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1

Treatment of Syphacia Obvelata in Mice Using Invermectin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Syphacia obvelata is a common pinworm parasite of wild and laboratory mice. A high proportion of conventional mouse colonies are affected by this parasite, which has a host range that also includes the Norway rat and the Mongolian gerbil. No gross lesions...

B. M. Flynn P. A. Brown J. M. Eckstein D. Strong

1989-01-01

2

Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

2003-01-01

3

Proteomic analysis of the pinworm Syphacia muris (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), a parasite of laboratory rats.  

PubMed

Syphacia muris (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is a ubiquitous nematode that commonly infects rats in the laboratory which can interfere in the development of biological assays. The somatic extract of S. muris adults collected from infected rats was investigated using a proteomic approach. A shot-gun liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry procedure was used. We used the MASCOT search engine (Matrix-Science) and ProteinPilot software v2.0 (Applied Biosystems) for the database search. A total of 359 proteins were accurately identified from the worms. The largest protein families consisted of metabolic enzymes and those involved in the nucleic metabolism and cell cycle. Proteins of transmembrane receptors and those involved in protein metabolism, chaperones, structural and motor, signalling and calcium-binding proteins also were identified in the proteome of S. muris. Proteome array of S. muris may contribute to further elucidation of biological system of S. muris as well as host-parasite relationships. PMID:22583759

Sotillo, Javier; Trelis, María; Cortés, Alba; Valero, María Luz; del Pino, Manuel Sánchez; Guillermo Esteban, José; Marcilla, Antonio; Toledo, Rafael

2012-12-01

4

Pinworm Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... Website Tools Website Tools Print this page Order publications Volunteer for NIAID-funded clinical studies related to pinworm infection on ClinicalTrials.gov. Related Link Parasitic Roundworm Diseases Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain ...

5

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... Back To Top Should family and other close contacts of someone with pinworm also be treated for ... Email page link Print page Get email updates Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...

6

Assessment of methods of destruction of Syphacia muris eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An investigation was performed to identify methods suitable for decontamination of equipment being transferred from a facility contaminated with Syphacia muris to a new facility. Perianal samples were taken on clear sticky tape from rats known to be infected with S. muris. Tapes and attached worm eggs were treated with ethylene oxide, formaldehyde fumigation, potassium peroxysulphate, chlorine dioxide and

J. Dix; J. Astill; G. Whelan

2004-01-01

7

Protective immunity against Echinostoma caproni in rats is induced by Syphacia muris infection.  

PubMed

Syphacia muris (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is a ubiquitous nematode that commonly infects rats in the laboratory and can interfere with the development of unrelated biological assays. In this context, we analysed the effect of a patent S. muris infection in Wistar rats on a superimposed infection with the intestinal trematode, Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). The results indicate that in the rats, infection with S. muris induces an immunity against a subsequent infection with E. caproni, although each parasite occupies different niches in the host. Echinostoma caproni worm recovery was significantly decreased in the rats primarily infected with S. muris and, at 3 and 4 weeks post-primary infection, the rats primarily infected with S. muris were refractory to the challenge infection with E. caproni. We observed that the main alterations induced by S. muris in the niche of E. caproni (ileum) that may be the cause of the resistance are: (i) a local antibody response with elevated levels of mucosal IgA, IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a that cross-react with E. caproni antigens; (ii) development of a biased Th17/Th2 phenotype; and (iii) changes in the glycosylation of ileal mucins. This indicates that S. muris induces distant alterations to the ileum of rats affecting the development of other helminth species. Apart from the interest of these results in the study of the interactions between helminths in a single host, it has been demonstrated that pinworm infections may interfere in non-related experiments. PMID:23399418

Trelis, Maria; Cortés, Alba; Fried, Bernard; Marcilla, Antonio; Esteban, J Guillermo; Toledo, Rafael

2013-05-01

8

Pinworms  

MedlinePLUS

... Bathe after waking up Wash your pajamas and bed sheets often Wash your hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or changing diapers Change your underwear every day Avoid nail biting Avoid scratching the anal area NIH: National ...

9

Dipylidium caninum mimicking recurrent enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection.  

PubMed

Pinworm infection is a very common diagnosis in young children that is not always confirmed through laboratory evaluation before empiric therapy is prescribed. This article describes a toddler who was treated several times for pinworms because small white worms were seen in her perianal area. Laboratory analysis of parasite material found in her diaper later confirmed a diagnosis of dipylidiasis. Because the signs of dipylidiasis and pinworm infection overlap and the treatments for these parasitic infections are different, the laboratory should clinically confirm suspected persistent or recurrent pinworms. PMID:18424563

Samkari, Ayman; Kiska, Deanna L; Riddell, Scott W; Wilson, Kathy; Weiner, Leonard B; Domachowske, Joseph B

2008-05-01

10

A new species of Syphacia (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to describe Syphacia kinsellai n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from the cecum of Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers 1818) (Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Misiones Province, Argentina. The new species can be differentiated from other species of the genus principally by the shape of the cephalic plate; distribution of submedian papillae and amphids; development of porous badge; presence of derids in females; absence of cervical and lateral alae; shape and structure of accessory hook of gubernaculum; and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. Until the present, only two species of Syphacia had been reported from Argentina in sigmodontine rodents, the first one parasitizes an Oryzomyini host and the second one an Akodontini host. This new species is the second record of Syphacia from the tribe Oryzomyini in Argentina; however, we propose that the first record, S. oryzomae, should be treated as a nomen dubium. PMID:17541641

Del Rosario Robles, María; Navone, Graciela Teresa

2007-09-01

11

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...

