilling fluid) is near 15 tons. Expected time of assembling and preparing for drilling is 2 weeks. If drilling shelter is transported with crawler-tractor (for example, in Antarctic traverses) all equipment is ready to start drilling immediately upon arrival to the site. To drill through ice and bedrock a new, modified version of the cable-suspended electromechanical ice core drill is designed and tested. The expected average daily production of ice drilling would be not less than 25 m/day. The lower part of the drill is adapted for coring bed-rock using special tooth diamond bit. Deep ice coring requires a drilling fluid in the borehole during operation in order to keep the hole open and to compensate the hydrostatic pressures acting to close it. At present there are no ideal low-temperature drilling fluids as all of them are environmental and health hazardous substances. The new approaches of subglacial bedrock drilling technology are connected with utilization of environmental friendly, low-toxic materials, e.g. low-molecular dimethyl siloxane oils or aliphatic synthetic ester of ESTISOL™ 140 type. They have suitable density-viscosity properties, and can be consider as a viable alternative for drilling in glaciers and subglacial bedrock.

Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zhao, Yue; Xue, Jun; Chen, Chen; Markov, Alexey; Xu, Huiwen; Gong, Wenbin; Han, Wei; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Wang, Rusheng; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Han, Lili; Sysoev, Mikhail

2013-04-01

210

Microwave drilling of bones.  

PubMed

This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under approximately 200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of approximately 1 mm/s. The effect of microwave drilling on mechanical properties of whole ovine tibial and chicken femoral bones drilled in vitro was studied using three-point-bending strength and fatigue tests. Properties were compared to those of geometrically similar bones that were equivalently drilled using the currently accepted mechanical rotary drilling method. Strength of mid-shaft, elastic moduli, and cycles to failure in fatigue were statistically indistinguishable between specimen groups assigned for microwave and mechanical drilling. Carbonized margins around the microwave-drilled hole were approximately 15% the hole diameter. Optical and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the microwave drill produces substantially smoother holes in cortical bone than those produced by a mechanical drill. The hot spot produced by the microwave drill has the potential for overcoming two major problems presently associated with mechanical drilling in cortical and trabecular bone during orthopaedic surgeries: formation of debris and rupture of bone vasculature during drilling. PMID:16761844

Eshet, Yael; Mann, Ronit Rachel; Anaton, Abby; Yacoby, Tomer; Gefen, Amit; Jerby, Eli

2006-06-01

211

Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other (presumably low-temperature) silicates in inclusions is highly disordered and spectrally resembles kerogens. This graphite probably was deposited during later greenschist-facies retrograde metamorphism at about 400-500??C. The degree of crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is shown to be a much more complex function of temperature than is the crystallinity of metamorphic graphite. To some extent, experiments can provide temperature-calibration of the crystallinity index. However, the difference in time scales between experimental runs and geologic processes makes it difficult to infer specific temperatures for naturally precipitated graphite. Copyright ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Pasteris, J.D.; Chou, I.-M.

1998-01-01

212

Real-time drill mud gas logging at the USDP-4 drilling, Unzen volcano, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Unzen conduit drilling project USDP-4, the gas phase dissolved in the drill mud was continuously analyzed. Starting from the volcano's north flank an almost complete gas profile was achieved to the final depth of 1995.75 m in July 2004. Limitations were given due to the extremely difficult drilling conditions. The highly fractured rock formation led to loss of drill mud circulation in the shallow parts of the drill hole. Significant fluid inflow horizons did not occur above 800 m (drill string length). Starting from that depth on, invading fluids were detected with the real-time gas monitoring system. Major variations in the mud gas composition occurred only below a depth of 1000 m. Of major importance are fluid inflow zones with high 3He/ 4He at depths of 1555 m (7.3 R A), 1755.5 m (7.48 R A) and 1977.4 m (6.21 R A). These values indicate a significant influence of fluids with mantle signature. Furthermore, enhanced methane, radon and helium concentrations were also detected at specific depth. These detected major fluid- and gas inflow horizons may be able to explain magmatic degassing processes, related to the Unzen's eruption mechanism. This is generally true for the main fluid inflow zones and especially for the detected inflows at 1555 m, 1755.5 m and 1977.4 m. Furthermore, a correlation between lithology and gas composition was observed. Higher H 2S concentrations were detected while drilling in pyrite-rich rocks. Cracks and fissures as well as lithological changes are often correlated with increasing amounts of gas. Trends with depth, from a minor to a more magmatic influenced regime were observed together with a change in hydrothermal alteration of the surrounding rock. This corresponds with the magmatic conduit zone which was penetrated at a depth of 1600 m, and supports the model of a high influence of hydrothermal fluid, accelerating cooling and mineral alteration.

Tretner, Andreas; Zimmer, Martin; Erzinger, Jörg; Nakada, Setsuya; Saito, Masaki

2008-07-01

213

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

214

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1989-05-09

215

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM); Lundin, Ralph L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

216

Robotic Planetary Drill Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

2010-01-01

217

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activities enabled the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. The SSSDP exceeded its target depth of 10,000 feet, and a comprehensive set of cuttings, cores, and downhole logs was obtained. Two flow tests at different depths were successfully completed. Hydrologic connection between the different producing horizons, however, made the data from the deeper test difficult to interpret. Temperature logging by the Geological Survey and Sandia National Laboratories to establish the equilibrium profile continued until August of 1987. The SSSDP provides a model for scientific cooperation among government agencies, universities, and private industry.

Sass, J.H.

1988-01-01

218

Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto  

SciTech Connect

To date, 71 goethermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion - the most important aspect for the success of a well - that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300/sup 0/C (572/sup 0/F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

Dominguez, B.; Sanchez, G.

1981-01-01

219

Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto  

SciTech Connect

To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

1981-01-01

220

Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).  

PubMed

The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (?90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

2014-10-01

221

Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

Not Available

1986-12-01

222

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... impacts that could accrue from the use of cooling liquids during rock drilling. Our discussion of ...

223

Ovarian Drilling for Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Ovarian drilling for infertility This fact sheet was developed ... modified wedge resection, and other names. What is ovarian drilling and how does it work? Women with ...

224

Deep Sea Drilling Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

Kaneps, Ansis

1977-01-01

225

76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by reason of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China...Commerce that imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China...public hearing to be held in connection therewith was given by posting...February 2011), entitled Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from...

2011-03-03

226

75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided...subsidized imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China...public conference to be held in connection therewith was given by posting...March 2010), entitled Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from...

2010-03-08

227

Combination offshore drilling rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with

D. B. Lorenz; J. S. II Laid

1986-01-01

228

HydroPulse Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

J.J. Kolle

2004-04-01

229

Indian Ocean proposed drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO\\/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the

Joseph R. Curray

1984-01-01

230

Drilling through gas hydrates formations: possible problems and suggested solution  

E-print Network

, circulation rate and drilling fluid density. The rate of penetration in offshore wells contributes largely to the final cost of the drilling process. These 3 parameters have been linked in the course of this research in order to suggest an optimum rate...

Amodu, Afolabi Ayoola

2009-05-15

231

Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products. Topical report, September 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses the development and testing of two products designed to advance the application of underbalanced drilling techniques. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment. The program predicts pressure and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test well measurements, and field data. This model does not handle air or mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. An incompressible drilling fluid was developed that utilizes lightweight solid additives (hollow glass spheres) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. This fluid is designed for underbalanced drilling situations where compressible lightweight fluids are inadequate. In addition to development of these new products, an analysis was performed to determine the market potential of lightweight fluids, and a forecast of underbalanced drilling in the USA over the next decade was developed. This analysis indicated that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30 percent of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the USA within the next ten years.

Medley, G.H., Jr; Maurer, W.C.; Liu, G.; Garkasi, A.Y.

1995-09-01

232

Lake Van deep drilling project PALEOVAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ?600,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) was drilled in 2010 supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. This introductory paper provides background information of the deep drilling project and an overview of the studies presented in this special volume by the PALEOVAN science team dealing with chronology, paleomagnetism, paleoenvironmental proxies, geophysical and petrophysical investigations as well as pore-water and fluid transport.

Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

2014-11-01

233

Invert emulsions for well-drilling comprising a polydiorganosiloxane and method therefor  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of emulsions of light and heavy brines in a liquid hydrocarbon is described, using a polydiorganosiloxane bearing at least one polyoxyalkylene radical and at least one monovalent hydrocarbon radical having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms. The emulsions are useful in the well-drilling art as drilling fluids, completion fluids, packer fluids, spacer fluids and workover fluids because of their thermal stability and because they can be formulated to have a relatively high density, with or without added weighting agents.

Romenesko, D.J.; Schiefer, H.M.

1983-04-26

234

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2007-05-22

235

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2008-05-27

236

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2011-08-16

237

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingswood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2012-08-14

238

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E; Perry, Carl Allison

2014-03-04

239

Critical Investigation of Wear Behaviour of WC Drill Bit Buttons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining and petroleum drill bits are subjected to highly abrasive rock and high-velocity fluids that cause severe wear and erosion in service. To augment the rate of penetration and minimize the cost per foot, such drill bits are subjected to increasing rotary speeds and weight. A rotary/percussive drill typically hits the rock 50 times per second with hydraulic impact pressure of about 170-200 bar and feed pressure of about 90-100 bar, while rotating at 75-200 rpm. The drill rig delivers a high-velocity flow of drilling fluid onto the rock surface to dislodge cuttings and cool the bit. The impingement of high-velocity drilling fluid with entrained cuttings accelerates the erosion rate of the bit. Also, high service temperature contributes to softening of the rock for increased penetration. Hence, there is a need to optimize the drilling process and balance the wear rate and penetration rate simultaneously. This paper presents an experimental scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of electroplated (nickel-bonded) diamond drills for different wear modes.

Gupta, Anurag; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

2013-01-01

240

Mud tracer test during soft rock drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on groundwater and aquifer conditions is essential for the analysis of groundwater systems. Fluid sampling and pumping tests in boreholes are used as the standard methods for collecting this information. However, the contamination of groundwater by invaded drilling mud is a serious problem when taking samples from boreholes. While drilling a research borehole in the saltwater-freshwater transition zone on the German North Sea coast, uranine tracer was added to the drilling mud to identify possible contamination. Push-pull-type pumping tests were carried out in the open borehole at depths of 53 and 87 m using a new test design. The uranine concentration of the pumped water decreased exponentially with increasing recovery volume and dropped to 1% of initial concentration after the recovery of 10 invasion volumes. The total fluid loss in the test interval was calculated from the test results and supports the assumption that mud loss can be mainly attributed to the deepest (freshly drilled) part of the borehole. Breakthrough curves from two-dimensional numerical calculations using FEFLOW were fitted to the test data by varying the dispersivity ? and the effective groundwater velocity va. The best results were achieved when ? = 0.02 m and va = 0.28 m/d (values which correspond well with the scale of the experiment and other determinations of groundwater velocity). Thus the mud tracer test procedure not only provides information on the fate of the drilling mud but also on aquifer properties.

Panteleit, B.; Kessels, W.; Binot, F.

2006-11-01

241

8. annual international energy week conference and exhibition: Conference papers. Book 3: Drilling and production operations  

SciTech Connect

The three volumes within this book are subdivided as follows: (1) Drilling Technology -- underbalanced drilling; field and laboratory testing; drilling systems and dynamics; advances in drill bits; coiled tubing and tubulars; advances in drilling fluids; novel/scientific drilling; and drillstrings; (2) Petroleum Production Technology -- environmental health and safety issues; production technology for deepwater; disposal methods for production waste; and offshore facility abandonment; and (3) Offshore Engineering and Operations -- floating production systems; strategic service alliance; offshore facility abandonment; offshore development economics; heavy construction, transportation, and installation for offshore fields; and subsea technology. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1997-07-01

242

Cranial Drilling Tool with Retracting Drill Bit Upon Skull Penetration  

E-print Network

) Enclosed device drilling 5mm bovine bone sample 2 Methods This handheld, portable, cranial drilling device with casing open (right) Enclosed device drilling 5mm bovine bone sample handheld, portable, cranial drilling penetration, the retraction mechanism successfully withdraws the drill bit before damaging soft tissue beneath

243

Rotary Steerable Horizontal Directional Drilling: Red River Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sperry-Sun Drilling, a Halliburton company provides engineering solutions and sets new records for Horizontal and Vertical Displacement Drilling (HVDD). Halliburton Sperry Drilling, Casper, WY, allowed one student to participate in 12-week experiential learning program this summer as HVDD engineer. HVDD is the science of drilling non-vertical wells and can be differentiated into three main groups; Oilfield Directional Drilling (ODD), Utility Installation Directional Drilling (UIDD) and in-seam directional Drilling. Sperry-Sun prior experience with rotary drilling established a number of principles for the configuration of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that would be prone to drilling crooked hole [1]. Combining Measurement While Drilling survey tools (MWD tools) and BHA designs made HVDD possible. Geologists use the MWD survey data to determine the well placement in the stratigraphic sequence. Through the analysis of this data, an apparent dip of the formation can be calculated, and the bit is directed to stay in the target zone of production. Geological modeling assists in directing the well by creating a map of the target zone surface, an Isopach map. The Isopach map provides contour intervals and changes in formation dip. When the inclination of the formation changes the geologist informs the directional drillers to adjust the drill bits. HVDD provides Halliburton the opportunity to reach more production intervals in a given formation sequence [1]. The Down hole motors powered by fluid flow through the drill string create horsepower and rotation of the bit which enables the use of a bend element in the BHA to create the tilt necessary to deviate the wellbore from vertical displacement drilling path. The rotation of Down hole motors is influenced by temperature and aromatics found in water, oil and diesel based mud. The development of HVDD Rotary Steerable tools hold promise to have almost a complete automated process for drilling highly deviated production well holes.

