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1

Pinworms  

MedlinePLUS

Pinworms are small worms that infect the intestines. ... Pinworms are the most common worm infection in the United States. They are most common in school-age children. Pinworm eggs are spread directly from person to ...

2

Pinworm Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... with the sticky side of a piece of transparent cellophane tape. Your healthcare provider will then put ... the ways that you and your children can prevent becoming infected or reinfected with pinworms include Bathing ...

3

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

4

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

5

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

6

Exposure to Chlorine Dioxide Gas for 4 Hours Renders Syphacia Ova Nonviable  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. PMID:25199091

Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

2014-01-01

7

Efficacy and security of ivermectin given orally to rats naturally infected with Syphacia spp., Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana.  

PubMed

The results of this study show that the oral administration of ivermectin (48?mg/L) repeatedly for 72?h used in accordance with the present protocol is a safe and highly effective treatment for Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana in laboratory rat colonies. The drug can be easily and safely administered using drinking water. This simple regimen should control pinworm infection (Syphacia muris), a problem that can be endemic in laboratory colonies. Experiments using healthy animals are likely to generate more consistent results, thereby requiring a reduced number of animals per group. PMID:25480657

Foletto, Vrs; Vanz, F; Gazarini, L; Stern, Caj; Tonussi, Cr

2014-12-01

8

21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used for the treatment of Syphacia obvelata (pinworm) in laboratory mice. (2) It is administered in distilled water as sole source of drinking water continuously for 7 to 14 days at 1.67...

2011-04-01

9

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

2013-07-01

10

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

2011-07-01

11

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

2010-07-01

12

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

2012-07-01

13

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

...2014-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement...of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E...

2014-07-01

14

A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.  

PubMed

Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini. PMID:24995650

Robles, María del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

2014-11-01

15

Impaired intestinal electrolyte transport in rats infested with the common parasite Syphacia muris.  

PubMed

An incidentally discovered infestation with the nematode Syphacia muris of cecum and colon in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive control (WKY) rats was investigated over a two-year period. Infestation rates in WKY were higher than in SHR, while clinical signs as well as histological changes of colonic tissues were absent in both strains. In vivo net water absorption (microliter/hr/cm2) in control worm-free SHR turned into secretion in infested rats, ie, from 74.2 +/- 23.2 to -7.5 +/- 35.0 (P less than 0.001); this corresponded with a decrease in net absorption (mumol/hr/cm2) of Na from 18.5 +/- 2.4 to 9.3 +/- 4.3 (P less than 0.001) and of Cl from 14.0 +/- 3.2 to 3.2 +/- 5.7 (P less than 0.001). In WKY, net water absorption decreased from 112.2 +/- 23.2 to 48.0 +/- 25.1 (P less than 0.001) and Na and Cl absorption from 22.3 +/- 3.1 to 16.0 +/- 4.2 (P less than 0.005) and from 19.4 +/- 2.7 to 10.9 +/- 4.7 (P less than 0.005), respectively. Antihelminthic treatment with 0.007% pyrvinium pamoate in the ration (four weeks on, six months off) eradicated Syphacia muris in both rat strains. Body weight gain of young rats on normal and pyrvinium pamoate-substituted diet studied over 18 months was similar, indicating a good tolerance of the treatment. It is concluded that results obtained during comparative intestinal transport studies between SHR and WKY may not only be impaired but also significantly distorted by Syphacia muris infestation as SHR appear to be more susceptible to effects induced by this common parasite than WKY. PMID:1728532

Lübcke, R; Hutcheson, F A; Barbezat, G O

1992-01-01

16

Evaluation of some plants used in Turkish folk medicine against parasitic infections for their in vivo anthelmintic activity.  

PubMed

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from nine plant species from seven families selected depending on their use in Turkish folk medicine, including Citrillus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. (seed), Jasminum fruticans L. (branches), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (fruits), Juniperus nana L. (fruit and leaves), Juniperus oxcycedrus L (fruit and leaves), Mentha longifolia L. (herba), Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Richt. (fruits), Plantago lanceolata L. (leaves), and Zea mays L. (seed) were evaluated for their in vivo anthelmintic activity. Among the plant extracts studied, both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Jasminum fruticans, Mentha longifolia and Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana, the aqueous extracts of Zea mays, the ethanolic extracts of Citrillus lanatus, Juniperus drupacea (fruit), Juniperus oxcycedrus and Plantago lanceolata displayed significant anthelmintic activity against pinworms, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, in mice. Rest of the extracts from plants did not show any remarkable anthelmintic activity. The results were considered significant at p<0.05. PMID:16790330

Kozan, Esma; Küpeli, Esra; Yesilada, Erdem

2006-11-24

17

Host specificity shapes population structure of pinworm parasites in Caribbean reptiles.  

PubMed

Host specificity is one of the potential factors affecting parasite diversification because gene flow may be facilitated or constrained by the number of host species that a parasite can exploit. We test this hypothesis using a costructure approach, comparing two sympatric pinworm parasites that differ in host specificity - Parapharyngodon cubensis and Spauligodon anolis - on the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix in the Caribbean. Spauligodon anolis specializes on Anolis lizards, whereas P. cubensis parasitizes Anolis lizards as well as many other species of lizards and snakes. We collected lizards from across the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix, sampled them for S. anolis and P. cubensis and generated nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from the parasites. We used these data to show that P. cubensis is comprised of multiple cryptic species that exhibit limited population structure relative to S. anolis, which is consistent with our prediction based on their host specificity. We also provide evidence that the distribution of P. cubensis species is maintained by competitive exclusion, and in contrast to previous theoretical work, the parasites with the greatest number of host species also reach the highest prevalence rates. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that host specificity shapes parasite diversification, and suggest that even moderate differences in host specificity may contribute to substantial differences in diversification. PMID:23848187

Falk, Bryan G; Perkins, Susan L

2013-09-01

18

The systematics and evolution of pinworms (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from invertebrates.  

PubMed

The nematode order Oxyurida is unique in including species for which definitive host ranges are broad and may include vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. The superfamily Thelastomatoidea is a highly diverse assemblage of oxyurids occurring in cockroaches, diplopods, hydrophilid beetles, passalid beetles, several other coleopteran larvae, mole crickets, and, with few representative species documented, other arthropod hosts. Published research and revision of the Thelastomatoidea, particularly in the 1980s and 1990s, provided several interesting hypotheses on the systematics and evolution of this group. In this review, these hypotheses are examined in the context of recent advances in taxonomy, discovery of additional species diversity and distribution, and preliminary phylogenetic hypotheses that have been proposed. There continues to remain a paucity of phylogenetic data that explore the phylogenetic relationships of the Thelastomatoidea and their relationships to vertebrate-parasitizing pinworms. A combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences for representative species across all of the major lineages will be important for more robust phylogenetic hypotheses. Much broader geographical and host taxon sampling is necessary to determine true diversity of the Thelastomatoidea. Modern approaches to species descriptions, such as improvements in light and scanning electron microscopy and the use of molecular approaches to matching male and female nematodes, can also be applied to improve our understanding of the evolution of these fascinating parasites. PMID:24842083

Carreno, Ramon A

2014-10-01

19

Why museums matter: a tale of pinworms (Oxyuroidea: Heteroxynematidae) among pikas (Ochotona princeps and O. collaris) in the American west.  

PubMed

Permanent and well-supported museum or natural history collections provide a solid foundation for the process of systematics research through creation of an empirical record which validates our understanding of the biosphere. We explore the role of museums in ongoing studies of the complex helminth fauna characteristic of pikas (Ochotona spp.) in the American west. These studies address the taxonomy for pinworms of the Labiostomatinae and the problems associated with the absence of adequate type series and vouchers and with misidentifications in original descriptions. We demonstrate that the types for Labiostomum (Labiostomum) coloradensis are identical to some specimens in the syntype series representing L. (Eugenuris) utahensis, although the published descriptions are in disagreement. Both are identical to L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris and, as a consequence, are reduced as junior synonyms. Only 2 species of large pinworms, namely L. (Labiostomum) rauschi and L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris, are widely distributed in Ochotona collaris and O. princeps. Although this serves to clarify the taxonomy for species in these genera, prior records remain confused, as representative voucher specimens from all major surveys in North America were never submitted to museum collections. We strongly suggest that type and voucher series should not be held in private or personal collections, where such are eventually lost, discarded, or destroyed through neglect due to inattention and the absence of curation. The potential to accumulate meaningful baselines for assessment of environmental change is jeopardized if materials from survey and inventory are not routinely submitted to museum collections. The capacity of museum repositories, as a focus for systematics, ecology, and evolutionary studies and for the development of resources for biodiversity informatics, continues to be undervalued and poorly utilized by a cadre of scientists who are dependant on accurate and definitive information that transcends specific disciplines. PMID:19593896

Hoberg, E P; Pilitt, P A; Galbreath, K E

2009-04-01

20

Phylogenetic relationships between pinworms (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) parasitising the critically endangered orang-utan, according to the characterisation of molecular genomic and mitochondrial markers.  