2013-07-01

12

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...

2010-07-01

13

40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a... § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a...components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E )-4-tridecen-1-yl...

2009-07-01

14

The effect of levamisole and levamisole + vitamin C on oxidative damage in rats naturally infected with Syphacia muris  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to determine the effects of levamisole and levamisole+vitamin C against Syphacia muris naturally infection in rats and to detect its effect on the oxidative parameters in blood and tissues of host. For this purpose, natural infection was diagnosed using the cellophane tape method on the perianal region of rats. Infected rats (total 18) were divided into

Sinan Ince; Esma Kozan; Ismail Kucukkurt; Elif Bacak

2010-01-01

15

[Survey on pinworm infection and egg contamination among urban, suburban and rural pupils in Shangqiu City].  

PubMed

Seven hundred and ninety-eight preschool children and grade one pupils from three schools in the city of Shangqiu were sampled randomly in urban, suburban and rural areas. The transparent tape method was used to examine the infection of pinworm and the contamination of pinworm eggs on the environments. The average infection rate of pinworm was 9.9% (79/798). The prevalence of pinworm infection among the pupils of urban(4.6%) was statistically lower than those of suburban (11.2%) and rural (13.8%) (P < 0.01). The contamination rate of pinworm eggs from armor, fingers, bedclothes, briefs,and stationery in infected pupils are 23.8% (5/21), 18.0% (9/50), 15.8% (3/19), 12.9% (4/31) and 5.0% (2/40), respectively, which showed no statistical significance (P > 0.05). PMID:23484265

Cui, Jin-Huan; Wang, Chenl; Xu, Ying; Man, Na; Cui, Yue; Yang, Xia; Cui, Yan-Mei

2012-12-30

16

Chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), maintained for more than twenty years in captive chimpanzees in Japan.  

PubMed

The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms. PMID:17918364

Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi

2007-08-01

17

Evaluation of some plants used in Turkish folk medicine against parasitic infections for their in vivo anthelmintic activity.  

PubMed

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from nine plant species from seven families selected depending on their use in Turkish folk medicine, including Citrillus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. (seed), Jasminum fruticans L. (branches), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (fruits), Juniperus nana L. (fruit and leaves), Juniperus oxcycedrus L (fruit and leaves), Mentha longifolia L. (herba), Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Richt. (fruits), Plantago lanceolata L. (leaves), and Zea mays L. (seed) were evaluated for their in vivo anthelmintic activity. Among the plant extracts studied, both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Jasminum fruticans, Mentha longifolia and Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana, the aqueous extracts of Zea mays, the ethanolic extracts of Citrillus lanatus, Juniperus drupacea (fruit), Juniperus oxcycedrus and Plantago lanceolata displayed significant anthelmintic activity against pinworms, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, in mice. Rest of the extracts from plants did not show any remarkable anthelmintic activity. The results were considered significant at p<0.05. PMID:16790330

Kozan, Esma; Küpeli, Esra; Yesilada, Erdem

2006-11-24

18

The acute effects of single-dose orally administered doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin on natural infections of Syphacia muris in rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the acute effects of a single-dose of orally administered doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin on Syphacia muris infection in rats. Rats, naturally infected with S. muris, were divided into four groups: three different treatment groups (n=7) and one positive control (n=7). Cellophane tape preparations were obtained from the treated rats on day 0 pre-treatment and on days 2, 4 and 6 post-treatment. Syphacia sp. eggs were counted. Eprinomectin was found to be 100% effective in eliminating eggs on two post-treatment. However when egg counts on day 6 post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment egg counts, doramectin and selamectin were found to be 99.32 and 98.77% effective in eliminating eggs, respectively. On day 7 post-treatment, blood samples were obtained from all groups, and then the rats were necropsied. Doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin were found to be 100% effective in eliminating adult S. muris, when compared with the positive control group. PMID:19318096

Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Kozan, Esma; Sevimli, Alper; Do?an, Nurhan; Bülbül, Aziz

2009-07-01

19

Pinworm test  

MedlinePLUS

Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to confirm that there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on three separate ...

20

Host specificity shapes population structure of pinworm parasites in Caribbean reptiles.  

PubMed

Host specificity is one of the potential factors affecting parasite diversification because gene flow may be facilitated or constrained by the number of host species that a parasite can exploit. We test this hypothesis using a costructure approach, comparing two sympatric pinworm parasites that differ in host specificity - Parapharyngodon cubensis and Spauligodon anolis - on the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix in the Caribbean. Spauligodon anolis specializes on Anolis lizards, whereas P. cubensis parasitizes Anolis lizards as well as many other species of lizards and snakes. We collected lizards from across the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix, sampled them for S. anolis and P. cubensis and generated nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from the parasites. We used these data to show that P. cubensis is comprised of multiple cryptic species that exhibit limited population structure relative to S. anolis, which is consistent with our prediction based on their host specificity. We also provide evidence that the distribution of P. cubensis species is maintained by competitive exclusion, and in contrast to previous theoretical work, the parasites with the greatest number of host species also reach the highest prevalence rates. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that host specificity shapes parasite diversification, and suggest that even moderate differences in host specificity may contribute to substantial differences in diversification. PMID:23848187

Falk, Bryan G; Perkins, Susan L

2013-09-01

21

Selection of processing tomato genotypes with high acyl sugar content that are resistant to the tomato pinworm.  

