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1

Antibody production in Syphacia obvelata infected mice.  

PubMed

Antibody response to Syphacia obvelata infection was observed in AKR/J mice by ELISA. Experimental infection with the pinworm eggs showed the presence of specific IgG against S. obvelata somatic antigens at 12 days postinfection, and that it increased steadily thereafter. Sera of S. obvelata-infected mice showed cross-reactivity with somatic antigens of other Syphacia species such as S. mesocriceti and S. muris, but not with Aspiculuris asiatica. Western blotting of S. obvelata antigen with sera of S. obvelata-infected mice showed a corresponding increase in the number of bands during the course of infection. Infected mice showed significantly higher antibody production to sheep red blood cells than the uninfected control mice. Thus, S. obvelata infection is shown to alter the humoral response to nonparasitic antigenic stimuli. These observations indicate that infection by helminths, which apparently do not produce clinical symptoms, might modulate the immune system of the host and, therefore, affect experimental results. PMID:7623197

Sato, Y; Ooi, H K; Nonaka, N; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M

1995-08-01

2

Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

2003-01-01

3

Pinworms  

MedlinePLUS

... leave the intestines through the anus and lay eggs on nearby skin. Pinworms spread easily. When people who are infected touch their anus, the eggs attach to their fingertips. They can spread the ...

4

Pinworm Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... Pinworm Infection Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area In the United ... pinworm may expel thousands of eggs into the environment. As the eggs are moist and rather resistant ...

5

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

6

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

7

Pinworm ( enterobius vermicularis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is a tiny helminth that lives in the human cecum. Its prevalence varies widely by region and institutional setting. Prevalence greater than 70 percent has been reported among Asian children in orphanages and adults at autopsy after sudden death. In other settings, pinworm infection is rare. Pinworm is diagnosed relatively easily with a perianal sticky tape test

Sten H. Vermund; Craig M. Wilson

2000-01-01

8

Pinworm (for Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Getting Kids Ready for School Backpack Safety Ebola: ... fingers can then carry pinworm eggs to the mouth, where they are go back into the body, ...

9

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... as Pinworm Infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control Washing your hands with soap and warm water ... there. In institutions, day care centers, and schools, control of pinworm can be difficult, but mass drug ...

10

A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.  

PubMed

Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini. PMID:24995650

Robles, María Del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

2014-11-01

11

A new species of Syphacia (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Calomys laucha (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in an agroecosystem of central Argentina.  

PubMed

A new oxyurid nematode Syphacia hodarae n. sp. is described from the cecum and rectum of the cricetid rodent Calomys laucha Fischer, 1814 (Sigmodontinae, Phyllotini), captured in an agroecosystem of central Argentina. The new species is distinguished from other members of the genus mainly by the shape of the cephalic plate, presence of cervical alae in females, absence of lateral alae, and absence of deirids. Some characters are shared with Syphacia carlitosi, a parasite of Akodon azarae from the wetlands in Argentina. However, S. hodarae can be differentiated from this species by the absence of ornamentation on the accessory hook of the gubernaculum, length of spicule and gubernaculum, size of the eggs, and distance to the vulva from the anterior end. This is the first record of a Syphacia species from the tribe Phyllotini in Argentina, and the first time a Syphacia species is reported from C. laucha . PMID:21506826

Herrera, Elba Juliana Rojas; Miño, Mariela Haydée; Notarnicola, Juliana; Robles, María del Rosario

2011-08-01

12

Fenbendazole Treatment Without Environmental Decontamination Eradicates Syphacia muris From All Rats in a Large, Complex Research Institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syphacia muris parasitism was eliminated from rats and voles by feeding fenbendazole-medicated chow (150 ppm) for five 7-day periods; treatment periods were separated by 7-day periods of feeding non-medicated chow, yielding atotal treatment course of 9 weeks. No other manipulations to facilitate eradication, including the use of filter tops, autoclaved cages, environmen- tal decontamination, colony depopulation, breeding cessation, and research

MICHAEL J. HUERKAMP; KIMBERLEY A. BENJAMIN; LOIS A. ZITZOW; JENNIFER K. PULLIUM; JENNIFER A. LLOYD; WESLEY D. THOMPSON; SONJI K. WEBB

2000-01-01

13

Pinworm test  

MedlinePLUS

Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to confirm that there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on three separate ...

14

The systematics and evolution of pinworms (nematoda: oxyurida: thelastomatoidea) from invertebrates.  

PubMed

The nematode order Oxyurida is unique in including species for which definitive host ranges are broad and may include vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. The superfamily Thelastomatoidea is a highly diverse assemblage of oxyurids occurring in cockroaches, diplopods, hydrophilid beetles, passalid beetles, several other coleopteran larvae, mole crickets, and, with few representative species documented, other arthropod hosts. Published research and revision of the Thelastomatoidea, particularly in the 1980s and 1990s, provided several interesting hypotheses on the systematics and evolution of this group. In this review, these hypotheses are examined in the context of recent advances in taxonomy, discovery of additional species diversity and distribution, and preliminary phylogenetic hypotheses that have been proposed. There continues to remain a paucity of phylogenetic data that explore the phylogenetic relationships of the Thelastomatoidea and their relationships to vertebrate-parasitizing pinworms. A combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences for representative species across all of the major lineages will be important for more robust phylogenetic hypotheses. Much broader geographical and host taxon sampling is necessary to determine true diversity of the Thelastomatoidea. Modern approaches to species descriptions, such as improvements in light and scanning electron microscopy and the use of molecular approaches to matching male and female nematodes, can also be applied to improve our understanding of the evolution of these fascinating parasites. PMID:24842083

Carreno, Ramon A

2014-10-01

15

Host specificity shapes population structure of pinworm parasites in Caribbean reptiles.  

PubMed

Host specificity is one of the potential factors affecting parasite diversification because gene flow may be facilitated or constrained by the number of host species that a parasite can exploit. We test this hypothesis using a costructure approach, comparing two sympatric pinworm parasites that differ in host specificity - Parapharyngodon cubensis and Spauligodon anolis - on the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix in the Caribbean. Spauligodon anolis specializes on Anolis lizards, whereas P. cubensis parasitizes Anolis lizards as well as many other species of lizards and snakes. We collected lizards from across the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix, sampled them for S. anolis and P. cubensis and generated nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from the parasites. We used these data to show that P. cubensis is comprised of multiple cryptic species that exhibit limited population structure relative to S. anolis, which is consistent with our prediction based on their host specificity. We also provide evidence that the distribution of P. cubensis species is maintained by competitive exclusion, and in contrast to previous theoretical work, the parasites with the greatest number of host species also reach the highest prevalence rates. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that host specificity shapes parasite diversification, and suggest that even moderate differences in host specificity may contribute to substantial differences in diversification. PMID:23848187

Falk, Bryan G; Perkins, Susan L

2013-09-01

16

Why museums matter: a tale of pinworms (Oxyuroidea: Heteroxynematidae) among pikas (Ochotona princeps and O. collaris) in the American west.  