Cherukupally, A.; Bergevin, M.; Jones, J.

2011-12-01

244

Mars Science Laboratory Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

Okon, Avi B.

2010-01-01

245

43 CFR 3260.10 - What types of geothermal drilling operations are covered by these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

(a) The regulations in subparts 3260 through 3267 establish permitting and operating procedures for drilling wells and conducting related activities for the purposes of performing flow tests, producing geothermal fluids, or injecting fluids into a geothermal...

2013-10-01

246

43 CFR 3260.10 - What types of geothermal drilling operations are covered by these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

(a) The regulations in subparts 3260 through 3267 establish permitting and operating procedures for drilling wells and conducting related activities for the purposes of performing flow tests, producing geothermal fluids, or injecting fluids into a geothermal...

2012-10-01

247

43 CFR 3260.10 - What types of geothermal drilling operations are covered by these regulations?  

(a) The regulations in subparts 3260 through 3267 establish permitting and operating procedures for drilling wells and conducting related activities for the purposes of performing flow tests, producing geothermal fluids, or injecting fluids into a geothermal...

2014-10-01

248

ODP drilling at the East Pacific Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origin of the ocean crust by scientific drilling at the axes of mid-ocean ridges is a high priority in the Earth science community, as reflected in the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Long Range Plan, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES) Lithosphere Panel's White Paper, and several reports of the Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE) program. The ODP Long Range Plan provides for over a dozen drilling legs at and near mid-ocean ridges prior to the year 2002, including a multileg drilling program at the East Pacific Rise (EPR).ODP Leg 142 (February-March 1992) was the first of this multi-leg effort and was devoted primarily to continued testing and development of the engineering systems needed for successful drilling of bare rock at mid-ocean ridges. At the same time, it was hoped that drilling would result in cores that could be used to study volcanic and hydrothermal processes, volcanic architecture, fluid flow, and other processes occurring at the active EPR axis.

Storms, M. A.; Reudelhuber, D. H.; Holloway, G. L.; Allan, J.; Batiza, R.

249

Power swivel advances drilling  

SciTech Connect

An automatic drilling system to meet a wide range of offshore and marine aplications is presented. Since it drills in sections of 90 ft, it reduces the number of connections required by two-thirds. At the same time, it speeds up the time of each connection and eliminates the hazard of rotating equipment on the drill floor. It is equipped with an air-oil swivel ring, allowing the pipehandler to freely rotate while air and oil hoses are hooked up.

Not Available

1984-05-01

250

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are reported. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

Varnado, S.G.

1980-07-01

251

Horizontal drilling developments  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

Gust, D.

1997-05-01

252

Remote drill bit loader  

DOEpatents

A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

Dokos, J.A.

1997-12-30

253

Remote drill bit loader  

DOEpatents

A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

Dokos, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

254

Expeditions to Drill Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international collaboration of Earth, ocean, and life scientists that began in 2003, offers scientists worldwide unprecedented opportunities to address a vast array of scientific problems in all submarine settings. Recently, the scientific advisory structure of the proposal-driven IODP scheduled drilling expeditions, targeting critical scientific problems in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Ocean, for 2005 and early 2006 (Figure 1, Table 1). The IODP, which is co-led by Japan and the United States, with strong contributions from the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) and China, is guided by an initial science plan, ``Earth, Oceans, and Life'' (www.iodp.org). For the first time, through the IODP, scientists have at their disposal both a riser (drilling vessel which has a metal tube surrounding the drill pipe that enables the return of drilling fluid and cuttings to the drill ship; the ``riser'' is attached to a ``blow-out preventer'' or shut-off device at the seafloor) and riserless drilling vessel (which lacks a riser pipe and blow-out preventer), as well as mission-specific capabilities such as drilling barges and jack-up rigs for shallow-water and Arctic drilling.

Coffin, Millard F.

2005-04-01

255

Drilling continues upward momentum  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses how the drilling recovery that began during the second half of 1989 is continuing into 1990. On top of this, the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait has caused disarray in oil markets, driving up oil prices, and disrupting access to oil supplies. Potentially, this upheaval could lead to an upward spike in worldwide drilling activity.

Moritis, G.

1990-09-24

256

Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

1998-01-01

257

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

Harvey, Jill (editor)

1989-01-01

258

Automatic drilling control system  

SciTech Connect

An automatic drilling control system is described for a drilling apparatus having a rig with a crown block and a traveling block. A draw works include an engine, a drum powered by the engine, clutches, and controls, a drilling line wound on the drum and rolled up or fed out during drilling by the engine. The drilling line extends through the crown block and the traveling block and connects to a fixed point. The line portion from the crown block to the fixed point is the dead line. The crown block and traveling block form a pulley system for supporting a drill pipe to raise or lower the same during drilling. A hydraulic pressure sensor connects to the dead line to measure the tension. A weight indicator gauge adjacent to the controls connects to the pressure sensor by a hydraulic line. A brake, having a brake handle, controls the rate of feed out of the drilling line to determine the tension on the dead line.

Ball, J.W.

1987-05-05

259

Advanced drilling systems  

SciTech Connect

Drilling is ubiquitous in oil, gas, geothermal, minerals, water well, and mining industries. Drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing power from geothermal energy. Reduced drilling costs will reduce the cost of electricity produced from geothermal resources. Undoubtedly, there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied. However, the breadth and depth of previous efforts in this area almost guarantee that any new efforts will at least initially build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts, coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems, provide the basis for this study.

Pierce, K.G.; Finger, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants, San Diego, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

260

SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

1986-01-01

261

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31

262

Information on commercial disposal facilities that may have received offshore drilling wastes.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations that would establish requirements for discharging synthetic-based drill cuttings from offshore wells into the ocean. Justification for allowing discharges of these cuttings is that the environmental impacts from discharging drilling wastes into the ocean may be less harmful than the impacts from hauling them to shore for disposal. In the past, some onshore commercial facilities that disposed of these cuttings were improperly managed and operated and left behind environmental problems. This report provides background information on commercial waste disposal facilities in Texas, Louisiana, California, and Alaska that received or may have received offshore drilling wastes in the past and are now undergoing cleanup.

Gasper, J. R.; Veil, J. A.; Ayers, R. C., Jr.

2000-08-25

263

Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock  

SciTech Connect

The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

Rowley, J.C.

1984-01-01

264

Research provides clues to hydrate formation and drilling-hazard solutions  

SciTech Connect

Hydrate formation is a growing safety concern for offshore drilling programs, but, despite extensive laboratory research, pragmatic information is still lacking. Formation of hydrates in drilling fluids during a shut-in is the most likely hydrate-associated hazard in deep-water drilling, although the number of documented incidents is small. In addition to the known naturally forming hydrates, laboratory experiments have also identified heavier hydrocarbons found in oil and gas condensate systems and a new hydrate structure. These two factors may increase the range from which hydrate formation can occur. The paper discusses safety concerns, hydrate structures, modeling hydrates, hydrate stability, naturally occurring hydrates, techniques for drilling hydrates, hydrate formation while drilling, drilling fluids and hydrates, and completion fluids.

Szczepanski, R.; Edmonds, B. [Infochem Computer Services Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Brown, N.; Hamilton, T. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom). Offshore Safety Div.

1998-03-09

265

Drilling Advanced Aircraft Structures with PCD (Poly Crystalline Diamond) Drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased usage of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) in the newest generation of commercial aircraft, the opportunity for using PCD drills has also increased. PCD has long been the preferred solution for the drilling of CFRP. However, given the manufacturing demands of commercial aircraft, a single drilling solution would be required to drill all possible material stack combinations

Richard Garrick

266

30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

2011-07-01

267

30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

2012-07-01

268

30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.  

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

2014-07-01

269

30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

2013-07-01

270

Rapid and Quiet Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

2007-01-01

271

Evaluation of Ultrasonic Methods for In-Situ Real-Time Characterization of Drilling Mud  

SciTech Connect

A real time multi-functional ultrasonic sensor system is proposed to provide automated drilling fluid monitoring that can improve the capability and development of slimhole and microhole drilling. This type of reliable, accurate, and affordable drilling fluid monitoring will reduce the overall costs in exploration and production. It will also allow more effective drilling process automation while providing rig personnel a safer and more efficient work environment. Accurate and timely measurements of drilling fluid properties such as flow rate, density, viscosity, and solid loading are key components for characterizing rate of drill penetration, providing early warning of lost circulation, and for use in real-time well control. Continuous drilling fluid monitoring enhances drilling economics by reducing the risk of costly drilling downtime, increasing production performance, and improving well control. Investigations conducted to characterize physical properties of drilling mud indicate that ultrasound can be used to provide real-time, in-situ process monitoring and control. Three types of ultrasonic measurements were evaluated which include analysis of in wall, through wall and direct contact signals. In wall measurements provide acoustic impedance (the slurry density and speed of sound product). Through wall and direct contact measurements provide speed of sound and attenuation. This information is combined to determine physical properties such as slurry density, solids concentration and can be used to detect particle size changes and the presence of low levels of gas. The measurements showed that for the frequency range investigated in-wall measurements were obtained over the slurry density range from 1500 to 2200 kg/m3 (10 to 17 pounds solids per gallon of drilling fluid). Other measurements were obtained at densities in the 1500 to 1800 kg/m3 range. These promising measurement results show that ultrasound can be used for real-time in-situ characterization of the drilling process by monitoring drilling mud characteristics.

Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

2005-06-01

272

Visualization of Stress Distribution on Ultrasonic Vibration Aided Drilling Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrasonically assisted machining is suitable to achieve sub-millimeter drilling on difficult-to-cut materials such as ceramics, hardened steel, glass and heat-resistant steel. However, it is difficult to observe the high-frequency and micron-scale phenomenon of ultrasonic cutting. In this report, high speed camera based on photoelastic analysis realized the visualization of stress distribution on drilling process. For the conventional drilling, the stress distribution diagram showed the intensive stress occurred under the chisel because the chisel edge of drill produces large plastic deformation. On the other hand, the ultrasonic drilling produced spread stress distribution and stress boundary far away from the chisel. Furthermore, chipping or cracking of inner wall of silica glass was influenced considerably by cutting fluid.

Isobe, Hiromi; Uehara, Yusuke; Okada, Manabu; Horiuchi, Tomio; Hara, Keisuke

273

Hydraulic straight hole drill collar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved drill collar for forming relatively straight holes in crooked hole type formations. One or more hydraulic drill collars are connected in series relationship within a drill string above a rotary bit at the point of tangency. Each drill collar includes at least one outwardly opening, longitudinally extending slot formed on the exterior thereof. The slot includes a back

Townson

1985-01-01

274

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

1999-05-25

275

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1999-05-25

276

Subsurface drill string  

DOEpatents

A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

Casper, William L. (Rigby, ID); Clark, Don T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grover, Blair K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mathewson, Rodney O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seymour, Craig A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-10-07

277

Drilling Productivity Report  

EIA Publications

Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

2014-01-01

278

Review of horizontal drilling  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has drilled 350 horizontal wells in the past 8 years in 33 different oil and gas fields. Since the first wells were drilled the technology and its applications have evolved considerably. The paper describes that rapid evolution using four fields as examples. There has been a diversification of well designs as the authors have learnt how to tailor horizontal drilling most effectively to different situations. In many cases wells can be drilled faster and cheaper than 5 years ago, but there are also examples where more elaborate designs have been applied. The geological targeting and evaluation of the wells has also improved. Further evolution is planned with the next step likely to be the wider use of multi-wellbore horizontals.

Ishak, I.B.; Steele, R.P.; Macaulay, R.C.; Stephenson, P.M.; Al Mantheri, S.M.

1995-11-01

279

Sub-Ocean Drilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

1981-01-01

280

Ocean drilling ship chosen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

Richman, Barbara T.

281

Directional drilling pipelay  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

Langner, C.G.

1987-10-20

282

Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers an economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.

Lindstrom, Jason

2010-01-31

283

Controllable pneumatic drill  

SciTech Connect

Pneumatic drills--self-propelled pneumatic shock machines for drilling holes and tunnels in the ground--are widely used in construction, mining and other industries. High performance and reliability, as well as easy service and the applicability in restrictive conductions, are the main advantages of these machines. A controllable machine will make it possible to drill long straight holes and excavate drifts with a given trajectory. The authors describe only the basic mechanisms of the controllable pneumatic drill without the design details. The efficiency of the various types of working members was measured in situ using a standard pneumatic drill IP4603. The pneumatic drill PDU130 is described and has four operation modes, which succeed one another in a certain sequence according to the signals from the control board. The method of remote control signal transmission in the PDU130 makes it possible to transmit all the commands through a single communication channel--the air hose. The original device, developed for this control method, is simple, highly reliable, and universal. It can be used with any type of working member and any pneumatic drive.

