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Sample records for syphacia obvelata pinworm

  1. Comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes of the two murine pinworms Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Ren; Lou, Yan; Gao, Jun-Feng; Qiu, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Yuan; Chang, Qiao-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Pinworms Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata are important parasitic nematodes of laboratory mice, rat and other rodents. However, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of these parasites have not been known yet. In the present study, the complete mt genomes of A. tetraptera and S. obvelata were sequenced, which were 13,669bp and 14,235bp in size, respectively. Both genomes included 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one non-coding region. The mt genomes of A. tetraptera and S. obvelata preferred bases A and T, with the highest for T and the lowest for C. The mt gene arrangements of the two pinworms were the same as that of the GA8 type. Phylogenetic analysis using mtDNA data revealed that the Bayesian inference (BI) trees contained two big branches: species from Oxyuridomorpha, Rhabditomorpha and Ascaridomorpha formed one branch, and those from Spiruromorpha formed another branch with high statistical support. The two murine pinworms A. tetraptera and S. obvelata have closer relationship than to other pinworms. This study provides a foundation for studying the population genetics, systematics and molecular phylogeny of pinworms. PMID:27016298

  2. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

  3. Characterization of rat pinworm (Syphacia muris) epidemiology as a means to increase detection and elimination.

    PubMed

    Meade, Theresa M; Watson, Julie

    2014-11-01

    Rodent pinworms persist in many institutions, suggesting deficiencies in eradication and diagnostic processes. When pinworms are detected, treatment success is common, but false-negative test results during health surveillance or after treatment likely contribute to the continued presence of this parasite. PCR testing is not always practical, and increased information regarding the life cycle and general epidemiology of pinworm infestations could improve the sensitivity of traditional nonPCR detection methods and improve eradication efforts. We therefore investigated a pinworm (Syphacia muris) infestation in Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) to develop a more accurate testing strategy. In addition, we sought to determine the duration of egg viability by using an in vitro hatching protocol to assess environmental persistence. Finally, we tested the ovicidal efficacy of a disinfectant used at our institution. Eggs were shed in higher numbers in the midafternoon as compared with other times of the day, and the sex of the host had no consistent effect on egg shedding. Egg shedding showed periodicity over time, with shedding decreasing to 0 at 2- to 3-wk intervals. Neither cecal examination nor tape tests alone reliably predicted pinworm infestation, and results of the 2 tests did not necessarily coincide. Eggs aged for as long as 7 mo remained viable, indicating a potential for recontamination from the environment. Finally, gaseous chlorine dioxide was an effective ovicidal agent, with a kill rate of 99.7%. These results suggest that strategies for S. muris eradication can be optimized to increase detection and elimination. PMID:25650973

  4. Pinworms

    MedlinePlus

    ... are most common in school-age children. Pinworm eggs are spread directly from person to person. They ... or other items that are contaminated with the eggs. Typically, children are infected by touching pinworm eggs ...

  5. Diagnosis of the pinworm Syphacia muris in the Wistar rat Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Sousa, J E N; Carvalho, E F G; Levenhagen, M A; Chaves, L A; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare three qualitative parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Syphacia muris infection in 30 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) infected naturally. Methods of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman, Pons and Janer, or HPJ) and spontaneous flotation (Willis) for faecal samples and a method of taping (Graham) were performed and compared. The Graham and Willis methods were more sensitive than the HPJ method (P< 0.05). The Graham method was able to detect S. muris eggs in 100% of the samples. Eggs were detected in 83% and 60% of the samples using the Willis and HPJ methods, respectively. Method choice is important for screening for parasites of rats kept under laboratory conditions, as accurate diagnosis helps prevent future environmental contamination and infection. We concluded that the Graham method was the most efficient of those tested in this study for detection of S. muris infection in rats. This method is also rapid, inexpensive and practical, and should be implemented as a necessary measure for infection control. PMID:25327496

  6. Pinworms

    MedlinePlus

    ... household surfaces for up to 2 weeks. The infection is more common in children. Many people have ... irritable. Your health care provider can diagnose pinworm infection by finding the eggs. A common way to ...

  7. Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Maxomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fitriana, Yuli Sulistya; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2015-10-01

    The present report describes Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from two species of spiny rats, Maxomys musschenbroekii from Sulawesi and M. whiteheadi from Sumatra. It is characterized by a cephalic plate extending laterally with dorsoventral constriction and stumpy eggs with an operculum rim reaching pole. It is readily distinguishable by the former feature from all of hitherto known representatives of this genus in Indonesia, but it resembles parasites in Murini and Hydromyni rodents in continental Asia and Sahul. This is the first Syphacia species distributed in both the Sunda Shelf and Sulawesi with the exception of Syphacia muris, a cosmopolitan pinworm found in rodents of the of genus Rattus. It is surmised that S. maxomyos is specific to Maxomys and that it was introduced to Sulawesi by dispersal of some Maxomys from the Sunda Shelf. PMID:26062434

  8. Pinworm test

    MedlinePlus

    ... identify a pinworm infection. Pinworms are small, thin worms that commonly infect young children, although anyone can ... intestine and colon. At night, the female adult worms deposit their eggs outside the rectum or anal ...

  9. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 hours renders Syphacia ova nonviable.

    PubMed

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. PMID:25199091

  10. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript ... this? Submit Button Information For: Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  11. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript ... this? Submit Button Information For: Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  12. Pinworm (for Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body when people ingest the microscopic pinworm eggs. These eggs can be found on contaminated hands and surfaces, ... desks or lunch tables at school sandboxes The eggs pass into the digestive system and hatch in ...

  13. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... washcloths. Showering may be preferred to avoid possible contamination of bath water. Careful handling and frequent changing ... bedding can help reduce infection, reinfection, and environmental contamination with pinworm eggs. These items should be laundered ...

  14. Efficacy and security of ivermectin given orally to rats naturally infected with Syphacia spp., Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Foletto, V R S; Vanz, F; Gazarini, L; Stern, C A J; Tonussi, C R

    2015-07-01

    The results of this study show that the oral administration of ivermectin (48 mg/L) repeatedly for 72 h used in accordance with the present protocol is a safe and highly effective treatment for Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana in laboratory rat colonies. The drug can be easily and safely administered using drinking water. This simple regimen should control pinworm infection (Syphacia muris), a problem that can be endemic in laboratory colonies. Experiments using healthy animals are likely to generate more consistent results, thereby requiring a reduced number of animals per group. PMID:25480657

  15. The effect of Syphacia muris on nutrient digestibility in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Plachý, V; Litvinec, A; Langrová, I; Horáková, B; Sloup, V; Jankovská, I; Vadlejch, J; Čadková, Z; Borkovcová, M

    2016-02-01

    This study was carried out to investigate how pinworm infection in rats affects nutrient digestibility in the hosts. Twenty-four male outbred Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of 12 rats each. The rats from the first group (GI) were kept in cages with bedding containing pinworm eggs, and the second (control) group (GII) were kept in a separate room in clean, uncontaminated filter-top cages. The animals were put into individual metabolic cages later. Metabolic trials lasted five days and records of animal weight, food ingestion, and faecal weight were taken daily. Based on laboratory analysis of the feed and faecal nutrient content, digestibility values were determined. On day 15 of the experiment, the animals were euthanized. Although Syphacia muris were found in all rats from the GI group, animals exhibited no clinical signs. In our experiment, S. muris infection reduced the overall digestibility of all measured nutrients (P < 0.01). The most significant differences in digestibility were observed in the case of crude fibre and mineral matter (P < 0.01). PMID:25777968

  16. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript ... this? Submit Button Information For: Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  17. Pinworms

    MedlinePlus

    ... person. They can also be spread by touching bedding, food, or other items that are contaminated with ... using the bathroom and before preparing food. Wash bedding and underclothing frequently, especially those of any affected ...

  18. Pinworms

    MedlinePlus

    ... on a counter in the kitchen, in a bed, or on a desk at school. The eggs also can be on clothes, towels, or eating utensils. The eggs can live for about 2 weeks, and when you accidentally touch them and then put your fingers ...

  19. A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini. PMID:24995650

  20. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  5. [Investigation of pinworm infection among kindergarten children in Jurong City, Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng-Gong; Li, Shui-Ming

    2013-10-01

    In order to understand pinworm infection of kindergarten children in Jurong City, Jiangsu Province, a total of 1 088 children were sampled for the survey from September 2011 to October 2012. The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs. The infection rate of pinworm was 1.1% (12/1 088). The rate in boys and girls was 1.3% (7/551) and 0.9% (5/537), respectively. Higher infection rate was in the senior class (1.4%, 5/370), and no significant difference was found with gender, as well as among different classes (P > 0.05). Evidently, pinworm prevalence is at a low level in the kindergarten children of Jurong. PMID:24818389

  6. Serological cross-reactivity between Strongyloides venezuelensis and Syphacia muris in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, José Eduardo N; de Carvalho, Edson Fernando G; Levenhagen, Marcelo A; de Faria, Lucas S; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do R F; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2016-04-01

    One of the problems frequently faced in laboratory facilities is the possibility of the natural parasitic infection of lab animals, which can interfere with biomedical research results. The present study aimed to evaluate cross-reactivity among serum samples from Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) naturally infected with Syphacia muris and experimentally infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis. Forty rats were divided into four groups of ten animals each. Parasite load was evaluated by quantifying the adult worms from both helminthes species recovered from the intestines and the S. venezuelensis eggs eliminated in feces. Serological cross-reactivity by parasite-specific IgG detection was tested via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and immunoblotting. The results demonstrated that the quantity of S. venezuelensis eliminated eggs and parthenogenetic females decreased significantly in cases of co-infection with S. muris. ELISA revealed 100% cross-reactivity of serum samples from both species against the opposing antigen. IgG cross-reactivity was confirmed by IFAT using tissue sections of S. venezuelensis larvae and adult S. muris. Immunoblotting showed that IgG antibodies from the sera of animals infected with S. muris recognized eight antigenic bands from S. venezuelensis saline extract and that IgG antibodies from the sera of animals infected with S. venezuelensis recognized seven bands from S. muris saline extract. These results demonstrate the serological cross-reactivity between S. muris and S. venezuelensis in infected rats. PMID:26601618

  7. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820 (Rodentia: Caviidae) from 5,300 years BP in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mônica Vieira de; Sianto, Luciana; Chame, Marcia; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of paleoparasitological analyses in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris, rodent endemic to rocky areas of Brazil's semiarid region. The coprolites were collected from excavations at the archaeological site of Toca dos Coqueiros, in the National Park of Serra da Capivara, southeastern of state of Piauí. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) eggs were identified in coprolites dated at 5,300 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of the genus Syphacia in rodent coprolites in the Americas. PMID:22666866

  8. Chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), maintained for more than twenty years in captive chimpanzees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi

    2007-08-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms. PMID:17918364

  9. Pinworm Eradication in Community Residential Settings for People with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A public health approach was used to eliminate pinworm from a system of community residential settings for individuals with developmental disabilities. The approach involved screening and treatment of staff members and clients living and working in close proximity to index cases, and prophylactically treating many clients and staff based on…

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of rabbit pinworm Passalurus ambiguus: genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Li, Sheng; Zou, Feng-Cai; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Passalurus ambiguus (Nematda: Oxyuridae) is a common pinworm which parasitizes in the caecum and colon of rabbits. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the epidemiology, genetics, systematics, and biology of this pinworm remain poorly understood. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of P. ambiguus. The circular mt genome is 14,023 bp in size and encodes of 36 genes, including 12 protein-coding, two ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The mt gene order of P. ambiguus is the same as that of Wellcomia siamensis, but distinct from that of Enterobius vermicularis. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference (BI) showed that P. ambiguus was more closely related to W. siamensis than to E. vermicularis. This mt genome provides novel genetic markers for studying the molecular epidemiology, population genetics, systematics of pinworm of animals and humans, and should have implications for the diagnosis, prevention, and control of passaluriasis in rabbits and other animals. PMID:26472717

  11. The horse pinworm (Oxyuris equi) in archaeology during the Holocene: Review of past records and new data.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Benjamin; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Lepetz, Sébastien; Le Bailly, Matthieu

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the horse pinworm, Oxyuris equi, in archaeology during the Holocene period, and presents an overview of past published occurrences, early mentions in texts, and new data from our paleoparasitology research. This original compilation shows that the most ancient record of the horse pinworm dates to ca. 2500 years before present (ybp) in Central Asia and to ca. 2020 ybp in Western Europe. It also shows that the parasite is not detected on the American continent until contemporary periods. The role of European migrations from 1492 (Christopher Columbus) is discussed to explain the transfer of the horse pinworm from the Old World to the Americas. The absence of any record of this parasite before ca. 2500 ybp in Eurasia could be explained by parasite ecology, unfavorable sampling and scarcity of horse archeological remains. For the Americas, the absence of horse for long periods can be an additional explanation for the absence of the parasite. PMID:25916688

  12. [Investigation on pinworm infection and relative factors on prevalence among urban and rural preschool children in Xianyang City].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Ping; An, Rong; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li; Li, Yan-Kui

    2013-08-01

    A total of Eight hundred eighty-six children from 3 to 7 years old in 8 kindergartens were sampled in urban and rural area in Xianyang City from March to May 2012. The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs. Children's hygiene habits, clinical symptoms and hygienic condition were surveyed by questionnairing. The total infection rate of pinworm was 11.2% (99/886). The rate in males and females was 10.4% (52/500) and 12.2% (47/386), respectively. The infection rate in rural kindergartens (19.1%, 70/367) was higher than that of urban kindergartens (5.6%, 29/519) (chi2 = 39.39, P < 0.01). Among the investigated children aged 3-7 years, the infection rate in 4-5 years group (12.7%) was the highest, but no statistical difference was found among age groups (P> 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the hygiene habits such as washing hands before eating (OR = 0.180), drinking unboiled water and eating non-cooked food (OR = 2.473), cleaning perianal region frequently (OR = 0.836), cutting nails frequently (OR = 0.450), drying the quilt regularly (OR = 0.224) and health education (OR = 0.639) were the influence factors on pinworm infection. The main symptoms of pinworm infection include pruritus and bruxism. PMID:24812874

  13. Pinworm test

    MedlinePlus

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to determine if there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on 3 separate ...

  14. Pinworm Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pinworm—egg, larva (immature stage), and mature worm—takes place inside the human body and requires ... barely noticeable. The movement of egg-laden female worms from your anus to deposit their eggs will ...

  15. False-positive results after environmental pinworm PCR testing due to Rhabditid nematodes in Corncob bedding.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-11-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and -negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980

  16. False-Positive Results after Environmental Pinworm PCR Testing due to Rhabditid Nematodes in Corncob Bedding

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-01-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and –negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980

  17. Pinworm diversity in free-ranging howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) in Mexico: Morphological and molecular evidence for two new Trypanoxyuris species (Nematoda: Oxyuridae).

