Science.gov

Sample records for syphacia obvelata pinworm

  1. Sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to diagnose pinworm (Syphacia spp.) infections in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred M; Mandrell, Timothy D

    2009-07-01

    We determined the sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to detect Syphacia spp. in rats and mice. We evaluated 300 rat and 200 mouse perianal impressions over 9 wk. Pinworm-positive perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens at necropsy were considered as true positives. Conversely, pinworm-negative perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens were considered false negatives. The sensitivity of perianal tape impressions for detecting Syphacia muris infections in rats was 100%, and for detecting Syphacia obvelata in mice was 85.5%. Intermittent shedding of Syphacia obvelata ova is the most probable explanation for the decreased sensitivity rate we observed in mice. We urge caution in use of perianal tape impressions alone for Syphacia spp. screening in sentinel mice and rats. PMID:19653945

  2. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

  3. Efficacy and safety of topical selamectin to eradicate pinworm (Syphacia spp.) infections in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred Montgomery; Lokey, Sharon Jean; Hayes, Ernestine; Boyd, Kelli Lynn; Mandrell, Timothy David

    2006-05-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of topical selamectin, a novel avermectin, in eliminating naturally acquired Syphacia muris infections in rats and S. obvelata infections in mice. S. muris-positive rats were assigned randomly to 4 groups: selamectin (0.6 mg/kg), selamectin (6.0 mg/kg), fenbendazole-medicated (150 ppm) chow, and untreated. S. obvelata-positive mice were allocated into 4 groups similar to those for rats. Animals not exposed to pinworm-contaminated bedding were designated as negative controls. Treatment success was assessed weekly by anal tape impressions and by necropsy examinations at the end of week 9. Evaluations of intestinal contents at necropsy revealed that, although safe, topical selamectin was 100% ineffective in eliminating Syphacia spp. infections in rats and mice. Treatment with fenbendazole-medicated chow resulted in negative anal tape impressions beginning at week 2 in rats and week 1 in mice. Negative anal tape impressions in fenbendazole-treated animals were confirmed by negative intestinal content evaluations. Of the 2 treatments evaluated, fenbendazole-medicated chow remains an effective and practical method to eliminate pinworm infections in mice and rats. PMID:16642966

  4. Sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA among isolates of the oxyurid nematodes Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera from mice reared in laboratories in China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J H; Lou, Y; Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Liu, Z X; Duan, H; Guo, D H; Gao, D Z; Yue, D M; Wang, C R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA among Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice from different geographical locations in China. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA were amplified separately from adult S. obvelata and A. tetraptera individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of the sequences of ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA from both nematodes were 314 bp and 456 bp, 157 bp, and 273 bp and 419 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations in S. obvelata ITS1 were 0-0.3%. For A. tetraptera they were 0-0.7% in ITS1 and 0-1.0% in ITS2. However, the interspecific sequence differences among members of the infraorder Oxyuridomorpha were significantly higher, being 54.0-65.5% for ITS1 and 55.3-64.1% for ITS2. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined partial sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 using three inference methods - Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony - revealed that all the S. obvelata and A. tetraptera samples formed independent monophyletic groups. Syphacia obvelata was closer to Syphacia muris than to A. tetraptera, consistent with morphological classification. These results demonstrate that ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences are useful markers for population genetic studies of oxyurid nematodes. PMID:26693888

  5. Characterization of rat pinworm (Syphacia muris) epidemiology as a means to increase detection and elimination.

    PubMed

    Meade, Theresa M; Watson, Julie

    2014-11-01

    Rodent pinworms persist in many institutions, suggesting deficiencies in eradication and diagnostic processes. When pinworms are detected, treatment success is common, but false-negative test results during health surveillance or after treatment likely contribute to the continued presence of this parasite. PCR testing is not always practical, and increased information regarding the life cycle and general epidemiology of pinworm infestations could improve the sensitivity of traditional nonPCR detection methods and improve eradication efforts. We therefore investigated a pinworm (Syphacia muris) infestation in Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) to develop a more accurate testing strategy. In addition, we sought to determine the duration of egg viability by using an in vitro hatching protocol to assess environmental persistence. Finally, we tested the ovicidal efficacy of a disinfectant used at our institution. Eggs were shed in higher numbers in the midafternoon as compared with other times of the day, and the sex of the host had no consistent effect on egg shedding. Egg shedding showed periodicity over time, with shedding decreasing to 0 at 2- to 3-wk intervals. Neither cecal examination nor tape tests alone reliably predicted pinworm infestation, and results of the 2 tests did not necessarily coincide. Eggs aged for as long as 7 mo remained viable, indicating a potential for recontamination from the environment. Finally, gaseous chlorine dioxide was an effective ovicidal agent, with a kill rate of 99.7%. These results suggest that strategies for S. muris eradication can be optimized to increase detection and elimination. PMID:25650973

  6. Characterization of Rat Pinworm (Syphacia muris) Epidemiology as a Means to Increase Detection and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Theresa M; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Rodent pinworms persist in many institutions, suggesting deficiencies in eradication and diagnostic processes. When pinworms are detected, treatment success is common, but false-negative test results during health surveillance or after treatment likely contribute to the continued presence of this parasite. PCR testing is not always practical, and increased information regarding the life cycle and general epidemiology of pinworm infestations could improve the sensitivity of traditional nonPCR detection methods and improve eradication efforts. We therefore investigated a pinworm (Syphacia muris) infestation in Sprague–Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) to develop a more accurate testing strategy. In addition, we sought to determine the duration of egg viability by using an in vitro hatching protocol to assess environmental persistence. Finally, we tested the ovicidal efficacy of a disinfectant used at our institution. Eggs were shed in higher numbers in the midafternoon as compared with other times of the day, and the sex of the host had no consistent effect on egg shedding. Egg shedding showed periodicity over time, with shedding decreasing to 0 at 2- to 3-wk intervals. Neither cecal examination nor tape tests alone reliably predicted pinworm infestation, and results of the 2 tests did not necessarily coincide. Eggs aged for as long as 7 mo remained viable, indicating a potential for recontamination from the environment. Finally, gaseous chlorine dioxide was an effective ovicidal agent, with a kill rate of 99.7%. These results suggest that strategies for S. muris eradication can be optimized to increase detection and elimination. PMID:25650973

  7. Development and characterization of multiplex panels of microsatellite markers for Syphacia obvelata, a parasite of the house mouse (Mus musculus), using a high throughput DNA sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Wasimuddin; ?ížková, Dagmar; Ribas, Alexis; Piálek, Jaroslav; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Bryja, Josef

    2012-10-01

    Syphacia obvelata is a common gastro-intestinal parasitic nematode of the house mouse (Mus musculus), a prime model rodent species. Investigations of the genetic structure, variability of parasite populations and other biological aspects of this host-parasite system are limited due to the lack of genetic resources for S. obvelata. To fill this gap, we developed a set of microsatellite markers for S. obvelata, using a 454 pyrosequencing approach. We designed three multiplex panels allowing genotyping of 10 polymorphic loci and scrutinized them on 42 samples from two different regions inhabited by two different house mouse subspecies (Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus). The numbers of alleles ranged from 2 to 6 with mean observed heterozygosities 0.1476 and 0.2095 for domesticus and musculus worms, respectively. The described markers will facilitate further studies on population biology and co-evolution of this host-parasite system. PMID:22820294

  8. Molecular phylogeny of the pinworms of mice, rats and rabbits, and its use to develop molecular beacon assays for the detection of pinworms in mice.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Sanford H; Bowman, Susan G

    2007-10-01

    Though pinworm infestation has been prevalent since the early years of laboratory animal medicine, the genomes of these parasites have not yet been sequenced. The authors used high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction to amplify a large portion of the ribosomal gene complex of four pinworm species commonly found in lab rodents and rabbits (Aspiculuris tetraptera, Passalurus ambiguus, Syphacia muris and Syphacia obvelata). They determined DNA sequences for these complexes and carried out phylogenetic analysis. Using this information, the authors developed real-time molecular beacon assays for pinworm detection, comparing the new diagnostic approach with traditional methods such as perianal tape testing, fecal flotation and direct examination of intestinal content. PMID:17885663

  9. Pinworms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are most common in school-age children. Pinworm eggs are spread directly from person to person. They ... or other items that are contaminated with the eggs. Typically, children are infected by touching pinworm eggs ...

  10. Pinworms

    MedlinePLUS

    Pinworms are small parasites that can live in the colon and rectum. You get them when you swallow their eggs. The eggs hatch inside your intestines. While you sleep, the female pinworms leave the intestines through the anus and lay eggs on nearby skin. Pinworms ...

  11. Diagnosis of the pinworm Syphacia muris in the Wistar rat Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Sousa, J E N; Carvalho, E F G; Levenhagen, M A; Chaves, L A; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare three qualitative parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Syphacia muris infection in 30 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) infected naturally. Methods of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman, Pons and Janer, or HPJ) and spontaneous flotation (Willis) for faecal samples and a method of taping (Graham) were performed and compared. The Graham and Willis methods were more sensitive than the HPJ method (P< 0.05). The Graham method was able to detect S. muris eggs in 100% of the samples. Eggs were detected in 83% and 60% of the samples using the Willis and HPJ methods, respectively. Method choice is important for screening for parasites of rats kept under laboratory conditions, as accurate diagnosis helps prevent future environmental contamination and infection. We concluded that the Graham method was the most efficient of those tested in this study for detection of S. muris infection in rats. This method is also rapid, inexpensive and practical, and should be implemented as a necessary measure for infection control. PMID:25327496

  12. Pinworms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can get medicine to get rid of the worms. To be sure that you have pinworms, the doctor may have your parent help you do an easy test at home. Your parent will place a small piece of tape on the skin around your anus at night ...