PubMed

Acyl sugars are allelochemicals present at high concentrations in leaves of accessions of the wild tomato Solanum pennellii; they confer resistance to a large number of arthropod pests, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Accession 'LA716', with high contents of acyl sugars in the leaves, was used as a source of resistance to start a genetic breeding program of processing cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum. We selected plants of the F? generation of an interspecific cross (S. lycopersicum cv. 'Redenção' x S. pennellii 'LA716') for extremes of concentrations (high and low) of acyl sugars in the leaves and evaluated the resistance of selected genotypes to the tomato pinworm, compared with plants of the parental and F? generations. The concentrations of acyl sugars present in the genotypes selected for high contents were close to those of S. pennellii 'LA 716', while the genotypes with low concentrations of acyl sugars were close to cultivar 'Redenção'. The F? hybrid ('Redenção' x 'LA716') had intermediate concentrations of acyl sugars, but was closer to Redenção, indicating that the inheritance of this type of character is due to a recessive major gene, along with minor genes with additive effects. There was a direct association between high contents of acyl sugars and non-preference for oviposition and suppression of larval development, indicating that the allelochemical acts through mechanisms of non-preference for oviposition and through antibiosis. Genotypes with high contents of acyl sugars were more effective in reducing the damage caused by the tomato pinworm. Genotypes RVTA-2010pl#94 and RVTA-2010pl#31, selected for high contents of acyl sugars, showed a good level of resistance to T. absoluta, similar to the wild genotype LA716. These genotypes are promising for use in a breeding program for developing commercial processing tomatoes. PMID:23420362

Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Camargo, L K P; Chagas, R R; Lima, I P

2013-01-01

22

Phylogenetic relationships between pinworms (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) parasitising the critically endangered orang-utan, according to the characterisation of molecular genomic and mitochondrial markers.  

PubMed

Pinworms (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) include 52 species parasitising primates throughout the world. In the present study, we performed the first ever molecular analysis to investigate the phylogenetic position of recently described pinworms parasitising the Sumatran orang-utan. The phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial CO1 and chromosomal 18S rDNA and ITS1 regions could support the independent status of several Nematoda species. Our molecular data clearly suggest that Enterobius (Colobenterobius) buckleyi and Lemuricola (Protenterobius) pongoi together with Pongobius hugoti form separate clades among other studied species, which significantly supports the hypothesis of recently described new species parasitising the orang-utan (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus). The phylogenetic tree based on cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene variability showed possible close relationships between L. (Protenterobius) pongoi and P. hugoti; thus, we can assume that these species could have initially diverged in sympatry from a common ancestor. PMID:24880237

Foitová, Ivona; Civá?ová, Kristína; Baruš, Vlastimil; Nurcahyo, Wisnu

2014-07-01

23

Incidence of Chirodiscoides caviae in Laboratory Rats-Screening, Identification and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This is a report on the incidence and treatment of the guinea pig fur mite Chirodiscoides caviae, which was so far considered as host specific, in a conventional colony of laboratory rats. Chirodiscoides caviae infestation in laboratory rats was accidentally observed during the screening of Syphacia obvelata by the peri-anal cellophane tape test (CTT). The organism was identified by

V. S. Harikrishnan; A. C. Fernandez

2009-01-01

24

Assessing European Egg Parasitoids as a Mean of Controlling the Invasive South American Tomato Pinworm Tuta absoluta  

PubMed Central

The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents.

Chailleux, Anais; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

25

Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.  

PubMed

The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

26

Total IgE as a Serodiagnostic Marker to Aid Murine Fur Mite Detection  

PubMed Central

Mites of 3 genera—Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia—continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity.

Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

2012-01-01

27

Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for generating specific DNA probes for oxyuroid species (Nematoda).  

PubMed

Random amplified DNA markers (RAPD; Williams et al., 1990) were used to obtained specific RAPD fragments characterising different species of oxyuroids. We tested six species of worms parasitizing vertebrates or invertebrates: Passalurus ambiguus Rudolphi, 1819, parasite of Leporids; Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802) Seurat, 1916, a parasite of rodents; Blatticola blattae (Graeffe, 1860) Chitwood, 1932 parasite of the cockroach Blattella germanica; Hammerschmidtiella diesingi (Hammerschmidt, 1838) Chitwood, 1932 and Thelastoma bulhoesi (Magalhaes, 1990) Travassos, 1929, parasites of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, and an undescribed parasite species of a passalid insect from New Caledonia. Among 15 oligonucleotides tested, nine produced several specific bands allowing the interspecific discrimination. PMID:9754296

Jobet, E; Bougnoux, M E; Morand, S; Rivault, C; Cloarec, A; Hugot, J P

1998-03-01

28

Helminth parasites of conventionally maintained laboratory mice.  