    PubMed

    Solórzano-García, Brenda; Nadler, Steven A; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    Two new species of Trypanoxyuris are described from the intestine of free-ranging howler monkeys in Mexico, Trypanoxyuris multilabiatus n. sp. from the mantled howler Alouatta palliata, and Trypanoxyuris pigrae n. sp. from the black howler Alouatta pigra. An integrative taxonomic approach is followed, where conspicuous morphological traits and phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences are used to test the validity of the two new species. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the nuclear ribosomal 18S and 28S rRNA genes were used for evolutionary analyses, with the concatenated dataset of all three genes used for maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. The two new species of pinworms from howler monkeys were morphologically distinct and formed reciprocally monophyletic lineages in molecular phylogenetic trees. The three species from howler monkeys, T. multilabiatus n. sp., T. pigrae n. sp., and Trypanoxyuris minutus, formed a monophyletic group with high bootstrap and posterior probability support values. Phylogenetic patterns inferred from sequence data support the hypothesis of a close evolutionary association between these primate hosts and their pinworm parasites. The results suggest that the diversity of pinworm parasites from Neotropical primates might be underestimated. PMID:27262522

  18. Assessing European Egg Parasitoids as a Mean of Controlling the Invasive South American Tomato Pinworm Tuta absoluta

    PubMed Central

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

  19. Can Interactions Between an Omnivorous Hemipteran and an Egg Parasitoid Limit the Level of Biological Control for the Tomato Pinworm?

    PubMed

    Cabello, Tomas; Bonfil, Francisco; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Garay, Jozsef

    2015-02-01

    Relationships between the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) and the egg parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti were studied in the laboratory (no-choice and choice assays, and functional responses) and in a greenhouse experiment. Both natural enemies are utilized in the biological control of tomato pinworm on greenhouse-grown tomato crops. Three different food items were offered to the predator: nonparasitized prey, prey parasitized for less than 4 d by T. achaeae, and prey parasitized for more than 4 d by the parasitoid. There were significant differences in consumption of food types, with highest consumption for nonparasitized prey, followed by parasitized (<4 d) and then parasitized (>4 d), both in no-choice and choice trials. At the same time, the predator causes a significant mortality in the prey (over 80%) regardless of previous parasitism, resulting in a very coincidental intraguild predation detrimental to the parasitoid. It has also been observed that there was a change in the functional response by the predator from Type II in presence of nonparasitized prey to Type I when there was a combination of parasitized and nonparasitized prey. This represents an increase of instantaneous search rate (a') and a decrease of handling time (Th), which indicates a change in feeding behavior on the two prey types. Under greenhouse conditions, the intraguild predation reduced the percentage of parasitism by T. achaeae in just over 20%. However, when both natural enemies were present, a better control of pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) was achieved than in the case of application of any of them alone. PMID:26308802

  20. Total IgE as a Serodiagnostic Marker to Aid Murine Fur Mite Detection

    PubMed Central

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-01-01

    Mites of 3 genera—Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia—continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

  1. Pinworm detection in mice with immunodeficient (NOD SCID) and immunocompetent (CD-1 and Swiss) soiled bedding sentinels in individually ventilated cage systems.

    PubMed

    Eguíluz, C; Rossi, M; Viguera, E

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel exposure to soiled bedding is frequently used for health monitoring of mice housed in individually ventilated cage systems (IVCS). Despite its advantages, the use of soiled bedding sentinels (SBSs) is far for being a reliable method. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of immunodeficient SBSs NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/NCrHsd (NOD SCID) against two immunocompetent outbred strains, Hsd:ICR (CD-1) and RjOr1:Swiss (Swiss) to pinworm detection in IVCS-housing. Four different diagnostic methods were used: perianal tape test, fecal flotation, plate method and histology. Positivity was considered if at least one of the techniques used was positive. In the first study NOD SCID were more sensitive than CD-1 SBSs (P < 0.05), and except for the fecal flotation test performed at week 6, all the diagnostic methods were more sensitive with NOD SCID mice (P < 0.05). In the second study differences between the Swiss and NOD SCID mice were less obvious (P = 0.08). When compared separately, the different diagnostic methods, except for the fecal flotation test, were all more sensitive in the NOD SCID mice (P < 0.05). In addition, the anal tape test in the Swiss SBSs was more sensitive at week 7 than at week 15 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, combining various diagnostic techniques and samplings at week 7 post-exposure with non-invasive methods increases the rate of pinworm detection. Immunodeficient SBSs showed higher sensitivity than immunocompetent ones. Thus, use of immunodeficient SBSs is highly recommended in health control protocols. PMID:25667226

  2. Transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis: pinworm or cysts?

    PubMed

    Clark, C Graham; Röser, Dennis; Stensvold, C Rune

    2014-03-01

    Recently, conflicting evidence has been published on the mode of transmission of the trichomonad Dientamoeba fragilis. Detection of D. fragilis DNA inside Enterobius vermicularis eggs agrees with the prediction of Dobell in 1940 that the eggs of a nematode act as a vector for transmission. However, the identification of a cyst stage of D. fragilis in the stool of rodents infected with a human isolate has also been reported, and this implies a life cycle similar to those of most other intestinal protistan parasites. Herein we discuss the recent data, identify gaps in the experimental evidence, and propose a method for determining which view of the life cycle of this organism is correct. PMID:24492020

  3. IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4Rα expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4Rα-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. PMID:18373844

  4. Effect of Cage-Wash Temperature on the Removal of Infectious Agents from Caging and the Detection of Infectious Agents on the Filters of Animal Bedding-Disposal Cabinets by PCR Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Susan R; Macy, James D

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, effective cage decontamination and the detection of infection are important to sustainable biosecurity within animal facilities. This study compared the efficacy of cage washing at 110 and 180 °F on preventing pathogen transmission. Soiled cages from mice infected with mouse parvovirus (MPV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages did not seroconvert to either virus, whereas sentinels in unwashed cages seroconverted to both agents. Soiled cages from mice harboring MPV, Helicobacter spp., Mycoplasma pulmonis, Syphacia obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages remained pathogen-free, whereas most sentinels in unwashed cages became infected with MPV and S. obvelata. Therefore washing at 110 or 180 °F is sufficient to decontaminate caging and prevent pathogen transmission. We then assessed whether PCR analysis of debris from the bedding disposal cabinet detected pathogens at the facility level. Samples were collected from the prefilter before and after the disposal of bedding from cages housing mice infected with both MPV and MHV. All samples collected before bedding disposal were negative for parvovirus and MHV, and all samples collected afterward were positive for these agents. Furthermore, all samples obtained from the prefilter before the disposal of bedding from multiply infected mice were pathogen-negative, and all those collected afterward were positive for parvovirus, M. pulmonis, S. obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus. Therefore the debris on the prefilter of bedding-disposal cabinets is useful for pathogen screening. PMID:26632784

  5. Effect of Cage-Wash Temperature on the Removal of Infectious Agents from Caging and the Detection of Infectious Agents on the Filters of Animal Bedding-Disposal Cabinets by PCR Analysis.

    PubMed

    Compton, Susan R; Macy, James D

    2015-11-01

    Efficient, effective cage decontamination and the detection of infection are important to sustainable biosecurity within animal facilities. This study compared the efficacy of cage washing at 110 and 180 °F on preventing pathogen transmission. Soiled cages from mice infected with mouse parvovirus (MPV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages did not seroconvert to either virus, whereas sentinels in unwashed cages seroconverted to both agents. Soiled cages from mice harboring MPV, Helicobacter spp., Mycoplasma pulmonis, Syphacia obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages remained pathogen-free, whereas most sentinels in unwashed cages became infected with MPV and S. obvelata. Therefore washing at 110 or 180 °F is sufficient to decontaminate caging and prevent pathogen transmission. We then assessed whether PCR analysis of debris from the bedding disposal cabinet detected pathogens at the facility level. Samples were collected from the prefilter before and after the disposal of bedding from cages housing mice infected with both MPV and MHV. All samples collected before bedding disposal were negative for parvovirus and MHV, and all samples collected afterward were positive for these agents. Furthermore, all samples obtained from the prefilter before the disposal of bedding from multiply infected mice were pathogen-negative, and all those collected afterward were positive for parvovirus, M. pulmonis, S. obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus. Therefore the debris on the prefilter of bedding-disposal cabinets is useful for pathogen screening. PMID:26632784

  6. Microbiological survey of mice (Mus musculus) purchased from commercial pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Morita, Hanako; Ishida, Tomoko; Uchida, Ritsuki; Tanaka, Mai; Ozawa, Midori; Yasuda, Masahiko; Itoh, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the prevalence of infectious agents in mice in pet shops in Japan is scarce. This information is particularly useful for minimizing the risk of potential transmission of infections to laboratory mice. Therefore, we surveyed infectious agents in mice from pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan. The survey was conducted in 28 mice from 5 pet shops to screen for 47 items (17 viruses, 22 bacteria and fungi, 10 parasites) using culture tests, serology, PCR, and microscopy. The most common viral agent detected was murine norovirus (17 mice; 60.7%), followed by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (13 mice; 46.4%), and mouse hepatitis virus (12 mice; 42.8%). The most common agent amongst the bacteria and fungi was Pasteurella pneumotropica (10 mice; 35.7%), followed by Helicobacter ganmani and Pneumocystis murina (8 mice; 28.5%, for both). Tritrichomonas muris was the most common parasite (19 mice; 67.8%), followed by Spironucleus muris (13 mice; 46.4%), Aspiculuris tetraptera, and Syphacia obvelata (8 mice each; 28.5%). Remarkably, a zoonotic agent, Hymenolepis nana, was found in 7 mice (25%). Given these results, we suggest that the workers in laboratory animal facilities should recognize again the potential risks of mice outside of the laboratory animal facilities as an infectious source, and avoid keeping mice as pets or as feed for carnivorous reptiles as much as possible for risk management. PMID:25502736

  7. Phenotypic differences on the outcome of the host-parasite relationship: behavior of mice of the CBi stock in natural and experimental infections.

    PubMed

    Vasconi, M D; Malfante, P; Bassi, A; Giudici, C; Revelli, S; Di Masso, R; Font, M T; Hinrichsen, L

    2008-05-01

    Investigation of defined animal models may help to elucidate the role of the host genetic background in the development and establishment of a parasitic infection. Four lines of mice obtained by disruptive selection for body conformation (CBi+, CBi-, CBi/C and CBi/L) and the unselected control line CBi were examined in their response to different parasites to assess whether these distinct genotypes showed differences in their resistance to natural and experimental parasitosis. Protozoans (Trichomonas muris and Spironucleus muris) and nemathelminths (Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculurus tetraptera) were found naturally parasitizing the mice's intestines. CBi/C and CBi were the only genotypes in which T. muris was found. CBi- was least resistant to S. muris. The helminth parasitic burden showed differences between sexes within genotypes (males had a higher burden than females) and among genotypes (CBi/L males had the lowest burden). CBi/L animals were also most resistant to experimental challenge with Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Trypanosoma cruzi. Since all the animals examined shared a common habitat throughout the study and were equally exposed to infection, the phenotypic differences in the natural enteroparasitism herein described evince genetic differences among lines in the host-parasite relationship. This interpretation is further supported by the differences in the response to the experimental challenge to H. polygyrus and T. cruzi. PMID:18304738

  8. Microbiological survey of mice (Mus musculus) purchased from commercial pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHIMOTO, Nobuhito; MORITA, Hanako; ISHIDA, Tomoko; UCHIDA, Ritsuki; TANAKA, Mai; OZAWA, Midori; YASUDA, Masahiko; ITOH, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Information regarding the prevalence of infectious agents in mice in pet shops in Japan is scarce. This information is particularly useful for minimizing the risk of potential transmission of infections to laboratory mice. Therefore, we surveyed infectious agents in mice from pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan. The survey was conducted in 28 mice from 5 pet shops to screen for 47 items (17 viruses, 22 bacteria and fungi, 10 parasites) using culture tests, serology, PCR, and microscopy. The most common viral agent detected was murine norovirus (17 mice; 60.7%), followed by Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (13 mice; 46.4%), and mouse hepatitis virus (12 mice; 42.8%). The most common agent amongst the bacteria and fungi was Pasteurella pneumotropica (10 mice; 35.7%), followed by Helicobacter ganmani and Pneumocystis murina (8 mice; 28.5%, for both). Tritrichomonas muris was the most common parasite (19 mice; 67.8%), followed by Spironucleus muris (13 mice; 46.4%), Aspiculuris tetraptera, and Syphacia obvelata (8 mice each; 28.5%). Remarkably, a zoonotic agent, Hymenolepis nana, was found in 7 mice (25%). Given these results, we suggest that the workers in laboratory animal facilities should recognize again the potential risks of mice outside of the laboratory animal facilities as an infectious source, and avoid keeping mice as pets or as feed for carnivorous reptiles as much as possible for risk management. PMID:25502736

  9. Immune responses in children infected with the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis in central Greece.