PubMed

Pinworms (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) include 52 species parasitising primates throughout the world. In the present study, we performed the first ever molecular analysis to investigate the phylogenetic position of recently described pinworms parasitising the Sumatran orang-utan. The phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial CO1 and chromosomal 18S rDNA and ITS1 regions could support the independent status of several Nematoda species. Our molecular data clearly suggest that Enterobius (Colobenterobius) buckleyi and Lemuricola (Protenterobius) pongoi together with Pongobius hugoti form separate clades among other studied species, which significantly supports the hypothesis of recently described new species parasitising the orang-utan (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus). The phylogenetic tree based on cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene variability showed possible close relationships between L. (Protenterobius) pongoi and P. hugoti; thus, we can assume that these species could have initially diverged in sympatry from a common ancestor. PMID:24880237

Foitová, Ivona; Civá?ová, Kristína; Baruš, Vlastimil; Nurcahyo, Wisnu

2014-07-01

21

Assessing European Egg Parasitoids as a Mean of Controlling the Invasive South American Tomato Pinworm Tuta absoluta  

PubMed Central

The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

22

Correlation between the occurrence of mites (Demodex spp.) and nematodes in house mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gdaæsk urban agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-infection of house mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758) with skin mites and helminths was studied. Intensity of their infection with skin mites (Demodex arvicolae musculi Oudemans, 1897 and D. flagellurus Bukva, 1985) was found to be proportional to their infection with the nematode Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802).

JOANNA N. IZDEBSKA; LESZEK ROLBIECKI

23

Total IgE as a Serodiagnostic Marker to Aid Murine Fur Mite Detection  

PubMed Central

Mites of 3 genera—Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia—continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

2012-01-01

24

An Ecological Study of Helminths of Some Wyoming Voles (Microtus spp.) with a Description of a New Species of Nematospiroides (Heligmosomidae: Nematoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological and taxonomic study of the helminth parasites of voles (Microtus spp.) in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming is reported.\\u000aNematospiroides microti n. sp. from Microtus montanus nanus and M. richardsoni macropus is described and figured.\\u000aA cestode, Paranoplocephala infrequens, and a nematode, Syphacia obvelata, were generally distributed throughout the region in all habitats except the sage flats.

Merle L. Kuns; Robert L. Rausch

1950-01-01

25

Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites biodiversity of Rattus rattus trapped from Khan Younis and Jabalia in Gaza strip, Palestine.  

PubMed

This study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of Rattus rattus. A total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and Norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of Gaza strip. After dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. The results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. A high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to other seasons. The intestinal parasites were encountered: G. lamblia 6 (14.6%); E. histolytica/dispar 7 (17.1%); Isospora 4 (9.8%); Acanthocephala 1 (2.4%); Syphacia obvelata 6 (20%); Heligmonoides josephi 3(10%); Strongyloides egg 1 (2.4%); Hymenolepis diminuta 15 (36.6%). The insects were Xenopsylla cheopis 7 (17.1%); Polyplax spinulosa 3 (7.3%). PMID:23697031

Al Hindi, Adnan Ibrahim; Abu-Haddaf, Eman

2013-04-01

26

Rodents, their seasonal activity, ecto- and blood-parasites in Saint Catherine area, South Sinai Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

Rodents are on the top of animal reservoirs of zoonotic parasites. Five species of wild rodents were trapped on monthly base from Saint Catherine area. The highest trap index was 0.5 in May and the lowest was zero in December, January and February. The dominant rodents were Acomys c. dimidiatus followed by Dipodillus d. dasyurus and then A. r. russatus. Sporadic numbers of Sekeetamys c. calurus (3) and Eliomys. qu. melanurus (2) were collected. The ectoparasites in a descending order of abundance were mites (45.6%), lice (30.3%) and then fleas (24.1%). The most abundant ectoparasites among the three groups were Polyplax spinulosa (lice). Allodermanyssus sanguineus (mites), and Xenopsylla dipodilli (fleas). Leishmania amastigotes and Babesia microti were detected in Acomys. Also, one pregnant female A. c. dimidiatus was infected with a nematode parasite, Syphacia obvelata. The results were discussed on the light of the previous work. PMID:9914704

el-Kady, G A; Makled, K M; Morsy, T A; Morsy, Z S

1998-12-01

27

A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) in Kermanshah, Iran  

PubMed Central

Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%), 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%), and five Rattus rattus (4.00%). The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%), Syphacia obvelata (13.76%), Syphacia muris (2.89%), Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%), Heterakis spumosa (5.07%), Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%), Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%), and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%). Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

Pakdel, Norollah; Naem, Soraya; Rezaei, Farid; Chalehchaleh, Abdol-Ali

2013-01-01

28

[Helminths of some laboratory animals detected by necropsy and fecal examination].  

PubMed

A study was performed in order to determine helminths of laboratory animals. Fecal specimens obtained from 110 mice, 263 rats and 65 rabbits were investigated and 37 rats and 7 rabbits were necropsied. In general, 83.8% rats were found to be infected by necropsy, while 100% of mice,and 81.8% of rats were found to be infected with one or more helminths species by fecal examination. No rabbits were found to be infected by necropsy or fecal examination. In fecal examination of mice and rats, the prevalence of helminths was detected as follows: Syphacia muris, 100%; Aspicularis tetraptera, 53.6%; Syphacia obvelata, 46.4%; and Hymenolepis diminuta 17.9% in mice. The prevalence in rats was H. Diminuta, 62.5%; S. muris, 25%; Hymenolepis nana, 6.8%; and Trichosomoides crassicauda, 6.8%. In necropsy, S. muris was identified in all of infected rats, but only one was infected with A. tetraptera. PMID:20597054

Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükba?, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

2010-01-01

29

Microbiological quality assessment of laboratory mice in Korea and recommendations for quality improvement.  

PubMed

Regular monitoring of commercial laboratory rodents and institutional research animal residents is essential for microbiological quality control programs. The objective of our study was to investigate the recent prevalence of infectious pathogens in laboratory mice from eight experimental animal vendors and 56 institutional animal facilities in Korea. Our investigation was conducted in 2006-2007. Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) mice from four commercial breeders were clean according to serological, bacteriological, parasitological, and histopathological examination results. However, mice from one intermediate vendor that distributed SPF animals from main commercial vendors to local districts had Syphacia obvelata and Mycoptes musculinus infections. Additionally, mice from conventional animal breeders were highly contaminated. Among the 56 institutional animal facilities, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus and Mycoplasma pulmonis positive results were obtained in 23.2, 8.9, and 1.8% of animals tested, respectively. These results indicate that quarantine and eradication efforts of infectious pathogens in these facilities are sub-optimal and need to be improved. The use of commercial conventional mice for research should be eliminated and appropriate vendor selection as well as thorough quarantine before releasing animals into a facility are needed. Finally we suggest qualified veterinary experts are needed at each animal facility to ensure an adequate health surveillance program. PMID:20224167

Na, Yi-Rang; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Lee, Hui-Young; Baek, Min-Won; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Park, Jae-Hak

2010-01-01

30

Prevalence of viral antibodies and helminths in field populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) in southeastern Australia.  

PubMed Central

A 13-month study of wild mice (Mus domesticus) in wheatlands in southeastern Australia contrasted changes in the seroprevalence of antibody to 13 viruses and the occurrence of helminths with changes in their population dynamics. Mice were seropositive for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), rotavirus, minute virus of mice (MVM), mouse adenovirus (MAdV), reovirus (reo 3), and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The seroprevalences of all but rotavirus varied significantly with time and increased with host density. Near the end of the study, host density declined rapidly and the seroprevalence of MVM and reo 3 increased significantly. These two viruses had low seroprevalence when host survival was high and high seroprevalence when host survival was low, indicating they may play a role in regulating mouse populations. In the case of MVM, there was evidence of a viral epizootic during the decline in mouse abundance. The prevalence of four helminths (Taenia taeniaeformis, Syphacia obvelata, and Vampirolepis spp.) differed significantly with time but showed no apparent association with host density. These findings highlight the need for further study on the effect of viruses on the population dynamics of mice. PMID:8472782

Singleton, G. R.; Smith, A. L.; Shellam, G. R.; Fitzgerald, N.; Müller, W. J.