PubMed

Permanent and well-supported museum or natural history collections provide a solid foundation for the process of systematics research through creation of an empirical record which validates our understanding of the biosphere. We explore the role of museums in ongoing studies of the complex helminth fauna characteristic of pikas (Ochotona spp.) in the American west. These studies address the taxonomy for pinworms of the Labiostomatinae and the problems associated with the absence of adequate type series and vouchers and with misidentifications in original descriptions. We demonstrate that the types for Labiostomum (Labiostomum) coloradensis are identical to some specimens in the syntype series representing L. (Eugenuris) utahensis, although the published descriptions are in disagreement. Both are identical to L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris and, as a consequence, are reduced as junior synonyms. Only 2 species of large pinworms, namely L. (Labiostomum) rauschi and L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris, are widely distributed in Ochotona collaris and O. princeps. Although this serves to clarify the taxonomy for species in these genera, prior records remain confused, as representative voucher specimens from all major surveys in North America were never submitted to museum collections. We strongly suggest that type and voucher series should not be held in private or personal collections, where such are eventually lost, discarded, or destroyed through neglect due to inattention and the absence of curation. The potential to accumulate meaningful baselines for assessment of environmental change is jeopardized if materials from survey and inventory are not routinely submitted to museum collections. The capacity of museum repositories, as a focus for systematics, ecology, and evolutionary studies and for the development of resources for biodiversity informatics, continues to be undervalued and poorly utilized by a cadre of scientists who are dependant on accurate and definitive information that transcends specific disciplines. PMID:19593896

Hoberg, E P; Pilitt, P A; Galbreath, K E

2009-04-01

17

Assessing European Egg Parasitoids as a Mean of Controlling the Invasive South American Tomato Pinworm Tuta absoluta  

PubMed Central

The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

Chailleux, Anais; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

18

An Ecological Study of Helminths of Some Wyoming Voles (Microtus spp.) with a Description of a New Species of Nematospiroides (Heligmosomidae: Nematoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological and taxonomic study of the helminth parasites of voles (Microtus spp.) in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming is reported.\\u000aNematospiroides microti n. sp. from Microtus montanus nanus and M. richardsoni macropus is described and figured.\\u000aA cestode, Paranoplocephala infrequens, and a nematode, Syphacia obvelata, were generally distributed throughout the region in all habitats except the sage flats.

Merle L. Kuns; Robert L. Rausch

1950-01-01

19

The prevalence and intensity of infection with helminth parasites in Mus spretus from the Setubal Peninsula of Portugal.  

PubMed

The results of a 5 year study of helminth parasites of Mus spretus, are reported. Six nematode and 5 cestode species were identified but no helminth showed 100% prevalence in M. spretus, the most commonly encountered nematode and cestode species being Syphacia obvelata (46.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (22.4%). Among the more unusual helminth species identified was Eucoleus bacillatus, a capillariid nematode inhabiting the stomach musculature. This species was identified in 3 of the 5 years of the study. The results are discussed in the broader context of previous studies and the epidemiology of rodent helminth infections in general. PMID:8354856

Behnke, J M; Barnard, C; Hurst, J L; McGregor, P K; Gilbert, F; Lewis, J W

1993-06-01

20

Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia.  

PubMed

A 13-month study of wild mice (Mus domesticus) in wheatlands in southeastern Australia contrasted changes in the seroprevalence of antibody to 13 viruses and the occurrence of helminths with changes in their population dynamics. Mice were seropositive for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), rotavirus, minute virus of mice (MVM), mouse adenovirus (MAdV), reovirus (reo 3), and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The seroprevalences of all but rotavirus varied significantly with time and increased with host density. Near the end of the study, host density declined rapidly and the seroprevalence of MVM and reo 3 increased significantly. These two viruses had low seroprevalence when host survival was high and high seroprevalence when host survival was low, indicating they may play a role in regulating mouse populations. In the case of MVM, there was evidence of a viral epizootic during the decline in mouse abundance. The prevalence of four helminths (Taenia taeniaeformis, Syphacia obvelata, and Vampirolepis spp.) differed significantly with time but showed no apparent association with host density. These findings highlight the need for further study on the effect of viruses on the population dynamics of mice. PMID:8472782

Singleton, G R; Smith, A L; Shellam, G R; Fitzgerald, N; Müller, W J

1993-04-01

21

Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia.  

PubMed Central

A 13-month study of wild mice (Mus domesticus) in wheatlands in southeastern Australia contrasted changes in the seroprevalence of antibody to 13 viruses and the occurrence of helminths with changes in their population dynamics. Mice were seropositive for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), rotavirus, minute virus of mice (MVM), mouse adenovirus (MAdV), reovirus (reo 3), and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The seroprevalences of all but rotavirus varied significantly with time and increased with host density. Near the end of the study, host density declined rapidly and the seroprevalence of MVM and reo 3 increased significantly. These two viruses had low seroprevalence when host survival was high and high seroprevalence when host survival was low, indicating they may play a role in regulating mouse populations. In the case of MVM, there was evidence of a viral epizootic during the decline in mouse abundance. The prevalence of four helminths (Taenia taeniaeformis, Syphacia obvelata, and Vampirolepis spp.) differed significantly with time but showed no apparent association with host density. These findings highlight the need for further study on the effect of viruses on the population dynamics of mice. PMID:8472782

Singleton, G. R.; Smith, A. L.; Shellam, G. R.; Fitzgerald, N.; Muller, W. J.

1993-01-01

22

Methyl 5(6)-4-2-pyridyl piperazino carbamoyl benzimidazole-2-carbamate--a new broad spectrum anthelmintic.  

PubMed

Methyl 5(6)-4-2-pyridyl piperazino carbamoyl benzimidazole-2-carbamate (CDRI Comp. 81-470) was tested against various nematode and cestode infections in different experimental and domestic animals. The compound showed 100% effectivity against adult of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (hookworm) in hamsters (6.25 mg/kg p.o. X 1), Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (trichostrongylid) in rats (100 mg/kg p.o. X 3), Hymenolepis nana (cestode) in rats (25 mg/kg p.o. X 1) and Syphacia obvelata (oxyurid) in mice (12.5 mg/kg p.o. X 3). It was also found highly effective against artificial and natural helminth parasites of higher animals. The compound removed all, A. caninum and A. ceylanicum (hookworms) and Toxocara sp. (ascarid) from dogs at a dose of 10 mg/kg p.o. X 3; A. tubaeformis (hookworm) and Toxocara sp. at 25 mg/kg p.o. X 3 and 2.5 mg/kg p.o. X 3 respectively from cats and Ascaridia galli (ascarid) at 10 mg/kg p.o. X 3 from fowl. The compound in doses of 1500 mg/kg by oral route and 1000 mg/kg by i.p. route did not cause any mortality or produce adverse effect in mice. The expanded anthelmintic action and large therapeutic index indicate compound's great anthelmintic potentiality. PMID:6150623