    PubMed

    Patsantara, G G; Piperaki, E-T; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, C; Kanariou, M G

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested an immunomodulatory and even protective role for Enterobius vermicularis, the least pathogenic human intestinal helminth. Here, in a study using haematological and serological parameters, we tested a total of 215 children from central Greece, with a mean age of 8.39, of whom 105 (48.84%) were infected with E. vermicularis and 110 (51.16%) were matched healthy controls. In particular, we analysed eosinophil counts (EO), serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total and specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and the ECP/EO ratio. The atopic status and the potential occurrence of clinically expressed allergic diseases were both taken into account. Eosinophils, ECP and IgE were found to be higher in infected than in uninfected children, indicating a type-2 immune response activation during infection. Atopic infected children exhibited higher IgE levels compared to non-atopic ones. EO and ECP were found to be lower in atopic children who had a history of allergic disease than in those with no such history. The type-2 oriented immune response elicited against E. vermicularis could contribute to a balanced activation of the immune system in the examined children. Interestingly, although the atopic children showed a stronger activation, they did not exhibit any symptoms and, moreover, there seemed to be some indication of immunosuppression in those children with a positive history of allergic disease. PMID:25989836

  10. Repurposing the FDA-Approved Pinworm Drug Pyrvinium as a Novel Chemotherapeutic Agent for Intestinal Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Giambelli, Camilla; Fei, Dennis Liang; Han, Lu; Hang, Brian I.; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Nose, Vania; Burlingame, Oname; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Orton, Darren; Lee, Ethan; Robbins, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the WNT-pathway regulator ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI (APC) promote aberrant activation of the WNT pathway that is responsible for APC-associated diseases such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and 85% of spontaneous colorectal cancers (CRC). FAP is characterized by multiple intestinal adenomas, which inexorably result in CRC. Surprisingly, given their common occurrence, there are few effective chemotherapeutic drugs for FAP. Here we show that the FDA-approved, anti-helminthic drug Pyrvinium attenuates the growth of WNT-dependent CRC cells and does so via activation of CK1α. Furthermore, we show that Pyrvinium can function as an in vivo inhibitor of WNT-signaling and polyposis in a mouse model of FAP: APCmin mice. Oral administration of Pyrvinium, a CK1α agonist, attenuated the levels of WNT-driven biomarkers and inhibited adenoma formation in APCmin mice. Considering its well-documented safe use for treating enterobiasis in humans, our findings suggest that Pyrvinium could be repurposed for the clinical treatment of APC-associated polyposes. PMID:25003333

  11. Pinworm and TNKS inhibitors, an eccentric duo to derail the oncogenic WNT pathway.

    PubMed

    Ouelaa-Benslama, Radia; Emami, Shahin

    2011-09-01

    The WNT/β-catenin pathway underlies many human cancers through mutations in the APC, β-catenin, and Axin genes. Activation of WNT signalling can also occur due to the localization of glycogen synthase kinase 3β(GSK3β) to the multivesicular bodies, which prevents the degradation of β-catenin. This leads to accumulation of β-catenin within the cytoplasmic matrix and nucleus of cancer cells, which triggers the transactivation of genes involved in cell proliferation, including various oncogenes. Recent research into the mechanistic regulations of molecule homeostasis and identification of new small-targeted inhibitors has provided further insights into the WNT signalling pathway and its role in human cancers. Novel WNT inhibitors target unsuspected cellular enzymes, such as tankyrases, or casein kinase 1α/γ, which controls the destruction of β-catenin and GSK3β. These could lead to the identification of new biomarkers and WNT-targeted inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. PMID:21782548

  12. Recurrent paediatric pinworm infection of the vagina as a potential reservoir for Enterobius vermicularis.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, B; Samantray, J C; Kumar, S; Jhamb, R; Singh, A K; Kaur, I R

    2014-09-01

    Enterobius vermicularis infection remains one of the most common parasitic infections, particularly prevalent in children. Enterobiasis, although not usually dangerous, may cause significant morbidity. Elimination of the parasite from a family or an institution often poses problems, either because of an incomplete cure or re-infection. While there have been limited reports of ectopic enterobiasis throughout the world, ours is probably one of the rarest reports of recurrent vaginal E. vermicularis infection in the absence of any gastrointestinal symptoms despite complete treatment. A 4-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of vulval itching on 3-4 occasions over 2 years. There was no pruritis ani nor urinary/gastrointestinal complaints. The vulva was inflamed with 4-5 living worms, 6-7 mm in length, emerging from the anterior vaginal fornix, but with no vaginal discharge. Direct microscopic examination of vaginal swabs revealed adult worms of Enterobius but no eggs. Repeated stool samples from the patient, parents and a sibling were negative. The patient was treated orally with 100 mg of mebendazole for 3 days followed by two more courses at 3-week intervals over a period of 3 months. Recurrent vaginal enterobiasis despite complete treatment and in the absence of any gastrointestinal involvement suggests that the vagina is a potential reservoir for E. vermicularis, which supports the theory of rare ectopic enterobiasis through the ascending pathway of the female genital tract. PMID:23721910

  13. WHY MUSEUMS MATTER: A TALE OF PINWORMS (OXYUROIDEA: HETEROXYNEMATIDAE) AMONG PIKAS (OCHOTONA PRINCEPS AND O. COLLARIS) IN THE AMERICAN WEST.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permanent and well supported museum collections provide a solid foundation for the process of systematics research through creation of an empirical record which validates our understanding of the biosphere. We explore the role of museums in ongoing studies of the complex helminth fauna characterist...

  14. Pyrantel

    MedlinePlus

    ... an antiworm medication, is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, and other worm infections.This medication is ... repeated after 2 weeks for pinworm infections. For hookworm infections, pyrantel usually is taken once a day ...

  15. Elimination Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rectal itching may be a sign of a YEAST INFECTION, ALLERGY to toilet paper or PINWORMS. Nonprescription antifungal medications for yeast infections or antiparasitic medications for pinworms are available. ...

  16. First evidence of enterobiasis in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Horne, P D

    2002-10-01

    The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt. PMID:12435149

  17. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Gastrophilus intestinalis and G. nasalis), large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus, S. vulgaris), small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi). (3) Limitations. Do...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris equi); and large roundworms (Parascaris...

  19. 21 CFR 520.903a - Febantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. For removal of large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus); ascarids (Parascaris equorum— sexually mature and immature); pinworms (Oxyuris equi— adult...

  20. 21 CFR 520.903a - Febantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. For removal of large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus); ascarids (Parascaris equorum— sexually mature and immature); pinworms (Oxyuris equi— adult...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Gastrophilus intestinalis and G. nasalis), large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus, S. vulgaris), small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi). (3) Limitations. Do...

  2. 21 CFR 520.903a - Febantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. For removal of large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus); ascarids (Parascaris equorum— sexually mature and immature); pinworms (Oxyuris equi— adult...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris equi); and large roundworms (Parascaris...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (Gastrophilus intestinalis and G. nasalis), large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus, S. vulgaris), small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi). (3) Limitations. Do...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris equi); and large roundworms (Parascaris...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... weight for the control of large strongyles, small strongyles, pinworms, Strongyloides and ascarids... Craterostomum spp., Oesophagodontus spp., Poteriostomum spp., Oxyuris spp., Strongyloides spp., and...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (Strongyloides westeri), 10 milligrams of oxibendazole per kilogram of body weight; for threadworms, 15... (Parascaris equorum); pinworms (Oxyuris equi) including various larval stages; and threadworms...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (Strongyloides westeri), 10 milligrams of oxibendazole per kilogram of body weight; for threadworms, 15... (Parascaris equorum); pinworms (Oxyuris equi) including various larval stages; and threadworms...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Strongyloides westeri), 10 milligrams of oxibendazole per kilogram of body weight; for threadworms, 15... (Parascaris equorum); pinworms (Oxyuris equi) including various larval stages; and threadworms...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... weight for the control of large strongyles, small strongyles, pinworms, Strongyloides and ascarids... Craterostomum spp., Oesophagodontus spp., Poteriostomum spp., Oxyuris spp., Strongyloides spp., and...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Strongyloides westeri), 10 milligrams of oxibendazole per kilogram of body weight; for threadworms, 15... (Parascaris equorum); pinworms (Oxyuris equi) including various larval stages; and threadworms...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... weight for the control of large strongyles, small strongyles, pinworms, Strongyloides and ascarids... Craterostomum spp., Oesophagodontus spp., Poteriostomum spp., Oxyuris spp., Strongyloides spp., and...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... weight for the control of large strongyles, small strongyles, pinworms, Strongyloides and ascarids... Craterostomum spp., Oesophagodontus spp., Poteriostomum spp., Oxyuris spp., Strongyloides spp., and...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... weight for the control of large strongyles, small strongyles, pinworms, Strongyloides and ascarids... Craterostomum spp., Oesophagodontus spp., Poteriostomum spp., Oxyuris spp., Strongyloides spp., and...

  15. 21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life cycle of the pinworm. (d) A commentary on the ways in which... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS INTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER...

  16. Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions in Norwegian children.

    PubMed

    Bøås, H; Tapia, G; Rasmussen, T; Rønningen, K S

    2014-10-01

    Studies investigating the association between Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions have shown conflicting results. This study was conducted to test for any such associations in Norwegian children. Parents were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their children's history of allergies, wheezing or eczema and pinworm infections. Current pinworm infections were diagnosed by microscopic examination of anal scotch tape samples. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Atopic eczema, allergy or wheezing was reported to be confirmed by a physician in 23% of the children (84/364). A possible association between current pinworm infections and food allergy was found, with 17·5% of children without food allergy testing positive for pinworms, compared to 36·8% of children with food allergy (odds ratio 2·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1-8·0). No association was found between past pinworm treatments and present atopic conditions. The association between current E. vermicularis infections and food allergy warrants further study. PMID:24331127

  17. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  18. [Perforation of the appendix and observation of Enterobius vermicularis].

    PubMed

    Schou-Jensen, Katrine; Antipina, Elena Nikolaevna; Brisling, Steffen Kirstein; Azawi, Nessn

    2014-12-15

    A nine-year-old girl was admitted to the paediatric ward due to fever and lower abdomen pain through a day. Acute laparoscopic exploration showed a large necrotic perforation at the distal end of the appendix. During the appendectomy multiple small, live Enterobius vermicularis (pinworms) were observed. The patient was admitted for three days of observation and received relevant treatment with intravenous antibiotics and antihelminthic treatment. The histology showed numerous pinworms in the lumen of the appendix and invasion of the pinworms of the submucosal layer and the wall of the appendix. PMID:25534223

  19. Enterobius granuloma: an unusual cause of omental mass in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Sinan; Ekinci, Saniye; Orhan, Diclehan; Senocak, Mehmet Emin

    2014-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is the only nematode that infects humans. It is one of the most common intestinal parasites. Pinworm commonly infests the terminal ileum and colon, and does not cause severe morbidity unless ectopic infection occurs. However, granulomatous lesions caused by ectopic Enterobius vermicularis infection may lead to unusual clinical symptoms and may be misinterpreted as malignant lesions. Herein, the authors present an 11-year-old girl with pinworm infection who presented with abdominal pain and an omental mass, with special emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24911856

  20. Albendazole

    MedlinePlus

    ... threadworm, whipworm, pinworm, flukes, and other parasites (a plant or animal that lives within another living organism ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  1. Mebendazole

    MedlinePlus

    Vermox® ... Mebendazole, an antiworm medication, kills parasites. It is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, whipworm, and other ... Mebendazole comes as a chewable tablet. It usually is taken twice a day, in the morning and ...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), pinworms (Oxyuris equi), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1638 - Oxibendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use in horses—(1) Amount. For uses other than for threadworms (Strongyloides westeri), 10 milligrams of oxibendazole per kilogram of body weight; for threadworms (Strongyloides...); pinworms (Oxyuris equi) including various larval stages; and threadworms (Strongyloides westeri)....

  4. 21 CFR 520.1638 - Oxibendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use in horses—(1) Amount. For uses other than for threadworms (Strongyloides westeri), 10 milligrams of oxibendazole per kilogram of body weight; for threadworms (Strongyloides...); pinworms (Oxyuris equi) including various larval stages; and threadworms (Strongyloides westeri)....

  5. 21 CFR 520.1638 - Oxibendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use in horses—(1) Amount. For uses other than for threadworms (Strongyloides westeri), 10 milligrams of oxibendazole per kilogram of body weight; for threadworms (Strongyloides...); pinworms (Oxyuris equi) including various larval stages; and threadworms (Strongyloides westeri)....

  6. 21 CFR 520.1638 - Oxibendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use in horses—(1) Amount. For uses other than for threadworms (Strongyloides westeri), 10 milligrams of oxibendazole per kilogram of body weight; for threadworms (Strongyloides...); pinworms (Oxyuris equi) including various larval stages; and threadworms (Strongyloides westeri)....

  7. Fussy or irritable child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cold or flu Bladder infection Stomach pain or stomach flu Headache Constipation Pinworm Poor sleep patterns Although less common, your child's fussiness may be an early sign of a more serious problem, such as: Diabetes, asthma, anemia (low blood count), ...

  8. Negligible Egg Positive Rate of Enterobius vermicularis and No Detection of Head Lice among Orphanage Children in Busan and Ulsan, Korea (2014)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea. PMID:26323851

  9. Negligible Egg Positive Rate of Enterobius vermicularis and No Detection of Head Lice among Orphanage Children in Busan and Ulsan, Korea (2014).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea. PMID:26323851

  10. Efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against naturally acquired Oxyuris equi infections in horses.

    PubMed

    Reinemeyer, Craig R; Prado, Julio C; Nichols, Eric C; Marchiondo, Alan A

    2010-07-15

    In recent years, numerous veterinary practitioners have reported anecdotal episodes in which anthelmintic treatment did not appear to deliver the expected efficacy against equine pinworms (Oxyuris equi). Anthelmintic resistance has not been demonstrated formally in equine pinworms, so a clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of paste formulations of pyrantel pamoate or ivermectin against naturally acquired infections with O. equi. Twenty-one horses (>4 months to 15 years of age) with patent, naturally acquired pinworm infections were blocked by source of origin and allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: horses (n=7) assigned to Group 1 were treated orally with pyrantel pamoate paste at a dosage of 13.2 mg/kg (2x label dosage), Group 2 horses (n=7) were untreated controls, and horses (n=7) assigned to Group 3 were treated orally with ivermectin paste at a dosage of 200 microg/kg. Fourteen days after treatment, horses were euthanatized, necropsied, and large intestinal contents were processed for recovery of adult pinworms. In addition, duplicate 1% aliquots of intestinal contents from the cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon, and small colon were collected, preserved, and examined for recovery and enumeration of fourth-stage larval O. equi. Anthelmintic efficacy against pinworms was evaluated by comparing the post-treatment worm counts of Groups 1 and 3 to those of control animals. Mean numbers of O. equi adults recovered postmortem were significantly decreased by both pyrantel pamoate (P=0.0366) and ivermectin (P=0.0137) treatment, with respective efficacies of 91.2% and 96.0%. In addition, both products demonstrated >99% efficacy against fourth-stage O. equi larvae. The current study demonstrated acceptable adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of both pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against O. equi and did not support the existence of macrocyclic lactone or pyrimidine resistance in the pinworm populations evaluated. PMID

  11. SL1 RNA gene recovery from Enterobius vermicularis ancient DNA in pre-Columbian human coprolites.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Reinhard, Karl; Carvalho Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto; Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2006-11-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, pinworm, is one of the most common helminths worldwide, infecting nearly a billion people at all socio-economic levels. In prehistoric populations the paleoparasitological findings show a pinworm homogeneous distribution among hunter-gatherers in North America, intensified with the advent of agriculture. This same increase also occurred in the transition from nomad hunter-gatherers to sedentary farmers in South America, although E. vermicularis infection encompasses only the ancient Andean peoples, with no record among the pre-Colombian populations in the South American lowlands. However, the outline of pinworm paleoepidemiology has been supported by microscopic finding of eggs recovered from coprolites. Since molecular techniques are precise and sensitive in detecting pathogen ancient DNA (aDNA), and also could provide insights into the parasite evolutionary history, in this work we have performed a molecular paleoparasitological study of E. vermicularis. aDNA was recovered and pinworm 5S rRNA spacer sequences were determined from pre-Columbian coprolites (4110 BC-AD 900) from four different North and South American archaeological sites. The sequence analysis confirmed E. vermicularis identity and revealed a similarity among ancient and modern sequences. Moreover, polymorphisms were identified at the relative positions 160, 173 and 180, in independent coprolite samples from Tulán, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile (1080-950 BC). We also verified the presence of peculiarities (Splicing leader (SL1) RNA sequence, spliced donor site, the Sm antigen biding site, and RNA secondary structure) which characterise the SL1 RNA gene. The analysis shows that the SL1 RNA gene of contemporary pinworms was present in pre-Columbian E. vermicularis by 6110 years ago. We were successful in detecting E. vermicularis aDNA even in coprolites without direct microscopic evidence of the eggs, improving the diagnosis of helminth infections in the past and further

  12. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterobius vermicularis and Development of an 18S Ribosomal DNA-Targeted Diagnostic PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Zelck, Ulrike E.; Bialek, Ralf; Weiß, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We genetically characterized pinworms obtained from 37 children from different regions of Germany and established new species-specific molecular diagnostic tools. No ribosomal DNA diversity was found; the phylogenetic position of Enterobius vermicularis within the Oxyurida order and its close relationship to the Ascaridida and Spirurida orders was confirmed. PMID:21248085

  13. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  14. 21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi... for the removal and control of the following worms: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi... for the removal and control of the following worms: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi... for the removal and control of the following worms: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi... for the removal and control of the following worms: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach...

