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Infection with Syphacia obvelata (Pinworm) Induces Protective Th2 Immune Responses and Influences Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections with pinworms are common in rodent animal facilities. In this study, we show the consequence of an outbreak in a transgenic barrier facility of infection by Syphacia obvelata, a murine pinworm gastrointestinal nematode. Immune responses were defined in experimental infection studies with BALB\\/c mice. Infection with S. obvelata induced a transient Th2-type immune response with elevated interleukin 4 (IL-4),

Chesney Michels; Prem Goyal; Natalie Nieuwenhuizen; Frank Brombacher



Effective eradication of pinworms ( Syphacia muris, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera ) from a rodent breeding colony by oral anthelmintic therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An oral combination of piperazine and ivermectin was used over a 6-week period for treating three different colonies of mice or rats infested with Syphacia obvelata, Syphacia muris or Aspiculuris tetraptera. No acute toxic effect was found in transgenic lines of mice or rats with these products in a preliminary trial. The colonies were treated with piperazine, 2.1 mg\\/ml

Lionel Zenner



Syphacia muris, the Rat Pinworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A migration of gravid Syphacia muris pinworms down the large intestine of the rat host is shown to occur from the seventh day on in the worm's life cycle. Eggs obtained from migrating worms have proved to be infective to helminth-free rats after incubation in saline for 30 minutes at room temperature and 4 hours at 37 degrees C.

Walter Stahl



Sensitivity of Perianal Tape Impressions to Diagnose Pinworm (Syphacia spp.) Infections in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Mice (Mus musculus)  

PubMed Central

We determined the sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to detect Syphacia spp. in rats and mice. We evaluated 300 rat and 200 mouse perianal impressions over 9 wk. Pinworm-positive perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens at necropsy were considered as true positives. Conversely, pinworm-negative perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens were considered false negatives. The sensitivity of perianal tape impressions for detecting Syphacia muris infections in rats was 100%, and for detecting Syphacia obvelata in mice was 85.5%. Intermittent shedding of Syphacia obvelata ova is the most probable explanation for the decreased sensitivity rate we observed in mice. We urge caution in use of perianal tape impressions alone for Syphacia spp. screening in sentinel mice and rats.

Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred M; Mandrell, Timothy D



Characterization of rDNA sequences from Syphacia obvelata, Syphacia muris, and Aspiculuris tetraptera and development of a PCR-based method for identification.  


To differentiate the morphologically similar pinworms of the common laboratory rodents, such as Syphacia obvelata and Syphacia muris, we amplified and sequenced the region spanning the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), 5.8S gene, and ITS-2 of the ribosomal DNA followed by designing of species-specific primers for future use in the identification of the worms. It was observed that S. obvelata, S. muris and Aspiculuris tetraptera can be differentiated from each other based on their rDNA sequences. This is the first report of the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 of the rDNA of the three aforementioned rodent pinworm species. The use of restriction endonucleases, AluI or RsaI, further allowed the delineation of the three species. Moreover, we also constructed species-specific primers that were designed for unique regions of the ITS-2 of the three species. This approach allowed their specific identification with no amplicons being amplified from heterogenous DNA samples, and sequencing confirmed the identity of the sequences amplified. Thus, the use of these specific primers along with PCR-RFLP can serve as useful tools for the identification of pinworms in rats, mice, and wild rodents. PMID:18374491

Parel, Joan Dee C; Galula, Jedhan U; Ooi, Hong-Kean



Peptidases of pinworms Syphacia muris and Passalurus ambiguus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this first report about pinworms peptidases we primarily characterize peptidases released during in vitro maintenance of two common pinworms of laboratory animals –Syphacia muris and Passalurus ambiguus. The peptidase activity obtained using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) showed the presence of peptidases from S. muris with a wide range of molecular size (25–110kDa), which degrades gelatin and

Jaroslav Vadlejch; Andriy Lytvynets; Ivana Jankovská; Iva Langrová



Peptidases of pinworms Syphacia muris and Passalurus ambiguus.  


In this first report about pinworms peptidases we primarily characterize peptidases released during in vitro maintenance of two common pinworms of laboratory animals -Syphacia muris and Passalurus ambiguus. The peptidase activity obtained using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed the presence of peptidases from S. muris with a wide range of molecular size (25-110 kDa), which degrades gelatin and mucin at alkaline pH levels. P. ambiguus released serine and aspartyl peptidases degrading gelatin at all tested pH (3, 5, 7, and 9) and at acidic pH Passalurus released aspartyl and cysteine peptidases which are active against mucin. PMID:20433830

Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Lytvynets, Andriy; Jankovská, Ivana; Langrová, Iva



Efficacy and safety of topical selamectin to eradicate pinworm (Syphacia spp.) infections in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus).  


We evaluated the efficacy and safety of topical selamectin, a novel avermectin, in eliminating naturally acquired Syphacia muris infections in rats and S. obvelata infections in mice. S. muris-positive rats were assigned randomly to 4 groups: selamectin (0.6 mg/kg), selamectin (6.0 mg/kg), fenbendazole-medicated (150 ppm) chow, and untreated. S. obvelata-positive mice were allocated into 4 groups similar to those for rats. Animals not exposed to pinworm-contaminated bedding were designated as negative controls. Treatment success was assessed weekly by anal tape impressions and by necropsy examinations at the end of week 9. Evaluations of intestinal contents at necropsy revealed that, although safe, topical selamectin was 100% ineffective in eliminating Syphacia spp. infections in rats and mice. Treatment with fenbendazole-medicated chow resulted in negative anal tape impressions beginning at week 2 in rats and week 1 in mice. Negative anal tape impressions in fenbendazole-treated animals were confirmed by negative intestinal content evaluations. Of the 2 treatments evaluated, fenbendazole-medicated chow remains an effective and practical method to eliminate pinworm infections in mice and rats. PMID:16642966

Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred Montgomery; Lokey, Sharon Jean; Hayes, Ernestine; Boyd, Kelli Lynn; Mandrell, Timothy David



Efficacy and Safety of Topical Selamectin to Eradicate Pinworm (Syphacia spp.) Infections in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Mice (Mus musculus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the efficacy and safety of topical selamectin, a novel avermectin, in eliminating naturally acquired Syphacia muris infections in rats and S. obvelata infections in mice. S. muris-positive rats were assigned randomly to 4 groups: selamectin (0.6 mg\\/kg), selamectin (6.0 mg\\/kg), fenbendazole-medicated (150 ppm) chow, and untreated. S. obvelata-positive mice were allocated into 4 groups similar to those for

William Allen Hill; Mildred Montgomery Randolph; Sharon Jean Lokey; Ernestine Hayes; Kelli Lynn Boyd; Timothy David Mandrell




Microsoft Academic Search

BORBA, H.R.; AMORIM, A. de (Anthelmintic action of plants XIV. Evaluation of the activity of aqueous extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides l. (Erva-de-Santa-Maria) in mice naturally infected with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera.) Ação anti-helmíntica de plantas XIV. Avaliação da atividade de extratos aquosos de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Erva-de-Santa-Maria) em camundongos naturalmente infectados com Syphacia obvelata e Aspiculuris tetraptera. Revista Brasileira



Molecular phylogeny of the pinworms of mice, rats and rabbits, and its use to develop molecular beacon assays for the detection of pinworms in mice.  


Though pinworm infestation has been prevalent since the early years of laboratory animal medicine, the genomes of these parasites have not yet been sequenced. The authors used high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction to amplify a large portion of the ribosomal gene complex of four pinworm species commonly found in lab rodents and rabbits (Aspiculuris tetraptera, Passalurus ambiguus, Syphacia muris and Syphacia obvelata). They determined DNA sequences for these complexes and carried out phylogenetic analysis. Using this information, the authors developed real-time molecular beacon assays for pinworm detection, comparing the new diagnostic approach with traditional methods such as perianal tape testing, fecal flotation and direct examination of intestinal content. PMID:17885663

Feldman, Sanford H; Bowman, Susan G



Efficacy of selamectin against mites (Myobia musculi, Mycoptes musculinus and Radfordia ensifera) and nematodes (Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata) in mice.  


The effects of selamectin were studied in mice naturally infected with the mites Myobia musculi, Myoceptes musculinus and Radfordia ensifera and with the oxyurid nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata. The mice were divided into three treated and three control groups (n=9). Selamectin in the range 10-12.4 mg/kg was applied topically to the skin in a single spot at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. The mice of treated and control groups were necropsied on the 4th, 7th and 21st day after the treatment. While selamectin was 100% effective in removing M. musculi, M. musculinus and R. ensifera by the seventh day, its effect against S. obvelata and A. tetraptera was 36.7% and 49.2%, respectively on the 21st day. PMID:16600081

Gönenç, Bahadir; Sarimehmeto?lu, Hifsi O?uz; Iça, Anil; Kozan, Esma



Phylogenetic relationships of rodent pinworms (genus Syphacia) in Japan inferred from 28S rDNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 28S rDNA from nine species of the genus Syphacia collected in Japan was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship was inferred from multiple sequence alignment of 28S rDNA by the MAFFT program. Phylogenetic tree indicates that S. petrusewiczi, which was the only species belonging to the subgenus Seuratoxyuris, has diverged earlier than other rodent pinworms examined and was distantly separated

Munehiro Okamoto; Hayato Urushima; Hideo Hasegawa



Eradication of the pinworm Syphacia obvelata from an animal unit by anthelmintic therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Thiabendazole incorporated in the diet at a rate of 0·1%, fed to all animals over a period of 3 months, successfully eliminated the parasite from the colony. Samples taken 12 months after treatment were still negative for the parasite. During the period between the discovery of the organism and the preparation of the diet a course of piperazine citrate

Dawn Owen; Jon A. Turton





... household surfaces for up to 2 weeks. The infection is more common in children. Many people have ... irritable. Your health care provider can diagnose pinworm infection by finding the eggs. A common way to ...


