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1

ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS ON BENTHIC ORGANISMS IN TEMPERATE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Efforts to enhance the efficiency of oil/gas drilling operations and to minimize hazards to marine ecosystems have resulted in the increased use of synthetic-based fluids (SBF). SBFs have performance characteristics closely related to oil-based fluids (OBF) however their lower PA...

2

Drilling fluid viscosifier  

SciTech Connect

An aqueous aluminum hydroxide is produced by reacting an acid and a base reactant, where at least one reactant has aluminum, in the presence of a hydroxy acid or a salt of this hydroxy acid. The resulting product has unwanted tri-hydrate formation inhibited as well as a reduced amount of boehmite crystallization. The product can be used as a viscosifier in aqueous drilling fluids.

Block, J.

1984-02-14

3

Humate thinners for drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is of the use of a particular humate to reduce the viscosity of water-based drilling fluids. The humate is usually found in association with titanium minerals and bears a unique compositional make-up. The composition is particularly advantageous as a drilling mud thinner, imparting high temperature stability to water-based drilling muds.

Firth, W.C.

1982-01-19

4

Humate thinners for drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The use of a particular humate to reduce the viscosity of water-based drilling fluids is described. The humate is usually found in association with rutile sand and bears a unique compositional make-up. The composition is particularly advantageous as a drilling mud thinner, imparting high temperature stability to water-based drilling muds.

Firth, W.C.

1980-11-25

5

Aqueous well-drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous well-drilling fluids treated with additives comprising a non-Newtonian colloidal disperse system containing metalcontaining particles, a dispersing medium and an organic compound having both a hydrophobic and a polar substituent in combination with at least one emulsifier are disclosed. Specific examples of the disperse system comprise calcium carbonate particles predispersed in a mineral oil dispersing medium in the presence of a calcium petrosulfonate; useful emulsifiers include alkylene oxide/fatty amine condensates. Well-drilling fluids containing such additives reduce the torque requirements in rotary drilling operations.

Bretz, J.; Cech, L.S.

1980-10-28

6

Controlling sulfide scavenger content of drilling fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for drilling a well with a water based drilling fluid containing zinc based scavengers for controlling encountered sulfide ions, in which process analyses are made for monitoring and controlling the amount of scavenger in the drilling fluid, an improved process for controlling the adequacy of the scavenging capability, comprising: mixing one part by volume of

S. D. Matza; W. E. Ellington; H. C. Fleming

1987-01-01

7

Alcohol-in-oil drilling fluid system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for drilling a well, comprising: rotating drill string to cut a borehole into the earth; circulating invert oil emulsion drilling fluid, the drilling fluid comprising oil, emulsifier and alcohol, through the drill string and through the annulus between the drill string and the wall of the borehole, the alcohol being at least about 30% by weight of the internal phase of the emulsion and being selected from the group. It comprises: an alcohol having less than 8 hydroxyl groups and less than 16 carbon atoms; an acyclic polyol having 3 to 80 carbon atoms and 2 to 60 hydroxyl groups; a monoalicyclipolyol having 5 to 30 carbon atoms and 2 to 10 hydroxyl groups; a cyclicetherpolyol having 6 to 1800 carbon atoms, 2 to 450 hydroxyl groups, and 2 to 600 ether linkages; and mixtures thereof; monitoring the influx of formation water into the drilling fluid; and identifying cations and anions specific to the water influx.

Hale, A.H.; Blytas, G.C.

1991-12-17

8

Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.  

PubMed

The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option. PMID:15160901

Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

2003-12-01

9

Synthetic drilling fluids - a pollution prevention opportunity for the oil and gas industry  

SciTech Connect

Offshore oil and gas operators use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as {open_quotes}muds,{close_quotes} to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

Veil, J.A.; Burke, C.J.; Moses, D.O.

1995-12-31

10

Toxicity of sediment-incorporated drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calculate EC50s at the same times that LC50s were determined. Observations of the burrowing behavior allowed quantitation of effects after 24-h exposures to each of the drilling fluids whereas lancelet mortality was sufficient to calculate 24-h LC50s for only one drilling fluid. Drilling fluids were less toxic to lancelets when incorporated into sediments than to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) or benthic invertebrate communities in water-column exposures.

Clark, J.R.; Patrick, J.M.

1987-01-01

11

TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT-INCORPORATED DRILLING FLUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calcula...

12

30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457...Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling...

2010-07-01

13

POTENTIAL IMPACT OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON ESTUARINE PRODUCTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the potential effects of drilling fluids on semienclosed bodies of water such as estuaries. Drilling fluids have been discharged into outer continental shelf waters for many years but there is some concern of potential ecological impact when drilling fluids a...

14

An environment friendly drilling fluid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on numerous laboratory studies, an environment friendly drilling fluid system is developed. The formula is 4% bentonite+0.3%IND-30+1.5%NAT-20+3%FXJS+2%NFT-25. By adopting environment friendly additives, the system has good temperature resistance (up to 150 °C) and excellent contamination resistance (30% saturated salt tolerance and 8% bentonite tolerance). It can also effectively protect reservoir and achieve more than 81.5% of permeability recovery. When

Xie Shuixiang; Jiang Guancheng; Chen Mian; Deng Hao; Liu Guangquan; Xu Yu; Wang Jianhua; Qiu Kang

2011-01-01

15

30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

2010-07-01

16

30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and...

2010-07-01

17

Research and application of amphoteric polymers for drilling fluid  

SciTech Connect

As the inhibition ability is not strong enough and the tolerance ability of solid contamination is low for the usual polymer drilling fluids, the amphoteric polymer drilling fluid is suggested to solve these problems after analyzing and researching interactive mechanisms and components of polymer drilling fluid as well as structure character of polymer molecule. The application in 15 oilfields (nearly 4,000 wells) in China demonstrates that the amphoteric polymer drilling fluid has strong inhibition, can retard ``mud-making`` of shale formation, keeps low-solid content and is wellbore stable. The amphoteric polymer drilling fluid has excellent rheological properties to make full use of jet-bit drilling and achieve significantly increased drilling rates. The obvious results in the protection of oil formation have been achieved.

Niu Yabin; Zhang Daming [Scientific Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China); Luo Pingya; Li Jian; Xu Tongtai

1995-11-01

18

Aerated fluid drilling observations in geothermal operation in Luzon, Philippines  

SciTech Connect

This paper compliments the potential use of aerated fluid drilling in oilgas operation of which the techniques in application was further extended to geothermal energy drilling. Compared with the use of conventional mud in both oil-gas and geothermal drilling operation, the benefits of aerated fluid cannot be denied. However, the developed utilization of blind drilling in geothermal operation in Luzon, Philippines were observed to be more beneficial. This paper highlights the incremental costs involved in using aerated fluid compared with blind drilling with water in geothermal operation within the 8 1/2'' hole interval when total lost circulation zones are encountered.

Rizo, T.M.; Cuenca, A.P.

1984-02-01

19

Effects of drilling fluids on soils and plants: II. Complete drilling fluid mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Six typical drilling fluids (muds) and a drilling fluid base were mixed with six soils at ratios of 1:1 and 1:4 volumes of liquid mud/soil; these mixtures were tested for their effects on plant growth. Green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and sweet corn (Zea mays var. succharata (Sturtev.) Bailey) in pots in the greenhouse grew normally in a few mixtures, but in most instances plants had reduced growth when compared to those growing in soil alone (controls). It was concluded that high levels of soluble salts or the high exchangeable sodium percentages were the primary causes of reduced plant growth. The high salt content in some fluids was mostly from added potassium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and sodium dichromate. Dispersion of mud-treated soils caused by high exchangeable sodium percentages occurred in these samples because of the sodium hydroxide and sodium dichromate added to typical muds.

Miller, R.W.; Pesaran, P.

1980-01-01

20

TOXICITY OF USED DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Static, acute toxicity tests were conducted with mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and 11 used drilling fluids (also called drilling muds) obtained from active drilling platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Each whole mud was tested, along with three phases of each mud: a liquid phase ...

21

Recent Fluids in Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluids and their origins in continental scientific drilling programs have widely been applied to the studies of crustal extension, fluid transportation paths and tectonization processes. The rare gases are good indicators of mantle fluids. The isotopes of carbon and hydrogen and the relationships between them can be used in revealing the fluid sources. And C\\/3He can provide more ambiguous

L. Luo; Q. Sun; X. Zhan; L. Tang; H. He; Z. Rao

2004-01-01

22

Mixed metal hydroxide drilling fluid minimizes well bore washouts  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the use of a mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid, instead of a conventional polymer-based fluid, improved well bore stability in troublesome formations in West Africa. The unique flow and suspension characteristics of the MMH fluid improved cuttings removal and decreased well bore washouts. With fewer hole problems and better cleaning in the well, the operator reduced drilling time and cost of the well. MMH compounds were developed and introduced to the drilling industry a few years ago. Initially their utility was limited by an inability to achieve reliable filtration control without destroying the unique fluid rheology. A fully functional drilling fluid system, based on this unusual line of chemistry, has been developed and used with great success in dozens of wells around the world.

Lavoix, F. (Elf Aquitaine Production, Pau (France)); Lewis, M. (International Drilling Fluids Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-09-28

23

DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

24

Effect of drilling fluid on temperatures measured in bore holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that, because of heat exchange with the drilling fluid, a bore hole must be left for some considerable time after drilling has ceased before temperature meas- urements can be made in it for the purpose of determining the geothermal flux. To test this point, a series of measurements of water temperature and flow were made during

J. C. Jaeger

1961-01-01

25

New Environmentally Friendly Dispersants for High Temperature Invert-Emulsion Drilling Fluids Weighted by Manganese Tetraoxide  

E-print Network

This thesis provides a detailed evaluation of different environmentally friendly dispersants in invert-emulsion drilling fluids that can be used to drill wells under difficult conditions such as HPHT. The drilling fluid is weighted by manganese...

Rehman, Abdul

2012-02-14

26

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY...Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for...

2011-07-01

27

Expensive drilling fluids put focus on solids control systems  

SciTech Connect

Mobil Oil has gained extensive experience worldwide in solids control systems for expensive drilling fluids. As a result, the company has a number of observations about such systems and has developed several basic operating principles. The cost of heavyweight, oil-based, or highly treated, water-base muds is very sensitive to methods used for solids control. Recent developments in high efficiently shale shaker applications and high speed centrifuge technology have greatly widened the scope of solids control system designs that can reduce total drilling and mud costs. Mobil has applied these recent developments that remove more of the fine drilled solids while reducing surface mud volume and connected horsepower in Indonesia and elsewhere. The company has development drilling programs in some difficult drilling areas including: Mobil Bay, Ala., with high H/sub 2/S gas below 20,000 ft; the North Sea, with 60/sup 0/ holes drilled through sensitive clays with 70% montmorillonite, and the Arun field in North Sumatra, Indonesia, with temperatures over 350/sup 0/F. and sensitive shales requiring up to 17.5 ppg to control. Mobil therefore has extensive experience with handling expensive drilling fluids, especially oil muds. This article emphasizes experience and practices in the Arun field, where Mobil operates two rigs.

Muchtar, J.B.; Edelbrock, G.J.

1987-01-05

28

Carboxymethylhydroxyethyl cellulose in drilling, workover and completion fluids  

SciTech Connect

Certain carboxymethylhydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC) solutions in waters of various salinities are gelled by dichromate ion at a pH of about 5 or less, thus forming a drilling fluid or component thereof. In an embodiment a CMHEC water solution is gelled using an alkali metal dichromate, e.g., Na2Cr2O7.2H2O.

Sauber, C. A.

1980-12-16

29

Salt stable lubricant for water base drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A water base drilling fluid having enhanced lubricating properties in the presence of polyvalent cations comprising a mixture of (1) water; (2) finely divided inorganic solids; (3) an alkanolamide of a saturated fatty acid having 8 to 20 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof, and (4) an alkanolamide of an unsaturated fatty acid having 18 carbon atoms, or triglycerides thereof.

Kercheville, J.D.

1981-07-28

30

FATE AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL WELL DRILLING FLUIDS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential impact of drilling fluids on the marine environment is discussed. Prediction of impacts are difficult because no two drilling fluids are identical. They are custom-formulated to perform a variety of functions integral to each drilling operation. Further, drilling fl...

31

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CUTTING FLUID EFFECTS IN DRILLING. (R825370C057)  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed and conducted on aluminum alloys and gray cast iron to determine the function of cutting fluid in drilling. The variables examined included speed, feed, hole depth, tool and workpiece material, cutting fluid condition, workpiece temperatures and drill...

32

Gas-hydrate formation, agglomeration and inhibition in oil-based drilling fluids for deep-water drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main challenges in deep-water drilling is gas-hydrate plugs, which make the drilling unsafe. Some oil-based drilling fluids (OBDF) that would be used for deep-water drilling in the South China Sea were tested to investigate the characteristics of gas-hydrate formation, agglomeration and inhibition by an experimental system under the temperature of 4 °C and pressure of 20 MPa,

Fulong Ning; Ling Zhang; Yunzhong Tu; Guosheng Jiang; Maoyong Shi

2010-01-01

33

Recent Fluids in Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluids and their origins in continental scientific drilling programs have widely been applied to the studies of crustal extension, fluid transportation paths and tectonization processes. The rare gases are good indicators of mantle fluids. The isotopes of carbon and hydrogen and the relationships between them can be used in revealing the fluid sources. And C/3He can provide more ambiguous distinguish between sources. The recent fluids in Chinese continental scientific drilling project (CCSD) have been analyzed and profiles were obtained. He, CO2, Ar, N2, O2, H2 and C1-C4 were determined by two on-line units, a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph. Cations and anions in mud samples were analyzed by an on-site high performance liquid chromatograph. Rare earth elements and other inorganic components were measured by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in our laboratory in Beijing. The isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and rare gases, especially helium, were analyzed by mass spectrometers in different laboratories. One key in studying the recent fluids in CCSD project is to identify whether the recent fluids were from the deep earth or not, even when their concentrations were higher than normal levels. Many disturbance components would usually be produced during drilling process. Such the disturbance includes many artifact gases from mud ferment, organic additive decomposition, bit erosion, etc. The analytical data of recent fluids could not be used in the investigation before removing the artifact components. It was found that the high contents of elements were related to the special rocks and minerals, such as sulfide and radiation ores. Carbon dioxide was related with carbonate. The high contents of gases were often found when the cracks or fissures occurred. The distribution of rare earth elements changed with the recent fluids. In some cases, a certain amount of helium gas was found with a high intensity of radiation detected. The high content of methane was once observed with a crystal hole in CCSD project. The samples for isotope analyses were collected in glass bottles and sent to several laboratories in China and Germany, separately. When helium and carbon isotopes in samples were found above the average values in CCSD samples, they would be measured again to confirm the safe conservation of these samples and there was no significant leak of the gases from the bottles. The isotope data show that the abnormal contents of gases found in the CCSD drilling well come from multiple sources and are related to the geological structure in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt of China.

Luo, L.; Sun, Q.; Zhan, X.; Tang, L.; He, H.; Rao, Z.

2004-12-01

34

Innovative regulatory approach for synthetic-based muds.  

SciTech Connect

The oil and gas industry has historically used water-based muds (WBMs) and oil-based muds (OBMs) in offshore drilling operations. WBMs are less expensive and are widely used. Both the WBMs and the associated drill cuttings maybe discharged from the platform to the sea provided that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discharge limitations are met. In some wells, however, difficult drilling conditions may force a switch from a WBM to an OBM. Neither the OBM nor the associated drill cuttings may be discharged. The OBM is hauled to shore, where it is processed for reuse, while the associated cuttings are injected in a disposal well at the platform or hauled to shore to a disposal facility. Both of these options are expensive. Synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are drilling fluids that use synthetic organic chemicals as base fluids. SBMs were developed to replace OBMs in difficult drilling situations. SBMs are more expensive than OBMs; however, they have superior environmental properties that may permit the cuttings to be discharged on-site. Like OBMs, SBMs are hauled ashore for processing and reuse after the well is drilled. The existing national effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs) for the offshore industry do not include requirements for SBM-cuttings since SBMs were not commonly in use at the time the ELGs were adopted. In late 1997, EPA announced that it would modify the offshore ELGs to include requirements for discharges of cuttings drilled with SBMs. For the first time in the history of the ELG program, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will lead to development of draft regulations in one year rather than the 4- to 6-year period usually needed. With direction from the federal government to stakeholders concerning information needs for the regulatory development the industry has established several working groups to collect new scientific information on SBMs. This paper describes the presumptive rulemaking process and summarizes the findings of the work groups to date.

Veil, J. A.

1998-10-22

35

An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

TerraTek

2007-06-30

36

A Shear-Thickening Fluid for Stopping Unwanted Flows While Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid formulation was developed that was based on using the high shear rate of the drill bit to thicken the fluid irreversibly. This allows the fluid to be controlled for application to specific wellbore problems. This fluid was field tested in 10 different wells that had severe drilling problems. It was used successfully in a majority of those cases.

Charles Hamburger; Yuh-hwang Tsao; Betty Morrison; Evelyn Drake

1985-01-01

37

Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

1981-10-01

38

Aqueous foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids: 1. Screening  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous foam is a promising drilling fluid for geothermal wells because it will minimize damage to the producing formation and would eliminate the erosion problems of air drilling. Successful use of aqueous foam will require a high foaming surfactant which will: (1) be chemically stable in the harsh thermal and chemical environment, and (2) form stable foams at high temperatures and pressures. The procedures developed to generate and test aqueous foams and the effects of a 260/sup 0/C temperature cycle on aqueous surfactant solutions are presented. More than fifty selected surfactants were evaluated with representatives from the amphoteric, anionic, cationic, and nonionic classes included. Most surfactants were severely degraded by this temperature cycle; however, some showed excellent retention of their properties. The most promising surfactant types were the alkyl and alkyl aryl sulfonates and the ethoxylated nonionics.

Rand, P.B.

1980-01-01

39

Thermoporoelastic Effects of Drilling Fluid Temperature on Rock Drillability at Bit/Formation Interface  

E-print Network

fluid and the downhole formation. It is critical for drilling engineers to understand this thermal impact to optimize their drilling plans. This thesis develops a numerical model using partially coupled thermoporoelasticity to study the effects...

Thepchatri, Kritatee 1984-

2012-10-26

40

Continuous process for the reclamation of waste drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

A continuous process for the reclamation of a slurry of waste drilling mud fluids and water normally resulting from drilling operations. The process comprises the steps of conducting the drilling mud slurry to a slurry surge tank for liquid solid separation by chemical and physical methods. The mud slurry is subjected to a primary solids separation unit after pH adjustment is used to initiate coagulation and an organic flocculant is added to aid flocculation of the solids. The water is then subjected to a secondary solids removal, and the solids recovered are reintroduced in the primary solids separation unit. Thereafter the water obtained from the secondary solids removal is then subjected to a chemical oxygen demand reduction unit having a carbon adsorption unit or reverse osmosis membrane units therein to remove organic matter or dissolved solids to produce water meeting environmental discharge requirements. The solids removed from the primary solids separation unit are converted to a cake meeting leachate requirements for other beneficial use.

Shiver, C.

1984-11-13

41

Geochemical monitoring of drilling fluids; A powerful tool to forecast and detect formation waters  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method based on the difference between the chemical compositions of formation and drilling fluids for analyzing drilling mud to forecast fluid-producing zones. The method was successfully applied in three boreholes in crystalline rocks in France. Subsequent geophysical logs and hydraulic tests confirmed the occurrence of flowing fractures.

Vuataz, F.D. (Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland)); Brach, M.; Criaud, A. (Ciments Francais (FR)); Fouillac, C. (Joint Institute for Geothermal Research (FR))

1990-06-01

42

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON 'THALASSIA TESTUDINUM' AND ITS EPIPHYTIC ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

A flow-through microcosm system was developed to assess the potential influence of drilling fluids on Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytic algae. Two treatments (drilling fluid and a montmorillonite clay) and a control were used for seven tests: two 10-day, 200 microliter/l exp...

43

30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?  

...Procedures you will use to monitor the volumes and rates of fluids entering and leaving the wellbore; and (k) In areas where permafrost and/or hydrate zones are present or may be present, you must control drilling fluid temperatures to drill safely...

2014-07-01

44

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

In this report we focus on surface studies of the wetting effects of SBM components; three areas of research are covered. First we present results of tests of interfacial properties of some commercial emulsifiers that are routinely used in both oil-based and synthetic oil-based drilling fluids. These products fall into two main groups, based on their CMC and IFT trends with changing pH. All can alter the wetting of mica, but measurements vary widely depending on the details of exposure and observation protocols. Non-equilibrium effects appear to be responsible for these variations, with equilibrated fluids generally giving lower contact angles than those observed with fluids that have not been pre-equilibrated. Addition of small amounts of emulsifier can increase the tendency of a crude oil to alter wetting of mica surfaces. The effects of similar amounts of these emulsifiers can be detected in interfacial tension measurements. Next, we report on the preliminary results of a study of polyethoxylated amines of varying structures on the wetting of mica surfaces. Contact angles have been measured for unequilibrated and pre-equilibrated fluids. Reduction in contact angles was generally observed when the surfaces were washed with toluene after exposure to surfactant solutions. Atomic forces microscopy is also being used to observe the interactions between these surfactants and mica surfaces. Finally, we show the results of a study of asphaltene stability in the presence of synthetic base oils. Most of the base oils in current use are paraffinic or olefinic--the aromatic content is minimized for environmental reasons--and they destabilize asphaltenes. Tests with two crude oils show onset conditions for base oils that are comparable to n-heptane and n-pentadecane in terms of the solubility conditions at the onset. Two ester-based products, Petrofree and Petrofree LV, did not cause asphaltene flocculation in these tests. A meeting of the research groups from New Mexico Tech and the University of Wyoming, was held in Laramie on the 9th and 10th of October. All the members of the research teams presented updates on their progress and exchanged views on directions for the remainder of the project.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2003-10-01

45

A shear-thickening fluid for stopping unwanted flows while drilling  

SciTech Connect

A fluid formulation was developed that was based on using the high shear rate of the drill bit to thicken the fluid irreversibly. This allows the fluid to be controlled for application to specific wellbore problems. This fluid was field tested in 10 different wells that had severe drilling problems. It was used successfully in a majority of those cases. In instances when it failed, the only method that worked was to set casing. Since testing this fluid, we have developed an improved formula that is easier to pump and has higher initial strength. This improved formula now has been field tested.

Tsao, Y.H.; Drake, E.N.; Morrison, M.E.

1985-03-01

46

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2005-09-30

47

Effects of drilling fluids on soils and plants: I. Individual fluid components  

SciTech Connect

The effects of 31 drilling fluid (drilling mud) components on the growth of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Tendergreen) and sweet corn (Zea may var. saccharata (Sturtev.) Bailey, Northrup King 199) were evaluated in greenhouse studies. Plants grew well in fertile Dagor silt loam soil (Cumulic Haploxeroll) when the soil was mixed with most soil-component mixtures at disposal proportions normally expected. Vinyl acetate and maleic acid polymer (VAMA) addition caused significantly increased growth at the 95% confidence level. No statistically significant depression of plant growth occurred at normal rates with asbestos, asphalt, barite, bentonite, calcium lignosulfonate, sodium polyacrylate, a modified tannin, ethoxylated nonylphenol, a filming amine, gilsonite, a Xanthan gum, paraformaldehyde, a pipe dope, hydrolized polyacrylamide, sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium hydroxide added as pellets, and a sulfonated tall oil. Statistically significant reductions in plant yields (at the 95% confidence level) occurred at normal disposal rates with a long-chained aliphatic alcohol, sodium dichromate, diesel oil, guar gum, an iron chromelignosulfonate, lignite, a modified asphalt, a plant fibersynthetic fiber mixture, lignite, a nonfermenting starch, potassium chloride, pregelatinized starch, and sulfated triglyceride. Thirteen drilling fluid components added individually to a fluid base (water, bentonite, and barite) and then to soil were also tested for their effect on plant growth. Only the sulfated triglyceride (Torq-Trim) and the long-chain (high molecular weight) alcohol (Drillaid 405) caused no plant growth reductions at either rate added. The modified tannin (Desco) caused minimal reduction in bean growth only when added to soil in excess levels.

Miller, R.W.; Honarvar, S.; Hunsaker, B.

1980-01-01

48

Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

2012-12-01

49

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

Core Leak-off tests are commonly used to ascertain the ability of a drilling fluid to seal permeable rock under downhole conditions. Unfortunately, these tests are expensive and require a long time to set up. To monitor fluid invasion trends and to evaluate potential treatments for reducing fluid invasion on location, a simpler screening test is highly desirable. The Capillary Suction Time (CST) Test has been used since the 1970's as a fast, yet reliable, method for characterizing fluid filterability and the condition of colloidal materials in water treatment facilities and drilling fluids. For the latter, it has usually been applied to determine the state of flocculation of clay-bearing fluids and to screen potential shale inhibitors. In this work, the CST method was evaluated as a screening tool for predicting relative invasion rates of drilling fluids in permeable cores. However, the drilling fluids examined--DRILPLEX, FLOPRO, and APHRON ICS--are all designed to generate low fluid loss and give CST values that are so high that fluid invasion comes to be dominated by experimental artifacts, such as fluid evaporation. As described in this work, the CST procedure was modified so as to minimize such artifacts and permit differentiation of the fluids under investigation.

Tatiana Hoff; Fred Growcock

2004-12-30

50

Experimental Research of Gas Hydrate Drilling Fluids Using Polyethylene Glycol as an Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperature is the key for maintaining the wellbore stability of the gas hydrate well and for ensuring the safety in the well. In this article, the characteristics of drilling in the permafrost containing gas hydrates are analyzed initially. And later, the relative properties and the inhibitory mechanisms of the polyethylene glycol and the hydrate inhibitor of the drilling fluids

Ling Zhang; Guosheng Jiang; Yunzhong Tu; Jihua Cai; Bin Dou; Jiaming Zhang; Fulong Ning

2006-01-01

51

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

...You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according to API RP 500, Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations...Division 2 (as incorporated by reference in § 250.198); or API RP 505, Recommended Practice for Classification of...

2014-07-01

52

30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according to API RP 500, Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations...incorporated by reference as specified in § 250.198); or API RP 505, Recommended Practice for Classification of...

2010-07-01

53

ECOSYSTEM PERSPECTIVE ON POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF DRILLING FLUID DISCHARGES ON SEAGRASSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Potential effects of oil drilling fluid discharges upon Thalassia seagrass ecosystems were examined to provide general insights and raise ecotoxicological issues relevant to problems of addressing a priori, ecolgical effects of anthropogenic actions. Microcosm experiments have de...

54

EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON REEF CORALS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter reviews research on the effects of drilling mud on coral reef communities, concentrating on the major reef fauna: the reef-building or hermatypic corals. Drilling mud is an effluent introduced to the marine environment in large quantities during the typical offshore ...

55

An experimental study of gas solubility in oil-based drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data are provided for the solubility of C/sub 1/, C/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and a natural gas mixture in base oils and emulsifier used to prepare oil-based drilling fluids over a range of temperatures. In addition, an empirical correlation for predicting gas solubility in oil-based drilling fluids at low to moderate pressures is presented and a field application is outlined.

O'Bryan, P.L.; Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Monger, T.G.; Kopcso, D.P.

1988-03-01

56

40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01... Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid...Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Reference C16 -C18 Internal Olefin Drilling...

2010-07-01

57

PREDICTION OF CUTTINGS BED HEIGHT WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS IN DRILLING HORIZONTAL AND HIGHLY DEVIATED WELLS  

E-print Network

-Newtonian fluids flowing in concentric/eccentric annular geometry with the inclusion of turbulence modeling of non-Newtonian fluids flowing in turbulent regime, the average velocity of cuttings moving over pipe and excessive frictional pressure losses while drilling directional and horizontal oil wells

Ullmer, Brygg

58

OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION  

SciTech Connect

The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01

59

Use of potassium/lime drilling-fluid system in Navarin basin drilling  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case history of Amoco Production Co.'s use of potassium-lime mud (KLM) for drilling a series of wells in the Navarin basin. The remote location, logistical concerns, environmental regulations, and the high cost of the operation mandated that the project be carefully planned. Planning, however, was hampered because the nearest offset to any of the wells was more than 100 miles (160 km) away. This paper describes the planning, implementation, and results of the mud system used to drill the wells. It includes a matrix of tests used to define further the nature of KLM, presents the methods used to run the system while the wells were drilled, and describes the results of using the mud in the basin. Navarin basin experience suggested that KLM should be considered when clay inhibition is needed and moderate bottomhole temperatures (BHT's) are expected.

Holt, C.A.; Brett, J.F.; Johnson, J.B.; Walker, T.O.

1987-12-01

60

Drilling Fluids and Lost Circulation in Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320 C (608 F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred. Several techniques were attempted to solve these problems but have met with varying degrees of success.

Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G. Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.

1981-01-01

61

Drilling fluids and lost circulation in hot dry rock geothermal wells at Fenton Hill  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo Formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred.

Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G.; Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.; Baroid, N.L.

1981-01-01

62

Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling  

SciTech Connect

The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-06-01

63

Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2003-10-01

64

Monitor and Characteristics of Fluids during Chinese Wenchuan Falt Scientific Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluids from WFSD-1 and WFSD-2 drilling holes in Chinese Wenchuan Falt Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) have been monitoring on site and some changes of gas compositions recorded during drilling when aftershocks happened in the Wenchun area, which may disply some potential and possibl relationships between the fluid changes and the aftershocks. An interesting fact was that some similar changes of the fluids were observed during the last Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project (CCSD) when two big earthquakes happened. Eight gases from WFSD-1 and WFSD-2 drilling holes were determined on site, among which H2, He, CH4, Ar, CO2, N2 and O2 were determined by OminiStar Mass Spectrometer and Rn by Rad-7 Radon monitor. The gases were brought up to the surface by drilling mud. They were degazed from mud by stirring it and the minus pressure with a low vacume pump, which was also used in pumping the gases into the on-site labs. The calibration curves of H2, He, CH4, Ar, CO2, N2 and O2 were made by using a set of standard gasese and Radon calibration was done in a specical lab and then used in on-site lab. Gas components changed during drillings and some of their concentrations increased and others decreased. If an aftershock happened, the gas changes were obsereved and their features as follows, 1) The fluids changed in groups. The concentrations of He, CO2 and H2 abnormally increased, but CH4 andAr decreased. 2) Multiple peaks occurred in the recorded fluid concentration and time curves. The components He, CO2 and H2 dispayed positive peaks, but Ar did negative peak. 3) Single peak was observed. He, CO2, CH4 and H2 displayed positive peaks, but Ar did negative peak again. 4) Whether a drilling process was continuing or not, small changes of fluid components were obsered in groups. 5) If the ratios of He/CH4 and He/Ar were used, the significant changes of peaks were observed in a case of an aftershock happening. 6) When the fluid changes in WFSD and CCSD were compared, an interesting fact was found that the similar changes of the fluids were observed in Chinese continental scientific drilling project during 2001 and 2005 when two big earthquakes happened then.