  13. Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Maxomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fitriana, Yuli Sulistya; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2015-11-01

    The present report describes Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from two species of spiny rats, Maxomys musschenbroekii from Sulawesi and M. whiteheadi from Sumatra. It is characterized by a cephalic plate extending laterally with dorsoventral constriction and stumpy eggs with an operculum rim reaching pole. It is readily distinguishable by the former feature from all of hitherto known representatives of this genus in Indonesia, but it resembles parasites in Murini and Hydromyni rodents in continental Asia and Sahul. This is the first Syphacia species distributed in both the Sunda Shelf and Sulawesi with the exception of Syphacia muris, a cosmopolitan pinworm found in rodents of the of genus Rattus. It is surmised that S. maxomyos is specific to Maxomys and that it was introduced to Sulawesi by dispersal of some Maxomys from the Sunda Shelf. PMID:26062434

  14. Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Maxomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    DEWI, Kartika; HASEGAWA, Hideo; FITRIANA, Yuli Sulistya; ASAKAWA, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The present report describes Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from two species of spiny rats, Maxomys musschenbroekii from Sulawesi and M. whiteheadi from Sumatra. It is characterized by a cephalic plate extending laterally with dorsoventral constriction and stumpy eggs with an operculum rim reaching pole. It is readily distinguishable by the former feature from all of hitherto known representatives of this genus in Indonesia, but it resembles parasites in Murini and Hydromyni rodents in continental Asia and Sahul. This is the first Syphacia species distributed in both the Sunda Shelf and Sulawesi with the exception of Syphacia muris, a cosmopolitan pinworm found in rodents of the of genus Rattus. It is surmised that S. maxomyos is specific to Maxomys and that it was introduced to Sulawesi by dispersal of some Maxomys from the Sunda Shelf. PMID:26062434

  15. Pinworm Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the pinworm—egg, larva (immature stage), and mature worm—takes place inside the human body and requires ... barely noticeable. The movement of egg-laden female worms from your anus to deposit their eggs will ...

  16. Pinworm (for Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Expect Pinworm KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Parasitic Infections (Worms, Lice, etc.) > Pinworm Print A A A Text ... is an intestinal infection caused by tiny parasitic worms. One of the most common roundworm infections, pinworm ...

  17. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

  18. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

  19. Comparison of methods for detection of pinworms in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Effler, J Camille; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Erwin, Julie G; Cartner, Samuel C; Schoeb, Trenton R

    2008-05-01

    Though pinworm infestation remains common in laboratory rodent colonies, there is little information regarding current practices for pinworm detection and their relative efficacy. The authors surveyed research institutions to find out the prevalence of pinworm infestations and the detection methods they used. They also tested mice and rats from colonies that were known to be infested with Syphacia sp. and compared the following detection methods: perianal tape test, fecal flotation, fecal concentration, cecal content examination, cecal flotation and histological examination. Though the different methods yielded comparable efficacy overall, the authors recommend using more than one type of test to increase detection potential. PMID:18431395

  20. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 hours renders Syphacia ova nonviable.

    PubMed

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. PMID:25199091

  1. Exposure to Chlorine Dioxide Gas for 4 Hours Renders Syphacia Ova Nonviable

    PubMed Central

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. PMID:25199091

  2. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The first option is to look for the worms in the perianal reqion 2 to 3 hours after the infected person is asleep. The second option is to touch the perianal skin with transparent tape to collect possible pinworm eggs around the anus ...

  3. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... made by identifying the worm or its eggs. Worms can sometimes be seen on the skin near the anus or on underclothing, pajamas, or sheets about 2 to 3 hours after falling asleep. Pinworm eggs can be collected and examined using the “tape test” as soon as the person wakes up. ...

  4. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

  5. Pinworm in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vose, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A case of enterobiasis in pregnancy that presented as copious nocturnal vaginal discharge is reported. Enterobius vermicularis is the most common parasite infecting humans. Transmission can be fecal-oral or via fomites, and recently arrived immigrants from developing countries and individuals who live in households with young children are particularly at risk. Pinworms are most frequently found in the gastrointestinal tract but can also enter the vagina and bladder. Patients typically present with nocturnal anal itching, and diagnosis can be made by clinical history. Treatment includes an antihelminthic agent for the patient and members of the household as well as home hygiene measures to prevent transmission. PMID:22432492

  6. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used for the treatment of Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) in laboratory mice. (2) It is administered in distilled water as sole source of drinking water continuously for 7 to 14 days at 1.67...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used for the treatment of Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) in laboratory mice. (2) It is administered in distilled water as sole source of drinking water continuously for 7 to 14 days at 1.67...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used for the treatment of Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) in laboratory mice. (2) It is administered in distilled water as sole source of drinking water continuously for 7 to 14 days at 1.67...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used for the treatment of Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) in laboratory mice. (2) It is administered in distilled water as sole source of drinking water continuously for 7 to 14 days at 1.67...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

  11. EGGPLANT: Solanum melongena L. 'Classic' Tomato pinworm (TPW); Keifeira lycopersicella (Walsingham)

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    (E46) EGGPLANT: Solanum melongena L. 'Classic' Tomato pinworm (TPW); Keifeira lycopersicella-3427 INSECTICIDAL CONTROL OF TOMATO PINWORM ON EGGPLANT, 1998: Tomato pinworm attacks potato and eggplant was applied through the drip irrigation system. Greenhouse-raised eggplant seedlings were planted 18 inches

  12. A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini. PMID:24995650

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for pinworm infection in the kindergarten of Thammasat University, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pethleart, Aree; Saichua, Prasert; Rhongbutsri, Pochong; Leelawongtawon, Ratree; Aree, Kalaya; Tiengtip, Rattana; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Nateeworanart, Saengchai; Taylor, W R J

    2010-03-01

    We studied the prevalence and risk factors for pinworm infection in children attending the kindergarten of Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand, using the Scotch-tape technique. Slides were examined by a standard light microscope; 20% of negative slides were reexamined for quality control. Symptoms and risk factor data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Three hundred thirty children age 3 to 6 years old were sampled (males=159). Sixty-five (19.7%) had symptoms consistent with pinworm infection. No pinworm eggs were detected. Most parents (73%) had a good socioeconomic status and 64% were university graduates. Pinworm infection may be uncommon in urban Thailand. PMID:20578512

  14. [Survey on pinworm infection and egg contamination among urban, suburban and rural pupils in Shangqiu City].

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Huan; Wang, Chenl; Xu, Ying; Man, Na; Cui, Yue; Yang, Xia; Cui, Yan-Mei

    2012-12-30

    Seven hundred and ninety-eight preschool children and grade one pupils from three schools in the city of Shangqiu were sampled randomly in urban, suburban and rural areas. The transparent tape method was used to examine the infection of pinworm and the contamination of pinworm eggs on the environments. The average infection rate of pinworm was 9.9% (79/798). The prevalence of pinworm infection among the pupils of urban(4.6%) was statistically lower than those of suburban (11.2%) and rural (13.8%) (P < 0.01). The contamination rate of pinworm eggs from armor, fingers, bedclothes, briefs,and stationery in infected pupils are 23.8% (5/21), 18.0% (9/50), 15.8% (3/19), 12.9% (4/31) and 5.0% (2/40), respectively, which showed no statistical significance (P > 0.05). PMID:23484265

  15. [Investigation of pinworm infection among kindergarten children in Jurong City, Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng-Gong; Li, Shui-Ming

    2013-10-01

    In order to understand pinworm infection of kindergarten children in Jurong City, Jiangsu Province, a total of 1 088 children were sampled for the survey from September 2011 to October 2012. The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs. The infection rate of pinworm was 1.1% (12/1 088). The rate in boys and girls was 1.3% (7/551) and 0.9% (5/537), respectively. Higher infection rate was in the senior class (1.4%, 5/370), and no significant difference was found with gender, as well as among different classes (P > 0.05). Evidently, pinworm prevalence is at a low level in the kindergarten children of Jurong. PMID:24818389

  16. The use of cross-foster rederivation to eliminate murine norovirus, Helicobacter spp., and murine hepatitis virus from a mouse colony.

    PubMed

    Artwohl, James E; Purcell, Jeanette E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2008-11-01

    Over 10 mo, 287 mouse litters were cross-fostered by using 1 of 2 paradigms to eliminate murine norovirus (MNV), Helicobacter spp., murine hepatitis virus (MHV), and Syphacia obvelata. Paradigm 1 involved cross-fostering litters at younger than 48 h with no attention to the changing of bedding material. Paradigm 2 involved cross-fostering litters at younger than 24 h from cages in which the bedding material was changed within 24 h before cross-fostering. After cross-foster rederivation, mice were tested for the presence of Helicobacter spp. by means of fecal PCR at 4, 8, and 12 wk. Surrogates also were tested for MNV by use of multiplex fluorometric assay serology at 4 wk and fecal PCR at 12 wk. Surrogate mice were tested for MHV by means of MFIA at 4 wk and for pinworms by perianal tape test and fecal flotation at 4 and 12 wk. Compared with those from paradigm 1, litters from paradigm 2 were less likely to be positive for MHV and Helicobacter spp. The use of cross-foster rederivation alone was unsuccessful for the elimination of Syphacia obvelata. For cross-foster rederivation, we recommend that litters be younger than 24 h and from cages in which the bedding material was changed within 24 h before cross-fostering. The presence of MNV, Helicobacter spp., and MHV can be predicted reliably at 12, 8, and 4 wk, respectively. PMID:19049248

  17. Serological cross-reactivity between Strongyloides venezuelensis and Syphacia muris in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Sousa, José Eduardo N de; Carvalho, Edson Fernando G de; Levenhagen, Marcelo A; Faria, Lucas S de; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do R F; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2016-04-01

    One of the problems frequently faced in laboratory facilities is the possibility of the natural parasitic infection of lab animals, which can interfere with biomedical research results. The present study aimed to evaluate cross-reactivity among serum samples from Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) naturally infected with Syphacia muris and experimentally infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis. Forty rats were divided into four groups of ten animals each. Parasite load was evaluated by quantifying the adult worms from both helminthes species recovered from the intestines and the S. venezuelensis eggs eliminated in feces. Serological cross-reactivity by parasite-specific IgG detection was tested via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and immunoblotting. The results demonstrated that the quantity of S. venezuelensis eliminated eggs and parthenogenetic females decreased significantly in cases of co-infection with S. muris. ELISA revealed 100% cross-reactivity of serum samples from both species against the opposing antigen. IgG cross-reactivity was confirmed by IFAT using tissue sections of S. venezuelensis larvae and adult S. muris. Immunoblotting showed that IgG antibodies from the sera of animals infected with S. muris recognized eight antigenic bands from S. venezuelensis saline extract and that IgG antibodies from the sera of animals infected with S. venezuelensis recognized seven bands from S. muris saline extract. These results demonstrate the serological cross-reactivity between S. muris and S. venezuelensis in infected rats. PMID:26601618