Katiyar, J C; Visen, P K; Misra, A; Gupta, S; Bhaduri, A P

1984-09-01

23

FLOTAC for diagnosis of endo-parasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the occurrence of endoparasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 50 asymptomatic pet squirrels belonging to five different species (Callosciurus finlaysonii, n=6, C. prevosti, n=6; Tamias striatus, n=26, T. sibiricus, n=10; Sciurus carolinensis, n=2) housed both in pet shops and/or in private residences. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, to detect Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. the samples were analyzed by the Remel Xpect(®) immunoassay. Helminth eggs were detected in 9 out of 50 squirrels. Specifically, eggs of Dicrocoelium dendriticum were found in 5 squirrels (C. finlaysonii, n=2; C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); eggs of the pinworm Syphacia spp. in 3 squirrels (C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); and eggs of gastrointestinal nematoda (Nippostrongylus-like) were found in 1 subject (C. prevosti). Finally, two squirrels (C. prevosti) had multiple parasitic infections with D. dendriticum and Capillaria hepatica, and with D. dendriticum and Strongyloides spp., respectively. None of the samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia spp. or any other protozoa (e.g. Eimeria). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a D. dendriticum natural infection in pet rodents. PMID:24389007

d'Ovidio, D; Rinaldi, L; Ianniello, D; Donnelly, T M; Pepe, P; Capasso, M; Cringoli, G

2014-02-24

24

Travelers' Health: Pertussis  

MedlinePLUS

... Infectious Diseases Related To Travel Chapter 3 - Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) Chapter 3 - Pinworm (Enterobiasis, Oxyuriasis, Threadworm) Pertussis ... 54 (RR-14):1–16. Chapter 3 - Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) Chapter 3 - Pinworm (Enterobiasis, Oxyuriasis, Threadworm) Print ...

25

Pyrantel  

MedlinePLUS

Pyrantel, an antiworm medication, is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, and other worm infections.This medication ... taken as a single dose for pinworm and roundworm infections. The dose usually is repeated after 2 ...

26

Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions in Norwegian children.  

PubMed

Studies investigating the association between Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions have shown conflicting results. This study was conducted to test for any such associations in Norwegian children. Parents were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their children's history of allergies, wheezing or eczema and pinworm infections. Current pinworm infections were diagnosed by microscopic examination of anal scotch tape samples. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Atopic eczema, allergy or wheezing was reported to be confirmed by a physician in 23% of the children (84/364). A possible association between current pinworm infections and food allergy was found, with 17·5% of children without food allergy testing positive for pinworms, compared to 36·8% of children with food allergy (odds ratio 2·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1-8·0). No association was found between past pinworm treatments and present atopic conditions. The association between current E. vermicularis infections and food allergy warrants further study. PMID:24331127

Bøås, H; Tapia, G; Rasmussen, T; Rønningen, K S

2014-10-01

27

21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi .) (3) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground grain portion of the ration to be consumed in one feeding. Discard...

2013-04-01

28

21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi .) (3) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground grain portion of the ration to be consumed in one feeding. Discard...

2012-04-01

29

21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...roundworms (Parascaris ); pinworms. (Oxyuris ); and threadworms (Strongyloides ). (2) It is administered by stomach tube or as a drench at a dose of 0.9 gram of cambendazole per 100 pounds of body weight (20 milligrams per...

2012-04-01

30

21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.  

...small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi. ) (3) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground grain portion of the ration to be consumed in one feeding. Discard...

2014-04-01

31

21 CFR 520.1192 - Ivermectin paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Petrovinema poculatum ; Small Strongyles (fourth-stage larvae); Pinworms (adults and fourth-stage larvae): Oxyuris equi ; Ascarids (adults and third- and fourth-stage larvae): Parascaris equorum ; Hairworms (adults):...

2010-04-01

32

21 CFR 520.903b - Febantel suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...removal of ascarids (Parascaris equorum —adult and sexually immature), pinworms (Oxyuris equi —adult and 4th stage larvae), large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus ), and the various small strongyles in...

2010-04-01

33

21 CFR 520.903a - Febantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equinus ); ascarids (Parascaris equorum— sexually mature and immature); pinworms (Oxyuris equi— adult and 4th stage larva); and the various small strongyles in horses, foals, and ponies. (3) Limitations. (i) The paste may be...

2010-04-01

34

21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...capitatus ; and Petrovinema poculatus ; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4 larval stages); pinworms:...

2010-04-01

35

21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...capitatus ; and Petrovinema poculatus ; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4 larval stages); pinworms:...

2010-04-01

36

21 CFR 520.1195 - Ivermectin liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Petrovinema poculatum ; Small Strongyles (fourth-stage larvae); Pinworms (adults and fourth stage larvae): Oxyuris equi ; Ascarids (adults and third- and fourth-stage larvae): Parascaris equorum ; Hairworms (adults):...

2010-04-01

37

21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Petrovinema poculatum ; Small Strongyles—fourth-stage larvae; Pinworms (adults and fourth-stage larvae)—Oxyuris equi ; Ascarids (adults and third- and fourth-stage larvae)—Parascaris equorum ; Hairworms...

2010-04-01

38

21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris, and S. equinus ), and small...

2010-04-01

39

21 CFR 520.1630 - Oxfendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to 8 weeks. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris, and S. equinus ), and small...

2010-04-01

40

21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris, and S. equinus ); and small strongyles. (3)...

2010-04-01

41

21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); and horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G ....

2013-04-01

42

Facial Cleanliness  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

43

Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

44

Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

45

Nail Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

46

Body Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

47

Chronic Diarrhea  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

48

Seasonal and site specific variation in the component community structure of  

E-print Network

effect of season. Syphacia stroma and Corrigia vitta both showed marked differences between sites mostly in the spring whereas seasonal changes in abundance of S. stroma were consistent across all three. stroma worm burdens for the Isle of Wight site revealed a moderate local sex effect. Overall

Nottingham, University of

49

COMUNICAÇÃO SELEÇÃO P ARA ALTO TEOR DE ACILAÇÚCARES EM GENÓTIPOS DE TOMATEIRO E SUA RELAÇÃO COM A RESISTÊNCIA AO ÁCARO VERMELHO (Tetranychus evansi) E À TRAÇA (Tuta absoluta) Selection towards high acylsugar levels in tomato genotypes and its relationship with resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus evansi) and to the South American pinworm (Tuta absoluta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection for high foliar levels of allelochemicals has been proposed as a suitable strategy for breeding tomatoes for arthropod pest resistance. In the Lycopersicon pennellii (Correll) D Arcy accession LA-716, acylsugars exsudated by type IV glandular trichomes present in all aerial parts of the plant reportedly mediate resistance to arthropod pests. This paper intended to study the levels of resistance

Guilherme Victor; Nippes Pereira; Wilson Roberto Maluf; Luciano Donizete Gonçalves; Luís Antônio; Augusto Gomes; Vicente Licursi

50

Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

Bower, Wilma; And Others

1986-01-01

51

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

52

Diagnostic Structures of Intestinal Helminths: Enterobius vermicularis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The figure shows an Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) egg found in a feces sample. Generally the ovum measures 50 to 60 üm long by 20 to 40 üm wide. The figure is of an embryonated ovum, flattened on one side, with a thin colorless shell.

Javier Gutierrez Jimenez (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas ;); P. Ramirez-Cobaxin (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas ;Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas); J.A. Hernandez-Shilon (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas ;Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas)

2011-06-17

53

[Enterobiasis in pediatric subjects in north-western Italy: a study of home remedies].  