Molecular phylogeny of the pinworms of mice, rats and rabbits, and its use to develop molecular beacon assays for the detection of pinworms in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though pinworm infestation has been prevalent since the early years of laboratory animal medicine, the genomes of these parasites have not yet been sequenced. The authors used high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction to amplify a large portion of the ribosomal gene complex of four pinworm species commonly found in lab rodents and rabbits (Aspiculuris tetraptera, Passalurus ambiguus, Syphacia muris and Syphacia

Susan G. Bowman; Sanford H. Feldman



Comparison of methods for detection of pinworms in mice and rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though pinworm infestation remains common in laboratory rodent colonies, there is little information regarding current practices for pinworm detection and their relative efficacy. The authors surveyed research institutions to find out the prevalence of pinworm infestations and the detection methods they used. They also tested mice and rats from colonies that were known to be infested with Syphacia sp. and

J. Camille Effler; Judy M. Hickman-Davis; Julie G. Erwin; Samuel C. Cartner; Trenton R. Schoeb



Agent, Species: Syphacia obvelata, Aspicularis tetraptera and Syphacia muris Host: Mouse and Rat Transmission: Fecal-Oral (Ova ingestion) Clinical disease: No clinical signs are usually seen, heavy parasite loads may lead to rectal prolapse, perianal irritation and can affect immune competency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention and treatment: Commonly treated using medicated fenbendazole chow, topical or parenteral Ivermectin. Prevention and control of infestation are difficult because the eggs are very light and have been shown to aerosolize, resulting in widespread exposure. Pinworm eggs can survive for long periods of time in adverse environmental conditions. Strict sanitary procedures, use of filter hoods to prevent aerosol transmission,

R. J. Flynn; Guilhardi P; Chamberland K


Pinworm ( enterobius vermicularis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is a tiny helminth that lives in the human cecum. Its prevalence varies widely by region and institutional setting. Prevalence greater than 70 percent has been reported among Asian children in orphanages and adults at autopsy after sudden death. In other settings, pinworm infection is rare. Pinworm is diagnosed relatively easily with a perianal sticky tape test

Sten H. Vermund; Craig M. Wilson



Drinking water ivermectin treatment for eradication of pinworm infections from laboratory rat colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effects of ivermectin were studied in laboratory rats naturally infected with the pinworm Syphacia muris. Ivermectin was administered over four 5-days periods in drinking water; the ivermectin dose was 2.5 mg\\/kg of body weight\\u000a per day. All the rats were weighed every five days and their ova production was monitored by a cellophane — tape test. Every\\u000a fifth day

A. Lytvynets; I. Langrová; J. Lachout; J. Vadlejch; A. Fu?íková; I. Jankovská



Pinworms and postmenopausal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human pinworm Enterobius vermicularis is normally found within the human gastrointestinal tract. Pregnant females migrate out of their host's anus at night to lay their eggs perianally. As a consequence of this nocturnal migration some worms find their way into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract, producing irritative symptoms such as vulvovaginitis. A case of pinworm infestation

H. K. al-Rufaie; G. H. Rix; M. P. Perez Clemente; T. al-Shawaf



Detection of pinworm eggs in the dust of laboratory animals breeding facility, in the cages and on the hands of the technicians.  


Pinworms (Nematoda: Oxyurida) are common contaminants in most laboratory rodent colonies. The aim of the study was to monitor the transmission of Syphacia muris eggs in laboratory rat breeding facilities. Dust in a breeding room was investigated using special grids (free fallout, or through the help suction chamber). Furthermore, the ventilation system, breeding cages and the hands of the laboratory technical staff were examined. In the case of free fallout, the percentage of positive grids increased slightly over time: from 5.5% (after 24 h) to 8.2% (72 h). Similar values were also found when using the suction chamber (7.6%). Many more pinworm eggs were found in samples collected every second month from suction holes of the ventilation system (28.7%). One-half of the samples taken from the breeding cages (before washing) exhibited pinworm eggs (50.8%). Examination of the hands of technical staff showed positive detection in 37.9% of cases. In this study, certain transmission factors (dust, unclean cages and technicians) were proved to be significant in the distribution of pinworm infection in laboratory rodent facilities. PMID:23230226

Lytvynets, A; Langrova, I; Lachout, J; Vadlejch, J



Pinworm infections in laboratory rodents: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The important and common oxyurids which affect laboratory rodents- Syphacia spp., Aspiculuris tetraptera and Passafurus ambiguus-are discussed and reviewed. Their life histories, pathogenicity and immunity are examined, and mention is made of the influence of age, sex, strain and host status on in- fection. The importance of using worm-free animals in experimental work is stressed, and guidance is given

L. F. Taffs



Pinworm infections in laboratory rodents: a review.  


The important and common oxyurids which affect laboratory rodents- Syphacia spp., Aspiculuris tetraptera and Passalurus ambiguus-are discussed and reviewed. Their life histories, pathogenicity and immunity are examined, and mention is made of the influence of age, sex, strain and host status on infection. The importance of using worm-free animals in experimental work is stressed, and guidance is given on diagnosis and control. PMID:768631

Taffs, L F



Diagnosis and management of pinworm infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinworms, or Enterobius vermicularis, is a parasitic infection common in persons of all ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Infection can be asymptomatic or cause a variety of bothersome symptoms. The gold standard for diagnosis of this infection is the “scotch tape” test, which detects organisms near the anus. Treatment is simple and effective, but relapses are very common. The drug of

Brenda Shoup



Dipylidium Caninum Mimicking Recurrent Enterobius Vermicularis (Pinworm) Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinworm infection is a very common diagnosis in young children that is not always confirmed through laboratory evaluation before empiric therapy is prescribed. This article describes a toddler who was treated several times for pinworms because small white worms were seen in her perianal area. Laboratory analysis of parasite material found in her diaper later confirmed a diagnosis of dipylidiasis.

Ayman Samkari; Deanna L. Kiska; Scott W. Riddell; Kathy Wilson; Leonard B. Weiner; Joseph B. Domachowske



The influence of the nematode Syphacia oblevata on adjuvant arthritis in the rat.  

PubMed Central

The effect of infestation with the nematode Syphacia oblevata on adjuvant arthritis was studied in the rat. Animals with an established infestation with Syphacia were found to have a reduced incidence of arthritis after injection of Freund's complete adjuvant. Infested animals developing adjuvant arthritis were found to suffer from a less severe form of the disease than animals in which infestation had been eliminated with piperazine before immunization.

Pearson, D J; Taylor, G




Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) infection rates were estimated at a mass screening for first-grade children during 1991-1996; children were provided medication at the screening. This campaign was able to decrease the infection rates for the 1991 cohort from 16.3% to 0.6%. A case-control study was further conducted for the investigation of risk factors among fourth-graders. Cases comprised 429 children with



40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...



40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...



40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...



Shape patterns of genital papillae in pinworms (Enterobiinae, Oxyurida, Nematoda) parasite of primates: A landmark analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enterobiinae includes 47 species of pinworms parasite of primates. A previous cladistic analysis of this subfamily supported its monophyly and its subdivision into three genera. Based on morphological characters, this cladistic analysis excluded characters describing the shape of the genital papillae of male pinworms, because the corresponding patterns could not be described using discrete characters. In this study, the

Jean-Pierre Hugot; Michel Baylac



[Survey on pinworm infection and egg contamination among urban, suburban and rural pupils in Shangqiu City].  


Seven hundred and ninety-eight preschool children and grade one pupils from three schools in the city of Shangqiu were sampled randomly in urban, suburban and rural areas. The transparent tape method was used to examine the infection of pinworm and the contamination of pinworm eggs on the environments. The average infection rate of pinworm was 9.9% (79/798). The prevalence of pinworm infection among the pupils of urban(4.6%) was statistically lower than those of suburban (11.2%) and rural (13.8%) (P < 0.01). The contamination rate of pinworm eggs from armor, fingers, bedclothes, briefs,and stationery in infected pupils are 23.8% (5/21), 18.0% (9/50), 15.8% (3/19), 12.9% (4/31) and 5.0% (2/40), respectively, which showed no statistical significance (P > 0.05). PMID:23484265

Cui, Jin-Huan; Wang, Chenl; Xu, Ying; Man, Na; Cui, Yue; Yang, Xia; Cui, Yan-Mei



The Use of Cross-foster Rederivation to Eliminate Murine Norovirus, Helicobacter spp., and Murine Hepatitis Virus from a Mouse Colony  

PubMed Central

Over 10 mo, 287 mouse litters were cross-fostered by using 1 of 2 paradigms to eliminate murine norovirus (MNV), Helicobacter spp., murine hepatitis virus (MHV), and Syphacia obvelata. Paradigm 1 involved cross-fostering litters at younger than 48 h with no attention to the changing of bedding material. Paradigm 2 involved cross-fostering litters at younger than 24 h from cages in which the bedding material was changed within 24 h before cross-fostering. After cross-foster rederivation, mice were tested for the presence of Helicobacter spp. by means of fecal PCR at 4, 8, and 12 wk. Surrogates also were tested for MNV by use of multiplex fluorometric assay serology at 4 wk and fecal PCR at 12 wk. Surrogate mice were tested for MHV by means of MFIA at 4 wk and for pinworms by perianal tape test and fecal flotation at 4 and 12 wk. Compared with those from paradigm 1, litters from paradigm 2 were less likely to be positive for MHV and Helicobacterspp. The use of cross-foster rederivation alone was unsuccessful for the elimination of Syphacia obvelata. For cross-foster rederivation, we recommend that litters be younger than 24 h and from cages in which the bedding material was changed within 24 h before cross-fostering. The presence of MNV, Helicobacter spp., and MHV can be predicted reliably at 12, 8, and 4 wk, respectively.