Kostylev, A.D.; Cherednikov, E.N.; Karavaev, A.T.; Tupitsyn, K.K.

1986-05-01

284

MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

2010-01-23

285

Effect of eccentricity of twist drill and candle stick drill on delamination in drilling composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling is the most frequently employed operation of secondary machining for fiber-reinforced materials owing to the need for structure joining. Delamination is one of the serious concerns during drilling. Practical experience shows that an eccentric twist drill or an eccentric candle stick drill can degrade the quality of the fiber reinforced material. Comprehensive delamination models for the delamination induced by

C. C. Tsao; H. Hocheng

2005-01-01

286

Self-balancing drilling assembly and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a self-balancing apparatus for automatically compensating certain imbalances which tend to cause vibrations in a rotating drill bit. It comprises: a support body including two ends and first and second circular races defined circumferentially around said support body. The first race disposed near one end of said support body and said second race disposed nearer the other end of said support body; a fluid received in said first race; a fluid received in said second race; pressure compensating means for compensating for pressure differentials between said fluids and a fluid external to said support body; a first plurality of movable balls or rollers disposed in said first race; a second plurality of movable balls or rollers disposed in said second race; a first sleeve receiving the portion of said support body where said first race is defined; and a second sleeve receiving the portion of said support body where said second race is defined.

Beynet, P.A.; Brett, J.F.; Warren, T.M.

1990-03-06

287

Chemically cleaning drilling/completion/packer brines  

SciTech Connect

A process for removing contaminating solids from high density, salt type aqueous drilling/completion/packer fluid prior to its introduction into a well bore. A small effective (e.g., 0.5% volume) of an aliphatic alcohol, 2-ethyl hexanol, and a surface active chemical aid, the amide reaction product of a fatty monobasic acid (oleic) with a secondary amine diethanolamine are thoroughly intermixed into the fluid. After the solids agglomerate, the solids are separated from the fluid before introduction in a solids-free condition into the well bore. The fluid may have a density as high as 19 pounds per gallon and be a brine formed of the sodium, calcium or zinc salts with chloride or bromide anions.

Oliver Jr., J. E.; Singer, A. M.

1985-05-07

288

New drilling rigs  

SciTech Connect

Friede and Goldman Ltd. of New Orleans, Louisiana has a successful drilling rig, the L-780 jack-up series. The triangular-shaped drilling vessel measures 180 x 176 ft. and is equipped with three 352 ft legs including spud cans. It is designed to work in up to 250 ft waters and drill to 20,000 ft depths. The unit is scheduled to begin initial drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico for Arco. Design features are included for the unit. Davie Shipbuilding Ltd. has entered the Mexican offshore market with the signing of a $40,000,000 Canadian contract for a jack-up to work in 300 ft water depths. Baker Marine Corporation has contracted with the People's Republic of China for construction of two self-elevating jack-ups. The units will be built for Magnum Marine, headquartered in Houston. Details for the two rigs are given. Santa Fe International Corporation has ordered a new jack-up rig to work initially in the Gulf of Suez. The newly ordered unit, Rig 136, will be the company's fourth offshore drilling rig now being built in the Far East. Temple Drilling Company has signed a construction contract with Bethlehem Steel for a jack-up to work in 200 ft water depths. Penrod Drilling Company has ordered two additional cantilever type jack-ups for Hitachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd. of Japan. Two semi-submersibles, capable of working in up to 2000 ft water depths, have been ordered by two Liberian companies. Details for these rigs are included. (DP)

Tubb, M.

1981-02-01

289

Effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil development on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years of development drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes effects of drilling with water and synthetic-based drilling muds on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. As such, the paper provides insight on the effects of relatively new synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs), and makes an important contribution to our understanding of the long-term chronic effects of drilling on benthic communities. The Terra Nova Field is located approximately 350 km offshore on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada). Sediment and invertebrate samples were collected in 1997 (baseline) prior to drilling, and subsequently in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations were sampled in each year at distances of less than 1 to approximately 20 km from drill centres. Summary benthic invertebrate community measures examined were total abundance, biomass, richness, diversity and multivariate measures of community composition based on non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (nMDS). Decreases in abundance, biomass and richness were noted at one station located nearest (0.14 km) to a drill centre in some environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years. These decreases coincided with higher levels of tracers of drill muds in sediments (barium and >C10-C21 hydrocarbons). Abundances of selected individual taxa were also examined to help interpret responses when project-related effects on summary measures occurred. Enrichment effects on some tolerant taxa (e.g., the polychaete family Phyllodocidae and the bivalve family Tellinidae) and decreased abundances of sensitive taxa (e.g., the polychaete families Orbiniidae and Paraonidae) were detected to within approximately 1-2 km from discharge source. Lagged responses three to five years after drilling started were noted for Phyllodocidae and Tellinidae, suggesting chronic or indirect effects. Overall, results of benthic community analyses at Terra Nova indicate that effects on summary measures of community composition were spatially limited but, as seen elsewhere, some taxa were more sensitive to drilling discharges.

Paine, Michael D.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Pocklington, Patricia; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

2014-12-01

290

Advanced Seismic While Drilling System  

SciTech Connect

A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

2008-06-30

291

Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs  

SciTech Connect

Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

1995-12-31

292

Drilling technology/GDO  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

Kelsey, J.R.

1985-01-01

293

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol; Magazine, Astrobiology

294

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol

2009-07-13

295

Drilling optimization: A new approach to optimize drilling parameters and improve drilling efficiency  

SciTech Connect

In this work a study of minimization of drilling costs is presented and discussed. The drilling cost will be analyzed not for one single bit, as usual, but for the drilling operation of the entire well section from its initial to final depth. The costs that will be taken into account are those incurred during the drilling operation. Other related costs like casing, cement, logging, etc., will not be considered in the problem since these costs will occur independent of the way that the well is drilled. During the drilling operation two major costs will be studied, the drilling cost itself and the cost of tripping when changing bits. The main objective of this work is to find, for an entire drilling section of the well, the optimum drilling parameters for each bit, and the depth where each bit will be changed.

Cunha, J.C.S.; Prado, M.G.; Bonet, L. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-12-31

296

31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

297

Environmental monitoring of offshore drilling for petroleum exploration (MAPEM): A brief overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Deep-Sea Research II includes the results of the Project Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Drilling for Petroleum Exploration—MAPEM, conducted between 2001 and 2003, in a deep-water location at Campos Basin, Brazil, subjected to the effects of the discharge of non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) impregnated drill cuttings.The exploratory program for the marine area includes the drilling of an expressive

Elírio E. Toldo Jr.; Ricardo N. Ayup Zouain

2009-01-01

298

Design of a diesel exhaust-gas purification system for inert-gas drilling  

SciTech Connect

To combat the serious oxygen corrosion of drill pipe when a low density drilling fluid (air or mist) is used in geothermal drilling, a system has been designed that produces an inert gas (essentially nitrogen) to be substituted for air. The system fits on three flatbed trailers, is roadable and produces 2000 scfm of gas. The projected cost for gas is slightly less than $2.00 per thousand standard cubic feet.

Caskey, B.C.

1982-01-01

299

Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation  

SciTech Connect

On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two meters in an actual drilling operation, The relief well is nearing 14,000 feet deep, targeting an intercept of the first well near 17,600 feet. The relief well is expected to be completed in about 30 days. Several other Sandia instruments being developed for geothermal drilling are also being evaluated during this operation, Successful performance of these instruments on this important drilling job will reinforce our efforts to commercialize this technology for the geothermal and oil and gas drilling industries. Sandia's Rolling Float Meter was developed through the Lost Circulation Technology Program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. It monitors drilling fluid returns to rapidly detect loss of circulation during geothermal drilling. Lost circulation is particularly prevalent in geothermal wells, and can add as much as 10% to the total cost of drilling the well. Consequently, rapid detection and treatment of lost circulation is necessary for cost- effective geothermal drilling. Sandia has been evaluating and demonstrating the capabilities of the RFM to the geothermal industry for several years. In addition to lost circulation, the RFM is also useful for accurately detecting well kicks. Contacts have been made with mud logging companies that are involved with both geothermal and oil and gas drilling operations.

Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

1999-04-27

300

Combination drilling and skiving tool  

DOEpatents

A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

Stone, William J. (Kansas City, MO)

1989-01-01

301

Ocean Drilling Program (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... FOR GEOSCIENCES (GEO) OCEAN SCIENCES (OCE) Ocean Drilling Program The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP ... scale, the Earth's crust beneath the ocean in order to learn more about the composition, structure ...

302

Managed pressure drilling techniques and tools  

E-print Network

The economics of drilling offshore wells is important as we drill more wells in deeper water. Drilling-related problems, including stuck pipe, lost circulation, and excessive mud cost, show the need for better drilling technology. If we can solve...

Martin, Matthew Daniel

2006-08-16

303

30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder their...

2012-07-01

304

30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder their...

2013-07-01

305

30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a)...

2011-07-01

306

30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder their...

2011-07-01

307

30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.  

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder their...

2014-07-01

308

30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a)...

2013-07-01

309

30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.  

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a)...

2014-07-01

310

30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a)...

2012-07-01

311

Proposed Drill Sites  

DOE Data Explorer

Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

Lane, Michael

312

Proposed Drill Sites  

SciTech Connect

Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

Lane, Michael

2013-06-28

313

DRILLING MACHINES GENERAL INFORMATION  

E-print Network

drill presses is circular and built rugged and solid. The column supports the head and the sleeve MACHINES Lubrication Lubrication is important because of the heat and friction generated by the moving parts. Follow the manufacturer's manual for proper lubrication methods. Clean each machine after use

Gellman, Andrew J.

314

Red sea drillings.  

PubMed

Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

1973-01-26

315

Laser Oil and Gas Well Drilling Demonstration Videos  

DOE Data Explorer

ANL's Laser Applications Laboratory and collaborators are examining the feasibility of adapting high-power laser technology to drilling for gas and oil. The initial phase is designed to establish a scientific basis for developing a commercial laser drilling system and determine the level of gas industry interest in pursuing future research. Using lasers to bore a hole offers an entirely new approach to mechanical drilling. The novel drilling system would transfer light energy from lasers on the surface, down a borehole by a fiber optic bundle, to a series of lenses that would direct the laser light to the rock face. Researchers believe that state-of-the-art lasers have the potential to penetrate rock many times faster than conventional boring technologies - a huge benefit in reducing the high costs of operating a drill rig. Because the laser head does not contact the rock, there is no need to stop drilling to replace a mechanical bit. Moreover, researchers believe that lasers have the ability to melt the rock in a way that creates a ceramic sheath in the wellbore, eliminating the expense of buying and setting steel well casing. A laser system could also contain a variety of downhole sensors, including visual imaging systems that could communicate with the surface through the fiber optic cabling. Earlier studies have been promising, but there is still much to learn. One of the primary objectives of the new study will be to obtain much more precise measurements of the energy requirements needed to transmit light from surface lasers down a borehole with enough power to bore through rocks as much as 20,000 feet or more below the surface. Another objective will be to determine if sending the laser light in sharp pulses, rather than as a continuous stream, could further increase the rate of rock penetration. A third aspect will be to determine if lasers can be used in the presence of drilling fluids. In most wells, thick fluids called "drilling muds" are injected into the borehole to wash out rock cuttings and keep water and other fluids from the underground formations from seeping into the well. The technical challenge will be to determine whether too much laser energy is expended to clear away the fluid where the drilling is occurring. (Copied with editing from http://www.ne.anl.gov/facilities/lal/laser_drilling.html). The demonstration videos, provided here in QuickTime format, are accompanied by patent documents and PDF reports that, together, provide an overall picture of this fascinating project.

316

Mars Science Laboratory Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the bit is a thick-walled maraging steel collection tube allowing the powdered sample to be augured up the hole into the sample chamber. For robustness, the wall thickness of the DBA was maximized while still ensuring effective sample collection. There are four recesses in the bit tube that are used to retain the fresh bits in their bit box. The rotating bit is supported by a back-to-back duplex bearing pair within a housing that is connected to the outer DBA housing by two titanium diaphragms. The only bearings on the drill in the sample flow are protected by a spring-energized seal, and an integrated shield that diverts the ingested powdered sample from the moving interface. The DBA diaphragms provide radial constraint of the rotating bit and form the sample chambers. Between the diaphragms there is a sample exit tube from which the sample is transferred to the CHIMRA. To ensure that the entire collected sample is retained, no matter the orientation of the drill with respect to gravity during sampling, the pass-through from the forward to the aft chamber resides opposite to the exit tube.

Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

2012-01-01

317

Optimizing remote offshore drilling operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company's experience in using mini-computers as an aid in controlling drilling operations has been an unqualified success. Current uses include optimization of drilling operations, storage and retrieval of well data and word processing of standard programs. As a result, overall drilling costs, problems and manpower requirements have been lessened. This work discusses the computer system, its

W. F. Deerhake; F. Khalaf; J. A. Seehafer

1981-01-01

318

Offshore Drilling From Ice Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method successfully developed for drilling offshore from a floating ice platform. This method has allowed exploration wells to be drilled economically in the Canadian Arctic islands without years of waiting for sophisticated offshore drilling vessels to be developed, financed, and built to operate in the severe ice conditions prevalent in the area.