Luo, L.; Tang, L.; Xu, Z.; Haibin, L.

2010-12-01

65

Analysis of the theoretical model of drilling fluid invading into oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic gas hydrate-bearing sediment is usually porous media, with the temperature and pressure closer to the curve of hydrate phase equilibrium than those in the permafrost region. In the case of near-balanced or over-balanced drilling through this sediment, the water-based drilling fluid used invades into this sediment, and hydrates decompose with heat transfer between drilling fluid and this sediment. During these processes, there are inevitably energy and mass exchanges between drilling fluid and the sediment, which will affect the logging response, borehole stability and reservoir evaluation. When drilling fluid invades into this sediment, solid and liquid phases of drilling fluid permeate into the wellbore and displace original fluids and solids, and water content of formation increases. With the temperature and pressure changing, gas hydrates in the sediment decompose into gas and water, and water content of formation further changes. When the filter cakes form, the invasion of drilling fluid is weakened. This process is accompanied by the heat and mass transfer within the range from wellbore to undisturbed area, including heat conduction of rock matrix, the convective heat transfer of fluids invaded, the heat absorbing of hydrate decomposition and the mass exchange between fluids invaded and the gas and water generated by hydrate decomposition. As a result, dynamic balance is built up and there are generally four different regions from wellbore to undisturbed area, i.e. filter cakes region, filter liquor region, water/free gas region, and water/free gas/hydrate region. According to the analysis on the invasion of drilling fuild into sediment, the whole invasion process can be described as an anisothermal and unstable displacement and diffusion process coupled with phase change. Refering to models of drilling fuilds invasion into normal oil and gas formation and natrual gas production from hydrate deposit by heating, the model of the invasion of drilling fluid into hydrate-bearing sediment has been preliminarily discussed based on kinetics of hydrate dissociation , with the assumption that hydrates were viewed as a portion of pore fluids and their decomposition was taken as a water and gas source without a uniform rate. A mathematical model was built up, and key parameters used for solving the kinetic equation of hydrate dissociation, such as the coefficient of effective porosity and permeability, absolute permeability, the synthetic specific heat and heat conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediment, are discussed. This model could be used to describe the dynamic process of drilling fluids invasion by coupling modified kinetic equation of heated hydrate decomposition into mass conservation equations, and also be used to study the evolution of pore water pressure, temperature, salinity, saturation of water/gas/hydrate with the depth of invasion and time. Key words: gas hydrates-bearing sediment, drilling fluid, hydrate dissociation, invasion process, model

Zhang, L.; Ning, F.; Jiang, G.; Wu, N.; Wu, D.

2009-12-01

66

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and (3) to develop new approaches to restoration of wetting that will permit the use of cores drilled with SBM formulations for valid studies of reservoir properties.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2006-01-01

67

Post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry in the Iheya North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 investigated the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough. Several post-drilling underwater vehicle investigations were conducted over 2 years to identify post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry. Drilling-induced high-temperature hydrothermal fluid vents were identified at deep holes not only near the naturally occurring NBC hydrothermal fluid vent (Site C0016) but also at the seafloor ˜450 m distal to the NBC vent (Site C0014), where no hydrothermal fluid discharge was observed prior to drilling. A chimney structure at Hole C0016A grew rapidly at the NBC mound crest, where only small chimneys had been found before drilling. A drilling-induced diffuse hydrothermal flow region spread at Site C0014, and this area was newly colonized by the galatheid crab. From a fluid chemistry perspective, the post-drilling hydrothermal fluids were enriched in Cl relative to seawater, although this fluid chemistry was not observed during the 12 years prior to drilling. The Cl-enriched fluid reservoir underlying the subseafloor impermeable layers, observed by IODP Expedition 331, is likely source for the Cl-enriched fluids discharging from the post-drilling vents. The drilling-induced physical disturbance of subseafloor hydrogeological structures would release such fluids to the seafloor. In turn, the rapid chimney growth at the NBC mound crest may also be attributed to highly turbulent fluid flow with the enlarged artificial vent of Hole C0016A, which can contribute to the retention of the fluid-seawater mixture for a sufficiently long period to precipitate sulfide/sulfate minerals on the seafloor.

Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Ryota; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Takazo; Konno, Uta; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Hatada, Kenta; Hirayama, Hisako; Fujikura, Katsunori; Furushima, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Watsuji, Tomo-o.; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Takai, Ken

2013-11-01

68

Hydrodynamics of the Fluid Filtrate on Drilling-In  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of the liquid penetrating into the formation after drilling-in has been determined on the basis of theoretical investigations. The dynamics of change in the bottom-hole pressure has been determined in this process. It has been shown that because of the water hammer, the bottom-hole pressure can be doubled in the presence of large fractures and pores closer to the well-bottom zone.

Abbasov, É. M.; Agaeva, N. A.

2014-01-01

69

Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied. PMID:20209242

Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

2010-03-01

70

Controllable magneto-rheological fluid-based dampers for drilling  

DOEpatents

A damping apparatus and method for a drillstring comprising a bit comprising providing to the drillstring a damping mechanism comprising magnetorheological fluid and generating an electromagnetic field affecting the magnetorheological fluid in response to changing ambient conditions encountered by the bit.

Raymond, David W. (Edgewood, NM); Elsayed, Mostafa Ahmed (Youngsville, LA)

2006-05-02

71

Effects of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids on substrate specificity of marine bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The effects of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids on the sizes of populations of specific heterotroph subgroups of marine bacteria were monitored in this study. The bacteria were isolated from drill cuttings recovered from Agbara--an offshore oilfield located some 100 nautical miles off the Atlantic coast of Nigeria. Numbers of cellulolytic, proteolytic, starch-hydrolyzing and lipolytic bacteria in the drill cuttings were monitored for 28 days in the presence of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids. The percentages of these bacterial subgroups within the total heterotrophic population enumerated on tryptic soy agar (10% with 3% NaCl) fluctuated between 3.0 and 17.0%, 0.0 and 27.0%, 4.0 and 25.0% and 3.0 and 18.0% for cellulolytic, proteolytic, starch-hydrolyzing and lipolytic bacteria respectively. These results indicate that oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids affect the ability of marine bacteria to metabolize these substrates in the environment.

Okpokwasili, G.C.; Nnubia, C. [Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology] [Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

1995-12-31

72

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TWO GENERIC DRILLING FLUIDS AND SIX ADDITIVES, ALONE AND COMBINED, TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity tests were conducted with two laboratory-prepared generic drilling fluids (muds) and six commonly used drilling fluid additives to determine their toxicity, alone and combined, to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). In 25 tests, the acute toxicity of combinations of one, two, or ...

73

Removal of Filter Cake Generated by Manganese Tetraoxide Water-based Drilling Fluids  

E-print Network

Three effective solutions to dissolve the filter cake created by water-based drilling fluids weighted with Mn3O4 particles were developed. Hydrochloric acid at concentration lower than 5 wt% can dissolve most of Mn3O4-based filter cake. Dissolving...

Al Mojil, Abdullah Mohammed A.

2011-10-21

74

Fate and effects of drilling fluid and cutting discharges in shallow, nearshore waters  

SciTech Connect

The relationships between selected environmental parameters (sedimentology, trace metals, and hydrocarbons) and macroinfaunal assemblages were studied to determine the fate and effects of drilling fluid and cutting discharges from a multiple well site in a shallow nearshore environment. Results are presented.

Not Available

1989-01-01

75

USE OF THALASSIA AND ITS EPIPHYTES FOR TOXICITY ASSESSMENT: EFFECTS OF A DRILLING FLUID AND TRIBUTYLTIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Concurrent l2-week laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine toxicity of the suspended particulate phase (SPP) of drilling fluid to Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytes. est systems were treated once per week to achieve nominal concentrations of 100 mg/L SPP. hlo...

76

Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain indicating that very unusual microbes can be contained in a drilling fluid. All this testifies that kerosene film is indeed hard to remove and everyone should be aware on bacteria introduced with any drilling fluid. Our results demonstrate the necessity to have a drilling fluid data base when studying the microbial contents of ice cores.

Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

2003-04-01

77

Drilling fluids and the arctic tundra of Alaska: Assessing contamination of wetlands habitat and the toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases, usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill sites and their reserve pits showed an increase in common and trace elements and

Daniel F. Woodward; Elaine Snyder-Conn; Robert G. Riley; Thomas R. Garland

1988-01-01

78

Drilling fluids and the arctic tundra of Alaska: assessing contamination of wetlands habitat and the toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and fish (journal version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill sites and their reserve pits showed an increase in common and trace elements and

D. F. Woodward; E. Snyder-Conn; R. G. Riley; T. R. Garland

1988-01-01

79

Tectonics, Fluids, and the Seismogenic Zone: Four Decades of Drilling at Convergent Margins (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of Tectonics, Fluids, and the Seismogenic Zone are three disciplines that have driven convergent margin drilling. Each of these major themes sequentially evolved as centerpieces of drilling as the intellectual framework and the requisite technologies developed. Each remains active today. In the 1970s and early 1980s, initial results from testing plate tectonic theory defined the nature of progressive accretion, and conversely, tectonic erosion at convergent margins. With the more robust D/V JOIDES Resolution, investigation of fluid pressure, compositions, migration paths, and sediment/rock permeability became possible. 3D seismic data, first available in the early 1990s, detailed fluid migration paths inferred from porewater geochemical anomalies, emphasizing the importance of faults as fluid conduits. 3D seismic volumes also resulted in extraordinary insights on the structure and tectonics of convergent margins. In the mid 1990s packer testing and long-term monitoring of fault zones provided the first estimates of in situ fluid pressures, permeabilities, and variation of the latter with effective stress. Experimental studies, and hydrological and geomechanical modeling have provided critical perspectives on the observational data. During the late 1990s and 2000s the convergent margin community focused on earthquake processes in the Seismogenic Zone Experiment (SEIZE). Understanding of tectonics and fluids, plus monitoring, 3D seismic imaging, Logging While Drilling technology, and D/V Chikyu riser drilling capability have all contributed to emergent accomplishments of SEIZE. Some key results of this program include 1) estimates of material flux into the seismogenic zone, 2) measurement of stress orientation and magnitude across the margin of SW Japan, 3) recognition of high velocity fault slip at shallow depths, 4) correlation of monitored variations in fluid pressure and composition with seismic events, and 5) the initiation of a deep riser hole. Currently the SEIZE program across SW Japan is the best active margin transect ever. Completion of the deep riser hole and associated monitoring will make this effort truly transformative.

Moore, J. C.; All Dsdp, Odp,; Iodp Convergent Margin Scientific Parties

2010-12-01

80

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

We report on progress in three areas. In part one, the wetting effects of synthetic base oils are reported. Part two reports progress in understanding the effects of surfactants of known chemical structures, and part three integrates the results from surface and core tests that show the wetting effects of commercial surfactant products used in synthetic and traditional oil-based drilling fluids. An important difference between synthetic and traditional oil-based muds (SBM and OBM, respectively) is the elimination of aromatics from the base oil to meet environmental regulations. The base oils used include dearomatized mineral oils, linear alpha-olefins, internal olefins, and esters. We show in part one that all of these materials except the esters can, at sufficiently high concentrations, destabilize asphaltenes. The effects of asphaltenes on wetting are in part related to their stability. Although asphaltenes have some tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces from a good solvent, that tendency can be much increased near the onset of asphaltene instability. Tests in Berea sandstone cores demonstrate wetting alteration toward less water-wet conditions that occurs when a crude oil is displaced by paraffinic and olefinic SBM base oils, whereas exposure to the ester products has little effect on wetting properties of the cores. Microscopic observations with atomic forces microscopy (AFM) and macroscopic contact angle measurements have been used in part 2 to explore the effects on wetting of mica surfaces using oil-soluble polyethoxylated amine surfactants with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and extent of ethoxylation. In the absence of water, only weak adsorption occurs. Much stronger, pH-dependent adsorption was observed when water was present. Varying hydrocarbon chain length had little or no effect on adsorption, whereas varying extent of ethoxylation had a much more significant impact, reducing contact angles at nearly all conditions tested. Preequilibration of aqueous and oleic phases appeared to have little influence over surfactant interactions with the mica surface; the solubility in water of all three structures appeared to be very limited. Commercial emulsifiers for both SBM and OBM formulations are blends of tall oil fatty acids and their polyaminated derivatives. In part three of this report, we integrate observations on smooth surfaces with those in Berea sandstone cores to show the effects of low concentrations of these products with and without the added complexity of adsorbed material from crude oils. Unlike the polyethoxylated amines studied in part two, there are significant non-equilibrium effects that can occur when water first contacts oil with dissolved surfactant. Very oil-wet conditions can be produced on first contact. Surfactant dissolved in oil had less effect on wetting alteration for one combination of crude oil and surfactant, although the generality of this observation can only be assessed by additional tests with crude oils of different composition. The wettability-altering effect of surfactants on both mica and Berea sandstone was most significant when they contacted surfaces after adsorption of crude oil components. Tests without crude oil might underestimate the extent of wetting change possible with these SBM and OBM emulsifiers.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2004-05-01

81

High temperature drilling fluids based on sulfonated thermoplastic polymers  

SciTech Connect

An oil-based drilling mud is described which consists of: (a) a hydrocarbon oil; (b) about 1 to about 10 parts by weight of water per 100 parts by weight of the hydrocarbon oil; (c) about 20 to about 50 lb/bbl of at least one emulsifier; (d) weighting material necessary to achieve the desired density; and (e) about 0.25 to about 4.0 lb/bbl of a water insoluble and oil insoluble neutralized sulfonated thermoplastic polymer having a molecular weight as measured by GPC of about 5,000 to about 500,000, the water insoluble and oil insoluble neutralized sulfonated thermoplastic polymer having about 5 to about 100 meq. of sulfonate groups per 100 grams of the neutralized sulfonated thermoplastic polymer. The water insoluble and oil insoluble sulfonated thermoplastic is derived from a polymer selected from the group consisting of polystyrene, poly-t-butyl-styrene, polychlorostyrene, poly-alpha methyl styrene, polyvinyl toluene and co- or terpolymers of styrene and acrylonitrile, methyl methacrylate and butadiene.

Walker, T.O.; Peiffer, D.G.; Lundberg, R.D.

1986-04-01

82

Effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a Nigerian offshore oilfield  

SciTech Connect

Two marine bacterial isolates from drill mud cuttings obtained from Agbara oilfield, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp., were cultured aerobically in the presence of varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 75 {mu}g/ml) of drilling fluids to determine the effects of concentration of toxicants on their growth. With the exception of Clairsol, Enviromul, and Bariod mineral oil, which had little or no effect, the exponential growth of Bacillus sp. was depressed by all other test chemicals. Additionally, all test chemicals except Clairsol had no effect on lag phase of growth of Bacillus sp. With Staphylococcus sp. the depressive effect on the exponential phase of growth was shown by almost all test chemicals. There was enhancement of both growth rate and generation times of Staphylococcus sp. and decrease of those of Bacillus sp. with increasing concentrations of drilling fluids. These results show that while some drilling fluids may be stimulatory or depressive to bacterial growth, others may be without effect. 23 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Okpokwasil, G.C.; Nnubia, C. [Univ. of Prot Harcourt (Nigeria)

1995-11-01

83

What separates the Big Four mud companies from Chromalloy. Chromalloy's clean-spot drilling fluid  

SciTech Connect

Clean-Spot, a mineral oil-based invert-emulsion drilling fluid, is presented as the least toxic, best-performing, and most economical oil based fluid available. The secret is a unique emulsifier package which was developed specifically for use with mineral oil. Field studies have shown that it remains stable even under extreme downhole temperatures, in excess of 475/sup 0/F. It may require only a centrifuge for reclaiming and recycling mineral oil from the cuttings prior to disposal, which, under certain environmental regulations, eliminates the need for expensive cuttings washers and detergents.

Not Available

1984-01-01

84

Laser-rock-fluid interaction: application of free-electron laser (FEL) in petroleum well drilling and completions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the first year of a Gas Research Institute funded research program to study laser-rock-fluid interaction will be presented. The overall purpose of this research is to determine the feasibility, costs, benefits, and the environmental impact of using laser technology to drill and complete oil and gas wells. When drilling and completing petroleum wells, many rock types (sandstone,

Darien G. O'Brien; Ramona M. Graves; Erin A. O'Brien

1999-01-01

85

Experimental Studies of Ilmenite as a Weighting Material in Oil-based Drilling Fluids for HPHT Operations  

E-print Network

ilmenite (5 µm) was introduced to address shortcomings of the traditional weighting materials. The objective of this study is to discuss the performance of oil-based drilling fluids using ilmenite as a weighting material for HPHT applications. Oil...

Xiao, Jie

2013-12-06

86

Comparative evaluation of the indigenous microbial diversity vs. drilling fluid contaminants in the NEEM Greenland ice core.  

PubMed

Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice. PMID:24450335

Miteva, Vanya; Burlingame, Caroline; Sowers, Todd; Brenchley, Jean

2014-08-01

87

Non-polluting non-toxic drilling fluid compositions and method of preparation  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes the process for the preparation of a non-polluting non-toxic plant or vegetable oil base drilling fluid composition comprising the steps of: (a) introducing a plant or vegetable base oil having a C-12 to C-24 carbon chain into a mixing container, (b) adding a minor amount of antioxidant to the base oil, (c) adding a minor amount of a synergist for the antioxidant, the synergist being selected from the group consisting of citric acid, ascorbic acid, phosphoric acid, monoesters of ascorbic acid and monoesters of fatty acids, to the base oil, (d) heating the base oil including the antioxidants to a temperature of about 93/sup 0/C. (200/sup 0/F.), (e) introducing a minor amount of an oleate ester emulsifier into the base oil with thorough mixing, (f) adding a minor amount of viscosifier consisting of amine-treated bentonite into the mixture with thorough mixing, (g) introducing a minor amount of an oleate ester wetting agent the mixture with thorough mixing, (h) shear mixing of the mixture for a period of not less than about 30 minutes to effect more thorough mixing to form a stable emulsion, and optionally (i) adding a finely-divided filler material into the mixture with thorough mixing to form a stable oil base drilling fluid composition having a low coefficient of friction less than about 0.15 for varied drilling purposes.

Jones, R.W. III

1986-12-23

88

Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity With Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology  

SciTech Connect

The Acoustic Bubble Spectrometer has been identified as a potential method for monitoring the size distribution of aphrons in situ, such as in an oil well drilling fluid flowline.1 Research was continued from Task 1.1 of this Project, Aphron Visualization,2 in which ABS was tested against laser light scattering (Coulter Counter) and optical (visual) imaging to determine the bubble size distribution (BSD) of the aphrons at ambient temperature and pressure. Task 2.1 continued this investigation by measuring the bubble size distribution via ABS and optical imaging at elevated pressures up to 2000 psig.

Bob O'Connor; Fred Growcock

2004-12-01

89

Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.  

PubMed

The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s?¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol?¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

2014-01-01

90

Subsurface fluid pressures from drill-stem tests, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High fluid pressures are known to be associated with oil and gas fields in the Uinta Basin, Utah. Shut-in pressure measurements from drill-stem tests show how pressure varies with depth and by area within the basin. The data base used in this report incorporates over 2,000 pressure measurements from drill-stem tests in wells completed prior to 1985. However, the number of useful pressure measurements is considerably less, because many drill-stem tests fail to stabilize at the actual formation pressure if the permeability is low. By extracting the maximum pressure measurements recorded in a collection of wells within an area, the trend of formation pressure within that area can be approximated. Areal compilations of pressures from drill-stem tests show that overpressured rock formations occur throughout much of the northern and eastern areas of the Uinta Basin. In particular, significant overpressuring (0.5 < pressure gradient < 0.8 psi/ft) is found throughout much of the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths ranging from 10,000 to 13,000 ft, equivalent to 5,000 to 8,000 ft below sea level. Limited data indicate that the pressure gradient declines at depths greater than 13,000 ft. An underpressured zone appears to exist in the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths shallower than 5,000 ft. Throughout the eastern Uinta Basin, moderately overpressured zones (0.46 < pressure gradient < 0.5 psi/ft) are common, with local evidence of significantly overpressured zones, but pressure gradients greater than 0.6 psi/ft are rare.

Nelson, P. H.

2002-01-01

91

Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.  

PubMed

We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage. PMID:23799238

Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

2013-08-01

92

Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of ?0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 × 103 to 2.4 × 104 cells/g and 3.5 × 108 to 4.2 × 109 cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids. PMID:15933024

Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

2005-01-01

93

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 92-0361-2343, M-I Drilling Fluids, Greybull, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from the state epidemiologist in Wyoming, an investigation was begun of two cases of acute, febrile hepatitis in employees of M-I Drilling Fluids (SIC-1459), Greybull, Wyoming. The two cases of hepatitis were caused by Coxiella-burnetii, the rickettsia which causes Q-fever. A survey of 39 workers using a self-administered questionnaire and a blood test revealed seven workers with serologic evidence of infection. Three showed evidence of recent infection and four showed evidence of past infection. The major risk factor identified through the questionnaire data was sheep ownership. Risk factors suggestive of either recent or past infection included working outdoors, operating heavy equipment, and hunting.

Van Gilder, T.J.; Robinson, L.

1993-08-01

94

BIOCHEMICAL MEASURES OF CORAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND MICROBIAL INFECTION WITH EXPOSURE TO OIL AND GAS WELL DRILLING FLUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform. After 6 weeks exposure, coral frag...

95

Solids-free drilling systems  

SciTech Connect

The drilling fluid industry has based its marketing, merchandising, and engineering emphasis on gel and barite as principal components in drilling fluid systems for the domestic oil industry. The detrimental effects of five drill solids in drilling fluid systems on the rotary drilling environment is well known. The development and application of clear unweighted and weighted drilling fluids has reached are advanced stage and progressive oil operators should consider the application of solids-free drilling fluids in future drilling projects. The advantages of using clear drilling fluids are pointed out.

Roberts, C.

1984-07-01

96

Validation and comparison of two sampling methods to assess dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil.  

PubMed

Dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil is an exposure route of concern. However, there have been no published studies describing sampling methods or reporting dermal exposure measurements. We describe a study that aimed to evaluate a wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to an oil-based drilling fluid and crude oil, as well as to investigate the feasibility of using an interception cotton glove sampler for exposure on the hands/wrists. A direct comparison of the wipe and interception methods was also completed using pigs' trotters as a surrogate for human skin and a direct surface contact exposure scenario. Overall, acceptable recovery and sampling efficiencies were reported for both methods, and both methods had satisfactory storage stability at 1 and 7 days, although there appeared to be some loss over 14 days. The methods' comparison study revealed significantly higher removal of both fluids from the metal surface with the glove samples compared with the wipe samples (on average 2.5 times higher). Both evaluated sampling methods were found to be suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil; however, the comparison study clearly illustrates that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. Further comparison of the two dermal sampling methods using additional exposure situations such as immersion or deposition, as well as a field evaluation, is warranted to confirm their appropriateness and suitability in the working environment. PMID:24598941

Galea, Karen S; McGonagle, Carolyn; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Todd, David; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez

2014-06-01

97

Hydrological and chemical monitoring during Fluid Injection Test in Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project drilled two research boreholes (Hole A and B; approximately 40 m of their distance) through the Chelungpu Fault in Da-Keng, which ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, in 2004. A branched borehole was drilled from Hole B in 2005 (Hole C), and then both Hole A and Hole C were perforated at the depth of the fault zone. The depth of perforation is 1111 m in Hole A and 1137 m in Hole C. Between the two boreholes, Fluid Injection Test (FIT) was performed on from November 2006 to March 2007 to estimate permeability and to understand hydrological and chemical properties along Chelungpu fault. Water was injected four times from Hole C at constant pressure during this FIT (4 MPa on November 2006 and January 2007, 3 and 5 MPa on March 2007). The arrival of injected water was monitored by seismometers, manometers, a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and chemical sensors at Hole A. In this present, we will report the results of water quality, gas and water pressure monitoring at Hole A. During FIT, tap water was used for injected water, which was characterized by high Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP; 250 mV) and high Dissolved Oxygen (DO; 5.6 mg/L). Because both ORP and DO of the well water at Hole A kept low (ORP; -350 - -150, DO; <0.5 mg/L) before FIT, the arrival of injected water can be found by rise of these values. 1st FIT was performed for approximately 100 hours from 22:00 on 7th to 8:30 on 12th November. As a result, the values of ORP and DO increased on 10th November, which is 3 days after the start of 1st FIT. Then, the flow rate at Hole A suddenly increased 7 days after the first chemical reaction on 10th, that is, 10 days after the start of 1st FIT. This suggests that the permeability is 10-16 m2 assuming that the width of a permeable zone is 1 m by the preliminary estimation of the permeability based on the model of Kitagawa et al. (2002).

Murakami, M.; Tanaka, H.; Kuo, T.; Tsao, C.; Giletycz, S.; Chen, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, C.; Yang, T.; Ma, K.

2007-12-01

98

Mechanistic investigation of the formation damaging characteristics of mixed metal hydroxide drill-in fluids and comparison with polymer-base fluids  

SciTech Connect

Mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) fluids are highly thixotropic and have shown exceptional abilities in the areas of hole cleaning, suspension, and maintenance of good hole gauge even through very poorly consolidated sandstones. When a drill-in fluid based on an MMH has been used in reservoir sections, the ease of cleanup and the production rates have both exceeded expectations. Results have been better than those achieved on offsets where more conventional fluids have been used. Laboratory results have also shown properly formulated MMH fluids to have a low potential for formation damage. The primary objectives of the laboratory project presented in this paper were to (1) investigate the mechanisms by which filter cakes develop against sandstone faces, (2) study the natures of the cakes produced with different types of drill-in fluids, and (3) investigate the implications for cake cleanup. In a group of unweighted fluids an MMH fluid was found to be unique in its ability to form a predominantly external cake. It was further shown that the strong interactions between the MMH crystals and the bentonite platelets, which interactions provide the characteristic high shear thinning and almost instantaneous gelling behavior of such fluids, also contribute to the avoidance of damaging internal cake formation. This study demonstrates by dynamic fluid-loss measurements, imaging of dried filter cakes using an SEM, and direct imaging of wet filter cakes using an environmental SEM that the fluid is able to form mineral bridges over pore throats in a wide range of reservoir rocks. The external cake formed by the MMH fluid is easily removed by wash fluids or simply by application of backpressure as occurs when a well is brought on to production.

Fraser, L.J.; Reid, D.P.; Williamson, D. [and others

1995-12-31

99

40 CFR Appendix 7 to Subpart A of... - Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid From Drill Cuttings by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Receiver specifications: Total volume: 10-cm3 , 20-cm3...operations and the anticipated total feet to be drilled with NAF...phenomena (e.g., rain, snowfall). 2.4For each NAF...include a prediction of the total quantity of NAF which...

2013-07-01

100

40 CFR Appendix 7 to Subpart A of... - Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid From Drill Cuttings by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Receiver specifications: Total volume: 10-cm3 , 20-cm3...operations and the anticipated total feet to be drilled with NAF...phenomena (e.g., rain, snowfall). 2.4For each NAF...include a prediction of the total quantity of NAF which...

2012-07-01

101

Drilling fluids and the arctic tundra of Alaska: assessing contamination of wetlands habitat and the toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and fish (journal version)  

SciTech Connect

Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill sites and their reserve pits showed an increase in common and trace elements and organic hydrocarbons in ponds near to and distant from reserve pits. Ions elevated in water were Ba, Cl, Cr, K, SO4 and Zn. Concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, and Si in sediments were higher in near and distant ponds than in control ponds. The predominant organics in drill-site waters and sediments consisted of aromatic and paraffinic hydrocarbons characteristic of petroleum or a refined product of petroleum. In 96-hr exposures in the field, toxicity to Daphnia Middendorffiana was observed in water from all reserve pits, and from two of five near ponds, but not from distant ponds. In laboratory tests with Daphnia magna, growth and reproduction were reduced in dilutions of 2.5% drilling fluid (2.5 drilling fluid: 97.5 dilution water) from one reserve pit, and 25% drilling fluid from a second.

Woodward, D.F.; Snyder-Conn, E.; Riley, R.G.; Garland, T.R.

1988-01-01

102

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the experimental results of some baseline imbibition tests on recovery of mineral oil at very strongly water wet conditions (VSWW) from sandstones with air permeability ranging from 80 to 360 md. Mixed wettability cores were prepared by adsorption from either Minnelusa or Gullfaks crude oil using either synthetic Minnelusa reservoir brine or sea water. Recovery of two synthetic-based mud (SBM) base oils, Petrofree(reg sign)SF and LVT 200 from mixed wettability cores gave results that correlated closely with results for refined oils with viscosities ranging from 3.8 to 84 cp. Two synthetic-based mud emulsifiers (LE SUPERMUL and EZ MUL(reg sign)NT) were added to mineral oil and tested for their effect on the wettability of MXW-F core samples as indicated by spontaneous imbibition. In both cases a significant decrease in water wetness was obtained.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2003-05-01

103

EFFECT OF WELL-DRILLING FLUIDS OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS AND MICROBIAL INFECTION OF THE REEF BUILDING CORAL 'MONTASTREA ANNULARIS'  

EPA Science Inventory

The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.0001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform (30 deg 7.5 min N, 85 deg 46.3 min...

104

Eggbeater PDC drillbit design eliminates balling in water-based drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a novel polycrystalline-diamond-compact (PDC)-bit concept based on insights into PDC-bit cutting mechanism and rock behavior during drilling. The design comprises a hydraulic layout that optimizes bit cleaning and cuttings removal in soft and sticky formations. Significant improvements in performance have been achieved in Cretaceous and Triassic formations drilled with water-based muds.