Artwohl, James E; Purcell, Jeanette E; Fortman, Jeffrey D



The behavioral teratogenic potential of fenbendazole: a medication for pinworm infestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenbendazole (FBZ) is a benzimidazole currently used for anthelmintic treatment of pinworm populations in numerous animal species although it is not currently approved for laboratory rodents in the U.S. It has received considerable interest for treating rodent populations due to its low toxicity, wide safety margin and apparent absence of gross teratogenic effects. The purpose of this study was to

Susan Barron; Bryan J Baseheart; Tracy M Segar; Tony Deveraux; Jennifer A Willford



Estimating resistance to methomyl in the tomato pinworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) using a pheromone trap bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomato pinworm, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), is an important pest of tomatoes in the southern and southwestern United States and Mexico. A field-based method for assessing resistance of adults to the carbamate insecticide, methomyl, was developed by incorporating varying doses of technical insecticide into the adhesive of pheromone traps. The mortalities of male and female adults were similar whether exposed

D. J. Schuster; M. J. Brewer; B. Alvarado-Rodriguez; K. A. Sorensen; J. T. Trumble



Toxicity Evaluation of Prophylactic Treatments for Mites and Pinworms in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

18 The detection of external and internal parasites (e.g., mites and pinworms) in laboratory mice is a particularly problematic aspect of health evaluation. Because these organisms must be detected by direct examination of the feces or hair coat, low level infestation or sporadic shedding can make them difficult to detect, thereby undermining confidence that negative reports are truly negative. The




A cost-effective and efficacious method of pinworm treatment for large colonies of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodent pinworm infestations are common in modern animal facilities, and treatments to eradicate these nematodes are often costly and labor-intensive. The authors describe a method they developed to treat rodents with ivermectin using the automatic watering system available at their facility. This delivery method proved an efficacious and cost-effective means of eradicating Aspiculuris tetraptera from a large colony of mice.

Melissa Swan; G. Paul Hartman; Debra Hickman



Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection of the liver mimicking malignancy: Presentation of a new case and review of current literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTIONEnterobius vermicularis or “pinworm” infection of the liver is an extremely rare condition with only five cases previously reported in literature. It is characterized by the presence of granulomas in the liver with a necrotic core, containing adult helminthes or their ova. Because of the relatively mild symptomatology associated with this disease, prior to the arrival of modern imaging methods

Nikolaos Arkoulis; Helen Zerbinis; Georgios Simatos; Athanasios Nisiotis


Two remarkable pinworms (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) parasitizing orangutan ( Pongo abelii ) in the Sumatra (Indonesia) including Lemuricola ( Protenterobius ) pongoi n.sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Two species of pinworms (Enterobiinae) were collected from fresh faeces of semi-wild orangutans Pongo abelii Lesson living in northern Sumatra (Indonesia). The female of Enterobius (Enterobius) buckleyi Sandosham, 1950 is redescribed. Lemuricola (Protenterobius) pongoi n. sp. is described on the basis of females (no males are available) and distinguished from L. (P.) nycticebi (Baylis, 1928) by cephalic and mouth morphology

I. Foitová; V. Baruš; I. Hodová; B. Koubková; W. Nurcahyo



Comparison between patterns of pinworm infection ( Aspiculuris tetraptera) in wild and laboratory strains of mice, Mus musculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen laboratory and 7 wild-derived strains of mice were infected with the pinworm Aspiculuris tetraptera in order to compare their resistance levels estimated by the intestinal parasite loads. It appears that (i) in 4 strains out of 23, females and males harbour different parasite loads; (ii) wild and laboratory mice display a broad range of infection levels when compared independently;

J. M. Derothe; C. Loubès; A. Orth; F. Renaud; C. Moulia



[Traumatic insemination and tubular egg receptacle in the pinworm parasite of the common domestic rabbit].  


A morphological study of subgravid females of Passalurus ambiguus, pinworm of the domestical Rabbit, revealed two remarkable structures: - a tubular egg receptable formed from tissue of the ventral hypodermal cord in the vulvar region in which the total egg production of the female accumulates; - a hypodermal pocket beneath the cuticle in the vulvar region which is used during traumatic insemination, a phenomenon until now unknown in the Nemathelminthes. These structures might be explained as adaptations to the short lifespan of Oxyurid males. Thus, the clustering of eggs in the environment would increase the intensity of infection and therefore the chances of males finding mates. Similarly, the insemination of females before the vulva is formed might be favoured. PMID:6812871

Hugot, J P; Bain, O; Cassone, J



The acute effects of single-dose orally administered doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin on natural infections of Syphacia muris in rats.  


This study was designed to determine the acute effects of a single-dose of orally administered doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin on Syphacia muris infection in rats. Rats, naturally infected with S. muris, were divided into four groups: three different treatment groups (n=7) and one positive control (n=7). Cellophane tape preparations were obtained from the treated rats on day 0 pre-treatment and on days 2, 4 and 6 post-treatment. Syphacia sp. eggs were counted. Eprinomectin was found to be 100% effective in eliminating eggs on two post-treatment. However when egg counts on day 6 post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment egg counts, doramectin and selamectin were found to be 99.32 and 98.77% effective in eliminating eggs, respectively. On day 7 post-treatment, blood samples were obtained from all groups, and then the rats were necropsied. Doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin were found to be 100% effective in eliminating adult S. muris, when compared with the positive control group. PMID:19318096

Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Kozan, Esma; Sevimli, Alper; Do?an, Nurhan; Bülbül, Aziz




Microsoft Academic Search

The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius (Enterobius) anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), is redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy of both sexes collected from the feces of chimpanzees, Pan trog- lodytes, of an introduced population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania. Enterobius (E.) anthropopitheci is characterized by having a small body (males 1.13-1.83 mm long, females 3.33-4.73 mm long), a rather straight

Hideo Hasegawa; Yatsukaho Ikeda; Akiko Fujisaki; Liza R. Moscovice; Klara J. Petrzelkova; Taranjit Kaur; Michael A. Huffman



Pinworm test  


Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to confirm that there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on three separate ...


[Helminths detected in some laboratory animals by fecal examinations.].  


Fecal specimens obtained from 505 rats, 317 mice, 128 rabbits and 52 guinea pigs were examined for helminth infections. In general, 38.02% of rats and 83.59% of mice were infected with one or more helminth species. The percentage of Syphacia muris and Syphacia obvelata were 32.48% and 12.67%, respectively, in rats, and the percentage of Aspiculuris tetraptera, S. obvelata and Hymenolepis nana were 79.18%, 10.72% and 15.45%, respectively, in mice. Passalurus ambiguus was found only in one rabbit (0.78 %). No helminth infections were detected in guinea pigs. PMID:17160840

Senl?k, Bayram; D?ker, A Ihsan; Küçükyildiz, Faruk



Total IgE as a serodiagnostic marker to aid murine fur mite detection.  


Mites of 3 genera-Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia -continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S



Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and nuclear rDNA regions of Enterobius vermicularis parasitic in captive chimpanzees with special reference to its relationship with pinworms in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene, nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and 5S rDNA of Enterobius vermicularis from captive chimpanzees in five zoos\\/institutions in Japan were analyzed and compared with those of pinworm eggs from humans in Japan. Three major types of variants appearing in both CO1 and ITS2 sequences,

Tadao Nakano; Munehiro Okamoto; Yatsukaho Ikeda; Hideo Hasegawa



Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for generating specific DNA probes for oxyuroid species (Nematoda).  


Random amplified DNA markers (RAPD; Williams et al., 1990) were used to obtained specific RAPD fragments characterising different species of oxyuroids. We tested six species of worms parasitizing vertebrates or invertebrates: Passalurus ambiguus Rudolphi, 1819, parasite of Leporids; Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802) Seurat, 1916, a parasite of rodents; Blatticola blattae (Graeffe, 1860) Chitwood, 1932 parasite of the cockroach Blattella germanica; Hammerschmidtiella diesingi (Hammerschmidt, 1838) Chitwood, 1932 and Thelastoma bulhoesi (Magalhaes, 1990) Travassos, 1929, parasites of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, and an undescribed parasite species of a passalid insect from New Caledonia. Among 15 oligonucleotides tested, nine produced several specific bands allowing the interspecific discrimination. PMID:9754296

Jobet, E; Bougnoux, M E; Morand, S; Rivault, C; Cloarec, A; Hugot, J P



Helminths from introduced small mammals on Kerguelen, Crozet, and Amsterdam Islands (southern Indian Ocean).  


Four monoxenous nematodes and 1 heteroxenous cestode were found in 4 species of introduced small mammals on isolated sub-Antarctic islands of the Indian Ocean. In the Kerguelen Archipelago, Syphacia obvelata, Passalurus ambiguus (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), and Rodentolepis straminea (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidae) were respectively found in the house mouse Mus musculus, the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, and the black rat Rattus rattus. One accidental nematode, Trichostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae), was also found in a black rat on Kerguelen. On Possession Island (Crozet Archipelago), R. straminea was present in the black rat. On Amsterdam Island, the brown rat R. norvegicus harbored 2 species, R. straminea and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae). The small number of founder hosts and the depauperate terrestrial communities on these remote islands explain the low diversity in the helminth communities of these introduced mammals compared with continental populations. PMID:11695402

Pisanu, B; Chapuis, J L; Durette-Desset, M C



Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites biodiversity of Rattus rattus trapped from Khan Younis and Jabalia in Gaza strip, Palestine.  