G. L. Hood; H. J. Strain; D. J. Baudais

1976-01-01

319

Drilling Precise Orifices and Slots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reaction control thrustor injector requires precisely machined orifices and slots. Tooling setup consists of rotary table, numerical control system and torque sensitive drill press. Components used to drill oxidizer orifices. Electric discharge machine drills fuel-feed orifices. Device automates production of identical parts so several are completed in less time than previously.

Richards, C. W.; Seidler, J. E.

1983-01-01

320

Thermal regime of the State 2--14 well, Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature logs were made repeatedly during breaks in drilling and both during and after flow tests in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well (State 2--14). The purpose of these logs was to assist in identifying zones of fluid loss or grain and to characterize reservoir temperatures. At the conclusion of the active phase of the project, a series of

J. H. Sass; S. S. Priest; L. E. Duda; C. C. Carson; J. D. Hendricks; L. C. Robison

1988-01-01

321

Numerical simulations of wellbore stability in under-balanced-drilling wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling underbalanced is often used to prevent formation damage, avoid lost circulation, and increase rate of penetration. However, it is also risky and may lead to wellbore collapse due to lack of positive support provided by the hydrostratic wellbore fluid column. Hence, the application of underbalanced drilling (UBD) should be evaluated thoroughly through the use of in-situ stresses and rock

Saeed Salehi; Geir Hareland; Runar Nygaard

2010-01-01

322

Mud hydraulics. Pt. 1. Operating window outlines drilling-mud optimization limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost every well optimizes mechanical factors to produce the best drilling rate. Only a few optimize fluid properties. This series approaches mud properties as additional variables which can be used to increase drill rates, even when the mechanical variables are already optimized. The series uses a concept, operating window, which graphically defines an envelope of safe operating and mud conditions.

1976-01-01

323

Improved diamond coring bits developed for dry and chip-flush drilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two rotary diamond bit designs, one operating with a chip-flushing fluid, the second including auger section to remove drilled chips, enhance usefulness of tool for exploratory and industrial core-drilling of hard, abrasive mineral deposits and structural masonry.

Decker, W. E.; Hampe, W. R.; Hampton, W. H.; Simon, A. B.

1971-01-01

324

System and method for monitoring drill string characteristics during drilling  

SciTech Connect

A measurement system detects a downhole drilling variable in relation to the rotational orientation of a drill string during drilling. The system includes a downhole reference signal generator and a downhole variable signal generator. The reference signal generator is coupled downhole to the drill string for generating a downhole reference (DR) signal indicative of the angular relationship between the angular orientation of a lower portion of the drill string about its axis and a directional reference, such as gravity or the earth's magnetic field. The downhole variable signal generator detects downhole parameters

Tanguy, D. R.

1984-10-30

325

Drilling waste minimization in the Hugoton field, southwest Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The described drilling waste minimization program implemented by Mobil in the Hugoton gas field is significant because it represents a successful application of technology previously unseen in the Kansas Mid-Continent area. This drilling waste minimization program significantly reduces pollution potential, improves compliance assurance, and decreases overall waste-related costs. The key element of this program is a mechanical solids control system consisting of a semi-closed loop centrifuge flocculation dewatering process that removes drilling solids for burial on location. The system provides environmental (80 percent reduced waste volumes and 70 percent reduction in fresh water usage) and economic ($307,000/358 well program) incentives, as well as numerous indirect benefits over conventionally used drilling solids control methods. Indirect benefits include more accurate formation evaluation (less solids interference with wireline logs), minimized wellbore damage (reduced fluid loss and washout), and goodwill and improved relations with regulators and landowners. The described drilling program is complemented by other operations-oriented waste management initiatives and validated by tracking waste volumes and costs. Mobil and its drilling and mud contractors partnered the initiative. The described improved drilling solids control technology is now available for use in the Kansas Mid-Continent area by Mobil and other operators and has resulted in improved operations efficiency.

Robb, A.J. III [Mobil Business Resources Corp., Dallas, TX (United States). Remediation Services; Beaty, T.D. [Miller and Associates, Evangeline, LA (United States)

1997-07-01

326

Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program Annual Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the timely development of geothermal resources in the US. The Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a development program aimed at reducing well costs through improvements in the technology used to drill and complete geothermal wells. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been selected to manage this program for DOE/DGE. Based on analyses of existing well costs, cost reduction goals have been set for the program. These are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987. To meet these goals, technology development in a wide range of areas is required. The near-term goal will be approached by improvements in conventional, rotary drilling technology. The long-term goal will require the development of an advanced drilling and completion system. Currently, the program is emphasizing activities directed at the near-term cost reduction goal, but increased emphasis on advanced system development is anticipated as time progresses. The program is structured into six sub-elements: Drilling Hardware, Drilling Fluids, Completion Technology, Lost Circulation Control Methods, Advanced Drilling Systems, and Supporting Technology. Technology development in each of these areas is conducted primarily through contracts with private industries and universities. Some projects are conducted internally by Sandia. This report describes the program, status, and results of ongoing R and D within the program for the 1980 fiscal year.

Varnado, S. G.

1981-03-01

327

30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill to a...

2011-07-01

328

30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill to a...

2012-07-01

329

30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill to a...

2013-07-01

330

30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.  

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill to a...

2014-07-01

331

Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures  

DOEpatents

A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

Mansure, Arthur James (Alburquerque, NM); Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona (The Woodlands, TX)

2010-11-30

332

Taguchi analysis of drilling quality associated with core drill in drilling of composite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thrust force and surface roughness of core drill with drill parameters (grit size of diamond, thickness, feed rate and\\u000a spindle speed) in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate was experimentally investigated in this study.\\u000a A L27 (313) orthogonal array and signal-to-noise (S\\/N) were employed to analyze the effect of drill parameters. Using Taguchi method\\u000a for design of a

C. C. Tsao

2007-01-01

333

Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling  

SciTech Connect

Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

1996-03-01

334

Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.  

PubMed

Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24698045

Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

2014-04-01

335

Mud to cement technology proven in offshore drilling project  

Microsoft Academic Search

One problem with conventional cements is the incompatibility of Portland cement and the drilling mud. Expensive preflushes and spacer fluids have been used, often with limited success, to attempt to separate mud and Portland cement effectively. Under downhole conditions, most spacers are ineffective in preventing high viscosities and cement contamination problems which lead to poor primary cement jobs. One solution

K. Javanmardi; K. D. Flodberg; J. J. Nahm

1993-01-01

336

Hydraulic lift inner barrel in a drill string coring tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatically operable hydraulic lift inner barrel is devised to lift the inner tube of the core barrel on a drill string. An inner mandrel is axially disposed within the outer tube of the coring tool. An outer piston which is selectively locked to the inner mandrel is telescopically and concentrically disposed about the inner mandrel. Fluid is selectively diverted

1985-01-01

337

PDC Drill Bit Design and Field Application Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper traces the development of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits from their introduction in 1973. Such design features as body materials, crown profiles, cutter density, and cutter exposure and their effect on bit performance are discussed. In addition, the paper reviews various aspects of bit applications engineering, including bit hydraulics, drilling fluids, directional behavior, and formation types.

Callin Kerr

1988-01-01

338

Drill stem testing apparatus with multiple pressure sensing ports  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a drill stem testing apparatus includes a housing leaving a full-opening bore, and a main test valve for opening and closing the bore in order to flow and shut-in the formation interval being tested. The apparatus further includes a first port means for communicating the pressure of fluids in the

Upchurch

1985-01-01

339

High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

2012-01-01

340

Horizontal drilling spurs optimism  

SciTech Connect

1990 proved to be an exciting year for horizontal wells. This budding procedure appears to be heading for the mainstream oil and gas market, because it can more efficiently recover hydrocarbons from many reservoirs throughout the world. This paper reports on an estimated 1,000 wells that were drilled horizontally (all laterals) in 1990, with the Austin Chalk formation of Texas accounting for about 65% of all world activity. The Bakken Shale play in Montana and North Dakota proved to be the second most active area, with an estimated 90 wells drilled. Many operators in this play have indicated the bloom may be off the Bakken because of poor results outside the nose of the formation, further complicated by some of the harshest rock, reservoir and completion problems posed to horizontal technology.

Crouse, P.C. (Philip C. Crouse and Associates, Inc., Horizontal Advisors Unit, Dallas, TX (US))

1991-02-01

341

High temperature piezoelectric drill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460°C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500°C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper.

Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

2012-04-01

342

Marine drilling rigs '94  

SciTech Connect

Listings in this paper contain performance data for each of 582 mobile offshore drilling units in the worldwide competitive and nationalized fleet. For the four categories shown, the totals are: jackups (372); semi-submersibles (137); drillships and barges (57); and submersibles, excluding inland barges, (16). Owners and their rigs are listed alphabetically. Units of the same class are grouped under a typical photograph. Rig managers, if different than owners, are identified in data remarks. An index of rig names is also provided.

Not Available

1994-12-01

343

Orbital drilling kinematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In orbital drilling the tool (special end mill) moves relative to the work piece on a helical course. Because of the three-dimensional\\u000a tool path and the superimposed rotary cutting motion a complex machining motion results which determines the contact conditions\\u000a of the tool. The objective of this study is to describe mathematically the occurring cutting conditions over the engagement\\u000a angle

E. Brinksmeier; Sascha Fangmann; I. Meyer

2008-01-01

344

High temperature piezoelectric drill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460°C), high pressure (~9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000°C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600°C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500°C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500°C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

2009-03-01

345

An evaluation of flowmeters for the detection of kicks and lost circulation during drilling  

SciTech Connect

An independent evaluation of current industry standard and state-of-the-art drilling fluid inflow and outflow meters was conducted during the drilling of a geothermal exploratory well. Four different types of fluid inflow meters and three different types of fluid outflow meters were tested and evaluated during actual drilling operations. The tested drilling fluid inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flow meters, and a Doppler ultrasonic flow meter. On the return flow line, a standard paddle meter, an acoustic level meter, and a prototype rolling float meter were evaluated to measure drilling fluid outflow rates. The prototype outflow meter utilizes a rolling float which rides on the surface of the flow thereby measuring the fluid height in the pipe. Both the prototype meter and the conventional paddle meter were also extensively tested under a variety of drilling conditions in a full-scale laboratory test facility. The meters were evaluated and compared on the basis of reliability and accuracy, and the results are presented in the paper.

Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, K.E. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

346

Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter  

DOEpatents

A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

Glowka, David A. (Austin, TX); Raymond, David W. (Edgewood, NM)

2002-01-01

347

Drill wear: its effect on the diameter of drilled holes  

E-print Network

, Professor 8. h. Wykes of the Industrial Engineering Departnent for his assistance in the preparation of the photomicrographs, and Kr. D. H. Kinberiing of the Physics Departsent for his assist- ance in the fabrication of various pieces of equipnent used...- lished work oa the subject of drilliag. Hia work includes studies of various drill angles, torque recgulremeats, cutting pressures, chips obtained, drilliag time, aad drill wear from a theoretical viewpoint. He was able to determiae that drill wear...

Reichert, William Frederick

1955-01-01

348

Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.  

PubMed

This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth. PMID:24117079

Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

2014-01-01

349

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

1992-04-01

350

Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism  

E-print Network

Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism Chen-Feng Youa, *, Joris. M prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 m the accretionary prisms. Recent Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drill holes in the Barbados ridge complex, the Peru

Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

351

How offshore arctic conditions affect drilling mud disposal  

SciTech Connect

Reports on a series of studies and tests, covering a time period from early 1979 to mid-1981, conducted to examine both below-ice and above-ice discharge. Local, state, and federal concern has been expressed over the discharge of drilling effluent in shallow arctic seas contiguous to the northern coast of Alaska. The 1979 studies included monitoring environmental boundary conditions, test discharges of drilling effluents above and below the ice, analysis of drilling effluents, benthic studies, and toxicity testing. Studies in 1980 and 1981 included grain size, trace metal, and hydrocarbon analysis of drilling effluents and seafloor sediments, depositional monitoring, and photographic monitoring of individual aboveice sites. Results show that the fate of drilling fluids disposed of on top of the ice will vary with location within the lease area. Drilling effluents discharged in nearshore areas subject to overflow flooding from major rivers would be widely dispersed during the initial stages of breakup. Depending on the movement of the parent ice sheet during the later stages of breakup, solids may either be deposited on the seafloor beneath the disposal site or be carried with the broken ice sheet and be widely (spatially) and thinly deposited on the seafloor.

Miller, R.C.; Britch, R.P.; Hillman, S.O.; Shafer, R.V.