1993-01-01

31

Repurposing the FDA-Approved Pinworm Drug Pyrvinium as a Novel Chemotherapeutic Agent for Intestinal Polyposis  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the WNT-pathway regulator ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI (APC) promote aberrant activation of the WNT pathway that is responsible for APC-associated diseases such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and 85% of spontaneous colorectal cancers (CRC). FAP is characterized by multiple intestinal adenomas, which inexorably result in CRC. Surprisingly, given their common occurrence, there are few effective chemotherapeutic drugs for FAP. Here we show that the FDA-approved, anti-helminthic drug Pyrvinium attenuates the growth of WNT-dependent CRC cells and does so via activation of CK1?. Furthermore, we show that Pyrvinium can function as an in vivo inhibitor of WNT-signaling and polyposis in a mouse model of FAP: APCmin mice. Oral administration of Pyrvinium, a CK1? agonist, attenuated the levels of WNT-driven biomarkers and inhibited adenoma formation in APCmin mice. Considering its well-documented safe use for treating enterobiasis in humans, our findings suggest that Pyrvinium could be repurposed for the clinical treatment of APC-associated polyposes. PMID:25003333

Giambelli, Camilla; Fei, Dennis Liang; Han, Lu; Hang, Brian I.; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Nose, Vania; Burlingame, Oname; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Orton, Darren; Lee, Ethan; Robbins, David J.

2014-01-01

32

FLOTAC for diagnosis of endo-parasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the occurrence of endoparasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 50 asymptomatic pet squirrels belonging to five different species (Callosciurus finlaysonii, n=6, C. prevosti, n=6; Tamias striatus, n=26, T. sibiricus, n=10; Sciurus carolinensis, n=2) housed both in pet shops and/or in private residences. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, to detect Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. the samples were analyzed by the Remel Xpect(®) immunoassay. Helminth eggs were detected in 9 out of 50 squirrels. Specifically, eggs of Dicrocoelium dendriticum were found in 5 squirrels (C. finlaysonii, n=2; C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); eggs of the pinworm Syphacia spp. in 3 squirrels (C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); and eggs of gastrointestinal nematoda (Nippostrongylus-like) were found in 1 subject (C. prevosti). Finally, two squirrels (C. prevosti) had multiple parasitic infections with D. dendriticum and Capillaria hepatica, and with D. dendriticum and Strongyloides spp., respectively. None of the samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia spp. or any other protozoa (e.g. Eimeria). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a D. dendriticum natural infection in pet rodents. PMID:24389007

d'Ovidio, D; Rinaldi, L; Ianniello, D; Donnelly, T M; Pepe, P; Capasso, M; Cringoli, G

2014-02-24

33

21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...body weight. (2) Indications for use. Treatment of infections of large strongyles (genus Strongylus ), small strongyles...Poteriostomum ), pinworms (Oxyuris ), threadworms (Strongyloides ), and ascarids (Parascaris ) in horses. (3)...

2010-04-01

34

Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions in Norwegian children.  

PubMed

Studies investigating the association between Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions have shown conflicting results. This study was conducted to test for any such associations in Norwegian children. Parents were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their children's history of allergies, wheezing or eczema and pinworm infections. Current pinworm infections were diagnosed by microscopic examination of anal scotch tape samples. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Atopic eczema, allergy or wheezing was reported to be confirmed by a physician in 23% of the children (84/364). A possible association between current pinworm infections and food allergy was found, with 17·5% of children without food allergy testing positive for pinworms, compared to 36·8% of children with food allergy (odds ratio 2·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1-8·0). No association was found between past pinworm treatments and present atopic conditions. The association between current E. vermicularis infections and food allergy warrants further study. PMID:24331127

Bøås, H; Tapia, G; Rasmussen, T; Rønningen, K S

2014-10-01

35

A Key to Common Caterpillar Pests of Vegetables  

E-print Network

This publication is an aid to identifying caterpillar pests. There are detailed drawings, color photos, and an illustrated identification key. Depicted are fall armyworm, cabbage looper, saltmarsh caterpillar, tomato pinworm, parsley worm and many...

Sparks Jr., Alton N.; Liu, Tong-Xian

2001-08-10

36

21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...capitatus ; and Petrovinema poculatus ; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4 larval stages); pinworms:...

2012-04-01

37

21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

...capitatus ; and Petrovinema poculatus ; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4 larval stages); pinworms:...

2014-04-01

38

21 CFR 520.903b - Febantel suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...removal of ascarids (Parascaris equorum —adult and sexually immature), pinworms (Oxyuris equi —adult and 4th stage larvae), large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus ), and the various small strongyles in...

2011-04-01

39

21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...capitatus ; and Petrovinema poculatus ; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4 larval stages); pinworms:...

2013-04-01

40

21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...capitatus ; and Petrovinema poculatus ; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4 larval stages); pinworms:...

2010-04-01

41

21 CFR 520.903b - Febantel suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...removal of ascarids (Parascaris equorum —adult and sexually immature), pinworms (Oxyuris equi —adult and 4th stage larvae), large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus ), and the various small strongyles in...

2010-04-01

42

21 CFR 520.903b - Febantel suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...removal of ascarids (Parascaris equorum —adult and sexually immature), pinworms (Oxyuris equi —adult and 4th stage larvae), large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus ), and the various small strongyles in...

2012-04-01

43

21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.  

...Petrovinema poculatum ; Small Strongyles (fourth-stage larvae); Pinworms (adults and fourth stage larvae): Oxyuris equi ; Ascarids (adults and third- and fourth-stage larvae): Parascaris equorum ; Hairworms (adults):...

2014-04-01

44

21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...capitatus ; and Petrovinema poculatus ; small strongyles: undifferentiated lumenal larvae; encysted cyathostomes (late L3 and L4 mucosal cyathostome larvae); ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adults and L4 larval stages); pinworms:...

2012-04-01

45

21 CFR 520.903b - Febantel suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...removal of ascarids (Parascaris equorum —adult and sexually immature), pinworms (Oxyuris equi —adult and 4th stage larvae), large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus ), and the various small strongyles in...

2013-04-01

46

21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Petrovinema poculatum ; Small Strongyles (fourth-stage larvae); Pinworms (adults and fourth stage larvae): Oxyuris equi ; Ascarids (adults and third- and fourth-stage larvae): Parascaris equorum ; Hairworms (adults):...

2012-04-01

47

21 CFR 520.903b - Febantel suspension.  

...removal of ascarids (Parascaris equorum —adult and sexually immature), pinworms (Oxyuris equi —adult and 4th stage larvae), large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus ), and the various small strongyles in...

2014-04-01

48

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

2010-04-01

49

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

2014-04-01

50

21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.  

...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G....

2014-04-01

51

21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); and horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G ....

2013-04-01

52

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

2011-04-01

53

21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); and horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G ....

2011-04-01

54

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

2013-04-01

55

21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adults and L4 larval stages); hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adults); large-mouth stomach worms: Habronema muscae (adults); horse stomach bots: Gasterophilus intestinalis (2nd and 3rd instars) and G ....

2011-04-01

56

21 CFR 520.1628 - Oxfendazole powder and pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...kilogram of body weight. (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in horses for removal of the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), mature and immature pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), large strongyles...

2012-04-01

57

21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...i) 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight as single oral dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , S. equinus ); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris...

2013-04-01

58

21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.  

...i) 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight as single oral dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , S. equinus ); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris...

2014-04-01

59

42 CFR 493.19 - Provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section), waived tests and no others: (1) All direct wet mount preparations for the presence or absence of bacteria, fungi, parasites, and human cellular elements. (2) All potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations. (3) Pinworm...

2013-10-01

60

42 CFR 493.19 - Provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...section), waived tests and no others: (1) All direct wet mount preparations for the presence or absence of bacteria, fungi, parasites, and human cellular elements. (2) All potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations. (3) Pinworm...

2011-10-01

61

42 CFR 493.19 - Provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...section), waived tests and no others: (1) All direct wet mount preparations for the presence or absence of bacteria, fungi, parasites, and human cellular elements. (2) All potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations. (3) Pinworm...

2012-10-01

62

J. Parasitol., 89(2), 2003, pp. 299308 American Society of Parasitologists 2003  

E-print Network

included in the genus Syphacia in the structure of the cephalic mask and copulatory organs in the orna- mentation of the mamelons and the shape of cephalic mask. A redescription of N. rodentophilus The Yungas is an ecological transition zone that includes habitats ranging from high-altitude puna to low-altitude

Jiménez, F. Agustín

63

Diagnostic Structures of Intestinal Helminths: Enterobius vermicularis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The figure shows an Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) egg found in a feces sample. Generally the ovum measures 50 to 60 üm long by 20 to 40 üm wide. The figure is of an embryonated ovum, flattened on one side, with a thin colorless shell.

Javier Gutierrez Jimenez (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas ;); P. Ramirez-Cobaxin (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas ;Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas); J.A. Hernandez-Shilon (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas ;Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas)

2011-06-17

64

Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

Bower, Wilma; And Others

1986-01-01

65

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

66

The helminthic parasites of rodents in Dakahlia Governorate, with reference to their Egyptian helminth fauna.  