This study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of Rattus rattus. A total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and Norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of Gaza strip. After dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. The results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. A high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to other seasons. The intestinal parasites were encountered: G. lamblia 6 (14.6%); E. histolytica/dispar 7 (17.1%); Isospora 4 (9.8%); Acanthocephala 1 (2.4%); Syphacia obvelata 6 (20%); Heligmonoides josephi 3(10%); Strongyloides egg 1 (2.4%); Hymenolepis diminuta 15 (36.6%). The insects were Xenopsylla cheopis 7 (17.1%); Polyplax spinulosa 3 (7.3%). PMID:23697031

Al Hindi, Adnan Ibrahim; Abu-Haddaf, Eman



Endoparasites of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Importance in Germi, Dashte-Mogan, Ardabil Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background In order to verify the infectivity of rodents with endoparasites in Germi (Dashte-Mogan, Ardabil Province) the current study was undertaken. Methods Using live traps, 177 rodents were trapped during 2005–2007. In field laboratory, all rodents were bled prior to autopsy, frozen at ?20°C, and shipped to the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. In parasitological laboratory, every rodent was dissected and its different organs were examined for the presence of any parasite. Blood thick and thin smears as well as impression smears of liver and spleen were stained with Geimsa and examined microscopically. Results Two species of rodents were trapped; Meriones persicus (90.4%) and Microtus socialis (9.6%). The species of parasites found in M. persicus and their prevalences were as follows: Hymenolepis diminuta (38.8%), Hymenolepis nana (2.5%), Trichuris sp.(40.6), Mesocestoides larva (=tetrathyridium) (3.1%), Capillaria hepatica (6.9%), Moniliformis moniliformis (11.3%), Syphacia obvelata (2.5%), Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.6%), Physaloptera sp. (0.6%), Dentostomella translucida (0.6%), Heligmosomum mixtum (0.6%), Strobilocercus fasciolaris (0.6%),and Aspiculuris tetraptera (0.6%). The species of parasites found in M. socialis and their prevalences were as follows: H. diminuta (17.6%), Trichuris sp. (5.9%), Mesocestoides larva (5.9%), S. obvelata (11.8%), S. syphacia (11.8%), H. mixtum (17.6%), and Aspiculuris tetraptera (11.8%). There were no statistical differences between male and female for infectivity with parasites in either M. persicus or M. socialis. No blood or tissue protozoan parasite was found in any of the rodents examined. Conclusion Among different species identified, some had zoonotic importance. Therefore, the potential health hazard of these species needs to be considered to prevent infectivity of humans.

Kia, EB; Shahryary-Rad, E; Mohebali, M; Mahmoudi, M; Mobedi, I; Zahabiun, F; Zarei, Z; Miahipoor, A; Mowlavi, GH; Akhavan, AA; Vatandoost, H



IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections  

PubMed Central

Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4R? expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4R?-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections.

Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank



Eosinophilic colitis associated with larvae of the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various helmintic parasites, most of which are uncommon in economically developed countries, can cause abdominal pain and eosinophilic inflammation of the bowel. A homosexual man presented with severe abdominal pain and haemorrhagic colitis, eosinophilic inflammation of the ileum and colon, and numerous unidentifiable larval nematodes in diarrhoeal stool. His symptoms resolved with anthelmintic treatment alone. Using comparative morphology and molecular

L. X. Liu; J. Chi; M. P. Upton; L. R. Ash



Identification of sex pheromone of tomato pinworm, Keiferia lycopersicella (Wals.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sex pheromone produced by femaleKeiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham) was isolated and identified as (E)-4-tridecenyl acetate, based on chemical analyses, electroantennogram assays, and field trapping in California and Florida. Males were captured equally well in traps baited with (E)-4-tridecenyl acetate alone or a variety of (Z)- and (E)-4-tridecenyl acetate blends, although theZ isomer was not detected in extracts of female glands.

R. E. Charlton; J. A. Wyman; J. R. McLaughlin; J.-W. Du; W. L. Roelofs



Use of topical selamectin for the treatment of Syphacia muris infection in laboratory rats.  


Efficacy of selamectin was studied in naturally acquired S. muris infections in rats. Fourty-eight S. muris-positive rats were divided into six treated and two control groups. Selamectin (6 mg/kg) was applied topically to the skin in a single spot at the base of the neck in the treatment group. The rats of treated and control groups were necropsied on the 24th day after the treatment. Topical selamectin was found to be 40.7-63.3% effective (based on egg per gram method) in eliminating S. muris infection in rats. The efficacy of the treatment against S. muris (based on adult worm counts) in male and female rats was 35.14-58.88%, respectively (mean 48.39%). PMID:18540211

Esatgil, M U; Gülanber, A; Aydin, H



Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia.  

PubMed Central

A 13-month study of wild mice (Mus domesticus) in wheatlands in southeastern Australia contrasted changes in the seroprevalence of antibody to 13 viruses and the occurrence of helminths with changes in their population dynamics. Mice were seropositive for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), rotavirus, minute virus of mice (MVM), mouse adenovirus (MAdV), reovirus (reo 3), and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The seroprevalences of all but rotavirus varied significantly with time and increased with host density. Near the end of the study, host density declined rapidly and the seroprevalence of MVM and reo 3 increased significantly. These two viruses had low seroprevalence when host survival was high and high seroprevalence when host survival was low, indicating they may play a role in regulating mouse populations. In the case of MVM, there was evidence of a viral epizootic during the decline in mouse abundance. The prevalence of four helminths (Taenia taeniaeformis, Syphacia obvelata, and Vampirolepis spp.) differed significantly with time but showed no apparent association with host density. These findings highlight the need for further study on the effect of viruses on the population dynamics of mice.

Singleton, G. R.; Smith, A. L.; Shellam, G. R.; Fitzgerald, N.; Muller, W. J.



Recombination does not generate pinworm susceptibility during experimental crosses between two mouse subspecies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility to Aspiculuris tetraptera of European Mus musculus hybrids is thought to reflect the disruption of genomic co-adaptation through recombination of the parental genomes. Here, we compared the susceptibility to this parasite between parents and experimental hybrids (intersubspecific until F4, intrasubspecific F1, F2) to clarify the contributions of heterosis and subspecies incompatibility. F1 showed hybrid vigor. Unlike intrasubspecific F2,

Jean-Marc Derothe; Adeline Porcherie; Marco Perriat-Sanguinet; Claude Loubès; Catherine Moulia



Zingiberene-mediated resistance to the South American tomato pinworm derived from Lycopersicon hirsutum var. hirsutum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lycopersicon hirsutum var. hirsutum accession PI 127826 is recognized as a good source of resistance to arthropod pests due to the action of the allelochemical\\u000a zimgiberene, a sesquiterpene present in its glandular trichomes. Five genotypes were selected from the F2 generation of the interspecific cross Lycopersicon esculentum ‘TOM-556’ Lycopersicon hirsutum var. hirsutum ‘PI 127826’, based on their low levels

Sebastião Márcio de Azevedo; Marcos Ventura Faria; Wilson Roberto Maluf; Ana Cláudia Barneche de Oliveira; Joelson André de Freitas



Clinical manifestations of appendiceal pinworms in children: an institutional experience and a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of Enterobius vermicularis infestation with acute appendicitis varies from 0.2–41.8% worldwide. Our purpose was to determine the significance of Enterobius-associated appendicitis by retrospective review of appendectomies performed during a 5-year period at a major children’s hospital. The Surgical Pathology database at Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, was reviewed for appendiceal specimens found to have Enterobius infestation. Corresponding patient charts

Marjorie J. Arca; Robert L. Gates; Jonathan I. Groner; Sue Hammond; Donna A. Caniano



The Enterobiinae subfam. nov. (Nematoda, Oxyurida) pinworm parasites of primates and rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent redescriptions of most members of the Oxyuridae Cobbold, 1864 parasitic in primates revealed that they share following derived characters: sexual dimorphism of lateral alae (single-crested in the males, double-crested in the females); in males a second pair of genital papillae always surrounded by strongly cuticularized rings; in females, uterine tube divided into 2 parts by a cellular wall forming

J. P. Hugot; S. L. Gardner; S. Morand



21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...A discussion of the symptoms suggestive of pinworm infestation, including a statement that pinworms must be visually identified before taking...description of how to find and identify the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life...



21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...A discussion of the symptoms suggestive of pinworm infestation, including a statement that pinworms must be visually identified before taking...description of how to find and identify the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life...



21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...A discussion of the symptoms suggestive of pinworm infestation, including a statement that pinworms must be visually identified before taking...description of how to find and identify the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life...





Reese's® Pinworm Medicine ... antiworm medication, is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, and other worm infections.This medication is sometimes ... usually is taken as a single dose for pinworm and roundworm infections. The dose usually is repeated ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Permanent and well supported museum collections provide a solid foundation for the process of systematics research through creation of an empirical record which validates our understanding of the biosphere. We explore the role of museums in ongoing studies of the complex helminth fauna characterist...