PubMed

The present study examines the most common home remedies in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy currently used in the treatment of pediatric enterobiasis, commonly known as pinworm infection. The remedies in question, typically based on popular beliefs and as such are nearly useless, were noted through interviews with subjects who had come to the local Hygiene and Public Health Services offices for information about pinworm prevention and treatment. Analysis of replies by the subjects clearly indicates that local families are ill-prepared to recognize the symptoms this parasitic infection; often it is confused with pediatric ketosis, therefore leading to inappropriate treatment which at times may be potentially harmful to the patient. PMID:22670340

Dutto, M; Montù, D; Raineri, G

2012-01-01

54

Association between health examination items and body mass index among school children in Hualien, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the prevalence of obesity and major physical examination items including dental caries, myopia, pinworm, hematuria, and proteinuria among school children in Hualien, Taiwan. In addition, the health status differences between gender, grader, levels of residence urbanization, and body mass index (BMI) were examined. Methods Cross-sectional studies with a total of 11,080 students (age, 7–14 years) in grades 1, 4, and 7 were evaluated for weight, height, routine physical examination, and urine analysis during the 2010 Student Health Examination in Hualien. Frequencies, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were conducted using SPSS. Results Of the 11,080 students evaluated, 1357 (12.2%) were overweight, and 1421 (12.8%) were obese. There were significant differences in overweight/obese prevalence by gender, by grader, and by levels of residence urbanization. Dental caries, myopia, and obesity were the most prevalent health problems among these students (75.6%, 33.0%, and 12.8%, respectively). In crude and adjusted analyses, research results showed that there were significant differences in the prevalence of major physical examination items between different gender, grader, levels of residence urbanization, and BMI groups. Girls had a higher prevalence of dental caries, myopia, and hematuria than boys (all p?pinworm than girls (p?=?0.02). Students in higher grades had significantly higher prevalence of myopia, hematuria, and proteinuria (all p?pinworm (p?pinworm (p?pinworm, and hematuria (all p?

2013-01-01

55

The potential role of strongyloides robustus on parasite-mediated competition between two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys).  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that populations of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) are declining in the eastern United States, perhaps due to competition with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). Potential causes include parasite-mediated or apparent competition from the shared intestinal nematode, Strongyloides robustus, which has been shown to detrimentally affect the northern flying squirrel but not the southern flying squirrel. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study on the parasite community of both flying squirrel species from sites in Pennsylvania where the two species occur sympatrically and where G. sabrinus is now considered endangered at the state level. We compared these parasite communities with those from northern flying squirrels from northern New York where the southern flying squirrel is absent. We found eight species of gastrointestinal parasites (Pterygodermatites peromysci, Lemuricola sciuri, Syphacia thompsoni, Syphacia spp., Capillaria spp., Citellinema bifurcatum, Strogyloides robustus, and an unidentifiable cestode species) in both species of flying squirrels examined for our study. The parasite-mediated competition hypothesis was partially supported. For example, in Pennsylvania, S. robustus was overdispersed in southern flying squirrels, such that a small proportion of the hosts carried a large proportion of the worm population. In addition, we found S. robustus to be present in northern flying squirrels when the species were sympatric, but not where southern flying squirrels were absent in New York. However, there was no association between S. robustus and the body condition of flying squirrels. We detected a potential parasite community interaction, as S. robustus abundance was positively associated with P. peromysci. PMID:20090036

Krichbaum, Kristle; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A; Turner, Gregory; Hudson, Peter J

2010-01-01

56

Genetic analysis of Enterobius vermicularis isolated from a chimpanzee with lethal hemorrhagic colitis and pathology of the associated lesions.  

PubMed

Human pinworms, Enterobius vermicularis, are normally recognized as minor pathogens. However, a fatal case of human pinworm infection has been reported in a nonhuman primate, a zoo reared chimpanzee. Here, we histopathologically examined the lesions in tissues from the deceased chimpanzee and genetically characterized the isolated worms to investigate the pathogenicity and determine the phylogeny. We identified ulcers deep in the submucosa where many parasites were found to have invaded the lamina propria mucosa or submucous tissue. An inflammatory reaction consisting mainly of neutrophils and lymphocytes but not eosinophils was observed around the parasites, and intense hemorrhage in the lamina propria was confirmed. The parasites were morphologically similar to E. vermicularis based on the shape of the copulatory spicules. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene products were amplified from worm DNA by PCR and were genetically identified as E. vermicularis based on >98.7 % similarity of partial sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences clustered together with other chimpanzee E. vermicularis isolates in a group which has been referred to as type C and which differs from human isolates (type A). The samples were negative for bacterial pathogens and Entamoeba histolytica indicating that E. vermicularis could be pathogenic in chimpanzees. Phylogenetic clustering of the isolates indicated that the parasite may be host specific. PMID:25138069

Yaguchi, Yuji; Okabayashi, Sachi; Abe, Niichiro; Masatou, Haruhisa; Iida, Shinya; Teramoto, Isao; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

2014-11-01

57

[Survey on human soil-borne nematode infection in Xining City].  

PubMed

Five fields were selected from Xining City by stratified cluster sampling method for the survey. 4589 people above 3 years old were examined for nematode infections using Kato-Katz method and children under 12 years old were detected for pinworm infection using transparent tape method from June to August in 2011. The results showed that the total nematode infection rate was 3.0% (136/4 589) with the highest of 3.8% (123/3284) in rural area. The major species was Ascaris lumbricoides, and the infection rate in 15-20 age group was 1.5% (4/264), which was significantly lower than that of the age groups of 60-70 (6.9%, 23/335), above 70 (5.3%, 6/114) and of 10-15 (5.1%, 19/372)(P<0.05). The prevalence of A. lumbricoides among the preschool children (9.5%, 12/127) was statistically higher than those in other occupation groups (P<0.05), and the infection rate showed no statistical significance by gender, ethnic and degree of education (P>0.05). Pinworm infection in children under 12 years old was only 0.5% (2/437). PMID:24812844

Zhao, Sheng-Hu; Han, Xiu-Min; Lei, Wen

2013-02-01

58

Effects of repeated anthelmintic treatment on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Effects of repeated treatment with pyrantel pamoate on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees were assessed by observing worms discharged in the feces after administration of anthelmintic treatment. Three of 9 chimpanzees reared in a zoological garden in Japan were subjected to fecal worm count and morphometric observation, and all were given oral pyrantel pamoate 6 times at 10-day intervals simultaneously. Following the first and second treatments, more than 30,000 pinworms were discharged from 1 chimpanzee. The number of discharged worms abruptly decreased after the third treatment, and only a few worms were recovered after the fifth treatment, indicating that repeated treatment at short intervals was very effective. Complete eradication was not achieved, however, presumably because of reinfection. The female proportion among discharged worms tended to increase as the treatment was repeated. PMID:16108565

Nakano, Tadao; Fukui, Daisuke; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Hasegawa, Hideo

2005-06-01

59

Helminthoxys abrocomae n. sp. (Nematoda: oxyurida) from Abrocoma cinerea in Bolivia.  