  18. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  19. Enterobius vermicularis: 10,000-year-old human infection.

    PubMed

    Fry, G F; Moore, J G

    1969-12-26

    Eggs of Enterobius vermicularis (human pinworm) were found in hum coprolites from Hopug and Danger Caves, western Utah. The Caves were inhabitated by man from 10,000 B.C. to A.D. 1400. The oldest coprolite containing dated at 7837 B.C. This represents the earliest known association between man abd this exclusively human parasite. PMID:4900959

  20. Unusual case of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Luke Nelson; Tsai, Alice Yi-Chien

    2016-01-01

    A teenage girl was admitted to the paediatric assessment unit with non-specific abdominal pain that gradually localised to the right iliac fossa (RIF). She remained systemically well; investigations including blood tests, urine sample and abdominal ultrasound were inconclusive. Surgical opinion was sought and the decision was made to perform a diagnostic laparoscopy due to the ongoing pain. Laparoscopy showed no evidence of any significant pathology, and appendicectomy was performed following the routine practice. Numerous pinworms came out while the appendix was resected. The RIF pain resolved and the patient made a full post-operative recovery. A stat dose of mebendazole and amoxicillin were given and the immediate family was also treated. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) causes significant morbidity worldwide and has a high prevalence among children in the UK. It can be easily treated and prompt recognition based on clinical symptoms can potentially prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:27364910

  1. Morphology of the oxyurid nematodes Trypanoxyuris (T.) cacajao n. sp. and T. (T.) ucayalii n. sp. from the red uakari monkey Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Conga, D F; Giese, E G; Serra-Freire, N M; Bowler, M; Mayor, P

    2016-07-01

    Cacajao calvus ucayalii (Thomas, 1928) (Primates: Pitheciidae), a subspecies endemic to the Peruvian Amazon, occurs in patchy and sometimes isolated populations in north-eastern Peru and is in a vulnerable situation, mainly due to habitat loss and hunting. This rareness and remote distribution means that, until now, parasitical studies have been limited. Based on optical and scanning electron microscopy of specimens of both sexes, we report two new species of Trypanoxyuris pinworms occurring in the large intestine of the Peruvian red uakari, namely Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) cacajao and Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) ucayalii. Both species showed a distinct morphology of the lips and cephalic structure. Sexual dimorphism in the lateral alae was observed in both male and the female worms, with ventral ornamentation being shown in the oesophageal teeth. The finding of these new pinworm species highlights the possibility of discovering other species. PMID:26282270

  2. Pin Worms Presenting as Suspected Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saffar, Farah; Najjar, Nimeh; Ibrahim, Saif; Clark, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: Pinworms infection Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloating Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colonoscopy and biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well recognized in developed countries and is generally among the differential diagnoses of young patients presenting with refractory diarrhea once other more common etiologies have been excluded. Pinworm infections, on the other hand, are not as common among adults in the United States. Case Report: Based on computed tomography features, a 24-year-old female patient with a history of multiple autoimmune disorders presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed recently with Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy was significant for pinworms seen throughout the colon. Colonic biopsy was negative for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related changes. Conclusions: The diagnosis of IBD is a serious label that requires biopsy confirmation before committing to possibly lifelong treatment and possible adverse effects. Even in the most typical patient and when the presentation and imaging are classical, uncommon conditions (like Enterobius infection in this case) may preclude appropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26471462

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Oxyuris equi: Comparison with other closely related species and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Wen-Wen; Guo, Dong-Hui; Liu, Ze-Xuan; Duan, Hong; Su, Xin; Fu, Xue; Yue, Dong-Mei; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Chun-Ren

    2015-12-01

    The equine pinworm Oxyuris equi (Nematoda: Oxyuridomorpha) is the most common horse nematode, has a worldwide distribution, and causes major economic losses. In the present study, the complete O. equi mitochondrial (mt) genome was sequenced, and the mt genome structure and organization were compared with those of other closely related pinworm species, Enterobius vermicularis and Wellcomia siamensis. The O. equi mt genome is a 13,641-bp circular DNA molecule that encodes 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and two rRNAs) and one non-coding region, which is slightly shorter than that of E. vermicularis and W. siamensis. The O. equi mt gene arrangement was consistent with that of GA13-type E. vermicularis but it differs from GA12-type W. siamensis. Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes with three different computational algorithms (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference) revealed that there were two distinct clades in Chromadorea nematodes that reflected infraorder. Spiruromorpha formed one clade, whereas Rhabditomorpha, Ascaridomorpha, and Oxyuridomorpha formed another clade. O. equi, E. vermicularis, and W. siamensis represent distinct but closely related species, which indicated that Oxyuridomorpha is paraphyletic. Sequencing the O. equi mt genome provides novel genetic markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of pinworms. PMID:26452611

  4. Human enterobiasis in evolution: origin, specificity and transmission.

    PubMed

    Hugot, J P; Reinhard, K J; Gardner, S L; Morand, S

    1999-09-01

    The co-evolutionary pathway seems to be the most plausible hypothesis for the explanation of the origin of human pinworms. Of the two modes of transmission of oxyurids among humans which have been documented, the direct oral/anal route is also observed in other Primates and seems to have been favoured by selection. As indirect air-borne transmission has also been shown for human enterobiasis, the question of "How this alternative to the standard transmission method could have arisen" is examined. The results of comparative studies of prevalence of Enterobius in human coprolites, in villages of Neolithic age of the arid west of North America, show that a higher prevalence of pinworms is correlated with the lower total amount of air-exchange in caves relative to other structures. The air-borne route of transmission of pinworms among humans is interpreted as an innovation in the human/Enterobius pair. This mode of transfer could have been favoured during the time when humans changed their behaviour from a hunting-gathering to a more sedentary existence, initially associated with cave habitats. PMID:10511967

  5. The gastrointestinal helminths of Rattus niobe (Rodentia: Muridae) with descriptions of two new genera and three new species (Nematoda) from Papua New Guinea and Papua Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2016-01-01

    Cestodes, to be identified elsewhere, the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis and 15 species of nematode including 2 new genera, a new species and 2 putative new species from the families Heligmonellidae and Oxyuridae, as well as juveniles and a putative heligmonellid that could not be fully identified, were collected from the digestive tracts of 34 Rattus niobe (Muridae: Murinae: Rattini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The ascaridid, Toxocara mackerrasae, the chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi, the heterakid Heterakis sp., the spirurids Protospirura kaindiensis and P. muricola the subulurid Subulura andersoni and the trichurids Eucoleus sp. and Trichuris muris have been reported previously from endemic Rattus spp. Syphacia (Syphacia) niobe n. sp. was distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a round cephalic plate, the lack of cervical and lateral alae, a longer male tail and an attenuated female tail. Nugininema titokis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 10-17 ridges orientated subfrontally at mid body and 2 right ventral ridges hypertrophied anteriorly. Rodentanema aenigma n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe 6-7 ridges at mid body not symmetrical in relation to frontal axis. Species richness of the nematode assemblage was similar to that reported for Rattus leucopus in Papua New Guinea, with about 90% of possible species found as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Species composition included 6 species unique to R. niobe and 7 species reported from at least one other species of Rattus indigenous to New Guinea, as well as juvenile worms, probably ascaridids. PMID:27395168

  6. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    Background Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Materials and methods Wild brown rats (117 individuals) and black rats (44 individuals) were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Results and discussion Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp.), three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) fraterna), and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus). Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species) and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species) at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris) or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris). We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats. PMID

  7. The potential role of strongyloides robustus on parasite-mediated competition between two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys).

    PubMed

    Krichbaum, Kristle; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A; Turner, Gregory; Hudson, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that populations of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) are declining in the eastern United States, perhaps due to competition with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). Potential causes include parasite-mediated or apparent competition from the shared intestinal nematode, Strongyloides robustus, which has been shown to detrimentally affect the northern flying squirrel but not the southern flying squirrel. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study on the parasite community of both flying squirrel species from sites in Pennsylvania where the two species occur sympatrically and where G. sabrinus is now considered endangered at the state level. We compared these parasite communities with those from northern flying squirrels from northern New York where the southern flying squirrel is absent. We found eight species of gastrointestinal parasites (Pterygodermatites peromysci, Lemuricola sciuri, Syphacia thompsoni, Syphacia spp., Capillaria spp., Citellinema bifurcatum, Strogyloides robustus, and an unidentifiable cestode species) in both species of flying squirrels examined for our study. The parasite-mediated competition hypothesis was partially supported. For example, in Pennsylvania, S. robustus was overdispersed in southern flying squirrels, such that a small proportion of the hosts carried a large proportion of the worm population. In addition, we found S. robustus to be present in northern flying squirrels when the species were sympatric, but not where southern flying squirrels were absent in New York. However, there was no association between S. robustus and the body condition of flying squirrels. We detected a potential parasite community interaction, as S. robustus abundance was positively associated with P. peromysci. PMID:20090036

  8. Correlated evolution between host immunity and parasite life histories in primates and oxyurid parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Sorci, Gabriele; Skarstein, Frode; Morand, Serge; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Maturation time is a pivotal life-history trait of parasitic nematodes, determining adult body size, as well as daily and total fecundity. Recent theoretical work has emphasized the influence of prematurational mortality on the optimal values of age and size at maturity in nematodes. Eosinophils are a family of white blood cells often associated with infections by parasitic nematodes. Although the role of eosinophils in nematode resistance is controversial, recent work has suggested that the action of these immune effectors might be limited to the larval stages of the parasite. If eosinophils act on larval survival, one might predict, in line with theoretical models, that nematode species living in hosts with large eosinophil numbers should show reduced age and size at maturity. We tested this prediction using the association between the pinworms (Oxyuridae, Nematoda) and their primate hosts. Pinworms are highly host specific and are expected to be involved in a coevolutionary process with their hosts. We found that the body size of female parasites was negatively correlated with eosinophil concentration, whereas the concentration of two other leucocyte families-neutrophils and lymphocytes-was unrelated to female body size. Egg size of parasites also decreased with host eosinophil concentration, independently of female size. Male body size was unrelated to host immune parameters. Primates with the highest immune defence, therefore, harbour small female pinworms laying small eggs. These results are in agreement with theoretical expectations and suggest that life histories of oxyurid parasites covary with the immune defence of their hosts. Our findings illustrate the potential for host immune defence as a factor driving parasite life-history evolution. PMID:14667339

  9. Enterobius vermicularis: an unusual cause of recurrent urinary tract infestation in a 7-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupeshwari; Sharma, Tanya; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Dhingra Bhan, Bhavna

    2015-04-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, the pinworm, is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. Ectopic infestations in the genital or urinary tracts rarely occur and chronic enterobiasis of the urinary tract has rarely been reported. Here we present such a case in a 7-year-old girl presenting with fever, pain in the abdomen, vomiting and burning micturition. Ultrasonography and micturating cystourethrogram (MCU) studies were normal. The ova were demonstrated from both the patient's urine and stool specimen. This child was treated successfully with Albendazole and Ivermectin. PMID:25586573

  10. Microbiological monitoring of laboratory mice and biocontainment in individually ventilated cages: a field study.

    PubMed

    Brielmeier, M; Mahabir, E; Needham, J R; Lengger, C; Wilhelm, P; Schmidt, J

    2006-07-01

    Over recent years, the use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) rack systems in laboratory rodent facilities has increased. Since every cage in an IVC rack may be assumed to be a separate microbiological unit, comprehensive microbiological monitoring of animals kept in IVCs has become a challenging task, which may be addressed by the appropriate use of sentinel mice. Traditionally, these sentinels have been exposed to soiled bedding but more recently, the concept of exposure to exhaust air has been considered. The work reported here was aimed firstly at testing the efficiency of a sentinel-based microbiological monitoring programme under field conditions in a quarantine unit and in a multi-user unit with frequent imports of mouse colonies from various sources. Secondly, it was aimed at determining biocontainment of naturally infected mice kept in an IVC rack, which included breeding of the mice. Sentinels were exposed both to soiled bedding and to exhaust air. The mice which were used in the study carried prevalent infectious agents encountered in research animal facilities including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), mouse parvovirus (MPV), intestinal flagellates and pinworms. Our data indicate that the sentinel-based health monitoring programme allowed rapid detection of MHV, intestinal flagellates and pinworms investigated by a combination of soiled bedding and exhaust air exposure. MHV was also detected by exposure to exhaust air only. The IVC rack used in this study provided biocontainment when infected mice were kept together with non-infected mice in separate cages in the same IVC rack. PMID:16803642

  11. Genetic analysis of Enterobius vermicularis isolated from a chimpanzee with lethal hemorrhagic colitis and pathology of the associated lesions.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuji; Okabayashi, Sachi; Abe, Niichiro; Masatou, Haruhisa; Iida, Shinya; Teramoto, Isao; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2014-11-01

    Human pinworms, Enterobius vermicularis, are normally recognized as minor pathogens. However, a fatal case of human pinworm infection has been reported in a nonhuman primate, a zoo reared chimpanzee. Here, we histopathologically examined the lesions in tissues from the deceased chimpanzee and genetically characterized the isolated worms to investigate the pathogenicity and determine the phylogeny. We identified ulcers deep in the submucosa where many parasites were found to have invaded the lamina propria mucosa or submucous tissue. An inflammatory reaction consisting mainly of neutrophils and lymphocytes but not eosinophils was observed around the parasites, and intense hemorrhage in the lamina propria was confirmed. The parasites were morphologically similar to E. vermicularis based on the shape of the copulatory spicules. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene products were amplified from worm DNA by PCR and were genetically identified as E. vermicularis based on >98.7% similarity of partial sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences clustered together with other chimpanzee E. vermicularis isolates in a group which has been referred to as type C and which differs from human isolates (type A). The samples were negative for bacterial pathogens and Entamoeba histolytica indicating that E. vermicularis could be pathogenic in chimpanzees. Phylogenetic clustering of the isolates indicated that the parasite may be host specific. PMID:25138069

  12. Use of Fenbendazole-Containing Therapeutic Diets for Mice in Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research. PMID:22776123

  13. [Investigation of Soil-Transmitted Nematode Infections in Xuchang City of Henan Province in 2012].