Zijsling, D.H.; Illerhaus, R.

1993-12-01

105

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-print Network

The Challenges of HTHP Drilling Operating in extreme temperature and pressure environments needs extensive plan- ning with special attention being paid to environmental regulations. Figure 1.2 de- scribes the sources of safety concerns in HPHT drilling.... Understanding the rheological behavior of WBMs in HPHT conditions. 22 2. Determination of temperature based operating thresholds of WBMs through experimentation. 3. Providing general guidelines through experimental work on how these uids must be treated...

Ravi, Ashwin

2012-10-19

106

Effects of fluids on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature microstructures observed in samples from SAFOD drill cores indicate fluid-related deformation and chemical reactions occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations, document open pores that formed in-situ during or after deformation. In TEM images, many pores with high aspect ratio appear to be unconnected. They were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting that elevated pore fluid pressure exist in the fault gouge, preventing pore collapse. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault rocks is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. TEM imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. In few samples syntectonic fluid-assisted overgrowth of chlorite-rich films on slickensides partly replaced sedimentary quartz grains. Quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved with sutured boundaries. Newly-formed phyllosilicates are illite-smectite phases, Mg-rich smectites and chlorite minerals. They are very fine-grained (down to 20 nm) and nucleate at grain surfaces (interfaces), which in many cases are pore or fracture walls. These relatively straight or curved crystals grow into open pore spaces and fractures. They are arranged in a card-house fabric with open pore spaces between the flakes. Locally, clay flakes are bent, folded or show sigmoidal shapes indicating that they were involved in faulting. The clay particles do not show a preferred shape orientation. The predominantly random orientation distribution of the clay minerals was confirmed by x-ray synchrotron texture analysis. Pole figures show very weak textures with maxima around 1.2 m.r.d. and minima around around 0.8 m.r.d., indicating that a majority of crystals are oriented randomly. The dominance of randomly oriented clay particles, characterized by weak fabrics, may influence the mechanical stability of fault zone rocks. Formation of secondary calcite cement reveals fluid-assisted fracture healing. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows at least three different generations of calcite veins confined to lithoclasts, displaying dissolution seams. Additionally, crack and seal processes in K-feldspar are identified. The calcite grains exhibit different degrees of deformation with evidence for twinning and crystal plasticity.

Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Morales, L. G.; Rybacki, E.; Wenk, H.; Dresen, G. H.

2011-12-01

107

USE OF DRILLING FLUIDS IN MONITORING WELL NETWORK INSTALLATION: LANL AND OPEN DISCUSSION  

EPA Science Inventory

Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) were requested by EPA Region 6 to provide a technical analysis of the impacts of well drilling practices implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the development of their grou...

108

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

H. Seay Nance

2003-03-01

109

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (IV) Estimates of Pressure and Temperature of Black Smoker Fluid Source Regions Based on Fluid-Mineral Equilibria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One goal of Iceland Deep Drilling is to determine whether we can find a reservoir of geothermal fluid in basalt at temperatures substantially exceeding 400°C---the approximate high end of mid- ocean ridge black smoker vent temperatures. Using a newly developed thermodynamic data base for computer program SOLVEQ, we can compute fluid properties at temperatures (T) up to at least 550°C and pressures (P) greater than 3 kb, making it feasible to use the chemical analysis of a black smoker fluid to estimate the P and T simultaneously for equilibration of the fluid with alteration minerals in its host formation. We used published analyses to compute the properties of smoker fluids from the MARK-1 vent on the Mid- Atlantic Ridge, and from the East Pacific Rise vents at 11°N-4, 21°N OBS, and 21°N NGS. For MARK-1, where vent T=350°C and P=370 bar, we estimate a source fluid equilibration temperature, T(e), of 380-400°C at pressure, P(e), of 500 bar. Corresponding T and P findings for the other vents are as follows: 11°N-4 EPR (vent T=347°C, P=260 bar), T(e)=430-460°C and P(e)=600 bar; 21°N OBS (vent T=350°C, P=260 bar), T(e)=385-410°C and P(e)=490 bar; 21°N NGS (vent T=273°C, P=260 bar), T(e)=370-420°C and P(e)=540 bar. These estimates are minima, because aqueous silica and other elements in silicate minerals may have precipitated at the vents or during ascent of spring waters to the sea floor. One precipitate is anhydrite that forms in smoker chimneys where local seawater mixes with the deep fluids, depleting aqueous Ca from the source fluid, thereby affecting our estimate of T(e) for Ca minerals. Among the computed properties is the pH of the deep fluids, which is necessary to compute feldspar equilibria, among other silicates, enabling a determination that albite is undersaturated in all of the deep fluids but one. This result is consistent with the acidic pH that prevails in seawater-derived fluids reacted with basalt at high water/rock ratio, which precludes albite in the alteration assemblage along the fluid pathway, although albite is likely to occur away from permeable zones, as observed in ophiolites. The pressure estimates rely especially on the solubilities of quartz, feldspars and micas, for which there is a strong pressure effect in the T-P range relevant to smoker fluids, as also argued for quartz by VonDamm, et al. (1985) in their application of quartz solubility to estimate smoker fluid equilibration pressures, and thereby, depth of fluid penetration. Our estimated equilibration pressures are 130 bars to more than 300 bars greater than vent pressures, indicating fluid circulation to depths of 1 to 3 km beneath the sea floor. Estimated fluid equilibration temperatures, T(e), exceed vent temperatures by 30° to 100°C. The maximum T(e) we estimate is 460°C, suggesting that the Iceland Deep Drillhole has a reasonable chance of finding large quantities of fluid at temperatures substantially exceeding 400°C.

Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

2006-12-01

110

Drilling fluid conversion: Selection and use of Portland or blast-furnace-slag cement  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of drilling mud to oilwell cement has advanced from an unpredictable laboratory curiosity to a practical reality. Recent field introduction of polymer dispersants, organic accelerators, and an alternative cementitious material have provided two refined and practical conversion methods. Each method claims universal applicability plus performance superior to that of conventionally mixed and pumped Portland cement. Both blast-furnace-slag (BFS) and Portland cement are used for drilling-mud conversion. Portland and BFS mud conversions can use the same recently developed polymer dispersants, filtration-control materials, defoamers, and other additives that are typically used to treat high-temperature, highly-salt-contaminated drilling muds. Experience in the field and laboratory has demonstrated that conversion with BFS or Portland cement is essentially one technology from a pilot-test and application standpoint. While use of these two materials reflects essentially one technology, distinct performance and cost differences exist. These differences define the specific economic application advantages and must be considered when a decision to use BFS or Portland cement is made. Rational selection of mud-to-cement conversion depends on a detailed economic comparison of basic materials, logistics, and equipment availability.

Schlemmer, R.P.; Branam, N.E.; Edwards, T.M.; Valenziano, R.C.

1994-12-01

111

WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

We report on a preliminary study of wetting effects of synthetic oil-based mud components on the wetting of mica surfaces using drilling mud fractions obtained from two wells drilled with synthetic oil-based muds (SBM). We have used these SBM fractions, one a filtrate and the other a centrifugate, to develop testing protocols for studies on smooth mica surfaces. Both SBM fractions changed the wetting of clean, dry mica surfaces, making them preferentially oil-wet. Solvents were tested to clean the mica with varying degrees of success. In tests designed to simulate contact between SBM fractions and reservoir pore surface, changes of wetting of mica that had previously been exposed to brine and crude oil were examined using six different crude oils in combination with several different brine formulations. Four of the six oils produced preferentially water-wet surfaces whereas two produced fairly oil-wet conditions on mica. Exposure to the SBM fractions tended to increase decane/water advancing contact angles on the more water-wet surfaces and to decrease those on the more oil-wet surfaces. Cleaning solvents were compared for their efficacy and the possibility of wettability restoration was examined for some of the cleaned surfaces.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

2002-12-01

112

COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUID ON MACROBENTHIC INVERTEBRATES ASSOCIATED WITH THE SEAGRASS, THALASSIA TESTUDINUM, IN THE LABORATORY AND FIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. he research focused on: ) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in off-shore oil and...

113

Use of statistical design to study the influence of CMC on the rheological properties of bentonite dispersions for water-based drilling fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC, on the apparent and plastic viscosities of bentonite dispersions for water-based drilling fluids was investigated based on the statistical design. Ten formulations using bentonites, and high and low molar mass CMCs were used in the experiment design. Dispersions were prepared according to Petrobras company standards. Regression models were calculated, correlating the properties with the

R. R. Menezes; L. N. Marques; L. A. Campos; H. S. Ferreira; L. N. L. Santana; G. A. Neves

2010-01-01

114

Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs  

E-print Network

The increasing number of open hole horizontal well completions in low-pressure and depleted reservoirs requires the use of non-damaging low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) to avoid formation damage and realize optimum well productivity. To address...

Chen, Guoqiang

2012-06-07

115

Correlation of fluid induced Microseismicity with Reflectivity at the German Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for the interpretation of microseismic data occuring during borehole fluid injections was earlier proposed to provide in-situ estimates of the hydraulic diffusivity characterizing a geothermal or hydrocarbon reservoir on the large spatial scale (on the order of 10^3m). This approach is called \\

E. Rothert; S. A. Shapiro; M. Bohnhoff

2003-01-01

116

Microbial Communities in Ultra-High Pressure Rocks and Fluids From Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD): A Unique Opportunity to Study Microbial Adaptation and Survival  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major obstacle to understanding the subsurface biosphere has been our limited ability to access the deep subsurface, to acquire uncontaminated samples and to place our knowledge of isolated microorganisms into environmental context. We studied deep subsurface microbiology by taking an advantage of the Chinese continental scientific drilling (CCSD) project currently underway in China. The project is to drill a 5-km deep borehole in the Dabie-Sulu ultra high-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt in China that is located at the convergent plate boundary between Sino-Korean and Yangtze Plate. The collision began at ~240 Ma ago followed by exhumation ~220 Ma ago. The products of such a plate convergence are the formation of unique UHP rocks and minerals. These rocks are typically separated by a series of structurally weak shear zones and faults. The macroscopic shear zones/faults are potential storage space for large pockets of fluids/gases and they may serve as a potential microbial habitat. Fluids/gas bubbles also exist inside minerals, and they are called fluid/gas inclusions. The inclusions are microscopic and they serve as another potential habitat for microbes. The 5-km contiguous drilling intercepts both habitats and spans a range of environmental gradients. Our cultivation and SSU rRNA gene analyses appear to indicate that unique microbial communities may exist in both habitats. A variety of methods were used to assess possible contamination, and contamination was minimal. Acridine orange direct count method was employed to determine the total number of cells in the rocks, and the results indicated that the biomass ranged from 5.2 x 103 to 2.4 x 104 cells/g (dry weight). Total counts indicated a much higher biomass in the drilling fluids, ranging from 3.5 x 108 to 4.2 x 109 cells/g (wet weight). The PLFA profiles for one rock and multiple drilling fluids indicated the presence of sulfate and metal reducers. Cultivation attempts have identified the presence of mesophilic Fe(III) reducers in the rocks, but thermophilic (37 to 68oC) and alkaliphilic metal reducers and fermenters in the drilling fluids. SSU rRNA gene analyses detected clone sequences in the rocks that have previously been isolated from cold, alkaline and saline environments (including mesophilic, facultative, heterotrophic, halotolerant or halophilic nitrate and Fe(III) reducers). These microbial growth habitats are inconsistent with the present day geochemical conditions (geothermal gradient, for example). We speculate that these microbes reside in mineral fluid/gas inclusions. Because the inclusions are isolated and heat conductivity is low, microenvironment inside the inclusions may be out of equilibrium with the bulk subsurface conditions. The microbial communities in the drilling fluids include anaerobic, alkaliphilic, chemoorganotrophic or chemolithoautotrophic, halotolerant or halophilic Fe(III) and sulfate reducers, fermenters, acetogens, and methanogens/methanotrophs. This microbial growth habitat suggests that the detected microbes in the drilling fluids may be of different origin, and they may be derived from macroscopic fluids/gases associated with structurally weak shear zones/faults. Because of possible connectivity to flow channels and shear zones, these fluids/gases may be in equilibrium with the in-situ subsurface conditions, and microbes from this habitat are expected to change in environmental gradients.

Dong, H.; Zhang, G.; Xu, Z.

2004-12-01

117

Downhole fluid sampling at the SSSDP (Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project) California State 2-14 well, Salton Sea, California  

SciTech Connect

In situ fluid sampling activities were conducted at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) well during late December 1985 and late March 1986 to obtain unflashed samples of Salton Sea brine. In late December, three sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 1800 m and temperatures of 300/sup 0/C. In late March, 10 sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 3150 m and temperatures of 350/sup 0/C. In brief, the Los Alamos tool obtained samples from four of eight runs; the Lawrence Berkeley tool obtained samples from one of one run; the Leutert Instruments, Inc., tool obtained samples from zero of three runs; and the USGS quartz crystal experiment was lost in the well. The most complete sample was obtained from run No. 11, using the Los Alamos sampler and Sandia battery pack/controller on a wireline. About 1635 ml of brine, two noble gas samples, and two bulk gas samples were collected from this run. Samples of brine and gas from productive runs have been distributed to about 15 researchers for various types of analyses. Chemical analyses by the Los Alamos and US Geological Survey analytical teams are presented in this report, although they are not corrected for flashing and precipitation.

Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Grigsby, C.O.; Dennis, B. (eds.)

1987-07-01

118

Drill, Baby, Drill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

Kerkhoff, Todd

2009-01-01

119

Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field  

SciTech Connect

The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in offshore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period.

Weber, D.E.; Flemer, D.A.; Bundick, C.M.

1992-01-01

120

Horizontal well construction/completion process in a Gulf of Mexico unconsolidated sand: development of baseline correlations for improved drill-in fluid cleanup practices  

E-print Network

and cemented borehole (vertical) versus openhole completion (horizontal). While there are exceptions to this trend, cased hole wells generally exclude shallow fluid and solids invasion which are so damaging to the openhole well completion. Openhole... bottoms up when tripping pipe, and more circulation if returns are unclean. Short trips (where the drillbit is pulled past 7. 625 in. casing shoe) were to occur every six hours, or with every 600 ft. of drilled hole, whichever occurred first...

Lacewell, Jason Lawrence

2012-06-07

121

Geochemical evidence for fluid flow in the upper and subducting plates of the Costa Rica margin: Results from CRISP drilling during Exp. 334 and 344 (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CRISP (Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project) is designed to investigate the processes that control fault zone behavior during earthquake nucleation and rupture propagation at erosional subduction zones. Fluids and associated diagenetic reactions are key components of this project, as they can have a profound impact on the shallow thermal structure and fluid content of the subducting and upper plates; fault zone stability and seismogenesis; and the transfer of elements and isotopes to the ocean, volcanic arc, and mantle. The pore fluid geochemistry at sites drilled in the upper and middle slope of the Costa Rica margin document fluid advection along fault zones in the upper plate, and demarcate a horizontal fluid transport zone along the discontinuity between the slope apron and underlying upper plate sediments that is continuous between Sites U1378 and U1379. Fluid flow at these sites overprints the general geochemical profiles that are influenced by in situ diagenetic reactions such as ion exchange, microbial metabolic processes, volcanic ash alteration, and carbonate diagenesis. Site U1379, drilled on the upper slope above the locked portion of the plate boundary, intersected a coarser-grained sediment interval with pervasive faulting at ~600 to 800 mbsf. Here a decrease in the concentration of Cl and of other major elements, and maxima in thermogenic hydrocarbon concentrations are observed. Based on the geothermal gradient at this site the temperature is too low to support the in situ production of thermogenic hydrocarbons or for extensive clay dehydration, thus these geochemical signals indicate a deeper source for the fluid and migration along the permeable horizons. These deep-sourced fluid signatures are even more pronounced at Sites U1378 and 1380, drilled in the middle slope, above the unlocked portion of the plate boundary. Here the horizontal transport zone is well confined to a shear zone that extends from ~480 to 550 mbsf, at the boundary between lithologic Units I and II that defines the interface between the slope sediment cover and deeper upper plate material. The Cl, Li, and hydrocarbon concentration data indicate that this fluid originated from a source temperature greater than 90°C. Within the well-cemented sediments below the slope cover, there is a more pervasive non-foccussed transport of a fluid, fresher than seawater, having a strong signature of ash/basalt interaction (high Ca, low Mg), and a marked increase in C1/C2+ ratio, indicating either a more biogenic signature of the gases or/and an extensive migration effect on the gas composition. Geochemical data at two sites drilled on the incoming plate, reveal fluid flow within the permeable upper oceanic crust. At Site U1381, the sulfate concentration profile shows a reversal below ~40 mbsf, with a steady increase in concentration with depth. This observation is similar to that previously reported at the nearby incoming sediment section offshore the Nicoya Peninsula, and reflect diffusional communication with a fluid with seawater-like chemistry in the igneous basement. The sulfate concentration profile at Site U1414 is unusual in that it displays a second minimum at 330 mbsf, which corresponds to a sharp minimum in calcium and a maximum in barium concentrations. These data suggest lateral flow of fluid originating landward of Site U1414 where microbial oxidation of methane and/or other organic carbon sources has depleted dissolved sulfate.

Torres, M. E.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Harris, R. N.; Formolo, M.; Choi, J.; Berg, R. D.; Nuzzo, M.

2013-12-01

122

Drilling fluid viscosifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aqueous aluminum hydroxide is produced by reacting an acid and a base reactant, where at least one reactant has aluminum, in the presence of a hydroxy acid or a salt of this hydroxy acid. The resulting product has unwanted tri-hydrate formation inhibited as well as a reduced amount of boehmite crystallization. The product can be used as a viscosifier

1984-01-01

123

High temperature drilling MUD stabilizer  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous drilling fluids containing a hydroxy containing alumina component such as AlO(OH) and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) reaction product such as an aldehyde reacted PVA are stabilized for use at temperatures as high as 350/sup 0/ F. (177/sup 0/ C.) by adding stabilizer anions such as sulfate, tartrate and citrate to the resulting drilling fluid. The anions can be added as an acid or in the salt form with sodium and potassium salts being preferred. The salts are preferably added in 0.2 to 10% by weight of the drilling fluid. These stabilized drilling fluids can also be used in seawater.

Block, J.

1985-10-15

124

Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H. E.

1986-01-01

125

Method of deep drilling  

DOEpatents

Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

Colgate, Stirling A. (4616 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

126

Apparatus for washing drill cuttings  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

Lott, W. G.

1985-10-15

127

Deep-slab fluids fuel extremophilic Archaea on a Mariana forearc serpentinite mud volcano: Ocean Drilling Program Leg 195  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Mariana forearc it releases water that hydrates the overlying mantle wedge, converting it to serpentinite that protrudes to form mud volcanoes at the seafloor. Excess H2O ascends through these mud volcanoes and exits as cold springs at their summits. The composition of this deep-slab derived water has been determined by drilling on two

Michael J. Mottl; Stephen C. Komor; Patricia Fryer; Craig L. Moyer

2003-01-01

128

Fluid\\/rock interaction and mass transfer in continental subduction zones: constraints from trace elements and isotopes (Li, B, O, Sr, Nd, Pb) in UHP rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Program, Sulu, East China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand the role of fluids during subduction and subsequent exhumation, we have investigated whole-rock\\u000a and mineral chemistry (major and trace elements) and Li, B as well as O, Sr, Nd, Pb isotopes on selected continuous drill-core\\u000a profiles through contrasting lithological boundaries from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CCSD) in Sulu,\\u000a China. Four carefully selected sample

Yilin Xiao; Jochen Hoefs; Zhenhui Hou; Klaus Simon; Zeming Zhang

2011-01-01

129

Deep-slab fluids fuel extremophilic Archaea on a Mariana forearc serpentinite mud volcano: Ocean Drilling Program  

E-print Network

Deep-slab fluids fuel extremophilic Archaea on a Mariana forearc serpentinite mud volcano: Ocean, M. J., S. C. Komor, P. Fryer, and C. L. Moyer, Deep-slab fluids fuel extremophilic Archaea, and the discovery that they support a com- munity of extremophilic microbes, mainly Archaea, within serpentinite mud

Moyer, Craig

130

Drill Presses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

131

CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS  

SciTech Connect

Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

2003-06-01

132

Longhole drilling  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes new drilling equipment used to drill blasting holes for underground mining operations. Although this method was originally designed for caving or stopping, it is now suitable for all highly mechanized mining operations. It describes the automated methods to monitor drilling progress, align drill holes, and handling of drill rods. It also gives some case examples of the use of this equipment showing the reduction in mining costs, increase in safety, and increase in productivity at an Australian gold mine.

Not Available

1993-10-01

133

Raise drilling  

SciTech Connect

The first raise in the US drilled with equipment specifically designed for the purpose was completed in 1962 at the Homer Wauseca Mine in Michigan. Raise drilling opens vertical and inclined shafts in a wide range of sizes. Such openings can be used for ore passes, ventilation shafts, service raises, stope access, slot raises, fill raises, and emergency escapeways. In sinking large diameter shafts, a raise can be bored first and then enlarged to its final diameter by drill and blast methods. The pilot hole capability of raise drilling machines also can by used to drill small diameter drain holes and sandfill holes. Advances in raise drilling technology are reviewed.

Not Available

1981-02-01

134

Drill report  

SciTech Connect

North Slope drilling activity is described. As of November 14, 1984, four rigs were actively drilling in the Kuparuk River field with another two doing workovers. Only one rig was drilling in the Prudhoe Bay field, with another doing workovers and one on standby.

Not Available

1984-12-01

135

Fluid Injection Experiments at the KTB drilling hole, Germany. I) Fault Plane Solutions and Stress Field Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60 day long-term fluid injection experiment was performed at the 9.1 km deep KTB (Kontinentale Tiefbohrung) borehole in southeastern Germany. About 4000 cbm of fresh water were injected into the well head aiming to induce seismicity near the open-hole section in 9 km depth. Seismicity was monitored over a period of 90 days by a 40-element three component surface

M. Bohnhoff; S. Baisch; L. Ceranna; Y. Tu; H. Harjes

2001-01-01

136

Comparison of hydrogeochemical logging of drilling fluid during coring with the results from geophysical logging and hydraulic testing Example of the Morte-Mérie scientific borehole, Ardèche-France, Deep Geology of France Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 980-m-deep well was cored on the Ardèche border of the Southeastern basin of France as part of the Deep Geology of France (GPF) programme. Hydrogeochemical logging was carried out during drilling, which involved the monitoring of physico-chemical parameters (pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity), and chemical parameters (concentrations of He, Rn, CO 2, CH 4, O 2 Ca, Cl and SiO 2) of the drilling fluid permanently circulating in the well. This logging programme was complemented by geophysical logging and two hydraulic tests. The combination of these measurements enabled identification of a transmissive interval due to fractures in the Jurassic carbonates, and of fluid inflow both at the base of the porous and slightly permeable Triassic sandstones and from an open fracture in the Permian conglomerates. These intervals are marked by changes in the drilling-fluid chemistry, such as an increase in chemical species content, or a drop in pH. The degree of modification depends on the natural permeability of the fractures and the salinity of the fluids. The porous and permeable intervals are also marked by He anomalies, which act as a tracer for these zones. Comparison between the geophysical and hydrogeochemical logs reveals that the latter provide information on the liquid phase, whether the fractures are productive or not, whereas the geophysical logs are more directly related to the solid phase.

Aquilina, L.; Eberschweiler, C.; Perrin, J.; Deep Geology of France Team

1996-11-01

137

Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

1992-01-01

138

Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

1992-06-01

139

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established the Extreme Drilling Laboratory to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 ft. This paper details the challenges of ultradeep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL's research and development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Its physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480°F around a single drill cutter. This simulator is not yet operational; therefore, the results will be limited to the identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL's test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Laboratory's studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T.H.

2008-12-01

140

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established an Extreme Drilling Lab to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 feet. This paper details the challenges of ultra-deep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL’s Research and Development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Their physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480 °F around a single drill cutter. This simulator will not yet be operational by the planned conference dates; therefore, the results will be limited to identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL’s test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Lab’s studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T

2007-06-01

141

DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

142

Drilling reorganizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will

Barbara T. Richman

1983-01-01

143

Lockdown Drills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

144

Deviated wellbore drilling system and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system of apparatus for the drilling of a deviated wellbore into the earth. It comprises a drill string extending into a well bore in the earth, a fluid operated drill motor and drill bit operatively secured on the bottom end of the drill string, the drill motor being connected at its upper end to the drill string and at its lower end to the drill bit for rotating the drill bit independently of rotation of the drill string, the drill motor having a tubular drive section housing with the longitudinal axis of its upper end angularly displaced from the longitudinal axis of its lower end for directing the axis of rotation of the drill bit such that is angularly displaced from the axis of the drill string for effecting a curved path for the wellbore, the motor comprises a rubber stator in the housing and a steel rotor rotatable therein, the stator fits the angular configuration of the housing, and the drill motor drive section housing directs the axis of the drill bit to effect a curved path having a radius of curvature of from approximately 10 to approximately 1,000 feet relative to a vertical or near vertical wellbore, the flexibility of the rotor and compressibility of the stator permitting rotation of the rotor without undue binding.

Maurer, W.C.; McDonald, W.J.

1991-06-11

145

Drilling reorganizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

Richman, Barbara T.

146

Crustal observations through drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the drill to probe the earth's crust, driven by primarily economic incentives, has come a long way since the first oil well at Titusville, Penn., began producing torn a depth of 21 m in 1859. Wells have now been drilled to depths of over 12 km (in the Kola Peninsula of the Soviet Union), in rocks where the pressure of pore fluid equals the weight of the entire overburden, in rocks at temperatures exceeding 400°C, and even in molten basalt in Hawaiian pit craters flooded by recent lava flows. To compensate for the hostility of such environmental extremes, drilling for resources has become one of the most robust of modern technologies.In the late 1960s, when the ocean floors were hypothesized to have originated at the midocean ridges and to be consumed at the deep trenches, drilling proved to be the ultimate test of the revolutionary theory of plate tectonics. Now, earth scientists, confronted by problems of the evolution of the continents and physicochemical processes currently active in shaping them, have begun using drilling as one of the most valuable of experimental tools in understanding the continental lithosphere.

Raliegh, Barry

1984-04-01

147

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

148

Drilling of Arun gas field  

SciTech Connect

The Arun gas field was discovered in late 1971 when the discovery Well Arun A-1 penetrated the thick Arun limestone reef. During the following 3 years, 12 delineation wells were drilled. Three of these delineation wells are used for observation wells, five for dry gas injection, one for condensate water disposal, and three are abandoned. Clustered development well drilling started in Sept. 1976. At this writing 40 wells have been drilled to delineate and develop the field. Drilling continues so that the growing demand from the expanding liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is met. The problems of high temperatures, abnormally highpressured shales, and saltwater sands overlying the lower-pressured Arun limestone have been conquered by numerous technique changes. The current techniques include the use of inverted oil emulsion muds, cements containing 35% silica flour, high-strength heavyweight tubulars, and clear packer fluids. The evolution of drilling and completion practices are discussed in the paper.

Bolt, L.H.; Soepardi, M.; Suherman, D.

1984-05-01

149

Estimation of scattering and intrinsic seismic attenuation parameters with radiative transfer theory: Application to fluid-induced seismicity at the KTB Deep Drilling Hole, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity and seismic absorption properties of a geothermal reservoir may be estimated by inverting seismogram envelopes of fluid-induced micro-earthquakes occurring during hydraulic stimulation and/or production. Synthetic coda envelopes are computed using radiative transfer theory (RTT). RTT describes the propagation of wave energy in scattering random media and has the important advantage of being adapted from a physical model of the scattering process that produces the seismic coda. The heterogeneous medium is characterized by the total scattering coefficient g0 and intrinsic absorption coefficient b. In addition, information about effective source energy W and site response factors R can also be obtained by means of seismogram envelopes inversion. Nevertheless, the present study focuses on the properties of the propagation medium. It aims to separate the effects of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in order to characterize the small-scale heterogeneities that are the fractured geothermal reservoir. The inversion uses grid search over the model space for scattering coefficient, and least-square inversion for the remaining parameters. The merit of this integrated approach is to be independent of external information and applicable to smaller events, likely to occur during hydraulic fracturing. To speed up inversion we use an analytic approximation to the equation of radiative transfer. Currently, we restrict ourselves to isotropic scattering of S-waves in a half-space with an isotropic source. In the framework of adapting seismological techniques to the field of geothermal reservoir characterization (part of the German research program "Geothermal Energy and High Performance Drilling"), the method is applied to a passive seismic data set obtained during the hydraulic fracturing treatment at the KTB Deep Drilling Hole in 2000. During the long-term stimulation experiment (August to November 2000), seismicity was recorded downhole with a borehole sonde at 4 km depth and with a temporal seismic surface network, consisting of 40 stations, at epicentral distances less than 20 km. The analyzed micro-earthquakes possess magnitudes between 0.5 ? Ml ? 1, and exhibit coda-lengths between 20 - 50 seconds. We invert the traces in 6 frequency bands between 1 and 64 Hz with center frequencies at 1.5 ± 0.5 Hz, 3 ± 1 Hz, 6 ± 2 Hz, 12 ± 4 Hz, 24 ± 8 Hz, 48 ± 16 Hz. Scattering coefficient g0 and intrinsic attenuation parameter b show weak frequency dependency in the range from 12 - 48 Hz, increasing with frequency, by taking a power-law form. From the frequency dependence of the attenuation parameters we also inferred that a von Kármán type of random medium is a good model for representing the small-scale heterogeneities at the KTB. Finally, we compare estimated scattering coefficients with values, derived from earthquake recordings of the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) for Southern Germany and from stochastic analysis of KTB sonic log data.

Fielitz, D.; Wegler, U.

