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1

Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

2003-01-01

2

Characterization of Rat Pinworm (Syphacia muris) Epidemiology as a Means to Increase Detection and Elimination.  

PubMed

Rodent pinworms persist in many institutions, suggesting deficiencies in eradication and diagnostic processes. When pinworms are detected, treatment success is common, but false-negative test results during health surveillance or after treatment likely contribute to the continued presence of this parasite. PCR testing is not always practical, and increased information regarding the life cycle and general epidemiology of pinworm infestations could improve the sensitivity of traditional nonPCR detection methods and improve eradication efforts. We therefore investigated a pinworm (Syphacia muris) infestation in Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) to develop a more accurate testing strategy. In addition, we sought to determine the duration of egg viability by using an in vitro hatching protocol to assess environmental persistence. Finally, we tested the ovicidal efficacy of a disinfectant used at our institution. Eggs were shed in higher numbers in the midafternoon as compared with other times of the day, and the sex of the host had no consistent effect on egg shedding. Egg shedding showed periodicity over time, with shedding decreasing to 0 at 2- to 3-wk intervals. Neither cecal examination nor tape tests alone reliably predicted pinworm infestation, and results of the 2 tests did not necessarily coincide. Eggs aged for as long as 7 mo remained viable, indicating a potential for recontamination from the environment. Finally, gaseous chlorine dioxide was an effective ovicidal agent, with a kill rate of 99.7%. These results suggest that strategies for S. muris eradication can be optimized to increase detection and elimination. PMID:25650973

Meade, Theresa M; Watson, Julie

2014-01-01

3

Pinworms  

MedlinePLUS

Pinworms are small worms that infect the intestines. ... Pinworms are the most common worm infection in the United States. They are most common in school-age children. Pinworm eggs are spread directly from person to ...

4

Diagnosis of the pinworm Syphacia muris in the Wistar rat Rattus norvegicus.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare three qualitative parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Syphacia muris infection in 30 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) infected naturally. Methods of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman, Pons and Janer, or HPJ) and spontaneous flotation (Willis) for faecal samples and a method of taping (Graham) were performed and compared. The Graham and Willis methods were more sensitive than the HPJ method (P< 0.05). The Graham method was able to detect S. muris eggs in 100% of the samples. Eggs were detected in 83% and 60% of the samples using the Willis and HPJ methods, respectively. Method choice is important for screening for parasites of rats kept under laboratory conditions, as accurate diagnosis helps prevent future environmental contamination and infection. We concluded that the Graham method was the most efficient of those tested in this study for detection of S. muris infection in rats. This method is also rapid, inexpensive and practical, and should be implemented as a necessary measure for infection control. PMID:25327496

Sousa, J E N; Carvalho, E F G; Levenhagen, M A; Chaves, L A; Costa-Cruz, J M

2014-10-20

5

Pinworm Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... the pinworm—egg, larva (immature stage), and mature worm—takes place inside the human body and requires ... barely noticeable. The movement of egg-laden female worms from your anus to deposit their eggs will ...

6

Pinworm (for Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Pinworm KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Parasitic Infections (Worms, Lice, etc.) > Pinworm Print ...

7

Exposure to Chlorine Dioxide Gas for 4 Hours Renders Syphacia Ova Nonviable  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. PMID:25199091

Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

2014-01-01

8

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

9

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

10

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

11

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... Back To Top Should family and other close contacts of someone with pinworm also be treated for ... health care provider. Print page Get email updates Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...

12

21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used for the treatment of Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) in laboratory mice. (2) It is administered in distilled water as sole source of drinking water continuously for 7 to 14 days at 1.67...

2013-04-01

13

21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used for the treatment of Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) in laboratory mice. (2) It is administered in distilled water as sole source of drinking water continuously for 7 to 14 days at 1.67...

2014-04-01

14

21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used for the treatment of Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) in laboratory mice. (2) It is administered in distilled water as sole source of drinking water continuously for 7 to 14 days at 1.67...

2012-04-01

15

21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used for the treatment of Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) in laboratory mice. (2) It is administered in distilled water as sole source of drinking water continuously for 7 to 14 days at 1.67...

2011-04-01

16

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

17

Detection of pinworm eggs in the dust of laboratory animals breeding facility, in the cages and on the hands of the technicians.  

PubMed

Pinworms (Nematoda: Oxyurida) are common contaminants in most laboratory rodent colonies. The aim of the study was to monitor the transmission of Syphacia muris eggs in laboratory rat breeding facilities. Dust in a breeding room was investigated using special grids (free fallout, or through the help suction chamber). Furthermore, the ventilation system, breeding cages and the hands of the laboratory technical staff were examined. In the case of free fallout, the percentage of positive grids increased slightly over time: from 5.5% (after 24 h) to 8.2% (72 h). Similar values were also found when using the suction chamber (7.6%). Many more pinworm eggs were found in samples collected every second month from suction holes of the ventilation system (28.7%). One-half of the samples taken from the breeding cages (before washing) exhibited pinworm eggs (50.8%). Examination of the hands of technical staff showed positive detection in 37.9% of cases. In this study, certain transmission factors (dust, unclean cages and technicians) were proved to be significant in the distribution of pinworm infection in laboratory rodent facilities. PMID:23230226

Lytvynets, A; Langrova, I; Lachout, J; Vadlejch, J

2013-01-01

18

[On the biology of the pinworm.  

PubMed

Pinworm Enterobius spp. has probably been an endemic parasite in humans in Iceland since the colonization of the country more than 1100 years ago. A recent survey on pinworm infections in children in playschools indicated that the pinworm is quite common. The results are published in another article in this issue. In this contribution general knowledge on the biology of the parasite (taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life-cycle, transmission, diagnosis and treatment) is reviewed. Recently, dozens of male pinworms found in a stool sample were identified as Enterobius gregorii. Since no other species identifications have been made in Iceland so far, it is not known if the other pinworm species E. vermicularis also occurs in Iceland. PMID:19667431

Skirnisson, Karl

1998-01-01

19

Two new species of Syphacia (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in endemic murid rodents from Sulawesi, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Two new species of Syphacia (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) are described from endemic murids of Sulawesi, Indonesia: Syphacia (Syphacia) taeromyos sp. n. and S. (S.) paruromyos sp. n. parasitic in the caecum of Taeromys celebensis and Paruromys dominator, respectively. They are readily distinguished from all of the congeners recorded from Indonesia-Australian regions by having a round cephalic plate, vesicular lateral alae in the male, posteriorly positioned excretory pore in the male, and/or lacking cervical alae. Syphacia (S.) paruromyos differs from S. (S.) taeromyos by having a whip-like tail appendage in the male, longer relative distance between excretory pore and vulva, and larger eggs. The round cephalic plate in both sexes and developed vesicular lateral alae in the male are morphological traits common in endemic Syphacia species hitherto known from Sulawesi murids, suggesting that they have derived from a common ancestor and evolved with their hosts in the isolated insular environment. PMID:23110941

Dewi, K; Hasegawa, H

2014-03-01

20

A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.  

PubMed

Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini. PMID:24995650

Robles, María del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

2014-11-01

21

Fatal infection with human pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis, in a captive chimpanzee.  

PubMed

A fatal infection with human pinworms, Enterobius vermicularis, was found in a 26-year-old chimpanzee kept in a zoo. Grossly, the animal was highly emaciated, and had severe enteritis with cecal multifocal nodules and severe cholelithiasis. Histopathologically, a large number of human pinworms were observed in the nodular lesions in the cecum and intestinal wall. These migrating worms were surrounded by an inflammatory cell infiltration which lacked eosinophils. There were areas of multifocal hyperemia and/or hemorrhages in various organs including the entire gastrointestinal tract. Pinworms were also observed in the portal venule and parenchyma of the liver. A light infection with Strongyloides cf. stercoralis was also observed. PMID:12110054

Murata, K; Hasegawa, H; Nakano, T; Noda, A; Yanai, T

2002-04-01

22

Pinworms—Incidence, Predictability and Treatment with Thiabendazole  

PubMed Central

One hundred-ninety-two children, ages 2 to 16 years, selected from the outpatient department medical clinic without regard to presenting complaint were examined by conventional cellulose tape specimens obtained at home. Twenty-four per cent of the patients were found to have pinworm ova present. The physicians seeing the last 84 patients were asked to estimate the likelihood of enterobiasis in these children. By various means from history, physical examination or blood cell differential counts, estimates were slightly better than by chance. Treatment of 185 patients in a random fashion with placebo, thiabendazole and pyrvinium pamoate resulted in negative tests three weeks after therapy, in 15, 92 and 95 per cent of patients, respectively. Transient side effects consisting of anorexia and vomiting were noted in all three groups, but were most pronounced in adults receiving thiabendazole. PMID:6062278

Knowles, John A.; Ezekiel, S. George

1967-01-01

23

Evaluation of some plants used in Turkish folk medicine against parasitic infections for their in vivo anthelmintic activity.  