1982-12-01

352

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF UNDERBALANCED DRILLING PRODUCTS. Final Report, Oct 1995 - July 2001  

SciTech Connect

Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s and coiled-tubing drilling in the 1990s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses developments under this DOE project to develop products aimed at overcoming these problems. During Phase I of the DOE project, market analyses showed that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30% of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the U.S.A. within the next ten years. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment during Phase I. FOAM predicts circulating pressures and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test data and field data. This model does not handle two-phase flow or air and mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. This FOAM model was greatly expanded during Phase II including adding an improved foam rheological model and a ''matching'' feature that allows the model to be field calibrated. During Phase I, a lightweight drilling fluid was developed that uses hollow glass spheres (HGS) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. HGS fluids have several advantages over aerated fluids, including they are incompressible, they reduce corrosion and vibration problems, they allow the use of mud-pulse MWD tools, and they eliminate high compressor and nitrogen costs. Phase II tests showed that HGS significantly reduce formation damage with water-based drilling and completion fluids and thereby potentially can increase oil and gas production in wells drilled with water-based fluids. Extensive rheological testing was conducted with HGS drilling and completion fluids during Phase II. These tests showed that the HGS fluids act similarly to conventional fluids and that they have potential application in many areas, including underbalanced drilling, completions, and riserless drilling. Early field tests under this project are encouraging. These led to limited tests by industry (which are also described). Further field tests and cost analyses are needed to demonstrate the viability of HGS fluids in different applications. Once their effectiveness is demonstrated, they should find widespread application and should significantly reduce drilling costs and increase oil and gas production rates. A number of important oilfield applications for HGS outside of Underbalanced Drilling were identified. One of these--Dual Gradient Drilling (DGD) for deepwater exploration and development--is very promising. Investigative work on DGD under the project is reported, along with definition of a large joint-industry project resulting from the work. Other innovative products/applications are highlighted in the report including the use of HGS as a cement additive.

William C. Maurer; William J. McDonald; Thomas E. Williams; John H. Cohen

2001-07-01

353

Portable rapid and quiet drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand-held drilling device, and method for drilling using the device, has a housing, a transducer within the housing, with the transducer effectively operating at ultrasonic frequencies, a rotating motor component within the housing and rigid cutting end-effector rotationally connected to the rotating motor component and vibrationally connected to the transducer. The hand-held drilling device of the present invention operates at a noise level of from about 50 decibels or less.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mireca (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Chang, Zenshea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

2010-01-01

354

Drill string gas data  

SciTech Connect

Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.

Siciliano, E.R.

1998-05-12

355

Lunar drill and test apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.

Norrington, David W.; Ardoin, Didier C.; Alexander, Stephen G.; Rowland, Philip N.; Vastakis, Frank N.; Linsey, Steven L.

1988-01-01

356

Fluid Power Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the fundamental concepts important to fluid power, which includes both pneumatic (gas) and hydraulic (liquid) systems. Both systems contain four basic components: reservoir/receiver, pump/compressor, valve, cylinder. Students learn background information about fluid power—both pneumatic and hydraulic systems—including everyday applications in our world (bulldozers, front-end loaders, excavators, chair height lever adjustors, door closer dampers, dental drills, vehicle brakes) and related natural laws. After a few simple teacher demos, they learn about the four components in all fluid power systems, watch two 26-minute online videos about fluid power, complete a crossword puzzle of fluid power terms, and conduct a task card exercise. This prepares them to conduct the associated hands-on activity, using the Portable Fluid Power Demonstrator (teacher-prepared kits) to learn more about the properties of gases and liquids in addition to how forces are transmitted and multiplied within these systems.

2014-09-18

357

Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling  

SciTech Connect

An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

Kenneth Oglesby

2008-12-01

358

New drilling rigs  

SciTech Connect

Petronas recently commissioned its first offshore jack-up drilling rig at Promet, Singapore. The $49 million jack-up Parameswara will undertake both exploration and development activities in Petronas Carigali's exploration block off the eastern coast of Malaysia. The block measures 19,800 sq. km. Initially, the rig will be located at the Duyong gas field. Based on Baker Marine Corporation's BMC 300 design, the 65 X 64 X 8 m rig is capable of working in water depths of up to 91.4 m and is able to drill to a depth of 7,600 m. It has three triangular open-lattice truss-type legs, each 131 m long. Prominent features include four-tier living quarters which can house 90 men, three cranes of boom length 30.48 m each, a helideck, mess hall, galley, and recreation room. The rig is built to American Bureau of Shipping standards. This paper describes the transport, installation and ballast operations involved in situating the Petronas rig in the Duyong field.

Tubb, M.

1983-03-01

359

Spills, drills, and accountability  

SciTech Connect

NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

NONE

1993-12-31

360

Drill collar tester  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for ultrasonically inspecting the structural integrity of a drill collar coupling, the apparatus responsive to electrical signals provided by a computer. The apparatus consists of: (a) a substantially cylindrical housing; (b) a positioning means mounted on a portion of the housing; (c) a circular platform disposed adjacent to the housing, a plurality of cam followers mounted symmetrically around the platform. The cam followers having contact surfaces substantially parallel to the top surface of the platform; (d) a substantially rigid connecting member joining the positioning means to the platform; (e) an ultrasonic transducing means for transmitting ultrasonic waves in response to a first electrical signal and receiving echoes of the ultrasonic waves and converting them to a second electrical signal; the transducing means mounted proximate a portion of the arcuate edge of the platform and projecting radially from the edge; the housing being removably engageable to the drill collar coupling whereby the contact surfaces of the cam followers contact the mouth of the coupling rotatably supporting the platform thereupon.

Pagano, D.A.

1988-11-22

361

Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

2014-12-01

362

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of...

2012-07-01

363

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of...

2010-07-01

364

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of...

2011-07-01

365

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of...

2013-07-01

366

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of...

2014-07-01

367

30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system to pressurize the equipment...

2013-07-01

368

30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a) A system to pressurize the...

2012-07-01

369

30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a) A system to pressurize the...

2013-07-01

370

30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.  

...SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system to pressurize the equipment...

2014-07-01

371

30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system to pressurize the equipment...

2012-07-01

372

30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.  

...HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a) A system to pressurize the...

2014-07-01

373

30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with: (a) A system to pressurize the...

2011-07-01

374

30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7801 Jet drills. Jet piercing drills shall be provided with— (a) A system to pressurize the equipment...

2011-07-01

375

30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1605 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...of this part, as appropriate. (b) Fitness of drilling unit. (1) Drilling...shall provide information and data on the fitness of the drilling unit to...

2010-07-01

376

Jack-up rig for marine drilling  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a mobile drilling platform of the jack -up type equipped with a special system which allows the said drilling platform to work as a drilling derrick and alternatively as a hoisting crane rig for marine service.

Mueller, S. R.

1981-05-26

377

Comparative toxicity of offshore and oil-added drilling muds to larvae of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes intermedius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore drilling fluids (muds) varied widely in their toxicity to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes intermedius) larvae. The 96-hr LC50s for the eleven drilling muds tested ranged from 142 to >100,000 ppm (µl\\/L). There was a significant correlation between oil content of the drilling muds and their toxicity. Furthermore, addition of diesel oil (No. 2 fuel oil) or mineral oil to an

Philip J. Conklin; K. Ranga Rao

1984-01-01

378

Calculator programs determine drilling hydraulics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two TI-59 programs were prepared for the calculation of drilling hydraulics as set forth in the Hughes Tool Co. publication, Practical Hydraulics. One presents the stepwise determination of drill string pressure drop while the second, to be published in a future issue, calculates jet area, jet velocity and impact force along with bit pressure drop and hydraulic horsepower. Another section

Landry

1987-01-01

379

INTERNATIONAL CONTINENTAL SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROGRAM  

E-print Network

, Germany June 22, 2011 07-2011 Revised Workshop Proposal Oman Ophiolite Drilling Project, Workshop Proposal Peter Kelemen (USA), Ali Al-Rajhi (Oman), Shoji Arai (Japan), Donna Blackman (USA), Georges Ceuleneer, Thank you very much for submitting a Workshop Proposal on the "Oman Ophiolite Drilling Project", which

380

Relating horsepower to drilling productivity  

SciTech Connect

Many technological advancements have been made in explosive products and applications over the last 15 years resulting in productivity and cost gains. However, the application of total energy (engine horsepower) in the majority of rotary drilling technology, has remained virtually unchanged over that period. While advancements have been made in components, efficiency, and types of hydraulic systems used on drills, the application of current hydraulic technology to improve drilling productivity has not been interactive with end users. This paper will investigate how traditional design assumptions, regarding typical application of horsepower in current rotary drill systems, can actually limit productivity. It will be demonstrated by numeric analysis how changing the partitioning of available hydraulic energy can optimize rotary drill productivity in certain conditions. Through cooperative design ventures with drill manufacturers, increased penetration rates ranging from 20% to 100% have been achieved. Productivity was increased initially on some rigs by careful selection of optional hydraulic equipment. Additional gains were made in drilling rates by designing the rotary hydraulic circuit to meet the drilling energies predicted by computer modeling.

Givens, R.; Williams, G.; Wingfield, B.

1996-12-31

381

Middle Dam (Maine) Well Drilling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist Martha Nielsen examines cuttings as a drill crew works to drill a new monitoring well at USGS station 443647070552303 (ME-OW400A) near Middle Dam on Lower Richardson Lake. The existing well heaved due to frost and had to be replaced....

382

Well drilling apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and a method for drilling through igneous rock and other hard materials are described. Projectiles or shaped charges are impelled into the rock immediately below a conventional drill bit at various locations on the rock. Projectiles may be impelled one at a time or sequenced in any desired manner. They may be fired in several ways and may

R. L. Alvis; M. M. Newsom

1977-01-01

383

OM300 Direction Drilling Module  

SciTech Connect

OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

MacGugan, Doug

2013-08-22

384

Cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill: Design and Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directly obtaining the subglacial bedrock samples is one of the most important tasks of Antarctic exploration in the future, which has great significance to research the formation and evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, research the environment at the junction of the ice and bedrock, and research the geologic structure in Polar Regions. To drill through ice and bedrock, a new modified version of the cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill 'IBED' is designed. IBED drill has modulus construction. The upper part includes four sections: cable termination, slip rings section, antitorque system, electronic pressure chamber. The motor-gear system is differed by rotation speed of the output shaft of the gear-reducer. All modulus contain 3 kW AC3 × 380 V submersible motor. Gear-reducer for drilling in ice lowers the drill bit rotation speed to 100 rpm; gear reducer for subglacial drilling lowers the drill bit rotation speed to 500 rpm. In addition, module for dry core drilling contains vacuum pump for near bottom air reverse circulation instead of liquid-driven pump that is installed into other two variants. The rotation speed of air-driven pump is increased by the gear to 6000 rpm. In modules for drilling with liquid the gear pump is used with capacity of 38-41 L/min and maximal pressure of 0.2 MPa. IBED lower part for drilling in ice consists from two parts: chip chamber for filtration of drilling fluid and collecting chips, and core barrel with the drill bit. The outer/inner diameter of the ice core drill bit is 134/110 mm. Length of the core barrel is 2.5 m. Lower part of the bedrock drill is adapted for coring bedrock and contains standard 2-m length core barrel borrowed from conventional diamond drill string, chip chamber for gravity separation of rock cuttings and dead weights (appr. 200 kg) for increasing of the load on the diamond drill bit. The outer/inner diameters of the diamond bit are 59/41 mm. The IBED drill was tested in order to solve three different tasks: 1) dry core drilling of upper snow-firn layer with bottom-air reverse circulation; 2) fluid core drilling of glacial ice with bottom-fluid reverse circulation; 3) bedrock core drilling. The preliminary tests showed that sawtooth-shape impregnated diamond bit could penetrate into the granite with average rate of 3.18 m/h at low load (3 kN) and torque (28.8 Nm), and the groove-shape impregnated diamond drill bit could penetrate into the same rock with rate of 1.1 m/h at load of 2.3 kN. Moreover, the special control and measurement system of the drill was designed and tested to ensure the safety of drilling.

Wang, Rusheng; Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Chen; Xu, Huiwen; Xue, Hong; Xue, Jun; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Gong, Da; Liu, Chunpeng; Han, Junjie; Yu, Chengfeng; Hong, Jialing; Wang, Lili

2014-05-01

385

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP):(I) Drilling at Krafla encountered Rhyolitic Magma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IDDP aims to produce supercritical hydrothermal fluids from depths of 4-5 km and temperatures of >400°C as modeling suggests that supercritical water could generate an energy output about 10 times that of a typical geothermal well. This could lead to major improvements in developing high-temperature geothermal resources worldwide. The first IDDP well was located in the Krafla caldera in the active central rift zone of NE Iceland, where during 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred that involved 9 distinct volcanic eruptions. At Krafla there has been extensive production drilling since 1971 to supply steam to a geothermal power plant. Within the caldera a large magma chamber was detected by S-wave attenuation at 3-7 km depth, and a recent MT-survey determined its location. The IDDP-1 was located to reach to 4.5 km to end above the magma chamber. When the drilling had reached 2075 m depth multiple drilling problems ensued, including a failed coring attempt, twist offs, and sidetracks to bypass drill string lost in the hole. An anchor casing was set at 1950 m to case off the trouble zones. However drilling problems continued and another twist off and sidetrack followed. Drilling then penetrated a mixture of fresh basalt and granophyre until 24th June 2009, when at about 2100 m the bit became stuck. However, circulation was maintained and rhyolitic glass was returned to the surface. Rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole filling the bottom 10 m. The glass cuttings returned were at first pumiceous then homogeneous, sparsely phyric obsidian. The petrology of this glass is described in accompanying posters. The intrusion responsible was evidently below the resolution of available geophysical surveys. We decided to terminate drilling and test the well and so a 9 5/8 inch sacrificial production casing was cemented inside the anchor casing with a 9 5/8 inch slotted liner below. The well is now heating, and will be flow tested in late November 2009. If the flow tests are successful, a pilot plant to test power production could follow in 2010. The IDDP has engendered considerable scientific interest. Some of the research underway on samples from the IDDP-1 and from other wells at Krafla and from wells in the Reykjanes geothermal field, also targeted by the IDDP, is reported in accompanying posters. Subject to funding, two new IDDP wells, >4 km deep, are to be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields during 2010-2012 to search for supercritical fluid. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system in SW Iceland, on the landward extension of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, produces hydrothermally modified seawater. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be quite similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems.

Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmunsson, A.; Gudmundsson, B.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.

2009-12-01

386

Offshore underbalanced drilling system could revive field developments. Part 2: Making this valuable reservoir drilling/completion technique work on a conventional offshore drilling platform  

SciTech Connect

Part 1, presented in the July issue, discussed the emerging trend to move underbalanced drilling (UBD) operations into the offshore arena, following its successful application in many onshore areas. This concluding article delves into the details of applying UBD offshore. Starting with advantages the technique offers in many maturing or complex/marginal prospects, the UBD system for offshore platforms use is described. This involves conversion of the conventional rotary system, use of rotating diverters, design of the surface fluid separation system and the necessary gas (nitrogen or natural gas) injection system to lighten the fluid column. Commonly faced operational challenges for offshore UBD are listed along with recommended solutions.

Nessa, D.O.; Tangedahl, M.J.; Saponja, J.

1997-10-01

387

Microgravity Drill and Anchor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of microspine toes that independently find holes and ledges on a rock to create an anchor. Once the system is anchored, a linear translation mechanism moves the drill axially into the surface while maintaining the proper WOB. The linear translation mechanism is composed of a ball screw and stepper motor that can translate a carriage with high precision and applied load. The carriage slides along rails using self-aligning linear bearings that correct any axial misalignment caused by bending and torsion. The carriage then compresses a series of springs that simultaneously transmit the load to the drill along the bit axis and act as a suspension that compensates for the vibration caused by percussive drilling. The drill is a compacted, modified version of an off-the-shelf rotary percussive drill, which uses a custom carbide-tipped coring bit. By using rotary percussive drilling, the drill time is greatly reduced. The percussive action fractures the rock debris, which is removed during rotation. The final result is a 0.75-in. (.1.9- cm) diameter hole and a preserved 0.5- in. (.1.3-cm) diameter rock core. This work extends microspine technology, making it applicable to astronaut missions to asteroids and a host of robotic sampling concepts. At the time of this reporting, it is the first instrument to be demonstrated using microspine anchors, and is the first self-contained drill/anchor system to be demonstrated that is capable of drilling in inverted configurations and would be capable of drilling in microgravity.

Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

388

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF OFFSHORE AND OIL-ADDED DRILLING MUDS TO LARVAE OF THE GRASS SHRIMP 'PALAEMONETES INTERMEDIUS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Offshore drilling fluids (muds) varied widely in their toxicity to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes intermedius) larvae. The 96-hr LC50S for the eleven drilling muds tested ranged from 142 to >100,000 ppm (microliters/L). There was a significant correlation between oil content of the d...

389

Drilling tools for continuous offshore operations  

SciTech Connect

Offshore drilling tools are still the object of improvement aimed in achieving maximum production or scientific effect of minimum costs. One of perspective ways of improving offshore scientific drilling indices is utilization of drilling systems which provide continuous hole penetration without pulling out the drill string aboard of drill vessel for bit replacement. The report presents specific features of the drilling tools supplying Complete Coring System (CCS) operations. CCS can provide continuous coring and drilling as well as logging in any geological profiles from the soft to very hard formations. One of the basic principles in coring is slimhole pilot drilling, thus giving many advantages. Development of drilling tools for CCS is based upon vast experience in designing drilling tools, including the retractable bits. In perspective CCS can be applied in stratigraphic and scientific drilling in deep water, especially in complicated geological conditions.

Gelfgat, M.Y. [Aquatic Company, Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Surkov, D.V.; Buyanovsky, I.N. [All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Drilling Techniques, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

390

Geothermal drilling problems and their impact on cost  

SciTech Connect

Historical data are presented that demonstrate the significance of unexpected problems. In extreme cases, trouble costs are the largest component of well costs or severe troubles can lead to abandonment of a hole. Drilling experiences from US geothermal areas are used to analyze the frequency and severity of various problems. In addition, average trouble costs are estimated based on this analysis and the relationship between trouble and depth is discussed. The most frequent drilling and completion problem in geothermal wells is lost circulation. This is especially true for resources in underpressured, fractured formations. Serious loss of circulation can occur during drilling - because of this, the producing portions of many wells are drilled with air or aerated drilling fluid and the resulting corrosion/erosion problems are tolerated - but it can also affect the cementing of well casing. Problems in bonding the casing to the formation result from many other causes as well, and are common in geothermal wells. Good bonds are essential because of the possibility of casing collapse due to thermal cycling during the life of the well. Several other problems are identified and their impacts are quantified and discussed.

Carson, C.C.

1982-01-01

391

Report of the Offset Drilling Workshop Ocean Drilling Program  

E-print Network

places. The logical outcome of this strategy is that an engineering leg is needed to test new equipment find a "sweet spot" for deeper drilling, in the manner that Hole 735B was found and successfully

392

Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

Arnis Judzis

2006-03-01

393

Evaluation of drilling parameters on thrust force in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates using compound core-special drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling is the mostly used secondary machining of the fiber reinforced composite laminates, while the delamination occurs frequently at the drill exit in the workpiece. In the industrial experiences, core drill shows better drilling quality than twist drill. However, chip removal is a troublesome problem when using the core drill. Conventional compound core-special drills (core-special drills and step-core-special drills) are

C. C. Tsao; Y. C. Chiu

2011-01-01

394

A New Calcium-Tolerant Polymer Helps To Improve Drilling-Mud Performance and To Reduce Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling fluids suitable for German Zechstein formation wells require fluid-loss polymers that tolerate up to 140,000 ppm of Ca\\/Mg and have temperature stabilities that exceed 350°F (177°C). Problems experienced in previous wells with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polyanionic cellulose (PAC) are described. The use of starch with a new sulfonated polymer improved drilling mud performance and reduced costs. Major benefits come

K. H. W. Ujma; J. P. Plank

1989-01-01

395

Hydraulic intensifiers improve oil well drilling and fracturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure intensifiers for the petroleum production industry are diesel and gas-turbine powered. These units each develop over 1,000 hp at pressures up to 21,000 psi for oil-well servicing and oil-well drilling. The very high pressure is required for oil-well servicing to stimulate old and unused wells and make them productive. Hydrochloric acid or a sand-saturated fluid is pumped into oil

Hall

1974-01-01

396

30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in...

2013-07-01

397

30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in...

2012-07-01

398

30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation unless they...

2013-07-01

399

30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.  

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in...

2014-07-01

400

30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation unless they...

2012-07-01

401

30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.  

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation unless they...

2014-07-01

402

30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in...

2011-07-01

403

30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation unless they...

2011-07-01

404

Modelling approaches for an ultrasonic percussion drill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with a novel piezoelectrically driven vibro-impact drilling tool which is designed to drill holes and take rock samples in NASA's future space missions. The drilling device consists of an ultrasonic transducer with a piezoelectric stack, a free flying mass and a drill stem. Excited by the high-frequency vibration of the transducer the free mass oscillates between the

C. Potthast; J. Twiefel; J. Wallaschek

2007-01-01

405

Blasthole drills: Better by design  

SciTech Connect

In the upside-down world of blasthole drilling, success is measured not by how fast you rise to the top, but how quickly you can hit bottom. For most mine operators, the tools of choice for achieving this inverted objective are the large, crawler-mounted rotary drills that dot the benches of open-pit mines everywhere. The past five years or so have brought a gradual change in the landscape of the drill manufacturing industry. Some well-known lines have disappeared, others have been taken over in whole or in part, and yet other endure on the market fringe where equipment that was originally developed for nonmining applications, such as water-well drilling, has been adapted for mine production duty, particularly in coal operations.

Carter, R.A.

1993-02-01

406

Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure depicts a portable, hand-held power drill with its attached power-supply unit, in which ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, are used to store energy. This ultra capacitor-powered drill is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy-consuming devices in optimal configurations.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2007-01-01

407

Experimental study of drilling composite materials with step-core drill  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional machining, drilling is the most applied method accounting for as much as 40% for all material removal processes. However, problems in drilling, particularly the heterogeneity and anisotropy of composite materials, increase delamination. Several studies have proved that delamination is related to the thrust force in drilling composite materials. The thrust force of step-core drill with drilling parameters (diameter

C. C. Tsao

2008-01-01

408

An Investigation for Disposal of Drill Cuttings into Unconsolidated Sandstones and Clayey Sands  

SciTech Connect

This project include experimental data and a set of models for relating elastic moduli/porosity/texture and static-to-dynamic moduli to strength and failure relationships for unconsolidated sands and clayey sands. The results of the project should provide the industry with a basis for wider use of oil base drilling fluids in water sensitive formations by implementing drill cutting injection into existing wells at abandoned formations and controlling fracture geometry to prevent ground water contamination.

Mese, Ali; Dvorkin, Jack; Shillinglaw, John

2000-09-11

409

Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

1990-03-01

410

Tool Wear in Friction Drilling  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the wear of carbide tools used in friction drilling, a nontraditional hole-making process. In friction drilling, a rotating conical tool uses the heat generated by friction to soften and penetrate a thin workpiece and create a bushing without generating chips. The wear of a hard tungsten carbide tool used for friction drilling a low carbon steel workpiece has been investigated. Tool wear characteristics were studied by measuring its weight change, detecting changes in its shape with a coordinate measuring machine, and making observations of wear damage using scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was applied to analyze the change in chemical composition of the tool surface due to drilling. In addition, the thrust force and torque during drilling and the hole size were measured periodically to monitor the effects of tool wear. Results indicate that the carbide tool is durable, showing minimal tool wear after drilling 11000 holes, but observations also indicate progressively severe abrasive grooving on the tool tip.

Miller, Scott F [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Shih, Albert J. [University of Michigan

2007-01-01

411

Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling  

DOEpatents

A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

2010-07-27

412

Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling  

DOEpatents

A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

2008-06-24

413

Wellbore Stability in Oil and Gas Drilling with Chemical-Mechanical Coupling  

PubMed Central

Wellbore instability in oil and gas drilling is resulted from both mechanical and chemical factors. Hydration is produced in shale formation owing to the influence of the chemical property of drilling fluid. A new experimental method to measure diffusion coefficient of shale hydration is given, and the calculation method of experimental results is introduced. The diffusion coefficient of shale hydration is measured with the downhole temperature and pressure condition, then the penetration migrate law of drilling fluid filtrate around the wellbore is calculated. Furthermore, the changing rules of shale mechanical properties affected by hydration and water absorption are studied through experiments. The relationships between shale mechanical parameters and the water content are established. The wellbore stability model chemical-mechanical coupling is obtained based on the experimental results. Under the action of drilling fluid, hydration makes the shale formation softened and produced the swelling strain after drilling. This will lead to the collapse pressure increases after drilling. The study results provide a reference for studying hydration collapse period of shale. PMID:23935430

Deng, Jingen

2013-01-01

414

Wellbore stability in oil and gas drilling with chemical-mechanical coupling.  