    PubMed

    PENG, Jin-hua

    2015-10-01

    The Weidu District, Yanling County and Yuzhou City were selected in Xuchang City for investigation of the status of soil-transmitted nematode infections in 2012, in accordance with the National Monitoring Program for Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis (2011 Revised Edition). Kato-Katz technique was used to detect soil- transmitted nematodes in feces of residents over 3 years old, and the cellophane tape peri-anal swab method was used to detect pinworm eggs in children between 3-12 years. A total of 2 991 fecal samples were examined. The total infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodiasis was 4.3%(128/2 991), decreased by 63.0% and 55.1% when compared with that in 2010 (11.6%) and that in Henan Province in 2004 (9.5%) respectively. The infection rates of roundworms, whipworms, hookworms and pinworms were 3.7%(110/2 991), 0.3%(9/2 991) , 0.1%(3/2 991) , and 0.2% ( 6/2 991) , respectively, all showing mild intensity of infection. The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodiasis was highest in farmers (5.5%, 113/2 059), followed by children (3.1%, 3/98). PMID:26931049

  14. Critical tests with oxibendazole against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies.

    PubMed

    Nawalinski, T; Theodorides, V J

    1976-04-01

    Twenty ponies were allotted to 4 groups of 5 ponies each, and oxibendazole was orally administered at dose levels of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg. In the 3 groups of ponies given the largest doses, efficacy against 3 species of Strongylus was between 92 and 100% and that against small strongylids of the genera Cyathostomum, Cylicocyclus, Cylicodontophorus, and Cylicostephanus was more than 99%. All adults and 95 to 100% of larvae of the pinworm Oxyuris equi were removed. In the group of ponies given 5 mg/kg, 86 to 100% of the large strongylids and 84 to 100% of the small strongylids were removed, as were all larval and adult pinworms. Trichostrongylus axei was found only in 4 of the 5 ponies given 5 mg/kg; results were encouraging, but not consistent. Almost all of the Parascaris equorum were found in this group of ponies; no anthelmintic activity was detected at this dose level. Oxibendazole removed approximately 99% of small strongylid 4th-stage larvae. No efficacy against the larval stages of Gasterophilus intestinalis and against Habronema spp and Setaria equina was observed. PMID:1267243

  15. [Survey on human soil-borne nematode infection in Xining City].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sheng-Hu; Han, Xiu-Min; Lei, Wen

    2013-02-01

    Five fields were selected from Xining City by stratified cluster sampling method for the survey. 4589 people above 3 years old were examined for nematode infections using Kato-Katz method and children under 12 years old were detected for pinworm infection using transparent tape method from June to August in 2011. The results showed that the total nematode infection rate was 3.0% (136/4 589) with the highest of 3.8% (123/3284) in rural area. The major species was Ascaris lumbricoides, and the infection rate in 15-20 age group was 1.5% (4/264), which was significantly lower than that of the age groups of 60-70 (6.9%, 23/335), above 70 (5.3%, 6/114) and of 10-15 (5.1%, 19/372)(P<0.05). The prevalence of A. lumbricoides among the preschool children (9.5%, 12/127) was statistically higher than those in other occupation groups (P<0.05), and the infection rate showed no statistical significance by gender, ethnic and degree of education (P>0.05). Pinworm infection in children under 12 years old was only 0.5% (2/437). PMID:24812844

  16. Molecular Phylogeny of Nematodes (Oxyurida: Travassosinematidae) from Orthoptera (Gryllotalpidae) Inferred by Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neetu; Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced mt Cox 1 gene sequences of five nematode spp. that were infective to arthropod, Gryllotalpa africana. The nematode belongs to Thelastomatoidea, a group of pinworms that parasitizes only invertebrates. Currently, in India spp. of this group are distinguished mainly on the basis of morphological characters that present possible confusions. Therefore, we identified the species through morphological and genetic analysis. We selected mt Cox 1 gene region to show their phylogenetic position with closely related spp. and confirmed their molecular validation. The present findings are important to confirm the phylogenetic position and relationship among five nematode spp. and avoid misidentification regarding their validation, as it is more necessary in that case when many species harbours the same host. PMID:26339150

  17. Enterobius vermicularis infection of the liver in a patient with colorectal carcinoma with suspected liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Furnée, Edgar J B; Spoto, Clothaire; de Graaf, Melanie J; Smakman, Niels

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man diagnosed with cT3N2 adenocarcinoma of the rectum presented with a synchronous solitary liver metastasis on CT scan. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was started to downstage the primary tumour. Resection of the rectal tumour followed 3 months after the last radiotherapy session and primary resection of the isolated liver lesion was performed in the intervening period. Histopathological assessment of the liver lesion, however, showed no malignancy, but did reveal a necrotic infection due to Enterobius vermicularis. This parasite is frequently found in the intestines, but only rarely infects the liver. The patient was subsequently treated with the anthelmintic drug mebendazole 100 mg once a week for 2 weeks. Histopathological assessment of the rectal specimen showed complete regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy without evidence of remaining E. vermicularis, suggesting pinworm eradication. The patient recovered promptly after both surgical procedures. PMID:26546623

  18. Enterobius vermicularis eggs discovered in coprolites from a medieval Korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Min

    2011-09-01

    While the presence of pinworm eggs in archaeological samples has been reported by many researchers in the New World, those have been detected very scarcely in the Old World, especially in East Asian countries. In fact, many parasite species were recovered from the archeological remains in Korea, eggs of Enterobius vermicularis had not been found. Recently, a female mummy buried in the 17th century was discovered in the Joseon tomb from Dangjin-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. After rehydration process for 12 days, investigations were carried on the luminal surface of the colon. From them, 3 eggs of E. vermicularis were recovered. They were elliptical, transparent with a thin egg shell, 50.3±5.2 µm (length) and 28.2±3.9 µm (width) in size. This is the first discovery of E. vermicularis eggs in East Asia. PMID:22072838

  19. Oxibendazole: critical anthelmintic trials in equids.

    PubMed

    Kates, K C; Colglazier, M L; Enzie, F D

    1975-12-01

    The efficacy of oxibendazole against gastrointestinal parasites of horses was evaluated by the critical test method. Naturally infected ponies of various ages were given single oral doses of 5, 10, or 15 mg-kg of bodyweight. The drug was highly effective against adult large strongylids (Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, S equins), adult small strongylids (especially species of the genera Cylicostephanus, Cylicocyclus, Cyaathostomum, and Triodontophorus), and adult and larval stages of the large pinworm, Oxyuris equi. There was no apparent dose-related differences in efficacy. Oxibendazole was less effective against fourth-stage small strongylid larvae than it was against adults. The drug was inactive against stomach bots (Gasterophilus spp), tapeworms (Anoplocephala magna and A perfoliata), lungworms (Dictyocaulus arnfieldi), abdominal worms )Setaria equina), and mature or immature nematodes in locations other than the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:1216434

  20. Critical tests of anthelmintic activity of a paste formulation of thiabendazole in horses.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1976-06-01

    Critical tests of the activity on large strongyles, ascarids, mature pinworms, and bots were carried out in 11 horses intraorally treated with a paste formulation of thiabendazole. The dose level of 44 mg/kg was administered to 3 horses, and the dose level of 88 mg/kg to 8 horses. Removals of Strongylus vulgaris and mature Oxyuris equi were 100% at the 2 dose levels, and efficacy against Strongylus edentatus varied from 95 to 99% and 89 to 100% for the 44- and the 88-mg/kg dose levels, respectively. Strongylus equinus was completely removed from the 1 infected horse treated at the dose level of 88 mg/kg. Activity of the smaller dose against Parascaris equorum was 46%, and that of the larger dose varied from 32 to 100%. The drug was inactive on Gasterophilus intestinalis and Gasterophilus nasalis. PMID:937790

  1. Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (P< 0.01). Adult M. musculus were more likely to be infected with helminths (89%) than subadults (63%) (P< 0.01). Four helminth species were identified: Taenia taeniaeformis larvae, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris and Trichuris muris. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was present more frequently in M. musculus than in R. rattus (P< 0.01) and in adult mice compared to subadults (P< 0.01). Trichuris muris was present only in adult mice. This is the first report of N. brasiliensis, S. muris and T. muris in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as the first to report the presence of N. brasiliensis in M. musculus from Mexico. The helminth fauna of commensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths. PMID:24000977

  2. Long-term spatiotemporal stability and dynamic changes in helminth infracommunities of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in NE Poland.

    PubMed

    Grzybek, Maciej; Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Al-Sarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Harris, Philip D; Price, Stephen J; Brown, Gabrielle S; Osborne, Sarah-Jane; Siński, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-12-01

    Parasites are considered to be an important selective force in host evolution but ecological studies of host-parasite systems are usually short-term providing only snap-shots of what may be dynamic systems. We have conducted four surveys of helminths of bank voles at three ecologically similar woodland sites in NE Poland, spaced over a period of 11 years, to assess the relative importance of temporal and spatial effects on helminth infracommunities. Some measures of infracommunity structure maintained relative stability: the rank order of prevalence and abundance of Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli and Mastophorus muris changed little between the four surveys. Other measures changed markedly: dynamic changes were evident in Syphacia petrusewiczi which declined to local extinction, while the capillariid Aonchotheca annulosa first appeared in 2002 and then increased in prevalence and abundance over the remaining three surveys. Some species are therefore dynamic and both introductions and extinctions can be expected in ecological time. At higher taxonomic levels and for derived measures, year and host-age effects and their interactions with site are important. Our surveys emphasize that the site of capture is the major determinant of the species contributing to helminth community structure, providing some predictability in these systems. PMID:26442655

  3. Diversity of nematodes in the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from the Peripannonic region of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Čabrilo, B; Jovanović, V M; Bjelić-Čabrilo, O; Budinski, I; Blagojević, J; Vujošević, M

    2016-01-01

    Up to six nematode species were identified from 86 specimens of the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from three mountainous localities known as Avala, Cer and Liškovac in Serbia. The highest prevalence of infection of 97% was recorded from Mt. Avala. Only one nematode species, Syphacia frederici, occurred in all three localities. There was complete overlap in nematode species from Mts. Avala and Liškovac, whereas the taxonomic distinctness of Mt. Cer was seen in the presence of the insect-transmitted species Rictularia proni. Locality was a statistically significant factor in all the best-fitted generalized linear models of variation in abundances. The highest level of both species richness and parasite alpha diversity (Shannon's H= 1.47) was found in the easternmost Mt. Liškovac, whereas the diversity indices were lowest for the westernmost Mt. Cer (Shannon's H= 0.48). In view of this geographical difference, the beta diversity indices were calculated along a west to east longitudinal gradient. PMID:25272984

  4. Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection is associated with lower MHC class II gene expression in Apodemus flavicollis: indication for immune suppression?

    PubMed

    Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

    2011-12-01

    Due to their key role in recognizing foreign antigens and triggering the subsequent immune response the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provide a potential target for parasites to attack in order to evade detection and expulsion from the host. A diminished MHC gene expression results in less activated T cells and might serve as a gateway for pathogens and parasites. Some parasites are suspected to be immune suppressors and promote co-infections of other parasites even in other parts of the body. In our study we found indications that the gut dwelling nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus might exert a systemic immunosuppressive effect in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). The amount of hepatic MHC class II DRB gene RNA transcripts in infected mice was negatively associated with infection intensity with H. polygyrus. The hepatic expression of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as transforming growth factor β and interleukin 10 was not associated with H. polygyrus infection. We did not find direct positive associations of H. polygyrus with other helminth species. But the prevalence and infection intensity of the nematodes Syphacia stroma and Trichuris muris were higher in multiple infected individuals. Furthermore, our data indicated antagonistic effects in the helminth community of A. flavicollis as cestode infection correlated negatively with H. polygyrus and helminth species richness. Our study shows that expression analyses of immune relevant genes can also be performed in wildlife, opening new aspects and possibilities for future ecological and evolutionary research. PMID:21983561

  5. Influence of habitat modification on the community of gastrointestinal helminths of cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Boggs, J F; McMurry, S T; Leslie, D M; Engle, D M; Lochmiller, R L

    1991-10-01

    Dynamics of communities of gastrointestinal helminths of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were monitored in response to five experimental brush management treatments using herbicide applications with and without prescribed burning on the Cross Timbers Experimental Range in Payne County, Oklahoma (USA). A total of 113 adult cotton rats (68 male and 45 female) was collected from experimental pastures in winter and summer 1986 resulting in the recovery of five species of helminths: Longistriata adunca, Syphacia sigmodontis, Strongyloides sp., Protospirura muris, and Raillietina sp. Prevalences of Raillietina sp. and S. sigmodontis were greater on control than herbicide-treated pastures. Prevalence and abundance of Raillietina sp. and prevalence of S. sigmodontis were significantly lower on annually burned, herbicide-treated pastures compared to unburned herbicide-treated pastures. Triclopyr-treated pastures had greater abundances of L. adunca and lower abundances of Raillietina sp. than those treated with tebuthiuron. Abundances of L. adunca also decreased from winter to summer on annually burned, herbicide-treated pastures while increasing on other pastures. Distribution of all helminths was overdispersed, but distribution of L. adunca showed a significant brush treatment by season interaction as a result of greater overdispersion in summer than winter for cotton rats inhabiting brush-treated pastures. Our results indicate that man-induced habitat modifications can alter host-parasite relationships in the community. PMID:1758023

  6. Endoparasites of the spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lutermann, Heike; Medger, Katarina; Junker, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    The endoparasite fauna of the spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus) was studied for the first time from April 2007 until April 2009 in a population from the Limpopo Province of South Africa. In a total of 129 mice examined, only 6 endoparasite taxa were found, 2 nematode species (Syphacia minuta, Monanema joopi), 1 genus of cestodes ( Rodentolepis spp.), and unidentified hymenolepidid fragments. In addition, 1 pentastomid species (Armillifer grandis) as well as unidentified porocephalid specimens were recovered. The overall prevalence was low, at 15.5%, and only 1 individual harbored more than 1 parasite species. With 12.4% prevalence, S. minuta was the most prevalent parasite. Its prevalence and abundance were significantly higher during the dry and cooler season than during the wet and warm season, while a female-biased burden was observed during the wet season only. For the remaining parasite species, low prevalence prevented meaningful statistical analyses. The observed parasite species richness, prevalence, and abundance for A. spinosissimus were low compared to values reported for other Acomys spp. This may be linked to the lack of anthropogenic influences in the study population as well as the small size of A. spinosissimus . PMID:23931640