PubMed

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from nine plant species from seven families selected depending on their use in Turkish folk medicine, including Citrillus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. (seed), Jasminum fruticans L. (branches), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (fruits), Juniperus nana L. (fruit and leaves), Juniperus oxcycedrus L (fruit and leaves), Mentha longifolia L. (herba), Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Richt. (fruits), Plantago lanceolata L. (leaves), and Zea mays L. (seed) were evaluated for their in vivo anthelmintic activity. Among the plant extracts studied, both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Jasminum fruticans, Mentha longifolia and Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana, the aqueous extracts of Zea mays, the ethanolic extracts of Citrillus lanatus, Juniperus drupacea (fruit), Juniperus oxcycedrus and Plantago lanceolata displayed significant anthelmintic activity against pinworms, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, in mice. Rest of the extracts from plants did not show any remarkable anthelmintic activity. The results were considered significant at p<0.05. PMID:16790330

Kozan, Esma; Küpeli, Esra; Yesilada, Erdem

2006-11-24

24

Shape patterns of genital papillae in pinworms (Enterobiinae, Oxyurida, Nematoda) parasite of primates: a landmark analysis.  

PubMed

The Enterobiinae includes 47 species of pinworms parasite of primates. A previous cladistic analysis of this subfamily supported its monophyly and its subdivision into three genera. Based on morphological characters, this cladistic analysis excluded characters describing the shape of the genital papillae of male pinworms, because the corresponding patterns could not be described using discrete characters. In this study, the shape of the genital papillae of the males of 35 within the 47 species is analyzed using geometric morphometric approaches. The aims of this study are to investigate: (i) the relationships between the phylogeny and the shape patterns of the caudal bursa, (ii) the shape differences between and within monophyletic groups, and (iii) the functional implications of the shape patterns observed within the subfamily. Results demonstrate that different patterns of evolution of the caudal bursa, each one characterized by a particular spatial distribution of the phasmids and genital papillae may be recognized, which are consistent with the classification of the Enterobiinae into three groups. On the whole, these patterns may be related to particular mating behavior of the pinworms. When incongruence is observed between shape patterns distribution and species distribution into monophyletic groups, they are found to correspond to homoplasic events. This suggests that convergent selective pressures are involved in the evolution of the shape of the genital papillae. This analysis also confirms that morphometric shape patterns cannot be interpreted unequivocally without the support of a pre-existing phylogenetic framework. PMID:17008135

Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Baylac, Michel

2007-03-01

25

Pinworm test  

MedlinePLUS

Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to determine if there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on 3 separate ...

26

Host specificity shapes population structure of pinworm parasites in Caribbean reptiles.  

PubMed

Host specificity is one of the potential factors affecting parasite diversification because gene flow may be facilitated or constrained by the number of host species that a parasite can exploit. We test this hypothesis using a costructure approach, comparing two sympatric pinworm parasites that differ in host specificity - Parapharyngodon cubensis and Spauligodon anolis - on the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix in the Caribbean. Spauligodon anolis specializes on Anolis lizards, whereas P. cubensis parasitizes Anolis lizards as well as many other species of lizards and snakes. We collected lizards from across the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix, sampled them for S. anolis and P. cubensis and generated nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from the parasites. We used these data to show that P. cubensis is comprised of multiple cryptic species that exhibit limited population structure relative to S. anolis, which is consistent with our prediction based on their host specificity. We also provide evidence that the distribution of P. cubensis species is maintained by competitive exclusion, and in contrast to previous theoretical work, the parasites with the greatest number of host species also reach the highest prevalence rates. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that host specificity shapes parasite diversification, and suggest that even moderate differences in host specificity may contribute to substantial differences in diversification. PMID:23848187

Falk, Bryan G; Perkins, Susan L

2013-09-01

27

The systematics and evolution of pinworms (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from invertebrates.  

PubMed

The nematode order Oxyurida is unique in including species for which definitive host ranges are broad and may include vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. The superfamily Thelastomatoidea is a highly diverse assemblage of oxyurids occurring in cockroaches, diplopods, hydrophilid beetles, passalid beetles, several other coleopteran larvae, mole crickets, and, with few representative species documented, other arthropod hosts. Published research and revision of the Thelastomatoidea, particularly in the 1980s and 1990s, provided several interesting hypotheses on the systematics and evolution of this group. In this review, these hypotheses are examined in the context of recent advances in taxonomy, discovery of additional species diversity and distribution, and preliminary phylogenetic hypotheses that have been proposed. There continues to remain a paucity of phylogenetic data that explore the phylogenetic relationships of the Thelastomatoidea and their relationships to vertebrate-parasitizing pinworms. A combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences for representative species across all of the major lineages will be important for more robust phylogenetic hypotheses. Much broader geographical and host taxon sampling is necessary to determine true diversity of the Thelastomatoidea. Modern approaches to species descriptions, such as improvements in light and scanning electron microscopy and the use of molecular approaches to matching male and female nematodes, can also be applied to improve our understanding of the evolution of these fascinating parasites. PMID:24842083

Carreno, Ramon A

2014-10-01

28

False-positive results after environmental pinworm PCR testing due to Rhabditid nematodes in Corncob bedding.  

PubMed

Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and -negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980

Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

2014-11-01

29

Assessing European Egg Parasitoids as a Mean of Controlling the Invasive South American Tomato Pinworm Tuta absoluta  

PubMed Central

The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

30

An Ecological Study of Helminths of Some Wyoming Voles (Microtus spp.) with a Description of a New Species of Nematospiroides (Heligmosomidae: Nematoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological and taxonomic study of the helminth parasites of voles (Microtus spp.) in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming is reported.\\u000aNematospiroides microti n. sp. from Microtus montanus nanus and M. richardsoni macropus is described and figured.\\u000aA cestode, Paranoplocephala infrequens, and a nematode, Syphacia obvelata, were generally distributed throughout the region in all habitats except the sage flats.

Merle L. Kuns; Robert L. Rausch

1950-01-01

31

Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites biodiversity of Rattus rattus trapped from Khan Younis and Jabalia in Gaza strip, Palestine.  

PubMed

This study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of Rattus rattus. A total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and Norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of Gaza strip. After dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. The results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. A high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to other seasons. The intestinal parasites were encountered: G. lamblia 6 (14.6%); E. histolytica/dispar 7 (17.1%); Isospora 4 (9.8%); Acanthocephala 1 (2.4%); Syphacia obvelata 6 (20%); Heligmonoides josephi 3(10%); Strongyloides egg 1 (2.4%); Hymenolepis diminuta 15 (36.6%). The insects were Xenopsylla cheopis 7 (17.1%); Polyplax spinulosa 3 (7.3%). PMID:23697031

Al Hindi, Adnan Ibrahim; Abu-Haddaf, Eman

2013-04-01

32

Intestinal Nematodes from Small Mammals Captured near the Demilitarized Zone, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK. PMID:25748722

Kim, Deok-Gyu; Park, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Lip; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Jeon, Sarah Jiyoun; Lim, Hyemi; Lee, Mi Youn; Shin, Eun-Hee; Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chai, Jong-Yil

2015-01-01

33

Intestinal Nematodes from Small Mammals Captured near the Demilitarized Zone, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.  