PubMed

A new pinworm parasite is described from Abrocoma cinerea, a caviomorph rodent of the superfamily Octodontoidea from the Andes of Bolivia. The new species, Helminthoxys abrocomae n. sp., possesses special secretory mamelons which we consider a synapomorphy of the genus Helminthoxys. Within Helminthoxys, the closest relatives are found in octodontoid rodents: H. gigantea occurs in Octodon degus in Chile and O. bridgesi in Argentina, and H. freitasi is a parasite of Thrichomys aperoides in Brazil. H. abrocomae n. sp. differs from both other species morphometrically in relation to different parts of the body in both sexes, particularly the size of the body, spicule, gubernaculum and eggs, by the presence of a rough cuticular area around the cephalic sensory papillae and by the possession of very well-developed cervical alae which are strongly curved dorsally. H. abrocomae n. sp. is the tenth nominal species described in Helminthoxys, all of them being parasites of caviomorph rodents. PMID:11071158

Hugot, J P; Gardner, S L

2000-11-01

60

Surveillance of endoparasitic infections and the first report of Physaloptera sp. and Sarcocystis spp. in farm rodents and shrews in central Taiwan.  

PubMed

A total of 95 rodents and shrews including 82 Rattus norvegicus, 7 Rattus rattus, and 6 Suncus murinus were trapped from different localities of Taichung, Taiwan. The overall prevalence of parasites was 93.7%. The infection rates for R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and S. murinus were 93.9%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively. The rats were infected with four cestodes, Taenia taeniaeformis (48.4%), Hymenolepis diminuta (38.9%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), and Raillietina celebensis (45.3%); ten nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (16.8%), Capillaria hepatica (49.5%), Gongylonema neoplasticum (1.1%), Heterakis spumosa (35.8%), Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (57.9%), Physaloptera sp. (1.1%), Strongyloides ratti (81.1%), Syphacia muris (2.1%), Trichosomoides crassicauda (29.5%), and Trichurus sp. (1.1%), and one protozoan, Sarcocystis spp. (33.7%). Physaloptera sp. from S. murinus and Sarcocystis spp. from both R. norvegicus and R. rattus were reported for the first time in Taiwan. The importances of zoonotic species were discussed. PMID:19194075

Tung, Kwong-Chung; Hsiao, Fun-Chun; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Chou, Chi-Chung; Lee, Wei-Ming; Wang, Kai-Sung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

2009-01-01

61

Biodiversity and macroparasitic distribution of the wild rat population of Carey Island, Klang.  

PubMed

A study to determine the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites and endoparasites infesting wild rat population of Carey Island was carried out from June to December 2010. A total of 81 rats were captured from various locations on Carey Island. Four rat species were identified namely, Rattus tiomanicus (45.7%), Rattus rattus diardii (25.9%), Rattus argentiventer (16%) and Rattus norvegicus (12.3%). Low diversity of ecto and endoparasites were observed infecting the rodent population with 8 ecto and 8 endoparasites species recorded. The ectoparasites recovered fell under 3 broad groups, namely mites (Laelaps nuttali, Laelaps echidninus, Laelaps sculpturatus, Listrophoroides sp. and Ornithonyssus bacoti), lice (Polyplax spinulosa and Hoplopleura pacifica) and tick (Ixodes granulatus) while endoparasites recovered were cestodes (Taenia taeniaformis and Hymenolepis diminuta) and nematodes (Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, Mastophorus muris, Heterakis spumosa, Hepatojarakus malayae and Syphacia muris). The rat population was observed harbouring more than one parasite species. Analysis of data also showed neither intrinsic (host age, host sex) nor extrinsic (season) factors influenced the macroparasites community structure. PMID:23959485

Nursyazana, M T; Mohdzain, S N; Jeffery, J

2013-06-01

62

Infectious microorganisms in mice (Mus musculus) purchased from commercial pet shops in Germany.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the prevalence of infectious microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and eukaryotic parasites) in mice from different pet shops in Germany; such animals may compromise the hygienic integrity of laboratory animal vivaria if private pet holders act as unintended vectors of infections carried by them. House mice sold as pets or feed specimens were purchased from different pet shops and tested for a comprehensive panel of unwanted microorganisms. We found a number of microorganisms in these pet shop mice, the most prevalent of which were Helicobacter species (92.9%), mouse parvovirus (89.3%), mouse hepatitis virus (82.7%), Pasteurella pneumotropica (71.4%) and Syphacia species (57.1%). Several microorganisms (e.g. mouse parvovirus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, pneumonia virus of mice, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Clostridium piliforme) had considerably higher prevalences than those reported in similar studies on wild mice from North America, Europe or Australia. Our study shows that direct contact with pet shop mice may constitute a risk for laboratory animal vivaria if hygienic precautions are not taken. However, even relatively simple precautions seem effective enough to hold the risk at bay. PMID:21508117

Dammann, P; Hilken, G; Hueber, B; Köhl, W; Bappert, M T; Mähler, M

2011-10-01

63

Endoparasites of rodents from the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Rodents are a key mammalian group highly successful in adapting to a variety of environments throughout the world and play an important role in many zoonotic cycles. Within this project, the gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasite fauna of 76 rodents (Muroidea and Sciuridae) was determined in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in Southeastern Bangladesh. Gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites were examined with macro- and microscopical tools (e.g. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) at a field site in Bandarban. A wide variety of parasites were found in rodent hosts, including protozoa-Giardia sp. (n = 8), Cryptosporidium sp. (n = 1), Entamoeba sp. (n = 8), Trichomonadida (n = 4), Isospora sp. (n = 1), trematodes (Echinostoma sp.; n = 3), cestodes-Hymenolepis nana (n = 1), Hymenolepis diminuta (n = 3), Hymenolepis sp. (n = 2), Taenia taeniaeformis-Larven (n = 4), Catenotaenia sp. (n = 1), Taenia sp. (n = 1), nematodes-Heterakis spumosa (n = 4), Heterakis sp. (n = 1), Aspiculuris tetraptera (n = 2), Capillaria hepatica (n = 2), Capillaria sp. (n = 3), Syphacia sp. (n = 2), Strongyloides sp. (n = 10), Trichostrongylus sp. (n = 2) and Trichuris sp. (n = 1)-and acanthocephalans (Moniliformis moniliformis; n = 2). Several of the examined parasites are of zoonotic importance via direct or indirect transmission (e.g. C. hepatica) and may affect humans. PMID:23064859

Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Treiber, Moritz; Igel, Petra; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald

2012-11-01

64

Efficacy of direct detection of pathogens in naturally infected mice by using a high-density PCR array.  

PubMed

We used a high-density array of real-time PCR assays for commonly reported rodent infectious agents (PRIA) to test naturally infected index mice and sentinel mice exposed by contact and soiled-bedding transfer. PRIA detected 14 pathogens--including viruses, bacteria, fur mites, pinworms, and enteric protozoa--in 97.2% of 28 pooled fecal samples, fur-perianal swabs, and oral swabs from 4 cages containing a total of 10 index mice. Among these pathogens, PRIA (like conventional health monitoring methods) failed to detect Mycoplasma pulmonis, Pasteurella pneumotropica, and Giardia spp. in all of the 9 contact and 9 soiled-bedding sentinels. PRIA demonstrated murine adenovirus and Cryptosporidium and Spironucleus spp. in contact but not soiled-bedding sentinels and detected Helicobacter and pinworms in fewer than half of the soiled-bedding sentinels. Of the 4 species of Helicobacter that species-specific PCR assays identified in index mice, only H. ganmani was found in soiled-bedding and contact sentinels. PRIA detected all of the pathogens in sentinels that were identified by conventional methods. Myobia musculi was detected by PCR in index and sentinel mice but missed by conventional parasitologic examinations. In summary, PRIA reproducibly detected diverse pathogens in heavily pooled specimens collected noninvasively from infected index mice antemortem. The inability of PRIA and conventional health monitoring methods (that is, parasitology, micro-biology, and serology) to demonstrate transmission of some pathogens to contact sentinels and the inefficient transmission of others to soiled-bedding sentinels underscores the importance of direct PCR testing to determine the pathogen status of rodents in quarantine and during routine colony surveillance. PMID:24351765

Henderson, Kenneth S; Perkins, Cheryl L; Havens, Richard B; Kelly, Mee-Jin E; Francis, Brian C; Dole, Vandana S; Shek, William R

2013-11-01

65

Enteric diseases of homosexual men.  