2011-12-01

150

Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offerings on the physics of fluids. By an educational Web site called School for Champions, the first site is the Fluids lesson plan (1). Here, students or anyone interested can read about the basics of fluids and then take a short interactive quiz on the topic. The second site is maintained by Steve Lower of the Department of Chemistry at Simon Fraser University called Liquids and their Vapors (2). This Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file contains an eighteen-page document that covers topics such as properties of liquids and changes of state. The next site contains an interactive multimedia activity presented by explorescience.com called Floating Log (3). The site allows users to explore how a fluid can affect buoyancy by letting them change the mass of the log and the fluid's density. The next site from Purdue University's Chemical Education Web site is called Liquids (4). This page describes the structure of liquids, what kinds of materials form liquids, vapor pressure, and more. The fifth site, offered by Professor M.S. Cramer at the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, is entitled Gallery of Fluid Dynamics (5). It contains movies, animations, photographs, and descriptions of various fluid mechanics topics such as condensation, shock waves, and supersonic cars. Next comes the Innovative Technology Solutions Corporation's Fundamental Fluid Mechanics Movies Web site (6). Over thirty short films show how fluids move in various conditions including gravity waves, fire, material transport, and hydraulics. From the University of Waterloo's Department of Mechanical Engineering-Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory comes the next site, called the Fluid Properties Calculator (7). This online tool allows users to select a fluid and enter a temperature to calculate various parameters such as density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. The last site is the online journal Physics of Fluids (8), which is published monthly by the American Institute of Physics with the cooperation of The American Physical Society Division of Fluid Dynamics. The journal is "devoted to the publication of original theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions to the dynamics of gases, liquids, and complex or multiphase fluids" and provides free full-text articles for online viewing.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

151

Use of Downhole Motors in Geothermal Drilling in the Philippines  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of downhole motors in the Tiwi geothermal field in the Philippines, The discussion includes the application Of a Dyna-Drill with insert-type bits for drilling through surface alluvium. The economics of this type of drilling are compared to those of conventional rotary drilling. The paper also describes the use of a turbodrill that drills out scale as the well produces geothermal fluids.

Pyle, D. E.

1981-01-01

152

Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.  

PubMed

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

2008-06-01

153

Drill report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has approved an industry proposal to conduct reflection seismic studies for oil and gas on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain. The plan submitted by Geophysical Services Inc. (GSI) was approved, subject to modifications aimed at safeguarding the environment. A listing of current drilling activities in Alaska is provided.

Not Available

1983-11-01

154

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Las Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2000-01-01

155

Dewatering cuts drilling mud and disposal costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on rig site dewatering of drilling fluids with recycling of processed water that can help an operator to comply with environmental rules by reducing volumes of waste and reducing long term liabilities. It can also reduce disposal costs and provide a cleaner drill site overall. Rig site dewatering is the process of injecting coagulants or flocculating chemicals

B. Pharis

1991-01-01

156

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2001-09-25

157

Update on onshore disposal of offshore drilling wastes  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing effluent limitations guidelines to govern discharges of cuttings from wells drilled using synthetic-based muds. To support this rulemaking, Argonne National Laboratory was asked by EPA and the US Department of Energy (DOE) to collect current information about those onshore commercial disposal facilities that are permitted to receive offshore drilling wastes. Argonne contacted state officials in Louisiana, Texas, California and Alaska to obtain this information. The findings, collected during October and November 1999, are presented by state.

Veil, J. A.

1999-11-29

158

Loaded Transducer Fpr Downhole Drilling Component  

DOEpatents

A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force," urging them closer together.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2005-07-05

159

Columbia Gas preserves wetlands with directional drilling  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the use of directional drilling to install a 12 inch natural gas pipeline near Avon, Ohio. As a result of increased demand, the utility decided that it would need additional lines for pressure control with the only feasible route being through a forested and scrub/shrub wetland. This paper reviews the permitting requirements along with the directional drilling design and operation. Unfortunately during drilling, bentonite drilling fluids came to the surface requiring remedial action procedures. The paper then provides a detailed clean up strategy and makes recommendations on how to prevent such a break through in the future.

Luginbuhl, K.K. [Columbia Gas Distribution Companies, Columbus, OH (United States); Gartman, D.K. [Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1995-10-01

160

Conquering Alaska's Arctic drilling problems. Part I. Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, drilling operators in the huge Prudhoe Bay field have drastically cut the time required to drill and complete an Arctic development well. A well that took 80 days to complete 10 years ago now takes only 25-30 days because of a new approach to hydraulics, larger and more efficient mud pumps, jet nozzle bits, improved drilling fluids

1981-01-01

161

Drilling head of a rotary impact drill  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust channel in a rock drilling head of a rotary impact drill has an opening which extends over the front face of the drill shaft and over the adjoining peripheral surface of the drill shaft. Clogging of the exhaust channel is prevented by providing clearances between the forward and peripheral surfaces of the drilling head and the bored hole which are too small to permit the passage of rock particles large enough to block the exhaust channel.

Kleine, W.

1981-01-06

162

Minimum quantity lubrication drilling of aluminium–silicon alloys in water using diamond-like carbon coated drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry drilling of aluminium alloys (without using cutting fluids) is an environmentally friendly machining process but also an exceedingly difficult task due to aluminium's tendency to adhere to the drills made of conventional materials such as the high-speed steel (HSS). Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings improve the dry drilling performance due to their adhesion mitigating properties. In this work, improvements

Sukanta Bhowmick; Ahmet T. Alpas

2008-01-01

163

Investigation on the effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the rheological properties of oil-based drilling fluids  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................. 31 4.2 Deformation of a fluid by simple shear...................................................... 33 4.3 Parts of a Couette viscometer..................................................................... 33 4.4 Test cell schematic... .............................................................................................. 31 4.2 Deformation of a fluid by simple shear...................................................... 33 4.3 Parts of a Couette viscometer..................................................................... 33 4.4 Test cell schematic...

Ibeh, Chijioke Stanley

2009-05-15

164

Steerable percussion air drilling system  

SciTech Connect

The cost-sharing contract between the US Department of Energy and Smith International provides the funding to further develop this concept into two complete steerable percussion air drilling system prototypes, each integrated with a navigation tool (wireline steering tool), a bend sub, stabilizing devices, and to conduct laboratory and field testing necessary to prepare the system for commercial realization. Such a system would make available for the first time the ability to penetrate earthen formations by the percussion method, using compressed air as the drilling fluid, and at the same time allow the directional control and steering of the drill bit. While the drill string is not rotating (slide mode), one can orient to build angle in the desired direction at a predictable rate. This build rate can be in the range of 1--20 degrees per one hundred feet and proceeds until the desired inclination or direction has been obtained. The drill pipe is then set in rotation, nullifying the effect of the bend angle, and causes the assembly to drill straight. The sliding procedure can be repeated as often as corrections for hole`s inclination or direction are needed.

Bui, H.D.; Oliver, M.S.; Gray, M.A.

1993-12-31

165

Hydrate control in deepwater drilling  

SciTech Connect

Gas-hydrate formation during deepwater offshore drilling and production is a well-recognized operational hazard. In water depths greater than 1,000 ft, seabed conditions of pressure and temperature become conducive to gas-hydrate formation. In a well-control situation, although the kick fluid leaves the formation at a high temperature, it can cool to seabed temperature with an extended shut-in period. With high enough hydrostatic pressure at the mudline, hydrates could form in the blowout-preventer (BOP) stack and choke and kill lines, as has been observed in field operations. The current practice in deepwater drilling is to suppress the hydrate-formation temperature by use of highly saline drilling fluids formulated from NaCl or other salts. This solution is applicable for the Gulf of Mexico but insufficient for the conditions encountered in Norwegian deep waters. At extreme water depths or extremely low mudline temperatures, this thermodynamic inhibition alone may not be sufficient to prevent hydrate formation. Instead, the use of kinetic inhibitors or crystal modifiers, in conjunction with thermodynamic inhibitors, may allow successful operations in such an environment. The definition of kinetic inhibitors (to distinguish them from the classic thermodynamic inhibitors, such as polar compounds and electrolytes) comes from the effect of the chemicals on the nucleation and growth of natural gas hydrates, both of which are time-dependent, stochastic processes. The paper describes deepwater drilling fluids, polar and surface-active additives, kinetic inhibition and crystal modifiers, laboratory measurements, and test results.

NONE

1997-09-01

166

Element signatures of subduction-zone fluids. An experimental study of the element partitioning (Dfluid/rock) of natural partly altered igneous rocks from the ODP drilling site 1,256  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trace element signatures of fluids were investigated by leaching experiments on natural samples of partly altered mafic igneous rocks recovered from the drilling site 1,256 of ODP Leg 206 on the Cocos plate (Central America). Experiments with ultrapure water were performed at 400 °C/0.4 GPa and 500 °C/0.7 GPa. Both fluids and residual solids were examined to obtain the partition coefficients (Dfluid/rock) of various trace elements. Element partition coefficients (Dfluid/rock) obtained at 500 °C/0.7 GPa are significantly lower compared to results obtained at 400 °C/0.4 GPa, which is in contrast to observations at higher pressures (2.2-6 GPa) and temperatures between 700 and 1,400 °C (Kessel et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 237: 873-892, 2005a; Spandler et al. in Chem Geol 239: 228-249, 2007). This finding may indicate a considerable pressure effect on the leaching processes and strongly divergent fluid-rock interactions in the upper part of a subduction zone at 0.4-0.7 GPa compared to deeper subduction areas with higher pressures. Furthermore, this may be interpreted as one of the earliest fractionation processes during the subduction of crustal material.

Mutter, Andreas; Holzheid, Astrid; Klügel, Andreas; Wilke, Max; Berndt, Jasper; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

2014-06-01

167

Inhibition of Gas Hydrates in Water-Based Drilling Muds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that a series of thermodynamic experiments were run on 16 simulated drilling muds and associated test fluids to improve the understanding of the equilibrium conditions for hydrate formation in water-based drilling fluids. Results indicated that, to a first approximation, the salt and glycerol contents of water in mud dominated hydrate formation. Other mud additives, such as bentonite,

T. S. Kotkoskie; B. Al-Ubaidi; T. R. Wildeman; E. D. Jr. Sloan

1992-01-01

168

Method and compositions for fluid loss and seepage loss control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a method of and compositions for reducing the fluid loss from a drilling fluid which allows a low colloid, enhanced penetration rate drilling fluid to be used in a drilling operation. The invention provides a concentrated suspension or pill of a fluid loss control additive and a seepage loss control additive in a liquid which is compatible with

1985-01-01

169

CHIP MORPHOLOGY AND HOLE SURFACE TEXTURE IN THE DRILLING OF CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS. (R825370C057)  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of cutting fluid and other process variables on chip morphology when drilling cast aluminium alloys are investigated. The effects of workpiece material, speed, feed, hole depth, cutting-fluid presence and percentage oil concentration, workpiece temperature, drill t...

170

Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other (presumably low-temperature) silicates in inclusions is highly disordered and spectrally resembles kerogens. This graphite probably was deposited during later greenschist-facies retrograde metamorphism at about 400-500??C. The degree of crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is shown to be a much more complex function of temperature than is the crystallinity of metamorphic graphite. To some extent, experiments can provide temperature-calibration of the crystallinity index. However, the difference in time scales between experimental runs and geologic processes makes it difficult to infer specific temperatures for naturally precipitated graphite. Copyright ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Pasteris, J. D.; Chou, I. -M.

1998-01-01

171

Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans  

SciTech Connect

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

172

Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, October 1980-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development.

Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

1981-03-01

173

Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, January 1981-March 1981  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods as they apply to advanced drilling systems.

Kelsey, J.R. (ed.)

1981-06-01

174

Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

1997-11-01

175

Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

1996-06-01

176

Drilling program for Long Valley Caldera  

SciTech Connect

In September of this year, we will begin the first of four drilling phases in the Magma Energy Exploratory Well that is planned to reach a depth near 20,000 feet. This well will be used to verify the configuration of the magma body and to calibrate surface geophysical techniques against downhole data. It will also provide information of several kinds that is of interest to several groups: we will resolve geologic uncertainties---such as the location of fractured and abnormally pressured zones, chemistry of rocks and produced fluids, and magnitude of creep in the deep basement---that affect the drilling of any subsequent well, we will test drilling technology---e. g., high temperature drilling fluid, bits, coring, logging tools and tubulars---in a realistic environment, and we will gain insight on the history of collapse, resurgence, and intrusion in a major young caldera. 4 figs.

Finger, J.T.

1988-01-01

177

Rotary blasthole drilling update  

SciTech Connect

Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2008-02-15

178

Geothermal drilling technology update  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

Glowka, D.A.

1997-04-01

179

Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the iheya north hydrothermal field in the mid-okinawa trough (integrated ocean drilling program expedition 331).  

PubMed

The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (?90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

2014-10-01

180

New approaches to subglacial bedrock drilling technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling to bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities to research processes acting at the bed for paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental recording, basal sliding studies, subglacial geology and tectonics investigations, prospecting and exploration for minerals covered by ice. Retrieving bedrock samples under ice sheets and glaciers is a very difficult task. Drilling operations are complicated by extremely low temperature at the surface of, and within glaciers, and by glacier flow, the absence of roads and infrastructures, storms, winds, snowfalls, etc. In order to penetrate through the ice sheet or glacier up to the depth of at least 1000 m and to pierce the bedrock to the depth of several meters from ice - bedrock boundary the development activity already has been started in Polar Research Center at Jilin University, China. All drilling equipment (two 50-kW diesel generators, winch, control desk, fluid dumping station, etc.) is installed inside a movable sledge-mounted warm-keeping and wind-protecting drilling shelter that has dimensions of 8.8 ×2.8 × 3.0 m. Mast has two positions: horizontal for transportation and vertical working position (mast height is 12 m). Drilling shelter can be transported to the chosen site with crawler-tractor, aircraft or helicopter. In case of carriage by air the whole drilling shelter was designed to be disassembled into pieces "small" enough to ship by aircraft. Weight and sizes of each component has been minimized to lower the cost of transportation and to meet weight restrictions for transportation. Total weight of drilling equipment (without drilling fluid) is near 15 tons. Expected time of assembling and preparing for drilling is 2 weeks. If drilling shelter is transported with crawler-tractor (for example, in Antarctic traverses) all equipment is ready to start drilling immediately upon arrival to the site. To drill through ice and bedrock a new, modified version of the cable-suspended electromechanical ice core drill is designed and tested. The expected average daily production of ice drilling would be not less than 25 m/day. The lower part of the drill is adapted for coring bed-rock using special tooth diamond bit. Deep ice coring requires a drilling fluid in the borehole during operation in order to keep the hole open and to compensate the hydrostatic pressures acting to close it. At present there are no ideal low-temperature drilling fluids as all of them are environmental and health hazardous substances. The new approaches of subglacial bedrock drilling technology are connected with utilization of environmental friendly, low-toxic materials, e.g. low-molecular dimethyl siloxane oils or aliphatic synthetic ester of ESTISOL™ 140 type. They have suitable density-viscosity properties, and can be consider as a viable alternative for drilling in glaciers and subglacial bedrock.

Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zhao, Yue; Xue, Jun; Chen, Chen; Markov, Alexey; Xu, Huiwen; Gong, Wenbin; Han, Wei; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Wang, Rusheng; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Han, Lili; Sysoev, Mikhail

2013-04-01

181

Volume requirements for aerated mud drilling  

SciTech Connect

Aerated mud drilling has been recognized as having many advantages over conventional mud drilling, such ass higher penetration rate, less formation damage, minimized lost circulation, and lower drilling cost. In some areas, the use of aerated mud as a circulating medium for drilling oil and gas wells is becoming an attractive practice. Maintaining an optimum combination of liquid and air flow rates is important in aerated drilling operations. However, most drilling operators are unclear on what constitutes the ``optimum combination of the liquid and air flow rates.`` Guo et al. presented a mathematical approach to determining the flowing bottomhole pressure (BHP) for aerated mud drilling. This paper addresses the use of Guo et al.`s mathematical model to determine liquid and air volume requirements considering wellbore stability, pipe sticking, and formation damage as well as the cuttings-carry capacity of the aerated mud. For a formation-damage-prevention point of view, the liquid fraction in the fluid stream should e as low as possible. However, a sufficient mud flow rate is always required to make the hole stable and to maintain the cuttings-carrying capacity of the aerated mud without injecting much air volume. This paper provides a simple approach to determining the liquid and air volume requirements for aerated mud drilling.

Guo, B.; Rajtar, J.M. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1995-09-01

182

Research about Automatic Adjustment Solution of the Advance Force at the Perffusion Drills Using Fluid Elements / Badanie Systemu Automatycznej Regulacji SI?Y Posuwu W Wiertnicach Udarowych Z Wykorzystaniem ELEMENTÓW P?YNOWYCH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the actual solution used by Secoma Company and part of research regarding a personal solution concerning the implementation of the digital devices in the pressing strength's control of a pneumatic rotating drill, which is included in the structure of the drilling installation. The monostable fluidic element, which was proposed to be used, is a special device, with an incompressible fluid as supply jet and compressible fluid as command jet. The fluidic command proposed solution presents superior advantages given the existing variants and the automation solutions with electronic components. This is due to the higher security in hostile work environments (moist environment, with high methane gas contents, with fire danger, with high temperature) of their high feasibility and maintenance. For the practical achievement of the automated regulation with fluidic elements, of the type tested in the experimental plan, it is necessary to choose a monostabile fluidic amplifier for the prototype device, which respects several clear conditions regarding wall attachment angle and geometrical parameters. W pracy przedstawiono rozwi?zanie stosowane przez firm? Secoma oraz omówiono cz??? bada? dotycz?cych rozwi?za? w dziedzinie implementacji urz?dze? cyfrowych do regulacji si?y naporu w obrotowych wiertnicach pneumatycznych b?d?cych cz??ci? urz?dzenia wiertniczego. Zaproponowano u?ycie mono-stabilnego elementu p?ynowego, b?d?cego specjalnym urz?dzeniem zawieraj?cym p?yn nie?ci?liwy jako strug? zasilaj?ca i p?yn ?ci?liwy jako strug? steruj?c?. Rozwi?zanie z wykorzystaniem elementu p?ynowego daje dodatkowe korzy?ci w odniesieniu do obecnie stosowanych rozwi?za? zawieraj?cych komponenty elektryczne, przyczyniaj?c si? do poprawy bezpiecze?stwa pracy w ?rodowisku niebezpiecznym (w warunkach wysokiej wilgotno?ci, wysokich st??e? metanu, zagro?enia po?arowego, wysokich temperatur), ponadto s? one ?atwe w u?yciu i obs?udze. W celu uzyskania odpowiedniej automatycznej regulacji przy zastosowaniu elementów p?ynowych testowanych w ramach programu badawczego, konieczny by? wybór odpowiedniego wzmacniacza p?ynowego dla prototypu urz?dzenia, z uwzgl?dnieniem kluczowych wymogów, odno?nie k?ta zamocowania do ?cian i parametrów geometrycznych.

Cotetiu, Adriana; Cotetiu, Radu; Ungureanu, Nicolae

2013-12-01

183

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

184

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activities enabled the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. The SSSDP exceeded its target depth of 10,000 feet, and a comprehensive set of cuttings, cores, and downhole logs was obtained. Two flow tests at different depths were successfully completed. Hydrologic connection between the different producing horizons, however, made the data from the deeper test difficult to interpret. Temperature logging by the Geological Survey and Sandia National Laboratories to establish the equilibrium profile continued until August of 1987. The SSSDP provides a model for scientific cooperation among government agencies, universities, and private industry.

Sass, J.H.

1988-01-01

185

Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

Not Available

1986-12-01

186

Square hole drill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The square hole drill has a cutterhead configuration whose outline is in the form of a Reuleaux triangle and which also has a planetary gear drive. Two counter revolving motions are present in the drill at the same time. One is the pure rotary motion of the drill's cutterhead about its own shaft. The other is the circular motion of

R. J. Morrell; J. A. Gunn; G. D. Gore

1978-01-01

187

HydroPulse Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

J.J. Kolle

2004-04-01

188

Drilling technique for crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

1977-01-01

189

Mobile drilling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inventiond discloses a drilling apparatus mounted on a self-propelled base quipped with a joint to permit use on uneven terrain and drilling at various angles with respect to the terrain surface; embodiments of the invention feature suction apparatus for removing drill cuttings, and foldable masts.

C. C. Brown; J. R. Brown

1978-01-01

190

Kick detection during drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a borehole drilling system including a drill string in a borehole with the drill string defining an annulus between the outer diameter of the string and the borehole. It comprises: pressure detecting means near the surface of the system for detecting the modulated pressure pulse train in the annulus which is transmitted to the surface from the

Codazzi

1992-01-01

191

Hydraulic wellbore erosion while drilling  

SciTech Connect

This article is the first to identify nozzle hydraulic effects in a field evaluation of hole erosion. Common practice normally identifies annular velocity as the culprit for excessive hole washout. But field tests in this article clearly identify excessive nozzle hydraulics as the cause for hole erosion. Both oil-based and water-based drilling fluids were used during the field test. The primary contribution of this study is a simple guideline to assist drillers in preventing excessive hole erosion. This article describes drilling conditions and caliper logs, and discusses sequences of events that could explain the observations. Some preliminary guidelines are presented so that drillers can prevent erosion of the wellbore from high shear rates at bit nozzles.

Chemerinski, B. [British Borneo Exploration, Houston, TX (United States); Robinson, L. [OGCI, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-01

192

Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting  

DOEpatents

An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

2013-07-02

193

Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting  

DOEpatents

An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

2012-09-04

194

Drilling through gas hydrates formations: possible problems and suggested solution  

E-print Network

, circulation rate and drilling fluid density. The rate of penetration in offshore wells contributes largely to the final cost of the drilling process. These 3 parameters have been linked in the course of this research in order to suggest an optimum rate...

Amodu, Afolabi Ayoola

2009-05-15

195

Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a tubular for use in well drilling and production, comprising an elongate pipe with ends adapted to be connected with ends of other similar drill pipes and independent arcuately spaced conduits. Each conduit extends uniformly and substantially from one end of the pipe to the other end where different fluids can be communicated to and from the well.

Curlett, H.B.

1987-08-04

196

Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

1994-10-01

197

Control drilling solves surface hole problems  

SciTech Connect

Drilling surface hole offshore is one aspect of drilling practice that should command greater planning and design. Surface hole could be crucial if the well is in an area with a chance of shallow gas, or if it is required to run a 30-in. pin corrector and a long string of riser back to surface. The problem grows more critical with deeper water and a longer riser which in turn gives a longer column of drilling fluid. Consequently, the hydrostatic pressure is much higher at the 30-in. casing shoe. Higher pressure increases the chance of exceeding the fracture gradient and may result in the loss of returns around the 30-in. shoe. This article describes a simple practice which can eliminate some surface hole problems. A control-drilling equation sets the maximum drilling rate (MDR) based on maximum permitted pressures at the casing shoe. Eliminating lost circulation will ultimately save rig downtime due to retrieving the conductor pipe and base plate, relocating the rig, and respudding the hole after suffering losses. This technique also has been successful while drilling out below drive pipe on jack ups and platform wells. Control drilling is most effectively used on these types of wells because only a friction seal (instead of cement coverage) exists around the bottom of the drive pipe.

Jean, T.W.

1986-08-01

198

30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?  

...design criteria must address: (a) Pore pressures; (b) Formation fracture gradients, adjusted for water depth; (c) Potential lost circulation zones; (d) Drilling fluid weights; (e) Casing setting depths;...

2014-07-01

199

Ocean Drilling Program: Results from tenth year of drilling operations  

SciTech Connect

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 61 internationally staffed expeditions and ten years of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the tectonic evolution of passive and active continental margins, origin and evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. To address these problems, ODP has made numerous advances in technology for retrieval of continuous undisturbed cores under hostile environmental conditions. ODP curates over 198 km of cored material and associated scientific data bases and publishes results of the scientific expeditions in a continuous series of Proceedings volumes. During its tenth year, ODP continued its pioneering exploration in the Atlantic Ocean. This paper reviews the drilling activities associated with the Atlantic Leg of the project. It focuses on volcanic rifted margins and magma emplacement; the chemical composition and evolution of the lower crust and mantle; depth transect reconstruction for a variety of temporal resolutions; research on the Amazon deep-sea fan and associated paleoclimatology; temporal and spatial scales of fluid flow, the role of faults in fluid transport, and the relationships between mechanical state and seismicity in the northern Barbados accretionary prism; and the history of volcanic activity in the Canary Hotspot, the detailed evolution of large volcanic oceanic islands, the growth of volcanic aprons and the filling of the distal Madeira Abyssal Plain. Finally, Leg 158 investigated fluid flow, alteration and mineralization and associated geochemical fluxes, microbiological processes and the subsurface mixture of an active hydrothermal system on a slow spreading, sediment-free mid-ocean ridge (TAG area -- Mid Atlantic Ridge).

Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Coyne, J.C.; McPherson, R.G.; Merrill, R.B.; Olivas, R.E. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-12-01

200

Combination offshore drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with respect to such barge hull, the cantilever structure being so located relative to the drilling slot as to be movable horizontally into a position in vertical alignment with the drilling slot, a derrick and drilling machinery mounted to the cantilever structure and movable into a position above the drilling slot whereby well drilling operations may be conducted through the drilling slot, the cantilever structure also being movable horizontally to a position which locates the derrick and the drilling machinery outboard of the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, whereby a drilling operations may be conducted outside of the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means mounted on the barge hull for moving the cantilever structure horizontally to different positions relative to the barge hull.

Lorenz, D.B.; Laid, J.S. II

1986-07-29

201

Inhibition of gas hydrates in water-based drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a series of thermodynamic experiments were run on 16 simulated drilling muds and associated test fluids to improve the understanding of the equilibrium conditions for hydrate formation in water-based drilling fluids. Results indicated that, to a first approximation, the salt and glycerol contents of water in mud dominated hydrate formation. Other mud additives, such as bentonite, barite, and polymers, collectively promoted hydrate formation to a lesser degree.

Kotkoskie, T.S.; Al-Ubaidi, B.; Wildeman, T.R.; Sloan, E.D. Jr. (Colorado School of Mines (US))

1992-06-01

202

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2011-08-16

203

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2008-05-27

204

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingwood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2007-05-22

205

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Kingswood, TX); Turner, William Evans (Durham, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Perry, Carl Allison (Middletown, CT)

2012-08-14

206

Improve your solids control. [Management of solids during oil and gas well drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

With today's emphasis on the environmental impact of drilling operations, minimization of drilling fluid and drill cuttings waste is critical. This can be achieved using proper solids removal equipment -- such as high performance shale shakers, hydrocyclones, and centrifuges -- and proper pre-well planning. The method described here is founded in decision matrix theory and focuses on several key variables.

M. S. Montgomery; W. W. Love

1993-01-01

207

A study of the built-up edge in drilling with indexable coated carbide inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indexable drills, with different geometry and coating materials on carbide inserts, manifest significant differences in drilling performance, including hole quality and tool wear. Though drilling was done at 71 m\\/min in a copious cutting fluid environment, a large built-up edge and not secondary shear formation was observed, contrary to our expectations. On the other hand, when turning under the same

V. C. Venkatesh; W. Xue

1996-01-01

208

Method for locating the depth of a drill string washout or lost circulation zone  

SciTech Connect

For use in an oil well drilling system, methods are disclosed to determine the depth of drill string washouts and the depth of leach zones that cause lost circulation. The methods are based primarily on the circulating pressure of the drilling fluid at the surface within the standpipe.

Owings, A.J.

1982-08-31

209

Critical Investigation of Wear Behaviour of WC Drill Bit Buttons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining and petroleum drill bits are subjected to highly abrasive rock and high-velocity fluids that cause severe wear and erosion in service. To augment the rate of penetration and minimize the cost per foot, such drill bits are subjected to increasing rotary speeds and weight. A rotary/percussive drill typically hits the rock 50 times per second with hydraulic impact pressure of about 170-200 bar and feed pressure of about 90-100 bar, while rotating at 75-200 rpm. The drill rig delivers a high-velocity flow of drilling fluid onto the rock surface to dislodge cuttings and cool the bit. The impingement of high-velocity drilling fluid with entrained cuttings accelerates the erosion rate of the bit. Also, high service temperature contributes to softening of the rock for increased penetration. Hence, there is a need to optimize the drilling process and balance the wear rate and penetration rate simultaneously. This paper presents an experimental scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of electroplated (nickel-bonded) diamond drills for different wear modes.

Gupta, Anurag; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

2013-01-01

210

ODP drilling at the East Pacific Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origin of the ocean crust by scientific drilling at the axes of mid-ocean ridges is a high priority in the Earth science community, as reflected in the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Long Range Plan, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES) Lithosphere Panel's White Paper, and several reports of the Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE) program. The ODP Long Range Plan provides for over a dozen drilling legs at and near mid-ocean ridges prior to the year 2002, including a multileg drilling program at the East Pacific Rise (EPR).ODP Leg 142 (February-March 1992) was the first of this multi-leg effort and was devoted primarily to continued testing and development of the engineering systems needed for successful drilling of bare rock at mid-ocean ridges. At the same time, it was hoped that drilling would result in cores that could be used to study volcanic and hydrothermal processes, volcanic architecture, fluid flow, and other processes occurring at the active EPR axis.

Storms, M. A.; Reudelhuber, D. H.; Holloway, G. L.; Allan, J.; Batiza, R.

211

Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

Hyne, N.J.

1984-01-01

212

Geothermal drilling ad completion technology development program. Semi-annual progress report, April-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

Varnado, S.G. (ed.)

1980-05-01

213

Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are reported. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

Varnado, S.G.

1980-07-01

214

Method of using a spacer for well control fluid  

SciTech Connect

A spacer comprising the water-in-oil emulsion portion of a shear-thickening well control fluid is used to separate drilling mud from the shear-thickening fluid in the drill pipe in the well bore to avoid premature thickening of the shear thickening fluid in the drill pipe. The shear-thickening well control fluid comprises a water-in-oil emulsion in which is dispersed granular particles of hydratable, water expandable clay.

Drake, E.N.; Tsao, Y.H.

1984-05-01

215

Drilling Square Holes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

Smith, Scott G.