  18. TOMATO: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., `Neptune' IMPACT OF INSECTICIDES ON TOMATO PINWORM

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    (Walsingham) Tomato pinworm is a serious pest for Florida tomato growers especially during the spring crop. This trial evaluated different insecticides, two in rotation, as means of controlling this pest. Greenhouse/SpinTor rotation, SpinTor alone or Proclaim compared with untreated plants, but there were no significant

  19. The effect of levamisole and levamisole+vitamin C on oxidative damage in rats naturally infected with Syphacia muris.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kozan, Esma; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Bacak, Elif

    2010-04-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of levamisole and levamisole+vitamin C against Syphacia muris naturally infection in rats and to detect its effect on the oxidative parameters in blood and tissues of host. For this purpose, natural infection was diagnosed using the cellophane tape method on the perianal region of rats. Infected rats (total 18) were divided into three groups. On the other hand six without helminth rats were used in this study as negative control group. Group 2 was given an orally levamisole HCl treatment with gastric gavage at a dose level of 20mg/kg body weight in distilled water, every alternate day. Group 3 was given levamisole HCl via gastric gavage at a dose level of 20mg/kg and vitamin C was given 1g/L added to the drinking water. All the treatments continued for a period of 7 days. As a result; levamisole administered to rats at dose of 20mg/kg orally 98.34% was found to be effective against adult S. muris in the rats. In addition to levamisole+vitamin C is effective to alleviate the oxidative damage in rats infected with S. muris. PMID:20045691

  20. [Investigation on pinworm infection and relative factors on prevalence among urban and rural preschool children in Xianyang City].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Ping; An, Rong; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li; Li, Yan-Kui

    2013-08-01

    A total of Eight hundred eighty-six children from 3 to 7 years old in 8 kindergartens were sampled in urban and rural area in Xianyang City from March to May 2012. The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs. Children's hygiene habits, clinical symptoms and hygienic condition were surveyed by questionnairing. The total infection rate of pinworm was 11.2% (99/886). The rate in males and females was 10.4% (52/500) and 12.2% (47/386), respectively. The infection rate in rural kindergartens (19.1%, 70/367) was higher than that of urban kindergartens (5.6%, 29/519) (chi2 = 39.39, P < 0.01). Among the investigated children aged 3-7 years, the infection rate in 4-5 years group (12.7%) was the highest, but no statistical difference was found among age groups (P> 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the hygiene habits such as washing hands before eating (OR = 0.180), drinking unboiled water and eating non-cooked food (OR = 2.473), cleaning perianal region frequently (OR = 0.836), cutting nails frequently (OR = 0.450), drying the quilt regularly (OR = 0.224) and health education (OR = 0.639) were the influence factors on pinworm infection. The main symptoms of pinworm infection include pruritus and bruxism. PMID:24812874

  1. The acute effects of single-dose orally administered doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin on natural infections of Syphacia muris in rats.

    PubMed

    Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Kozan, Esma; Sevimli, Alper; Do?an, Nurhan; Bülbül, Aziz

    2009-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the acute effects of a single-dose of orally administered doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin on Syphacia muris infection in rats. Rats, naturally infected with S. muris, were divided into four groups: three different treatment groups (n=7) and one positive control (n=7). Cellophane tape preparations were obtained from the treated rats on day 0 pre-treatment and on days 2, 4 and 6 post-treatment. Syphacia sp. eggs were counted. Eprinomectin was found to be 100% effective in eliminating eggs on two post-treatment. However when egg counts on day 6 post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment egg counts, doramectin and selamectin were found to be 99.32 and 98.77% effective in eliminating eggs, respectively. On day 7 post-treatment, blood samples were obtained from all groups, and then the rats were necropsied. Doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin were found to be 100% effective in eliminating adult S. muris, when compared with the positive control group. PMID:19318096

  2. Pinworm test

    MedlinePLUS

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to determine if there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on 3 separate ...

  3. Evaluation of a timed and repeated perianal tape test for the detection of pinworms (Trypanoxyuris microon) in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae).

    PubMed

    Felt, S A; White, C E

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if the detection of pinworm infections in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae) could be improved by performing perianal tape testing at specific times of the day and/or by performing repeated sampling. Eight Aotus known to be infected with pinworms were sampled at four selected time points (06:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 hours) over the course of a 3-week period. Samples were examined microscopically and oxyurid eggs were quantified. Results revealed no significant differences in time points, but did indicate that repeated sampling significantly improved pinworm egg detection. Results also determined that Aotus housed with an infected cage mate are at an approximately 14-times greater risk of being infected than animals housed without an infected cage mate. Lastly, results indicated no significant difference between peripheral eosinophil and basophil numbers from infected and clean animals. PMID:16053499

  4. False-Positive Results after Environmental Pinworm PCR Testing due to Rhabditid Nematodes in Corncob Bedding

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-01-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and –negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980

  5. The behavioral teratogenic potential of fenbendazole: a medication for pinworm infestation.

    PubMed

    Barron, S; Baseheart, B J; Segar, T M; Deveraux, T; Willford, J A

    2000-01-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ) is a benzimidazole currently used for anthelmintic treatment of pinworm populations in numerous animal species although it is not currently approved for laboratory rodents in the U.S. It has received considerable interest for treating rodent populations due to its low toxicity, wide safety margin and apparent absence of gross teratogenic effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the behavioral teratogenic potential of FBZ. Pregnant rats were administered either FBZ-medicated feed at a therapeutic level or normal rat chow throughout pregnancy and gestation. FBZ had no effect on pregnancy indicators such as maternal weight gain or water consumption, number of pups born or pup birth weights. Offspring were examined in a variety of paradigms including righting reflex, negative geotaxis, running wheel activity, Morris water maze (MWM) performance and digging maze performance. FBZ offspring did show delayed righting reflex, some modest changes in locomotor activity in a running wheel and minor alterations in performance during the probe session of the MWM relative to controls. However, the effects of FBZ on behavior were subtle and many of the behaviors examined were unaffected. These results suggest that FBZ may be an effective and relatively safe anthelmintic treatment for use in breeding colonies. PMID:11120393

  6. Assessing European Egg Parasitoids as a Mean of Controlling the Invasive South American Tomato Pinworm Tuta absoluta

    PubMed Central

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

  7. Sequence variability in four mitochondrial genes among rabbit pinworm (Passalurus ambiguus) isolates from different localities in China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Li; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-08-01

    Passalurus ambiguus is a common pinworm which parasitizes in the caecum and colon of rabbits. This study examined genetic variability among P. ambiguus isolated from naturally infected rabbits in four different provinces in China. The partial mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1), cytochrome b (pcytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 5 (pnad1 and pnad5) were amplified separately from individual nematodes by PCR and sequenced. The results showed that pcox1, pcytb, pnad1 and pnad5 were 714, 663, 645 and 546?bp in length, respectively. The intra-specific sequence variations within P. ambiguus were 0-1.1% for pcox1, 0-1.2% for pcytb, 0-0.6% for pnad1 and 0-1.3% for pnad5, whereas inter-specific sequence differences with other members of the Oxyuridae were 16.2-17.3% for pcox1, 27.8-30.4% for pcytb, 20.2-24.0% for pnad1 and 27.1-30.3% for pnad5. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, based on the combined sequences of the four partial mtDNA sequences, revealed that all the P. ambiguus samples form monophyletic groups. This study demonstrated the existence of low-level intra-specific variation in cox1, cytb, nad1 and nad5 genes among P. ambiguus isolates from different geographic regions in China, and these four mtDNA sequences can be used as genetic markers for the population genetic studies of P. ambiguus, as well as the differentiation of P. ambiguus from other oxyurid nematodes. PMID:24409849

  8. Pinworm detection in mice with immunodeficient (NOD SCID) and immunocompetent (CD-1 and Swiss) soiled bedding sentinels in individually ventilated cage systems.

    PubMed

    Eguíluz, C; Rossi, M; Viguera, E

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel exposure to soiled bedding is frequently used for health monitoring of mice housed in individually ventilated cage systems (IVCS). Despite its advantages, the use of soiled bedding sentinels (SBSs) is far for being a reliable method. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of immunodeficient SBSs NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/NCrHsd (NOD SCID) against two immunocompetent outbred strains, Hsd:ICR (CD-1) and RjOr1:Swiss (Swiss) to pinworm detection in IVCS-housing. Four different diagnostic methods were used: perianal tape test, fecal flotation, plate method and histology. Positivity was considered if at least one of the techniques used was positive. In the first study NOD SCID were more sensitive than CD-1 SBSs (P?pinworm detection. Immunodeficient SBSs showed higher sensitivity than immunocompetent ones. Thus, use of immunodeficient SBSs is highly recommended in health control protocols. PMID:25667226

  9. Supplement 20, Part 6, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Subject Headings And Treatment 

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Shirley J.; Shaw, Judith H.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Hood, Martha W.

    1975-01-01

    cattle, Thelazia sp., T. rhodesi Age of host Eaton, G. J., 1972 a inbred strains of mice, Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculuris tetraptera Age of host Euzlby, J.?.; Gauthey, M.; and Syngamus trachea, chicken, Bordrez, C., 1973 a host resistance Age... merlangus vicinity of Isle of Man Age of host de Silva, C.O.; Ameratunga, Wuchereria bancrofti, ?.; Ameratunga, B.L.G.; and native village survey, Ratnasabapathy, P., 1962 a 10-14 year olds most in- ffetara, Ceylon fected group, 0-4 years least...