PubMed

Certain enteric ailments are particularly common among homosexual men. They are primarily infectious diseases and include not only such common venereal diseases as gonorrhea and syphilis but also infections not usually regarded as being sexually transmitted. Among the latter are shigellosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, and amebiasis. Patients' symptoms are non-specific and seldom helpful in diagnosing particular diseases. The practitioner must be prepared to identify a number of infections with similar presentations that may occur singly or together in gay men. Gonorrhea is probably the most common bacterial infection in gay men. Carriage rates as high as 50% have been reported, and extra-genital carriage is common; this necessitates culturing the urethra, rectum, and pharynx. Procaine penicillin G is the treatment of choice for most patients; spectinomycin is probably the drug of choice in penicillin-sensitive patients. In contrast to other venereal diseases, syphilis may have a characteristic protoscopic presentation. Benzathine penicillin G is the treatment of choice for most patients. Lymphogranuloma venereum causes penile lesions and inguinal lymphadenitis in heterosexual men, whereas homosexual men are more prone to proctitis. The disease may mimic Crohn's disease. Recommended treatment includes tetracycline or sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Shigellosis usually presents as an acute diarrheal illness. Patients generally require only supportive treatment with fluids. Herpes simplex viral infection is difficult to diagnose and has several different presentations, including lumbosacral radiculomyelopathy. Symptomatic treatment with sitz baths, anesthetic ointment, and analgesics is recommended. Venereal warts are believed to be caused by the same virus that causes verrucous warts; they are usually found in the anal canal or around the anal orifice. They are commonly treated with 25% podophyllin solution. Parasitic infections include giardiasis, amebiasis, and pinworm infections. Metronidazole may be used in the treatment of symptomatic giardiasis and amebiasis, but it is not approved for the former indication; quinacrine is approved for giardiasis. Pinworm infestation may be treated with pyrantel pamoate or mebendazole. Cure of enteric diseases in homosexual men must be documented. PMID:6765390

Baker, R W; Peppercorn, M A

1982-01-01

66

Could parasites destabilize mouse populations? The potential role of Pterygodermatites peromysci in the population dynamics of free-living mice, Peromyscus leucopus.  

PubMed

Peromyscus leucopus populations exhibit unstable population dynamics. Mathematical models predict instability with chronic parasite infections that reduce host fecundity when the parasite distribution within the host population is close to random. We examined the role the nematode Pterygodermatites peromysci may play in influencing the dynamics of these mice. There were seven gastrointestinal worms infecting mice. Pterygodermatites peromysci was the most prevalent and varied seasonally from 12.3% in November to 36.0% in July. Prevalence was higher in adults (30.8%) than juveniles (4.6%) and there were no statistical differences in prevalence or intensity between the sexes. Overall the distribution was random; the relationship between log variance and log mean of P. peromysci intensity from 17 sites was not significantly different from unity. There were significant relationships between infection and breeding condition, suggesting parasites could be the cause of reduced female breeding. A generalized linear model found the likelihood of P. peromysci infection in adults increased with body mass, the presence of other helminths, and when hosts were in breeding condition. Likewise, the intensity of infection was positively related to co-infections and body mass. Pterygodermatites peromysci infection was associated with the presence of the oxyurid nematode Syphacia peromysci but co-infection was lower in females than males. Amongst females, co-infection was greater when breeding, particularly during lactation. The P. peromysci age-intensity relationship increased with age and rose to an asymptote as expected for a parasite with constant mortality and no acquired immunity. Overall, P. peromysci had a random distribution and was associated with reduced breeding; we discuss how these destabilizing processes may influence the dynamics of P. leucopus. PMID:19409901

Vandegrift, Kurt J; Hudson, Peter J

2009-09-01

67

Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans, and these showed high prevalences in the rats, the assessment and regular monitoring of infections carried by wild rodents have important roles to play in public health. PMID:22397763

2012-01-01

68

Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus) in the Belgrade area (Serbia): the effect of sex, age and habitat*  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control). Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris) and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna). The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%). Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host. PMID:21678796

Kataranovski, M.; Mirkov, I.; Belij, S.; Popov, A.; Petrovic, Z.; Gacic, Z.; Kataranovski, D.

2011-01-01

69

Helicobacter spp. in wild mice (Peromyscus leucopus) found in laboratory animal facilities.  

PubMed

Wild rodents are a potential source for pathogen introduction into laboratory animal research facilities. A study was designed to assess wild mice found at our institution by infectious disease surveillance. Wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were captured with live capture traps placed in areas in which wild mice had been reported in several animal facilities. Captured animals were euthanized by inhalation of CO(2), blood was collected by cardiocentesis (n = 10), and necropsy was performed (n = 8). Serum samples were negative for antibodies to mouse parvovirus (types 1 and 2), mouse minute virus, Sendai virus, pneumonia virus of mice, mouse hepatitis virus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, reovirus, rotavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, mouse adenovirus, ectromelia virus, K virus, cilia-associated respiratory bacillus, and Mycoplasma pulmonis. Of the 8 animals that were necropsied, pelt and cecal examinations were negative for ectoparasites and pinworms, respectively. Histopathologic examination of brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, and small intestine revealed bacteria morphologically compatible with Helicobacter spp. in the cecal and colonic glands and occasionally in the gastric lumen and pits. Mesenteric lymph nodes and feces from 8 of the animals were submitted for PCR analysis for the detection of mouse parvovirus, mouse minute virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and Helicobacter spp.; 7 of the samples were PCR-positive for Helicobacter spp. At this time, wild mice found in our animal facilities do not appear to be a significant source of common laboratory mouse viral pathogens. However, they are a potential source of Helicobacter infections. PMID:19930823

Dyson, Melissa C; Eaton, Kathryn A; Chang, Cherie

2009-11-01

70

Enterobius vermicularis worm granuloma mimicking like a pseudo tumor in the anal canal: An unusual clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Enterobius vermicularis is one of the most common intestinal nematode worldwide. Enterobius rarely causes a symptomatic disease. We report here an unusual case of a 60-year old man who came with a polypoidal growth in the anal canal increasing in size for past 20 years. He had pain and intense itching over the mass. The differential diagnosis of squamous papilloma, fibroma and foreign body granuloma were considered. The mass lesion was excised surgically and sent to the pathology laboratory. The mass turned out to be an “E. vermicularis worm granuloma” by histopathologic examination. Thus, timely reporting and surgical resection of such lesion is necessary to prevent further complications. This case is reported here for the unusual presentation of pinworm as a pseudoneoplasm in the anal canal. Incidence of these cases reflected the poor personal hygiene and improper disposal of human excreta in the rural areas. We insist that health education is the only way to control the spread of helminthic infections that causes a heavy disease burden to our country. PMID:23767020

Bharathi, K; Anuradha, S; Chandrasekar, VC Ajay; Thirunarayanan, R

2012-01-01

71

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.  