PubMed

The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the Swiss Webster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course of this study, namely the cestode Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852) Spasskii, 1954 (= Hymenolepis nana) and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821) Schultz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802) Seurat, 1916. The scope of this investigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols. PMID:7823817

Pinto, R M; Vicente, J J; Noronha, D; Gonçalves, L; Gomes, D C

1994-01-01

29

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... soap and warm water after using the toilet, changing diapers, and before handling food is the most ... soap and warm water after using the toilet, changing diapers, and before handling food. They should also ...

30

Chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain: pin the pinworm.  

PubMed

Enterobius vermicularis is the most common helminthic infection in the US. It is usually considered an innocuous parasite that at the most causes perianal itching. We report a case of an 84-year-old female patient from an assisted living facility who presented with symptoms of colitis for 2 months. On detailed history and exam, she was found to have E. vermicularis infection. All her symptoms resolved dramatically within 2 days after a single dose of albendazole. We want to emphasize the importance of including parasitic infections such as E. vermicularis in the differential diagnoses of patients presenting with symptoms of colitis. PMID:19219921

Rajamanickam, Anitha; Usmani, Ali; Suri, Sanjeev; Dimov, Vesselin

2009-02-01

31

Antihelminthic activity of some newly synthesized 5(6)-(un)substituted-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylthioacetylpiperazine derivatives.  

PubMed

Piperazine derivatives of 5(6)-substituted-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylthio)acetic acids were synthesized by using two methods and studied for antihelminthic activity. The antiparasitic screening showed that compounds 18-24 exhibited higher activity against Trichinella spiralis in vitro in comparison to methyl 5-(propylthio)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-carbamate (albendazole). Most active were compounds 2-({2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl}thio)-1H-benzimidazole 21 and 2-{[2-oxo-2-(4-benzhydrylpiperazin-1-yl)ethyl]thio}-5(6)-methyl-1(H)-benzimidazole 19 as well as 2-({2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl}thio)-5(6)-methyl-1(H)-benzimidazole 23 with efficacy of 96.0%, 98.4% and 100%, respectively. The tested derivatives 15-19 and 20-23 were less active against Syphacia obvelata in vivo than albendazole and exhibited the same efficacy as piperazine, but in twice lower concentration.Compounds 2-({2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl}thio)-1H-benzimidazole 21, 1,4-bis[(5(6)-methyl-1(H)-benzimidazol-2-ylthio)acetyl]piperazine 17 and 2-({2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl}thio)-5(6)-methyl-1(H)-benzimidazole 23 had higher efficacies of 73%, 76%, and 77%, respectively. PMID:16996654

Mavrova, Anelia Ts; Anichina, Kamelya K; Vuchev, Dimitar I; Tsenov, Jordan A; Denkova, Pavletta S; Kondeva, Magdalena S; Micheva, Mitka K

2006-12-01

32

Repurposing the FDA-Approved Pinworm Drug Pyrvinium as a Novel Chemotherapeutic Agent for Intestinal Polyposis  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the WNT-pathway regulator ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI (APC) promote aberrant activation of the WNT pathway that is responsible for APC-associated diseases such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and 85% of spontaneous colorectal cancers (CRC). FAP is characterized by multiple intestinal adenomas, which inexorably result in CRC. Surprisingly, given their common occurrence, there are few effective chemotherapeutic drugs for FAP. Here we show that the FDA-approved, anti-helminthic drug Pyrvinium attenuates the growth of WNT-dependent CRC cells and does so via activation of CK1?. Furthermore, we show that Pyrvinium can function as an in vivo inhibitor of WNT-signaling and polyposis in a mouse model of FAP: APCmin mice. Oral administration of Pyrvinium, a CK1? agonist, attenuated the levels of WNT-driven biomarkers and inhibited adenoma formation in APCmin mice. Considering its well-documented safe use for treating enterobiasis in humans, our findings suggest that Pyrvinium could be repurposed for the clinical treatment of APC-associated polyposes.

Giambelli, Camilla; Fei, Dennis Liang; Han, Lu; Hang, Brian I.; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Nose, Vania; Burlingame, Oname; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Orton, Darren; Lee, Ethan; Robbins, David J.

2014-01-01

33

Clinical manifestations of appendiceal pinworms in children: an institutional experience and a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of Enterobius vermicularis infestation with acute appendicitis varies from 0.2–41.8% worldwide. Our purpose was to determine the significance of Enterobius-associated appendicitis by retrospective review of appendectomies performed during a 5-year period at a major children’s hospital. The Surgical Pathology database at Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, was reviewed for appendiceal specimens found to have Enterobius infestation. Corresponding patient charts

Marjorie J. Arca; Robert L. Gates; Jonathan I. Groner; Sue Hammond; Donna A. Caniano

2004-01-01

34

[Nematodes of rodents from Jelenia Góra district].  