PubMed

A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK. PMID:25748722

Kim, Deok-Gyu; Park, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Lip; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Jeon, Sarah Jiyoun; Lim, Hyemi; Lee, Mi Youn; Shin, Eun-Hee; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chai, Jong-Yil

2015-02-01

34

[Helminths of some laboratory animals detected by necropsy and fecal examination].  

PubMed

A study was performed in order to determine helminths of laboratory animals. Fecal specimens obtained from 110 mice, 263 rats and 65 rabbits were investigated and 37 rats and 7 rabbits were necropsied. In general, 83.8% rats were found to be infected by necropsy, while 100% of mice,and 81.8% of rats were found to be infected with one or more helminths species by fecal examination. No rabbits were found to be infected by necropsy or fecal examination. In fecal examination of mice and rats, the prevalence of helminths was detected as follows: Syphacia muris, 100%; Aspicularis tetraptera, 53.6%; Syphacia obvelata, 46.4%; and Hymenolepis diminuta 17.9% in mice. The prevalence in rats was H. Diminuta, 62.5%; S. muris, 25%; Hymenolepis nana, 6.8%; and Trichosomoides crassicauda, 6.8%. In necropsy, S. muris was identified in all of infected rats, but only one was infected with A. tetraptera. PMID:20597054

Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükba?, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

2010-01-01

35

A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) in Kermanshah, Iran  

PubMed Central

Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%), 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%), and five Rattus rattus (4.00%). The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%), Syphacia obvelata (13.76%), Syphacia muris (2.89%), Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%), Heterakis spumosa (5.07%), Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%), Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%), and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%). Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health. PMID:25653780

Pakdel, Norollah; Naem, Soraya; Rezaei, Farid; Chalehchaleh, Abdol-Ali

2013-01-01

36

Chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain: pin the pinworm.  

PubMed

Enterobius vermicularis is the most common helminthic infection in the US. It is usually considered an innocuous parasite that at the most causes perianal itching. We report a case of an 84-year-old female patient from an assisted living facility who presented with symptoms of colitis for 2 months. On detailed history and exam, she was found to have E. vermicularis infection. All her symptoms resolved dramatically within 2 days after a single dose of albendazole. We want to emphasize the importance of including parasitic infections such as E. vermicularis in the differential diagnoses of patients presenting with symptoms of colitis. PMID:19219921

Rajamanickam, Anitha; Usmani, Ali; Suri, Sanjeev; Dimov, Vesselin

2009-02-01

37

Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia.  

PubMed Central

A 13-month study of wild mice (Mus domesticus) in wheatlands in southeastern Australia contrasted changes in the seroprevalence of antibody to 13 viruses and the occurrence of helminths with changes in their population dynamics. Mice were seropositive for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), rotavirus, minute virus of mice (MVM), mouse adenovirus (MAdV), reovirus (reo 3), and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The seroprevalences of all but rotavirus varied significantly with time and increased with host density. Near the end of the study, host density declined rapidly and the seroprevalence of MVM and reo 3 increased significantly. These two viruses had low seroprevalence when host survival was high and high seroprevalence when host survival was low, indicating they may play a role in regulating mouse populations. In the case of MVM, there was evidence of a viral epizootic during the decline in mouse abundance. The prevalence of four helminths (Taenia taeniaeformis, Syphacia obvelata, and Vampirolepis spp.) differed significantly with time but showed no apparent association with host density. These findings highlight the need for further study on the effect of viruses on the population dynamics of mice. PMID:8472782

Singleton, G. R.; Smith, A. L.; Shellam, G. R.; Fitzgerald, N.; Müller, W. J.

1993-01-01

38

Repurposing the FDA-Approved Pinworm Drug Pyrvinium as a Novel Chemotherapeutic Agent for Intestinal Polyposis  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the WNT-pathway regulator ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI (APC) promote aberrant activation of the WNT pathway that is responsible for APC-associated diseases such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and 85% of spontaneous colorectal cancers (CRC). FAP is characterized by multiple intestinal adenomas, which inexorably result in CRC. Surprisingly, given their common occurrence, there are few effective chemotherapeutic drugs for FAP. Here we show that the FDA-approved, anti-helminthic drug Pyrvinium attenuates the growth of WNT-dependent CRC cells and does so via activation of CK1?. Furthermore, we show that Pyrvinium can function as an in vivo inhibitor of WNT-signaling and polyposis in a mouse model of FAP: APCmin mice. Oral administration of Pyrvinium, a CK1? agonist, attenuated the levels of WNT-driven biomarkers and inhibited adenoma formation in APCmin mice. Considering its well-documented safe use for treating enterobiasis in humans, our findings suggest that Pyrvinium could be repurposed for the clinical treatment of APC-associated polyposes. PMID:25003333

Giambelli, Camilla; Fei, Dennis Liang; Han, Lu; Hang, Brian I.; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Nose, Vania; Burlingame, Oname; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Orton, Darren; Lee, Ethan; Robbins, David J.

2014-01-01

39

21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be treated unless otherwise advised. See Warnings. If any worms other than pinworms are present before or after treatment, consult a doctor. If any symptoms or pinworms are still...

2010-04-01

40

21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be treated unless otherwise advised. See Warnings. If any worms other than pinworms are present before or after treatment, consult a doctor. If any symptoms or pinworms are still...

2011-04-01

41

21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be treated unless otherwise advised. See Warnings. If any worms other than pinworms are present before or after treatment, consult a doctor. If any symptoms or pinworms are still...

2014-04-01

42

21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be treated unless otherwise advised. See Warnings. If any worms other than pinworms are present before or after treatment, consult a doctor. If any symptoms or pinworms are still...

2012-04-01

43

21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be treated unless otherwise advised. See Warnings. If any worms other than pinworms are present before or after treatment, consult a doctor. If any symptoms or pinworms are still...

2013-04-01

44

FLOTAC for diagnosis of endo-parasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the occurrence of endoparasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 50 asymptomatic pet squirrels belonging to five different species (Callosciurus finlaysonii, n=6, C. prevosti, n=6; Tamias striatus, n=26, T. sibiricus, n=10; Sciurus carolinensis, n=2) housed both in pet shops and/or in private residences. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, to detect Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. the samples were analyzed by the Remel Xpect(®) immunoassay. Helminth eggs were detected in 9 out of 50 squirrels. Specifically, eggs of Dicrocoelium dendriticum were found in 5 squirrels (C. finlaysonii, n=2; C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); eggs of the pinworm Syphacia spp. in 3 squirrels (C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); and eggs of gastrointestinal nematoda (Nippostrongylus-like) were found in 1 subject (C. prevosti). Finally, two squirrels (C. prevosti) had multiple parasitic infections with D. dendriticum and Capillaria hepatica, and with D. dendriticum and Strongyloides spp., respectively. None of the samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia spp. or any other protozoa (e.g. Eimeria). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a D. dendriticum natural infection in pet rodents. PMID:24389007

d'Ovidio, D; Rinaldi, L; Ianniello, D; Donnelly, T M; Pepe, P; Capasso, M; Cringoli, G

2014-02-24

45

WHY MUSEUMS MATTER: A TALE OF PINWORMS (OXYUROIDEA: HETEROXYNEMATIDAE) AMONG PIKAS (OCHOTONA PRINCEPS AND O. COLLARIS) IN THE AMERICAN WEST.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Permanent and well supported museum collections provide a solid foundation for the process of systematics research through creation of an empirical record which validates our understanding of the biosphere. We explore the role of museums in ongoing studies of the complex helminth fauna characterist...

46

Travelers' Health: Pertussis  

MedlinePLUS

... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) Chapter 3 - Pinworm (Enterobiasis, Oxyuriasis, Threadworm) Pertussis ... 54 (RR-14):1–16. Chapter 3 - Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) Chapter 3 - Pinworm (Enterobiasis, Oxyuriasis, Threadworm) File ...

47

21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...adult) (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , Triodontophorus spp.), small strongyles (adult and fourth stage larvae) (Cyathostomum spp., Cylicocyclus spp., Cylicostephanus spp.), pinworms (adult and fourth-stage...