PubMed

No doubt, rodents are among the most important reservoirs of zoonotic diseases. This paper aimed to survey the helminth fauna of the different species of rodents in Dakahlia Governorate. Eight species of rodents were encountered in the different centers examined. A total of fifteen species of helminthic parasites were found. They belong to four classes: Trematoda five species: H. heterophyes, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, S. tridactyla and E. callawayensis, Cestoidea three species: H diminuta, H. nana and T. taeniaeformis, Nematoda six species: A. cantonensis, T. muris, C. hepatica, S. obvelata, S. muris, S. ratti, and Archiacanthocephala one species: M. moniliformis. The medical and/or veterinary importance of these parasites were discussed. It was concluded that rodents are the most serious source of zoonotic parasites. PMID:8077761

el Shazly, A M; Morsy, T A; el Kady, G A; Ragheb, D A; Handousa, A E; Ahmed, M M; Younis, T A; Habib, K S

1994-08-01

67

Correlated evolution between host immunity and parasite life histories in primates and oxyurid parasites.  

PubMed Central

Maturation time is a pivotal life-history trait of parasitic nematodes, determining adult body size, as well as daily and total fecundity. Recent theoretical work has emphasized the influence of prematurational mortality on the optimal values of age and size at maturity in nematodes. Eosinophils are a family of white blood cells often associated with infections by parasitic nematodes. Although the role of eosinophils in nematode resistance is controversial, recent work has suggested that the action of these immune effectors might be limited to the larval stages of the parasite. If eosinophils act on larval survival, one might predict, in line with theoretical models, that nematode species living in hosts with large eosinophil numbers should show reduced age and size at maturity. We tested this prediction using the association between the pinworms (Oxyuridae, Nematoda) and their primate hosts. Pinworms are highly host specific and are expected to be involved in a coevolutionary process with their hosts. We found that the body size of female parasites was negatively correlated with eosinophil concentration, whereas the concentration of two other leucocyte families-neutrophils and lymphocytes-was unrelated to female body size. Egg size of parasites also decreased with host eosinophil concentration, independently of female size. Male body size was unrelated to host immune parameters. Primates with the highest immune defence, therefore, harbour small female pinworms laying small eggs. These results are in agreement with theoretical expectations and suggest that life histories of oxyurid parasites covary with the immune defence of their hosts. Our findings illustrate the potential for host immune defence as a factor driving parasite life-history evolution. PMID:14667339

Sorci, Gabriele; Skarstein, Frode; Morand, Serge; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

2003-01-01

68

Description of Lemuricola (Lemuricola) pongoi--male (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) parasitising orangutan Pongo abelii.  

PubMed

The study presents the first description of male specimen (allotype) of the pinworm species Lemuricola (Lemuricola) pongoi, parasitising Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) from Sumatra (Indonesia). The male specimen morphology presents all features fully corresponding with diagnose of the genus and subgenus Lemuricola. We are agreeing that Protenterobius is synonymous with Lemuricola because the length of tail appendix in males is not a sufficient feature for separation of the genera or subgenera. For L. (L.) pongoi male are characteristic features: body length (4,803 microm), total oesophagus length (530), tail length (235), tip of tail length (188) and spicule length (90). PMID:20151309

Foitová, Ivona; Barus, Vlastimil; Koubková, Bozena; Masová, Sárka; Nurcahyo, Wisnu

2010-03-01

69

Ano-Rectal Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Disease  

PubMed Central

Diseases of the anus and rectum are frequently the outcome of proctogenital and oral-anal sexual activities. These sexually transmitted diseases are more common among homosexual and bisexual men than among heterosexuals. A variety of infectious agents are responsible including viruses, bacteria, spirochetes, helminths, and protozoa. Anal warts, herpetic ulcers, and syphilitic chancres are common anal STDs. Gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydial organisms are common causes of venereal acute proctitis. Enteric infections such as shigellosis, amebiasis, giardiasis and pinworms can be transmitted by oral-anal contact. Aggressive sexual attempts at auto-eroticism using rectally inserted foreign bodies may cause traumatic proctitis complicated by bacterial peritonitis or perirectal abscesses. PMID:21263807

Warren, Ralph E.

1987-01-01

70

Microbial contaminations of laboratory mice and rats in Taiwan from 2004 to 2007.  

PubMed

Limited data are available on the pathogen status of contemporary rodent colonies in Taiwan. Here we summarized the rodent pathogen diagnostic records of the Taiwan National Laboratory Animal Center during a 4-y period that representing approximately 10% of the rodent colonies in Taiwan. Demand for pathogen diagnostic service increased continuously from 2004 to 2007, with a 20% increase each year. In 2007, more than 20% of the mouse colonies were positive for mouse parvovirus, mouse hepatitis virus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, and Mycoplasma pulmonis, with fewer colonies diagnosed as having infections of pneumonia virus of mice, mouse adenovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and reovirus. Almost 40% of tested rat colonies were positive for Mycoplasma pulmonis and rat parvovirus, with fewer colonies containing Kilham rat virus, sialodacryoadenitis virus, pneumonia virus of mice, Sendai virus, and Syphacia spp. These data provide a sound overall picture of the health status of mouse and rat colonies in Taiwan. PMID:19653946

Liang, Chung-Tiang; Shih, Amy; Chang, Yu-Hsiu; Liu, Chiung-Wen; Lee, Ya-Tien; Hsieh, Wei-Chun; Huang, Yuan-Ling; Huang, Wan-Tsang; Kuang, Chih-Hui; Lee, Kan-Hung; Zhuo, Yi-Xing; Ho, Sheng-Yu; Liao, Shiow-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ying; Hsu, Chieh-Ning; Liang, San-Chi; Yu, Chun-Keung

2009-07-01

71

The potential role of strongyloides robustus on parasite-mediated competition between two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys).  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that populations of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) are declining in the eastern United States, perhaps due to competition with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). Potential causes include parasite-mediated or apparent competition from the shared intestinal nematode, Strongyloides robustus, which has been shown to detrimentally affect the northern flying squirrel but not the southern flying squirrel. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study on the parasite community of both flying squirrel species from sites in Pennsylvania where the two species occur sympatrically and where G. sabrinus is now considered endangered at the state level. We compared these parasite communities with those from northern flying squirrels from northern New York where the southern flying squirrel is absent. We found eight species of gastrointestinal parasites (Pterygodermatites peromysci, Lemuricola sciuri, Syphacia thompsoni, Syphacia spp., Capillaria spp., Citellinema bifurcatum, Strogyloides robustus, and an unidentifiable cestode species) in both species of flying squirrels examined for our study. The parasite-mediated competition hypothesis was partially supported. For example, in Pennsylvania, S. robustus was overdispersed in southern flying squirrels, such that a small proportion of the hosts carried a large proportion of the worm population. In addition, we found S. robustus to be present in northern flying squirrels when the species were sympatric, but not where southern flying squirrels were absent in New York. However, there was no association between S. robustus and the body condition of flying squirrels. We detected a potential parasite community interaction, as S. robustus abundance was positively associated with P. peromysci. PMID:20090036

Krichbaum, Kristle; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A; Turner, Gregory; Hudson, Peter J

2010-01-01

72

Old enemies, still with us after all these years.  

PubMed

Although some previously common infections, such as Sendai virus and Mycoplasma pulmonis, have become rare in laboratory rodents in North American research facilities, others continue to plague researchers and those responsible for providing biomedical scientists with animals free of adventitious disease. Long-recognized agents that remain in research facilities in the 21st century include parvoviruses of rats and mice, mouse rotavirus, Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), and pinworms. The reasons for their persistence vary with the agent. The resilience of parvoviruses, for example, is due to their resistance to inactivation, their prolonged shedding, and difficulties with detection, especially in C57BL/6 mice. Rotavirus also has marked environmental resistance, but periodic reintroduction into facilities, possibly on bags of feed, bedding, or other supplies or equipment, also seems likely. TMEV is characterized by resistance to inactivation, periodic reintroduction, and relatively long shedding periods. Although MHV remains active in the environment at most a few days, currently prevalent strains are shed in massive quantities and likely transmitted by fomites. Pinworm infestations continue because of prolonged infections, inefficient diagnosis, and the survivability of eggs of some species in the environment. For all of these agents, increases in both interinstitutional shipping and the use of immunodeficient or genetically modified rodents of unknown immune status may contribute to the problem, as might incursions by wild or feral rodents. Elimination of these old enemies will require improved detection, strict adherence to protocols designed to limit the spread of infections, and comprehensive eradication programs. PMID:18506062

Clifford, Charles B; Watson, Julie

2008-01-01

73

Use of fenbendazole-containing therapeutic diets for mice in experimental cancer therapy studies.  