PubMed

The paper presents a survey of nematodes found in 49 rodents of 4 species from 17 localities of the Jelenia Góra district (SW Poland). The following parasites were found: Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) Boulanger, 1922; Heligmosomoides glareoli Baylis, 1928; Heligmosomum mixtum Schulz, 1929; Heligmosomoides sp.; Heligmosomidae gen. sp.; Trichostrongyloidea gen. sp.; Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945; Syphacia montana Yamaguti, 1943; Syphacia stroma (Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932; Syphacia nigeriana Baylis, 1928; Aonchoteca murissylvatici (Diesing, 1851) Lopez-Neyra, 1947; Trichuris muris (Schrank, 1788) Hall, 1916. PMID:16865978

Popio?ek, Marcin; Hildebrand, Joanna; Karpi?ska, Marta; Indyk, Franciszek; Paw?owska-Indyk, Aurelia

2004-01-01

35

Gusanos, los Lombrices, los Tenias y Otras Parasitos Intestinales del ser Humano (Hookworm, Pinworm, Tapeworm, and Other Intestinal Parasites of Humans).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four pamphlets review the causes and treatment of intestinal parasites: Morphology of Diagnostic Stages of Intestinal Parasites; Under ordinary laboratory conditions, diagnosis of intestinal parasites in man is a difficult matter. The publication is desig...

1971-01-01

36

'Wormy'form appendix.  

PubMed

Appendicitis and helminth infections are both common conditions in children. However, helminths (pinworms) infestation causing appendiceal luminal obstruction and presenting as appendicitis is uncommon. PMID:22665583

Jesudoss, Abraham Vincent Samuel; Kaya, Meryem; Lombardo, Rosanna; Rohatgi, Ashish

2012-01-01

37

Enterobius vermicularis in the nose: A rare entity.  

PubMed

A rare case of enterobius vermicularis pin-worm is reported in the nose. An 11-year-old girl presented with the vague symptoms of crawling sensation in the nose for few weeks, who had received treatment for allergic rhinitis. The nasal secretions were examined and confirmed the diagnosis of pinworm infection and treated by albendazole. PMID:23120157

Kaniyur, Vishnu; Chandra Prasad, Kishore H; Devan, P P; Doddamani, S S; Balachandran, Bharati; Kulkarni, Vikram

2005-04-01

38

Redescription of Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) based on material collected from wild Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata (Primates: Cercopithecidae).  

PubMed

Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) was collected from a Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Nara and Yamaguchi Prefectures, Honshu Island, Japan, for the first time. A redescription is presented along with DNA sequence data. This pinworm is a typical member of the subgenus Enterobius and is characteristic in the spicule morphology, being readily distinguished from other congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cox1 gene assign its position in the pinworm lineage adapted to the Old World primates, showing divergence before the splitting of the chimpanzee and human pinworms. PMID:21916620

Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi

2012-02-01

39

Enterobius granuloma: an unusual cause of omental mass in an 11-year-old girl.  

PubMed

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is the only nematode that infects humans. It is one of the most common intestinal parasites. Pinworm commonly infests the terminal ileum and colon, and does not cause severe morbidity unless ectopic infection occurs. However, granulomatous lesions caused by ectopic Enterobius vermicularis infection may lead to unusual clinical symptoms and may be misinterpreted as malignant lesions. Herein, the authors present an 11-year-old girl with pinworm infection who presented with abdominal pain and an omental mass, with special emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24911856

K?l?ç, Sinan; Ekinci, Saniye; Orhan, Diclehan; Senocak, Mehmet Emin

2014-01-01

40

Nail Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...

41

Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...

42

Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...

43

Chronic Diarrhea  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...

44

[Epidemiological characteristics of soil-borne nematodiasis in Xiamen City].  

PubMed

The infection rate of soil-borne nematodes was 6.37% in Xiamen City, 2008, and among which the infection rates of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and pinworm were 5.97%, 0.29%, 0.09% and 20.13%, respectively. The infection rate of soil-borne nematodes outside the island and that of pinworm in children were still high. PMID:22590884

Chen, Jian; Chen, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ming-Zhai; Chen, Hua-Fang; Lin, Min-Zhen; Ke, Xue-Mei; Guo, Zhi-Nan

2012-02-01

45

Transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis: evaluation of the role of Enterobius vermicularis.  

PubMed

The role of Enterobius vermicularis in the transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis has been evaluated in two groups of patients admitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of Celal Bayar University: one group with E. vermicularis infection (n=187, Pinworm Group), and the other with D. fragilis infection (n=126, Dientamoeba Group). The presence of the other parasite, pinworm or Dientamoeba, was investigated with the microscopic examination of cellophane tape and stool samples for three consecutive days. In the Pinworm Group, 9.6% of the patients were found to be coinfected with D. fragilis, while 25.4% of the patients in the Dientamoeba Group were found to be coinfected with pinworms. The coincidence rates of D. fragilis and E. vermicularis, higher than the prevalence of each parasite in similar populations, suggest a common relation between these two parasites, possibly in entering the human body. E. vermicularis infection was found to be significantly more common in younger children (p<0.001), indicating that younger children may also be at higher risk for D. fragilis infection. These findings also raise the question of whether the unrelated symptoms of the pinworm infected patients such as abdominal pain and diarrhea may actually be due to overlooked Dientamoeba infections. PMID:17921047

Girginkarde?ler, Nogay; Kurt, Ozgür; Kilimcio?lu, Ali A; Ok, Ulgen Z

2008-03-01

46

Efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against naturally acquired Oxyuris equi infections in horses.  