2010-04-01

48

21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the treatment and control of bots (Gasterophilus spp. ), large strongyles (Strongylus spp. ), small strongyles (genera Cyathostomum...Oesophagodontus, Poteriostomum ), pinworms (Oxyuris spp., Strongyloides spp. ), and ascarids...

2010-04-01

49

21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...strongyles, pinworms, Strongyloides and ascarids (including members of the genera Strongylus spp., Cyathostomum spp., Cylicobrachytus spp. and related genera Craterostomum spp., Oesophagodontus spp., Poteriostomum spp.,...

2010-04-01

50

Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions in Norwegian children.  

PubMed

Studies investigating the association between Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions have shown conflicting results. This study was conducted to test for any such associations in Norwegian children. Parents were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their children's history of allergies, wheezing or eczema and pinworm infections. Current pinworm infections were diagnosed by microscopic examination of anal scotch tape samples. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Atopic eczema, allergy or wheezing was reported to be confirmed by a physician in 23% of the children (84/364). A possible association between current pinworm infections and food allergy was found, with 17·5% of children without food allergy testing positive for pinworms, compared to 36·8% of children with food allergy (odds ratio 2·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1-8·0). No association was found between past pinworm treatments and present atopic conditions. The association between current E. vermicularis infections and food allergy warrants further study. PMID:24331127

Bøås, H; Tapia, G; Rasmussen, T; Rønningen, K S

2014-10-01

51

21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...i) 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight as single oral dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , S. equinus ); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris...

2010-04-01

52

21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...i) 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight as single oral dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , S. equinus ); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris...

2013-04-01

53

21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...i) 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight as single oral dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , S. equinus ); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris...

2012-04-01

54

21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...i) 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight as single oral dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , S. equinus ); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris...

2011-04-01

55

21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...i) 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight as single oral dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , S. equinus ); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris...

2014-04-01

56

Facial Cleanliness  

MedlinePLUS

... Care: Protect Your Eyes Dental Hygiene "Swimmer’s Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention Print page Get email updates To receive ... Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for Specific Groups Public Public ...

57

21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...roundworms (Parascaris ); pinworms. (Oxyuris ); and threadworms (Strongyloides ). (2) It is administered by stomach tube or as a drench at a dose of 0.9 gram of cambendazole per 100 pounds of body weight (20 milligrams per...

2012-04-01

58

21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi. ) (3) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground grain portion of the ration to be consumed in one feeding. Discard...

2014-04-01

59

21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...roundworms (Parascaris ); pinworms. (Oxyuris ); and threadworms (Strongyloides ). (2) It is administered by stomach tube or as a drench at a dose of 0.9 gram of cambendazole per 100 pounds of body weight (20 milligrams per...

2011-04-01

60

21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi .) (3) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground grain portion of the ration to be consumed in one feeding. Discard...

2013-04-01

61

21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi .) (3) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground grain portion of the ration to be consumed in one feeding. Discard...

2011-04-01

62

21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi .) (3) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground grain portion of the ration to be consumed in one feeding. Discard...

2010-04-01

63

21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...strongyles, large strongyles (Strongyles spp.), and pinworms (Oxyuris equi ).1 (3) Limitations. Administer by stomach tube or dose syringe after withholding feed overnight or for 8 to 10 hours. Provide water as usual. Resume...

2012-04-01

64

Body Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear ( ... February 10, 2015 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Home A-Z Index Policies Using ...

65

Nail Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear ( ... December 30, 2009 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Home A-Z Index Policies Using ...

66

21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); and horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G ....

2013-04-01

67

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

2010-04-01

68

21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

2011-04-01

69

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

2013-04-01

70

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

2011-04-01

71

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

2014-04-01

72

21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

2014-04-01

73

21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G ....

2011-04-01

74

21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

2013-04-01

75

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

2012-04-01

76

21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G....

2014-04-01

77

21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); and horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G ....

2011-04-01

78

Itching  

MedlinePLUS

... such as soaps, chemicals, or wool) Dry skin Hives Insect bites and stings Parasites such as pinworm , ... you have total body itching, or you have hives that keep returning. Unexplained itching may be a ...

79

42 CFR 493.19 - Provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...section), waived tests and no others: (1) All direct wet mount preparations for the presence or absence of bacteria, fungi, parasites, and human cellular elements. (2) All potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations. (3) Pinworm...

2012-10-01

80

42 CFR 493.19 - Provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section), waived tests and no others: (1) All direct wet mount preparations for the presence or absence of bacteria, fungi, parasites, and human cellular elements. (2) All potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations. (3) Pinworm...

2013-10-01

81

21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi .) (3) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground grain portion of the ration to be consumed in one feeding. Discard...

2012-04-01

82

UTILIZACIÓN DE LA TÉCNICA DE HISTERECTOMÍA PARA LA ELIMINACIÓN DE PATÓGENOS EN UNA COLONIA DE RATONES CF1 DESTINADOS A LA INVESTIGACIÓN BIOMÉDICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of pathogens which must be absent in experimental mice colonies, since they produce interference in the results. This study describes the derivation by hyster- ectomy as a mean of effective elimination of pathogens such as: Mouse hepatitis virus, Corynebacterium kutscheri, Giardia muris, Spironucleus muris and Shypacia obvelata from a CF:1 Crl colony. Specific pathogen free females C57BL\\/6J were

M Ayala; S Milocco; F Maschi; C Galosi; M Cagliada; C Carbone

83

Comparison of Traditional and PCR Methods during Screening for and Confirmation of Aspiculuris tetraptera in a Mouse Facility  

PubMed Central

Pinworm detection in laboratory rodents typically is accomplished by using the tape test or various modifications of fecal flotation test to detect eggs. Direct examination of intestinal contents remains the ‘gold standard’ for pinworm detection, with the limitation of euthanasia of animals. Here, we compare traditional and real-time PCR methodologies during screening for and confirming the presence of Aspiculuris tetraptera. Two sets of pooled fecal samples collected from each of 521 microisolation cages in a mouse facility suspected to be pinworm-positive were tested by PCR and fecal flotation methods. The number of PCR-positive cages was 48 (9.2%) compared with 5 (0.96%) by the fecal flotation method. All of the cages determined to be positive by fecal flotation were positive by PCR. We evaluated 8 positive cages containing 26 mice from the screening group 5 wk later to confirm the initial findings; for 7 of these cages, PCR results from the initial screening were confirmed by fecal centrifugation concentration (FCC) or direct worm detection. Among the 26 mice, 4 were pinworm-positive by FCC, 5 by maceration, and 16 by PCR. All 4 mice positive by FCC were positive by PCR; PCR was positive for 7 of the 9 mice in which pinworms were detected by FCC or maceration. Our study demonstrates that real-time PCR for survival testing of mice for A. tetraptera effectively augments current detection methods for quarantine and routine health monitoring. PMID:22330785

Dole, Vandana S; Zaias, Julia; Kyricopoulos-Cleasby, Danielle M; Banu, Laila A; Waterman, Linda L; Sanders, Kevin; Henderson, Kenneth S

2011-01-01

84

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

85

Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

Bower, Wilma; And Others

1986-01-01

86

Diagnostic Structures of Intestinal Helminths: Enterobius vermicularis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The figure shows an Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) egg found in a feces sample. Generally the ovum measures 50 to 60 μm long by 20 to 40 μm wide. The figure is of an embryonated ovum, flattened on one side, with a thin colorless shell.

Javier Gutierrez Jimenez (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas; )

2011-06-17

87

ODT Salik ve Rehberlik Merkezi ODT Salik ve Rehberlik Merkezi ODT Salik ve Rehberlik Merkezi ODT Salik ve Rehberlik Merkezi ODT Salik ve Rehberlik Merkezi ODT Salik ve Rehberlik Merkezi  

E-print Network

prescribed by your family physician. The drugs are effective and appear to have few side-effects. Your family be treated? Infection with ascarid worms is generally light and is not considered an emergency. Unless your person sleeps, female pinworms leave the intestines through the anus and deposit eggs on the surrounding

Hasýrcý, Vasýf

88

[Enterobiasis in pediatric subjects in north-western Italy: a study of home remedies].  