PubMed

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

72

Epidemiological differences of lower urinary tract symptoms among female subpopulations and group level interventions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: 1) To study the risk factor profiles of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among adolescent girls, housewives and working women and its socioeconomic and quality of life losses. 2) To undertake risk factor modifications using the adolescent girls. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional descriptive study followed by educational intervention. Statistical Methods: Cluster sampling, Proportions, confidence intervals, Chi square and t-Tests and Logistic regression. Materials and Methods: House to house survey was done in two villages and one urban ward. Seventy-five housewives, 75 working women and 180 adolescent girls were asked about the risk factors and losses due to LUTS. Three teams of adolescent girls were utilized to bring about behavioral modifications. Impact was measured through user perspectives obtained from the participants. Results: Risk factors, social, economic and quality of life losses were different among the three female populations. Overall prevalence of LUTS among the three groups is 61(18.5%). Improper anal washing technique, malnutrition, presence of vaginal discharge, use of unsanitary menstrual pads, pinworm infestation and use of bad toilets were the significant causes among girls. Presence of sexually transmitted diseases was a contributing factor among housewives and working women. Prolonged sitting the posture was also contributing to LUTS among working women. Seventy-four per cent of beneficiaries expressed that intervention is useful. Conclusions: The causes for LUTS and their consequences were differing among the three female subpopulations. Specific group level interventions using trained girls were successful. PMID:19468505

Avasarala, Kameswararao Atchuta; Ahmed, Syed Meraj; Nandagiri, Sujatha; Tadisetty, Swati

2008-01-01

73

The New Method Developed for Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity by Housefly Worms and Compared with Conventional Earthworm Method  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of any drug when carried out in laboratory conditions by using the isolated worms from nature cannot be adaptable with artificial laboratory conditions. Therefore, the present study aims at developing a new adaptable method for evaluation of anthelmintic activity. The present anthelmintic activity study reveals a new methodology with housefly worms cultured in laboratory conditions that resemble parasitic pinworms found in human being. We studied the anthelmintic activities of various drugs on housefly worms and earthworms. The results showed that the housefly worms had taken more time for paralysis and death. Even after paralysis the time taken for death is more in housefly worms in spite of smaller size and lesser weight of the worms compared to earthworms. The study concluded that the earthworms have not adapted to the artificial laboratory conditions leading to erratic results. Therefore, culturing of housefly worms was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity and found an easy, prominent, eco-friendly, and reproducible method in all aspects such as equal age, size, and weight of worms used for the experiment. PMID:22530145

Murugamani, V.; Raju, L.; Anand Raj, V. Baskar; Sarma kataki, Manjir; Sankar, G. Girija

2012-01-01

74

Palaeopathology and genes: investigating the genetics of infectious diseases in excavated human skeletal remains and mummies from past populations.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to review the use of genetics in palaeomicrobiology, and to highlight the importance of understanding past diseases. Palaeomicrobiology is the study of disease pathogens in skeletal and mummified remains from archaeological contexts. It has revolutionarised our understanding of health in the past by enabling a deeper knowledge of the origins and evolution of many diseases that have shaped us as a species. Bacterial diseases explored include tuberculosis, leprosy, bubonic plague, typhoid, syphilis, endemic and epidemic typhus, trench fever, and Helicobacter pylori. Viral diseases discussed include influenza, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Parasitic diseases investigated include malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, roundworm, whipworm, pinworm, Chinese liver fluke, fleas and lice. Through a better understanding of disease origins and their evolution, we can place into context how many infectious diseases are changing over time, and so help us estimate how they may change in the future. PMID:23792062

Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

2013-10-01

75

Influence of habitat modification on the intestinal helminth community ecology of cottontail rabbit populations.  

PubMed

The influence of five brush management treatments using the herbicides tebuthiuron and triclopyr, with or without prescribed burning, on the intestinal helminth community of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied in 1987 on the Cross Timbers Experimental Range in Payne County, Oklahoma (USA). Six helminth species were found (Dermatoxys veligera, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonanulatus, Wellcomia longejector, Taenia pisiformis cystercercus, and Mosgovoyia pectinata americana) in 102 rabbits (88 adult and 14 juveniles) collected over two seasons (winter and summer). Prevalence of M. pectinata americana in cottontail rabbits was significantly greater in untreated control pastures than herbicide treated pastures in winter, while prevalence of T. pisiformis was significantly greater in burned than unburned pastures. Abundances of helminth species in the intestinal tract of cottontail rabbits were unaffected by brush treatments. Mosgovoyia pectinata americana abundance demonstrated a highly significant increase from winter to summer; conversely, abundance of all oxyurid pinworms combined (D. veligera, P. nonanulatus, W. longejector) was significantly higher in winter than summer. Helminth community dynamics were significantly influenced by season, but were unaffected by brush treatments. Habitat modification could have influenced cestode transmission by altering the ecology of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. PMID:2338720

Boggs, J F; McMurry, S T; Leslie, D M; Engle, D M; Lochmiller, R L

1990-04-01

76

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

77

Ozone-induced changes in host-plant suitability: interactions of Keiferia lycopersicella and Lycopersicon esculentum  

SciTech Connect

Tomato pinworms, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), survived better and developed faster on tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., damaged by ozone than on plants not subjected to ozone fumigation. Other measures of fitness, including survival during pupation, sex ratio of adults, female longevity, and fecundity, were not affected. Analyses of ozonated foliage at zero, two and seven days following fumigation demonstrated a transient but significant increase (18-24%) in soluble protein concentration. Although the concentration of the total free amino acids in ozonated foliage did not increase significantly, significant changes were observed in at least 10 specific amino acids, some of which are critical for either insect development or the production of plant defensive chemicals. A reduction in total nitrogen in ozonated foliage at seven days postfumigation indicated that nitrogen was being translocated to other portions of the plant. The implications of increases in assimilable forms of nitrogen in ozonated foliage, which lead to improved host-plant suitability for insect herbivores, are discussed both in relation to some current ecological theories and in regard to pest-management strategies. 59 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Trumble, J.T.; Hare, J.D.; Musselman, R.C.; McCool, P.M.

1987-01-01

78

Critical test evaluation (1977-1992) of drug efficacy against endoparasites featuring benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles (population S) in Shetland ponies.  