  7. Differences in richness and composition of gastrointestinal parasites of small rodents (Cricetidae, Rodentia) in a continental and insular area of the Atlantic Forest in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuhnen, V V; Graipel, M E; Pinto, C J C

    2012-08-01

    The first and only study on gastrointestinal parasites of wild rodents in the Island of Santa Catarina was done in 1987. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites from wild rodents in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz and Santa Catariana Island, and to compare the richness and composition of the gastrointestinal parasite community of both areas. Rodents were captured with live traps, and feces were screened using the sedimentation method and optical microscopy. The following species of rodents were captured in the two areas: Akodon montensis, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Nectomys squamipes. In Santo Amaro da Impetratriz, prevalent parasites were: A. montensis (51%), E. russatus (62%), O. nigripes (53%) and N. squamipes (20%). From the Island of Santa Catarina the rodent prevalence rates were: A. montensis (43%), E. russatus (59%), O. nigripes (30%) and N. squamipes (33%) and the collected parasites were: Hymenolepis sp., Longistriata sp., Strongyloides sp., Hassalstrongylus sp., Syphacia sp., Trichomonas sp., Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Oxyuridae and Eucoccidiorida. The species richness (10.6 ± 0.7) of the endoparasite comunity in the area located on the continent was higher (p < 0.01) and different (p = 0.001) from that of the area located on the island (6.9 ± 0.5). PMID:22990827

  8. Diversity of the helminth community of the Pampean grassland mouse (Akodon azarae) on poultry farms in central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Miño, M H; Herrera, E J Rojas; Notarnicola, J; Robles, M del R; Navone, G T

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the helminth community of the Pampean grassland mouse (Akodon azarae) inhabiting poultry farms in central Argentina. Winter diversity (season of high rodent abundance) has been compared to spring diversity (season of low rodent abundance). Species richness was seven in both seasons: five nematodes (Syphacia carlitosi, Stilestrongylus spp., Trichuris laevitestis, Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) azarai and Protospirura numidica criceticola) and two cestodes (adults of Cyclophyllidea and Taenia taeniaeformis hepatic cysts). No difference in richness was detected between host sexes in each season or among host age classes. However, the helminth community showed 67% similarity between winter and spring, with diversity being significantly higher in spring (H = 0.873) than in winter (H = 0.546; P < 0.0005). This could be attributed to different factors, such as host abundance, host diet or environmental factors, that affect the transmission of each species differently. On the other hand, Stilestrongylus spp. and S. carlitosi showed higher dominance and intensity in both seasons compared to their cohabiting species, P. (P.) azarai and T. laevitestis, respectively. The lower values of the latter two species may be related to a crowding effect due to their large body sizes. This is the first report of cestodes in A. azarae. The finding of T. taeniaeformis strobilocerci could be important in the epidemiology of parasitosis in domestic animals of the farms. PMID:21324218

  9. The helminth community of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus from the Erro River valley, Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed

    Debenedetti, A L; Sainz-Elipe, S; Sáez-Durán, S; Galicia, D; Imaz, A; Galán-Puchades, M T; Fuentes, M V

    2015-11-01

    The helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, in the Erro River valley (Navarre, Spain) was investigated from a total of 150 mice between February 2001 and July 2002. An overall prevalence of 90.7% was recorded and up to 14 helminth species identified. The most prevalent species was the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus (78.0%), whereas Syphacia stroma was the species with the highest median abundance (19.8). The detection of Calodium hepaticum, Rodentolepis straminea and the larvae of Hydatigera taeniaeformis are significant, since these helminth species could be considered potential human parasites. The helminth infracommunity comprised no more than five species. A significant predominance of monoxenous species was detected. Statistically significant differences were also found between prevalences, helminth abundance, species richness and helminth diversity of sub-populations of the wood mouse determined by host age and season of capture, which agree with most of the studies carried out on this host. This study will shed light on the helminth community of the wood mouse from a region of Spain which has not previously been documented. PMID:25007313

  10. Diversity of gastrointestinal helminths among murid rodents from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaisiri, Kittipong; Chaeychomsri, Win; Siruntawineti, Jindawan; Ribas, Alexis; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal helminths (GI helminths) was investigated among 725 murid rodents, trapped in various habitats of Nan, Loei and Buri Ram Provinces, Thailand. The study revealed 17 species of rodents infected with 21 species or taxonomic groups of parasites (3 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 14 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan). The overall prevalence of infection was 57.7% (418/725). Of the gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, the dominant parasitic group was members of the family Trichostrongylidae (24.3%), followed by the cestodes Raillietina sp (17.1%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (8.6%) and the nematode Syphacia muris (8.6%). The GI helminthic infection rates were highest in Mus caroli (81.8%), Mus cervicolor (76.5%), Leopoldamys edwardsi (75.0%), Bandicota indica (71.5%) and Bandicota savilei (71.4%). Highest rodent species richness (RSR) and helminth species richness (HSR) rates were found in Loei, followed by Nan and Buri Ram. The helminth prevalence rate was higher in rodents from Nan, followed by rodents from Loei and Buri Ram. Rodents from irrigated fields had the highest infection rates followed by rodents from upland or dry agricultural areas, forests and domestic habitats. Raillietina sp, Rodentolepis nana (syn. Hymenolepis nana), Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniliformis moniliformis and Cyclodontostomum purvisi, considered zoonotic parasites, were mainly found in rodents from domestic habitats and lowland irrigated fields. PMID:23082550

  11. Ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths of southern flying squirrels in southeast Georgia.

    PubMed

    Pung, O J; Durden, L A; Patrick, M J; Conyers, T; Mitchell, L R

    2000-10-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from southeastern Georgia were examined for ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths. Ten species of ectoparasites were recovered, including 3 species of sucking lice (Hoplopleura trispinosa, Microphthirus uncinatus, and Neohaematopinus sciuropteri), 1 species of flea (Orchopeas howardi), 2 species of ticks (Amblyomma maculatum and Ixodes scapularis), 3 species of mesostigmatid mites (Androlaelaps casalis, A. fahrenholzi, and Haemogamasus ambulans), and 1 species of chigger (Leptotrombidium peromysci). Only the sucking lice and fleas were common on this host. M. uncinatus is reported for the first time from eastern North America. The 2 most commonly collected ectoparasites, N. sciuropteri (prevalence = 63%) and O. howardi (prevalence = 47%), have previously been shown to be vectors of the rickettsial zoonotic agent that causes sporadic epidemic typhus. Also, 3 nematodes (Citellinema bifurcatum, Strongyloides robusius, and Syphacia thompsoni), 1 unidentified cestode, and 1 acanthocephalan (Moniliformis clarki) were found in flying squirrel gastrointestinal tracts. With the exception of S. thompsoni, which was common and relatively abundant in the cecum (prevalence = 94%, intensity = 51+/-12), both the prevalence and intensity of helminth parasites were low. The nematode S. thompsoni and the acanthocephalan M. clarki are new state records for tree squirrels in Georgia. PMID:11128479

  12. Intestinal parasitic infections in Campalagian district, south Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mangali, A; Sasabone, P; Syafruddin; Abadi, K; Hasegawa, H; Toma, T; Kamimura, K; Miyagi, I

    1993-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections were surveyed in the inhabitants of 3 coastal and 2 inland villages of Campalagian District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in July 1992. A total of 398 fecal samples were examined by using Kato-Katz thick smear, Harada-Mori culture and agar-plate culture techniques. Protozoan cysts were examined by formalin ether concentration technique on 380 fecal samples. Soil-transmitted helminth infections were highly prevalent with the overall positive rates as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 25.3%, Trichuris trichiura 59.3%, hookworm 68.3% and Strongyloides stercoralis 2.3%. Eight species of protozoan were detected with the overall prevalence as follows: Entamoeba histolytica 10.9%, E. hartmanni 16.3%, E. coli 31.9%, Endolimax nana 12.5%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 5.4%, Giardia lamblia 4.6%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8% and Blastocystis hominis 18.0%. In the inland villages, prevalence of hookworm infection was higher than Ascaris and Trichuris infections, while in the coastal villages Trichuris infection was predominant. Egg count revealed that the infection level was light in most of the hookworm and Trichuris carriers. Prevalence of lavatories among houses appeared to be inversely proportional to the prevalence of hookworm infection. Meanwhile, the incomplete structure of the lavatories might result in contamination of environment with Ascaris and Trichuris eggs. Harada-Mori culture was the most efficient method in the detection of hookworm infection compared to other techniques. Both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found in all villages, but the former was the predominant species. An adult pinworm was detected by agar-plate culture of feces. Two types of pinworm males, corresponding to Enterobius vermicularis and E. gregorii, were observed. PMID:8266235

  13. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  14. The functional importance of sequence versus expression variability of MHC alleles in parasite resistance.

    PubMed

    Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

    2012-12-01

    Understanding selection processes driving the pronounced allelic polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and its functional associations to parasite load have been the focus of many recent wildlife studies. Two main selection scenarios are currently debated which explain the susceptibility or resistance to parasite infections either by the effects of (1) specific MHC alleles which are selected frequency-dependent in space and time or (2) a heterozygote or divergent allele advantage. So far, most studies have focused only on structural variance in co-evolutionary processes although this might not be the only trait subject to natural selection. In the present study, we analysed structural variance stretching from exon1 through exon3 of MHC class II DRB genes as well as genotypic expression variance in relation to the gastrointestinal helminth prevalence and infection intensity in wild yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). We found support for the functional importance of specific alleles both on the sequence and expression level. By resampling a previously investigated study population we identified specific MHC alleles affected by temporal shifts in parasite pressure and recorded associated changes in allele frequencies. The allele Apfl-DRB*23 was associated with resistance to infections by the oxyurid nematode Syphacia stroma and at the same time with susceptibility to cestode infection intensity. In line with our expectation, MHC mRNA transcript levels tended to be higher in cestode-infected animals carrying the allele Apfl-DRB*23. However, no support for a heterozygote or divergent allele advantage on the sequence or expression level was detected. The individual amino acid distance of genotypes did not explain individual differences in parasite loads and the genetic distance had no effect on MHC genotype expression. For ongoing studies on the functional importance of expression variance in parasite resistance, allele

  15. Efficacy of Soiled Bedding Transfer for Transmission of Mouse and Rat Infections to Sentinels: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, E. M. E.; Hooijmans, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This systematic review was conducted to gain insight into the efficacy of transmission of infectious agents to colony sentinels by soiled bedding transfer based on publications studying this subject in mice and rats. This information is essential to establish recommendations for the design of health monitoring programs which use sentinels to determine the microbiological status of laboratory animal colonies. Results Fifteen original articles retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and CAB abstracts met the inclusion criteria. The design of the studies varied substantially per infectious agent with regard to dose of soiled bedding, exposure time, and sentinel strains used. Conclusion With our conservative criteria for effectiveness, soiled bedding transfer appeared to be effective for MHV, MPV, TMEV, Helicobacter spp., and fur mite infections and ineffective for Sendai virus. For other infectious agents, such as MNV, EDIM, MVM, SDAV, Clostridium piliforme, and pinworms, too few data were available to be able to draw robust conclusions on the efficacy of soiled bedding transfer. Recommendation The identified evidence only pertains to a portion of the infectious organisms included in the FELASA 2014 guidelines. As many animal facilities design their health monitoring program according to these recommendations, additional studies are warranted to draw comprehensive conclusions on the effective transmission of the infectious agents listed in these guidelines by soiled bedding transfer. PMID:27518654

  16. Intestinal parasites of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) from eight populations in Georgia.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jessica L; Miller, Elizabeth A; Norton, Terry M; Raphael, Bonnie L; Spratt, Jeffrey S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), one of five tortoise species endemic in the USA, was recently classified as a candidate for federal listing as a threatened species. Fecal samples collected from 117 tortoises from eight sites in Georgia were examined for endoparasites using a combination of sedimentation and flotation. Samples from an island population were examined for parasitic oocysts and ova only by flotation, protozoan cysts by trichrome-stained direct smear, and Cryptosporidium by direct immunofluorescence assay and ProSpecT rapid assay. A total of 99 tortoises (85, range 0-100%) was infected with pinworms (Alaeuris spp.), 47 (40, 0-86%) with cestodes (Oochorstica sp.), 34 (41, 0-74%) with Chapiniella spp., 2 (3, 0-33%) with Eimeria paynei, and a single tortoise each with a capillarid and ascarid (1%). On the island, Entamoeba was detected in one tortoise (2%) while Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in eight (17%). In conclusion, at least eight species of parasites were detected including Cryptosporidium, a possible pathogen of tortoises. Interestingly, we detected spatial variation in the distribution of several parasites among populations suggesting additional work should be conducted across a gradient of tortoise densities, land use, and habitat characteristics. PMID:24072334

  17. A Nationwide Survey on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in the Republic of Korea, 2004

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Huh, Sun; Kong, Yoon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Park, Yun-Kyu; Oh, Dae-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    National surveys on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections have been carried out every 5-7 years since 1971 in the Republic of Korea in order to establish control measures. The present nationwide survey was conducted from June to December 2004. The 10% population sampling data of Population and Housing Census by the Korean government in 2000 was used as the survey population. One sample was selected randomly from each of the 22,858 registered subjects, and a total of 20,541 people were ultimately included in this survey. Fecal examinations were performed by the cellophane thick smear and saturated brine flotation techniques. Pinworm infection was examined by cello-tape anal swab method. This survey also included a questionnaire study for a socioeconomic analysis. The total helminth egg positive rate was 3.7%, and the estimated total positive number among nationwide people was 1,780,000. The rates in urban and rural areas were 3.1% and 6.8%, respectively. As the total egg positive rate in the 6th survey in 1997 was 2.4%, the present survey showed that there was a considerable degree of increase in the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections over the 7-year period following the 6th survey. The largest increases occurred in the egg positive rates of Clonorchis sinensis and heterophyids including Metagonimus yokogawai. PMID:19290090

  18. Mortality of captive tortoises due to viviparous nematodes of the genus Proatractis (Family Atractidae).

    PubMed

    Rideout, B A; Montali, R J; Phillips, L G; Gardiner, C H

    1987-01-01

    Between September 1982 and January 1984, verminous colitis was diagnosed post mortem in eight red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) and three leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis) from the reptile collection of the National Zoological Park. This represented 69% of 16 tortoise necropsy accessions for that period. Etiology was determined to be a viviparous pinworm-like nematode of the genus Proatractis (Family Atractidae). Clinical signs were either nonspecific, consisting of anorexia, lethargy, and depression, or were absent. Limited trials with piperazine citrate and fenbendazole appeared to be ineffectual against the parasite and supportive therapy was unsuccessful. Post mortem examination revealed roughening and thickening of the mucosa of the cecum and colon, and in severe cases myriads of tiny (0.5-1.0 cm) nematodes were evident on the mucosal surface. In six tortoises, worms were found also in the small intestine. Histopathologic features in severe cases included mucosal necrosis with parasites and mixed inflammatory cells extending into the tunica muscularis. Focal to diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates were present consistently in the submucosa of the cecum and colon, and similar but milder lesions occasionally occurred in the small intestine. PMID:3820411