Resistance to the South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta in high acylsugar and\\/or high zingiberene tomato genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zingiberene (ZGB) and acylsugars (AS) are allelochemicals responsible for high levels of arthropod resistance found in Solanum habrochaites (= Lycopersicon hirsutum) var. hirsutum ‘PI 127826’ and S. (= L.) pennelli ‘LA 716’, respectively. These accessions were used to develop commercial lines with good levels of pest resistance. The objective\\u000a of the present work was to assess the ZGB and AS contents and

Wilson Roberto Maluf; Vanisse de Fátima Silva; Maria das Graças Cardoso; Luiz Antonio Augusto Gomes; Álvaro Carlos Gonçalves Neto; Gabriel Mascarenhas Maciel; Daniela Aparecida Castro Nízio



21 CFR 520.905a - Fenbendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for the control of large strongyles, small strongyles, and pinworms; 10 mg/kg for the control of ascarids. (ii) Indications...spp., Cylicostephanus spp., Triodontophorus spp.), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), and ascarids (Parascaris equorum...



21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...per 500 pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2...bots (Gastrophilus spp.), small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi ).1 (3) Limitations....



Gusanos, los Lombrices, los Tenias y Otras Parasitos Intestinales del ser Humano (Hookworm, Pinworm, Tapeworm, and Other Intestinal Parasites of Humans).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four pamphlets review the causes and treatment of intestinal parasites: Morphology of Diagnostic Stages of Intestinal Parasites; Under ordinary laboratory conditions, diagnosis of intestinal parasites in man is a difficult matter. The publication is desig...



2-Tridecanone-mediated mechanisms of resistance to the South American tomato pinworm Scrobipalpuloides absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera-Gelechiidae) in Lycopersicon spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oviposition and feeding of Scrobipalpuloides absoluta was studied on plants of seven different genotypes with varying 2-tridecanone (2-TD) foliage concentrations: Lycopersicon esculentum var. glabratum 'PI 134417' (= GLA), L. esculentum 'TSWV-547' (= ESC), F1 (ESC × GLA), and 4 F2 genotypes – two with high 2-TD (HI1, HI2), and two with low foliage 2-TD concentrations (LO1, LO2). GLA, HI1 and

W. R. Maluf; L. V. Barbosa; L. V. Costa Santa-Cecília





... anemia Lead poisoning Meningitis or other serious infection Milk intolerance Nutritional deficiencies Pinworm Psychiatric illnesses Sleep disorders Tay-Sachs or other genetic disease Teething Viral infection


21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strongyles (Trichonema, Poteriostomum, Cylicobrachytus, Craterostomum, Oesophagodontus ); roundworms (Parascaris ); pinworms. (Oxyuris ); and threadworms (Strongyloides ). (2) It is administered by stomach tube or as a drench at a...



21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Cyathostomum, Triodontophorus, Cylicodontophorus, and Gyalocephalus ); large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ); pinworms (Oxyuris equi ) including various larval stages; and threadworms (Strongyloides westeri ). (3)...



'Wormy'form appendix.  


Appendicitis and helminth infections are both common conditions in children. However, helminths (pinworms) infestation causing appendiceal luminal obstruction and presenting as appendicitis is uncommon. PMID:22665583

Jesudoss, Abraham Vincent Samuel; Kaya, Meryem; Lombardo, Rosanna; Rohatgi, Ashish



21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and identifies the product as a âpinworm treatment.â (b) Indication. ...the following: âFor the treatment of pinworms.â Other truthful and nonmisleading...When one individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be...



21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and identifies the product as a âpinworm treatment.â (b) Indication. ...the following: âFor the treatment of pinworms.â Other truthful and nonmisleading...When one individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be...



Redescription of Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) based on material collected from wild Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata (Primates: Cercopithecidae).  


Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) was collected from a Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Nara and Yamaguchi Prefectures, Honshu Island, Japan, for the first time. A redescription is presented along with DNA sequence data. This pinworm is a typical member of the subgenus Enterobius and is characteristic in the spicule morphology, being readily distinguished from other congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cox1 gene assign its position in the pinworm lineage adapted to the Old World primates, showing divergence before the splitting of the chimpanzee and human pinworms. PMID:21916620

Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi



42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount) and/or pinworm preparations and, if necessary, refer specimens to another laboratory appropriately certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for...



42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount) and/or pinworm preparations and, if necessary, refer specimens to another laboratory appropriately certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for...



21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Specifications. (1) The drug is an aqueous solution which contains in each fluid ounce 0.36 gram...pinworms (Oxyuris equii ). (2) Limitations. Aqueous solution: administer by stomach tube or drench 1...





Mebendazole, an antiworm medication, kills parasites. It is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, whipworm, and other worm infections.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist ...




... Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature Flu Center Head Lice Is It a Cold or the Flu? Middle ... Worms, Lice, etc.) Amebiasis Ascariasis Bedbugs Chiggers Giardiasis Head Lice Infections That Pets Carry Malaria Pinworm Pubic Lice ...


21 CFR 520.1630 - Oxfendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...weeks. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris, and S. equinus ), and small...



21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4 larval stages); pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach...



RED Facts: Tridecenyl Acetates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 4116, tridecenyl acetates. Tridecenyl acetates are sex attractant pheromones used in tomato fields to disrupt the mating behavior of tomato pinworms.



21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the rate of 1 fluid ounce of suspension per 100 pounds of body weight for the control of large strongyles, small strongyles, pinworms, Strongyloides and ascarids (including members of the genera Strongylus spp., Cyathostomum spp., Cylicobrachytus...



21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... For control of large roundworms, Parascaris equorum; small strongyles; large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris; and pinworms, Oxyuris equi. (3) Limitations. Administer by drench or mixed with the daily ration as a single dose....



21 CFR 520.2043 - Pyrantel pamoate suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...usual grain ration, or by stomach tube or dose syringe. (ii) Indications for use . For the removal and control of mature infections of large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus ); pinworms (Oxyuris equi...



Control of oxyuriasis in rabbits by fenbendazole.  


Death, poor condition and unsatisfactory breeding performance in a rabbit colony was attributed to infection with Passalurus ambiguus. The trouble disappeared after treatment with 50 ppm fenbendazole in the food for 5 days. In laboratory trials 12.5 ppm for 5 days eliminated more than 99% of adult and most immature pinworms, 25 and 50 ppm eliminated all immature and adult pinworms. These doses were also effective against Obeliscoides cuniculi. PMID:7278108

Düwel, D; Brech, K



[Epidemiological characteristics of soil-borne nematodiasis in Xiamen City].  


The infection rate of soil-borne nematodes was 6.37% in Xiamen City, 2008, and among which the infection rates of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and pinworm were 5.97%, 0.29%, 0.09% and 20.13%, respectively. The infection rate of soil-borne nematodes outside the island and that of pinworm in children were still high. PMID:22590884

Chen, Jian; Chen, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ming-Zhai; Chen, Hua-Fang; Lin, Min-Zhen; Ke, Xue-Mei; Guo, Zhi-Nan



COMUNICAÇÃO SELEÇÃO P ARA ALTO TEOR DE ACILAÇÚCARES EM GENÓTIPOS DE TOMATEIRO E SUA RELAÇÃO COM A RESISTÊNCIA AO ÁCARO VERMELHO (Tetranychus evansi) E À TRAÇA (Tuta absoluta) Selection towards high acylsugar levels in tomato genotypes and its relationship with resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus evansi) and to the South American pinworm (Tuta absoluta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection for high foliar levels of allelochemicals has been proposed as a suitable strategy for breeding tomatoes for arthropod pest resistance. In the Lycopersicon pennellii (Correll) D Arcy accession LA-716, acylsugars exsudated by type IV glandular trichomes present in all aerial parts of the plant reportedly mediate resistance to arthropod pests. This paper intended to study the levels of resistance

Guilherme Victor; Nippes Pereira; Wilson Roberto Maluf; Luciano Donizete Gonçalves; Luís Antônio; Augusto Gomes; Vicente Licursi


Comparison of Traditional and PCR Methods during Screening for and Confirmation of Aspiculuris tetraptera in a Mouse Facility  

PubMed Central

Pinworm detection in laboratory rodents typically is accomplished by using the tape test or various modifications of fecal flotation test to detect eggs. Direct examination of intestinal contents remains the ‘gold standard’ for pinworm detection, with the limitation of euthanasia of animals. Here, we compare traditional and real-time PCR methodologies during screening for and confirming the presence of Aspiculuris tetraptera. Two sets of pooled fecal samples collected from each of 521 microisolation cages in a mouse facility suspected to be pinworm-positive were tested by PCR and fecal flotation methods. The number of PCR-positive cages was 48 (9.2%) compared with 5 (0.96%) by the fecal flotation method. All of the cages determined to be positive by fecal flotation were positive by PCR. We evaluated 8 positive cages containing 26 mice from the screening group 5 wk later to confirm the initial findings; for 7 of these cages, PCR results from the initial screening were confirmed by fecal centrifugation concentration (FCC) or direct worm detection. Among the 26 mice, 4 were pinworm-positive by FCC, 5 by maceration, and 16 by PCR. All 4 mice positive by FCC were positive by PCR; PCR was positive for 7 of the 9 mice in which pinworms were detected by FCC or maceration. Our study demonstrates that real-time PCR for survival testing of mice for A. tetraptera effectively augments current detection methods for quarantine and routine health monitoring.

Dole, Vandana S; Zaias, Julia; Kyricopoulos-Cleasby, Danielle M; Banu, Laila A; Waterman, Linda L; Sanders, Kevin; Henderson, Kenneth S



Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.


Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

Bower, Wilma; And Others



Training nonhuman primates to perform behaviors useful in biomedical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collected from NHPs that are trained to participate voluntarily in husbandry, veterinary, and research procedures are likely to have particular value. The authors present the results of a series of studies that examined the effects of PRT on the performance by chimpanzees of a variety of biomedically relevant behaviors: presenting their perineum for pinworm testing, providing a semen sample,

Jaine E. Perlman; Erica Thiele; Susan Lambeth; Steven J. Schapiro



Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A…

Bower, Wilma; And Others





Albendazole is also sometimes used to treat infections caused by roundworms, hookworms, threadworm, whipworm, pinworm, flukes, and other parasites (a plant or animal that lives within another living organism to receive some benefit). Talk to your doctor about the risks of ...


Control of oxyuriasis in rabbits by fenbendazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Death, poor condition and unsatisfactory breeding performance in a rabbit colony was attributed to infection with Passalurus ambiguus. The trouble disappeared after treatment with 50 ppm fenbendazole in the food for 5 days. In laboratory trials 12·5 ppm for 5 days eliminated more than 99% of adult and most immature pinworms, 25 and 50 ppm eliminated all immature and

D. Düwel; K. Brech



Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterobius vermicularis and Development of an 18S Ribosomal DNA-Targeted Diagnostic PCR?  

PubMed Central

We genetically characterized pinworms obtained from 37 children from different regions of Germany and established new species-specific molecular diagnostic tools. No ribosomal DNA diversity was found; the phylogenetic position of Enterobius vermicularis within the Oxyurida order and its close relationship to the Ascaridida and Spirurida orders was confirmed.

Zelck, Ulrike E.; Bialek, Ralf; Weiss, Michael



Marmosa paraguayana (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) as a new host for Gracilioxyuris agilisis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in Brazil.  


Didelphids (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) are a large and well-studied group of Neotropical marsupials. Although knowledge of the parasitic fauna of didelphids is still scarce, recent work has suggested that Neotropical marsupials are often hosts of pinworms. Here, we isolated oxyurid nematodes from fecal samples of Marmosa paraguayana (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) and provide a general description and measurements for male and female specimens. We concluded these specimens can be assigned to Gracilioxyuris agilisis (Ascaridida: Oxyuridae), an oxyurid recently described as a parasite of the didelphid Gracilinanus agilis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae). The finding of G. agilisis in a different, albeit closely related, host species strengthens the previous notion of a close association between pinworms and didelphids and contributes to the knowledge of the helminthic fauna of didelphid marsupials. PMID:21954857

Santos-Rondon, Michelle V S; Pires, Mathias M; dos Reis, Sérgio F; Ueta, Marlene T



Passalurus ambiguus : new insights into copromicroscopic diagnosis and circadian rhythm of egg excretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reports a study on the in vivo diagnosis and egg excretion rhythm of the pinworm Passalurus ambiguus in domesticated rabbits. Three copromicroscopic techniques were compared: the cellophane tape test, the McMaster technique,\\u000a and the FLOTAC technique. Out of the 51 New Zealand White rabbit does examined, 42 (82.3%) resulted positive when examined\\u000a with the FLOTAC technique, 39

Laura Rinaldi; Tamara Russo; Mariangela Schioppi; Saverio Pennacchio; Giuseppe Cringoli



Trypanoxyuris (Paraoxyuronema) lagothricis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in Lagothrix cana (Primates: Atelidae) from Brazil.  


During necropsy of a specimen of Lagothrix cana (É. Geoffroy, 1812) (Primates: Atelidae) from the Brazilian Amazon, pinworms were found in the large intestine. The intensity of infection was 64 parasites (17 males and 47 females) and there were no gross pathological changes related to parasitism. After morphological analysis the parasites were identified as Trypanoxyuris (Paraoxyuronema) lagothricis (Buckley, 1931) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae). This is the first record of this oxyurid species in primates in Brazil. PMID:23778825

Pinto, Hudson Alves; Ferreira Junior, Francisco Carlos; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de


Helminth parasite spectrum in rodent hosts from bamboo growing areas of Mizoram, North-east India.  


In the northeastern state of Mizoram, India the rodent outbreak is periodic and coincides with bamboo (Melocanna baccifera) bloom causing a tremendous destruction to food crops that often results in famine. The present study was undertaken during the bamboo flowering period (2006-2008) to assess the parasite spectrum and load in the bourgeoning rodent population of the affected region. The survey results of the populations of 9 prevalent rodent species revealed that nematodes were the most dominant parasitic group followed by cestodes of the order Cyclophyllidea; however, the trematodes were found to be conspicuously missing. The nematodes harbored by the rodents belonged to the genera: Syphacia, Aspicularis, Trichuris, Rictularia, Capillaria, Trichosomoides, Nippostrongylus, Hepatojarakus and Heterakis, whereas the cestode genera included Hymenolepis, Raillietina and Taenia. Hymenolepis diminuta was the commonly encountered species. Only one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis sp.) could be collected during the entire study. PMID:23129885

Malsawmtluangi, C; Tandon, V



Use of Fenbendazole-Containing Therapeutic Diets for Mice in Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies  

PubMed Central

Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research.

Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara



Effects of repeated anthelmintic treatment on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees.  


Effects of repeated treatment with pyrantel pamoate on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees were assessed by observing worms discharged in the feces after administration of anthelmintic treatment. Three of 9 chimpanzees reared in a zoological garden in Japan were subjected to fecal worm count and morphometric observation, and all were given oral pyrantel pamoate 6 times at 10-day intervals simultaneously. Following the first and second treatments, more than 30,000 pinworms were discharged from 1 chimpanzee. The number of discharged worms abruptly decreased after the third treatment, and only a few worms were recovered after the fifth treatment, indicating that repeated treatment at short intervals was very effective. Complete eradication was not achieved, however, presumably because of reinfection. The female proportion among discharged worms tended to increase as the treatment was repeated. PMID:16108565

Nakano, Tadao; Fukui, Daisuke; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Hasegawa, Hideo



Current status of human parasitic infections in Taiwan.  


The eradication of the 2 mosquito-borne parasitic diseases, malaria and lymphatic filariasis, is one of the greatest achievements of the parasite control campaigns in Taiwan. Most of the soil-transmitted nematode infections, with the exception of pinworm infection, are currently well controlled and limited to some aboriginal areas. Food-borne parasitic zoonosis such as infections with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Clonorchis sinensis, and Taenia saginata asiatica are not rare, but the former is seasonal and the latter 2 are ethnically and geographically associated. Intestinal protozoal infections with Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are at low levels but may be widely distributed. Opportunistic protozoal infections among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which included amebic colitis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and cerebral toxoplasmosis, are becoming increasingly important. The rapid increase in international travel and the introduction of large numbers of foreign workers from other countries in Southeast Asia may change the epidemiological patterns of parasitic infections in Taiwan. PMID:11605804

Yeh, T C; Lin, P R; Chen, E R; Shaio, M F



Passalurus ambiguus: new insights into copromicroscopic diagnosis and circadian rhythm of egg excretion.  


The present paper reports a study on the in vivo diagnosis and egg excretion rhythm of the pinworm Passalurus ambiguus in domesticated rabbits. Three copromicroscopic techniques were compared: the cellophane tape test, the McMaster technique, and the FLOTAC technique. Out of the 51 New Zealand White rabbit does examined, 42 (82.3%) resulted positive when examined with the FLOTAC technique, 39 (76.5%) with the cellophane tape test, and 29 (56.9%) with the McMaster technique. The agreement between the FLOTAC technique and the cellophane tape test was almost perfect (greater than 0.8); only moderate were the agreements (0.4) between the FLOTAC and the McMaster techniques and between the McMaster technique and the cellophane tape test. The results showed that the FLOTAC technique can be used for the quali-quantitative coprological diagnosis of P. ambiguus in rabbits due to its great sensitivity, as already shown for parasites of other animal species. The circadian rhythm of egg excretion by P. ambiguus was studied utilizing 42 individually caged rabbit does; fecal samples were collected from each cage every 6 h, i.e., at 6:00-12:00 hours, 12:00-18:00 hours, 18:00-24:00 hours, and 24:00-6:00 hours, and were analyzed by the FLOTAC technique. A circadian rhythm of P. ambiguus egg excretion was found, with significant lower values at 6:00-12:00 hours. In conclusion, the present study showed that the FLOTAC technique is the best copromicroscopic method for assessing P. ambiguus prevalence and intensity in rabbits and that the afternoon and evening hours are the best times for fecal sampling to perform the pinworm diagnosis. PMID:17372763

Rinaldi, Laura; Russo, Tamara; Schioppi, Mariangela; Pennacchio, Saverio; Cringoli, Giuseppe



Laoxyuris laonasti n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Syphaciinae) parasite of Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia: Diatomyidae): morphology, biology, taxonomy, phylogeny.  


A new Oxyurid genus and species are described in a rodent recently discovered in Lao PDR: Laonastes aenigmamus which happens to be the single survivor of the Diatomyidae, a family considered to be extinct since the Miocene. The morphological characters of the new parasite species allow classifying it within the Syphaciinae Railliet, 1916, a subfamily whose members are exclusively parasites of Lagomorpha and Rodents. Male Syphaciinae have developed several types of ventral cuticular ornamentation used to firmly grip the female during mating. The ornamental characters observed in the new species include a finger like appendix, which, until now, has not been described in the subfamily. The originality of this apparatus justifies the creation of a new genus and a new species for the pinworm parasite of Laonastes. Using morphological characters, the new species is analyzed phylogenetically to describe its affinities with representatives of the main groups distinguished within the Syphaciinae. The phylogenetic study produces a cladogram similar to the phylogeny recently proposed for the hosts of the subfamily and in agreement with a close association of the Diatomyidae with the Ctenodactylidae. Such a phenomenon of cophylogeny is interpreted as the result of the existence of a strict specificity between the Syphaciinae and their respective hosts, due to the very close adaptation of their life cycle with the behaviors of their hosts. In Lagomorpha and Rodents, caecotrophy and grooming activities allow a direct transmission of the parasite eggs and favor successive self-infestations, increasing the chances for the parasite to maintain itself in the same host species but decreasing the probability of host switching. The resulting high host specificity allowed the Syphaciinae to out-compete other pinworms and maintain themselves in their specific host over millions of years. PMID:23357582

Hugot, Jean Pierre; Feliu, Carlos; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Ribas, Alexis



Ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths of southern flying squirrels in southeast Georgia.  


Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from southeastern Georgia were examined for ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths. Ten species of ectoparasites were recovered, including 3 species of sucking lice (Hoplopleura trispinosa, Microphthirus uncinatus, and Neohaematopinus sciuropteri), 1 species of flea (Orchopeas howardi), 2 species of ticks (Amblyomma maculatum and Ixodes scapularis), 3 species of mesostigmatid mites (Androlaelaps casalis, A. fahrenholzi, and Haemogamasus ambulans), and 1 species of chigger (Leptotrombidium peromysci). Only the sucking lice and fleas were common on this host. M. uncinatus is reported for the first time from eastern North America. The 2 most commonly collected ectoparasites, N. sciuropteri (prevalence = 63%) and O. howardi (prevalence = 47%), have previously been shown to be vectors of the rickettsial zoonotic agent that causes sporadic epidemic typhus. Also, 3 nematodes (Citellinema bifurcatum, Strongyloides robusius, and Syphacia thompsoni), 1 unidentified cestode, and 1 acanthocephalan (Moniliformis clarki) were found in flying squirrel gastrointestinal tracts. With the exception of S. thompsoni, which was common and relatively abundant in the cecum (prevalence = 94%, intensity = 51+/-12), both the prevalence and intensity of helminth parasites were low. The nematode S. thompsoni and the acanthocephalan M. clarki are new state records for tree squirrels in Georgia. PMID:11128479

Pung, O J; Durden, L A; Patrick, M J; Conyers, T; Mitchell, L R



Biodiversity and macroparasitic distribution of the wild rat population of Carey Island, Klang.  


A study to determine the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites and endoparasites infesting wild rat population of Carey Island was carried out from June to December 2010. A total of 81 rats were captured from various locations on Carey Island. Four rat species were identified namely, Rattus tiomanicus (45.7%), Rattus rattus diardii (25.9%), Rattus argentiventer (16%) and Rattus norvegicus (12.3%). Low diversity of ecto and endoparasites were observed infecting the rodent population with 8 ecto and 8 endoparasites species recorded. The ectoparasites recovered fell under 3 broad groups, namely mites (Laelaps nuttali, Laelaps echidninus, Laelaps sculpturatus, Listrophoroides sp. and Ornithonyssus bacoti), lice (Polyplax spinulosa and Hoplopleura pacifica) and tick (Ixodes granulatus) while endoparasites recovered were cestodes (Taenia taeniaformis and Hymenolepis diminuta) and nematodes (Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, Mastophorus muris, Heterakis spumosa, Hepatojarakus malayae and Syphacia muris). The rat population was observed harbouring more than one parasite species. Analysis of data also showed neither intrinsic (host age, host sex) nor extrinsic (season) factors influenced the macroparasites community structure. PMID:23959485

Nursyazana, M T; Mohdzain, S N; Jeffery, J



Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran. Methods During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites. Results Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae) 37.7%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%. Conclusion R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nematode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host.

Kamranrashani, B; Kia, EB; Mobedi, I; Mohebali, M; Zarei, Z; Mowlavi, Gh; Hajjaran, H; Abai, MR; Sharifdini, M; Kakooei, Z; Mirjalali, H; Charedar, S



Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus) in the Belgrade area (Serbia): the effect of sex, age and habitat*  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control). Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris) and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna). The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%). Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host.

Kataranovski, M.; Mirkov, I.; Belij, S.; Popov, A.; Petrovic, Z.; Gacic, Z.; Kataranovski, D.



Dientamoeba fragilis in Denmark: epidemiological experience derived from four years of routine real-time PCR.  


The intestinal protozoon Dientamoeba fragilis remains a clinical entity of dubious significance. While several previous studies address questions of epidemiology, only a handful have systematically employed and reported on the results from real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the best currently available diagnostic modality, and the comparison of results from different studies is, therefore, difficult. Since 2007, Statens Serum Institut (Denmark) has utilised qPCR for D. fragilis as routine diagnostic work-up for intestinal parasitosis, testing more than 22,000 samples from 2008 through 2011, and the aim of this study was to report on the results and experiences gained in the process. We demonstrate a staggeringly high proportion (43 %) of investigated patients positive for D. fragilis, ranging from 12 to 71 % depending on age group, showing a bimodal age distribution peaking in children and adults of parental age, as well as a clear association between exposure to children and risk of D. fragilis infection. We discuss these findings in light of the pinworm egg vector hypothesis and substantiate further our knowledge of risk factors pertaining to D. fragilis carriage. PMID:23609513

Röser, D; Simonsen, J; Nielsen, H V; Stensvold, C R; Mølbak, K



Patterns of parasite aggregation in the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  


Understanding the factors controlling the distribution of parasites within their host population is fundamental to the wider understanding of parasite epidemiology and ecology. To explore changes in parasite aggregation, Taylor's power law was used to examine the distributions of five gut helminths of the wild rabbit. Aggregation was found to be a dynamic process that varied with year, season, host sex, age class, and myxomatosis. Yearly and seasonal changes are thought, in the main, to be the result of variations in weather conditions acting upon infectious stages (or intermediate hosts). Evidence in support of this was the comparatively low degree of fluctuation in the aggregation of the pinworm, Passalurus ambiguus, as the infectious stage of this parasite is likely to be less susceptible to environmental variation. Host age had a marked effect on the level of aggregation of all parasites, but this effect varied between parasite species. P. ambiguus, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Cittotaenia denticulata aggregation were lower in adult than juvenile rabbits whilst Graphidium strigosum and Mosgovoyia pectinata aggregation tended to increase with age. Host immunity is thought to be responsible for these differences. Differences in aggregation for different parasites were also seen when the rabbit population was split into males and females. Myxomatosis had a marked effect on helminth distribution with substantially less aggregation in rabbits showing clinical signs of the disease. PMID:11595228

Boag, B; Lello, J; Fenton, A; Tompkins, D M; Hudson, P J



Ozone-induced changes in host-plant suitability: interactions of Keiferia lycopersicella and Lycopersicon esculentum  

SciTech Connect

Tomato pinworms, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), survived better and developed faster on tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., damaged by ozone than on plants not subjected to ozone fumigation. Other measures of fitness, including survival during pupation, sex ratio of adults, female longevity, and fecundity, were not affected. Analyses of ozonated foliage at zero, two and seven days following fumigation demonstrated a transient but significant increase (18-24%) in soluble protein concentration. Although the concentration of the total free amino acids in ozonated foliage did not increase significantly, significant changes were observed in at least 10 specific amino acids, some of which are critical for either insect development or the production of plant defensive chemicals. A reduction in total nitrogen in ozonated foliage at seven days postfumigation indicated that nitrogen was being translocated to other portions of the plant. The implications of increases in assimilable forms of nitrogen in ozonated foliage, which lead to improved host-plant suitability for insect herbivores, are discussed both in relation to some current ecological theories and in regard to pest-management strategies. 59 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Trumble, J.T.; Hare, J.D.; Musselman, R.C.; McCool, P.M.



The new method developed for evaluation of anthelmintic activity by housefly worms and compared with conventional earthworm method.  


Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of any drug when carried out in laboratory conditions by using the isolated worms from nature cannot be adaptable with artificial laboratory conditions. Therefore, the present study aims at developing a new adaptable method for evaluation of anthelmintic activity. The present anthelmintic activity study reveals a new methodology with housefly worms cultured in laboratory conditions that resemble parasitic pinworms found in human being. We studied the anthelmintic activities of various drugs on housefly worms and earthworms. The results showed that the housefly worms had taken more time for paralysis and death. Even after paralysis the time taken for death is more in housefly worms in spite of smaller size and lesser weight of the worms compared to earthworms. The study concluded that the earthworms have not adapted to the artificial laboratory conditions leading to erratic results. Therefore, culturing of housefly worms was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity and found an easy, prominent, eco-friendly, and reproducible method in all aspects such as equal age, size, and weight of worms used for the experiment. PMID:22530145

Murugamani, V; Raju, L; Anand Raj, V Baskar; Sarma Kataki, Manjir; Sankar, G Girija



Helicobacter spp. in Wild Mice (Peromyscus leucopus) Found in Laboratory Animal Facilities  

PubMed Central

Wild rodents are a potential source for pathogen introduction into laboratory animal research facilities. A study was designed to assess wild mice found at our institution by infectious disease surveillance. Wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were captured with live capture traps placed in areas in which wild mice had been reported in several animal facilities. Captured animals were euthanized by inhalation of CO2, blood was collected by cardiocentesis (n = 10), and necropsy was performed (n = 8). Serum samples were negative for antibodies to mouse parvovirus (types 1 and 2), mouse minute virus, Sendai virus, pneumonia virus of mice, mouse hepatitis virus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, reovirus, rotavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, mouse adenovirus, ectromelia virus, K virus, cilia-associated respiratory bacillus, and Mycoplasma pulmonis. Of the 8 animals that were necropsied, pelt and cecal examinations were negative for ectoparasites and pinworms, respectively. Histopathologic examination of brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, and small intestine revealed bacteria morphologically compatible with Helicobacter spp. in the cecal and colonic glands and occasionally in the gastric lumen and pits. Mesenteric lymph nodes and feces from 8 of the animals were submitted for PCR analysis for the detection of mouse parvovirus, mouse minute virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and Helicobacter spp.; 7 of the samples were PCR-positive for Helicobacter spp. At this time, wild mice found in our animal facilities do not appear to be a significant source of common laboratory mouse viral pathogens. However, they are a potential source of Helicobacter infections.