PubMed

The present study examines the most common home remedies in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy currently used in the treatment of pediatric enterobiasis, commonly known as pinworm infection. The remedies in question, typically based on popular beliefs and as such are nearly useless, were noted through interviews with subjects who had come to the local Hygiene and Public Health Services offices for information about pinworm prevention and treatment. Analysis of replies by the subjects clearly indicates that local families are ill-prepared to recognize the symptoms this parasitic infection; often it is confused with pediatric ketosis, therefore leading to inappropriate treatment which at times may be potentially harmful to the patient. PMID:22670340

Dutto, M; Montù, D; Raineri, G

2012-01-01

89

Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in rodents of Tarai region of Uttarakhand.  

PubMed

The present work was aimed to investigate helminth biodiversity among rodents in order to evaluate the threat for helminth transmission to humans since they act as a potential source of parasitic zoonoses. In this study, faeces of 43 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 35 house mice (Mus musculus) were collected from various habitats viz. domestic places and agricultural fields of different parts of tarai region of Uttarakhand. These faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasitic eggs, adult and segments of the worms. The study revealed that the rodents were infected with 5 genera of helminth parasites, i.e. Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, Syphacia muris, Capillaria hepatica, Trichuris muris and other strongyle eggs (2 species of cestodes and 4 species of nematodes). Adult Syphacia muris and segments of Hymenolepis nana were also recovered from faecal droppings. Of the 43 samples of black rat, all (100 %) and of the 35 samples of mice 9 (25.71 %) were found positive for one or more than one species of parasitic infections. Greater infection of H. diminuta 19 (44.18 %) followed by H. nana 17 (39.53 %) was seen in rat whereas mice were mostly infected with H. nana. The diversity and prevalence of various parasites reported here within domestic habitats may suggest that these can pose a high risk of helminth transmission to human population and are thus of considerable public health importance. PMID:24431566

Sharma, Deepesh; Joshi, Sumit; Vatsya, Stuti; Yadav, C L

2013-10-01

90

Correlated evolution between host immunity and parasite life histories in primates and oxyurid parasites.  

PubMed Central

Maturation time is a pivotal life-history trait of parasitic nematodes, determining adult body size, as well as daily and total fecundity. Recent theoretical work has emphasized the influence of prematurational mortality on the optimal values of age and size at maturity in nematodes. Eosinophils are a family of white blood cells often associated with infections by parasitic nematodes. Although the role of eosinophils in nematode resistance is controversial, recent work has suggested that the action of these immune effectors might be limited to the larval stages of the parasite. If eosinophils act on larval survival, one might predict, in line with theoretical models, that nematode species living in hosts with large eosinophil numbers should show reduced age and size at maturity. We tested this prediction using the association between the pinworms (Oxyuridae, Nematoda) and their primate hosts. Pinworms are highly host specific and are expected to be involved in a coevolutionary process with their hosts. We found that the body size of female parasites was negatively correlated with eosinophil concentration, whereas the concentration of two other leucocyte families-neutrophils and lymphocytes-was unrelated to female body size. Egg size of parasites also decreased with host eosinophil concentration, independently of female size. Male body size was unrelated to host immune parameters. Primates with the highest immune defence, therefore, harbour small female pinworms laying small eggs. These results are in agreement with theoretical expectations and suggest that life histories of oxyurid parasites covary with the immune defence of their hosts. Our findings illustrate the potential for host immune defence as a factor driving parasite life-history evolution. PMID:14667339

Sorci, Gabriele; Skarstein, Frode; Morand, Serge; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

2003-01-01

91

Helminth fauna of the golden hamster Mesocricetus auratus in Brazil.  

PubMed

Helminth fauna of conventionally maintained hamsters from institutional animal houses that supply the research community with laboratory animals and from an openly kept control group, randomly purchased in a pet shop in the State of Rio de Janeiro, were evaluated and compared. Necropsied animals from institutional suppliers were infected with the oxyurid nematodes Syphacia criceti and S. mesocriceti and with the cestode Rodentolepis nana; those from the pet shop were infected with S. mesocriceti and R. nana. These are the first morphometric data that are based on Brazilian samples of these species parasitizing hamsters. Mesocricetus auratus is a newly recorded host for S. criceti, previously recovered from Oryzomys subflavus and Calomys callosus in Brazil. The potential of pet and laboratory hamsters in the spreading of helminth infections to humans is also considered. PMID:11300683

Pinto, R M; Gonçalves, L; Gomes, D C; Noronha, D

2001-03-01

92

Endo-parasite fauna of rodents caught in five wet markets in Kuala Lumpur and its potential zoonotic implications.  

PubMed

Rodents were collected from five wet markets (Chow Kit, Dato Keramat, Setapak, Jinjang and Kepong) in Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory between March to April 2006. Ninety seven rats were trapped using wire traps measuring 29 x 22 x 50 cm baited with fruits, coconuts, dried fish or sweet potatoes. A total of 17 different species of parasites were identified from three species of rats out of which 11 (65%) were identified to be zoonotic. The helminths identified from the urban rats were nematodes- Capillaria hepatica, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Heterakis spumosa, Heterakis sp., Masterphorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Physolaptera sp., Pterogodermatis sp., Rictularia tani and Syphacia muris; cestodes- Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis sabnema, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and acanthocephalan- Moniliformis moniliformis. The following parasites are of potential medical importance: C. hepatica, G. neoplasticum, R. tani, S. muris, H. diminuta, H. nana, Raillietina sp. and T. taeniaeformis. PMID:19696729

Paramasvaran, S; Sani, R A; Hassan, L; Hanjeet, K; Krishnasamy, M; John, J; Santhana, R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H

2009-04-01

93

Helminth parasite spectrum in rodent hosts from bamboo growing areas of Mizoram, North-east India.  

PubMed

In the northeastern state of Mizoram, India the rodent outbreak is periodic and coincides with bamboo (Melocanna baccifera) bloom causing a tremendous destruction to food crops that often results in famine. The present study was undertaken during the bamboo flowering period (2006-2008) to assess the parasite spectrum and load in the bourgeoning rodent population of the affected region. The survey results of the populations of 9 prevalent rodent species revealed that nematodes were the most dominant parasitic group followed by cestodes of the order Cyclophyllidea; however, the trematodes were found to be conspicuously missing. The nematodes harbored by the rodents belonged to the genera: Syphacia, Aspicularis, Trichuris, Rictularia, Capillaria, Trichosomoides, Nippostrongylus, Hepatojarakus and Heterakis, whereas the cestode genera included Hymenolepis, Raillietina and Taenia. Hymenolepis diminuta was the commonly encountered species. Only one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis sp.) could be collected during the entire study. PMID:23129885

Malsawmtluangi, C; Tandon, V

2009-12-01

94

[Investigation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in pet hamsters].  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty-three fecal samples of pet hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, Phodopus sungorus, P. campbelli and P. roborovskii) were collected from a pet-market in Zhengzhou, and examined by Sheather's sugar flotation, modified acid-fast staining and Lugol's iodine-solution staining. The prevalence of parasites was 70.7% (41/58), 96.7% (59/61), 83.9% (26/31), and 100% (3/3) respectively, with an overall prevalence of 84.3%. Eggs, cysts or oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. (15.0%), Giardia sp. (22.2%), coccidian (2.0%), Hymenolepis nana (31.4%), Hymenolepis diminuta (25.5%), Syphacia spp. (41.8%), Aspiculuris tetraptera (7.2%) and undetermined Trichurata nematode (18.3%) were found from the samples. The results suggest that pet hamsters may be infected and transmit several zoonotic parasites. PMID:19852376

Lv, Chao-Chao; Feng, Chao; Qi, Meng; Yang, Hong-Yu; Jian, Fu-Chun; Ning, Chang-Shen; Zhang, Long-Xian