PubMed

Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research. PMID:22776123

Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

2012-03-01

74

Effects of repeated anthelmintic treatment on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Effects of repeated treatment with pyrantel pamoate on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees were assessed by observing worms discharged in the feces after administration of anthelmintic treatment. Three of 9 chimpanzees reared in a zoological garden in Japan were subjected to fecal worm count and morphometric observation, and all were given oral pyrantel pamoate 6 times at 10-day intervals simultaneously. Following the first and second treatments, more than 30,000 pinworms were discharged from 1 chimpanzee. The number of discharged worms abruptly decreased after the third treatment, and only a few worms were recovered after the fifth treatment, indicating that repeated treatment at short intervals was very effective. Complete eradication was not achieved, however, presumably because of reinfection. The female proportion among discharged worms tended to increase as the treatment was repeated. PMID:16108565

Nakano, Tadao; Fukui, Daisuke; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Hasegawa, Hideo

2005-06-01

75

Enterobius vermicularis Eggs Discovered in Coprolites from a Medieval Korean Mummy  

PubMed Central

While the presence of pinworm eggs in archaeological samples has been reported by many researchers in the New World, those have been detected very scarcely in the Old World, especially in East Asian countries. In fact, many parasite species were recovered from the archeological remains in Korea, eggs of Enterobius vermicularis had not been found. Recently, a female mummy buried in the 17th century was discovered in the Joseon tomb from Dangjin-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. After rehydration process for 12 days, investigations were carried on the luminal surface of the colon. From them, 3 eggs of E. vermicularis were recovered. They were elliptical, transparent with a thin egg shell, 50.3±5.2 µm (length) and 28.2±3.9 µm (width) in size. This is the first discovery of E. vermicularis eggs in East Asia. PMID:22072838

Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Hye-Jung

2011-01-01

76

Efficacy of Direct Detection of Pathogens in Naturally Infected Mice by Using a High-Density PCR Array  

PubMed Central

We used a high-density array of real-time PCR assays for commonly reported rodent infectious agents (PRIA) to test naturally infected index mice and sentinel mice exposed by contact and soiled-bedding transfer. PRIA detected 14 pathogens—including viruses, bacteria, fur mites, pinworms, and enteric protozoa—in 97.2% of 28 pooled fecal samples, fur–perianal swabs, and oral swabs from 4 cages containing a total of 10 index mice. Among these pathogens, PRIA (like conventional health monitoring methods) failed to detect Mycoplasma pulmonis, Pasteurella pneumotropica, and Giardia spp. in all of the 9 contact and 9 soiled-bedding sentinels. PRIA demonstrated murine adenovirus and Cryptosporidium and Spironucleus spp. in contact but not soiled-bedding sentinels and detected Helicobacter and pinworms in fewer than half of the soiled-bedding sentinels. Of the 4 species of Helicobacter that species-specific PCR assays identified in index mice, only H. ganmani was found in soiled-bedding and contact sentinels. PRIA detected all of the pathogens in sentinels that were identified by conventional methods. Myobia musculi was detected by PCR in index and sentinel mice but missed by conventional parasitologic examinations. In summary, PRIA reproducibly detected diverse pathogens in heavily pooled specimens collected noninvasively from infected index mice antemortem. The inability of PRIA and conventional health monitoring methods (that is, parasitology, microbiology, and serology) to demonstrate transmission of some pathogens to contact sentinels and the inefficient transmission of others to soiled-bedding sentinels underscores the importance of direct PCR testing to determine the pathogen status of rodents in quarantine and during routine colony surveillance. PMID:24351765

Henderson, Kenneth S; Perkins, Cheryl L; Havens, Richard B; Kelly, Mee-Jin E; Francis, Brian C; Dole, Vandana S; Shek, William R

2013-01-01

77

Efficacy of direct detection of pathogens in naturally infected mice by using a high-density PCR array.  

PubMed

We used a high-density array of real-time PCR assays for commonly reported rodent infectious agents (PRIA) to test naturally infected index mice and sentinel mice exposed by contact and soiled-bedding transfer. PRIA detected 14 pathogens--including viruses, bacteria, fur mites, pinworms, and enteric protozoa--in 97.2% of 28 pooled fecal samples, fur-perianal swabs, and oral swabs from 4 cages containing a total of 10 index mice. Among these pathogens, PRIA (like conventional health monitoring methods) failed to detect Mycoplasma pulmonis, Pasteurella pneumotropica, and Giardia spp. in all of the 9 contact and 9 soiled-bedding sentinels. PRIA demonstrated murine adenovirus and Cryptosporidium and Spironucleus spp. in contact but not soiled-bedding sentinels and detected Helicobacter and pinworms in fewer than half of the soiled-bedding sentinels. Of the 4 species of Helicobacter that species-specific PCR assays identified in index mice, only H. ganmani was found in soiled-bedding and contact sentinels. PRIA detected all of the pathogens in sentinels that were identified by conventional methods. Myobia musculi was detected by PCR in index and sentinel mice but missed by conventional parasitologic examinations. In summary, PRIA reproducibly detected diverse pathogens in heavily pooled specimens collected noninvasively from infected index mice antemortem. The inability of PRIA and conventional health monitoring methods (that is, parasitology, micro-biology, and serology) to demonstrate transmission of some pathogens to contact sentinels and the inefficient transmission of others to soiled-bedding sentinels underscores the importance of direct PCR testing to determine the pathogen status of rodents in quarantine and during routine colony surveillance. PMID:24351765

Henderson, Kenneth S; Perkins, Cheryl L; Havens, Richard B; Kelly, Mee-Jin E; Francis, Brian C; Dole, Vandana S; Shek, William R

2013-11-01

78

Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the black rat (Rattus rattus) in Abeokuta, southwest Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of 612 black rats, Rattus rattus (282 mates and 330 females), for infections with helminth parasites was carried out in Abeokuta, in southwest Nigeria. Three hundred and ninety six (64.7%) were infected with one or more of seven species of helminths comprising three cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, Taenia taeniaeformis (cyst) and Raillietina sp.) three nematodes (Mastophorus muris, Trichuris muris and Syphacia sp.) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis). Although the prevalence of infection in males (76.6%) was more than in females (54.5%) (P<0.01), there was no difference in the mean intensity of infection, MI, (males=11.6+/-0.94, females=11.1+/-1.56). Among the different weight classes, rats of 100-130 g were more infected (893%) and had the highest mean intensity (MI=21.6) than those that weighed <100 g (47.1%, MI=6.4) and >130 g (73.9%, MI=9.3). Moniliformis moniliformis was the most common species encountered (39.2%) and had the highest mean intensity in both sexes (x=7.4+/-0.74). Considering the rat-man proximity, this finding has considerable public health implications. PMID:9705679

Mafiana, C F; Osho, M B; Sam-Wobo, S

1997-09-01

79

Intestinal Parasites among Wild Rodents in Northern Gangwon-do, Korea  

PubMed Central

To determine geographical patterns of natural parasite infections among wild rodents, a total of 46 wild rodents from 3 different localities in northern Gangwon-do (Province), Korea were examined for intestinal parasite infections. Along with nematodes such as hookworms and Syphacia spp., Plagiorchis muris (2 specimens) (Trematoda) were collected from striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius. In a Korean wood mouse, Apodemus peninsulae, the overall nematode infections were similar to A. agrarius, but an adult worm of Echinostoma hortense (Trematoda) was collected. In addition, 2 species of cestodes, i.e., Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta, were collected from A. agrarius. Through this survey, A. agrarius and A. peninsule were confirmed as the natural definite hosts for zoonotic intestinal helminths, i.e., P. muris, E. hortense, H. nana, and H. diminuta, in northern Gangwon-do, Korea. Considering increased leisure activities around these areas, seasonal and further comprehensive surveys on wild rodents seem to be needed to prevent zoonotic parasite infections. PMID:24327791

Lee, Young-Il; Pyeon, Hee-Jang

2013-01-01

80

Diversity of nematodes in the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from the Peripannonic region of Serbia.  