PubMed

In recent years, numerous veterinary practitioners have reported anecdotal episodes in which anthelmintic treatment did not appear to deliver the expected efficacy against equine pinworms (Oxyuris equi). Anthelmintic resistance has not been demonstrated formally in equine pinworms, so a clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of paste formulations of pyrantel pamoate or ivermectin against naturally acquired infections with O. equi. Twenty-one horses (>4 months to 15 years of age) with patent, naturally acquired pinworm infections were blocked by source of origin and allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: horses (n=7) assigned to Group 1 were treated orally with pyrantel pamoate paste at a dosage of 13.2 mg/kg (2x label dosage), Group 2 horses (n=7) were untreated controls, and horses (n=7) assigned to Group 3 were treated orally with ivermectin paste at a dosage of 200 microg/kg. Fourteen days after treatment, horses were euthanatized, necropsied, and large intestinal contents were processed for recovery of adult pinworms. In addition, duplicate 1% aliquots of intestinal contents from the cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon, and small colon were collected, preserved, and examined for recovery and enumeration of fourth-stage larval O. equi. Anthelmintic efficacy against pinworms was evaluated by comparing the post-treatment worm counts of Groups 1 and 3 to those of control animals. Mean numbers of O. equi adults recovered postmortem were significantly decreased by both pyrantel pamoate (P=0.0366) and ivermectin (P=0.0137) treatment, with respective efficacies of 91.2% and 96.0%. In addition, both products demonstrated >99% efficacy against fourth-stage O. equi larvae. The current study demonstrated acceptable adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of both pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against O. equi and did not support the existence of macrocyclic lactone or pyrimidine resistance in the pinworm populations evaluated. PMID:20307935

Reinemeyer, Craig R; Prado, Julio C; Nichols, Eric C; Marchiondo, Alan A

2010-07-15

47

Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient.  

PubMed

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms. PMID:19030741

Sammour, Zein Mohamed; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Tome, Andre Luiz Farinhas; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel

2008-08-01

48

Infectious Diseases in Day Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

Sleator, Esther K.

49

Diagnostic Structures of Intestinal Helminths: Enterobius vermicularis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The figure shows an Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) egg found in a feces sample. Generally the ovum measures 50 to 60 üm long by 20 to 40 üm wide. The figure is of an embryonated ovum, flattened on one side, with a thin colorless shell.

Javier Gutierrez Jimenez (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas ;); P. Ramirez-Cobaxin (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas ;Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas); J.A. Hernandez-Shilon (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas ;Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas)

2011-06-17

50

[Enterobiasis in pediatric subjects in north-western Italy: a study of home remedies].  

PubMed

The present study examines the most common home remedies in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy currently used in the treatment of pediatric enterobiasis, commonly known as pinworm infection. The remedies in question, typically based on popular beliefs and as such are nearly useless, were noted through interviews with subjects who had come to the local Hygiene and Public Health Services offices for information about pinworm prevention and treatment. Analysis of replies by the subjects clearly indicates that local families are ill-prepared to recognize the symptoms this parasitic infection; often it is confused with pediatric ketosis, therefore leading to inappropriate treatment which at times may be potentially harmful to the patient. PMID:22670340

Dutto, M; Montù, D; Raineri, G

2012-01-01

51

[Enterobius vermicularis causing symptoms of acute appendicitis].  

PubMed

The authors present a case of enterobiasis of the appendix. Enterobius infection is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible unless there is a strong clinical suspicion. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis. Careful observation of the appendix stump may lead to intraoperative diagnosis of enterobiasis. A quick diagnosis and appropriate treatment may prevent future complications. PMID:18799410

Antal, András; Kocsis, Béla

2008-08-01

52

Enterobiasis among Preschool Children: a Study from Kayseri, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobiasis (pinworm) is a common helminth infection occurring worldwide and affecting almost 1 billion people from all socioeconomic classes. Infection is more common in school and preschool children, who are easily exposed to overcrowded conditions and inadequate sanitation, and who have more active contact with each other than adults (1-4). The most common transmission is directly via anus-to-mouth by finger

Muge Oguzkaya Artan; Zeynep Baykan; Cem Artan

53

Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among preschool children in kindergartens of Taipei City, Taiwan in 2008.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children was reported to be low based on a 5-year screening program in Taipei City, Taiwan. The Taipei City government intended to terminate the E. vermicularis screening program among preschool children. Thus, we were entrusted with confirming whether pinworm infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined. From each of 12 administrative districts 2-3 kindergartens were randomly selected for investigation. In total, 4,349 children were examined, of which 2,537 were boys and 1,812 were girls. The cellophane tape adhered to a glass slide was used, and all examinations were done by certified medical technologists. Results indicated that the overall prevalence rate of pinworm infections was 0.62% (27/4,349). Although the infection rate was higher among boys (0.67%, 17/2,537) than in girls (0.55%, 10/1,812), no significant difference was found (chi(2) = 0.399, P = 0.62). According to the administrative district, the infection rate ranged from no positive cases of E. vermicularis infection in the Xinyi, Zhongzhen, and Wanhua Districts (0%; 0/299, 0/165, and 0/358, respectively), to 0.26% (1/131) in Songshan District, with the highest rate of 1.88% (7/373) in Wenshan District. Because the overall infection rate (0.62%, 27/4,349) in the present study was unchanged compared to that (0.40%, 197/49,541) previously reported in 2005, we propose that regular pinworm screening and treatment programs should be continued in some parts of Taipei City. PMID:19488428