1993-01-01

216

Reverse laser drilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

217

Ocean Drilling Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

Program, Ocean D.; Texas A&M University

218

Delta Flow: An Accurate, Reliable System for Detecting Kicks and Loss of Circulation During Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system to monitor drilling-fluid flow rate has been developed that detects kicks and lost returns in floating, fixed-platform, and land-base drilling operations. The system uses flowmeters that monitor the flow rates of drilling fluids entering the borehole through the standpipe and leaving the well through the return flowline. These readings are processed in a computer-based, data-acquisition system to form

J. M. Speers; G. F. Gehrig

1987-01-01

219

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1999-05-25

220

Fluid sampling tool  

DOEpatents

A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

1999-05-25

221

Advanced drilling systems  

SciTech Connect

Drilling is ubiquitous in oil, gas, geothermal, minerals, water well, and mining industries. Drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing power from geothermal energy. Reduced drilling costs will reduce the cost of electricity produced from geothermal resources. Undoubtedly, there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied. However, the breadth and depth of previous efforts in this area almost guarantee that any new efforts will at least initially build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts, coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems, provide the basis for this study.

Pierce, K.G.; Finger, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants, San Diego, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

222

Advanced drilling systems study.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis (Livesay Consultants, Encintas, CA)

1996-05-01

223

1991 drill bit classifier  

SciTech Connect

Whether drilling soft, swelling gumbo formations along the Gulf Coast, harder Green River shales in Wyoming or really tough and abrasive quartzite, basalt or Devonian chert deposits in the Permian basin, choosing the best bit for the job is important if optimum drilling and cost efficiency are to be maintained. To make the selection process easier, WORLD OIL has compiled a comprehensive, yet simple-to-use guide for classifying bits. This paper is divided into six major formation categories roughly corresponding to those used by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). Within these are listed virtually all commonly available drilling and coring bits by type and manufacturer. To use the guide, simply identify the formation to be drilled, decide whether a rock, diamond, PDC or hybrid bit is most appropriate, choose the manufacturer and scan the bits available. In fact, bits from all manufacturers can readily be compared.

Not Available

1991-09-01

224

Drilling optimization using drilling simulator software  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................................................78 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Trip rate derived from actual well data shows difference for trip in and out................ 4 2 Surface and 3D ROP map for Layer 15... Estimation....................................................... 5 2 Drilling Model Bit Coefficients ..................................................................................16 3 Chip Hold-Down Premeability Coefficients...

Salas Safe, Jose Gregorio

2004-09-30

225

DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY Drilling for seawater  

E-print Network

Water Desalination Fuel Production Waste Water Treatment Increased CO2 Absorbtion Agriculture & Mari) of cold water pipe WAS LOST 3 TIMES before demonstrating power generation #12;DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY BACKGROUND After a 2006 earthquake on the Big Island The NELHA cold water pipe cracked allowing warm water

226

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31

227

Inhibition of gas hydrates in deepwater drilling  

SciTech Connect

With the movement of offshore rigs into deep water, the problem of gas hydrates has become an important issue in drilling. If a kick is taken, gas hydrates can form in the blowout preventer (BOP) or chokelines while the kick is circulated out. The water-based pill presented here significantly improves gas-hydrate inhibition. This pill, which can be spotted in the BOP and weighted up, is environmentally safe and easily adaptable to offshore operations. Compatible with commonly used drilling fluids, the pill can be mixed directly into the mud system without any adverse effects after the danger of hydrate formation diminishes. This technology is an important safety consideration for deepwater drilling well control and hydrate-free operations above the mudline.

Hale, A.H.; Dewan, A.K.R. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-06-01

228

SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

1986-01-01

229

Ice core drilling at Vostok  

NSF Publications Database

... Subject: Initial Environmental Evaluation (Deep Ice Core Drilling at Vostok Station, Antarctica ... for the National Science Foundation's Deep Ice Core Drilling project at Vostok Station, prepare an ...

230

Rapid and Quiet Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

2007-01-01

231

Results of exploratory drilling  

SciTech Connect

Eight exploratory holes were drilled in the Vermillion Creek basin, southern Sweetwater County, Wyoming, to aid in interpreting the subsurface stratigraphy of the Vermillion Creek coal bed. Lithologic logs based on cuttings and geophysical logs (natural gamma, density, and caliper) were made for each drill hole. Core samples of the Vermillion Creek coal bed and associated strata (roof rock, floor rock, and partings) were collected from three drill holes for geochemical and petrographic analysis. The geophysical logs indicate the presence of anomalous radioactive zones in the strata surrounding the Vermillion Creek coal bed.

Hildebrand, R.T.

1987-01-01

232

Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock  

SciTech Connect

The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

Rowley, J.C.

1984-01-01

233

Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system  

SciTech Connect

Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

Westmoreland, J.

1994-04-01

234

Gas Well Drilling and Water Resources Regulated by the Pennsylvania Oil and  

E-print Network

used in drilling and fracking · Recent increase in permit fee to fund new DEP enforcement · Permit fluids ­ return fluids from fracking ­ mixture of water, sand and chemicals Production fluids ­ fluids, manganese, barium, arsenic, etc.) Surfactants/detergents Total suspended solids Oil/Grease Fracking

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

235

Drilling Productivity Report  

EIA Publications

Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

2014-01-01

236

Deep-Sea Drilling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

White, Stan M.

1979-01-01

237

Review of horizontal drilling  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has drilled 350 horizontal wells in the past 8 years in 33 different oil and gas fields. Since the first wells were drilled the technology and its applications have evolved considerably. The paper describes that rapid evolution using four fields as examples. There has been a diversification of well designs as the authors have learnt how to tailor horizontal drilling most effectively to different situations. In many cases wells can be drilled faster and cheaper than 5 years ago, but there are also examples where more elaborate designs have been applied. The geological targeting and evaluation of the wells has also improved. Further evolution is planned with the next step likely to be the wider use of multi-wellbore horizontals.

Ishak, I.B.; Steele, R.P.; Macaulay, R.C.; Stephenson, P.M.; Al Mantheri, S.M.

1995-11-01

238

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... antifreeze agents at Linneaus Terrace, Wright Valley (Site of Special Scientific Interest No. 19 ...

239

Ocean drilling ship chosen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

Richman, Barbara T.

240

February 2002 OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM  

E-print Network

February 2002 OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 204 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS DRILLING GAS HYDRATES ON HYDRATE Richter Leg Project Manager and Staff Scientist Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Ocean Drilling Program, which is managed by Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., under contract

241

Apparatus in a drill string  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill

David R. Hall; Scott Dahlgren; Hall Jr. Tracy H; Joe Fox; David S. Pixton

2007-01-01

242

Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers an economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.

Lindstrom, Jason

2010-01-31

243

Effect of eccentricity of twist drill and candle stick drill on delamination in drilling composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling is the most frequently employed operation of secondary machining for fiber-reinforced materials owing to the need for structure joining. Delamination is one of the serious concerns during drilling. Practical experience shows that an eccentric twist drill or an eccentric candle stick drill can degrade the quality of the fiber reinforced material. Comprehensive delamination models for the delamination induced by

C. C. Tsao; H. Hocheng

2005-01-01

244

New drilling rigs  

SciTech Connect

Friede and Goldman Ltd. of New Orleans, Louisiana has a successful drilling rig, the L-780 jack-up series. The triangular-shaped drilling vessel measures 180 x 176 ft. and is equipped with three 352 ft legs including spud cans. It is designed to work in up to 250 ft waters and drill to 20,000 ft depths. The unit is scheduled to begin initial drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico for Arco. Design features are included for the unit. Davie Shipbuilding Ltd. has entered the Mexican offshore market with the signing of a $40,000,000 Canadian contract for a jack-up to work in 300 ft water depths. Baker Marine Corporation has contracted with the People's Republic of China for construction of two self-elevating jack-ups. The units will be built for Magnum Marine, headquartered in Houston. Details for the two rigs are given. Santa Fe International Corporation has ordered a new jack-up rig to work initially in the Gulf of Suez. The newly ordered unit, Rig 136, will be the company's fourth offshore drilling rig now being built in the Far East. Temple Drilling Company has signed a construction contract with Bethlehem Steel for a jack-up to work in 200 ft water depths. Penrod Drilling Company has ordered two additional cantilever type jack-ups for Hitachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd. of Japan. Two semi-submersibles, capable of working in up to 2000 ft water depths, have been ordered by two Liberian companies. Details for these rigs are included. (DP)

Tubb, M.

1981-02-01

245

Advanced Seismic While Drilling System  

SciTech Connect

A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

2008-06-30

246

Future scientific drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JOI-USSAC Workshop on Future Scientific Drilling was held April 6-8, 1987, at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. Participants consisted of 56 scientists from nine countries. The general sponsors of the workshop were JOI (the Joint Oceanographic Institutions) and the U.S. Science Advisory Committee (USSAC) of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Non-U.S. participants were sponsored by their respective countries.The goals of the workshop were to develop thematic suites of drilling objectives in the South Atlantic from global, regional, and topical perspectives and to broaden the base of expertise on which ODP efforts are founded by including scientific input from non-ODP members. The workshop began with a plenary session at which general overviews of various aspects of current South Atlantic research were presented. For most of the workshop, participants separated into one of four working groups for specialized discussion. The topics of these specialized groups were evolution of oceanic lithosphere/tectonics,biostratigraphy,physical stratigrapgy/development of the sedimentary record, andgeochemistry. Once major themes had been developed, each group went on to consider where these objectives could be optimally addressed by drilling and what drilling strategies were necessary for each target area of interest. The workshop ended on the third day with a general session in which the considerations of the four working groups were summarized.

Meyers, Philip A.; Austin, James A., Jr.

247

New Zealand Geothermal Investigations - Drilling into the Eighties  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 3 decades, some 243 wells (180 km [112 mi]) have been drilled in various fields within New Zealand to investigate and utilize geothermal energy. This number does not include wells drilled for minor industrial and domestic uses. Drilling and completion techniques have been evolved such that no structural failures or uncontrollable blowouts have occurred with wells drilled in the past 10 years. However, there is still room for further improvement to effect more rapid and economical completion of future wells. Drilling techniques, equipment, and materials currently in use in New Zealand are described, including surface and downhole drilling equipment, drilling fluids, cementing, and casing programs, together with proposed improvements. Recent work, including drilling a deviated well, recementing production casing after the original cementing had failed, cementing a sleeve into a well which had broken casing, removing calcite deposition from a production well, and isolating a cool inflow into a well, thus bringing the well back into production, is also described. Proposals to modify an existing well, enabling separate production from two production horizons, are outlined.

Fooks, E. L. D.

1981-01-01

248

Compact drilling and sample system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

1998-01-01

249

Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the cores were scanned for compositional variations using an XRF core scanner at the BGR lab and scan images of the slabbed surfaces were performed. The average core recovery rate was very high at nearly 100%. Altogether, we gained 533 m of excellent core material including sandstones, siltstones and claystones, carbonates, sulfates and chlorides. This provides valuable insight into the stratigraphic column of the Thuringian Syncline.

Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

2014-05-01

250

Ocean drilling reorganized  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Science Foundation has combined its proposed Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMPD) with the existing Deep-Sea Drilling Program (DSDP). This reorganization calls for the retirement in 1983 of DSDP's mainstay, the Glomar Challenger, which is nearing its 14th year of operation. The Glomar Explorer, the former CIA ship, with 5 times the carrying capacity of the Challenger, will become the sole NSF drilling ship.Engineering and science planning for OMDP will continue largely unchanged with the new plan, though the schedules for achieving some scientific objectives may change, according to the Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (JOI), a consortium of 10 academic oceanographic institutions. Additional industry and foreign support will be sought under the new plan.

Richman, Barbara T.

251

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol

2009-07-13

252

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol; Magazine, Astrobiology

253

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

1989-01-01

254

Deep Drilling at Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science News for Kids article provides an image-rich overview of a deep-sea drilling project off the coast of British Columbia. The article guides students through the exploration, explaining how deep sediment cores are taken, what researchers find in the cores, and details of what life is like on a research ship. It features links to an online poll, an opportunity for students to submit comments, a deep-sea drilling word find, and links to supplementary reading questions and related sites.

Ramsayer, Kate; Magazine, Science N.

255

Conquering Alaska's arctic drilling problems - 2. Drilling procedures  

SciTech Connect

A discussion is presented of ARCO's solutions to the drilling problems an oil company faces in developing an arctic oil and gas field. Outlined are the following topics: surface casing hole; direcitonal drilling; Fondu cement; intermediate casing; downsqueeze procedure; and, drilling to TD.

Moore, S.D.

1981-06-01

256

Conquering Alaska's arctic drilling problems - 2. Drilling procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is presented of ARCO's solutions to the drilling problems an oil company faces in developing an arctic oil and gas field. Outlined are the following topics: surface casing hole; direcitonal drilling; Fondu cement; intermediate casing; downsqueeze procedure; and, drilling to TD.

1981-01-01

257

January 2003 OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM  

E-print Network

January 2003 OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 210 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS DRILLING THE NEWFOUNDLAND HALF Drive College Station TX 77845-9547 USA -------------------------------- Dr. Adam Klaus Leg Project Program, which is managed by Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., under contract with the National

258

Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 1 1.1 MPD: Brief Intro .................................................................................. 2 1.2 Nature of the Problem... of Available Hydraulic Software Models ............................... 4 2. EVOLUTION OF THE DRILLING TECHNOLOGY....................................... 8 2.1 Conventional Drilling...

Nauduri, Anantha S.

2010-07-14

259

Combination drilling and skiving tool  

DOEpatents

A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

Stone, William J. (Kansas City, MO)

1989-01-01

260

Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

261

Drill sergeant selection model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to strengthen the current utility of the Warrior Attributes Inventory (WAI), formerly known as the Non Commissioned Officer Leadership Skills Inventory (NLSI). The end state of the research is to create a model that will accurately predict potential drill sergeant performance based upon WAI scores and biographical data. The research leverages statistical learning methods and the United

T. Barker; S. Gouthro; J. Jarvis; R. Markham; J. Halstead

2008-01-01

262

New generation drill rigs  

SciTech Connect

Six new drilling rigs, all designed for use under arctic conditions, are described briefly as to use, proposed location, construction company, and state of completion. Better ideas for all phases of arctic operations have been incorporated into design of these rigs. Some of the rigs are adaptable for Beaufort Sea offshore operations. (BLM)

Not Available

1980-06-01

263

Kick detection during drilling  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a borehole drilling system including a drill string in a borehole with the drill string defining an annulus between the outer diameter of the string and the borehole. It comprises: pressure detecting means near the surface of the system for detecting the modulated pressure pulse train in the annulus which is transmitted to the surface from the transmitter and for generating an annulus pressure signal corresponding thereto; pressure detecting means near the surface of the system for detecting the modulated pressure pulse train in the standpipe which is transmitted to the surface from the transmitter via the drill pipe and for generating a standpipe pressure signal corresponding thereto; surface instrumentation means responsive to the annulus pressure signal and to the standpipe pressure signal; and means for comparing the difference in arrival time signal DT[sub meas] with a predetermined difference in arrival time signal DT[sub alarm] to generate a signal if DT[sub meas] [gt] DT[sub alarm].

Codazzi, D.

1992-10-13

264

Proposed Drill Sites  

DOE Data Explorer

Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

Michael Lane

265

Mars Science Laboratory Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the bit is a thick-walled maraging steel collection tube allowing the powdered sample to be augured up the hole into the sample chamber. For robustness, the wall thickness of the DBA was maximized while still ensuring effective sample collection. There are four recesses in the bit tube that are used to retain the fresh bits in their bit box. The rotating bit is supported by a back-to-back duplex bearing pair within a housing that is connected to the outer DBA housing by two titanium diaphragms. The only bearings on the drill in the sample flow are protected by a spring-energized seal, and an integrated shield that diverts the ingested powdered sample from the moving interface. The DBA diaphragms provide radial constraint of the rotating bit and form the sample chambers. Between the diaphragms there is a sample exit tube from which the sample is transferred to the CHIMRA. To ensure that the entire collected sample is retained, no matter the orientation of the drill with respect to gravity during sampling, the pass-through from the forward to the aft chamber resides opposite to the exit tube.

Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

2012-01-01

266

Managed pressure drilling techniques and tools  

E-print Network

The economics of drilling offshore wells is important as we drill more wells in deeper water. Drilling-related problems, including stuck pipe, lost circulation, and excessive mud cost, show the need for better drilling technology. If we can solve...

Martin, Matthew Daniel

2006-08-16

267

Friction drilling of cast metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the friction drilling process, a nontraditional hole-making technique, for cast metals. In friction drilling, a rotating conical tool is applied to penetrate work-material and create a bushing in a single step without generating chip. The cast aluminum and magnesium alloys, two materials studied, are brittle compared to the ductile metal workpiece material used in previous friction drilling

Scott F. Miller; Jia Tao; Albert J. Shih

2006-01-01

268

Advancements in thermal spallation drilling technology  

SciTech Connect

Thermal spallation of hard rocks has been used commercially for many years to cut granite in quarries and to produce blasting holes in taconite mines. It is potentially an economic process for creating cavities in hard rocks that are difficult to drill or mine by conventional methods. These cavities might have application for storage of liquids and gases and of energy in several forms. They may also be used as high-pressure, naturally heated retorts for certain chemical processes. This report describes the spallation process, including the fluid dynamics and heat transfer from flame jets to the rock and subsequent rock failure. Our model of the spallation process predicts with good accuracy the surface temperatures and heat-transfer rates required to maintain desired drilling rates. Field tests, including site selection, equipment, field operations, and accomplishments, are also described in detail. 31 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Williams, R.E.; Dey, T.; Rauenzahn, R.; Kranz, R.; Tester, J.; Potter, R.; Murphy, H.

1988-09-01

269

Microbiological Profiles of Deep Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks Revealed by an Aseptic Drilling Procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike the near-surface environments, it is difficult to determine the community structure and biogeochemical functions of microorganisms in the deep subsurface mainly due to accessibility without contamination and disturbance. In an inland fore-arc basin in central Japan, we applied a new drilling procedure using deoxygenated and/or filter-sterilized drilling fluid(s). Although DNA-stained and cultivable cell numbers and the contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) all indicated the presence of metabolically active microbial populations in sedimentary rocks at a depth range from 200 to 350 m, it was not successful to extract DNA from the drilled core samples. During drilling, drilling fluid used for drilling and coring in the borehole was collected from the borehole bottom and subjected to DNA extraction. Quantitative fluorogenic PCR revealed that bacterial DNA were detected in drilling fluid samples when drilling was performed for siltstone and silty sandstone layers with the limited flow of drilling fluid. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the drilling fluid samples below a depth of 324 m were mostly related to Pseudomonas putida or Flavobacterium succinicans, while those related to other Pseudomonas spp. were predominant at depths of 298 and 299m. PLFA profiles of core samples from a depth range between 250 and 351 m showed the abundance of 16:0, 16:1?7 and 18:1?9 fatty acids, which are known as major cellular lipid components of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium spp. From these results, it was suggested that the members of the genera Pseudomonas and F. succinicans might represent dominant microbial populations that inhabit the deep terrestrial sedimentary rocks in Central Japan. This study was supported by grants from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

Suzuki, Y.; Suko, T.; Fukuda, A.; Kouduka, M.; Nanba, K.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.

2009-12-01

270

The rock melting approach to drilling  

SciTech Connect

During the early and mid-1970`s the Los Alamos National Laboratory demonstrated practical applications of drilling and coring using an electrically-heated graphite, tungsten, or molybdenum penetrator that melts a hole as it is slowly pushed through the rock or soil. The molten material consolidates into a rugged glass lining that prevents hole collapse; minimizes the potential for cross-flow, lost circulation, or the release of hazardous materials without casing operations; and produces no cuttings in porous or low density (<1.7 g/cc) formations. Because there are no drilling fluids required, the rock melting approach reduces waste handling, treatment and disposal. Drilling by rock melting has been demonstrated to depths up to 30 m in caliche, clay, alluvium, cobbles, sand, basalt, granite, and other materials. Penetrating large cobbles without debris removal was achieved by thermal stress fracturing and lateral extrusion of portions of the rock melt into the resulting cracks. Both horizontal and vertical holes in a variety of diameters were drilled in these materials using modular, self-contained field units that operate in remote areas. Because the penetrator does not need to rotate, steering by several simple approaches is considered quite feasible. Melting is ideal for obtaining core samples in alluvium and other poorly consolidated soils since the formed-in-place glass liner stabilizes the hole, encapsulates volatile or hazardous material, and recovers an undisturbed core. Because of the relatively low thermal conductivity of rock and soil materials, the heat-affected zone beyond the melt layer is very small, <1 inch thick. Los Alamos has begun to update the technology and this paper will report on the current status of applications and designs for improved drills.

Cort, G.E.; Goff, S.J.; Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W. Jr.; Dreesen, D.S.; Winchester, W.

1993-09-01

271

Instruments and Methods Portable system for intermediate-depth ice-core drilling  

E-print Network

TD and operates in a fluid-free (dry) hole. Where the ice is warmer and rapid hole closure is possible, the slower- ate paper (Zagorodnov and others,1998). A BRIEF REVIEW OF DRY-HOLE EM ICE-CORE DRILL DEVELOPMENTInstruments and Methods Portable system for intermediate-depth ice-core drilling V. Zagorodnov, L

Howat, Ian M.

272

Characteristics and removal of filter cake formed by formate-based drilling mud  

E-print Network

, and enzymes. The main objective of this research is to assess the effectiveness of these cleaning fluids in removing drilling mud filter cake. A dynamic high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) cell was used to determine characteristics of the drilling mud filter...

Alotaibi, Mohammed Badri

2009-05-15

273

Establishment of the Coast Range ophiolite microbial observatory (CROMO): drilling objectives and preliminary outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project aimed to establish a subsurface microbial observatory in ultramafic rocks, by drilling into an actively serpentinizing peridotite body, characterizing cored rocks, and outfitting the boreholes for a program of long-term observation and experimentation to resolve the serpentinite-hosted subsurface biosphere. We completed drilling in August 2011, drilling two boreholes with core recovery and possibility for down-hole experimentation, and six smaller-diameter monitoring wells arrayed around the two primary holes, in the Coast Range ophiolite (CRO) locality in the UC-Davis McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Lower Lake, CA. Every effort was made during drilling to keep the cores and wells as free of drilling-induced contamination as possible: clean, purified water was used as drilling fluid, fluorescent microbead tracers were suspended in that water for quantification of drilling fluid penetration into the cores, and high resolution next generation sequencing approaches were used to characterize the microbial populations in the drill fluids and core materials. In December 2011, we completed installation of well pumps (slow flow bladder pumps) in the monitoring wells, and have deployed a set of in situ incubation experiments in the two uncased boreholes. Preliminary findings illustrate natural variability in actively serpentinizing strata, and confirm distinct groundwater flow regimes and microbial ecosystems in (a) shallow, surface-impacted soil water horizons and (b) deeper, ultramafic bedrock-sourced formation fluids.

Cardace, D.; Hoehler, T.; McCollom, T.; Schrenk, M.; Carnevale, D.; Kubo, M.; Twing, K.

2013-11-01

274

Active hydrothermal system drilled at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between September and November 1994, drilling documented for the first time the sequence of events that led to the growth of a massive sulfide deposit on the seafloor and revealed the subsurface nature of a volcanic-hosted hydrothermal system on a mid-ocean ridge.The drilling was conducted at the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) active hydrothermal mound at 26°08?N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Figure 1) by Leg 158 of the Ocean Drilling Program. Drilling penetrated the mound and reached a depth of 125 m below the seafloor near the center of the mound, revealing the structure of the underlying zone of altered basalts through which the hydrothermal fluids flowed to the surface.

ODP Leg 158 Shipboard Scientific Party

275

Taguchi analysis of drilling quality associated with core drill in drilling of composite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thrust force and surface roughness of core drill with drill parameters (grit size of diamond, thickness, feed rate and\\u000a spindle speed) in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate was experimentally investigated in this study.\\u000a A L27 (313) orthogonal array and signal-to-noise (S\\/N) were employed to analyze the effect of drill parameters. Using Taguchi method\\u000a for design of a

C. C. Tsao

2007-01-01

276

Fluid Power Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the fundamental concepts important to fluid power, which includes both pneumatic (gas) and hydraulic (liquid) systems. Both systems contain four basic components: reservoir/receiver, pump/compressor, valve, cylinder. Students learn background information about fluid powerâboth pneumatic and hydraulic systemsâincluding everyday applications in our world (bulldozers, front-end loaders, excavators, chair height lever adjustors, door closer dampers, dental drills, vehicle brakes) and related natural laws. After a few simple teacher demos, they learn about the four components in all fluid power systems, watch two 26-minute online videos about fluid power, complete a crossword puzzle of fluid power terms, and conduct a task card exercise. This prepares them to conduct the associated hands-on activity, using the Portable Fluid Power Demonstrator (teacher-prepared kits) to learn more about the properties of gases and liquids in addition to how forces are transmitted and multiplied within these systems.

Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power, College of Agriculture and Biological Engineering,

277

Analysis of temperature distribution and performance of polycrystalline diamond compact bits under field drilling conditions  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of laboratory tests on full-scale fieldworn polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits showed the frictional heat at the rock/bit interface to be largely generated at the diamond cutting edges of the PDCs. Inspection of the observed wear of the PDCs together with the analysis revealed that the diamond layer attacks the formation at a large negative rake angle and that rock flour accumulates under the cutting edge during drilling, forming a stable buildup edge. The results showed that for effective cooling of the PDCs fluid velocities of at least 50 m/s are required along the diamond surfaces when drilling with oil-based fluids. With water-based drilling fluids, higher velocities should be used to prevent bit balling or boiling of the drilling fluid at the diamond surface of the PDCs.

Zijsling, O.H.

1984-09-01

278

Steerable percussion air drilling system  

SciTech Connect

By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

1998-12-31

279

Blasthole drilling technology  

SciTech Connect

Drilling in Appalachian coal overburdens presents challenges to conventional tricone bit operations due to the high rates of advance. In 2005, design engineers Atlas Copco BHMT (formerly Baker Hughes Mining Tools) began creating and testing a new lug design for bits used in these coalfields. The design was aided by use of computational flow dynamics. The article describes the design development and testing. Average footage drilled per bit by the new streamlined lug increased an average of 32.3% at Coal Mine No. 1 and 34.5% at Coal Mine No. 2 over the standard lug previously used. Average bit life increased by 32.3% at Coal Mine No.1 and 34.5% at Coal Mine No. 2. 3 figs., 2 photos.

Zink, C. [Atlas Copco BHMT, Inc., Grand Prairie, TX (United States)

2006-09-15

280

High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

2012-01-01

281

In focus: Downhole drilling  

SciTech Connect

Down-the-hole (DTH), popular for its accuracy and simplicity, is getting faster and more efficient. Kyran Castell beings this feature on DTH drilling and reports on Ingersoll-Rand's QL4, and the new QL6. News follows on Atlas Copco, Halco, Sandvik, and Numa, with a brief update on Wassara waterpowered DTHs. The paper compares economics of DTH with rotary and the designs of various DTH hammers.

Not Available

1994-10-01

282

A Model for Laser Hole Drilling in Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct computer simulation technique is developed to analyze quantitatively the influence of the fluid flow and heat transfer in the transient development of a laser drilled hole in a turbine airfoil material, where the material removal is effected by vaporization and melt ejection. The coupled conduction heat transfer in the solid and the advection-diffusion heat transfer in the liquid

Ram K. Ganesh; Wallace W. Bowley; Robert R. Bellantone; Yukap Hahn

1996-01-01

283

The Temperature Prediction in Deepwater Drilling of Vertical Well  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES .................................................. 1 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................ 4 2.1 Downhole Circulating Mud Heat Transfer Models... .................................. 4 2.2 Drilling Fluid Properties At High Temperature And High Pressure ........ 15 CHAPTER III BASIC HEAT TRANSFER AND HYDRAULIC CALCULATION ... 22 3.1 Conduction...

Feng, Ming

2012-07-16

284

TEMLOPI: a thermal simulator for estimation of drilling mud and formation temperatures during drilling of geothermal wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and application of the numerical code TEMLOPI v1.0, a useful tool for estimating the temperature distribution of the fluids employed for drilling geothermal wells. The simulator also allows estimation of the thermal disturbance of the surrounding rock caused by fluid circulation and well shut-in. TEMLOPI v1.0 is based on a mathematical model which considers the

A. Garcia; I Hernandez; G Espinosa; E Santoyo

1998-01-01

285

Effects of special drill bits on drilling-induced delamination of composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling is the most frequently employed operation of secondary machining for fiber-reinforced materials owing to the need for joining structures. Delamination is among the serious concerns during drilling. Practical experience proves the advantage of using such special drills as saw drill, candle stick drill, core drill and step drill. The experimental investigation described in this paper examines the theoretical predictions

H. Hocheng; C. C. Tsao

2006-01-01

286

Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter  

DOEpatents

A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

Glowka, David A. (Austin, TX); Raymond, David W. (Edgewood, NM)

2002-01-01

287

An evaluation of flowmeters for the detection of kicks and lost circulation during drilling  

SciTech Connect

An independent evaluation of current industry standard and state-of-the-art drilling fluid inflow and outflow meters was conducted during the drilling of a geothermal exploratory well. Four different types of fluid inflow meters and three different types of fluid outflow meters were tested and evaluated during actual drilling operations. The tested drilling fluid inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flow meters, and a Doppler ultrasonic flow meter. On the return flow line, a standard paddle meter, an acoustic level meter, and a prototype rolling float meter were evaluated to measure drilling fluid outflow rates. The prototype outflow meter utilizes a rolling float which rides on the surface of the flow thereby measuring the fluid height in the pipe. Both the prototype meter and the conventional paddle meter were also extensively tested under a variety of drilling conditions in a full-scale laboratory test facility. The meters were evaluated and compared on the basis of reliability and accuracy, and the results are presented in the paper.

Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, K.E. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

288

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

1992-04-01

289

Apparatus in a drill string  

DOEpatents

An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Alpine, UT); Hall, Jr., Tracy H. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Lehi, UT); Pixton, David S. (Provo, UT)

2007-07-17

290

Borehole paleoclimatology and the COSC scientific drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific deep drilling projects offer unique opportunities to measure geothermal gradients well below ground surface, where disturbances related to both recent climatic changes and fluid circulation through the bedrock are significantly damped, in particular in areas of tectonic quiescence. Geothermal gradients contain invaluable information on deep, shallow and surface processes but only their study in deep boreholes allows for accurate quantification of these processes. The quality of the temperature data gathered in deep boreholes allows for estimating (1) the thermal state of the lithosphere, (2) the amplitude and timing of surface temperature changes and (3) the volume of fluids circulating in the subsurface. In brief, geothermal studies in connection to deep drilling projects address a variety of scientific problems relevant for disciplines as diverse as climate science and geodynamics. Two 2.5 km-deep holes are planned to be drilled in Central Sweden in the framework of the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project (www.sddp.se/cosc), supported by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). The drilling of the first borehole, COSC1, is scheduled for summer 2013. Among other geoscientific aspects, the COSC project addresses the geothermal conditions of the Fennoscandian cratonic lithosphere, studying its present state as well as the signatures of past climatic change. The purpose of the present contribution is to give an overview of the planned geothermal research with particular emphasis to paleoclimate research in the framework of the COSC project.