  10. Decontamination of a barrier facility using microisolator cages and provisional partitioning.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Elena; Maurer, Simone; Steige, Gisela; Saaler-Reinhardt, Sigrid; Lecher, Bernd; Ott, Sibylle; Reifenberg, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the authors found endemic infections of mouse hepatitis virus, minute virus of mice, Syphacia obvelata, and Myobia musculi among mice in a large barrier facility at the University of Mainz. To eliminate the infections, they subdivided the facility into two distinct hygiene units. However, architectural constraints made it impossible to completely separate the HVAC systems of both hygiene units and to establish adequate personnel locks. To compensate for these suboptimal barrier conditions of the two newly established units, the authors replaced the open-top caging and open-servicing system with filter-top cages that were manipulated in cage-changing stations. The authors then depopulated the two units in series, independently eliminating the contaminated mice and restocking the units with SPF animals. In spite of the high infection pressure and the suboptimal barrier conditions, the authors had only a single case of recontamination. PMID:17585355

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites biodiversity of Rattus rattus trapped from Khan Younis and Jabalia in Gaza strip, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al Hindi, Adnan Ibrahim; Abu-Haddaf, Eman

    2013-04-01

    This study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of Rattus rattus. A total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and Norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of Gaza strip. After dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. The results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. A high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to other seasons. The intestinal parasites were encountered: G. lamblia 6 (14.6%); E. histolytica/dispar 7 (17.1%); Isospora 4 (9.8%); Acanthocephala 1 (2.4%); Syphacia obvelata 6 (20%); Heligmonoides josephi 3(10%); Strongyloides egg 1 (2.4%); Hymenolepis diminuta 15 (36.6%). The insects were Xenopsylla cheopis 7 (17.1%); Polyplax spinulosa 3 (7.3%). PMID:23697031

  12. IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4R? expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4R?-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. PMID:18373844

  13. Intestinal Nematodes from Small Mammals Captured near the Demilitarized Zone, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok-Gyu; Park, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Lip; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Jeon, Sarah Jiyoun; Lim, Hyemi; Lee, Mi Youn; Shin, Eun-Hee; Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-01-01

    A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK. PMID:25748722

  14. Intestinal nematodes from small mammals captured near the demilitarized zone, Gyeonggi province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok-Gyu; Park, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Lip; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Jeon, Sarah Jiyoun; Lim, Hyemi; Lee, Mi Youn; Shin, Eun-Hee; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-02-01

    A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK. PMID:25748722

  15. Microbiological survey of mice (Mus musculus) purchased from commercial pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHIMOTO, Nobuhito; MORITA, Hanako; ISHIDA, Tomoko; UCHIDA, Ritsuki; TANAKA, Mai; OZAWA, Midori; YASUDA, Masahiko; ITOH, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Information regarding the prevalence of infectious agents in mice in pet shops in Japan is scarce. This information is particularly useful for minimizing the risk of potential transmission of infections to laboratory mice. Therefore, we surveyed infectious agents in mice from pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan. The survey was conducted in 28 mice from 5 pet shops to screen for 47 items (17 viruses, 22 bacteria and fungi, 10 parasites) using culture tests, serology, PCR, and microscopy. The most common viral agent detected was murine norovirus (17 mice; 60.7%), followed by Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (13 mice; 46.4%), and mouse hepatitis virus (12 mice; 42.8%). The most common agent amongst the bacteria and fungi was Pasteurella pneumotropica (10 mice; 35.7%), followed by Helicobacter ganmani and Pneumocystis murina (8 mice; 28.5%, for both). Tritrichomonas muris was the most common parasite (19 mice; 67.8%), followed by Spironucleus muris (13 mice; 46.4%), Aspiculuris tetraptera, and Syphacia obvelata (8 mice each; 28.5%). Remarkably, a zoonotic agent, Hymenolepis nana, was found in 7 mice (25%). Given these results, we suggest that the workers in laboratory animal facilities should recognize again the potential risks of mice outside of the laboratory animal facilities as an infectious source, and avoid keeping mice as pets or as feed for carnivorous reptiles as much as possible for risk management. PMID:25502736

  16. TOMATO: Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill.), `Tygress' CONTROL OF TOMATO PINWORM AND SOUTHERN ARMYWORM ON STAKED TOMATO, 2005

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    as percentage of leaf tissue affected by symptoms of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv-raised seedlings of the TYLCV resistant variety `Tygress' were planted 22 Mar at 18-inch spacing on two sets. vesicatoria was conducted on 6,10 and 28 May. One leaf from the lower canopy of 8 plants was collected on 2, 9

  17. 21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be treated unless otherwise advised. See Warnings. If any worms other than pinworms are present before or after treatment, consult a doctor. If any symptoms or pinworms are still...

  18. 21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be treated unless otherwise advised. See Warnings. If any worms other than pinworms are present before or after treatment, consult a doctor. If any symptoms or pinworms are still...

  19. 21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be treated unless otherwise advised. See Warnings. If any worms other than pinworms are present before or after treatment, consult a doctor. If any symptoms or pinworms are still...

  20. 21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be treated unless otherwise advised. See Warnings. If any worms other than pinworms are present before or after treatment, consult a doctor. If any symptoms or pinworms are still...

  1. 21 CFR 357.150 - Labeling of anthelmintic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...individual in a household has pinworms, the entire household should be treated unless otherwise advised. See Warnings. If any worms other than pinworms are present before or after treatment, consult a doctor. If any symptoms or pinworms are still...

  2. TOMATO: Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill.), `Florida 91' CONTROL OF TOMATO PINWORM AND SOUTHERN ARMYWORM ON STAKED TOMATO, 2003

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    of SAW that first build up on weeds. Admire at 16 fl oz product per acre was applied as a soil drench and weight of fruit damaged by TPW compared to the untreated control. However, more fruit damaged by SAW were observed on treated plants compared to the control, presumably because there were more fruit to damage

  3. Pyrantel

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an antiworm medication, is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, and other worm infections.This medication is ... repeated after 2 weeks for pinworm infections. For hookworm infections, pyrantel usually is taken once a day ...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (Strongyloides westeri), 10 milligrams of oxibendazole per kilogram of body weight; for threadworms, 15... (Parascaris equorum); pinworms (Oxyuris equi) including various larval stages; and threadworms...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... weight for the control of large strongyles, small strongyles, pinworms, Strongyloides and ascarids... Craterostomum spp., Oesophagodontus spp., Poteriostomum spp., Oxyuris spp., Strongyloides spp., and...

  6. Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions in Norwegian children.

    PubMed

    Bøås, H; Tapia, G; Rasmussen, T; Rønningen, K S

    2014-10-01

    Studies investigating the association between Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions have shown conflicting results. This study was conducted to test for any such associations in Norwegian children. Parents were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their children's history of allergies, wheezing or eczema and pinworm infections. Current pinworm infections were diagnosed by microscopic examination of anal scotch tape samples. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Atopic eczema, allergy or wheezing was reported to be confirmed by a physician in 23% of the children (84/364). A possible association between current pinworm infections and food allergy was found, with 17·5% of children without food allergy testing positive for pinworms, compared to 36·8% of children with food allergy (odds ratio 2·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1-8·0). No association was found between past pinworm treatments and present atopic conditions. The association between current E. vermicularis infections and food allergy warrants further study. PMID:24331127

  7. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of evolution. PMID:25962095

  8. Elimination Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sign of a YEAST INFECTION, ALLERGY to toilet paper or PINWORMS. Nonprescription antifungal medications for yeast infections ... is your problem, try using white, unscented toilet paper. See your doctor if your symptoms don't ...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris, and S....

  10. 21 CFR 520.903a - Febantel paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...removal of large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus ); ascarids (Parascaris equorum— sexually mature and immature); pinworms (Oxyuris equi— adult and 4th stage larva); and the various small strongyles in horses,...

  11. Trypanoxyuris atelis and T. atelophora (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in tropical rain forest in Mexico: Morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Solórzano-García, Brenda; Nadler, Steven A; de León, Gerardo Pérez Ponce

    2015-10-01

    Two species of pinworms, Trypanoxyuris atelis and Trypanoxyuris atelophora were collected from the black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) in several localities across southeastern Mexico, representing the first record for both species in Mexican primates. Identification of pinworm species was based on morphological and molecular data. These pinworms are distinguished from other congeners, and from each other, by the buccal structure, the lateral alae, and the morphology of the oesophagus. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene placed T. atelis as the sister species of Trypanoxyuris minutus, a parasite of the howler monkey Alouatta palliata, and T. atelophora as the sister species of T. microon, a parasite of the night monkey, Aotus azarae. These relationships were supported with high posterior probability values by Bayesian inference. Comparisons of additional pinworm taxa from Neotropical primates are needed to assess oxyurid diversity, and to better understand the evolutionary relationships among these nematodes and their primate hosts. PMID:25748278

  12. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G ....

  15. 21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); and horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G ....

  18. 21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); and horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G ....

  19. 21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G....

  2. 21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1638 - Oxibendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use in horses—(1) Amount. For uses other than for threadworms (Strongyloides westeri), 10 milligrams of oxibendazole per kilogram of body weight; for threadworms (Strongyloides...); pinworms (Oxyuris equi) including various larval stages; and threadworms (Strongyloides westeri)....

  5. Mebendazole

    MedlinePLUS

    Mebendazole, an antiworm medication, kills parasites. It is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, whipworm, and other worm infections.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

  6. 21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...roundworms (Parascaris ); pinworms. (Oxyuris ); and threadworms (Strongyloides ). (2) It is administered by stomach tube or as a drench at a dose of 0.9 gram of cambendazole per 100 pounds of body weight (20 milligrams per...

  7. 21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...roundworms (Parascaris ); pinworms. (Oxyuris ); and threadworms (Strongyloides ). (2) It is administered by stomach tube or as a drench at a dose of 0.9 gram of cambendazole per 100 pounds of body weight (20 milligrams per...

  8. 21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...roundworms (Parascaris ); pinworms. (Oxyuris ); and threadworms (Strongyloides ). (2) It is administered by stomach tube or as a drench at a dose of 0.9 gram of cambendazole per 100 pounds of body weight (20 milligrams per...

  9. Ascariasis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Tapeworm Stool Test: Ova and Parasites (O&P) Salmonella ... Hands After Using the Bathroom? Pinworms Hand Washing Tapeworm Cholera Salmonellosis Contact Us Print Additional resources Send ...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2) Indications...Parascaris equorum ), large strongyles (Strongylus spp.) bots (Gastrophilus spp.), small strongyles, and...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2) Indications...Parascaris equorum ), large strongyles (Strongylus spp.) bots (Gastrophilus spp.), small strongyles, and...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2) Indications...Parascaris equorum ), large strongyles (Strongylus spp.) bots (Gastrophilus spp.), small strongyles, and...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2) Indications...Parascaris equorum ), large strongyles (Strongylus spp.) bots (Gastrophilus spp.), small strongyles, and...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2) Indications...Parascaris equorum ), large strongyles (Strongylus spp.) bots (Gastrophilus spp.), small strongyles, and...

  15. Itching

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or wool) Dry skin Hives Insect bites and stings Parasites such as pinworm , body lice , head lice , ... the skin will help you identify any bites, stings, rashes, dry skin, or irritation. Often the cause ...