Chang, Tso-Kang; Liao, Chien-Wei; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chou, Chia-Mei; Tsay, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Alice; Guu, Shu-Fen; Kao, Ting-Chang; Fan, Chia-Kwung

2009-06-01

54

Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among Preschool Children in Kindergartens of Taipei City, Taiwan in 2008  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children was reported to be low based on a 5-year screening program in Taipei City, Taiwan. The Taipei City government intended to terminate the E. vermicularis screening program among preschool children. Thus, we were entrusted with confirming whether pinworm infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined. From each of 12 administrative districts 2-3 kindergartens were randomly selected for investigation. In total, 4,349 children were examined, of which 2,537 were boys and 1,812 were girls. The cellophane tape adhered to a glass slide was used, and all examinations were done by certified medical technologists. Results indicated that the overall prevalence rate of pinworm infections was 0.62% (27/4,349). Although the infection rate was higher among boys (0.67%, 17/2,537) than in girls (0.55%, 10/1,812), no significant difference was found (?2 = 0.399, P = 0.62). According to the administrative district, the infection rate ranged from no positive cases of E. vermicularis infection in the Xinyi, Zhongzhen, and Wanhua Districts (0%; 0/299, 0/165, and 0/358, respectively), to 0.26% (1/131) in Songshan District, with the highest rate of 1.88% (7/373) in Wenshan District. Because the overall infection rate (0.62%, 27/4,349) in the present study was unchanged compared to that (0.40%, 197/49,541) previously reported in 2005, we propose that regular pinworm screening and treatment programs should be continued in some parts of Taipei City.

Chang, Tso-Kang; Liao, Chien-Wei; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chou, Chia-Mei; Tsay, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Alice; Guu, Shu-Fen; Kao, Ting-Chang

2009-01-01

55

Cutaneous larva migrans.  

PubMed

The case of cutaneous larva migrans presented here is typical for its mechanism and geographic location of infection, evolution of lesions, and prompt response to treatment. Except for pinworms, helminth infections are rarely thought of in emergency departments away from the areas where the parasites are especially prevalent. The several-day incubation period and modern-day ease of travel should place this illness on one's list of the differential diagnoses of pruritic lesions regardless of the location of practice. This case serves as a reminder that in a mobile society, diseases, as well as patients, can travel. PMID:8235796

Jones, W B

1993-11-01

56

Enterobius vermicularis infection in schoolchildren: a large-scale survey 6 years after a population-based control.  

PubMed

Pinworm infection remains prevalent in children in many parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of this infection in schoolchildren in Taiwan after the termination of the 15-year population-based control project in 2001. Our results showed that 2.4% of 118 190 children in 385 primary schools were found to have enterobiasis by two-consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs. The prevalences were significantly different in the 25 counties/cities surveyed (0.6-6.6%). A significantly higher prevalence was found in boys (2.6%) than in girls (2.2%) and the prevalence decreased by grade from 3.8% in grade 1 to 1.0% in grade 6. In the primary schools, 9.1% had positive rates 10%. In addition, pinworm infection was found to be significantly associated with the socioeconomic status, personal hygiene and sanitary conditions of the children. The results indicate that the overall prevalence of enterobiasis remains at a low level after the control programme was transferred to the local governments. PMID:19450379

Wang, L-C; Hwang, K-P; Chen, E-R

2010-01-01

57

Microbiological monitoring of laboratory mice and biocontainment in individually ventilated cages: a field study.  

PubMed

Over recent years, the use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) rack systems in laboratory rodent facilities has increased. Since every cage in an IVC rack may be assumed to be a separate microbiological unit, comprehensive microbiological monitoring of animals kept in IVCs has become a challenging task, which may be addressed by the appropriate use of sentinel mice. Traditionally, these sentinels have been exposed to soiled bedding but more recently, the concept of exposure to exhaust air has been considered. The work reported here was aimed firstly at testing the efficiency of a sentinel-based microbiological monitoring programme under field conditions in a quarantine unit and in a multi-user unit with frequent imports of mouse colonies from various sources. Secondly, it was aimed at determining biocontainment of naturally infected mice kept in an IVC rack, which included breeding of the mice. Sentinels were exposed both to soiled bedding and to exhaust air. The mice which were used in the study carried prevalent infectious agents encountered in research animal facilities including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), mouse parvovirus (MPV), intestinal flagellates and pinworms. Our data indicate that the sentinel-based health monitoring programme allowed rapid detection of MHV, intestinal flagellates and pinworms investigated by a combination of soiled bedding and exhaust air exposure. MHV was also detected by exposure to exhaust air only. The IVC rack used in this study provided biocontainment when infected mice were kept together with non-infected mice in separate cages in the same IVC rack. PMID:16803642

Brielmeier, M; Mahabir, E; Needham, J R; Lengger, C; Wilhelm, P; Schmidt, J

2006-07-01

58

[Diagnosis of and anthelminthic therapy for enterobius vermicularis infections during pregnancy: review of the literature and case report].  