  19. Influence of habitat modification on the intestinal helminth community ecology of cottontail rabbit populations.

    PubMed

    Boggs, J F; McMurry, S T; Leslie, D M; Engle, D M; Lochmiller, R L

    1990-04-01

    The influence of five brush management treatments using the herbicides tebuthiuron and triclopyr, with or without prescribed burning, on the intestinal helminth community of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied in 1987 on the Cross Timbers Experimental Range in Payne County, Oklahoma (USA). Six helminth species were found (Dermatoxys veligera, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonanulatus, Wellcomia longejector, Taenia pisiformis cystercercus, and Mosgovoyia pectinata americana) in 102 rabbits (88 adult and 14 juveniles) collected over two seasons (winter and summer). Prevalence of M. pectinata americana in cottontail rabbits was significantly greater in untreated control pastures than herbicide treated pastures in winter, while prevalence of T. pisiformis was significantly greater in burned than unburned pastures. Abundances of helminth species in the intestinal tract of cottontail rabbits were unaffected by brush treatments. Mosgovoyia pectinata americana abundance demonstrated a highly significant increase from winter to summer; conversely, abundance of all oxyurid pinworms combined (D. veligera, P. nonanulatus, W. longejector) was significantly higher in winter than summer. Helminth community dynamics were significantly influenced by season, but were unaffected by brush treatments. Habitat modification could have influenced cestode transmission by altering the ecology of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. PMID:2338720

  20. Antiparasitic mebendazole shows survival benefit in 2 preclinical models of glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Aprhys, Colette M.; Gallia, Gary L.; Riggins, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain cancer, and despite treatment advances, patient prognosis remains poor. During routine animal studies, we serendipitously observed that fenbendazole, a benzimidazole antihelminthic used to treat pinworm infection, inhibited brain tumor engraftment. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments with benzimidazoles identified mebendazole as the more promising drug for GBM therapy. In GBM cell lines, mebendazole displayed cytotoxicity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 µM. Mebendazole disrupted microtubule formation in GBM cells, and in vitro activity was correlated with reduced tubulin polymerization. Subsequently, we showed that mebendazole significantly extended mean survival up to 63% in syngeneic and xenograft orthotopic mouse glioma models. Mebendazole has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for parasitic infections, has a long track-record of safe human use, and was effective in our animal models with doses documented as safe in humans. Our findings indicate that mebendazole is a possible novel anti-brain tumor therapeutic that could be further tested in clinical trials. PMID:21764822

  1. Emerging from Obscurity: Biological, Clinical, and Diagnostic Aspects of Dientamoeba fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eugene H.; Windsor, Jeffrey J.; Clark, C. Graham

    2004-01-01

    Ever since its first description in 1918, Dientamoeba fragilis has struggled to gain recognition as a significant pathogen. There is little justification for this neglect, however, since there exists a growing body of case reports from numerous countries around the world that have linked this protozoal parasite to clinical manifestations such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and anorexia. A number of studies have even incriminated D. fragilis as a cause of irritable bowel syndrome, allergic colitis, and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus patients. Although D. fragilis is most commonly identified using permanently stained fecal smears, recent advances in culturing techniques are simplifying as well as improving the ability of investigators to detect this organism. However, there are limitations in the use of cultures since they cannot be performed on fecal samples that have been fixed. Significant progress has been made in the biological classification of this organism, which originally was described as an ameba. Analyses of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences have clearly demonstrated its close relationship to Histomonas, and it is now known to be a trichomonad. How the organism is transmitted remains a mystery, although there is some evidence that D. fragilis might be transmitted via the ova of the pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Also, it remains to be answered whether the two distinct genotypes of D. fragilis recently identified represent organisms with differing virulence. PMID:15258093

  2. Ozone-induced changes in host-plant suitability: interactions of Keiferia lycopersicella and Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, J.T.; Hare, J.D.; Musselman, R.C.; McCool, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Tomato pinworms, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), survived better and developed faster on tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., damaged by ozone than on plants not subjected to ozone fumigation. Other measures of fitness, including survival during pupation, sex ratio of adults, female longevity, and fecundity, were not affected. Analyses of ozonated foliage at zero, two and seven days following fumigation demonstrated a transient but significant increase (18-24%) in soluble protein concentration. Although the concentration of the total free amino acids in ozonated foliage did not increase significantly, significant changes were observed in at least 10 specific amino acids, some of which are critical for either insect development or the production of plant defensive chemicals. A reduction in total nitrogen in ozonated foliage at seven days postfumigation indicated that nitrogen was being translocated to other portions of the plant. The implications of increases in assimilable forms of nitrogen in ozonated foliage, which lead to improved host-plant suitability for insect herbivores, are discussed both in relation to some current ecological theories and in regard to pest-management strategies. 59 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  3. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  4. Emerging from obscurity: biological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of Dientamoeba fragilis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eugene H; Windsor, Jeffrey J; Clark, C Graham

    2004-07-01

    Ever since its first description in 1918, Dientamoeba fragilis has struggled to gain recognition as a significant pathogen. There is little justification for this neglect, however, since there exists a growing body of case reports from numerous countries around the world that have linked this protozoal parasite to clinical manifestations such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and anorexia. A number of studies have even incriminated D. fragilis as a cause of irritable bowel syndrome, allergic colitis, and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus patients. Although D. fragilis is most commonly identified using permanently stained fecal smears, recent advances in culturing techniques are simplifying as well as improving the ability of investigators to detect this organism. However, there are limitations in the use of cultures since they cannot be performed on fecal samples that have been fixed. Significant progress has been made in the biological classification of this organism, which originally was described as an ameba. Analyses of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences have clearly demonstrated its close relationship to Histomonas, and it is now known to be a trichomonad. How the organism is transmitted remains a mystery, although there is some evidence that D. fragilis might be transmitted via the ova of the pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Also, it remains to be answered whether the two distinct genotypes of D. fragilis recently identified represent organisms with differing virulence. PMID:15258093

  5. Critical anthelmintic trials in ponies with oxfendazole and caviphos and concomitant studies on the spontaneous elimination of small strongylids.

    PubMed

    Colglazier, M L

    1979-03-01

    The efficacy of the benzimidazole, oxfendazole, and the organophosphate, caviphos, against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies was evaluated by the critcial test method. Oxfendazole (10 mg/kg of body weight) given in single oral doses was 100% effective against adult large strongylids (Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, and Strongylus equinus), 99% effective against adult small strongylids, and 97% effective against 4th-stage small strongylids (genera identified in order of frequency: Cylicostephanus, Cyathostomum, Cylicocyclus, Triodontophorus, Poteriostomum, Oesophagodontus, Cylicodontophorus, Gyalocephalus, and Craterostomum). Caviphos (40 mg/kg of body weight) admixed in the grain ration (horse crunch) was 89% effective against adult large strongylids (S vulgaris and S edentatus) and 99% effective against adult small strongylids (genera identified earlier in order of frequency above), but only 35% effective against 4th-stage small strongylids. Both drugs were effective (100%) against adult and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi) but ineffective against Habronema spp and Draschia megastoma. Oxfendazole was only 11% effective against stomach bots (Gasterophilus spp); caviphos was 73% effective against these species. During a three-day pretreatment interval, about 34% of the total population of small strongylids was lost spontaneously from the 29 ponies. PMID:475090

  6. Molecular characterization of Thelastomatoidea (Nematoda: Oxyurida) from cockroaches in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jex, A R; Hu, M; Rose, H A; Schneider, M; Cribb, T H; Gasser, R B

    2006-07-01

    A molecular approach was used to genetically characterize 5 species (Aoruroides queenslandensis, Blattophila sphaerolaima, Cordonicola gibsoni, Desmicola ornata and Leidynemella fusiformis) belonging to the superfamily Thelastomatoidea (Nematoda: Oxyurida), a group of pinworms that parasitizes terrestrial arthropods. The D3 domain of the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU) was sequenced for individual specimens, and the analysis of the sequence data allowed the genetic relationships of the 5 species to be studied. The sequence variation in the D3 domain within individual species (0-1.8%) was significantly less than the differences among species (4.3-12.4%). Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbour-joining, tree-building methods, established relationships among the 5 species of Thelastomatoidea and Oxyuris equi (a species of the order Oxyurida). The molecular approach employed provides the prospect for developing DNA tools for the specific identification of the Thelastomatoidea, irrespective of developmental stage and sex, as a basis for systematic, ecological and/or population genetic investigations of members within this superfamily. PMID:16563200

  7. [Dipylidium caninum infection in an infant].

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Naoki; Koga, Hiroyasu; Hidaka, Hidenobu; Mukai, Fumiko; Ikenaga, Masaaki; Otsu, Yasushi; Masunaga, Kenji; Nagai, Kensuke; Yoneda, Yutaka; Fukuma, Toshihide; Ishimoto, Koji

    2007-07-01

    Dipylidium caninum, the dog tapeworm, is a common intestinal cestode of domestic dogs and cats, but few cases have been reported of human infection by this parasite in Japan. We repot a case of D. caninum infection in a 17 month-old girl, who sometimes had symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and dysphoria at night. Her mother noted the appearance of small white worms in her stool, and she was seen by a local pediatrician. Despite antiparasitic therapy wiht pyrantel pamoate, the problem persisted and was eventually referred for further workup to Kurume University Hospital. The diagnosis was made by microscopic examination of the excreted proglottids, which contained characteristic egg capsules. She was successfully treated with a singledose of praziquantel and four adult parasites were recovered. The longest intact worm was 32cm. Her family had household pets (a dog and a cat). The pets were seen by the local veterinary and both were evidenced D. caninum. Humans, primarily children, become infected when they accidentally ingest fleas. Parents usually find proglottids as multiple white objects, often described as cucumber, melon, or pumpkin seeds, in stool, diapers, or on the perineum. Most general practitioners and pediatricians may treat children with enterobiasis (pinworm) infection, and in case the treatment fails, other parasite infection should be considered such as this worm. A history of dog or cat pets, fleas, and flea bites may be important clues to diagnosis. Pets found to be infected should also be treated. PMID:17695802

  8. Albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, in the treatment of intestinal nematode and cestode infection: a multicenter study in 480 patients.

    PubMed

    Jagota, S C

    1986-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of and patient tolerance to albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, were studied in a multicenter trial involving 480 patients ranging in age from 2 to 60 years. The patients had single or mixed infections caused by pinworms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, threadworms, or tapeworms. The stools were examined by the direct method, and ova were counted by means of the Kato-Katz technique. A Graham-Scotch test was also done in patients infected with Enterobius vermicularis. Most patients received a single 400-mg dose of albendazole; adults were given two tablets, and children were given a 2% suspension. All patients with Hymenolepis nana and about half of those with Taenia infections were treated for three successive days. Patients were carefully evaluated before and after treatment to assess the efficacy and safety of the drug. After a single dose of albendazole, the cure rate was 95.3% in ascariasis, 92.2% in ancylostomiasis, 90.5% in trichuriasis, 64.9% in taeniasis, and 100% in enterobiasis. Among patients receiving 400 mg of albendazole for three days, the cure rate was 63.4% in hymenolepiasis and 86.1% in taeniasis. The drug was well tolerated, and no significant side effects were reported. PMID:3516398

  9. Unexpected Histopathological Findings in Appendectomy Specimens: a Retrospective Study of 1627 Cases.

    PubMed

    Limaiem, Faten; Arfa, Nafaa; Marsaoui, Lobna; Bouraoui, Saadia; Lahmar, Ahlem; Mzabi, Sabeh

    2015-12-01

    Pathologic evaluation of the appendix after appendectomy is routine and can occasionally identify unexpected findings. The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence and type of pathologic diagnoses found in appendectomy specimens at our institution. The clinicopathological data of 1627 patients who underwent appendectomies for presumed acute appendicitis from January 2008 to October 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 986 men and 641 women (sex ratio M/F = 1.5) aged between 16 months and 90 years (mean = 30 years). All patients underwent appendectomy (either open or laparoscopic). Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed acute inflammation of the appendix in 1455 cases (89.42 %), fibrosed appendix in 37 cases (2.27 %), and Enterobius vermicularis (n = 23). In 101 cases (6.2 %), the appendix was histologically normal. Incidental unexpected pathological diagnoses were noted in 57 appendectomy specimens. They included pinworm (n = 23), mucinous neoplasms (n = 12), neuroendocrine tumors (NET) (n = 8), adenocarcinoma (n = 2), granulomatous inflammation (n = 5), tuberculosis (n = 2), hyperplastic polyp (n = 1), tubular adenoma (n = 1), diverticulitis (n = 1), endometriosis (n = 1), and actinomycosis (n = 1). The routine histopathological examination of the appendix is of value for identifying unsuspected conditions requiring further postoperative management. Gross examination alone does not appear to be a good indicator of an unexpected finding on microscopic exam. It is recommended that in order to avoid misdiagnoses, all appendices should be histopathologically examined. PMID:27011552

  10. Pyrvinium attenuates Hedgehog signaling downstream of smoothened.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Fei, Dennis Liang; Flaveny, Colin A; Dahmane, Nadia; Baubet, Valérie; Wang, Zhiqiang; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Hang, Brian; Orton, Darren; Han, Lu; Wang, Baolin; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lee, Ethan; Robbins, David J

    2014-09-01

    The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway represents an important class of emerging developmental signaling pathways that play critical roles in the genesis of a large number of human cancers. The pharmaceutical industry is currently focused on developing small molecules targeting Smoothened (Smo), a key signaling effector of the HH pathway that regulates the levels and activity of the Gli family of transcription factors. Although one of these compounds, vismodegib, is now FDA-approved for patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma, acquired mutations in Smo can result in rapid relapse. Furthermore, many cancers also exhibit a Smo-independent activation of Gli proteins, an observation that may underlie the limited efficacy of Smo inhibitors in clinical trials against other types of cancer. Thus, there remains a critical need for HH inhibitors with different mechanisms of action, particularly those that act downstream of Smo. Recently, we identified the FDA-approved anti-pinworm compound pyrvinium as a novel, potent (IC50, 10 nmol/L) casein kinase-1α (CK1α) agonist. We show here that pyrvinium is a potent inhibitor of HH signaling, which acts by reducing the stability of the Gli family of transcription factors. Consistent with CK1α agonists acting on these most distal components of the HH signaling pathway, pyrvinium is able to inhibit the activity of a clinically relevant, vismodegib -resistant Smo mutant, as well as the Gli activity resulting from loss of the negative regulator suppressor of fused. We go on to demonstrate the utility of this small molecule in vivo, against the HH-dependent cancer medulloblastoma, attenuating its growth and reducing the expression of HH biomarkers. PMID:24994715

  11. Infectious Diseases in Wild Mice (Mus musculus) Collected on and around the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) Campus

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Sharon E; Malone, Sarah; Bunte, Ralph M; Smith, Abigail L

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory mice serve as important models in biomedical research. Monitoring these animals for infections and infestations and excluding causative agents requires extensive resources. Despite advancements in detection and exclusion over the last several years, these activities remain challenging for many institutions. The infections and infestations present in laboratory mouse colonies are well documented, but their mode of introduction is not always known. One possibility is that wild rodents living near vivaria somehow transmit infections to and between the colonies. This study was undertaken to determine what infectious agents the wild mice on the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) campus were carrying. Wild mice were trapped and evaluated for parasites, viruses, and selected bacteria by using histopathology, serology, and PCR-based assays. Results were compared with known infectious agents historically circulating in the vivaria housing mice on campus and were generally different. Although the ectoparasitic burdens found on the 2 populations were similar, the wild mice had a much lower incidence of endoparasites (most notably pinworms). The seroprevalence of some viral infections was also different, with a low prevalence of mouse hepatitis virus among wild mice. Wild mice had a high prevalence of murine cytomegalovirus, an agent now thought to be confined to wild mouse populations. Helicobacter DNA was amplified from more than 90% of the wild mice (59% positive for H. hepaticus). Given the results of this study, we conclude that wild mice likely are not a source of infection for many of the agents that are detected in laboratory mouse colonies at the University of Pennsylvania. PMID:19887025

  12. Survey and comparison of major intestinal flora in captive and wild ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) populations.