  16. Transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis: evaluation of the role of Enterobius vermicularis.

    PubMed

    Girginkarde?ler, Nogay; Kurt, Ozgür; Kilimcio?lu, Ali A; Ok, Ulgen Z

    2008-03-01

    The role of Enterobius vermicularis in the transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis has been evaluated in two groups of patients admitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of Celal Bayar University: one group with E. vermicularis infection (n=187, Pinworm Group), and the other with D. fragilis infection (n=126, Dientamoeba Group). The presence of the other parasite, pinworm or Dientamoeba, was investigated with the microscopic examination of cellophane tape and stool samples for three consecutive days. In the Pinworm Group, 9.6% of the patients were found to be coinfected with D. fragilis, while 25.4% of the patients in the Dientamoeba Group were found to be coinfected with pinworms. The coincidence rates of D. fragilis and E. vermicularis, higher than the prevalence of each parasite in similar populations, suggest a common relation between these two parasites, possibly in entering the human body. E. vermicularis infection was found to be significantly more common in younger children (p<0.001), indicating that younger children may also be at higher risk for D. fragilis infection. These findings also raise the question of whether the unrelated symptoms of the pinworm infected patients such as abdominal pain and diarrhea may actually be due to overlooked Dientamoeba infections. PMID:17921047

  17. Comparison of traditional and PCR methods during screening for and confirmation of Aspiculuris tetraptera in a mouse facility.

    PubMed

    Dole, Vandana S; Zaias, Julia; Kyricopoulos-Cleasby, Danielle M; Banu, Laila A; Waterman, Linda L; Sanders, Kevin; Henderson, Kenneth S

    2011-11-01

    Pinworm detection in laboratory rodents typically is accomplished by using the tape test or various modifications of fecal flotation test to detect eggs. Direct examination of intestinal contents remains the 'gold standard' for pinworm detection, with the limitation of euthanasia of animals. Here, we compare traditional and real-time PCR methodologies during screening for and confirming the presence of Aspiculuris tetraptera. Two sets of pooled fecal samples collected from each of 521 microisolation cages in a mouse facility suspected to be pinworm-positive were tested by PCR and fecal flotation methods. The number of PCR-positive cages was 48 (9.2%) compared with 5 (0.96%) by the fecal flotation method. All of the cages determined to be positive by fecal flotation were positive by PCR. We evaluated 8 positive cages containing 26 mice from the screening group 5 wk later to confirm the initial findings; for 7 of these cages, PCR results from the initial screening were confirmed by fecal centrifugation concentration (FCC) or direct worm detection. Among the 26 mice, 4 were pinworm-positive by FCC, 5 by maceration, and 16 by PCR. All 4 mice positive by FCC were positive by PCR; PCR was positive for 7 of the 9 mice in which pinworms were detected by FCC or maceration. Our study demonstrates that real-time PCR for survival testing of mice for A. tetraptera effectively augments current detection methods for quarantine and routine health monitoring. PMID:22330785

  18. DNA of Dientamoeba fragilis detected within surface-sterilized eggs of Enterobius vermicularis.

    PubMed

    Röser, Dennis; Nejsum, Peter; Carlsgart, Anne Josefine; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2013-01-01

    With no evidence of a cyst stage, the mode of transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis, an intestinal protozoon of common occurrence and suggested pathogenicity, is incompletely known. Numerous studies have suggested that eggs of intestinal nematodes, primarily Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), can serve as vectors for D. fragilis, although attempts to culture D. fragilis from pinworm eggs have been unsuccessful and data from epidemiological studies on D. fragilis/pinworm co-infection have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate whether we could detect D. fragilis DNA from pinworm eggs collected from routine diagnostic samples (cellophane tape) and surface-sterilised by hypochlorite. DNA was extracted from individual eggs and tested by PCR using D. fragilis- and E. vermicularis-specific primers; amplicons were sequenced for confirmation. In cellophane tape samples from 64 patients with unknown D. fragilis status we detected D. fragilis DNA in 12/238 (5%) eggs, and in a patient known to harbour D. fragilis we detected D. fragilis DNA in 39/99 (39%) eggs. The finding of D. fragilis DNA within eggs of E. vermicularis strongly supports the hypothesis of D. fragilis-transmission by pinworm and has implications for antimicrobial intervention as well as control and public health measures. PMID:23116599

  19. Comparison of Traditional and PCR Methods during Screening for and Confirmation of Aspiculuris tetraptera in a Mouse Facility

    PubMed Central

    Dole, Vandana S; Zaias, Julia; Kyricopoulos-Cleasby, Danielle M; Banu, Laila A; Waterman, Linda L; Sanders, Kevin; Henderson, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    Pinworm detection in laboratory rodents typically is accomplished by using the tape test or various modifications of fecal flotation test to detect eggs. Direct examination of intestinal contents remains the ‘gold standard’ for pinworm detection, with the limitation of euthanasia of animals. Here, we compare traditional and real-time PCR methodologies during screening for and confirming the presence of Aspiculuris tetraptera. Two sets of pooled fecal samples collected from each of 521 microisolation cages in a mouse facility suspected to be pinworm-positive were tested by PCR and fecal flotation methods. The number of PCR-positive cages was 48 (9.2%) compared with 5 (0.96%) by the fecal flotation method. All of the cages determined to be positive by fecal flotation were positive by PCR. We evaluated 8 positive cages containing 26 mice from the screening group 5 wk later to confirm the initial findings; for 7 of these cages, PCR results from the initial screening were confirmed by fecal centrifugation concentration (FCC) or direct worm detection. Among the 26 mice, 4 were pinworm-positive by FCC, 5 by maceration, and 16 by PCR. All 4 mice positive by FCC were positive by PCR; PCR was positive for 7 of the 9 mice in which pinworms were detected by FCC or maceration. Our study demonstrates that real-time PCR for survival testing of mice for A. tetraptera effectively augments current detection methods for quarantine and routine health monitoring. PMID:22330785

  20. Negligible Egg Positive Rate of Enterobius vermicularis and No Detection of Head Lice among Orphanage Children in Busan and Ulsan, Korea (2014)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea. PMID:26323851

  1. Negligible Egg Positive Rate of Enterobius vermicularis and No Detection of Head Lice among Orphanage Children in Busan and Ulsan, Korea (2014).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea. PMID:26323851

  2. Genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA among Enterobius vermicularis in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Mario Rodr?guez; Röser, Dennis; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; Olsen, Annette; Nejsum, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Despite being the most prevalent nematode infections of man in Western Europe and North America, our knowledge of the genetic variability in Enterobius vermicularis is fragmented. We here report on a genetic study of pinworms in Denmark, performed using the cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) gene, with DNA extracted from individual eggs collected from clinical (human) samples. We collected cellophane-tape-test samples positive for pinworm eggs from 14 Departments of Clinical Microbiology in Denmark and surface-sterilized the eggs using a 1% hypochlorite solution before performing conventional PCR. Twenty-two haplotypes were identified from a total of 58 Danish patients. Cluster analysis showed that all Danish worms grouped together with human samples from Germany and Greece and with samples from Japanese chimpanzees designated as 'type B'. Analysis of molecular variance showed no significant difference or trends in geographical distribution of the pinworms in Denmark, and several haplotypes were identical or closely related to samples collected in Germany, Greece and Japan. However, worms from the 4 countries were found to belong to different populations, with Fst values in the range of 0·16 to 0·47. This study shows pinworms in Denmark to be a homogenous population, when analysed using the cox1 mitochondrial gene. PMID:22906211

  3. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  4. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  5. 21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi... for the removal and control of the following worms: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi... for the removal and control of the following worms: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi... for the removal and control of the following worms: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi... for the removal and control of the following worms: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1629 - Oxfendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi... for the removal and control of the following worms: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach...

  10. Pin Worms Presenting as Suspected Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Saffar, Farah; Najjar, Nimeh; Ibrahim, Saif; Clark, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well recognized in developed countries and is generally among the differential diagnoses of young patients presenting with refractory diarrhea once other more common etiologies have been excluded. Pinworm infections, on the other hand, are not as common among adults in the United States. CASE REPORT Based on computed tomography features, a 24-year-old female patient with a history of multiple autoimmune disorders presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed recently with Crohn's disease. Colonoscopy was significant for pinworms seen throughout the colon. Colonic biopsy was negative for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related changes. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of IBD is a serious label that requires biopsy confirmation before committing to possibly life-long treatment and possible adverse effects. Even in the most typical patient and when the presentation and imaging are classical, uncommon conditions (like Enterobius infection in this case) may preclude appropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26471462

  11. Screening for intestinal parasites. Is a single specimen valid?

    PubMed Central

    Kawatu, D.; Lees, R. E.; Maclachlan, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    To assess the validity of a single stool or perianal swab specimen when screening for potentially pathogenic parasites, 88 residents of a centre for developmentally handicapped adults were screened by collecting on alternate days three stool samples and pinworm swabs. Both sensitivity and negative predictive values were so low that three samples were required for some parasites. The species being screened for and its underlying prevalence must be considered before collecting only one specimen to reduce laboratory costs. PMID:8374361

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Oxyuris equi: Comparison with other closely related species and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Wen-Wen; Guo, Dong-Hui; Liu, Ze-Xuan; Duan, Hong; Su, Xin; Fu, Xue; Yue, Dong-Mei; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Chun-Ren

    2015-12-01

    The equine pinworm Oxyuris equi (Nematoda: Oxyuridomorpha) is the most common horse nematode, has a worldwide distribution, and causes major economic losses. In the present study, the complete O. equi mitochondrial (mt) genome was sequenced, and the mt genome structure and organization were compared with those of other closely related pinworm species, Enterobius vermicularis and Wellcomia siamensis. The O. equi mt genome is a 13,641-bp circular DNA molecule that encodes 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and two rRNAs) and one non-coding region, which is slightly shorter than that of E. vermicularis and W. siamensis. The O. equi mt gene arrangement was consistent with that of GA13-type E. vermicularis but it differs from GA12-type W. siamensis. Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes with three different computational algorithms (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference) revealed that there were two distinct clades in Chromadorea nematodes that reflected infraorder. Spiruromorpha formed one clade, whereas Rhabditomorpha, Ascaridomorpha, and Oxyuridomorpha formed another clade. O. equi, E. vermicularis, and W. siamensis represent distinct but closely related species, which indicated that Oxyuridomorpha is paraphyletic. Sequencing the O. equi mt genome provides novel genetic markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of pinworms. PMID:26452611

  13. Association between health examination items and body mass index among school children in Hualien, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of obesity and major physical examination items including dental caries, myopia, pinworm, hematuria, and proteinuria among school children in Hualien, Taiwan. In addition, the health status differences between gender, grader, levels of residence urbanization, and body mass index (BMI) were examined. Methods Cross-sectional studies with a total of 11,080 students (age, 7–14 years) in grades 1, 4, and 7 were evaluated for weight, height, routine physical examination, and urine analysis during the 2010 Student Health Examination in Hualien. Frequencies, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were conducted using SPSS. Results Of the 11,080 students evaluated, 1357 (12.2%) were overweight, and 1421 (12.8%) were obese. There were significant differences in overweight/obese prevalence by gender, by grader, and by levels of residence urbanization. Dental caries, myopia, and obesity were the most prevalent health problems among these students (75.6%, 33.0%, and 12.8%, respectively). In crude and adjusted analyses, research results showed that there were significant differences in the prevalence of major physical examination items between different gender, grader, levels of residence urbanization, and BMI groups. Girls had a higher prevalence of dental caries, myopia, and hematuria than boys (all p?pinworm than girls (p?=?0.02). Students in higher grades had significantly higher prevalence of myopia, hematuria, and proteinuria (all p?pinworm (p?pinworm (p?pinworm, and hematuria (all p?