PubMed

Up to six nematode species were identified from 86 specimens of the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from three mountainous localities known as Avala, Cer and Liškovac in Serbia. The highest prevalence of infection of 97% was recorded from Mt. Avala. Only one nematode species, Syphacia frederici, occurred in all three localities. There was complete overlap in nematode species from Mts. Avala and Liškovac, whereas the taxonomic distinctness of Mt. Cer was seen in the presence of the insect-transmitted species Rictularia proni. Locality was a statistically significant factor in all the best-fitted generalized linear models of variation in abundances. The highest level of both species richness and parasite alpha diversity (Shannon's H= 1.47) was found in the easternmost Mt. Liškovac, whereas the diversity indices were lowest for the westernmost Mt. Cer (Shannon's H= 0.48). In view of this geographical difference, the beta diversity indices were calculated along a west to east longitudinal gradient. PMID:25272984

Cabrilo, B; Jovanovi?, V M; Bjeli?-?abrilo, O; Budinski, I; Blagojevi?, J; Vujoševi?, M

2014-10-01

81

Endoparasites of rodents from the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Rodents are a key mammalian group highly successful in adapting to a variety of environments throughout the world and play an important role in many zoonotic cycles. Within this project, the gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasite fauna of 76 rodents (Muroidea and Sciuridae) was determined in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in Southeastern Bangladesh. Gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites were examined with macro- and microscopical tools (e.g. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) at a field site in Bandarban. A wide variety of parasites were found in rodent hosts, including protozoa-Giardia sp. (n = 8), Cryptosporidium sp. (n = 1), Entamoeba sp. (n = 8), Trichomonadida (n = 4), Isospora sp. (n = 1), trematodes (Echinostoma sp.; n = 3), cestodes-Hymenolepis nana (n = 1), Hymenolepis diminuta (n = 3), Hymenolepis sp. (n = 2), Taenia taeniaeformis-Larven (n = 4), Catenotaenia sp. (n = 1), Taenia sp. (n = 1), nematodes-Heterakis spumosa (n = 4), Heterakis sp. (n = 1), Aspiculuris tetraptera (n = 2), Capillaria hepatica (n = 2), Capillaria sp. (n = 3), Syphacia sp. (n = 2), Strongyloides sp. (n = 10), Trichostrongylus sp. (n = 2) and Trichuris sp. (n = 1)-and acanthocephalans (Moniliformis moniliformis; n = 2). Several of the examined parasites are of zoonotic importance via direct or indirect transmission (e.g. C. hepatica) and may affect humans. PMID:23064859

Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Treiber, Moritz; Igel, Petra; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald

2012-11-01

82

Diversity of gastrointestinal helminths among murid rodents from northern and northeastern Thailand.  

PubMed

The presence of gastrointestinal helminths (GI helminths) was investigated among 725 murid rodents, trapped in various habitats of Nan, Loei and Buri Ram Provinces, Thailand. The study revealed 17 species of rodents infected with 21 species or taxonomic groups of parasites (3 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 14 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan). The overall prevalence of infection was 57.7% (418/725). Of the gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, the dominant parasitic group was members of the family Trichostrongylidae (24.3%), followed by the cestodes Raillietina sp (17.1%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (8.6%) and the nematode Syphacia muris (8.6%). The GI helminthic infection rates were highest in Mus caroli (81.8%), Mus cervicolor (76.5%), Leopoldamys edwardsi (75.0%), Bandicota indica (71.5%) and Bandicota savilei (71.4%). Highest rodent species richness (RSR) and helminth species richness (HSR) rates were found in Loei, followed by Nan and Buri Ram. The helminth prevalence rate was higher in rodents from Nan, followed by rodents from Loei and Buri Ram. Rodents from irrigated fields had the highest infection rates followed by rodents from upland or dry agricultural areas, forests and domestic habitats. Raillietina sp, Rodentolepis nana (syn. Hymenolepis nana), Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniliformis moniliformis and Cyclodontostomum purvisi, considered zoonotic parasites, were mainly found in rodents from domestic habitats and lowland irrigated fields. PMID:23082550

Chaisiri, Kittipong; Chaeychomsri, Win; Siruntawineti, Jindawan; Ribas, Alexis; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

2012-01-01

83

Intestinal parasites among wild rodents in Northern Gangwon-do, Korea.  

PubMed

To determine geographical patterns of natural parasite infections among wild rodents, a total of 46 wild rodents from 3 different localities in northern Gangwon-do (Province), Korea were examined for intestinal parasite infections. Along with nematodes such as hookworms and Syphacia spp., Plagiorchis muris (2 specimens) (Trematoda) were collected from striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius. In a Korean wood mouse, Apodemus peninsulae, the overall nematode infections were similar to A. agrarius, but an adult worm of Echinostoma hortense (Trematoda) was collected. In addition, 2 species of cestodes, i.e., Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta, were collected from A. agrarius. Through this survey, A. agrarius and A. peninsule were confirmed as the natural definite hosts for zoonotic intestinal helminths, i.e., P. muris, E. hortense, H. nana, and H. diminuta, in northern Gangwon-do, Korea. Considering increased leisure activities around these areas, seasonal and further comprehensive surveys on wild rodents seem to be needed to prevent zoonotic parasite infections. PMID:24327791

Lee, Young-Il; Pyeon, Hee-Jang; Seo, Min

2013-10-01

84

Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus) in the Belgrade area (Serbia): the effect of sex, age and habitat*  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control). Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris) and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna). The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%). Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host. PMID:21678796

Kataranovski, M.; Mirkov, I.; Belij, S.; Popov, A.; Petrovi?, Z.; Ga?i?, Z.; Kataranovski, D.

2011-01-01

85

Fenbendazole improves pathological and functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

During a study of spinal cord injury (SCI), mice in our colony were treated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole to treat pinworms detected in other mice not involved in the study. As this was not part of the original experimental design, we subsequently compared pathological and functional outcomes of SCI in female C57BL/6 mice who received fenbendazole (150 ppm, 8 mg/kg body weight/day) for four weeks prior to moderate contusive SCI (50 kdyn force) as compared to mice on the same diet without added fenbendazole. The fenbendazole-treated mice exhibited improved locomotor function, determined using the Basso mouse scale, as well as improved tissue sparing following contusive SCI. Fenbendazole may exert protective effects through multiple possible mechanisms, one of which is inhibition of the proliferation of B lymphocytes, thereby reducing antibody responses. Autoantibodies produced following SCI contribute to the axon damage and locomotor deficits. Fenbendazole pretreatment reduced the injury-induced CD45R-positive B cell signal intensity and IgG immunoreactivity at the lesion epicenter six weeks after contusive SCI in mice, consistent with a possible effect on the immune response to the injury. Fenbendazole and related benzimadole antihelmintics are FDA approved, exhibit minimal toxicity, and represent a novel group of potential therapeutics targeting secondary mechanisms following SCI. PMID:24183965

Yu, Chen Guang; Singh, Ranjana; Crowdus, Carolyn; Raza, Kashif; Kincer, Jeanie; Geddes, James W.

2014-01-01

86

Antiparasitic mebendazole shows survival benefit in 2 preclinical models of glioblastoma multiforme.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain cancer, and despite treatment advances, patient prognosis remains poor. During routine animal studies, we serendipitously observed that fenbendazole, a benzimidazole antihelminthic used to treat pinworm infection, inhibited brain tumor engraftment. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments with benzimidazoles identified mebendazole as the more promising drug for GBM therapy. In GBM cell lines, mebendazole displayed cytotoxicity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 µM. Mebendazole disrupted microtubule formation in GBM cells, and in vitro activity was correlated with reduced tubulin polymerization. Subsequently, we showed that mebendazole significantly extended mean survival up to 63% in syngeneic and xenograft orthotopic mouse glioma models. Mebendazole has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for parasitic infections, has a long track-record of safe human use, and was effective in our animal models with doses documented as safe in humans. Our findings indicate that mebendazole is a possible novel anti-brain tumor therapeutic that could be further tested in clinical trials. PMID:21764822

Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Aprhys, Colette M; Gallia, Gary L; Riggins, Gregory J

2011-09-01

87

Effect of Fenbendazole on an Autoimmune Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Fenbendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm infection in laboratory rodents. Data regarding possible side effects of fenbendazole on the immune system are conflicting, potentially due to the design of treatment protocols. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of 2 fenbendazole therapeutic regimens (continuous for 5 wk and alternating weeks [that is, 1 wk on, 1 wk off] for 9 wk) on the development of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. No significant differences in survival curves or weight were observed between the treatment groups and cohort mice receiving nonmedicated feed. At the termination of the experiment, there were no differences in tissue pathology. Hematocrit decreased and BUN increased over time in all groups, but no significant differences were present between groups. After the cessation of treatment, mice fed the medicated diet continuously for 5 wk showed an increase in antiDNA antibody. Although this difference was significant, it did not affect survival curves or disease-related tissue or blood changes. These data indicate that common protocols of fenbendazole treatment do not alter the progression of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. PMID:23849411

Cray, Carolyn; Watson, Toshiba; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

2013-01-01

88

Effect of fenbendazole on an autoimmune mouse model.  