    PubMed

    Villers, Lynne M; Jang, Spencer S; Lent, Cheryl L; Lewin-Koh, Sock-Cheng; Norosoarinaivo, Jeanne Aimée

    2008-02-01

    A survey to identify the major intestinal species of aerobic bacteria, protozoa and helminths was conducted on captive and wild populations of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Samples were collected from 50 captive lemurs at 11 zoological institutions in the United States. In Madagascar, 98 aerobic bacteria samples and 99 parasite samples were collected from eight sites chosen to cover a variety of populations across the species range. Identical collection, preservation and lab techniques were used for captive and wild populations. The predominant types of aerobic bacteria flora were identified via five separate tests. The tests for parasites conducted included flotation, sedimentation and FA/GC. Twenty-seven bacteria unique to either the captive or wild populations were cultured with eight of these being statistically significantly different. Fourteen bacteria common to both populations were cultured, of which six differed significantly. Entamoeba coli was the only parasite common to both the captive and wild populations. Giardia spp., Isospora spp., strongyles-type ova, Entamoeba spp. and Entamoeba polecki were found only in captive samples. Cryptosporidium, Balantidium coli, pinworm-type ova, and two fluke-like ova were seen only in wild samples. In addition, samples were compared for both bacteria and parasites from three unique field sites in Madagascar. In this three-site comparison, six types of bacteria were statistically significantly different. No significant differences regarding parasites were seen. Significant differences were found between the captive and wild populations, whereas fewer differences were found between sites within Madagascar. Although we isolated Campylobacter and Giardia, all animals appeared clinically healthy. PMID:17854057

  13. Tribendimidine: Mode of Action and nAChR Subtype Selectivity in Ascaris and Oesophagostomum

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Alan P.; Puttachary, Sreekanth; Buxton, Samuel K.; Martin, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The cholinergic class of anthelmintic drugs is used for the control of parasitic nematodes. One of this class of drugs, tribendimidine (a symmetrical diamidine derivative, of amidantel), was developed in China for use in humans in the mid-1980s. It has a broader-spectrum anthelmintic action against soil-transmitted helminthiasis than other cholinergic anthelmintics, and is effective against hookworm, pinworms, roundworms, and Strongyloides and flatworm of humans. Although molecular studies on C. elegans suggest that tribendimidine is a cholinergic agonist that is selective for the same nematode muscle nAChR as levamisole, no direct electrophysiological observations in nematode parasites have been made to test this hypothesis. Also the hypothesis that levamisole and tribendimine act on the same receptor, does not explain why tribendimidine is effective against some nematode parasites when levamisole is not. Here we examine the effects of tribendimidine on the electrophysiology and contraction of Ascaris suum body muscle and show that tribendimidine produces depolarization antagonized by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, and that tribendimidine is an agonist of muscle nAChRs of parasitic nematodes. Further pharmacological characterization of the nAChRs activated by tribendimidine in our Ascaris muscle contraction assay shows that tribendimidine is not selective for the same receptor subtypes as levamisole, and that tribendimidine is more selective for the B-subtype than the L-subtype of nAChR. In addition, larval migration inhibition assays with levamisole-resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum isolates show that tribendimidine is as active on a levamisole-resistant isolate as on a levamisole-sensitive isolate, suggesting that the selectivity for levamisole and tribendimidine is not the same. It is concluded that tribendimidine can activate a different population of nematode parasite nAChRs than levamisole, and is more like bephenium. The different nAChR subtype

  14. Transmission of some species of internal parasites in horses born in 1990, 1991, and 1992 in the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Stamper, S; Drudge, J H; Granstrom, D E; Collins, S S

    1994-04-01

    Studies were conducted on transmission of natural infections of several species of internal parasites in horses born and kept on the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky. Data for the first year (1989) of a 4 year study on this farm have been published recently. The present research represents the second (1990), third (1991), and fourth (1992) years of the investigation. The number of animals (n = 28) examined varied from eight born in 1990 to ten each born in 1991 and 1992. For each year, examination was made of one horse per month, beginning in June of the year of birth and extending through January (1990) or March (1991 and 1992) the following year. Ages of the horses at necropsy ranged from 87 to 251 days. Major parasites present and months of recovery were: bots--Gasterophilus intestinalis in the mouth September-January and in the stomach August-March; stomach worms--Trichostrongylus axei in August and November, Habronema spp. (immature) in July-November and January, and Habronema muscae in October, January, and February; ascarids--Parascaris equorum in the small intestine and lungs all months; intestinal threadworms--Strongyloides westeri in all months except February; large strongyles--Strongylus vulgaris in the large intestine in all months except July and August and in the cranial mesenteric artery in all months, and Strongylus edentatus in the large intestine in January and in the ventral abdominal wall in all months; pinworms--Oxyuris equi in June and January-March; tapeworms--Anoplocephala perfoliata in August-October and December-March; and eyeworms--Thelazia lacrymalis August-February. Yearly differences and similarities of infections in the horses are discussed. The value of this type of research is mentioned. PMID:8073609

  15. Prevalence of internal parasites in horses in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983) in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Tolliver, S C; Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H

    1987-02-01

    The prevalence and number of naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites were compiled for horses used in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983). Data are presented as follows: n = number of horses examined; % = mean prevalence; number in parentheses after % = aggregate mean number of parasites in infected horses. Parasites found were: bots (n = 513) - Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd instar, 61%(58); 3rd instar, 94%(168); G. nasalis, 2nd instar, 36%(28); 3rd instar, 81%(51); stomach worms (n = 200) - Habronema muscae, 65%(179); Draschia megastoma, 29%(95); Trichostrongylus axei, 46%(3000); ascarids (n = 513) - Parascaris equorum, mature, 50%(25); immature, 23%(33); tapeworms (n = 513), Anoplocephala perfoliata, 17%(15); A. magna, 14%(10); large strongyles (n = 487), Strongylus vulgaris, 84%(80); S. edentatus, 79%(101); S. equinus, 6%(14); small strongyles (n = 210), 100%(142,000); pinworms (Oxyuris equi), immature (n = 210), 78%(9000); mature (n = 506), 40%(62); Probstmayria vivipara (n = 210), 12%(10(7]; S. vulgaris in cranial mesenteric artery (n = 472), 89%(57). The majority of the horses examined were mixed lighthorse type but several Thoroughbreds were included. Ages varied from about 4 months to 20 years old, with most being approximately 1-3 years old. They probably had either no or infrequent previous treatment with parasiticides. Most of the horses were selected for presence of certain internal parasites, usually large strongyles, prior to usage in the critical tests. PMID:3564356

  16. [Oxyuriasis and prehistoric migrations].

    PubMed

    Araújo, A; Ferreira, L F

    1995-01-01

    Parasite findings in archeological material have made it possible to trace the dispersion of infectious agents and their human hosts in ancient times. These findings allow us to re-examine theories proposed at the beginning of the century concerning transpacific contacts that Asian populations may have had with South America. This has been the case, for example, with hookworm eggs found in archeological material dating up to 7,000 years before present. Because of the increase in scientific production in this area, it has now become necessary to undertake syntheses that assess the state of the art and propose workable paleoepidemological models of the prehistoric dispersion of human parasitoses. Based on findings of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in archeological material in the Americas, the present study is an effort in this direction. Unlike the hookworm, the pinworm does not require a soil cycle in order to be transmitted from one host to another, thereby meaning that its persistence in a given human population does not depend on climatic conditions. Thus, it could have been brought from the old to the new continent, possibly by human migrations across the Bering Strait. This may explain the greater geographical dispersion and dissemination of these findings in North America from 10,000 yrs B.P. till today. In South America, on the other hand, archeological findings have only confirmed existence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs within the Andean region, with findings located specifically in Chile and northern Argentina. Although a large number of samples have been examined, no such eggs have been found in coprolites in Brazil. The paper discusses models that account for the known distribution of this parasitosis in prehistoric populations. PMID:11625244

  17. Critical tests and safety studies on trichlorfon as an antiparasitic agent in the horse.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Taylor, E L

    1976-02-01

    Three series of critical tests were completed on a combined total of 46 horses to determine the efficacy of single doses of trichlorfon against bots, ascarids, pinworms, and large strongyles. Different formulations of trichlorfon were administered by tubing intragastrically, mixing with the daily grain ration, injecting intramuscularly, or pouring on the back at dose rates between 20 and 100 mg/kg. Administration by feeding tended to be more efficacious for removal of bots and less toxic to the horese than administration by stomach tube. In many of the tests, trichlorfon was given in the grain ration at the dose rate of 40 mg/kg of body weight, and the aggregate average removals of 2nd and 3rd instars of Gastrophilus intestinalis and Gasterophilus nasalis in the 3 series of tests were between 97 and 100%. Removal of Parascaris equorum was equally efficacious with both the intubation and the grain feeding methods of dosing, and at the dose rate of 40 mg/kg, the aggregate averages were 99 and 100% in the 3 series. Removal of Oxyuris equi was variable--aggregate averages were between 11 (1 infected horse in the initial series) and 96 (5 infected horses in the 3rd series) to 100% (7 infected horses in the 2nd series). Large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus edentatus were almost completely refractory to the 40-mg/kg dose rate of trichlorfon. Dose rates of 40 mg/kg and less were generally well tolerated by the critical test horses. Higher dose rates (60 and 80 mg/kg) administered by stomach tube induced moderately severe to severe colic and diarrhea, whereas a dose of 80 mg/kg given in the feed resulted in only a transient softening of the feces. Likewise, 5 consecutive doses, 1 week between doses, of a bolus formulation given at the rate of 80 mg/kg to 4 horses were well tolerated. Clinical trials involving a total of 2,294 treatments of trichlorfon at dose rate of 35 to 40 mg/kg in pregnant and nonpregnant mares, stallions, suckling and weanling foals

  18. A multicenter evaluation of the effectiveness of Quest Gel (2% moxidectin) against parasites infecting equids.

    PubMed

    Cleale, R M; Edmonds, J D; Paul, A J; Reinemeyer, C R; Chapman, M R; Clem, R; Meccoli, R A; Tolliver, S C; Amodie, D M

    2006-04-15

    Controlled trials with a common protocol were conducted in Idaho, Illinois and Tennessee to evaluate anthelmintic effectiveness of Quest Gel (QG; 2% moxidectin) against lumenal parasites in horses. Candidate horses were required to have naturally acquired nematode infections, as confirmed by presence of strongylid eggs in feces. At each site, 24 equids were blocked on the basis of pretreatment strongyle fecal egg counts (EPG) and randomly assigned to treatments within blocks. Within each block of two animals, one received QG on Day 0 at a dosage of 0.4 mg moxidectin/kg b.w. and one was an untreated control. Body weights measured the day before treatment served as the basis for calculating treatment doses. Horses assigned to treatment with QG received the prescribed dose administered orally with the commercially packaged Sure Dial syringe. Horses were necropsied 12-14 days after treatment, and lumenal parasites and digesta were harvested separately from each of five organs, including the stomach, small intestine, cecum, ventral colon and dorsal colon. Parasites from stomachs and small intestines were identified to genus, species and stage. Micro- (i.e., < 1.5 cm) and macroparasites (i.e., > 1.5 cm) in aliquots from the cecum, ventral colon and dorsal colon were examined in aliquots of approximately 200 parasites until at least 600 parasites had been identified to genus, species and stage or until all parasites in the 5% aliquot were examined, whichever occurred first. Data were combined across sites and analyzed by mixed model analysis of variance to assess the fixed effect of treatment and random effects of site and block within site. Because QG does not contain a cestocide, efficacy of QG against tapeworms was not significant (P > 0.05). Based on geometric means, however, efficacy of QG was greater than 90% (P < 0.05) against 38 species and developmental stages of cyathostomes, strongyles, bots, larval pinworms and ascarids encountered in at least 6 of 36 control

  19. Probable reason why small strongyle EPG counts are returning "early" after ivermectin treatment of horses on a farm in Central Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Collins, S S

    2009-02-01

    three horses at 6 days PT but in 26% for horse H-10 at 25 days PT. As mentioned earlier, only a few adults were found in one horse and several L(4) in the three horses at necropsy at 6 days PT. Therefore, in horse H-10, most adults found at 25 days PT presumably developed from "young" specimens not removed by ivermectin. Thus, data from the present critical tests indicate the probable cause of the "early" return of small strongyle EPG values after ivermectin treatment in the horses in field tests on Farm MC. It seems this was the result of incomplete removal of luminal specimens (L(4) and possibly young adults), some of which matured and began laying eggs by about 4 weeks PT (Lyons et al. Parasitol Res 103:209-215, 2008a). The research also showed that ivermectin was highly effective on adult small strongyles. At necropsy, the following other species of parasites (adult) were found, but none was recovered from the feces. These were (n = number of horses infected): (1) ascarids (Parascaris equorum-n = 1), (2) tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata-n = 4), and (3) pinworms (Oxyuris equi-n = 3). Immature (L4) O. equi were present in two horses and removals were 0% in one horse and 39% in the other. Eyeworms (Thelazia lacrymalis) were found in one horse at necropsy. Even though a small number of horses were used in the present research, the commonality of their background made them ideal candidates as a group for this study. This aspect helps strengthen the validity of the interpretation of the findings. PMID:18931857