Pascal, Christophe

2013-04-01

291

An innovative drilling system  

SciTech Connect

The principal project objectives were the following: To demonstrate the capability of the Ultrashort Radius Radial System to drill and complete multiple horizontal radials in a heavy oil formation which had a production history of thermal operations. To study the effects that horizontal radials have on steam placement at specific elevations and on reducing gravity override. To demonstrate that horizontal radials could be utilized for cyclic production, i.e. for purposes of oil production as well as for steam injection. Each of these objectives was successfully achieved in the project. Early production results indicate that radials positively influenced cyclic performance. This report documents those results. 15 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

Nees, J.; Dickinson, E.; Dickinson, W.; Dykstra, H.

1991-05-01

292

Lunar drill and test apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.

Norrington, David W.; Ardoin, Didier C.; Alexander, Stephen G.; Rowland, Philip N.; Vastakis, Frank N.; Linsey, Steven L.

1988-01-01

293

Thrust bearing assembly for a downhole drill motor  

SciTech Connect

A bidirectional thrust bearing assembly is used between a downhole fluid motor and a rock bit for drilling oil wells. The bearing assembly has a stationary housing with radial journal bearing sleeves and a rotatable drive shaft also having radial bearing sleeves. A pair of oppositely facing thrust bearing rings are mounted in the housing. A second pair of thrust bearing rings are mounted on the shaft so as to have faces opposing the bearing faces on the first pair of rings. Belleville springs resiliently bias a pair of the thrust bearing rings apart and carry the thrust load between such rings. Each ring has a plurality of inserts of hard material, preferably polycrystalline diamond, at the bearing surface. Means are provided for circulating drilling fluid from the motor through the thrust bearing faces for forming hydrodynamic fluid bearing films in the bearing interfaces.

Geczy, B. A.

1985-12-24

294

Delta flow: An accurate, reliable system for detecting kicks and loss of circulation during drilling  

SciTech Connect

A system to monitor drilling-fluid flow rate has been developed that detects kicks and lost returns in floating, fixed-platform, and land-base drilling operations. The system uses flowmeters that monitor the flow rates of drilling fluids entering the borehole through the standpipe and leaving the well through the return flowline. These readings are processed in a computer-based, data-acquisition system to form a filtered delta-flow signal that identified the occurrence of downhole fluid gains or losses. The system is designed to trip an alarm when a gain or loss exceeds 25 gal/min (1.6 dm/sup 3//s), even in a floating drilling environment. This sensitivity will generally keep gains or losses to less than 5 bbl (0.8 m/sup 3/).

Speers, J.M.; Gehrig, G.F.

1987-12-01

295

Geothermal corehole drilling and operations, Platanares, Honduras, Central America  

SciTech Connect

Two slim exploration coreholes to depths of 650 m and 428 m, respectively, have been completed at the Platanares geothermal site, Honduras, Central America. A third corehole is now being drilled. These boreholes have provided information on the stratigraphy, temperature variation with depth, nature and compositions of fluids, fracturing, permeability, and hydrothermal alterations associated with the geothermal reservoir. Eruptions of hot water occurred during the drilling of both the first and third boreholes. Recovery of >98% core has been obtained even under difficult superheated conditions.

Goff, S.; Rufenacht, H.D.; Laughlin, A.W.; Adams, A.; Planner, H.; Ramos, N.

1987-01-01

296

Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling  

SciTech Connect

This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

Myers, D.A.

1998-07-16

297

Drill and Blast Tunneling Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance drill and blast methods for tunnel construction require that each of the individual working elements that constitute the construction process are optimized and considered as a system of sequential and parallel activities. The advantage of integrating the logistic backup systems facilitates an increase in performance. To achieve increased production, it is necessary to improve the drilling, explosive loading, temporary

Gerhard Girmscheid; Cliff Schexnayder

2002-01-01

298

INTERNATIONAL CONTINENTAL SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROGRAM  

E-print Network

, Germany June 22, 2011 07-2011 Revised Workshop Proposal Oman Ophiolite Drilling Project, Workshop Proposal Peter Kelemen (USA), Ali Al-Rajhi (Oman), Shoji Arai (Japan), Donna Blackman (USA), Georges Ceuleneer, Thank you very much for submitting a Workshop Proposal on the "Oman Ophiolite Drilling Project", which

299

OM300 Direction Drilling Module  

SciTech Connect

OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

Doug MacGugan

2013-08-22

300

Ocean Drilling Program Legacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) conducted basic research into Earth processes by recovering sediment and rock samples from below the ocean floor and using the resulting holes to perform downhole measurements and experiments. The program, which lasted from 1983 to 2003, published thousands of pages of data and reports, which are now available online. The materials include information on sampling procedures, permanent core archives, repositories, and micropaleontological reference centers. Available publications include ODP proceedings and scientific results; initial and preliminary reports; technical notes and reports; citations; the ODP bibliography, dictionary, and editorial guide; and issues of the JOIDES (Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling) Journal from 1975 to 2004. There are also links to ODP core data and logs and extensive data documentation. Other links access ODP outreach materials, information on engineering and science operations, cruise leg summaries and discovery highlights, and information on the administration of the program.

301

Foam drilling simulator  

E-print Network

. Foam flow in this method was mathematically modeled as Ostwald-de Waele Power-Law fluid and solutions were obtained by iterating on pipe/annulus segments length. Guo et al.17 presented a trial and error method to estimate the frictional.... Foam flow in this method was mathematically modeled as Ostwald-de Waele Power-Law fluid and solutions were obtained by iterating on pipe/annulus segments length. Guo et al.17 presented a trial and error method to estimate the frictional...

Paknejad, Amir Saman

2007-04-25

302

Deviated drilling method for water production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Method for drilling horizontal or deviated fresh water wells through such volcanics as occur in Hawaii, including hard lavas and fragmented interbeds that are prone to caving. The method provides effective means to drill into basal aquifers directly underlain by salt water, or into compartmented or confined aquifers or perched aquifers. The method uses deviated drilling and may use formation grouting, casing or drill-stem drilling, percussion or rotary drilling and all combinations thereof.

2010-02-02

303

Corrosion inhibition by control of gas composition during mist drilling  

SciTech Connect

Chemical compositional specifications have been generated for inert gases which reduce drill string corrosion when used in conjunction with mist drilling processes. These specifications are based on the assumption that the corrosion rate is dependent on the dissolved gaseous species concentrations. Data taken both from the literature and from a mist drilling field test with nitrogen in Valle Grande, NM, relate corrosion rates to fluid compositions. These solution compositions are then associated with gas phase compositions using equilibrium data available from the literature and material balances. Two sources of gas were considered: cryogenically purified nitrogen from air and exhaust gas from a diesel engine, which contain (in addition to N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/) CO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and CO. A maximum concentration of 50 ppM O/sub 2/ in the gas phase is recommended to alleviate pitting corrosion.

Hinkebein, T.E.; Snyder, T.L.

1981-05-01

304

Cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill: Design and Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directly obtaining the subglacial bedrock samples is one of the most important tasks of Antarctic exploration in the future, which has great significance to research the formation and evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, research the environment at the junction of the ice and bedrock, and research the geologic structure in Polar Regions. To drill through ice and bedrock, a new modified version of the cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill 'IBED' is designed. IBED drill has modulus construction. The upper part includes four sections: cable termination, slip rings section, antitorque system, electronic pressure chamber. The motor-gear system is differed by rotation speed of the output shaft of the gear-reducer. All modulus contain 3 kW AC3 × 380 V submersible motor. Gear-reducer for drilling in ice lowers the drill bit rotation speed to 100 rpm; gear reducer for subglacial drilling lowers the drill bit rotation speed to 500 rpm. In addition, module for dry core drilling contains vacuum pump for near bottom air reverse circulation instead of liquid-driven pump that is installed into other two variants. The rotation speed of air-driven pump is increased by the gear to 6000 rpm. In modules for drilling with liquid the gear pump is used with capacity of 38-41 L/min and maximal pressure of 0.2 MPa. IBED lower part for drilling in ice consists from two parts: chip chamber for filtration of drilling fluid and collecting chips, and core barrel with the drill bit. The outer/inner diameter of the ice core drill bit is 134/110 mm. Length of the core barrel is 2.5 m. Lower part of the bedrock drill is adapted for coring bedrock and contains standard 2-m length core barrel borrowed from conventional diamond drill string, chip chamber for gravity separation of rock cuttings and dead weights (appr. 200 kg) for increasing of the load on the diamond drill bit. The outer/inner diameters of the diamond bit are 59/41 mm. The IBED drill was tested in order to solve three different tasks: 1) dry core drilling of upper snow-firn layer with bottom-air reverse circulation; 2) fluid core drilling of glacial ice with bottom-fluid reverse circulation; 3) bedrock core drilling. The preliminary tests showed that sawtooth-shape impregnated diamond bit could penetrate into the granite with average rate of 3.18 m/h at low load (3 kN) and torque (28.8 Nm), and the groove-shape impregnated diamond drill bit could penetrate into the same rock with rate of 1.1 m/h at load of 2.3 kN. Moreover, the special control and measurement system of the drill was designed and tested to ensure the safety of drilling.

Wang, Rusheng; Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Chen; Xu, Huiwen; Xue, Hong; Xue, Jun; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Gong, Da; Liu, Chunpeng; Han, Junjie; Yu, Chengfeng; Hong, Jialing; Wang, Lili

2014-05-01

305

Establishing nuclear facility drill programs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

NONE

1996-03-01

306

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF OFFSHORE AND OIL-ADDED DRILLING MUDS TO LARVAE OF THE GRASS SHRIMP 'PALAEMONETES INTERMEDIUS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Offshore drilling fluids (muds) varied widely in their toxicity to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes intermedius) larvae. The 96-hr LC50S for the eleven drilling muds tested ranged from 142 to >100,000 ppm (microliters/L). There was a significant correlation between oil content of the d...

307

75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...API'') or non-API specifications, whether finished or unfinished (including green tubes suitable for drill pipe), without regard to the specific chemistry of the steel (i.e., carbon, stainless steel, or other alloy steel),...

2010-09-09

308

Steerable percussion air drilling system  

SciTech Connect

In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.

1995-07-01

309

Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

Arnis Judzis

2006-03-01

310

Blasthole drills: Better by design  

SciTech Connect

In the upside-down world of blasthole drilling, success is measured not by how fast you rise to the top, but how quickly you can hit bottom. For most mine operators, the tools of choice for achieving this inverted objective are the large, crawler-mounted rotary drills that dot the benches of open-pit mines everywhere. The past five years or so have brought a gradual change in the landscape of the drill manufacturing industry. Some well-known lines have disappeared, others have been taken over in whole or in part, and yet other endure on the market fringe where equipment that was originally developed for nonmining applications, such as water-well drilling, has been adapted for mine production duty, particularly in coal operations.

Carter, R.A.

1993-02-01

311

Earth-boring drill bits  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to the design of earth bore-hole drill bits employing shaped preform cutters containing hard abrasive materials, such as diamonds, the cutters being mounted in companion preformed sockets in a hard metal bit matrix.

Fielder, C.M.; Rowley, D.S.; Walker, B.H.

1981-01-13

312

Advanced Cuts and Drilling II  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a So you’ve got two pieces of your 3D printer cut and drilled completely. Let’s continue with the cutting and drilling of the\\u000a remaining fifteen pieces. This chapter and the next two will provide you with photos and notes about the various pieces that\\u000a you’ll be cutting. We’ll discuss the pieces that might be a bit tricky, and we’ll show you

Patrick Hood-Daniel; James Floyd Kelly

313

Hot vent drilling yields climate influence data  

SciTech Connect

Scientists from 10 nations representing the internationally funded Ocean Drilling Program used the JOIDES Resolution to drill into sites where thriving communities of clams, worms, and other creatures sustain life from warm sulfide-rich waters rather than from sunlight. The processes governing these fluids also produce vast reserves of methane hydrate which not only serves as a potentially vast source of natural gas but could also be one of the most critical contributors to global climate shifts manifested in glacial periods and atmospheric warming. Samples were obtained from an accretionaly prism, a site where the small Juan de Fuca tectonic plate is being pushed underneath the North American Plate. As the Juan de Fuca plate plows under, the western edge of the North American continent scrapes off kilometers of the plate's sediment cap. During the process, organic materials in the sediment are first converted into methane and then cooked. Instead of bubbling up as gas, the methane reaches a depth where the temperature in the sediments and pressure from the overlying seawater cause the methane to freeze with seawater, forming methane hydrate. If the oceans were to warm, the heat could potentially melt some of the hydrate layer and release the methane, which could produce a chain reaction of global warming.

Not Available

1993-02-01

314

43 CFR 3261.16 - Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well?  

...false Can my operations plan, drilling...and drilling program apply to more...16 Can my operations plan, drilling...and drilling program apply to more... (a) Your operations plan and drilling program can...

2014-10-01

315

43 CFR 3261.16 - Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Can my operations plan, drilling...and drilling program apply to more...16 Can my operations plan, drilling...and drilling program apply to more... (a) Your operations plan and drilling program can...

2013-10-01

316

43 CFR 3261.16 - Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Can my operations plan, drilling...and drilling program apply to more...16 Can my operations plan, drilling...and drilling program apply to more... (a) Your operations plan and drilling program can...

2011-10-01

317

43 CFR 3261.16 - Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Can my operations plan, drilling...and drilling program apply to more...16 Can my operations plan, drilling...and drilling program apply to more... (a) Your operations plan and drilling program can...

2012-10-01

318

Laboratory Investigations on Percussive Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laboratory investigation was carried out on ten rock samples using pneumatic drill with drill bits of different diameters. In general, the process of drilling always produces sound. Sound is generated from the bit-rock interface regardless of the material of the bit used in drilling. The predicted sound level and penetration rate are a product of the drill power and the physical properties of the rocks penetrated. Rock samples were collected from the field and physical properties of the rocks were determined in the laboratory. The sound level and penetration rates were correlated with the rock properties. The compressive strength and abrasivity exhibit strong correlations with the sound level and penetration rate. It was concluded that, among the rock properties included in this study, the compressive strength and abrasivity values are the dominant ones affecting the penetration rate and sound level of percussive drills. Though ten rock samples have been covered in this study, detailed analysis of only one of them is presented.

Kivade, S. B.; Murthy, Ch. S. N.; Vardhan, Harsha

2013-10-01

319

JOI to manage drilling program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (JOI), has been awarded a 5-year, $141 million contract by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to manage and operate the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The international scientific program follows the 15-year Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and is expected to last a decade. JOI, founded in 1976 to manage scientific services and planning functions for DSDP, is based in Washington, D.C., and consists of 10 major oceanographic institutions.Drilling operations are expected to begin in October at the start of fiscal 1985. Negotiations are under way to lease a commercial drill ship for the program (Eos, May 5, 1983, p. 174; February 22, 1983, p. 73). According to D. James Baker, Jr., JOI president, and Sandra D. Toye, ODP program director, a decision on the choice of the research ship is likely to be made in February; overhaul of the commercial ship to make it suitable for scientific drilling is scheduled to be done by October. The Glomar Challenger had been leased for 15 years as DSDP's drill ship.

Richman, Barbara T.

320

To Drill or Not to Drill Let the Environmentalists Decide  

E-print Network

High prices of gasoline and heating oil have made drilling for oil in Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) an important issue. ANWR is the largest of Alaska’s sixteen national wildlife refuges, containing 19.6 million acres. It also contains significant deposits of petroleum. The question is, Should oil companies be allowed to drill for that petroleum? The case for drilling is straightforward. Alaskan oil would help to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign sources subject to disruptions caused by the volatile politics of the Middle East. Also, most of the infrastructure necessary for transporting the oil from nearby Prudhoe Bay to major U.S. markets is already in place. Furthermore, because of the experience gained at Prudhoe Bay, much has already been learned about how to mitigate the risks of recovering oil in the Arctic environment. No one denies the environmental risks of drilling for oil in ANWR. No matter how careful the oil companies are, accidents that damage the environment at least temporarily might happen. Environmental groups consider such risks unacceptable; they argue that the value of the wilderness and natural beauty that would be spoiled by drilling in ANWR far exceeds the value of the oil that would be recovered. For example, the National Audubon Society characterizes opening ANWR to oil drilling as a threat “that will destroy the integrity ” of the refuge (see statement at www.audubon.org/campaign/refuge). So, which is more valuable, drilling for oil in ANWR or protecting it as an untouched wilderness and wildlife refuge? Are the benefits of the additional oil really less than the costs of bearing the environmental risks of recovering that oil? Obviously,

Dwight R. Lee; D Wight R. Lee

321

Evaluation of the Rulison drilling effluent pond as trout habitat  

SciTech Connect

The Rulison Site is located in Section 25, township 7 South, Range 95 West, Garfield County, Colorado. The site is approximately 19 kilometers (km) (12 miles [mi]) southwest of Rifle Colorado, and approximately 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. Project Ruhson was an experiment conducted jointly by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and Austral Oil Company to test the feasibility of using a nuclear device to increase natural gas production in low permeability geological formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 meters (m) (8,426 feet [ft]) below the ground surface (DOE, 1994). The Rulison Drilling Effluent Pond (called `the pond`) is an engineered structure covering approximately 0.2 hectare (0.5 acre), which was excavated and used to store drilling fluids during drilling of the device emplacement well. The drilling fluids consisted of bentonitic drilling mud with additives such as diesel fuel and chrome lignosulfonate. Most of the drilling muds were removed from the pond when the site was decommissioned in 1976, and the pond was subsequently stocked with rainbow trout by the land owner and used as a fishing pond. In 1994 and 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted sampling of the pond to evaluate residual contamination from the drilling fluids. Based on the results of this sampling, the DOE conducted a voluntary cleanup action in order to reduce the levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons and chromium in pond sediments. The cleanup was conducted between August and mid-November of 1995. At the end of cleanup activities, the pond was lined with a clay geofabric and left dry. The geofabric was covered with sod to protect it. The pond has since been refilled by snowmelt and inflow from a spring. Prior to remediation, the pond apparently had sufficient water quality and food resources to support stocked rainbow trout. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the present ecological status of the pond and to determine if post-remediation water quality and food resources are adequate to support stocked rainbow trout. Sampling of the pond was conducted by IT Corporation (IT) on September 10, 1996.

NONE

1998-06-23

322

Chemical and biological characterization of municipal sludges, sediments, dredge spoils, and drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the chemical composition of municipal sludges and sediments. Some of the topics are: EPA review of regulations of sewage sludge disposal; Canadian marine analytical chemistry standards program; methods for estimating bioavailable particulates, distribution of heavy metals in sewage sludge; toxicity of drilling fluids to Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia); toxicity and hydrocarbon composition of a water-based drilling mud containing diesel fuels or mineral oils additives and risk-based criteria for chemicals in municipal sludge.

Lichtenberg, J.J.; Winter, J.A.; Weber, C.I.; Fradkin, L.

1988-01-01

323

Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling  

DOEpatents

A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

2010-07-27

324

Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling  

DOEpatents

A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

2008-06-24

325

40 CFR Appendix 4 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1The sea water may be either natural or synthetic. The allowable salinity range is 20-30 ppt. 1.2To reduce the shock to the microorganisms in the sediment, the salinity of the sediment's porewater shall be between 20-30 ppt....

2010-07-01

326

40 CFR Appendix 4 to Subpart A of... - Determination of Biodegradation of Synthetic Base Fluids in a Marine Closed Bottle Test System...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1The sea water may be either natural or synthetic. The allowable salinity range is 20-30 ppt. 1.2To reduce the shock to the microorganisms in the sediment, the salinity of the sediment's porewater shall be between 20-30 ppt....

2011-07-01

327

Temperature Logging in Difficult Environments: Examples from the Ocean Drilling Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past 10 years, the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has drilled several medium to high temperature environments (T = 150-312 deg C). These environments include the Costa Rica Rift (Legs 140 and 148), the Middle Valley of the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge (Legs 139 and 169), the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) area (Leg 158), and the Manus Basin (Leg 193). Wireline and memory temperature probes deployed in high-temperature environments measured profiles of thermal history, and thus structural features controlling active fluid flow, in several of these environments. These experiences illustrate the importance of measuring in situ borehole temperatures while drilling and logging operations are underway. Hole cooling is one successful strategy that relies on the circulation of cool fluids and allows other downhole measurements to be made. However, hole cooling also adversely affects the stability of the drill hole. Temperature sensors built into the wireline cablehead provide additional information that decreases the risk of instrument damage due to high temperatures that can be encountered while logging. Likewise, a newly-developed core barrel device provides essential information for assessing temperature conditions that reduce the risk of instrument damage while drilling. These strategies are critical for acquiring wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) logs in high temperature environments. We discuss the technical approaches used to make these high temperature measurements and evaluate their success as well as their potential for future use in marine and continental scientific drilling.

Iturrino, G. J.; Goldberg, D.; Guerin, G.; Masterson, W.; Meltser, A.; Myers, G.; Scholz, E.

2001-05-01

328

Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

1990-03-01

329

Wellbore Stability in Oil and Gas Drilling with Chemical-Mechanical Coupling  

PubMed Central

Wellbore instability in oil and gas drilling is resulted from both mechanical and chemical factors. Hydration is produced in shale formation owing to the influence of the chemical property of drilling fluid. A new experimental method to measure diffusion coefficient of shale hydration is given, and the calculation method of experimental results is introduced. The diffusion coefficient of shale hydration is measured with the downhole temperature and pressure condition, then the penetration migrate law of drilling fluid filtrate around the wellbore is calculated. Furthermore, the changing rules of shale mechanical properties affected by hydration and water absorption are studied through experiments. The relationships between shale mechanical parameters and the water content are established. The wellbore stability model chemical-mechanical coupling is obtained based on the experimental results. Under the action of drilling fluid, hydration makes the shale formation softened and produced the swelling strain after drilling. This will lead to the collapse pressure increases after drilling. The study results provide a reference for studying hydration collapse period of shale. PMID:23935430

Deng, Jingen

2013-01-01

330

Geothermal Gradient Drilling and Measurements Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean  

SciTech Connect

This technical report on the Phase II geothermal exploration of Ascension Island documents the data collected during thermal gradient drilling and the subsequent thermal and fluid chemical investigations. It also documents the completion of the Phase II exploration strategy which was proposed at the end of the Phase I--Preliminary Examination of Ascension Island. The thermal gradient drilling resulted in seven holes which range from 206 to 1750 ft (53-533 m) deep, with a cumulative footage of 6563 ft (2000 m). The drilling procedure and the problems encountered during the drilling have been explained in detail to provide information valuable for any subsequent drilling program on the island. In addition, the subsurface geology encountered in the holes has been documented and, where possible, correlated with other holes or the geology mapped on the surface of the island. Temperatures measured in the holes reach a maximum of 130 F (54.4 C) at 1285 ft (391.7 m) in hole GH-6. When the temperatures of all holes are plotted against elevation, the holes can be classed into three distinct groups, those which have no thermal manifestations, those with definite geothermal affinities, and one hole which is intermediate between the other two. From consideration of this information, it is clear that the highest geothermal potential on the island is in the Donkey Flat area extending beneath Middleton Ridge, and in the Cricket Valley area. Because of the greater drilling depths and the remote nature of the Cricket Valley area, it is recommended that future exploration concentrate in the area around Middleton Ridge.

Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.; Adams, M.C.

1984-07-01

331

Exploratory Hydrocarbon Drilling Impacts to Arctic Lake Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Recent attention regarding the impacts of oil and gas development and exploitation has focused on the unintentional release of hydrocarbons into the environment, whilst the potential negative effects of other possible avenues of environmental contamination are less well documented. In the hydrocarbon-rich and ecologically sensitive Mackenzie Delta region (NT, Canada), saline wastes associated with hydrocarbon exploration have typically been disposed of in drilling sumps (i.e., large pits excavated into the permafrost) that were believed to be a permanent containment solution. However, failure of permafrost as a waste containment medium may cause impacts to lakes in this sensitive environment. Here, we examine the effects of degrading drilling sumps on water quality by combining paleolimnological approaches with the analysis of an extensive present-day water chemistry dataset. This dataset includes lakes believed to have been impacted by saline drilling fluids leaching from drilling sumps, lakes with no visible disturbances, and lakes impacted by significant, naturally occurring permafrost thaw in the form of retrogressive thaw slumps. We show that lakes impacted by compromised drilling sumps have significantly elevated lakewater conductivity levels compared to control sites. Chloride levels are particularly elevated in sump-impacted lakes relative to all other lakes included in the survey. Paleolimnological analyses showed that invertebrate assemblages appear to have responded to the leaching of drilling wastes by a discernible increase in a taxon known to be tolerant of elevated conductivity coincident with the timing of sump construction. This suggests construction and abandonment techniques at, or soon after, sump establishment may result in impacts to downstream aquatic ecosystems. With hydrocarbon development in the north predicted to expand in the coming decades, the use of sumps must be examined in light of the threat of accelerated permafrost thaw, and the potential for these industrial wastes to impact sensitive Arctic ecosystems. PMID:24223170

Thienpont, Joshua R.; Kokelj, Steven V.; Korosi, Jennifer B.; Cheng, Elisa S.; Desjardins, Cyndy; Kimpe, Linda E.; Blais, Jules M.; Pisaric, Michael FJ.; Smol, John P.

2013-01-01

332

Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.  

PubMed

Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded. PMID:24684339

Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

2014-04-01

333

Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

2014-10-01

334

Infill drilling in old fields  

SciTech Connect

For the past several years, P.T. Stanvac Indonesia has been actively engaged in an infill drilling program in its old fields onshore Sumatra. The primary purpose of this program is to identify and recover remaining accumulations of oil which cannot or will not be drained by existing wells. This work reviews the results of such infill drilling in Stanvac's Raja and Abab fields in S. Sumatra. The program already has provided a sizeable increase in oil production and reserves in both fields while extending the productive limits well beyond what had been considered to be the field limit. The program has shown that original field development drilling on 80-acre spacing did not define all of the hydrocarbon bearing zones nor establish all of the drainage points required to efficiently recover the movable hydrocarbons in the stratigraphically complex Talang Akar Formation. Improved economics resulting from higher energy prices has provided the incentive required to pursue the development of these incremental reserves.

Mangunkusumo, R.I.

1982-01-01

335

Medium curvature directional drilling method  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for drilling a deviated wellbore characterized by a generally vertical wellbore portion contiguous with a curved wellbore portion having a radius of curvature of about 200 feet to 400 feet and a further wellbore portion extending to the bottom of the wellbore and through a formation region of interest configured in such a way that the wellbore is drilled into the formation region of interest from the kick-off point of the deviated portion of the wellbore. The method consists the steps of: forming the vertical wellbore portion; providing a drillstem including a first drillstem portion for drilling the curved wellbore portion and for extension within the curved wellbore portion comprising elongated elastically bendable sections of drillpipe each comprising a generally tubular member having joint forming portions at opposite ends thereof for connecting the sections of drillpipe end to end, and a plurality of spaced apart sleeves of a diameter greater than the tubular member and adapted for engagement with the wall of the curved wellbore portion for reducing the rotational drag on the first drill-stem portion during the rotation thereof and for distributing the bending stresses on the first drillstem portion in the curved wellbore portion; providing drilling tool means at a distal end of the first drillstem portion for drilling the curved wellbore portion; providing a second drillstem portion remaining in the vertical wellbore portion characterized by end to end connected drillstem sections which are heavier per unit length than the sections of drillpipe extending through the curved wellbore portion so as to place sufficient weight on the sections of drillpipe extending through the curved wellbore portion.

Dech, J.A.; Hearn, D.D.; Schuh, F.J.; Striegler, J.H.

1988-08-09

336

Census of directional drilling contractors  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses directional drilling of pipeline crossings which is an environmentally responsible, cost-effective method of pipeline construction. Modern directional drilling rigs can place pipelines under rivers, streams, highways and other sensitive areas where conventional construction methods would be too expensive or even prohibited. A group of 11 pipeline contractors that use trenchless technology recently formed the Directional Crossing Contractors Association to promote the directional crossing industry. Any contractor with experience in directional crossings can apply for membership in the DCCA. Any individual or firm in the business of furnishing materials, supplies, equipment or other services to directional crossing contractors can apply for associate membership.

Not Available

1991-10-01

337

Abrasive drill for resilient materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resilient materials normally present problem in obtaining accurate and uniform hole size and position. Tool is fabricated from stiff metal rod such as tungsten or carbon steel that has diameter slightly smaller than required hole. Piercing/centering point is ground on one end of rod. Rod is then plasma-sprayed (flame-sprayed) with suitable hard abrasive coating. High-speed, slow-feed operation of tool is necessary for accurate holes, and this can be done with drill press, hard drill, or similar machines.

Koch, A. J.

1981-01-01

338

Fluid analysis of WFSD project in China and the fluid change of WFSD-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The real time fluid analysis of drilling mud has utilized in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) and completed the gas analysis of WFSD-1 and WFSD-2, at present is monitoring the mud gas of WFSD-4. Because the place of WFSD project is located in the region, where the aftershocks of large Wenchuan earthquake may occur frequently and the drilling cores contain a large number of fault rock. Both of those would increase the difficulty of real time analysis, including the great change of humidity, temperature, the diverse types of drilling mud and the little amount of gas extraction. But through the improvement of the stirring axis, the change of cylinder size and other methods, the mud degassing device can meet the requirement of gas extraction from drilling mud during drilling in the fault zone. The instruments of real time fluid analysis are mainly mass spectrometer, radon detector and mercury analyzer. So the components of gas analysis are Argon, methane, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, radon and mercury. Because of the short interval of MS, the poor surroundings of on-site laboratory and the long period of determination, the instrument drift will unavoidably exist and influence largely. In order to eliminate the effect of instrument drift, the ratios of concentration per day are used to obtain the better change trend of fluid over time (Fig). Therefore, we can achieve the corresponding relationship between fluid change and time, and discuss the fluid change and the underground tectonic activities, such as the aftershocks. The figure lists the concentration ratios of four components in drilling mud gas during the drilling process of WFSD-2 from October 14, 2009 to April 6, 2012, such as hydrogen, helium, nitrogen and argon. These components are not easily influenced by the drilling mud, because the diverse types of drilling mud are used in drilling the fault zone which would affect the other components of drilling mud. In the picture, we can find that the concentration ratio is increasing with the increase of component atoms, which explains that the small molecular gas components will spread more easily in the deep underground. The obviously peak and duration of concentration ratio changes per day would respond to the period of much more aftershocks occurred, for example, in April, 2010 and November, 2011.