PubMed

Fenbendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm infection in laboratory rodents. Data regarding possible side effects of fenbendazole on the immune system are conflicting, potentially due to the design of treatment protocols. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of 2 fenbendazole therapeutic regimens (continuous for 5 wk and alternating weeks [that is, 1 wk on, 1 wk off] for 9 wk) on the development of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. No significant differences in survival curves or weight were observed between the treatment groups and cohort mice receiving nonmedicated feed. At the termination of the experiment, there were no differences in tissue pathology. Hematocrit decreased and BUN increased over time in all groups, but no significant differences were present between groups. After the cessation of treatment, mice fed the medicated diet continuously for 5 wk showed an increase in antiDNA antibody. Although this difference was significant, it did not affect survival curves or disease-related tissue or blood changes. These data indicate that common protocols of fenbendazole treatment do not alter the progression of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. PMID:23849411

Cray, Carolyn; Watson, Toshiba; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

2013-01-01

89

Fenbendazole improves pathological and functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

During a study of spinal cord injury (SCI), mice in our colony were treated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole to treat pinworms detected in other mice not involved in the study. As this was not part of the original experimental design, we subsequently compared pathological and functional outcomes of SCI in female C57BL/6 mice who received fenbendazole (150 ppm, 8 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks prior to moderate contusive SCI (50 kdyn force) as compared to mice on the same diet without added fenbendazole. The fenbendazole-treated mice exhibited improved locomotor function, determined using the Basso mouse scale, as well as improved tissue sparing following contusive SCI. Fenbendazole may exert protective effects through multiple possible mechanisms, one of which is inhibition of the proliferation of B lymphocytes, thereby reducing antibody responses. Autoantibodies produced following SCI contribute to the axon damage and locomotor deficits. Fenbendazole pretreatment reduced the injury-induced CD45R-positive B cell signal intensity and IgG immunoreactivity at the lesion epicenter 6 weeks after contusive SCI in mice, consistent with a possible effect on the immune response to the injury. Fenbendazole and related benzimadole antihelmintics are FDA approved, exhibit minimal toxicity, and represent a novel group of potential therapeutics targeting secondary mechanisms following SCI. PMID:24183965

Yu, C G; Singh, R; Crowdus, C; Raza, K; Kincer, J; Geddes, J W

2014-01-01

90

Effects of Fenbendazole on Routine Immune Response Parameters of BALB/c Mice  

PubMed Central

Fenbendazole (FBZ) is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm outbreaks in laboratory rodents. Although data in nonrodent species indicate possible effects of fenbendazole on the bone marrow and lymphocyte proliferation and function, little has been reported regarding possible effects on the rodent immune system. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of a therapeutic regimen of FBZ on immune parameters in BALB/c mice. Both 9-wk on–off and 5-wk continuous medicated feed protocols were assessed. No significant differences between normal and FBZ diet treated mice were observed in the following parameters: complete blood count, blood chemistry, quantitation of major T and B cell markers in spleen, quantitation of T cell markers in the thymus, spleen cell proliferation to T and B cell mitogens, bone marrow colony-forming cell assays, skin graft rejection, and primary and secondary humoral immune responses. These data indicate that FBZ treatment does not affect many standard broad measures of immune function. PMID:19049250

Cray, Carolyn; Villar, David; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

2008-01-01

91

Environmental factors related to enterobiasis in a southeast region of Korea.  

PubMed

Pinworm infection can occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by ingestion or even through inhalation of infective eggs. We have limited information regarding environmental contamination by eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. In order to determine environmental risk factors associated with the rate of E. vermicularis infection, we investigated possible environmental risk factors using a questionnaire from 46 kindergartens in 3 different cities of the southeast area of Korea. In total, using the cellotape anal swab technique, 3,422 children were examined for E. vermicularis infection. We evaluated E. vermicularis egg of books, educational materials, toys, room door handles, dusts of window edges, desks, chairs, tables, and dusts of classrooms. The overall egg-positive rate for E. vermicularis was 6.0%, and the prevalence of enterobiasis in each kindergarten ranged between 0% and 16.9%. We found that 78.9% of egg positive kindergartens were managed by private foundations, which was significantly higher, compared with kindergartens managed by public foundations or the nation. Compared with public or national kindergartens, most private kindergartens were located in residential areas and the number of children in these areas was significantly higher. In conclusion, numbers of children in kindergartens was found to be an environmental risk factor associated with transmission of enterobiasis in Korea. PMID:23468007

Kim, Dong-Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Kim, Bo Young; Park, Sang Kyun; Yu, Hak Sun

2013-02-01

92

Palaeopathology and genes: investigating the genetics of infectious diseases in excavated human skeletal remains and mummies from past populations.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to review the use of genetics in palaeomicrobiology, and to highlight the importance of understanding past diseases. Palaeomicrobiology is the study of disease pathogens in skeletal and mummified remains from archaeological contexts. It has revolutionarised our understanding of health in the past by enabling a deeper knowledge of the origins and evolution of many diseases that have shaped us as a species. Bacterial diseases explored include tuberculosis, leprosy, bubonic plague, typhoid, syphilis, endemic and epidemic typhus, trench fever, and Helicobacter pylori. Viral diseases discussed include influenza, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Parasitic diseases investigated include malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, roundworm, whipworm, pinworm, Chinese liver fluke, fleas and lice. Through a better understanding of disease origins and their evolution, we can place into context how many infectious diseases are changing over time, and so help us estimate how they may change in the future. PMID:23792062

Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

2013-10-01

93

Intestinal parasites of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) from eight populations in Georgia.  

PubMed

The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), one of five tortoise species endemic in the USA, was recently classified as a candidate for federal listing as a threatened species. Fecal samples collected from 117 tortoises from eight sites in Georgia were examined for endoparasites using a combination of sedimentation and flotation. Samples from an island population were examined for parasitic oocysts and ova only by flotation, protozoan cysts by trichrome-stained direct smear, and Cryptosporidium by direct immunofluorescence assay and ProSpecT rapid assay. A total of 99 tortoises (85, range 0-100%) was infected with pinworms (Alaeuris spp.), 47 (40, 0-86%) with cestodes (Oochorstica sp.), 34 (41, 0-74%) with Chapiniella spp., 2 (3, 0-33%) with Eimeria paynei, and a single tortoise each with a capillarid and ascarid (1%). On the island, Entamoeba was detected in one tortoise (2%) while Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in eight (17%). In conclusion, at least eight species of parasites were detected including Cryptosporidium, a possible pathogen of tortoises. Interestingly, we detected spatial variation in the distribution of several parasites among populations suggesting additional work should be conducted across a gradient of tortoise densities, land use, and habitat characteristics. PMID:24072334

McGuire, Jessica L; Miller, Elizabeth A; Norton, Terry M; Raphael, Bonnie L; Spratt, Jeffrey S; Yabsley, Michael J

2013-12-01

94

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

95

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.  

PubMed

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

96

Ozone-induced changes in host-plant suitability: interactions of Keiferia lycopersicella and Lycopersicon esculentum  

SciTech Connect

Tomato pinworms, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), survived better and developed faster on tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., damaged by ozone than on plants not subjected to ozone fumigation. Other measures of fitness, including survival during pupation, sex ratio of adults, female longevity, and fecundity, were not affected. Analyses of ozonated foliage at zero, two and seven days following fumigation demonstrated a transient but significant increase (18-24%) in soluble protein concentration. Although the concentration of the total free amino acids in ozonated foliage did not increase significantly, significant changes were observed in at least 10 specific amino acids, some of which are critical for either insect development or the production of plant defensive chemicals. A reduction in total nitrogen in ozonated foliage at seven days postfumigation indicated that nitrogen was being translocated to other portions of the plant. The implications of increases in assimilable forms of nitrogen in ozonated foliage, which lead to improved host-plant suitability for insect herbivores, are discussed both in relation to some current ecological theories and in regard to pest-management strategies. 59 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Trumble, J.T.; Hare, J.D.; Musselman, R.C.; McCool, P.M.

1987-01-01

97

Influence of habitat modification on the intestinal helminth community ecology of cottontail rabbit populations.  

PubMed

The influence of five brush management treatments using the herbicides tebuthiuron and triclopyr, with or without prescribed burning, on the intestinal helminth community of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied in 1987 on the Cross Timbers Experimental Range in Payne County, Oklahoma (USA). Six helminth species were found (Dermatoxys veligera, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonanulatus, Wellcomia longejector, Taenia pisiformis cystercercus, and Mosgovoyia pectinata americana) in 102 rabbits (88 adult and 14 juveniles) collected over two seasons (winter and summer). Prevalence of M. pectinata americana in cottontail rabbits was significantly greater in untreated control pastures than herbicide treated pastures in winter, while prevalence of T. pisiformis was significantly greater in burned than unburned pastures. Abundances of helminth species in the intestinal tract of cottontail rabbits were unaffected by brush treatments. Mosgovoyia pectinata americana abundance demonstrated a highly significant increase from winter to summer; conversely, abundance of all oxyurid pinworms combined (D. veligera, P. nonanulatus, W. longejector) was significantly higher in winter than summer. Helminth community dynamics were significantly influenced by season, but were unaffected by brush treatments. Habitat modification could have influenced cestode transmission by altering the ecology of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. PMID:2338720

Boggs, J F; McMurry, S T; Leslie, D M; Engle, D M; Lochmiller, R L

1990-04-01

98

Prevalence of internal parasites in horses in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983) in Kentucky.  