Dyson, Melissa C; Eaton, Kathryn A; Chang, Cherie



[Intestinal parasitoses in a village of Côte d'Ivoire. I: Control and prevention plan].  


The goal was to develop a complex medical, hygienic, sanitary and educational plan for control and prevention of intestinal parasitic infections in the rural areas in Ivory Coast. In a village situated at the border of the Ebrié lagoon, 416 persons were examined: 371 children, of which 343 were school and preschool children, aged 4 to 15 years (195 boys and 148 girls), 28 young children aged 6 months to 3 years, and a group of 45 adults. The parasitologic exams included perianal swabs (Graham's method), stool examination using saline solution, iodized solution (Lugol) and preparation Kato-Miura's method in thick layer. Parasitic intensity was done for helminths and worm burden have been carried after specific treatment of roundworms. Hygienic conditions as environment, school, dwelling and personal hygiene, eating habits, drinking water sanitation, garbage disposal, toilets, reproduction areas of hematophagous and mechanical vectors etc. have recorded. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 84.8% in children (with 76.7 % polyparasites) and 29.0 % in adults. The results pointed out a hyperendemic zone. Parasitic infectious transmitted from person to person was frequent among children: 37.3% pinworms in school children, 30.3% amoeba cysts and 30.3% flagellate. Infections transmitted by soil were predominant, with 62.1 % roundworms (78.6 % in children aged 7 to 10 years) presenting an important parasitic intensity and worm burden. The parasitoses transmitted as larvae were frequent, only Strongyloides stercoralis being most frequent parasite in adults compared to children. A feasible plan of control the intestinal parasites has been established in collaboration with the local hospital, village leaders and health workers. Short-term measures have been carefully chosen, targeting especially the schools, teachers and health workers. The first health education measure concerns the hand cleanliness at home and at schools. It was suggested that a bucket of water be used per class, that the water be changed more often during the day, and soap be made available at all time. Lessons on the ways of transmission of parasites will be introduced in schools. A door-to-door education plan was discussed with village health workers and hospital nurses and laboratory technicians during the maternal-infantile prophylactic visits. The health education problems have been discussed extensively with village health workers. As a preliminary example, the prevention and campaign against the pinworm, a common parasite in children was chosen, whose transmission mechanism from person to person can be easily understood by children and mothers. Simultaneously the prevention of parasitic infections contributes extensively to the prevention of other serious diseases, as the typhoid fever etc. which are endemic in the region. Long-term preventive measures have been discussed with village leaders. The first measure is to fix the deep-well drinking water pump station of the village, financed by outside parties, with labour provided by the village. Measures for proper maintenance of the water pump station have also been discussed with representatives of the village. The program of the World Health Organization and National Institute of Hygiene of Ivory Coast concerning the periodic treatment of intestinal helminths, especially A. lumbricoides, given to all school aged children was discussed. PMID:15919626

Dancesco, Paul; Abeu, Jérôme; Akakpo, Claude; Iamandi, Ileana; Kacou, Emmanuel; Quenou, Francois; Keusse-Assi, Jacob


Survey and comparison of major intestinal flora in captive and wild ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) populations.  


A survey to identify the major intestinal species of aerobic bacteria, protozoa and helminths was conducted on captive and wild populations of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Samples were collected from 50 captive lemurs at 11 zoological institutions in the United States. In Madagascar, 98 aerobic bacteria samples and 99 parasite samples were collected from eight sites chosen to cover a variety of populations across the species range. Identical collection, preservation and lab techniques were used for captive and wild populations. The predominant types of aerobic bacteria flora were identified via five separate tests. The tests for parasites conducted included flotation, sedimentation and FA/GC. Twenty-seven bacteria unique to either the captive or wild populations were cultured with eight of these being statistically significantly different. Fourteen bacteria common to both populations were cultured, of which six differed significantly. Entamoeba coli was the only parasite common to both the captive and wild populations. Giardia spp., Isospora spp., strongyles-type ova, Entamoeba spp. and Entamoeba polecki were found only in captive samples. Cryptosporidium, Balantidium coli, pinworm-type ova, and two fluke-like ova were seen only in wild samples. In addition, samples were compared for both bacteria and parasites from three unique field sites in Madagascar. In this three-site comparison, six types of bacteria were statistically significantly different. No significant differences regarding parasites were seen. Significant differences were found between the captive and wild populations, whereas fewer differences were found between sites within Madagascar. Although we isolated Campylobacter and Giardia, all animals appeared clinically healthy. PMID:17854057

Villers, Lynne M; Jang, Spencer S; Lent, Cheryl L; Lewin-Koh, Sock-Cheng; Norosoarinaivo, Jeanne Aimée



Biological control strategies for the South American tomato moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomatoes.  


The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been introduced into new geographic areas, including the Mediterranean region, where it has become a serious threat to tomato production. Three greenhouse trials conducted in tomato crops during 2009 and 2010 explored control strategies using the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti compared with chemical control. The effectiveness of the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) was also tested. In greenhouses with early pest infestations (discrete generations), periodic inundative releases (eight releases at a rate of 50 adults/m2, twice a week) were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (85.63 +/- 5.70%) early in the growing season. However, only one inoculative release (100 adults/m2) was sufficient to achieve a comparatively high parasitism level (91.03 +/- 12.58%) under conditions of high pest incidence and overlapping generations. Some intraguild competition was observed between T. achaeae and the predator, N. tenuis. This mirid species is commonly used in Mediterranean greenhouse tomato crops for the control of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Tomato cultivars were also observed to influence the activity of natural enemies, mainly N. tenuis (whose average numbers ranged between 0.17 +/- 0.03 and 0.41 +/- 0.05 nymphs per leaf depending on the cultivar). This may be because of differences in plant nutrients in different cultivars, which may affect the feeding of omnivorous insects. In contrast, cultivar effects on T. achaeae were less apparent or possibly nonexistent. Nevertheless, there was an indirect effect in as much as T. achaeae was favored in cultivars not liked by N. tenuis. PMID:23356074

Cabello, Tomas; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Vila, Enric; Del Pino, Modesto; Hernandez-Suarez, Estrella



Occurrence of large groups of mast cells in subcutaneous connective tissue in the mouse.  


Skin from the mouse trunk together with panniculus adiposus and panniculus carnosus and, separately, trunk muscles, were fixed, stained with Astra blue at pH 1.0, made translucent in methyl salicylate and whole-mounted. In the connective tissue on the surface of panniculus carnosus directed towards the trunk muscles or on the surface of trunk muscles rounded and oval mast cells occurred singly or in groups from two to several dozen cells. These groups had no association with blood vessels or hair follicles. Mast cell groups were scarse in 1-month-old, clearly recognizable in 2-months-old and conspicuous in 4-months-old mice of both sexes. The number of mast cells and their number per group was larger in CFW/Ll and C3H than in Balb/c mice. Accumulation of mast cells in subcutaneous connective tissue was noted in animals from two separate breeding centers. The animals were free of ectoparasites and dermatophytes but contained some pinworms and protozoa. Elimination of these parasites, change of diet and drinking water as well as cage lining did not prevent the appearance of mast cell accumulations. These accumulations occurred in all studied mice (over 100) at the age of 2 months or older, and were also found in 1 out of 6 four-month-old hamsters and in 2 out of 6 four-month-old rats. It is suggested that mast cells accumulate in subcutaneous connective tissue in response to some undefined noxious agent. Whatever the reason of their presence, large groups of mast cells could considerably influence the results of tests performed in the skin-hypodermis area. PMID:3240054

Moskalewski, S; Terelak, B; Majewski, S



[Oxyuriasis and prehistoric migrations].  


Parasite findings in archeological material have made it possible to trace the dispersion of infectious agents and their human hosts in ancient times. These findings allow us to re-examine theories proposed at the beginning of the century concerning transpacific contacts that Asian populations may have had with South America. This has been the case, for example, with hookworm eggs found in archeological material dating up to 7,000 years before present. Because of the increase in scientific production in this area, it has now become necessary to undertake syntheses that assess the state of the art and propose workable paleoepidemological models of the prehistoric dispersion of human parasitoses. Based on findings of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in archeological material in the Americas, the present study is an effort in this direction. Unlike the hookworm, the pinworm does not require a soil cycle in order to be transmitted from one host to another, thereby meaning that its persistence in a given human population does not depend on climatic conditions. Thus, it could have been brought from the old to the new continent, possibly by human migrations across the Bering Strait. This may explain the greater geographical dispersion and dissemination of these findings in North America from 10,000 yrs B.P. till today. In South America, on the other hand, archeological findings have only confirmed existence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs within the Andean region, with findings located specifically in Chile and northern Argentina. Although a large number of samples have been examined, no such eggs have been found in coprolites in Brazil. The paper discusses models that account for the known distribution of this parasitosis in prehistoric populations. PMID:11625244

Araújo, A; Ferreira, L F