  14. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among preschool children in kindergartens of Taipei City, Taiwan in 2008.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tso-Kang; Liao, Chien-Wei; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chou, Chia-Mei; Tsay, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Alice; Guu, Shu-Fen; Kao, Ting-Chang; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children was reported to be low based on a 5-year screening program in Taipei City, Taiwan. The Taipei City government intended to terminate the E. vermicularis screening program among preschool children. Thus, we were entrusted with confirming whether pinworm infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined. From each of 12 administrative districts 2-3 kindergartens were randomly selected for investigation. In total, 4,349 children were examined, of which 2,537 were boys and 1,812 were girls. The cellophane tape adhered to a glass slide was used, and all examinations were done by certified medical technologists. Results indicated that the overall prevalence rate of pinworm infections was 0.62% (27/4,349). Although the infection rate was higher among boys (0.67%, 17/2,537) than in girls (0.55%, 10/1,812), no significant difference was found (chi(2) = 0.399, P = 0.62). According to the administrative district, the infection rate ranged from no positive cases of E. vermicularis infection in the Xinyi, Zhongzhen, and Wanhua Districts (0%; 0/299, 0/165, and 0/358, respectively), to 0.26% (1/131) in Songshan District, with the highest rate of 1.88% (7/373) in Wenshan District. Because the overall infection rate (0.62%, 27/4,349) in the present study was unchanged compared to that (0.40%, 197/49,541) previously reported in 2005, we propose that regular pinworm screening and treatment programs should be continued in some parts of Taipei City. PMID:19488428

  15. The potential role of strongyloides robustus on parasite-mediated competition between two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys).

    PubMed

    Krichbaum, Kristle; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A; Turner, Gregory; Hudson, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that populations of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) are declining in the eastern United States, perhaps due to competition with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). Potential causes include parasite-mediated or apparent competition from the shared intestinal nematode, Strongyloides robustus, which has been shown to detrimentally affect the northern flying squirrel but not the southern flying squirrel. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study on the parasite community of both flying squirrel species from sites in Pennsylvania where the two species occur sympatrically and where G. sabrinus is now considered endangered at the state level. We compared these parasite communities with those from northern flying squirrels from northern New York where the southern flying squirrel is absent. We found eight species of gastrointestinal parasites (Pterygodermatites peromysci, Lemuricola sciuri, Syphacia thompsoni, Syphacia spp., Capillaria spp., Citellinema bifurcatum, Strogyloides robustus, and an unidentifiable cestode species) in both species of flying squirrels examined for our study. The parasite-mediated competition hypothesis was partially supported. For example, in Pennsylvania, S. robustus was overdispersed in southern flying squirrels, such that a small proportion of the hosts carried a large proportion of the worm population. In addition, we found S. robustus to be present in northern flying squirrels when the species were sympatric, but not where southern flying squirrels were absent in New York. However, there was no association between S. robustus and the body condition of flying squirrels. We detected a potential parasite community interaction, as S. robustus abundance was positively associated with P. peromysci. PMID:20090036

  16. [Indigenous helminthiasis].

    PubMed

    Schiefke, I; Schmäschke, R; Ott, R; Schiefke, F; Mössner, J; Schubert, S

    2006-08-01

    Worldwide an estimated 1.5-2 billion people are infested with helminths. Over the last decades, in industrialized countries prevalence rates of human helminthic infections were decreased by means of wastewater and food control. In this article, we review the geographic distributions as well as the impact on the public health system of the most prevalent helminthiases. Special emphasis is given to Echinococcus, Enterobiasis, and Toxocariasis. Intestinal larvae or eggs of helminths can be detected in faeces. Pinworms are collected with a strip of cellophane tape with the sticky side towards the anus. Tissue helminthosis, like Toxocariasis or Trichinosis are associated with eosinophilia and can be diagnosed with sensitive immunological methods or by biopsy. Infection with Echinococcus multilocularis is the most serious parasitic disease in central Europe. Although current therapeutic options are limited, 5 year survival rates were markedly improved by the combination of medical and surgical treatment. PMID:16845538

  17. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seokha; Jeon, Hyeong Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S; Park, Joong-Ki

    2006-09-01

    In an attempt to determine the prevalence of pinworm infection, the egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis was examined using the adhesive cello-tape anal swab method in 1,512 preschool children sampled from a total of 20 kindergartens in Cheongju city, in November to December of 2004 (951 children from 13 kindergartens) and September to October of 2005 (561 from 7 kindergartens). The overall egg positive rate was found to be 7.9% (119/1,512); 9.3% (73/784) for boys and 6.3% (46/728) for girls, respectively. The 5-year age group evidenced the highest egg positive rate (10.9%, 47/430) among the examined age groups. As compared to those reported from previous works (ranged from 9.2 to 26.1%), the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the Cheongju city area is relatively low. PMID:16969064

  18. Molecular Phylogeny of Nematodes (Oxyurida: Travassosinematidae) from Orthoptera (Gryllotalpidae) Inferred by Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neetu; Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced mt Cox 1 gene sequences of five nematode spp. that were infective to arthropod, Gryllotalpa africana. The nematode belongs to Thelastomatoidea, a group of pinworms that parasitizes only invertebrates. Currently, in India spp. of this group are distinguished mainly on the basis of morphological characters that present possible confusions. Therefore, we identified the species through morphological and genetic analysis. We selected mt Cox 1 gene region to show their phylogenetic position with closely related spp. and confirmed their molecular validation. The present findings are important to confirm the phylogenetic position and relationship among five nematode spp. and avoid misidentification regarding their validation, as it is more necessary in that case when many species harbours the same host. PMID:26339150

  19. Enterobius vermicularis infection of the liver in a patient with colorectal carcinoma with suspected liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Furnée, Edgar J B; Spoto, Clothaire; de Graaf, Melanie J; Smakman, Niels

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man diagnosed with cT3N2 adenocarcinoma of the rectum presented with a synchronous solitary liver metastasis on CT scan. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was started to downstage the primary tumour. Resection of the rectal tumour followed 3?months after the last radiotherapy session and primary resection of the isolated liver lesion was performed in the intervening period. Histopathological assessment of the liver lesion, however, showed no malignancy, but did reveal a necrotic infection due to Enterobius vermicularis. This parasite is frequently found in the intestines, but only rarely infects the liver. The patient was subsequently treated with the anthelmintic drug mebendazole 100?mg once a week for 2?weeks. Histopathological assessment of the rectal specimen showed complete regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy without evidence of remaining E. vermicularis, suggesting pinworm eradication. The patient recovered promptly after both surgical procedures. PMID:26546623

  20. Passalurus ambiguus: new insights into copromicroscopic diagnosis and circadian rhythm of egg excretion.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Laura; Russo, Tamara; Schioppi, Mariangela; Pennacchio, Saverio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    The present paper reports a study on the in vivo diagnosis and egg excretion rhythm of the pinworm Passalurus ambiguus in domesticated rabbits. Three copromicroscopic techniques were compared: the cellophane tape test, the McMaster technique, and the FLOTAC technique. Out of the 51 New Zealand White rabbit does examined, 42 (82.3%) resulted positive when examined with the FLOTAC technique, 39 (76.5%) with the cellophane tape test, and 29 (56.9%) with the McMaster technique. The agreement between the FLOTAC technique and the cellophane tape test was almost perfect (greater than 0.8); only moderate were the agreements (0.4) between the FLOTAC and the McMaster techniques and between the McMaster technique and the cellophane tape test. The results showed that the FLOTAC technique can be used for the quali-quantitative coprological diagnosis of P. ambiguus in rabbits due to its great sensitivity, as already shown for parasites of other animal species. The circadian rhythm of egg excretion by P. ambiguus was studied utilizing 42 individually caged rabbit does; fecal samples were collected from each cage every 6 h, i.e., at 6:00-12:00 hours, 12:00-18:00 hours, 18:00-24:00 hours, and 24:00-6:00 hours, and were analyzed by the FLOTAC technique. A circadian rhythm of P. ambiguus egg excretion was found, with significant lower values at 6:00-12:00 hours. In conclusion, the present study showed that the FLOTAC technique is the best copromicroscopic method for assessing P. ambiguus prevalence and intensity in rabbits and that the afternoon and evening hours are the best times for fecal sampling to perform the pinworm diagnosis. PMID:17372763

  1. Long-term spatiotemporal stability and dynamic changes in helminth infracommunities of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in NE Poland.