2009-06-01

95

The potential role of strongyloides robustus on parasite-mediated competition between two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys).  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that populations of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) are declining in the eastern United States, perhaps due to competition with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). Potential causes include parasite-mediated or apparent competition from the shared intestinal nematode, Strongyloides robustus, which has been shown to detrimentally affect the northern flying squirrel but not the southern flying squirrel. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study on the parasite community of both flying squirrel species from sites in Pennsylvania where the two species occur sympatrically and where G. sabrinus is now considered endangered at the state level. We compared these parasite communities with those from northern flying squirrels from northern New York where the southern flying squirrel is absent. We found eight species of gastrointestinal parasites (Pterygodermatites peromysci, Lemuricola sciuri, Syphacia thompsoni, Syphacia spp., Capillaria spp., Citellinema bifurcatum, Strogyloides robustus, and an unidentifiable cestode species) in both species of flying squirrels examined for our study. The parasite-mediated competition hypothesis was partially supported. For example, in Pennsylvania, S. robustus was overdispersed in southern flying squirrels, such that a small proportion of the hosts carried a large proportion of the worm population. In addition, we found S. robustus to be present in northern flying squirrels when the species were sympatric, but not where southern flying squirrels were absent in New York. However, there was no association between S. robustus and the body condition of flying squirrels. We detected a potential parasite community interaction, as S. robustus abundance was positively associated with P. peromysci. PMID:20090036

Krichbaum, Kristle; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A; Turner, Gregory; Hudson, Peter J

2010-01-01

96

Use of Fenbendazole-Containing Therapeutic Diets for Mice in Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies  

PubMed Central

Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research. PMID:22776123

Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

2012-01-01

97

Efficacy of Direct Detection of Pathogens in Naturally Infected Mice by Using a High-Density PCR Array  

PubMed Central

We used a high-density array of real-time PCR assays for commonly reported rodent infectious agents (PRIA) to test naturally infected index mice and sentinel mice exposed by contact and soiled-bedding transfer. PRIA detected 14 pathogens—including viruses, bacteria, fur mites, pinworms, and enteric protozoa—in 97.2% of 28 pooled fecal samples, fur–perianal swabs, and oral swabs from 4 cages containing a total of 10 index mice. Among these pathogens, PRIA (like conventional health monitoring methods) failed to detect Mycoplasma pulmonis, Pasteurella pneumotropica, and Giardia spp. in all of the 9 contact and 9 soiled-bedding sentinels. PRIA demonstrated murine adenovirus and Cryptosporidium and Spironucleus spp. in contact but not soiled-bedding sentinels and detected Helicobacter and pinworms in fewer than half of the soiled-bedding sentinels. Of the 4 species of Helicobacter that species-specific PCR assays identified in index mice, only H. ganmani was found in soiled-bedding and contact sentinels. PRIA detected all of the pathogens in sentinels that were identified by conventional methods. Myobia musculi was detected by PCR in index and sentinel mice but missed by conventional parasitologic examinations. In summary, PRIA reproducibly detected diverse pathogens in heavily pooled specimens collected noninvasively from infected index mice antemortem. The inability of PRIA and conventional health monitoring methods (that is, parasitology, microbiology, and serology) to demonstrate transmission of some pathogens to contact sentinels and the inefficient transmission of others to soiled-bedding sentinels underscores the importance of direct PCR testing to determine the pathogen status of rodents in quarantine and during routine colony surveillance. PMID:24351765

Henderson, Kenneth S; Perkins, Cheryl L; Havens, Richard B; Kelly, Mee-Jin E; Francis, Brian C; Dole, Vandana S; Shek, William R

2013-01-01

98

Infectious microorganisms in mice (Mus musculus) purchased from commercial pet shops in Germany.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the prevalence of infectious microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and eukaryotic parasites) in mice from different pet shops in Germany; such animals may compromise the hygienic integrity of laboratory animal vivaria if private pet holders act as unintended vectors of infections carried by them. House mice sold as pets or feed specimens were purchased from different pet shops and tested for a comprehensive panel of unwanted microorganisms. We found a number of microorganisms in these pet shop mice, the most prevalent of which were Helicobacter species (92.9%), mouse parvovirus (89.3%), mouse hepatitis virus (82.7%), Pasteurella pneumotropica (71.4%) and Syphacia species (57.1%). Several microorganisms (e.g. mouse parvovirus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, pneumonia virus of mice, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Clostridium piliforme) had considerably higher prevalences than those reported in similar studies on wild mice from North America, Europe or Australia. Our study shows that direct contact with pet shop mice may constitute a risk for laboratory animal vivaria if hygienic precautions are not taken. However, even relatively simple precautions seem effective enough to hold the risk at bay. PMID:21508117

Dammann, P; Hilken, G; Hueber, B; Köhl, W; Bappert, M T; Mähler, M

2011-10-01

99

Intestinal parasites among wild rodents in Northern Gangwon-do, Korea.  

PubMed

To determine geographical patterns of natural parasite infections among wild rodents, a total of 46 wild rodents from 3 different localities in northern Gangwon-do (Province), Korea were examined for intestinal parasite infections. Along with nematodes such as hookworms and Syphacia spp., Plagiorchis muris (2 specimens) (Trematoda) were collected from striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius. In a Korean wood mouse, Apodemus peninsulae, the overall nematode infections were similar to A. agrarius, but an adult worm of Echinostoma hortense (Trematoda) was collected. In addition, 2 species of cestodes, i.e., Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta, were collected from A. agrarius. Through this survey, A. agrarius and A. peninsule were confirmed as the natural definite hosts for zoonotic intestinal helminths, i.e., P. muris, E. hortense, H. nana, and H. diminuta, in northern Gangwon-do, Korea. Considering increased leisure activities around these areas, seasonal and further comprehensive surveys on wild rodents seem to be needed to prevent zoonotic parasite infections. PMID:24327791

Lee, Young-Il; Pyeon, Hee-Jang; Seo, Min

2013-10-01

100

Biodiversity and macroparasitic distribution of the wild rat population of Carey Island, Klang.  

PubMed

A study to determine the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites and endoparasites infesting wild rat population of Carey Island was carried out from June to December 2010. A total of 81 rats were captured from various locations on Carey Island. Four rat species were identified namely, Rattus tiomanicus (45.7%), Rattus rattus diardii (25.9%), Rattus argentiventer (16%) and Rattus norvegicus (12.3%). Low diversity of ecto and endoparasites were observed infecting the rodent population with 8 ecto and 8 endoparasites species recorded. The ectoparasites recovered fell under 3 broad groups, namely mites (Laelaps nuttali, Laelaps echidninus, Laelaps sculpturatus, Listrophoroides sp. and Ornithonyssus bacoti), lice (Polyplax spinulosa and Hoplopleura pacifica) and tick (Ixodes granulatus) while endoparasites recovered were cestodes (Taenia taeniaformis and Hymenolepis diminuta) and nematodes (Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, Mastophorus muris, Heterakis spumosa, Hepatojarakus malayae and Syphacia muris). The rat population was observed harbouring more than one parasite species. Analysis of data also showed neither intrinsic (host age, host sex) nor extrinsic (season) factors influenced the macroparasites community structure. PMID:23959485

Nursyazana, M T; Mohdzain, S N; Jeffery, J

2013-06-01

101

Endoparasites of rodents from the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Rodents are a key mammalian group highly successful in adapting to a variety of environments throughout the world and play an important role in many zoonotic cycles. Within this project, the gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasite fauna of 76 rodents (Muroidea and Sciuridae) was determined in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in Southeastern Bangladesh. Gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites were examined with macro- and microscopical tools (e.g. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) at a field site in Bandarban. A wide variety of parasites were found in rodent hosts, including protozoa-Giardia sp. (n = 8), Cryptosporidium sp. (n = 1), Entamoeba sp. (n = 8), Trichomonadida (n = 4), Isospora sp. (n = 1), trematodes (Echinostoma sp.; n = 3), cestodes-Hymenolepis nana (n = 1), Hymenolepis diminuta (n = 3), Hymenolepis sp. (n = 2), Taenia taeniaeformis-Larven (n = 4), Catenotaenia sp. (n = 1), Taenia sp. (n = 1), nematodes-Heterakis spumosa (n = 4), Heterakis sp. (n = 1), Aspiculuris tetraptera (n = 2), Capillaria hepatica (n = 2), Capillaria sp. (n = 3), Syphacia sp. (n = 2), Strongyloides sp. (n = 10), Trichostrongylus sp. (n = 2) and Trichuris sp. (n = 1)-and acanthocephalans (Moniliformis moniliformis; n = 2). Several of the examined parasites are of zoonotic importance via direct or indirect transmission (e.g. C. hepatica) and may affect humans. PMID:23064859

Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Treiber, Moritz; Igel, Petra; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald

2012-11-01

102

Intestinal Parasites among Wild Rodents in Northern Gangwon-do, Korea  

PubMed Central

To determine geographical patterns of natural parasite infections among wild rodents, a total of 46 wild rodents from 3 different localities in northern Gangwon-do (Province), Korea were examined for intestinal parasite infections. Along with nematodes such as hookworms and Syphacia spp., Plagiorchis muris (2 specimens) (Trematoda) were collected from striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius. In a Korean wood mouse, Apodemus peninsulae, the overall nematode infections were similar to A. agrarius, but an adult worm of Echinostoma hortense (Trematoda) was collected. In addition, 2 species of cestodes, i.e., Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta, were collected from A. agrarius. Through this survey, A. agrarius and A. peninsule were confirmed as the natural definite hosts for zoonotic intestinal helminths, i.e., P. muris, E. hortense, H. nana, and H. diminuta, in northern Gangwon-do, Korea. Considering increased leisure activities around these areas, seasonal and further comprehensive surveys on wild rodents seem to be needed to prevent zoonotic parasite infections. PMID:24327791

Lee, Young-Il; Pyeon, Hee-Jang

2013-01-01

103

Diversity of gastrointestinal helminths among murid rodents from northern and northeastern Thailand.  

PubMed

The presence of gastrointestinal helminths (GI helminths) was investigated among 725 murid rodents, trapped in various habitats of Nan, Loei and Buri Ram Provinces, Thailand. The study revealed 17 species of rodents infected with 21 species or taxonomic groups of parasites (3 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 14 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan). The overall prevalence of infection was 57.7% (418/725). Of the gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, the dominant parasitic group was members of the family Trichostrongylidae (24.3%), followed by the cestodes Raillietina sp (17.1%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (8.6%) and the nematode Syphacia muris (8.6%). The GI helminthic infection rates were highest in Mus caroli (81.8%), Mus cervicolor (76.5%), Leopoldamys edwardsi (75.0%), Bandicota indica (71.5%) and Bandicota savilei (71.4%). Highest rodent species richness (RSR) and helminth species richness (HSR) rates were found in Loei, followed by Nan and Buri Ram. The helminth prevalence rate was higher in rodents from Nan, followed by rodents from Loei and Buri Ram. Rodents from irrigated fields had the highest infection rates followed by rodents from upland or dry agricultural areas, forests and domestic habitats. Raillietina sp, Rodentolepis nana (syn. Hymenolepis nana), Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniliformis moniliformis and Cyclodontostomum purvisi, considered zoonotic parasites, were mainly found in rodents from domestic habitats and lowland irrigated fields. PMID:23082550

Chaisiri, Kittipong; Chaeychomsri, Win; Siruntawineti, Jindawan; Ribas, Alexis; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

2012-01-01

104

Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran. Methods During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites. Results Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae) 37.7%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%. Conclusion R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nematode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host. PMID:23682264

Kamranrashani, B; Kia, EB; Mobedi, I; Mohebali, M; Zarei, Z; Mowlavi, Gh; Hajjaran, H; Abai, MR; Sharifdini, M; Kakooei, Z; Mirjalali, H; Charedar, S

2013-01-01

105

Differences in richness and composition of gastrointestinal parasites of small rodents (Cricetidae, Rodentia) in a continental and insular area of the Atlantic Forest in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.  

PubMed

The first and only study on gastrointestinal parasites of wild rodents in the Island of Santa Catarina was done in 1987. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites from wild rodents in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz and Santa Catariana Island, and to compare the richness and composition of the gastrointestinal parasite community of both areas. Rodents were captured with live traps, and feces were screened using the sedimentation method and optical microscopy. The following species of rodents were captured in the two areas: Akodon montensis, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Nectomys squamipes. In Santo Amaro da Impetratriz, prevalent parasites were: A. montensis (51%), E. russatus (62%), O. nigripes (53%) and N. squamipes (20%). From the Island of Santa Catarina the rodent prevalence rates were: A. montensis (43%), E. russatus (59%), O. nigripes (30%) and N. squamipes (33%) and the collected parasites were: Hymenolepis sp., Longistriata sp., Strongyloides sp., Hassalstrongylus sp., Syphacia sp., Trichomonas sp., Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Oxyuridae and Eucoccidiorida. The species richness (10.6 ± 0.7) of the endoparasite comunity in the area located on the continent was higher (p < 0.01) and different (p = 0.001) from that of the area located on the island (6.9 ± 0.5). PMID:22990827

Kuhnen, V V; Graipel, M E; Pinto, C J C

2012-08-01

106

Diversity of the helminth community of the Pampean grassland mouse (Akodon azarae) on poultry farms in central Argentina.  

PubMed

This paper describes the helminth community of the Pampean grassland mouse (Akodon azarae) inhabiting poultry farms in central Argentina. Winter diversity (season of high rodent abundance) has been compared to spring diversity (season of low rodent abundance). Species richness was seven in both seasons: five nematodes (Syphacia carlitosi, Stilestrongylus spp., Trichuris laevitestis, Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) azarai and Protospirura numidica criceticola) and two cestodes (adults of Cyclophyllidea and Taenia taeniaeformis hepatic cysts). No difference in richness was detected between host sexes in each season or among host age classes. However, the helminth community showed 67% similarity between winter and spring, with diversity being significantly higher in spring (H = 0.873) than in winter (H = 0.546; P < 0.0005). This could be attributed to different factors, such as host abundance, host diet or environmental factors, that affect the transmission of each species differently. On the other hand, Stilestrongylus spp. and S. carlitosi showed higher dominance and intensity in both seasons compared to their cohabiting species, P. (P.) azarai and T. laevitestis, respectively. The lower values of the latter two species may be related to a crowding effect due to their large body sizes. This is the first report of cestodes in A. azarae. The finding of T. taeniaeformis strobilocerci could be important in the epidemiology of parasitosis in domestic animals of the farms. PMID:21324218

Miño, M H; Herrera, E J Rojas; Notarnicola, J; Robles, M del R; Navone, G T

2012-03-01

107

The effect of Toxoplasma gondii and other parasites on activity levels in wild and hybrid Rattus norvegicus.  

PubMed

Using both correlational and experimental evidence, the relationship between parasite load and host activity was assessed in brown rats, Rattus norvegicus. Two hypotheses were tested--(1) that parasites with indirect life-cycles, involving transmission between a prey and its predator, will alter the activity of the intermediate host so as to increase its susceptibility to predation by the definitive host and (2) that activity levels in parasitized rats would be increased rather than decreased. Four groups of rats (n = 140) were examined. One group (n = 50) were wild brown rats trapped from 3 UK farmsteads, with naturally occurring parasites. The others were purpose-bred wild/laboratory hybrid rats with experimentally induced parasitic infections of either (n = 15) adult-acquired or (n = 15) congenitally-acquired Toxoplasma gondii (an indirect life-cycle parasite), or (n = 15) Syphacia muris (a direct life-cycle parasite). Uninfected hybrid rats ( n = 45), matched for sex, age and weight, served as controls. Rats were housed individually in outdoor cages, and their activities were recorded on video-tapes for 6 non-consecutive 10 h nights. Exercise wheels were also available for the hybrid rats. Out of 6 parasite species detected in the wild rats, T. gondii was the only one which required predation by a definitive host to complete its life-cycle, and was also the only parasite to be associated with higher activity levels in infected than uninfected rats. Hybrid rats infected with T. gondii were also more active than those uninfected, whereas there were no differences in activity levels between S. muris infected and uninfected rats. This study shows that the indirect life-cycle parasite T. gondii can influence the activity of its intermediate host the rat. I suggest that this may facilitate its transmission to the cat definitive host. PMID:7831094

Webster, J P

1994-12-01

108

Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans, and these showed high prevalences in the rats, the assessment and regular monitoring of infections carried by wild rodents have important roles to play in public health. PMID:22397763

2012-01-01

109

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.  