PubMed

Several compounds (n = 13 single or combinations; most at therapeutic dosages) were evaluated between 1977 and 1992 in critical tests (n = 91) against benzimidazole (BZ) resistant small strongyles (Population S) and several other species of internal parasites in Shetland ponies, mostly under 1 year old. The closed breeding herd, from which the test ponies were selected, had been treated every 8 weeks with cambendazole (CBZ) for 4 years (1974-1978) and oxibendazole (OBZ) for 14 years (1978-1992). Published field test data (1974-1992) on older ponies in the herd showed BZ resistance of small strongyles. Average efficacies in the present critical tests against small strongyles for OBZ (n = 59 animals) were high in early years (95% or higher), but gradually declined to a low of 1% in 1991. Side-resistance of small strongyles was evident in critical tests (n = 1-6/single drug or combination) for several other BZs and a pro-BZ; ivermectin and piperazine were highly active, but pyrantel pamoate exhibited weak activity. BZ resistance was evident for six small strongyle species (Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicocylus nassatus, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, and Cylicostephanus longibursatus). Activity on bots, ascarids, large strongyles, and pinworms was essentially as expected, indicating no drug resistance. PMID:8988557

Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Stamper, S; Swerczek, T W; Granstrom, D E

1996-11-01

79

A study (1977-1992) of population dynamics of endoparasites featuring benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles (population S) in Shetland ponies.  

PubMed

Critical tests (91) were done between 1977 and 1992 in Shetland ponies to evaluate drug susceptibility and population dynamics (present paper) of endoparasites. The test ponies, most less than 1 year old, were from a herd where older animals were treated every 8 weeks initially with cambendazole (CBZ) (1974-1978) and then with oxibendazole (OBZ) (1978-1992). Previous field test data (1974-1992) on older ponies in the breeding herd indicated the presence of benzimidazole (BZ) resistant small strongyles. Data on population dynamics from the present critical tests indicated that 28 species of small strongyles persisted over the study period in spite of initial susceptibility and later refractiveness of six species to both CBZ and OBZ. Changes in intensities and other aspects were observed for the six BZ-resistant species (Cyathostomum catinatium, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, and Cylicostephanus longibursatus). Variabilities, some striking, were found in prevalence and intensity in bots, stomach worms, ascarids, eyeworms, large strongyles, pinworms and tapeworms. PMID:8988558

Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Stamper, S; Swerczek, T W; Granstrom, D E

1996-11-01

80

Helminth infections in Apodemus sylvaticus in southern England: interactive effects of host age, sex and year on the prevalence and abundance of infections.  

PubMed

Helminth parasites were studied in the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, in southern England in September of each of four successive years (1994-1997). Nine species of helminths were recorded: five nematodes (Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia stroma, Pelodera strongyloides, Trichuris muris, Capillaria murissylvatici), two cestodes (Microsomacanthus crenata, Taenia taeniaeformis) and two trematodes (Corrigia vitta, Brachylaemus recurvum). In total, 134 mice were examined and 91.8% carried at least one species of helminth. The majority of mice carried two to three species (60.5%) and the highest combination was six of the nine species recorded in the study. The patterns of between-year variations in the prevalence and abundance of infection were different for each of the six species for which sufficient quantitative data were available to enable statistical analysis. For H. polygyrus, the most important source of variation arose from between-year differences, host age and the interaction of these factors: abundance increased with host age but in 1995 the age pattern was markedly different from that in the remaining years. The abundance of C. vitta also varied significantly between years but additionally there was a strong independent age effect. For M. crenata, the year x age interaction was significant, indicating that abundance among different age cohorts varied from year to year but there was also a weak significant main effect of age arising from the youngest age cohort carrying no parasites and the oldest age cohort the heaviest infections. For P. strongyloides the only significant factor was between-year variation with 1995 being a year of exceptionally low prevalence and abundance of infection. No significant between-year variation was detected for S. stroma but there was a strong sex effect (males carrying heavier infections) and an age effect (older mice of both sexes carrying heavier infections). The abundance of Trichuris muris varied only in relation to host age, worm burdens growing in intensity with increasing age, but there was also a significant interaction between year and host sex with respect to prevalence. For the remaining three species, the prevalence of infections was too low (< 8.2%) to enable any meaningful interpretation. This analysis emphasizes the need for carefully controlled statistical procedures in aiding the interpretation and the prioritization of the factors affecting worm burdens in wild rodents. PMID:10431369

Behnke, J M; Lewis, J W; Zain, S N; Gilbert, F S

1999-03-01

81

Pyrvinium attenuates hedgehog signaling downstream of smoothened.  

PubMed

The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway represents an important class of emerging developmental signaling pathways that play critical roles in the genesis of a large number of human cancers. The pharmaceutical industry is currently focused on developing small molecules targeting Smoothened (Smo), a key signaling effector of the HH pathway that regulates the levels and activity of the Gli family of transcription factors. Although one of these compounds, vismodegib, is now FDA-approved for patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma, acquired mutations in Smo can result in rapid relapse. Furthermore, many cancers also exhibit a Smo-independent activation of Gli proteins, an observation that may underlie the limited efficacy of Smo inhibitors in clinical trials against other types of cancer. Thus, there remains a critical need for HH inhibitors with different mechanisms of action, particularly those that act downstream of Smo. Recently, we identified the FDA-approved anti-pinworm compound pyrvinium as a novel, potent (IC50, 10 nmol/L) casein kinase-1? (CK1?) agonist. We show here that pyrvinium is a potent inhibitor of HH signaling, which acts by reducing the stability of the Gli family of transcription factors. Consistent with CK1? agonists acting on these most distal components of the HH signaling pathway, pyrvinium is able to inhibit the activity of a clinically relevant, vismodegib -resistant Smo mutant, as well as the Gli activity resulting from loss of the negative regulator suppressor of fused. We go on to demonstrate the utility of this small molecule in vivo, against the HH-dependent cancer medulloblastoma, attenuating its growth and reducing the expression of HH biomarkers. Cancer Res; 74(17); 4811-21. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24994715

Li, Bin; Fei, Dennis Liang; Flaveny, Colin A; Dahmane, Nadia; Baubet, Valérie; Wang, Zhiqiang; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Hang, Brian; Orton, Darren; Han, Lu; Wang, Baolin; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lee, Ethan; Robbins, David J

2014-09-01

82

[Oxyuriasis and prehistoric migrations].  

PubMed

Parasite findings in archeological material have made it possible to trace the dispersion of infectious agents and their human hosts in ancient times. These findings allow us to re-examine theories proposed at the beginning of the century concerning transpacific contacts that Asian populations may have had with South America. This has been the case, for example, with hookworm eggs found in archeological material dating up to 7,000 years before present. Because of the increase in scientific production in this area, it has now become necessary to undertake syntheses that assess the state of the art and propose workable paleoepidemological models of the prehistoric dispersion of human parasitoses. Based on findings of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in archeological material in the Americas, the present study is an effort in this direction. Unlike the hookworm, the pinworm does not require a soil cycle in order to be transmitted from one host to another, thereby meaning that its persistence in a given human population does not depend on climatic conditions. Thus, it could have been brought from the old to the new continent, possibly by human migrations across the Bering Strait. This may explain the greater geographical dispersion and dissemination of these findings in North America from 10,000 yrs B.P. till today. In South America, on the other hand, archeological findings have only confirmed existence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs within the Andean region, with findings located specifically in Chile and northern Argentina. Although a large number of samples have been examined, no such eggs have been found in coprolites in Brazil. The paper discusses models that account for the known distribution of this parasitosis in prehistoric populations. PMID:11625244

Araújo, A; Ferreira, L F

1995-01-01