PubMed

The prevalence and number of naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites were compiled for horses used in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983). Data are presented as follows: n = number of horses examined; % = mean prevalence; number in parentheses after % = aggregate mean number of parasites in infected horses. Parasites found were: bots (n = 513) - Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd instar, 61%(58); 3rd instar, 94%(168); G. nasalis, 2nd instar, 36%(28); 3rd instar, 81%(51); stomach worms (n = 200) - Habronema muscae, 65%(179); Draschia megastoma, 29%(95); Trichostrongylus axei, 46%(3000); ascarids (n = 513) - Parascaris equorum, mature, 50%(25); immature, 23%(33); tapeworms (n = 513), Anoplocephala perfoliata, 17%(15); A. magna, 14%(10); large strongyles (n = 487), Strongylus vulgaris, 84%(80); S. edentatus, 79%(101); S. equinus, 6%(14); small strongyles (n = 210), 100%(142,000); pinworms (Oxyuris equi), immature (n = 210), 78%(9000); mature (n = 506), 40%(62); Probstmayria vivipara (n = 210), 12%(10(7]; S. vulgaris in cranial mesenteric artery (n = 472), 89%(57). The majority of the horses examined were mixed lighthorse type but several Thoroughbreds were included. Ages varied from about 4 months to 20 years old, with most being approximately 1-3 years old. They probably had either no or infrequent previous treatment with parasiticides. Most of the horses were selected for presence of certain internal parasites, usually large strongyles, prior to usage in the critical tests. PMID:3564356

Tolliver, S C; Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H

1987-02-01

99

Transmission of some species of internal parasites in horses born in 1990, 1991, and 1992 in the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted on transmission of natural infections of several species of internal parasites in horses born and kept on the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky. Data for the first year (1989) of a 4 year study on this farm have been published recently. The present research represents the second (1990), third (1991), and fourth (1992) years of the investigation. The number of animals (n = 28) examined varied from eight born in 1990 to ten each born in 1991 and 1992. For each year, examination was made of one horse per month, beginning in June of the year of birth and extending through January (1990) or March (1991 and 1992) the following year. Ages of the horses at necropsy ranged from 87 to 251 days. Major parasites present and months of recovery were: bots--Gasterophilus intestinalis in the mouth September-January and in the stomach August-March; stomach worms--Trichostrongylus axei in August and November, Habronema spp. (immature) in July-November and January, and Habronema muscae in October, January, and February; ascarids--Parascaris equorum in the small intestine and lungs all months; intestinal threadworms--Strongyloides westeri in all months except February; large strongyles--Strongylus vulgaris in the large intestine in all months except July and August and in the cranial mesenteric artery in all months, and Strongylus edentatus in the large intestine in January and in the ventral abdominal wall in all months; pinworms--Oxyuris equi in June and January-March; tapeworms--Anoplocephala perfoliata in August-October and December-March; and eyeworms--Thelazia lacrymalis August-February. Yearly differences and similarities of infections in the horses are discussed. The value of this type of research is mentioned. PMID:8073609

Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Stamper, S; Drudge, J H; Granstrom, D E; Collins, S S

1994-04-01

100

Tribendimidine: Mode of Action and nAChR Subtype Selectivity in Ascaris and Oesophagostomum.  

PubMed

The cholinergic class of anthelmintic drugs is used for the control of parasitic nematodes. One of this class of drugs, tribendimidine (a symmetrical diamidine derivative, of amidantel), was developed in China for use in humans in the mid-1980s. It has a broader-spectrum anthelmintic action against soil-transmitted helminthiasis than other cholinergic anthelmintics, and is effective against hookworm, pinworms, roundworms, and Strongyloides and flatworm of humans. Although molecular studies on C. elegans suggest that tribendimidine is a cholinergic agonist that is selective for the same nematode muscle nAChR as levamisole, no direct electrophysiological observations in nematode parasites have been made to test this hypothesis. Also the hypothesis that levamisole and tribendimine act on the same receptor, does not explain why tribendimidine is effective against some nematode parasites when levamisole is not. Here we examine the effects of tribendimidine on the electrophysiology and contraction of Ascaris suum body muscle and show that tribendimidine produces depolarization antagonized by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, and that tribendimidine is an agonist of muscle nAChRs of parasitic nematodes. Further pharmacological characterization of the nAChRs activated by tribendimidine in our Ascaris muscle contraction assay shows that tribendimidine is not selective for the same receptor subtypes as levamisole, and that tribendimidine is more selective for the B-subtype than the L-subtype of nAChR. In addition, larval migration inhibition assays with levamisole-resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum isolates show that tribendimidine is as active on a levamisole-resistant isolate as on a levamisole-sensitive isolate, suggesting that the selectivity for levamisole and tribendimidine is not the same. It is concluded that tribendimidine can activate a different population of nematode parasite nAChRs than levamisole, and is more like bephenium. The different nAChR subtype selectivity of tribendimidine may explain why the spectrum of action of tribendimidine is different to that of other cholinergic anthelmintics like levamisole. PMID:25679515

Robertson, Alan P; Puttachary, Sreekanth; Buxton, Samuel K; Martin, Richard J

2015-02-01

101

Probable reason why small strongyle EPG counts are returning "early" after ivermectin treatment of horses on a farm in Central Kentucky.  

PubMed

Critical tests were carried out in 2008 in four yearling horses (H-2, H-4, H-10, and H-11) born and raised together on a farm (MC) in Central Kentucky. These horses were treated intraorally with ivermectin paste at the dose rate of 200 microg/kg. The main interest was to try and determine more precisely, from posttreatment (PT) worm count data, the current activity of ivermectin against small strongyles in a horse herd. These horses had been treated repeatedly with this compound and counts of small strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) of these parasites have been returning sooner than previously in field tests (Lyons et al. Parasitol Res 103:209-215, 2008a). Data from the four horses revealed that a total of 3237 (nonfactored number) specimens of small strongyles was recovered from aliquot samples of feces passed PT and in the large intestinal contents at necropsy; all specimens were examined and identified. Thirteen species of adult small strongyles were recorded. Cylicocyclus (Cyc.) insigne was the predominant species. Three of the yearlings (H-2, H-4, and H-11) were necropsied at 6 days PT with ivermectin, and removals of small strongyles were: 50%, 80%, and 36% of fourth stages (L4), respectively, and 100%, 99%, and 100% of adults, respectively. As indicated, the only incomplete removal of adults from the three horses was for H-4. They consisted of two species: (1) young Cyc. insigne (those passed in the feces were fully developed); removal of this species was 89% and (2) fully developed Cylicostephanus longibursatus; 99% were removed. The fourth yearling (H-10), necropsied at 25 days PT, harbored 19,150 adult small strongyles in the large intestinal contents. Most of the species were Cyc. insigne; all were fifth stage but not sexually mature. Comparing the percentage of adult small strongyles found at necropsy relative to the total number present (those passed in the feces and at necropsy), only 0% to 1% were in the contents of the large intestines of the three horses at 6 days PT but in 26% for horse H-10 at 25 days PT. As mentioned earlier, only a few adults were found in one horse and several L(4) in the three horses at necropsy at 6 days PT. Therefore, in horse H-10, most adults found at 25 days PT presumably developed from "young" specimens not removed by ivermectin. Thus, data from the present critical tests indicate the probable cause of the "early" return of small strongyle EPG values after ivermectin treatment in the horses in field tests on Farm MC. It seems this was the result of incomplete removal of luminal specimens (L(4) and possibly young adults), some of which matured and began laying eggs by about 4 weeks PT (Lyons et al. Parasitol Res 103:209-215, 2008a). The research also showed that ivermectin was highly effective on adult small strongyles. At necropsy, the following other species of parasites (adult) were found, but none was recovered from the feces. These were (n = number of horses infected): (1) ascarids (Parascaris equorum-n = 1), (2) tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata-n = 4), and (3) pinworms (Oxyuris equi-n = 3). Immature (L4) O. equi were present in two horses and removals were 0% in one horse and 39% in the other. Eyeworms (Thelazia lacrymalis) were found in one horse at necropsy. Even though a small number of horses were used in the present research, the commonality of their background made them ideal candidates as a group for this study. This aspect helps strengthen the validity of the interpretation of the findings. PMID:18931857

Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Collins, S S

2009-02-01