PubMed

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

110

Influence of habitat modification on the intestinal helminth community ecology of cottontail rabbit populations.  

PubMed

The influence of five brush management treatments using the herbicides tebuthiuron and triclopyr, with or without prescribed burning, on the intestinal helminth community of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied in 1987 on the Cross Timbers Experimental Range in Payne County, Oklahoma (USA). Six helminth species were found (Dermatoxys veligera, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonanulatus, Wellcomia longejector, Taenia pisiformis cystercercus, and Mosgovoyia pectinata americana) in 102 rabbits (88 adult and 14 juveniles) collected over two seasons (winter and summer). Prevalence of M. pectinata americana in cottontail rabbits was significantly greater in untreated control pastures than herbicide treated pastures in winter, while prevalence of T. pisiformis was significantly greater in burned than unburned pastures. Abundances of helminth species in the intestinal tract of cottontail rabbits were unaffected by brush treatments. Mosgovoyia pectinata americana abundance demonstrated a highly significant increase from winter to summer; conversely, abundance of all oxyurid pinworms combined (D. veligera, P. nonanulatus, W. longejector) was significantly higher in winter than summer. Helminth community dynamics were significantly influenced by season, but were unaffected by brush treatments. Habitat modification could have influenced cestode transmission by altering the ecology of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. PMID:2338720

Boggs, J F; McMurry, S T; Leslie, D M; Engle, D M; Lochmiller, R L

1990-04-01

111

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

112

[Report on the first nationwide survey of the distribution of human parasites in China. 1. Regional distribution of parasite species].  

PubMed

A nationwide (Taiwan Province not included) survey of the distribution of human parasites in China during 1988-1992 was conducted under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Health, with stratified masses randomly sampling. A total of 2,848 pilot sites in 726 counties with a population of 1,477,742 were surveyed, according to unified standard, unified diagnostic method and control quality. The overall infection rate of parasites was 62. 632%. Among them, the infection rate was over 50% in 17 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities (P/A/M), over 80% in Hainan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, Zhejiang and Guizhou, being highest in Hainan (94. 735%). Altogether 56 species were detected. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time at home, Echinochasmus liliputanus and Echinostoma angustitestis are reported for the first time at home and abroad. Echinochasmus fujianensis is a new species. E. histolytica, G. lamblia, A. lumbricoides, whipworm and pinworm were distributed nationwide, while Cysticercus (27 P/A/M), Taenia (27), hookworm (26), Balantidium coli (22), Clonorchis sinensis (22), Paragonimus westermani (21), H. diminuta (21), Echinococcus (18), H. nana (17), Fasciolopsis buski (16), T. spiralis (12) were distributed non-nationwide. A preliminary suggestion on intervention of the common and/or most detrimental parasitic diseases was submitted, including hydatidosis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, trichinellosis, hookworm disease, ascariasis, trichuriasis and enterobiasis. PMID:7720194

Yu, S; Xu, L; Jiang, Z; Xu, S; Han, J; Zhu, Y; Chang, J; Lin, J; Xu, F

1994-01-01

113

Nematospiroides dubius: response of the late fourth-stage larva to anthelmintics in vitro.  

PubMed

Approximately 60% of fourth-stage larvae of Nematospiroides dubius recovered from mice 6 days after infection, developed to the young adult stage when cultured over a 7-day period in a complex medium in vitro. Larvae at the late fourth stage of development were found to be highly susceptible to most broad spectrum anthelmintics under in vitro conditions, the benzimidazole, imidazothiazole, pyrimidine, isothiocyanate and macrocyclic lactone compounds all being active at very low concentrations. Narrow spectrum anthelmintics active only against ascarids, pinworms, filariae, cestodes or trematodes had little or no effect on these larvae. Ineffective also were those chlorinated hydrocarbon, substituted phenol and salicylanilide compounds known to affect Haemonchus but not trichostrongylid worms in general. It is concluded that in vitro assays employing larvae of N. dubius are useful for the stringent screening of compounds for broad spectrum antitrichostrongyle activity. Used in conjunction with in vivo screens employing N. dubius in mice, they also afford means for detecting intrinsic activity against the parasite in a system free from any complicating host pharmacokinetics. PMID:6741225

Jenkins, D C; Ibarra, O F

1984-01-01

114

Age-Associated Variability in Susceptibility of Swiss Webster Mice to MPV and Other Excluded Murine Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Detection of mouse parvovirus (MPV) and other murine pathogens in research colonies is dependent on the transmissibility of the agents and the sensitivity of sentinels to those agents. Transmissibility is based on several agent-dependent properties including mode of transmission, infectivity, and environmental stability, whereas host susceptibility can vary according to mouse age, strain, and sex. In this study, 4-wk-old, 12-wk-old, and aged Swiss Webster female sentinel mice were compared for their ability to detect infectious agents by using a standardized health surveillance program, to determine whether sentinels should be replaced more frequently to improve the efficiency of detection of infectious agents within a murine colony. Both experimentally and naturally infected mice were used to transmit MPV and other infectious agents from index mice to sentinels. First, Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with MPV, and transmission to 4-, 12-, and 24-wk-old contact and soiled-bedding sentinels was determined. Second, mice naturally infected with 9 infectious agents were obtained from 2 local pet stores, and transmission to 4-wk-old contact sentinels and 4-, 12-, and 44-wk-old soiled-bedding sentinels was determined. For agents that were transmitted via soiled bedding (MPV, mouse hepatitis virus, murine norovirus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, and pinworms), transmission did not differ in regard to the age of the sentinels. In conclusion, susceptibility to several infectious agents did not differ according to sentinel age in a health-surveillance protocol that used mice older than 12 wk. PMID:23294885

Grove, Kristina A; Smith, Peter C; Booth, Carmen J; Compton, Susan R

2012-01-01

115

Tribendimidine: Mode of Action and nAChR Subtype Selectivity in Ascaris and Oesophagostomum  

PubMed Central

The cholinergic class of anthelmintic drugs is used for the control of parasitic nematodes. One of this class of drugs, tribendimidine (a symmetrical diamidine derivative, of amidantel), was developed in China for use in humans in the mid-1980s. It has a broader-spectrum anthelmintic action against soil-transmitted helminthiasis than other cholinergic anthelmintics, and is effective against hookworm, pinworms, roundworms, and Strongyloides and flatworm of humans. Although molecular studies on C. elegans suggest that tribendimidine is a cholinergic agonist that is selective for the same nematode muscle nAChR as levamisole, no direct electrophysiological observations in nematode parasites have been made to test this hypothesis. Also the hypothesis that levamisole and tribendimine act on the same receptor, does not explain why tribendimidine is effective against some nematode parasites when levamisole is not. Here we examine the effects of tribendimidine on the electrophysiology and contraction of Ascaris suum body muscle and show that tribendimidine produces depolarization antagonized by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, and that tribendimidine is an agonist of muscle nAChRs of parasitic nematodes. Further pharmacological characterization of the nAChRs activated by tribendimidine in our Ascaris muscle contraction assay shows that tribendimidine is not selective for the same receptor subtypes as levamisole, and that tribendimidine is more selective for the B-subtype than the L-subtype of nAChR. In addition, larval migration inhibition assays with levamisole-resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum isolates show that tribendimidine is as active on a levamisole-resistant isolate as on a levamisole-sensitive isolate, suggesting that the selectivity for levamisole and tribendimidine is not the same. It is concluded that tribendimidine can activate a different population of nematode parasite nAChRs than levamisole, and is more like bephenium. The different nAChR subtype selectivity of tribendimidine may explain why the spectrum of action of tribendimidine is different to that of other cholinergic anthelmintics like levamisole. PMID:25679515

Robertson, Alan P.; Puttachary, Sreekanth; Buxton, Samuel K.; Martin, Richard J.

2015-01-01