Tang, L.; Luo, L.; Wang, G.

2013-12-01

339

Stable isotope constraints on vein formation and fluid evolution along a recent thrust fault in the Cascadia accretionary wedge  

E-print Network

2010 Editor: M.L. Delaney Keywords: Ocean Drilling Program Cascadia subduction zone fluid flow drilled at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 892 (44°40.4N, 125°07.1W) along the Cascadia subduction in the Cascadia accretionary wedge James C. Sample Department of Geology, Box 4099, Northern Arizona University

340

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California`s Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. [eds.

1992-04-01

341

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling...

2010-07-01

342

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling...

2011-07-01

343

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling...

2014-07-01

344

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling...

2012-07-01

345

30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling...

2013-07-01

346

30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the rated capacity of the unit. (c) Oceanographic, meteorological, and drilling unit performance data. Where oceanographic, meteorological, and drilling unit performance data are not otherwise readily available, lessees shall...

2012-07-01

347

30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the rated capacity of the unit. (c) Oceanographic, meteorological, and drilling unit performance data. Where oceanographic, meteorological, and drilling unit performance data are not otherwise readily available, lessees shall...

2010-07-01

348

30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the rated capacity of the unit. (c) Oceanographic, meteorological, and drilling unit performance data. Where oceanographic, meteorological, and drilling unit performance data are not otherwise readily available, lessees shall...

2013-07-01

349

Acoustic data transmission through a drill string  

DOEpatents

Acoustical signals are transmitted through a drill string by canceling upward moving acoustical noise and by preconditioning the data in recognition of the comb filter impedance characteristics of the drill string. 5 figs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1988-04-21

350

Drilling Machines: Vocational Machine Shop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lessons and supportive information in this field tested instructional block provide a guide for teachers in developing a machine shop course of study in drilling. The document is comprised of operation sheets, information sheets, and transparency masters for 23 lessons. Each lesson plan includes a performance objective, material and tools,…

Thomas, John C.

351

Side hole drilling in boreholes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

352

Reduce drilling waste disposal costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews various ways to reduce volume of wastes generated during oil and gas well drilling operations. The primary method of reducing costs of disposal is to reduce the volume of waste generated. The paper discusses methods to reduce this volume by using different, non-toxic additives such as ground limestone or dolomite to control mud densities. This would result

1993-01-01

353

Advanced Cuts and Drilling IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Four more pieces to cut and drill—that’s all that is left before you can begin the assembly of your 3D printer and start adding\\u000a in the electronics and other hardware. This chapter will walk you through that last bit of work. Let’s get started!

Patrick Hood-Daniel; James Floyd Kelly

354

Carbonate system at Iheya North in Okinawa Trough~IODP drilling and post drilling environment~  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iheya North hydrothermal field in middle Okinawa Trough is covered with thick hemipelagic and volcanic sediment. Geochemical characteristics of Okinawa Trough is to provide abundant of CO2, CH4, NH4, H2, and H2S which originated from magmatic gases, sedimentary organic matters. On this hydrothermal field, a scientific drilling by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 was conducted to investigate metabolically diverse subseafloor microbial ecosystem and their physical and chemical settings. To clarify the spatial distribution of physical condition beneath seafloor around the hydrothermal filed, we focus on the carbonate species analysis to reconstruct in-situ pH, which regulate the diversities of microbial community and mineral composition. We developed the small sample volume dissolved total inorganic carbon (DIC) analyzer and conducted the onboard analysis for the interstitial water during IODP Exp.331. Total alkalinity, boron, phosphate, and ammonium also analyzed for thermodynamic calculation. In this presentation, we represent the spatial distribution of pH beneath the Iheya North hydrothermal field. In addition, we developed a 128 bottles multiple water sampler (ANEMONE) for post drilling environmental monitoring. ANEMONE sampler was deployed on the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 with other chemical sensors (CTD, turbidity, pH, ORP, and H2S), and collected the hydrothermal plume samples every 5 minutes during YK12-05 cruise by R/V Yokosuka (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, JAMSTEC). DIC concentration of plume samples collected by ANEMONE sampler were analyzed just after submersible retrieve, and nutrients, manganese, density, and total cell counts determination were conducted onshore analysis. Based on these results, we describe the spatial distribution of DIC and carbonate system on Iheya North hydrothermal field (interstitial water, hydrothermal fluid, and hydrothermal plume).

Noguchi, T.; Hatta, M.; Sunamura, M.; Fukuba, T.; Suzue, T.; Kimoto, H.; Okamura, K.

2012-12-01

355

OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2003 through June 2003. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). Accomplishments included the following: (1) Hughes Christensen has recently expressed interest in the possibility of a program to examine cutter impact testing, which would be useful in a better understanding of the physics of rock impact. Their interest however is not necessarily fluid hammers, but to use the information for drilling bit development. (2) Novatek (cost sharing supplier of tools) has informed the DOE project manager that their tool may not be ready for ''optimization'' testing late summer 2003 (August-September timeframe) as originally anticipated. During 3Q Novatek plans to meet with TerraTek to discuss progress with their tool for 4Q 2003 testing. (3) A task for an addendum to the hammer project related to cutter impact studies was written during 2Q 2003. (4) Smith International internally is upgrading their hammer for the optimization testing phase. One currently known area of improvement is their development program to significantly increase the hammer blow energy.

Arnis Judzis

2003-07-01

356

Downhole drilling network using burst modulation techniques  

DOEpatents

A downhole drilling system is disclosed in one aspect of the present invention as including a drill string and a transmission line integrated into the drill string. Multiple network nodes are installed at selected intervals along the drill string and are adapted to communicate with one another through the transmission line. In order to efficiently allocate the available bandwidth, the network nodes are configured to use any of numerous burst modulation techniques to transmit data.

Hall; David R. (Provo, UT), Fox; Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2007-04-03

357

Simultaneous drilling and underreaming saves rig time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how design innovations of underreamers are helping to save drilling costs by allowing simultaneous drilling and underreaming. In a February 1989 deepwater exploration test in the Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico, simultaneous drilling and underreaming was successful in three consecutive intervals totaling 3,930 ft. Average penetration rate was 27.4 ft\\/hr. The simultaneous drilling and

N. L. Mahurin; R. W. Carter

1989-01-01

358

2006 Ocean Drilling Citation Report Overview of the Ocean Drilling Citation Database  

E-print Network

2006 Ocean Drilling Citation Report Overview of the Ocean Drilling Citation Database The Ocean Drilling Citation Database, which contained almost 22,000 citation records related to the Deep Sea Drilling Institute (AGI). The database has been on line since August 2002. Beginning in 2006, citation records

359

Development of advanced synthetic-diamond drill bits for geothermal drilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advanced synthetic-drilled bit project is a cooperative research program aimed at developing synthetic-diamond drill bits capable of drilling into hard-rock formations. Eight drill companies have teamed with Sandia National Laboratories to work on fiv...

D. M. Schater

1994-01-01

360

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 206 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-print Network

July 2002 OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 206 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS AN IN SITU SECTION OF UPPER OCEANIC -------------------------------- Dr. Gary D. Acton Leg Project Manager and Staff Scientist Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University the international Ocean Drilling Program, which is managed by Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., under contract

361

Method for drilling coke oven top brick  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for drilling vertical temperature measuring holes in the top brick of coke ovens includes a guide support vertically fixedly mounted on a horizontal frame on the top surface of a coke oven proper, and a guide pipe shaft connected at its upper end to a rotary drill, having a freely replaceable drilling bit attached to its lower end

Ogahara

1985-01-01

362

Diamond Drilling Specification Manual and Course Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the standards required of a person practicing diamond drilling in western Canada and provides an outline for teaching the skills and knowledge. It is divided into two parts. The Diamond Drilling Specification Manual establishes the levels of skill and knowledge required in the four certified levels of diamond drilling.…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

363

Specific energy for pulsed laser rock drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of advanced high power laser technology to oil and gas well drilling has been attracting significant research interests recently among research institutes, petroleum industries, and universities. Potential laser or laser-aided oil and gas well drilling has many advantages over the conventional rotary drilling, such as high penetration rate, reduction or elimination of tripping, casing, and bit costs, and enhanced

Z. Xu; C. B. Reed; G. Kornecki; B. C. Gahan; R. A. Parker; S. Batarseh; R. M. Graves; H. Figueroa; N. Skinner

2003-01-01

364

Evaluation of Delamination in Drilling GFRP Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite materials are used in varieties of applications and are mainly used in structural components. Drilling is one of the important operations in composite structure, often a final operation during assembly. Delaminations in drilling of composite structures are a serious problem and lead to rejection and impose heavy loss. In the present investigation, delamianation associated with drilling has been studied

K. Palanikumar; S. Prakash; K. Shanmugam

2008-01-01

365

Hyperelastic High Voltage Conductor for Electric Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coiled tubing in combination with a downhole electric drilling motor has many advantages. The rotation speed of the drill bit can be precisely controlled. The electric conductors trans- mit downhole data with high speed and allow logging while drilling. One task within the PDT-COIL project was the integration of electric conductors into the wall of a spoolable fatigue resistant thermoplastic

E. Murtola; S. M. Neuhold; P. Anliker

366

Sonic gas detector for rotary drilling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a rotary drilling system using a drill string, and a mud circulating system, in which mud is passed from a pump to a standpipe and drill string, to and through the bit, into the annulus of the borehole, and to the surface, a method of detecting the entry of gas into the mud in the annulus at or near

Dowdy

1981-01-01

367

30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...belts are used. (d) Drill crews and others shall stay clear of augers or drill stems that are in motion. Persons shall not pass under or step over a moving stem or auger. (e) In the event of power failure, drill controls shall be...

2011-07-01

368

30 CFR 77.1009 - Drill; operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...belts are used. (d) Drill crews and others shall stay clear of augers or drill stems that are in motion. Persons shall not pass under or step over a moving stem or auger. (e) In the event of power failure, drill controls shall be...

2010-07-01

369

Procedures control total mud losses while drilling in deep water  

SciTech Connect

In the deepwater (830-1,000 m) drilling program offshore Philippines, reefal limestones were encountered in which total mud losses could be expected because of the presence of large fractures. The danger was that a sudden drop in hydrostatic head (resulting from the losses) could allow any natural gas to enter the well bore quickly. The gas could then migrate up the well bore and form hydrates in the blowout preventers (BOPs). Once hydrates form, they are difficult to remove and can make a BOP stack inoperable. To combat this potential problem, containment procedures were developed to cope with these fluid losses. The philosophy behind the procedures was to prevent hydrocarbons from entering the well bore and, if they did enter, to ensure that they did not move up the well bore and into the riser. Additionally, procedures were developed to allow drilling to continue during the losses and the curing of losses.

Dewar, J. (Shell Philippines Exploration BV, Manila (Philippines)); Halkett, D. (Forasol/Foramer, Manila (Philippines))

1993-11-01

370

Solubilization of wellbore filtercakes formed from drill-in fluids  

E-print Network

polymer degradation. Further polymer degradation testing involved a well-mixed reactor. Reaction rates were estimated by using a modified chromotropic acid assay (CTA) to measure biological polymer content in conjunction with first-order kinetic...

Jepson, Richard Kendall

2012-06-07

371

Environmental Monitoring Of Three Exploratory Oil And Gas Wells Drilled Near The East Flower Garden Bank In The Gulf Of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two marine environmental monitoring programs associated with the drilling of three exploratory wells near the East Flower Garden Bank on the outer continental shelf of the northwest Gulf of Mexico are described. The purpose of the monitoring programs was to define the spatial distribution of the discharged drilling fluids relative to the Bank and assess the apparent

David Gettleson; Russel Putt; Richard Hammer; Chae Laird

1981-01-01

372

Spill prevention control and countermeasure training series, parts 1-4: The law, drilling for oil (vhs 1/2 inch) (video). Audiovisual  

SciTech Connect

This video gives: an overview of the SPCC regulations, regulated community, and SPCC plan requirements; an overview of OPA `90 FRP requirements; a general description of where oil is found; an explanation of drilling operations and equipment; a description of well completion process, well fluid flow, and complete well configurations; and inspection and SPCC requirements as drilling and well sites.

NONE

1994-12-31

373

Phase 2 drilling operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVF 51--20)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the second drilling phase, completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991, of the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, California. The well in Long Valley Caldera is planned to reach an ultimate depth of 20,000 feet or a bottomhole temperature of 500{degrees}C (whichever comes first). There will be four drilling phases, at least a year apart with scientific experiments in the wellbore between active drilling periods. Phase 1 drilling in 1989 was completed with 20 in. casing from surface to a depth of 2558 ft., and a 3.8 in. core hole was drilled below the shoe to a depth of 2754 in. Phase 2 included a 17-{1/2} in. hole out of the 20 in. shoe, with 13-3/8 in. casing to 6825 ft., and continuous wireline coring below that to 7588 ft. This document comprises a narrative log of the daily activities, the daily drilling reports, mud logger's reports, summary of drilling fluids used, and other miscellaneous records.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

1992-06-01

374

Phase 2 drilling operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVF 51--20)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the second drilling phase, completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991, of the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, California. The well in Long Valley Caldera is planned to reach an ultimate depth of 20,000 feet or a bottomhole temperature of 500{degrees}C (whichever comes first). There will be four drilling phases, at least a year apart with scientific experiments in the wellbore between active drilling periods. Phase 1 drilling in 1989 was completed with 20 in. casing from surface to a depth of 2558 ft., and a 3.8 in. core hole was drilled below the shoe to a depth of 2754 in. Phase 2 included a 17-{1/2} in. hole out of the 20 in. shoe, with 13-3/8 in. casing to 6825 ft., and continuous wireline coring below that to 7588 ft. This document comprises a narrative log of the daily activities, the daily drilling reports, mud logger`s reports, summary of drilling fluids used, and other miscellaneous records.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

1992-06-01

375

Modeling and Adhesive Tool Wear in Dry Drilling of Aluminum Alloys  

SciTech Connect

One of the challenges in aeronautic drilling operations is the elimination of cutting fluids while maintaining the quality of drilled parts. This paper therefore aims to increase the tool life and process quality by working on relationships existing between drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed rate), coatings and tool geometry. In dry drilling, the phenomenon of Built-Up Layer is the predominant damage mechanism. A model fitting the axial force with the cutting parameters and the damage has been developed. The burr thickness and its dispersion decrease with the feed rate. The current diamond coatings which exhibit a strong adhesion to the carbide substrate can limit this adhesive layer phenomenon. A relatively smooth nano-structured coating strongly limits the development of this layer.

Girot, F. [IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain); Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E. [UPV/EHU, ETSI de Bilbao, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Calamaz, M.; Coupard, D. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LAMEFIP, Esplanade des Arts et Metiers, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

2011-01-17

376

Modeling and Adhesive Tool Wear in Dry Drilling of Aluminum Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the challenges in aeronautic drilling operations is the elimination of cutting fluids while maintaining the quality of drilled parts. This paper therefore aims to increase the tool life and process quality by working on relationships existing between drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed rate), coatings and tool geometry. In dry drilling, the phenomenon of Built-Up Layer is the predominant damage mechanism. A model fitting the axial force with the cutting parameters and the damage has been developed. The burr thickness and its dispersion decrease with the feed rate. The current diamond coatings which exhibit a strong adhesion to the carbide substrate can limit this adhesive layer phenomenon. A relatively smooth nano-structured coating strongly limits the development of this layer.

Girot, F.; Gutiérrez-Orrantia, M. E.; Calamaz, M.; Coupard, D.

2011-01-01

377

Improved Hardfacing for Drill Bits and Drilling Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New flame spray hardfacing, DSH (DuraShell® Steel Hardfacing, US patent pending), was developed to improve thermal conductivity, abrasion wear, and erosion resistance for subterranean drilling application. The materials consisted of spherical cast WC/W2C and Ni-Si-B alloy powders. The hardfacing compositions were tailored for various processes such as flame spray and laser cladding. Typically, the hardfacing comprised hard tungsten carbide particles being uniformly distributed in a tough Ni-alloy matrix. The hardness of WC/W2C exceeded 2300 Hv.3 and that of Ni-alloy matrix varied from about 400 to 700 Hv.3. High- and low-stress abrasion resistances of these hardfacing materials were characterized and compared to the conventional hard coatings of cast WC/W2C and Ni-Cr-Si-B-Fe. The increase in thermal, wear, and erosion resistances of the hardfacing improved the durability of PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) steel body bit and drilling tools and their cost-effective performance. Several case studies of DSH hardfacings on drill bits were described.

Sue, Albert; Sreshta, Harry; Qiu, Bao He

2011-01-01

378

Optical coherence tomography guided dental drill  

DOEpatents

A dental drill that has one or multiple single mode fibers that can be used to image in the vicinity of the drill tip. It is valuable to image below the surface being drilled to minimize damage to vital or normal tissue. Identifying the boundary between decayed and normal enamel (or dentine) would reduce the removal of viable tissue, and identifying the nerve before getting too close with the drill could prevent nerve damage. By surrounding a drill with several optical fibers that can be used by an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) to image several millimeters ahead of the ablation surface will lead to a new and improved dental treatment device.

DaSilva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Colston, Jr., Bill W. (Livermore, CA); James, Dale L. (Tracy, CA)

2002-01-01

379

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (2) Petrology and geochemistry of rhyolitic melts drilled at Krafla  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) in the Krafla Geothermal Field was intended to investigate the feasibility of producing energy from geothermal systems at supercritical conditions. Drilling was stopped at 2104 meter when a rhyolitic melt was intersected. Sporadic cuttings included abundant dark brown, sparsely phyric obsidian. Most fragments were poorly vesiculated, but white frothy pumice, some with highly stretched bubbles, sere also present. The dense obsidian and highly vesiculated samples have identical phenocryst assemblages, major element compositions, and volatile contents. The glass is a high silica (75.0 wt %) rhyolite with low TiO2 (0.3 wt %) and 3.7 and 3.0 wt % Na2O and K2O, respectively. Phenocrysts include titanomagnetite, plagioclase, augite and pigeonite, with minor amounts of apatite, rare zircon crystals and pyrrhotite, which occurs as rounded droplets of an immiscible sulfide liquid. Augite and pigeonite each contain abundant exsolution lamellae of the complimentary phase. Plagioclase shows some compositional zoning, but mostly is in the range from An45-An48. The low water contents (1.75 wt %) are consistent with the absence of hydrous phenocrysts, and together with the CO2 content (75 ppm) indicate relatively shallow (<4 km) degassing. Stable isotope compositions (?18O = 3.2‰, ?D = -118‰) indicate an origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered crustal rock, as do chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns, that are enriched in light elements and relatively flat for middle and heavy elements. Fragments of a partially crystallized granite intrusion with areas of interstitial melt quenched to glass by the drilling fluids also are present in the drill cuttings from the bottom of the hole. The granite is composed of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, augite and titanomagnetite. The interstitial glass has a silica content (75.6 wt. %) similar to the rhyolite melt, but is easily distinguished from it by higher K2O and lower CaO contents. REE elements are strongly enriched in the interstitial glass, relative to the rhyolite, but show similar chondrite-normalized patterns. Some glass-rich fragments are crowded with crystals and glomerocrysts typical of the granite intrusion, except that alkali feldspar only occurs as remnants of resorbed crystals. The glass in these fragments plots on mixing/assimilation curves between the interstitial granite melt and the rhyolite melt and clearly indicate emplacement of a separate melt into the zone occupied by the still crystallizing rhyolitic intrusion.

Zierenberg, R. A.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Lesher, C. E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Pope, E. C.; Bird, D. K.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmundsson

2009-12-01

380

Comparison between response surface methodology and radial basis function network for core-center drill in drilling composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling using twist drill is the most frequently used secondary machining for fiber-reinforced composite laminates and delamination\\u000a is the most important concern during drilling. The drill design and drilling parameters associated with thrust distribution\\u000a on the drilling-induced delamination are presented. The core-center drill has been found to be more advantageous than the\\u000a core drill in reference and practice experiences. Response

C. C. Tsao

2008-01-01

381

Siting and drilling recommendations for a geothermal exploration well, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California  

SciTech Connect

All available exploration data relevant to the GeoProducts leasehold in the Wendel-Amedee KGRA are reviewed and interpreted. On the basis of this interpretation, locations and procedures are recommended for drilling geothermal production wells capable of supplying fluid at a temperature of 250/sup 0/F or greater. The following are covered: stratigraphy and geological history, geologic structure, geochemistry, geophysics, temperature-gradient data, and fluid quality. (MHR)

McNitt, J.R.; Wilde, W.R.

1980-12-01

382

Shipley, T.H., Ogawa, Y., Blum, P., and Bahr, J.M. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 156  

E-print Network

in the tectonic evolution of sediments in such settings at both macro and micro scales. Fluid having pressures Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 156 investigated the sub- seafloor hydrogeology of the plate boundary between

383

Amniotic fluid  

MedlinePLUS

Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. It is ... in the womb, the baby floats in the amniotic fluid. The amount of amniotic fluid is greatest at ...

384

Making new drilling technology work for you  

SciTech Connect

With the possible exception of today's plastic hard hats, the scene on the average drilling rig floor has changed little from what it was 25 years ago. By contrast, modern automobile plants, steel mills, and even print shops are almost unrecognizable from 1963's viewpoint. The oil companies that survive to prosper in the future will be the ones operating with the greatest efficiency and the lowest cost. That's why reducing the cost of drilling operations has become a major objective during the downturn. And the good news is that most advances in drilling technology are made during downturns, not during boom times. The last few years have seen, for example, significant breakthroughs in synthetic diamond bits, measurement while drilling, horizontal drilling, inertial navigation, top-drive drilling, high-pressure jet nozzles, and other advanced tools and techniques designed to aid in drilling wells more efficiently and effectively. This article discusses these advances.

McNally, R.

1988-01-01

385

Chemical Speciation of Chromium in Drilling Muds  

SciTech Connect

Drilling muds are made of bentonite and other clays, and/or polymers, mixed with water to the desired viscosity. Without the drilling muds, corporations could not drill for oil and gas and we would have hardly any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. There are hundreds of drilling muds used and some kinds of drilling muds contain chromium. The chemical states of chromium in muds have been studied carefully due to concerns about the environmental influence. However it is difficult to determine the chemical state of chromium in drilling muds directly by conventional analytical methods. We have studied the chemical form of chromium in drilling muds by using a laboratory XAFS system and a synchrotron facility.

Taguchi, Takeyoshi [X-ray Research Laboratory, RIGAKU Corporation, 3-9-12 Matsubara-cho, Akishima-shi, Tokyo 196-8666 (Japan); Yoshii, Mitsuru [Mud Technical Center, Telnite Co., Ltd., 1-2-14 Ohama, Sakata-shi, Yamagata 998-0064 (Japan); Shinoda, Kohzo [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

2007-02-02

386

Conformable apparatus in a drill string  

DOEpatents

An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube. The metal tube may be adapted to stretch as the drill pipes stretch.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2007-08-28

387

The reverse laser drilling of transparent materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within a limited range of incident laser-beam intensities, laser drilling of a sapphire wafer initiates on the surface of the wafer where the laser beam exits and proceeds upstream in the laser beam to the surface where the laser beam enters the wafer. This reverse laser drilling is the result of the constructive interference between the laser beam and its reflected component on the exit face of the wafer. Constructive interference occurs only at the exit face of the sapphire wafer because the internally reflected laser beam suffers no phase change there. A model describing reverse laser drilling predicts the ranges of incident laser-beam intensity where no drilling, reverse laser drilling, and forward laser drilling can be expected in various materials. The application of reverse laser drilling in fabricating feed-through conductors in silicon-on-sapphire wafers for a massively parallel processer is described.

Anthony, T. R.; Lindner, P. A.

1980-01-01

388

Filter for a drill string  

DOEpatents

A filter for a drill string comprises a perforated receptacle having an open end and a perforated end and first and second mounting surfaces are adjacent the open end. A transmission element is disposed within each of the first and second mounting surfaces. A capacitor may modify electrical characteristics of an LC circuit that comprises the transmission elements. The respective transmission elements are in communication with each other and with a transmission network integrated into the drill string. The transmission elements may be inductive couplers, direct electrical contacts, or optical couplers. In some embodiments of the present invention, the filter comprises an electronic component. The electronic component may be selected from the group consisting of a sensor, a router, a power source, a clock source, a repeater, and an amplifier.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); McPherson, James (Sandy, UT)

2007-12-04

389

Influence of cutting parameters on drill bit temperature in dry drilling of AISI 1040 steel material using statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – An investigation of drilling temperature is essential in understanding the drilling mechanism of the material, thus improving the process efficiency. The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate influences of drilling conditions such as the drilling depth, feed rate and spindle speed on the twist drill bit temperature and thrust force in the dry drilling of AISI

Eyup Ba?ci; Babur Ozcelik

2007-01-01

390

Indonesian drilling maintains steady pace  

SciTech Connect

Offshore drilling activity in Indonesia increased nominally the first quarter of 1985 to an average 29 rigs. Barring any further problems with oil prices and markets, operators are expected to maintain essentially the current general level of appraisal/development work for the rest of this year. There are still a number of prospective regions to be explored in Southeast Asia. Regional developments are described for the South China Sea area, the Java Sea, South Sumatra, Kalimantan, Irian Jaya and the Malacca Strait.

Not Available

1985-05-01

391

Gorilla jackup offers drilling advantages  

SciTech Connect

The Rowan Gorilla I, recently completed for Rowan Cos. Inc. at Vicksburg, Mississippi, is a 32-million-lb jackup drilling rig - the largest ever built. The rig is designed for use in hostile environments, where it can endure for long periods without resupply. The Gorilla's hull is 297 ft. long, 292 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. It is designed to survive 90 ft. waves and 82-knots winds in up to 328 ft. of ice-free water.

Tanner, R.

1983-12-01

392

Gulf of Mexico growth fault drilled, seen as oil, gas migration pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Basins Research Network (GBRN) is an electronic Internet organization that was formed to solve two very specific fluid-flow plumbing problems: (1) the identification of expulsion mechanisms by which hydrocarbons migrate up fault zones from deep, geopressured strata into shallower reservoirs, and (2) the imaging of these active hydrocarbon migration pathways so that wells can be drilled into these

R. N. Anderson; P. Flemings; S. Losh; J. Austin; R. Woodhams

1994-01-01

393

SURVEY OF THE TOXICITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF USED DRILLING MUDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical characterization and toxicity of oil drilling fluids were investigated by the Edgerton Research Laboratory from 1 October 1979 to August 1983 as part of a comprehensive research program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine fate and eff...

394

Development of a Standardized Test to Determine Leachability of Mineral and Chemical Components in Drill Cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increasing interest in the land application of cuttings during the recent decade with the primary focus placed on the recovery of hydrocarbon-impacted soils. However, there are other components, especially salts, present in the drilling fluid or introduced by the formation that may be of concern in the environment. This paper introduces a standardized screening test to determine

Kayli Clements; Gary Fout

395

Preliminary results of wildcat drilling in Absaroka volcanic rocks, Hot Springs County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent drilling of three remote, high-elevation wildcat wells has proven that excellent Paleozoic reservoirs are present at shallow depths beneath Eocene volcaniclastic rocks. The Tensleep and Madison Formations are fluid filled above an elevation of 8000 ft, and all Paleozoic formations exhibit shows of oil and gas. These prolific reservoir rocks have produced billions of barrels of oil from the

M. H. Bailey; K. A. Sundell

1986-01-01

396

Interstitial solutions and diagenesis in deeply buried marine sediments: results from the Deep Sea Drilling Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the Deep Sea Drilling Project samples of interstitial solutions of deeply buried marine sediments throughout the World Ocean have been obtained and analyzed. The studies have shown that in all but the most slowly deposited sediments pore fluids exhibit changes in composition upon burial. These changes can be grouped into a few consistent patterns that facilitate identification of the

Frederick L. Sayles; Frank T. Manheim

1975-01-01

397

A Model for Laser Hole Drilling in Metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct computer simulation technique is developed to analyze quantitatively the influence of the fluid flow and heat transfer in the transient development of a laser drilled hole in a turbine airfoil material, where the material removal is effected by vaporization and melt ejection. The coupled conduction heat transfer in the solid and the advection-diffusion heat transfer in the liquid metal, the fluid dynamics of melt expulsion and the tracking of solid-liquid and liquid-vapor interfaces have been mathematically modeled for the 2D axisymmetric case. The donor-acceptor cell method using the volume of fluid approach is used to solve the complex problem and a versatile numerical code has been developed. It takes into account all thermophysical properties including latent heat of vaporization, gravity, and surface tension driving forces. The novelty of this model is to treat the melted pool surface as a deformable free surface. The impressed pressure and temperature on the melt surface is provided by an 1D gas dynamics model whose vaporization kinetics are also discussed. The model is used to simulate drilling for a number of spatially and temporally varying laser intensity profiles. It is found that resolidification of melt (recast formation) occurred throughout the pulse interval and had significant effect on the developing hole geometry, while the effect of vaporization material removal on the hole geometry is found to be small. Comparison of the simulated results indicates the material removed per joule of energy absorbed appears to be inversely proportional to the square root of the peak beam intensity and the drilling rate appears to be proportional to the square root of the surface pressure.