    PubMed

    Grzybek, Maciej; Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Ma?gorzata; Al-Sarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Harris, Philip D; Price, Stephen J; Brown, Gabrielle S; Osborne, Sarah-Jane; Si?ski, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-12-01

    Parasites are considered to be an important selective force in host evolution but ecological studies of host-parasite systems are usually short-term providing only snap-shots of what may be dynamic systems. We have conducted four surveys of helminths of bank voles at three ecologically similar woodland sites in NE Poland, spaced over a period of 11 years, to assess the relative importance of temporal and spatial effects on helminth infracommunities. Some measures of infracommunity structure maintained relative stability: the rank order of prevalence and abundance of Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli and Mastophorus muris changed little between the four surveys. Other measures changed markedly: dynamic changes were evident in Syphacia petrusewiczi which declined to local extinction, while the capillariid Aonchotheca annulosa first appeared in 2002 and then increased in prevalence and abundance over the remaining three surveys. Some species are therefore dynamic and both introductions and extinctions can be expected in ecological time. At higher taxonomic levels and for derived measures, year and host-age effects and their interactions with site are important. Our surveys emphasize that the site of capture is the major determinant of the species contributing to helminth community structure, providing some predictability in these systems. PMID:26442655

  2. The helminth community of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus from the Erro River valley, Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed

    Debenedetti, A L; Sainz-Elipe, S; Sáez-Durán, S; Galicia, D; Imaz, A; Galán-Puchades, M T; Fuentes, M V

    2015-11-01

    The helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, in the Erro River valley (Navarre, Spain) was investigated from a total of 150 mice between February 2001 and July 2002. An overall prevalence of 90.7% was recorded and up to 14 helminth species identified. The most prevalent species was the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus (78.0%), whereas Syphacia stroma was the species with the highest median abundance (19.8). The detection of Calodium hepaticum, Rodentolepis straminea and the larvae of Hydatigera taeniaeformis are significant, since these helminth species could be considered potential human parasites. The helminth infracommunity comprised no more than five species. A significant predominance of monoxenous species was detected. Statistically significant differences were also found between prevalences, helminth abundance, species richness and helminth diversity of sub-populations of the wood mouse determined by host age and season of capture, which agree with most of the studies carried out on this host. This study will shed light on the helminth community of the wood mouse from a region of Spain which has not previously been documented. PMID:25007313

  3. Intestinal parasites among wild rodents in Northern Gangwon-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Il; Pyeon, Hee-Jang; Seo, Min

    2013-10-01

    To determine geographical patterns of natural parasite infections among wild rodents, a total of 46 wild rodents from 3 different localities in northern Gangwon-do (Province), Korea were examined for intestinal parasite infections. Along with nematodes such as hookworms and Syphacia spp., Plagiorchis muris (2 specimens) (Trematoda) were collected from striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius. In a Korean wood mouse, Apodemus peninsulae, the overall nematode infections were similar to A. agrarius, but an adult worm of Echinostoma hortense (Trematoda) was collected. In addition, 2 species of cestodes, i.e., Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta, were collected from A. agrarius. Through this survey, A. agrarius and A. peninsule were confirmed as the natural definite hosts for zoonotic intestinal helminths, i.e., P. muris, E. hortense, H. nana, and H. diminuta, in northern Gangwon-do, Korea. Considering increased leisure activities around these areas, seasonal and further comprehensive surveys on wild rodents seem to be needed to prevent zoonotic parasite infections. PMID:24327791

  4. [Helminth fauna of the bank vole myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780) in the Kizhi Archipelago].

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Korosov, A V; Bespyatova, L A; Ieshko, E P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the specific features of the helminth fauna in insular populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in the north of the species range. The material was collected in and nearby the Kizhi Archipelago (Lake Onega, 62°1' N 35°12' E) during August 1997, 2005-2007, 2012 and 2013. Small mammals were trapped on 23 islands (varying from 2 to 15,000 ha) and on the mainland. Helminthological met- hods were applied to examine 301 specimens of M glareolus. Fourteen helminth species were found: trematodes--Skrjabinoplagiorchis vigisi; cestodes--Paranoplocephala omphalodes, P. gracilis, Catenotaenia henttoneni, Taenia mustelae, Cladotaenia globife- ra, Spirometra erinacei; nematodes--Trichocephalus muris, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Hepaticola hepatica, Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, Longistriata minuta, Syphacia petrusewiczi. The parasites S. vigisi, S. erinaci, H. hepatica and T. muris were identified in the bank vole in Karelia for the first time. Significant differences were detected between the helminth faunas of local insular populations of the bank vole. A distinctive feature of all small islands was that samples from them lacked the widespread pa- rasitic nematode Heligmosomum mixtum. The studies have confirmed the general trends observed in the parasite fauna of most isolated populations of small mammals: a poorer species diversity and high infestation rates with certain species of parasites. The Kizhi Archipelago is characterized by the specific high abundance of regionally rare parasite species (H hepatica, A. murissylvatici), and by the absence of common parasites (H. mixtum, H. glareoli). PMID:26016335

  5. A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined. PMID:25035582

  6. Ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths of southern flying squirrels in southeast Georgia.

    PubMed

    Pung, O J; Durden, L A; Patrick, M J; Conyers, T; Mitchell, L R

    2000-10-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from southeastern Georgia were examined for ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths. Ten species of ectoparasites were recovered, including 3 species of sucking lice (Hoplopleura trispinosa, Microphthirus uncinatus, and Neohaematopinus sciuropteri), 1 species of flea (Orchopeas howardi), 2 species of ticks (Amblyomma maculatum and Ixodes scapularis), 3 species of mesostigmatid mites (Androlaelaps casalis, A. fahrenholzi, and Haemogamasus ambulans), and 1 species of chigger (Leptotrombidium peromysci). Only the sucking lice and fleas were common on this host. M. uncinatus is reported for the first time from eastern North America. The 2 most commonly collected ectoparasites, N. sciuropteri (prevalence = 63%) and O. howardi (prevalence = 47%), have previously been shown to be vectors of the rickettsial zoonotic agent that causes sporadic epidemic typhus. Also, 3 nematodes (Citellinema bifurcatum, Strongyloides robusius, and Syphacia thompsoni), 1 unidentified cestode, and 1 acanthocephalan (Moniliformis clarki) were found in flying squirrel gastrointestinal tracts. With the exception of S. thompsoni, which was common and relatively abundant in the cecum (prevalence = 94%, intensity = 51+/-12), both the prevalence and intensity of helminth parasites were low. The nematode S. thompsoni and the acanthocephalan M. clarki are new state records for tree squirrels in Georgia. PMID:11128479

  7. Diversity of nematodes in the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from the Peripannonic region of Serbia.

    PubMed

    ?abrilo, B; Jovanovi?, V M; Bjeli?-?abrilo, O; Budinski, I; Blagojevi?, J; Vujoševi?, M

    2016-01-01

    Up to six nematode species were identified from 86 specimens of the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from three mountainous localities known as Avala, Cer and Liškovac in Serbia. The highest prevalence of infection of 97% was recorded from Mt. Avala. Only one nematode species, Syphacia frederici, occurred in all three localities. There was complete overlap in nematode species from Mts. Avala and Liškovac, whereas the taxonomic distinctness of Mt. Cer was seen in the presence of the insect-transmitted species Rictularia proni. Locality was a statistically significant factor in all the best-fitted generalized linear models of variation in abundances. The highest level of both species richness and parasite alpha diversity (Shannon's H= 1.47) was found in the easternmost Mt. Liškovac, whereas the diversity indices were lowest for the westernmost Mt. Cer (Shannon's H= 0.48). In view of this geographical difference, the beta diversity indices were calculated along a west to east longitudinal gradient. PMID:25272984

  8. Surveillance of endoparasitic infections and the first report of Physaloptera sp. and Sarcocystis spp. in farm rodents and shrews in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Kwong-Chung; Hsiao, Fun-Chun; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Chou, Chi-Chung; Lee, Wei-Ming; Wang, Kai-Sung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2009-01-01

    A total of 95 rodents and shrews including 82 Rattus norvegicus, 7 Rattus rattus, and 6 Suncus murinus were trapped from different localities of Taichung, Taiwan. The overall prevalence of parasites was 93.7%. The infection rates for R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and S. murinus were 93.9%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively. The rats were infected with four cestodes, Taenia taeniaeformis (48.4%), Hymenolepis diminuta (38.9%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), and Raillietina celebensis (45.3%); ten nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (16.8%), Capillaria hepatica (49.5%), Gongylonema neoplasticum (1.1%), Heterakis spumosa (35.8%), Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (57.9%), Physaloptera sp. (1.1%), Strongyloides ratti (81.1%), Syphacia muris (2.1%), Trichosomoides crassicauda (29.5%), and Trichurus sp. (1.1%), and one protozoan, Sarcocystis spp. (33.7%). Physaloptera sp. from S. murinus and Sarcocystis spp. from both R. norvegicus and R. rattus were reported for the first time in Taiwan. The importances of zoonotic species were discussed. PMID:19194075

  9. A nationwide survey on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the Republic of Korea, 2004.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Huh, Sun; Kong, Yoon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Park, Yun-Kyu; Oh, Dae-Kyu; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2009-03-01

    National surveys on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections have been carried out every 5-7 years since 1971 in the Republic of Korea in order to establish control measures. The present nationwide survey was conducted from June to December 2004. The 10% population sampling data of Population and Housing Census by the Korean government in 2000 was used as the survey population. One sample was selected randomly from each of the 22,858 registered subjects, and a total of 20,541 people were ultimately included in this survey. Fecal examinations were performed by the cellophane thick smear and saturated brine flotation techniques. Pinworm infection was examined by cello-tape anal swab method. This survey also included a questionnaire study for a socioeconomic analysis. The total helminth egg positive rate was 3.7%, and the estimated total positive number among nationwide people was 1,780,000. The rates in urban and rural areas were 3.1% and 6.8%, respectively. As the total egg positive rate in the 6th survey in 1997 was 2.4%, the present survey showed that there was a considerable degree of increase in the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections over the 7-year period following the 6th survey. The largest increases occurred in the egg positive rates of Clonorchis sinensis and heterophyids including Metagonimus yokogawai. PMID:19290090

  10. Evaluation of two fecal examination techniques for detection of Trypanoxyuris spp. infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae).