PubMed

Wellbore instability in oil and gas drilling is resulted from both mechanical and chemical factors. Hydration is produced in shale formation owing to the influence of the chemical property of drilling fluid. A new experimental method to measure diffusion coefficient of shale hydration is given, and the calculation method of experimental results is introduced. The diffusion coefficient of shale hydration is measured with the downhole temperature and pressure condition, then the penetration migrate law of drilling fluid filtrate around the wellbore is calculated. Furthermore, the changing rules of shale mechanical properties affected by hydration and water absorption are studied through experiments. The relationships between shale mechanical parameters and the water content are established. The wellbore stability model chemical-mechanical coupling is obtained based on the experimental results. Under the action of drilling fluid, hydration makes the shale formation softened and produced the swelling strain after drilling. This will lead to the collapse pressure increases after drilling. The study results provide a reference for studying hydration collapse period of shale. PMID:23935430

Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua

2013-01-01

415

A technical and economic evaluation of thermal spallation drilling technology  

SciTech Connect

Thermal spallation of rock may be defined as a type of progressive rock failure caused by the creation of thermal stresses induced by a sudden application of heat from a high temperature source. This technology is applicable to only certain types of hard rock, such as dolomite, taconite, and granite. In 1981 and 1982, the deepest holes ever drilled by this process were drilled in granite to depths of 1086 feet and 425 feet respectively. Penetration rates at the bottom of the deeper hole reached a maximum of 100 ft/hr. Because of these high rates, considerable interest was generated concerning the use of this technology for the drilling of deep holes. Based on this interest, this study was undertaken to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of the technology in general. This methodology has been used for blasthole drilling, the cutting of chambers at the bottom of drilled holes, and the cutting of narrow grooves in rock. However, because of the very high temperatures generated by the flame jet and the application of the technology to only certain types of rock, other areas of use have been very limited. In this report, evaluation of the technology was performed by conceptually designing and costing a theoretical flame jet drilling rig. The design process reviews a number of different concepts of the various components needed, and then chooses those pieces of equipment that best suit the needs of the system and have the best chance of being properly developed. The final concept consists of a flexible umbilical hose containing several internal hoses for carrying the various required fluids. An evaluation of this system was then made to determine its operational characteristics. The drilling capabilities and the economics of this rig were then compared to a conventional rotary drilling rig by theoretically drilling two holes of approximately 15,000 feet in depth. This comparison was done by use of a spread sheet type computer program. The results of this study indicate that flame jet drilling performs significantly better in both time and cost. These results are due primarily to the high penetration rates, the reduced number of trips, and the decreased trip time due to the use of the umbilical. However, this significant time and cost advantage must be tempered by the fact that they are based on the assumption that the main components of the flame jet rig can be realistically and reliably built. Unfortunately, the use of an umbilical system presents very realistic and difficult design problems as hole depth extends beyond 7000 feet. Thus, unless a significant market for the use of this equipment can be found, further development of an umbilical type system is very questionable. An alternate system suggests by LASL may circumvent many of the problems stated. This concept consists of using concentric pipes and a down hole fluid separation system. Concentric pipe built by the Walker-Neer Manufacturing Company, Wichita Falls, Texas, has been used successfully in the drilling industry for years. Fluid separators have also been developed and used. Although this concept also presents problems, it may be worth investigating.

None

1984-07-10

416

Utility of drill-stem tests in determination of the geothermal regime of Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Accurate representation of geothermal conditions is necessary to determine generation potential of source rocks buried in Railroad Valley. Boreholes, provide the best source of geothermal information, but formation temperature data must be screened for variations caused by drilling. Bottomhole temperatures from wireline logs are affected by initial formation conditions, drilling fluid that moves into the formation while drilling, and lag time between cessation of drilling fluid circulation and acquisition of logs. More accurate indicators of formation conditions are temperatures recorded during drill-stem tests, especially for tests that recovered large amounts of fluid. Over 130 drill-stem tests were examined to establish the viability of this source of data and to determine the geothermal conditions of the Railroad Valley basin. Results indicate that 500 feet or more of fluid recovery on a test is necessary to get a temperature recorded that is not influenced by drilling perturbations. The formation temperature data collected for Railroad Valley indicate the possibility of 2 thermal regimes. A low-temperature gradient regime is probably influenced by meteoric water. The high-temperature gradient regime probably reflects the regional heat flow associated with the thin crust of the Great Basin.

French, D.E. [Independent Geologist, Billings, MT (United States)

1995-06-01

417

Combined dispersant fluid loss control additives  

SciTech Connect

Water soluble polymer compositions containing polyacrylic acid and copolymer of itaconic acid and acrylamide are useful as combined dispersant and fluid loss control additives for aqueous drilling fluids, particularly fresh water, gypsum and seawater muds. An example is a polymer composition containing about 80% by weight polyacrylic acid and about 20% by weight copolymer of itaconic acid and acrylamide in its ammonium salt form.

Villa, J. L.; Zeiner, R. N.

1985-12-31

418

Comments on some of the drilling and completion problems in Cerro Prieto geothermal wells  

SciTech Connect

From 1960 to the present, 85 wells with a total drilling length exceeding 160,000 m have been constructed at Cerro Prieto, a modest figure compared to an oil field. This activity took place in five stages, each characterized by changes and modifications required by various drilling and well-completion problems. Initially, the technical procedures followed were similar to those used in the oil industry. However, several problems emerged as a result of the relatively high temperatures found in the geothermal reservoir. The various problems that have been encountered can be considered to be related to drilling fluids, cements and cementing operations, lithology, geothermal fluid characteristics, and casings and their accessories. As the importance of high temperatures and the characteristics of the geothermal reservoir fluids were better understood, the criteria were modified to optimize well-completion operations, and satisfactory results have been achieved to date.

Dominguez A, B.; Sanchez G, G.

1981-01-01

419

Exploratory Hydrocarbon Drilling Impacts to Arctic Lake Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Recent attention regarding the impacts of oil and gas development and exploitation has focused on the unintentional release of hydrocarbons into the environment, whilst the potential negative effects of other possible avenues of environmental contamination are less well documented. In the hydrocarbon-rich and ecologically sensitive Mackenzie Delta region (NT, Canada), saline wastes associated with hydrocarbon exploration have typically been disposed of in drilling sumps (i.e., large pits excavated into the permafrost) that were believed to be a permanent containment solution. However, failure of permafrost as a waste containment medium may cause impacts to lakes in this sensitive environment. Here, we examine the effects of degrading drilling sumps on water quality by combining paleolimnological approaches with the analysis of an extensive present-day water chemistry dataset. This dataset includes lakes believed to have been impacted by saline drilling fluids leaching from drilling sumps, lakes with no visible disturbances, and lakes impacted by significant, naturally occurring permafrost thaw in the form of retrogressive thaw slumps. We show that lakes impacted by compromised drilling sumps have significantly elevated lakewater conductivity levels compared to control sites. Chloride levels are particularly elevated in sump-impacted lakes relative to all other lakes included in the survey. Paleolimnological analyses showed that invertebrate assemblages appear to have responded to the leaching of drilling wastes by a discernible increase in a taxon known to be tolerant of elevated conductivity coincident with the timing of sump construction. This suggests construction and abandonment techniques at, or soon after, sump establishment may result in impacts to downstream aquatic ecosystems. With hydrocarbon development in the north predicted to expand in the coming decades, the use of sumps must be examined in light of the threat of accelerated permafrost thaw, and the potential for these industrial wastes to impact sensitive Arctic ecosystems. PMID:24223170

Thienpont, Joshua R.; Kokelj, Steven V.; Korosi, Jennifer B.; Cheng, Elisa S.; Desjardins, Cyndy; Kimpe, Linda E.; Blais, Jules M.; Pisaric, Michael FJ.; Smol, John P.

2013-01-01

420

Development and verification of a dynamic underbalanced drilling simulator  

SciTech Connect

A dynamic underbalanced drilling (UBD) simulator has been developed in a joint industry project. The simulator incorporates models for multiphase flow, well-reservoir interaction, gas/oil solubility and gas injection systems. The fluid components in the system include injected gases, mud, produced gas, produced oil and water and drilled cuttings. Both coiled tubing and conventional jointed pipe can be simulated. The primary use of the simulator is in the planning phase of an UBD operation. An UBD operation is very dynamic due to the changes in flow conditions and other operations. The importance of the dynamic effects is illustrated by a field example. The dynamic simulator allows for the analysis of various operations that cannot be analyzed with a steady state simulator. Some of these operations include starting/stopping circulation; various gas injection techniques, e.g.: parasitic string, parasitic casing, through completion, and drill string injection; drilling operations: drilling, tripping, pipe connections, and BHA deployment. To verify the simulator, two phase flow tests in near-horizontal annulus were performed in order to provide data for validation. Field data are actively collected for this purpose. In this paper, two field cases are presented. One is a coiled tubing drilling operation in Dalen field in the Netherlands where a Nitrogen lift test was performed in a through completion configuration. The second case is a UBD operation in Candeias field in Brazil. In this case, drillstring gas injection tests were performed in a cemented 9-5/8-in. casing at 1,800 m.

Wang, Z.; Vefring, E.H.; Rommetveit, R. [RF-Rogaland Research, Bergen (Norway); Bieseman, T. [Shell RTS, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Maglione, R. [Agip Spa, Milano (Italy); Lage, A.C.; Nakagawa, E. [Petrobras/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1997-07-01

421

Geothermal Gradient Drilling and Measurements Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean  

SciTech Connect

This technical report on the Phase II geothermal exploration of Ascension Island documents the data collected during thermal gradient drilling and the subsequent thermal and fluid chemical investigations. It also documents the completion of the Phase II exploration strategy which was proposed at the end of the Phase I--Preliminary Examination of Ascension Island. The thermal gradient drilling resulted in seven holes which range from 206 to 1750 ft (53-533 m) deep, with a cumulative footage of 6563 ft (2000 m). The drilling procedure and the problems encountered during the drilling have been explained in detail to provide information valuable for any subsequent drilling program on the island. In addition, the subsurface geology encountered in the holes has been documented and, where possible, correlated with other holes or the geology mapped on the surface of the island. Temperatures measured in the holes reach a maximum of 130 F (54.4 C) at 1285 ft (391.7 m) in hole GH-6. When the temperatures of all holes are plotted against elevation, the holes can be classed into three distinct groups, those which have no thermal manifestations, those with definite geothermal affinities, and one hole which is intermediate between the other two. From consideration of this information, it is clear that the highest geothermal potential on the island is in the Donkey Flat area extending beneath Middleton Ridge, and in the Cricket Valley area. Because of the greater drilling depths and the remote nature of the Cricket Valley area, it is recommended that future exploration concentrate in the area around Middleton Ridge.

Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.; Adams, M.C.

1984-07-01

422

Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

2014-11-01

423

Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

2014-10-01

424

Invasion of drilling mud into gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Part I: effect of drilling mud properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To our knowledge, this study is the first to perform a numerical simulation and analysis of the dynamic behaviour of drilling mud invasion into oceanic gas-hydrate-bearing sediment (GHBS) and to consider the effects of such an invasion on borehole stability and the reliability of well logging. As a case study, the simulation background sets up the conditions of mud temperature over hydrate equilibrium temperature and overbalanced drilling, considering the first Chinese expedition to drill gas hydrate (GMGS-1). The results show that dissociating gas may form secondary hydrates in the sediment around borehole by the combined effects of increased pore pressure (caused by mud invasion and flow resistance), endothermic cooling that accompanies hydrate dissociation compounded by the Joule-Thompson effect and the lagged effect of heat transfer in sediments. The secondary hydrate ring around the borehole may be more highly saturated than the in situ sediment. Mud invasion in GHBS is a dynamic process of thermal, fluid (mud invasion), chemical (hydrate dissociation and reformation) and mechanical couplings. All of these factors interact and influence the pore pressure, flow ability, saturation of fluid and hydrates, mechanical parameters and electrical properties of sediments around the borehole, thereby having a strong effect on borehole stability and the results of well logging. The effect is particularly clear in the borehole SH7 of GMGS-1 project. The borehole collapse and resistivity distortion were observed during practical drilling and wireline logging operations in borehole SH7 of the GMGS-1.mud density (i.e. the corresponding borehole pressure), temperature and salinity have a marked influence on the dynamics of mud invasion and on hydrate stability. Therefore, perhaps well-logging distortion caused by mud invasion, hydrate dissociation and reformation should be considered for identifying and evaluating gas hydrate reservoirs. And some suitable drilling measurements need to be adopted to reduce the risk of well-logging distortion and borehole instability.

Ning, Fulong; Zhang, Keni; Wu, Nengyou; Zhang, Ling; Li, Gang; Jiang, Guosheng; Yu, Yibing; Liu, Li; Qin, Yinghong

2013-06-01

425

DAME: planetary-prototype drilling automation.  

PubMed

We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME drill automation tested from 2004 through 2006 included adaptively controlled drilling operations and the downhole diagnosis of drilling faults. It also included dynamic recovery capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions were discovered. DAME has developed and tested drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during its Arctic field testing campaigns at a Mars analog site. PMID:18597659

Glass, B; Cannon, H; Branson, M; Hanagud, S; Paulsen, G

2008-06-01

426

Drilling overdeepened Alpine Valleys (DOVE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently submitted ICDP drilling proposal targets formerly glaciated areas, which are often characterized by deeply incised structures filled by thick Quaternary deposits. These buried troughs and valleys were formed by glacial overdeepening, likely caused by pressurized subglacial meltwater below warm-based glaciers. The proposed multinational drilling initiative consists of 14 drill sites in six different countries, all linked by the fact that they surround a formerly glaciated, densely populated mountain range, the European Alps. Being the best studied mountain range, the Alps will serve as textbook example allowing application of drilling results to other glaciated areas around the world. The drill holes, to be cored all the way to bedrock, will explore the type and age of the infillings of these overdeepened troughs. Such drill cores, paired with matching geophysical and instrumental data, hold the keys to understand how and how fast mountain ranges and their foreland are shaped by repetitive glaciations. The overarching goal will be to date the age and extent of past glaciations and their connection to paleoclimate, paleoecology and landscape history. As of today, it is not known how these glaciations varied along and across the Alps during the past, and to what extent the ice build-up along and across the Alps reflects changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. First results of drill holes in similar settings have produced local knowledge of the timing of glacial activity. Only an alpine-wide drilling initiative, however, will allow to reconstruct the full spatial and temporal scale of glacier advances and erosion and related landscape-forming processes over several glacial-interglacial cycles. Next to these paleoglacial, paleoecological and paleoclimatic aspects, the thick valley fills hold large, untapped aquifers. In the light of an increasing demand for water resources likely amplified by the projected climate change, testing these aquifers in the framework of this project is of high relevance for future hydrogeological applications. Related to this role, these drill holes may be used for shallow geothermal applications, which, however, to date rely on poorly constrained physical properties of the infilling sections. In addition, the areas represent areas of high seismic hazards related to their unfavorable seismic site effects. All these goals will be first addressed by state-of-the-art geophysical surveys that quantify the geometry of the overdeepenings. Drillholes will be analyzed by downhole logging, groundwater sampling and subsurface biosphere testing. Sedimentological, geochemical and palaeobiological analyses will characterize the sediment cores, and a combination of different approaches (biostratigraphy, luminescence dating, cosmogenic nuclide dating, magnetostratigraphy, and tephrastratigraphy) will establish the chronological framework. Eventually, the results from the above approaches will be cross-checked with the outcome of modeling both glacial flow and erosion and atmospheric circulation.

Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Preusser, Frank; Bavec, Milos; Crouzet, Christian; Fiebig, Markus; Gabriel, Gerald; Ravazzi, Cesare; Spoetl, Christoph

2014-05-01

427

Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.  

PubMed

Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded. PMID:24684339

Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

2014-04-01

428

Experimental investigations of drilling on CFRP composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines the various problems associated with the drilling of CFRP composites. The technique of dimensional analysis is used to investigate the complex correlation between thrust force, cutting speed, feed, hole diameter, point geometry, and material thickness during the drilling of holes in CFRP composites. A new non-dimensional number (t/D), thickness of layered composites to drill diameter, is found to influence the thrust force. Four drill point geometries specifically found effective in drilling of FRPs were tried and among them the eight facet drill point geometry was found to give the best results.

Bhatnagar, Naresh; Naik, N. K.; Ramakrishnan, N.

429

Calculator programs determine drilling hydraulics  

SciTech Connect

Two TI-59 programs were prepared for the calculation of drilling hydraulics as set forth in the Hughes Tool Co. publication, Practical Hydraulics. One presents the stepwise determination of drill string pressure drop while the second, to be published in a future issue, calculates jet area, jet velocity and impact force along with bit pressure drop and hydraulic horsepower. Another section of the second program considers pump mechanics, calculating the required strokes per minute to attain a specific circulating rate, or the circulation that would result from a specific pump speed. Hydraulic horsepower of the pump is then calculated from this rate and a maximum pump pressure.

Landry, W.E.

1987-05-01

430

Abrasive drill for resilient materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resilient materials normally present problem in obtaining accurate and uniform hole size and position. Tool is fabricated from stiff metal rod such as tungsten or carbon steel that has diameter slightly smaller than required hole. Piercing/centering point is ground on one end of rod. Rod is then plasma-sprayed (flame-sprayed) with suitable hard abrasive coating. High-speed, slow-feed operation of tool is necessary for accurate holes, and this can be done with drill press, hard drill, or similar machines.

Koch, A. J.

1981-01-01

431

Directional drilling and earth curvature  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a review of current practices for calculating directional drilling placement in the light of modern extended-reach applications. The review highlights the potential for gross errors in the application of geodetic reference information and errors inherent in the calculation method. Both types of error are quantified theoretically and illustrated with a real example. The authors borrow established land surveying calculation methods to develop a revised best practice for directional drilling. For the elimination of gross errors they prescribe increased awareness and a more disciplined approach to the handling of positional data.

Williamson, H.S.; Wilson, H.F.

2000-03-01

432

Effects of implant drill wear, irrigation, and drill materials on heat generation in osteotomy sites.  

PubMed

Abstract This study evaluated the effects of drill wear on bone temperature during osteotomy preparation with three types of drills and compared heat production between drills. The drills used in this study were titanium nitride coated metal, tungsten carbide carbon coated metal, and zirconia ceramic drills. An osteotomy 11 mm in depth was formed in bovine scapular bone following the manufacturers' recommended drill sequences. Drilling was performed without irrigation and repeated 20 times; temperature was measured every five times. Next, 200 rounds of drilling during irrigation were performed for each drill, with temperature change monitored until round 200. Analysis of variance statistics were used for analyses of the measured data. Drilling without irrigation showed significant thermal increase at all time points compared to drilling with irrigation (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between drill materials. Under irrigation, the frequency of previous drilling had minimal effects on thermal change. The repeated measures analysis of variance revealed major thermal change at the initial time point (p < 0.0001), and the multiple comparison tests revealed a significant difference in temperature between the initial drills that had been used 50 or fewer times and those that had been used more than 50 times, irrespective of the drill material. The results of this study indicate that the initial drill should be changed in osteotomy preparation with irrigation after they have been used 50 times. Irrigation may be a more critical factor for the control of temperature elevation than is the drill material. PMID:24313461

Koo, Ki-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hae-Young; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Yang, Jae-Ho; Yeo, In-Sung

2013-12-01

433

Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and convergent plate margins (subduction zones). This workshop brought together a diverse group of scientists with a broad range of scientific experience and interests. A particular strength was the involvement of both early-career scientists, who will initiate and carry out these new research programs, and more senior researchers with many years of experience in scientific drilling and active tectonics research. Each of the themes and questions outlined above has direct benefits to society, including improving hazard assessment, direct monitoring of active systems for early warning, renewable and non-renewable resource and energy exploitation, and predicting the environmental impacts of natural hazards, emphasizing the central role that scientific drilling will play in future scientific and societal developments.

Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

2014-12-01

434

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California`s Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. [eds.

1992-04-01

435

Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling  

SciTech Connect

This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders` perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face.

Peterson, T. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

1995-12-01

436

Acoustic data transmission through a drill string  

DOEpatents

Acoustical signals are transmitted through a drill string by canceling upward moving acoustical noise and by preconditioning the data in recognition of the comb filter impedance characteristics of the drill string. 5 figs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1988-04-21

437

40 CFR Appendix 4 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1The sea water may be either natural or synthetic. The allowable salinity range is 20-30 ppt. 1.2To reduce the shock to the microorganisms in the sediment, the salinity of the sediment's porewater shall be between 20-30 ppt....

2010-07-01

438

40 CFR Appendix 4 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1The sea water may be either natural or synthetic. The allowable salinity range is 20-30 ppt. 1.2To reduce the shock to the microorganisms in the sediment, the salinity of the sediment's porewater shall be between 20-30 ppt....

2011-07-01

439

Carbonate system at Iheya North in Okinawa Trough~IODP drilling and post drilling environment~  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iheya North hydrothermal field in middle Okinawa Trough is covered with thick hemipelagic and volcanic sediment. Geochemical characteristics of Okinawa Trough is to provide abundant of CO2, CH4, NH4, H2, and H2S which originated from magmatic gases, sedimentary organic matters. On this hydrothermal field, a scientific drilling by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 was conducted to investigate metabolically diverse subseafloor microbial ecosystem and their physical and chemical settings. To clarify the spatial distribution of physical condition beneath seafloor around the hydrothermal filed, we focus on the carbonate species analysis to reconstruct in-situ pH, which regulate the diversities of microbial community and mineral composition. We developed the small sample volume dissolved total inorganic carbon (DIC) analyzer and conducted the onboard analysis for the interstitial water during IODP Exp.331. Total alkalinity, boron, phosphate, and ammonium also analyzed for thermodynamic calculation. In this presentation, we represent the spatial distribution of pH beneath the Iheya North hydrothermal field. In addition, we developed a 128 bottles multiple water sampler (ANEMONE) for post drilling environmental monitoring. ANEMONE sampler was deployed on the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 with other chemical sensors (CTD, turbidity, pH, ORP, and H2S), and collected the hydrothermal plume samples every 5 minutes during YK12-05 cruise by R/V Yokosuka (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, JAMSTEC). DIC concentration of plume samples collected by ANEMONE sampler were analyzed just after submersible retrieve, and nutrients, manganese, density, and total cell counts determination were conducted onshore analysis. Based on these results, we describe the spatial distribution of DIC and carbonate system on Iheya North hydrothermal field (interstitial water, hydrothermal fluid, and hydrothermal plume).

Noguchi, T.; Hatta, M.; Sunamura, M.; Fukuba, T.; Suzue, T.; Kimoto, H.; Okamura, K.

2012-12-01

440

30 CFR 56.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.  

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to constitute a hazard shall be...

2014-07-01

441

30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall be attended...

2012-07-01

442

30 CFR 56.7003 - Drill area inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7003 Drill area inspection. The drilling area shall be inspected for hazards before starting the...

2013-07-01

443

30 CFR 56.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to constitute a hazard shall be...

2013-07-01

444

30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall be attended...

2011-07-01

445

30 CFR 57.7054 - Starting or moving drill equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7054 Starting or moving drill equipment. Drill operators shall not...

2013-07-01

446

30 CFR 56.7003 - Drill area inspection.  

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7003 Drill area inspection. The drilling area shall be inspected for hazards before starting the...

2014-07-01

447

30 CFR 57.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.  

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to constitute a...

2014-07-01

448

30 CFR 57.7054 - Starting or moving drill equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7054 Starting or moving drill equipment. Drill operators shall not...

2011-07-01

449

30 CFR 57.7054 - Starting or moving drill equipment.  

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7054 Starting or moving drill equipment. Drill operators shall not...

2014-07-01

450

30 CFR 57.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to constitute a...

2012-07-01

451

30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall be attended at all...

2012-07-01

452

30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.  

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall be attended...

2014-07-01

453

30 CFR 56.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to constitute a hazard shall be...

2011-07-01

454

30 CFR 57.7003 - Drill area inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7003 Drill area inspection. The drilling area shall be inspected for hazards...

2012-07-01

455

30 CFR 57.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to constitute a...

2013-07-01

456

30 CFR 56.7003 - Drill area inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7003 Drill area inspection. The drilling area shall be inspected for hazards before starting the...

2011-07-01

457

30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall be attended at all...

2013-07-01

458

30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall be attended at all...

2011-07-01

459

30 CFR 57.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to constitute a...

2011-07-01

460

30 CFR 57.7003 - Drill area inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7003 Drill area inspection. The drilling area shall be inspected for hazards...

2013-07-01

461

30 CFR 56.7003 - Drill area inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7003 Drill area inspection. The drilling area shall be inspected for hazards before starting the...

2012-07-01

462

30 CFR 57.7003 - Drill area inspection.  

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7003 Drill area inspection. The drilling area shall be inspected for hazards...

2014-07-01

463

30 CFR 56.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to constitute a hazard shall be...

2012-07-01

464

30 CFR 57.7054 - Starting or moving drill equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7054 Starting or moving drill equipment. Drill operators shall not...

2012-07-01

465

30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall be attended...

2013-07-01

466

30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.  

...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7012 Tending drills in operation. While in operation, drills shall be attended at all...

2014-07-01

467

30 CFR 57.7003 - Drill area inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7003 Drill area inspection. The drilling area shall be inspected for hazards...

2011-07-01

468

OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2003 through June 2003. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). Accomplishments included the following: (1) Hughes Christensen has recently expressed interest in the possibility of a program to examine cutter impact testing, which would be useful in a better understanding of the physics of rock impact. Their interest however is not necessarily fluid hammers, but to use the information for drilling bit development. (2) Novatek (cost sharing supplier of tools) has informed the DOE project manager that their tool may not be ready for ''optimization'' testing late summer 2003 (August-September timeframe) as originally anticipated. During 3Q Novatek plans to meet with TerraTek to discuss progress with their tool for 4Q 2003 testing. (3) A task for an addendum to the hammer project related to cutter impact studies was written during 2Q 2003. (4) Smith International internally is upgrading their hammer for the optimization testing phase. One currently known area of improvement is their development program to significantly increase the hammer blow energy.

Arnis Judzis

2003-07-01

469

Drilling activity in North America during 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total drilling activity in North America increased in 1980 compared with 1979. The 72,084 total wells drilled in the United States, Canada, and Mexico is an increase of 22.0% compared with 1979, and the 62,052 miles of footage drilled is a 19.1% increase over 1979. Canada shows an increase of 22.7% in total wells drilled (9188) and a 34.7% increase

1981-01-01

470

Downhole drilling network using burst modulation techniques  

DOEpatents

A downhole drilling system is disclosed in one aspect of the present invention as including a drill string and a transmission line integrated into the drill string. Multiple network nodes are installed at selected intervals along the drill string and are adapted to communicate with one another through the transmission line. In order to efficiently allocate the available bandwidth, the network nodes are configured to use any of numerous burst modulation techniques to transmit data.

Hall; David R. (Provo, UT), Fox; Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2007-04-03

471

Do You Know the Drill?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses one of the best defenses against a violent threat in schools -- practicing emergency and lockdown drills. In some buildings, classroom doors lack locks and exterior doors are old. Other buildings have public announcement systems that do not work well throughout a school building, or that lack speakers in restrooms. Still…

Pascopella, Angela

2008-01-01