Ganesh, Ram K.; Bowley, Wallace W.; Bellantone, Robert R.; Hahn, Yukap

1996-04-01

398

Analysis of Pore Pressure and Stress Distribution around a Wellbore Drilled in Chemically Active Elastoplastic Formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling in low-permeable reactive shale formations with water-based drilling mud presents significant challenges, particularly in high-pressure and high-temperature environments. In previous studies, several models were proposed to describe the thermodynamic behaviour of shale. Most shale formations under high pressure are expected to undergo plastic deformation. An innovative algorithm including work hardening is proposed in the framework of thermo-chemo-poroelasticity to investigate the effect of plasticity on stresses around the wellbore. For this purpose a finite-element model of coupled thermo-chemo-poro-elastoplasticity is developed. The governing equations are based on the concept of thermodynamics of irreversible processes in discontinuous systems. In order to solve the plastic problem, a single-step backward Euler algorithm containing a yield surface-correction scheme is used to integrate the plastic stress-strain relation. An initial stress method is employed to solve the non-linearity of the plastic equation. In addition, super convergent patch recovery is used to accurately evaluate the time-dependent stress tensor from nodal displacement. The results of this study reveal that thermal and chemical osmosis can significantly affect the fluid flow in low-permeable shale formations. When the salinity of drilling mud is higher than that of pore fluid, fluid is pulled out of the formation by chemical osmotic back flow. Similar results are observed when the temperature of drilling mud is lower than that of the formation fluid. It is found that linear elastic approaches to wellbore stability analysis appear to overestimate the tangential stress around the wellbore and produce more conservative stresses compared to the results of field observation. Therefore, the drilling mud properties obtained from the elastoplastic wellbore stability in shales provide a safer mud weight window and reduce drilling cost.

Roshan, Hamid; Rahman, S. S.

2011-09-01

399

Innovations aid frontier offshore drilling  

SciTech Connect

In the past 3 years, new water-depth records have been established for the drilling of exploration wells and for the installation of subsea completion systems. In addition, development of equipment for drilling and completing wells in harsh environments has been accelerating. Three significant systems, manufactured and installed during this time, have enabled the industry to expand its capabilities and extend its frontiers. The three developments, with the points that will be discussed, are: A riser system used in world-record water depth off the U.S. East Coast (major system components, computer analysis of flanged riser coupling, and modifications based on field input); A caisson drilling system installed off the East Coast of Canada designed for iceberg scouring conditions (design philosophy, unique design); Further riser system developments for deep-water and severe environmental conditions (design of riser tensioning ring that eliminates goosenecks and does not require removal of drape hoses when running/retrieving riser). Primary among the conclusions drawn from these and other developments is the solid technological base being developed for use in further extending industry hardware capabilities.

Hewlett, C.

1986-04-14

400

A concept for marine shallow drilling Drill test from R/V Hkom Mosby in Nov. 1995 Commercial rig built by GeoDrilling  

E-print Network

A concept for marine shallow drilling Drill test from R/V HÃ¥kom Mosby in Nov. 1995 Commercial rig with a simple drill rig. Institute of Solid Earth Physics (Y. Kristoffersen), University of Bergen contracted by using a small mining exploration drill rig and thin-walled BX drill rods. The riser was a plastic tube

Kristoffersen, Yngve

401

Hawaii scientific drilling protect: Summary of preliminary results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Petrological, geochemical, geomagnetic, and volcanological characterization of the recovered core from a 1056-m-deep well into the flank of the Mauna Kea volcano in Hilo, Hawaii, and downhole logging and fluid sampling have provided a unique view of the evolution and internal structure of a major oceanic volcano unavailable from surface exposures. Core recovery was ???90%, yielding a time series of fresh, subaerial lavas extending back to ???400 ka. Results of this 1993 project provide a basis for a more ambitious project to core drill a well 4.5 km deep in a nearby location with the goal of recovering an extended, high-density stratigraphic sequence of lavas.

DePaolo, D.; Stolper, E.; Thomas, D.; Albarede, F.; Chadwick, O.; Clague, D.; Feigenson, M.; Frey, F.; Garcia, M.; Hofmann, A.; Ingram, B. L.; Kennedy, B. M.; Kirschvink, J.; Kurz, M.; Laj, C.; Lockwood, J.; Ludwig, K.; McEvilly, T.; Moberly, R.; Moore, G.; Moore, J.; Morin, R.; Paillet, F.; Renne, P.; Rhodes, M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Taylor, H.; Walker, G.; Wilkins, R.

1996-01-01

402

Salted drilling mud helps prevent casing collapse in permafrost  

SciTech Connect

When a well is shut in during or after drilling or after a short production period, thawed permafrost and water-based fluids outside the casing will refreeze and generate inward radial loads around the well bore. In some cases large compressive loading can lead to casing buckling. To avoid casing collapse, it is suggested to lower the mud freezing temperatures by introduction of a salt solution. Equations are given which can be used to calculate the concentration of sodium chloride in the mud to prevent the buckling of casing.

Kutasov, I.M. [MultiSpectrum Technologies Inc., Santa Monica, CA (United States)

1995-07-31

403

Oil well fluids and dispersants  

SciTech Connect

The invention of this application is a dispersant system with various embodiments and subcombinations with exceptional dispersions including colloidal suspensions, aqueous hydrocarbon emulsions and emulsions with solid particulate additives dispersed therein. The basic dispersant system which makes the high stability, high weight dispersions or emulsions possible comprises an emulsifier composition containing a fatty acid amide , oleic acid, dimerized oleic acid and a particular type of surfactant dispersant. For certain applications the following optional components can be used: particulate filler or carrier; a hydrocarbon phase which can be either liquid or a colloidal solid; water soluble salts weighting agents; insoluble salts and conventional additives. This dispersant system can be used for aqueous hydrocarbon well fluids such as spacer and packer fluid, for aqueous hydrocarbon dispersions such as asphaltic colloids in an oil free fluid for sealing and lubricating a well bore, or for other aqueous hydrocarbon emulsions which can be used with salts, weighting agents, etc. For a drilling fluid.

Carney, L.L.

1980-11-11

404

Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.  

SciTech Connect

Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in volcanic settings.

Goranson, Colin

2005-03-01

405

Restored Drill Cuttings for Wetlands Creation: Results of Mesocosm Approach to Emulate Field Conditions Under Varying Salinity and Hydrologic Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Both interstitial water and plant tissue associated with the DC-A substrate exhibited low metal concentrations. Also in agreement with the previous study, plant performance in the DC-A substrate was found to be comparable to plant performance in the dredge spoil and topsoil substrates. This was extremely important because it indicated that the drill cuttings themselves served as an excellent substrate for wetland plant growth, but that the processing and stabilization techniques and drilling fluid formulations required further refinement.

Hester, Mark W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Willis, Jonathan M.; DesRoches, Dennis J.

2002-06-03

406

CFPL installs products pipeline with directional drilling  

SciTech Connect

Central Florida Pipeline Company (CFPL), a subsidiary of GATX Terminals Corp., Tampa, FL, has used directional drilling under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk and Osceola Counties in constructing its new pipeline from Tampa to Orlando. Primary reason for using directional drilling is to protect the environment by minimizing water turbidity while the 16-inch diameter, 109-mile refined petroleum products pipeline is being installed. Total cost of the project is pegged at $68.5 million. Directional drilling enabled the pipe to be placed about 20 feet below the bottom of: The Alafia River in Riverview with 999 feet drilled; Port Sutton Channel near the Port of Tampa with 2,756 feet drilled; Reedy Creek Swamp at the intersection of Interstate 4 and Highway 192 which had 1,111 feet drilled; Wetland {number_sign}70 southwest of Lake Wales with 1,575 feet drilled; Peace River south of Bartow had 2,470 feet drilled; Bonnet Creek west of Kissimmee had 693 feet drilled. Shingle Creek near the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties with 1,700 feet drilled. This paper reviews the design plans for construction and the emergency response plans should a rupture occur in the line.

NONE

1996-01-01

407

Issues and Concerns in Robotic Drilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of the Martian subsurface will be essential in the search for life and water, given the desiccated and highly oxidized conditions on the surface. Discovery of these, at least in non-fossil form, is unlikely without drilling or other physical access to the subsurface. Hence subsurface access will be critical for both future in-situ science and Mars sample return. Drilling applications present many new challenges for diagnosis and control technology. Traditionally, diagnosis has concentrated on determining the internal state of a system, and detecting failures of system components. In the case of drilling applications, an additional challenge is to diagnose the interactions between the drill and its environment. This is necessary because particular observations of the drilling operation may be consistent with a number of possible problems, including faults in the equipment, but also changes in the material being drilled (for example, from rock to ice). The diagnosis of a particular observation may also depend on knowledge of geological formations previously encountered during drilling, and different remedial actions may be required for each diagnosis. Current 2009 Mars mission scenarios call for no more than 33 sols to be spent drilling. Yet they also call for a baseline of two 2m-deep holes in each of three target areas, for a total of six drilling operations. Using current levels of automation, it is estimated that 15-16 sols would be required to drill each hole. As a result of this, either the drilling part of the mission plan will need to be severely downscoped to no more than two holes total, or on-board automation and robotics must be increased in order to reduce the number of sols required per hole by removing ground control from the drilling control loop. This lecture will discuss salient issues and concerns of robotic drilling automation compares with other applications, and implementation constraints.

Glass, Brian

2003-01-01

408

Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.

1988-01-01

409

Selected drill-stem test data for the Upper Colorado River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Permeability data from aquifers and confining layers may be available from drill-stem tests made during the course of petroleum exploration. During the drill-stem test, the stratigraphic interval of interest is isolated in the hole by the use of packers attached to the drill string. Fluid flows into the drilling pipe under the influence of the formation head. Pressure measurements and other data collected during the course of the test are used to gain information on undisturbed formation head, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, and fluid temperature. Drill-stem test data for individual formation in the Upper Colorado River Basin presented in tables in this report are arranged in groups of 10 hydrogeologic units that were classified on the basis of geologic age, location, depositional environment and lithology. Maps indicating the locations of test sites and areal distribution of test data within the 10 units are provided at the beginning of each table. Stratigraphic columns also are provided to identify the relative ages of the formation tested and to correlate regional hydrogeologic units. (USGS)

Teller, R. W.; Chafin, D. T.

1986-01-01

410

Bioterrorism Drill in Illinois: A Systemwide Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In May 2003, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security conducted a bioterrorism drill. It was the first drill since September 11, 2001. Sixty-four hospitals in Illinois participated in this bioterrorism drill.METHODS: The infection control experiences of eight acute-care hospitals in one healthcare system in the Chicago area were collated from a questionnaire sent to the infection control professionals.RESULTS: The

T. Chou

2004-01-01

411

Using Telerobotic Skull Drill for Neurosurgical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first gives a brief literature review about relevant technology, including the state-of-the-art surgical robotics, the state-of-the-art image-guided neurosurgery and applications, and Internet-based robotics. The architecture of the proposed telerobotic skull drill system is presented in the paper, including the client\\/server control architecture for the telerobotic skull drill system, the mechanical interface between robotic arm and the skull drill,

Weimin Shen; Jason Gu; Yanjun Shen

2006-01-01

412

Operations Recognition at Drill-Rigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling an oil & gas well is always guided by the demand to prevent crises affecting technique, investment and security. To overcome uncertainties caused by lack of knowledge about geological formations during drilling, real-time sensor measurements are used to support the prediction and thus the prevention of such crises. The proposed method supports the extraction of knowledge from sensor data to improve productivity and performance, prevent from mistakes and resolve problems faster. Many mechanical parameters, such as hookload and block position are continuously measured during drilling oil wells. Considering the amount and complexity of the drilling data, it is a real big challenge for a human expert to discover and understand the patterns within the data. In this work machine learning techniques are applied to discover and understand the patterns occurring in such drilling data. We propose a hierarchical approach for drilling operations recognition to break the total drilling time down into a set of pre-defined operation states. This process supports the drilling engineers not only to measure the performance of the drilling process but also to identify patterns in the data that presumably indicate emerging crises. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, five principal states describing very basic operational states at the rig will be recognized by use of the sensor data. In the second phase, those principal states will be combined to a set of drilling operational states. The principal operation states can be considered as an intermediate layer between sensor data and high level drilling operations. The five physical states used in the intermediate layer are related to drill string rotation & movement, mud circulation, the actual drilling itself and a state where the drill string is suspended from the hook. All those states are binary (yes/no) except drill string movement which has three values (up/down/static). For recognition of those principal states dedicated neural network classifier were trained using the sensor data as input. As network architecture the completely connected perceptron was applied in combination with parallel learning. Automatic network growing was used to match the model complexity to the complexity of the particular classification problem and thus to prevent from over fitting. In addition forward selection method was used to identify the sensor data necessary to recognise the particular states. The approach was evaluated using real-time/real-world data and the results show that the proposed approach has the ability to classify drilling operations highly accurate. The performances of the classifiers were evaluated by cross-validation, the average correct classification rate was above 99%, for both, the training and the testing data sets.

Esmael, B.; Fruhwirth, R.; Arnaout, A.; Thonhauser, G.

2012-04-01

413

Analyses of coupled hydrological-mechanical effects during drilling of the FEBEX tunnel at Grimsel  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents analyses of coupled hydrological-mechanical (HM) processes during drilling of the FEBEX tunnel, located in fractured granite at Grimsel, Switzerland. Two and three-dimensional transient finite-element simulations were performed to investigate HM-induced fluid-pressure pulses, observed in the vicinity of the FEBEX tunnel during its excavation in 1995. The results show that fluid-pressure responses observed in the rock mass during TBM drilling of the FEBEX tunnel could not be captured using current estimates of regional stress. It was also shown that the measured pressure responses can be captured in both two and three-dimensional simulations if the stress field is rotated such that contraction (compressive strain rate) and corresponding increases in mean stress occur on the side of the drift, where increased fluid pressure spikes were observed.

Rutqvist, J.; Rejeb, A.; Tijani, M.; Tsang, C.-F.

2003-09-02

414

Effect of Immersion Time on the Mechanical Properties of S135 Drill Pipe Immersed in H2S Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During drilling process, if oil and gas overflow containing H2S enters drilling fluids, the performance of drill pipes will decline significantly within a short time. In this paper, S135 drill pipe specimen was immersed in the saturated solution of H2S at room temperature for 6, 12, 18, and 24 h, respectively. The tensile properties and impact properties of S135 drill pipe were determined before and after immersion for comparison. In addition, the S135 specimens were immersed for 3 days at 80 °C to determine the changes in fatigue performance. The test results indicated that the yield strength of S135 material fluctuated with immersion time increasing and the tensile strength slightly varied with immersion time. But the plasticity index of S135 decreased significantly with the increase in immersion time. The impact energy of S135 steel also fluctuated with the increase in immersion time. After 3-day immersion at 80 °C, the fatigue properties of S135 steel decreased, and fatigue life showed the one order of magnitude difference under the same stress conditions. Moreover, fatigue strength was also decreased by about 10%. The study can guide security management of S135 drill pipe under the working conditions with oil and gas overflow containing H2S, reduce drilling tool failures, and provide technical support for drilling safety.

Dezhi, Zeng; Gang, Tian; Junying, Hu; Zhi, Zhang; Taihe, Shi; Wanying, Liu; Qiang, Lu; Shaobo, Feng

2014-08-01

415

Research drilling in an active geothermal system: Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP)  

SciTech Connect

In March 1986 a research borehole, designed to study the processes occurring in an active, high-temperature, magmatically driven hydrothermal system, reached a depth of 3.22 km in the Salton Sea geothermal field at the northern end of the Gulf of California. Only 10% of the borehole was cored; however, an integrated set of drill cuttings, wireline logs, and downhole measurements were obtained using high-temperature tools and cables. Similarly, downhole VSP, gravity, and fluid sampling tools were successfully deployed. The borehole penetrates Pleistocene and upper Pliocene lake and delta sediments with minor extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks, all of which are being progressively altered to greenschist facies hornfelses. A flow test of a zone at 1865 m with a temperature of 305/sup 0/C, produced Na, Ca, and K chloride brines containing 24% of dissolved salts. Flows of up to 200 tons/hr of steam and brine were obtained. An even more productive zone, the deepest tested at 3215 m where the temperature was 355/sup 0/C, briefly attained a peak flow of 400 tons/hr during a 48-hour test. However, this test was marred by interference from other flow zones. Although the borehole was shut in after the 7-in. (17.78-cm) diameter liner parted, a comprehensive program of laboratory studies is underway in about 40 different institutions. Results to date have more than met their original goals. In the summer of 1987, field operations will resume and will include extensive reservoir engineering. However, drilling deeper to penetrate the magmatic rocks that underlie the explored hydrothermal system must await future funding.

Elders, W.A.

1987-05-01

416

San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, we hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300°C; 2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

Hickman, S.H.; Younker, L.W.; Zoback, M.D.

1995-01-01

417

Method for determining liquid recovery during a closed-chamber drill stem test  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for determining a rate of production of well fluid produced during a closed chamber drill stem test of a subterranean formation. It comprises generating an acoustic signal capable of propagating down a well containing a drill stem test tubing; measuring a travel time of an acoustic signal reflected from an identifiable reference point in the drill stem test tubing; flowing the subterranean formation a predetermined length of time; measuring a travel time of an acoustic signal reflected from a liquid level in the drill stem test tubing during the flow interval; shutting in the flow of the subterranean formation; determining a volume of liquid produced during the flow interval based on the travel time of the reflected acoustic signal; determining a total amount of well fluid produced during the flow interval based on the volume of fluid produced and the surface pressure measurements during the flow period; and determining the rate of production from the subterranean formation during the flow period.

Finley, D.B.; Bass, A.O.

1992-03-03

418

Surface drilling technologies for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rock drilling and coring conceptual designs for the surface activities associated with a manned Mars mission are proposed. Straightforward extensions of equipment and procedures used on Earth are envisioned for the sample coring and shallow high explosive shot holes needed for tunneling and seismic surveying. A novel rocket exhaust jet piercing method is proposed for very rapid drilling of shot holes required for explosive excavation of emergency radiation shelters. Summaries of estimated equipment masses and power requirements are provided, and the indicated rotary coring rigs are scaled from terrestrial equipment and use compressed CO2 from the Martian atmosphere for core bit cooling and cuttings removal. A mass of 120 kg and power of 3 kW(e) are estimated for a 10 m depth capability. A 100 m depth capacity core rig requires about 1150 kg and 32 km(e). The rocket exhaust jet equipment devised for shallow (3m) explosive emplacement shot holes requires no surface power beyond an electrical ignition system, and might have a 15 kg mass.

Blacic, J. D.; Rowley, J. C.; Cort, G. E.

1986-01-01

419

Evolution Of Oceanic Crust Alteration From Deep Ocean Drilling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of submarine hydrothermal systems comes from fluid sampling and heat flow measurements, but drilling into basement is required to understand the subsurface distribution and evolution of alteration processes. ODP/IODP Hole 1256D penetrates through lavas, sheeted dikes, and into uppermost gabbros in crust formed at a superfast spreading rate at the EPR. The volcanic section is characterized by low temperature (<150C) alteration, with a step in thermal gradient up to hydrothermal conditions (250-400C) coinciding with the transition from lavas to dikes. Generally upwelling hydrothermal fluids in the sheeted dikes resulted in a mixing zone and sulfide mineralization at this horizon. Similar processes are observed in ODP Hole 504B, the only other basement hole to penetrate this lithologic transition. A significant feature of altered oceanic basement only revealed by drilling is the presence of anhydrite in these two basement holes. Isotopic analyses of anhydrite reveal chemical and biological processes that occur during seawater recharge into submarine hydrothermal systems. Intrusion of gabbros into sheeted dikes at the base of Hole 1256D resulted in a step in the thermal gradient up to contact metamorphism at temperatures of ~950C and upward migration of a conductive boundary layer above the axial melt lens. The low-temperature evolution of upper crustal lavas and its geochemical effects are revealed by drilling in different settings. Flow of cold seawater is partitioned into different zones, depending on crustal architecture that is a function of spreading rate. Crust formed at fast spreading rates (e.g., Holes 801C, 1256D) is less oxidized than at intermediate spreading rate (504B, 896A, 1149D), and oxidation is partitioned into discrete intervals in the former rather than decreasing with depth as in the latter. Late carbonates are a significant sink for CO2, and CO2 contents increase with age, suggesting greater uptake during higher levels of atmospheric CO2 in the Cretaceous (Teagle et al., 2010).

Alt, J.

2010-12-01

420

Silica dust control when drilling concrete Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

Silica dust control when drilling concrete Page 1 of 2 Drilling into concrete releases a fine sandy and routinely drill into concrete are at risk of developing this disease. Controlling the dust Hammer drills of the drill and capture and collect concrete dust. When the cap is full, the dust is emptied into a receptacle

Knowles, David William

421

30 CFR 56.7005 - Augers and drill stems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Augers and drill stems. 56.7005 Section 56.7005 Mineral...Drilling § 56.7005 Augers and drill stems. Drill crews and others shall stay clear of augers or drill stems that are in motion. Persons shall...

2012-07-01

422

30 CFR 57.7005 - Augers and drill stems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Augers and drill stems. 57.7005 Section 57.7005 Mineral...Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7005 Augers and drill stems. Drill crews and others shall stay clear of augers or drill stems that are in motion. Persons shall...

2012-07-01

423

30 CFR 56.7005 - Augers and drill stems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Augers and drill stems. 56.7005 Section 56.7005 Mineral...Drilling § 56.7005 Augers and drill stems. Drill crews and others shall stay clear of augers or drill stems that are in motion. Persons shall...

2010-07-01

424

30 CFR 57.7005 - Augers and drill stems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Augers and drill stems. 57.7005 Section 57.7005 Mineral...Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7005 Augers and drill stems. Drill crews and others shall stay clear of augers or drill stems that are in motion. Persons shall...

2011-07-01

425

30 CFR 57.7005 - Augers and drill stems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Augers and drill stems. 57.7005 Section 57.7005 Mineral...Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7005 Augers and drill stems. Drill crews and others shall stay clear of augers or drill stems that are in motion. Persons shall...

2010-07-01

426

30 CFR 56.7005 - Augers and drill stems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Augers and drill stems. 56.7005 Section 56.7005 Mineral...Drilling § 56.7005 Augers and drill stems. Drill crews and others shall stay clear of augers or drill stems that are in motion. Persons shall...

2011-07-01

427

Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

1999-06-01

428

Slim-hole Measurement While Drilling (MWD) system for underbalanced drilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to make commercially available, wireless measurement-while-drilling tools to reliably operate in air, air-mist, air-foam, and other unbalanced drilling environments during oil and gas directional drilling operations in con...

W. H. Harrison, J. D. Harrison, L. A. Rubin

1995-01-01

429

HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING  

SciTech Connect

Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole coiled tube drilling offers the opportunity to dramatically cut producers' exploration risk to a level comparable to that of drilling development wells. Together, such efforts hold great promise for economically recovering a sizeable portion of the estimated remaining shallow (less than 5,000 feet subsurface) oil resource in the United States. The DOE estimates this U.S. targeted shallow resource at 218 billion barrels. Furthermore, the smaller 'footprint' of the lightweight rigs utilized for microhole drilling and the accompanying reduced drilling waste disposal volumes offer the bonus of added environmental benefits. DOE analysis shows that microhole technology has the potential to cut exploratory drilling costs by at least a third and to slash development drilling costs in half.

Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

2008-03-31

430

Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and side tracking applications. In the past, several combinations of laser and rock variables were investigated at standard conditions and reported in the literature. More recent experiments determined the technical feasibility of laser perforation on multiple samples of rock, cement and steel. The fiber laser was capable of penetrating these materials under a variety of conditions, to an appropriate depth, and with reasonable energy requirements. It was determined that fiber lasers are capable of cutting rock without causing damage to flow properties. Furthermore, the laser perforation resulted in permeability improvements on the exposed rock surface. This report has been prepared in two parts and each part may be treated as a stand-alone document. Part 1 (High Energy Laser Drilling) includes the general description of the concept and focuses on results from experiments under the ambient lab conditions. Part 2 (High Energy Laser Perforation and Completion Techniques) discusses the design and development of a customized laser pressure cell; experimental design and procedures, and the resulting data on pressure-charged samples exposed to the laser beam. An analysis provides the resulting effect of downhole pressure conditions on the laser/rock interaction process.

Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

2007-02-28

431

Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser compares with other lasers used in past experimental work, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. Variables investigated include laser power, beam intensity, external purging of cut materials, sample orientation, beam duration, beam shape, and beam frequency. The investigation also studied the thermal effects on the two sample rock types and their methods of destruction: spallation for sandstone, and thermal dissociation for limestone. Optimal operating conditions were identified for each rock type and condition. As a result of this experimental work, the HPFL has demonstrated a better capability of cutting and drilling limestone and sandstone when compared with other military and industrial lasers previously tested. Consideration should be given to the HPFL as the leading candidate for near term remote high power laser applications for well construction and completion.

Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

2004-09-28

432

OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting October 2002 through December 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments included the following: (1) Smith International participated in the DOE Mud Hammer program through full scale benchmarking testing during the week of 4 November 2003. (2) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to add to the benchmarking testing program. (3) Following the benchmark testing of the Smith International hammer, representatives from DOE/NETL, TerraTek, Smith International and PDVSA met at TerraTek in Salt Lake City to review observations, performance and views on the optimization step for 2003. (4) The December 2002 issue of Journal of Petroleum Technology (Society of Petroleum Engineers) highlighted the DOE fluid hammer testing program and reviewed last years paper on the benchmark performance of the SDS Digger and Novatek hammers. (5) TerraTek's Sid Green presented a technical review for DOE/NETL personnel in Morgantown on ''Impact Rock Breakage'' and its importance on improving fluid hammer performance. Much discussion has taken place on the issues surrounding mud hammer performance at depth conditions.

Arnis Judzis

2003-01-01

433

OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting January 2004 through March 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 3Q 2004. Smith International's hammer will be tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek presented a paper for publication in conjunction with a peer review at the GTI Natural Gas Technologies Conference February 10, 2004. Manuscripts and associated presentation material were delivered on schedule. The paper was entitled ''Mud Hammer Performance Optimization''. (2) Shell Exploration and Production continued to express high interest in the ''cutter impact'' testing program Task 8. Hughes Christensen supplied inserts for this testing program. (3) TerraTek hosted an Industry/DOE planning meeting to finalize a testing program for ''Cutter Impact Testing--Understanding Rock Breakage with Bits'' on February 13, 2004. (4) Formal dialogue with Terralog was initiated. Terralog has recently been awarded a DOE contract to model hammer mechanics with TerraTek as a sub-contractor. (5) Novatek provided the DOE with a schedule to complete their new fluid hammer and test it at TerraTek.

Arnis Judzis

2004-04-01

434

OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting July 2002 through September 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments include the following: (1) Smith International agreed to participate in the DOE Mud Hammer program. (2) Smith International chromed collars for upcoming benchmark tests at TerraTek, now scheduled for 4Q 2002. (3) ConocoPhillips had a field trial of the Smith fluid hammer offshore Vietnam. The hammer functioned properly, though the well encountered hole conditions and reaming problems. ConocoPhillips plan another field trial as a result. (4) DOE/NETL extended the contract for the fluid hammer program to allow Novatek to ''optimize'' their much delayed tool to 2003 and to allow Smith International to add ''benchmarking'' tests in light of SDS Digger Tools' current financial inability to participate. (5) ConocoPhillips joined the Industry Advisors for the mud hammer program. (6) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to complete the optimizations.

Arnis Judzis

2002-10-01

435

OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING  

SciTech Connect

This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the testing vessel with a reconfigured flow system on Novatek's collar.

Arnis Judzis

2004-07-01

436

NUMBER1,2005 Published by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program with the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program  

E-print Network

NUMBER1,2005 Published by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program with the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program No.11,March2011 ScientificDrilling ISSN: 1816-8957 Climate and Ocean Change, neighboring lakes and oceans key targets for scientific drilling. In this volume of Scientific Drilling, we

Demouchy, Sylvie

437

System and method for damping vibration in a drill string using a magnetorheological damper  

DOEpatents

A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a magnetorheological fluid valve assembly having a supply of a magnetorheological fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil for inducing a magnetic field that alters the resistance of the magnetorheological fluid to flow between the first and second chambers, thereby increasing the damping provided by the valve. A remnant magnetic field is induced in one or more components of the magnetorheological fluid valve during operation that can be used to provide the magnetic field for operating the valve so as to eliminate the need to energize the coils during operation except temporarily when changing the amount of damping required, thereby eliminating the need for a turbine alternator power the magnetorheological fluid valve. A demagnetization cycle can be used to reduce the remnant magnetic field when necessary.

Wassell, Mark Ellsworth (Houston, TX); Burgess, Daniel E. (Portland, CT); Barbely, Jason R. (East Islip, NY)

2012-01-03

438

U. S. horizontal drilling continues to spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that horizontal drilling is still spreading in onshore U.S. oil fields. One company completed a shallow well producing oil by gravity drainage through three horizontal legs about 120{sup °} apart on the La Barge platform in Wyoming. The author reports successful Austin chalk horizontal drilling in Sabine County, East Texas. Another horizontal completion of Cretaceous Niobrara was

Petzet

1990-01-01

439

Scientific drilling technologies for hostile environments  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews the current United States Department of Energy Continental Scientific Drilling Program for Thermal Regimes and the related technologies being developed for geothermal drilling. Plans for penetrating into a molten magma body at temperatures from 800 to 1000{degree}C are also reviewed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Traeger, R.K.

1988-01-01

440

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 202 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-print Network

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 202 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS SOUTHEAST PACIFIC PALEOCEANOGRAPHIC TRANSECTS 1000 Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845-9547 USA _____________________ Dr. Peter Blum Leg Project the international Ocean Drilling Program, which is managed by Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., under contract

441

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 201 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-print Network

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 201 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS CONTROLS ON MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN DEEPLY Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845-9547 USA _____________________ Dr. D. Jay Miller Leg Project the international Ocean Drilling Program, which is managed by Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., under contract

442

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 111 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-print Network

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 111 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS DSDP HOLE 504B REVISITED Keir Becker Japan Russell B. Merrill Staff Scientist, Leg 111 Ocean Drilling Program Texas ASM University College., under contract with the National Science Foundation. Funding for the program is provided

443

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 196 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-print Network

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 196 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS LOGGING WHILE DRILLING AND ADVANCED CORKS College Station TX 77845-9547 USA _____________________ Dr. Adam Klaus Leg Project Manager and Staff Program, which is managed by Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., under contract with the National