    PubMed

    Bentzel, David E; Lescano, Andrés G; Lucas, Carmen; Bacon, David J

    2007-09-01

    Infections of Trypanoxyuris spp. pinworms in Aotus nancymae and other New World primates are typically subclinical, but infection during experimental use could confound interpretation of experimental data. Further, Trypanoxyuris species are highly infective, and rapid diagnosis is important to prevent an outbreak in the animal colony. This study sought to determine whether a fecal flotation technique was sensitive enough to replace the perianal tape test for diagnosis of Trypanoxyuris spp., thereby reducing stress to the animal and sample collection time. On days 0 and 3, we collected fecal samples from 45 animals confirmed to be infected with Trypanoxyuris spp. by perianal tape testing. Fecal samples were evaluated by both a commercial analysis system and by sucrose flotation with centrifugation. For both detection methods, no significant difference in sensitivity was detected between tests conducted on day 0 versus day 3. The sensitivity of repeated commercial tests was 80%, significantly higher than the 60% for sucrose flotation. The commercial test was significantly more sensitive than sucrose flotation, indicating that the commercial system was a better method for detecting Trypanoxyuris spp. However, sensitivity of only 80% confers a considerable risk of false negatives, thereby potentially delaying treatment and further contributing to environmental contamination. In our opinion, neither method of fecal analysis was a suitable replacement for the perianal tape test to diagnose Trypanoxyuris spp. in owl monkeys. PMID:17877329

  11. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.

    PubMed

    Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  12. Ozone-induced changes in host-plant suitability: interactions of Keiferia lycopersicella and Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, J.T.; Hare, J.D.; Musselman, R.C.; McCool, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Tomato pinworms, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), survived better and developed faster on tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., damaged by ozone than on plants not subjected to ozone fumigation. Other measures of fitness, including survival during pupation, sex ratio of adults, female longevity, and fecundity, were not affected. Analyses of ozonated foliage at zero, two and seven days following fumigation demonstrated a transient but significant increase (18-24%) in soluble protein concentration. Although the concentration of the total free amino acids in ozonated foliage did not increase significantly, significant changes were observed in at least 10 specific amino acids, some of which are critical for either insect development or the production of plant defensive chemicals. A reduction in total nitrogen in ozonated foliage at seven days postfumigation indicated that nitrogen was being translocated to other portions of the plant. The implications of increases in assimilable forms of nitrogen in ozonated foliage, which lead to improved host-plant suitability for insect herbivores, are discussed both in relation to some current ecological theories and in regard to pest-management strategies. 59 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  13. The New Method Developed for Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity by Housefly Worms and Compared with Conventional Earthworm Method

    PubMed Central

    Murugamani, V.; Raju, L.; Anand Raj, V. Baskar; Sarma kataki, Manjir; Sankar, G. Girija

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of any drug when carried out in laboratory conditions by using the isolated worms from nature cannot be adaptable with artificial laboratory conditions. Therefore, the present study aims at developing a new adaptable method for evaluation of anthelmintic activity. The present anthelmintic activity study reveals a new methodology with housefly worms cultured in laboratory conditions that resemble parasitic pinworms found in human being. We studied the anthelmintic activities of various drugs on housefly worms and earthworms. The results showed that the housefly worms had taken more time for paralysis and death. Even after paralysis the time taken for death is more in housefly worms in spite of smaller size and lesser weight of the worms compared to earthworms. The study concluded that the earthworms have not adapted to the artificial laboratory conditions leading to erratic results. Therefore, culturing of housefly worms was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity and found an easy, prominent, eco-friendly, and reproducible method in all aspects such as equal age, size, and weight of worms used for the experiment. PMID:22530145

  14. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  15. Pruritus in rabbits, rodents, and ferrets.

    PubMed

    Timm, K I

    1988-09-01

    This article attempts to cover the more specific pruritic problems encountered in rabbits, rodents, and ferrets. There are certainly other causes of pruritus in these animals. Dermatophytes in guinea pigs are not reported to be pruritic, but because they are pruritic in other species, they should be considered in a differential diagnosis. A cryptococcal dermatitis in a guinea pig that was pruritic has been reported. Although mites were not seen on scraping, the animal was treated for sarcoptid mites and apparently the pruritus lessened. Because the cryptococcis was still present, it is questionable whether it was causing the pruritus. Pruritic ulcerative dermatitis over the back and shoulders has been seen in some lines of rats. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from many of the lesions. Clipping the toenails on the feet helped lessen the severity of the lesions. Syphacia spp. have been reported in rats, gerbils, and hamsters and should be considered if there is perineal pruritus. MOBS, or "move over buddy syndrome," is seen especially in mice and may be seen in hamsters, gerbils, and rats that are overcrowded or stressed. The lesions are actually bite wounds that have been inflicted around the tail base and the perineum and on the tail, but these wounds can be mistaken for self-inflicted trauma from pruritus. All of the recommended treatments are extralabel, and clients should be informed of this. I have observed a guinea pig become lethargic and anorexic after only one application of a flea powder approved for use in cats. Brushing most of the powder off and offering dandelion greens to stimulate appetite helped. The second dusting was done with the same flea powder diluted with baby powder. Whenever these animals are dipped, it is important to let them dry in a warm, draft-free area. Again, it is important to be aware that the ratio of surface area to body weight is much higher in these small animals than in the species routinely seen in veterinary practice especially to prevent toxicoses from topically applied medications and iatrogenic hypothermia or hyperthermia. PMID:3055647

  16. Tribendimidine: Mode of Action and nAChR Subtype Selectivity in Ascaris and Oesophagostomum

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Alan P.; Puttachary, Sreekanth; Buxton, Samuel K.; Martin, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The cholinergic class of anthelmintic drugs is used for the control of parasitic nematodes. One of this class of drugs, tribendimidine (a symmetrical diamidine derivative, of amidantel), was developed in China for use in humans in the mid-1980s. It has a broader-spectrum anthelmintic action against soil-transmitted helminthiasis than other cholinergic anthelmintics, and is effective against hookworm, pinworms, roundworms, and Strongyloides and flatworm of humans. Although molecular studies on C. elegans suggest that tribendimidine is a cholinergic agonist that is selective for the same nematode muscle nAChR as levamisole, no direct electrophysiological observations in nematode parasites have been made to test this hypothesis. Also the hypothesis that levamisole and tribendimine act on the same receptor, does not explain why tribendimidine is effective against some nematode parasites when levamisole is not. Here we examine the effects of tribendimidine on the electrophysiology and contraction of Ascaris suum body muscle and show that tribendimidine produces depolarization antagonized by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, and that tribendimidine is an agonist of muscle nAChRs of parasitic nematodes. Further pharmacological characterization of the nAChRs activated by tribendimidine in our Ascaris muscle contraction assay shows that tribendimidine is not selective for the same receptor subtypes as levamisole, and that tribendimidine is more selective for the B-subtype than the L-subtype of nAChR. In addition, larval migration inhibition assays with levamisole-resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum isolates show that tribendimidine is as active on a levamisole-resistant isolate as on a levamisole-sensitive isolate, suggesting that the selectivity for levamisole and tribendimidine is not the same. It is concluded that tribendimidine can activate a different population of nematode parasite nAChRs than levamisole, and is more like bephenium. The different nAChR subtype selectivity of tribendimidine may explain why the spectrum of action of tribendimidine is different to that of other cholinergic anthelmintics like levamisole. PMID:25679515

  17. Biological control strategies for the South American tomato moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Tomas; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Vila, Enric; Del Pino, Modesto; Hernandez-Suarez, Estrella

    2012-12-01

    The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been introduced into new geographic areas, including the Mediterranean region, where it has become a serious threat to tomato production. Three greenhouse trials conducted in tomato crops during 2009 and 2010 explored control strategies using the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti compared with chemical control. The effectiveness of the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) was also tested. In greenhouses with early pest infestations (discrete generations), periodic inundative releases (eight releases at a rate of 50 adults/m2, twice a week) were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (85.63 +/- 5.70%) early in the growing season. However, only one inoculative release (100 adults/m2) was sufficient to achieve a comparatively high parasitism level (91.03 +/- 12.58%) under conditions of high pest incidence and overlapping generations. Some intraguild competition was observed between T. achaeae and the predator, N. tenuis. This mirid species is commonly used in Mediterranean greenhouse tomato crops for the control of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Tomato cultivars were also observed to influence the activity of natural enemies, mainly N. tenuis (whose average numbers ranged between 0.17 +/- 0.03 and 0.41 +/- 0.05 nymphs per leaf depending on the cultivar). This may be because of differences in plant nutrients in different cultivars, which may affect the feeding of omnivorous insects. In contrast, cultivar effects on T. achaeae were less apparent or possibly nonexistent. Nevertheless, there was an indirect effect in as much as T. achaeae was favored in cultivars not liked by N. tenuis. PMID:23356074

  18. The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S

    2001-02-01

    Even though Mg is by far the least abundant serum electrolyte, it is extremely important for the metabolism of Ca, K, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Na, Pb, Cd, HCl, acetylcholine, and nitric oxide (NO), for many enzymes, for the intracellular homeostasis and for activation of thiamine and therefore, for a very wide gamut of crucial body functions. Unfortunately, Mg absorption and elimination depend on a very large number of variables, at least one of which often goes awry, leading to a Mg deficiency that can present with many signs and symptoms. Mg absorption requires plenty of Mg in the diet, Se, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamins B6 and D. Furthermore, it is hindered by excess fat. On the other hand, Mg levels are decreased by excess ethanol, salt, phosphoric acid (sodas) and coffee intake, by profuse sweating, by intense, prolonged stress, by excessive menstruation and vaginal flux, by diuretics and other drugs and by certain parasites (pinworms). The very small probability that all the variables affecting Mg levels will behave favorably, results in a high probability of a gradually intensifying Mg deficiency. It is highly regrettable that the deficiency of such an inexpensive, low-toxicity nutrient result in diseases that cause incalculable suffering and expense throughout the world. The range of pathologies associated with Mg deficiency is staggering: hypertension (cardiovascular disease, kidney and liver damage, etc.), peroxynitrite damage (migraine, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, etc.), recurrent bacterial infection due to low levels of nitric oxide in the cavities (sinuses, vagina, middle ear, lungs, throat, etc.), fungal infections due to a depressed immune system, thiamine deactivation (low gastric acid, behavioral disorders, etc.), premenstrual syndrome, Ca deficiency (osteoporosis, hypertension, mood swings, etc.), tooth cavities, hearing loss, diabetes type II, cramps, muscle weakness, impotence (lack of NO), aggression (lack of NO), fibromas, K deficiency (arrhythmia, hypertension, some forms of cancer), Fe accumulation, etc. Finally, because there are so many variables involved in the Mg metabolism, evaluating the effect of Mg in many diseases has frustrated many researchers who have simply tried supplementation with Mg, without undertaking the task of ensuring its absorption and preventing excessive elimination, rendering the study of Mg deficiency much more difficult than for most other nutrients. PMID:11425281