PubMed

Intestinal infection due to the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis is the most prevalent helminthiasis in Europe and North America. Humans are the only known reservoir and young children are most often affected. The disease is highly contagious and is transmitted via the faecal-oral route. Insufficient hand hygiene, contaminated bed linens and clothes may play a role in transmission. Clinical symptoms often encompass severe nocturnal anal pruritus, when female worms deposit an abundance of eggs in the perianal region. The infection is diagnosed by applying an adhesive tape on the perianal region, followed by microscopic examination. Serious complications, such as extraintestinal infections, occur only rarely. Infections of the female genital tract and the peritoneum are described in the literature, also in pregnant women. We describe a case of a pregnant patient in the 33 (rd) week of gestation with intense anal pruritus in whom an enteral pinworm infection was diagnosed. The patient was successfully treated with mebendazole, an anthelminthic agent. Analysis of the data currently available for the administration of mebendazole during pregnancy did not show an elevated rate of congenital anomalies. However, further studies still have to be performed. PMID:16941308

Djakovic, A; Tappe, D; Dietl, J

2006-08-01

59

Old enemies, still with us after all these years.  

PubMed

Although some previously common infections, such as Sendai virus and Mycoplasma pulmonis, have become rare in laboratory rodents in North American research facilities, others continue to plague researchers and those responsible for providing biomedical scientists with animals free of adventitious disease. Long-recognized agents that remain in research facilities in the 21st century include parvoviruses of rats and mice, mouse rotavirus, Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), and pinworms. The reasons for their persistence vary with the agent. The resilience of parvoviruses, for example, is due to their resistance to inactivation, their prolonged shedding, and difficulties with detection, especially in C57BL/6 mice. Rotavirus also has marked environmental resistance, but periodic reintroduction into facilities, possibly on bags of feed, bedding, or other supplies or equipment, also seems likely. TMEV is characterized by resistance to inactivation, periodic reintroduction, and relatively long shedding periods. Although MHV remains active in the environment at most a few days, currently prevalent strains are shed in massive quantities and likely transmitted by fomites. Pinworm infestations continue because of prolonged infections, inefficient diagnosis, and the survivability of eggs of some species in the environment. For all of these agents, increases in both interinstitutional shipping and the use of immunodeficient or genetically modified rodents of unknown immune status may contribute to the problem, as might incursions by wild or feral rodents. Elimination of these old enemies will require improved detection, strict adherence to protocols designed to limit the spread of infections, and comprehensive eradication programs. PMID:18506062

Clifford, Charles B; Watson, Julie

2008-01-01

60

[Effects of tomato genotypes and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].  

PubMed

Insecticide plants are an important tool among the new alternatives for pest control in IPM systems because they reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, preserving human health and the environment. We investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds and three tomato genotypes, 'Santa Clara', 'IPA-5'--Solanum lycopersicum (=Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), and LA444-1--S. peruvianum (=L. peruvianum), on the development, reproduction and longevity of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), under laboratory conditions. The trials were set up in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments [three genotypes x two extracts (M. azedarach and A. indica) and control]. The replication consisted on five tubes, each with three newly hatched larvae, totalizing 90 individuals per treatment. The larvae were fed with tomato leaves treated with aqueous extracts at 0.1% concentration or distilled water (control) and daily observed until adults' emergence. Larval and pupal development and mortality, pupal weight, longevity and fecundity were evaluated. The accession LA444-1 negatively affected the development and reproduction of T. absoluta; the tomato pinworm had similar development and reproduction on 'IPA-5' and 'Santa Clara' (the susceptible control). The association of resistant tomato genotypes and extracts of M. azedarach leaves and neem seeds did not result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on T. absoluta. PMID:21120389

Brunherotto, Rogério; Vendramim, José D; de G Oriani, Maria A

2010-01-01

61

Shutting down a working vivarium for decontamination.  

PubMed

Handling a rodent disease outbreak in a facility can be a challenge. After the University of Colorado Denver Office of Laboratory Animal Resources enhanced its sentinel monitoring program, > 90% of the animal colonies housed in a vivarium at the Anschutz Medical Campus (with an area of 50,000 net ft(2)), serving the labs of > 250 principal investigators, tested positive for multiple infective agents including mouse parvovirus, fur mites, pinworms and epizootic diarrhea of infant mice. The authors detail the process by which they planned and executed a shutdown and a decontamination of the facility, which involved the rederivation or cryopreservation of > 400 unique genetically modified mouse lines. The authors discuss the aspects of the project that were successful as well as those that could have been improved. PMID:25050729

Leszczynski, Jori; Wallace, Michelle; Tackett, Jamie; Jiron, Ursula; Collins, Jan; Warder, Char; Richardson, Laura; Bell, Lorraine; Russell, Carolyn

2014-07-22

62

Effects of repeated anthelmintic treatment on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Effects of repeated treatment with pyrantel pamoate on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees were assessed by observing worms discharged in the feces after administration of anthelmintic treatment. Three of 9 chimpanzees reared in a zoological garden in Japan were subjected to fecal worm count and morphometric observation, and all were given oral pyrantel pamoate 6 times at 10-day intervals simultaneously. Following the first and second treatments, more than 30,000 pinworms were discharged from 1 chimpanzee. The number of discharged worms abruptly decreased after the third treatment, and only a few worms were recovered after the fifth treatment, indicating that repeated treatment at short intervals was very effective. Complete eradication was not achieved, however, presumably because of reinfection. The female proportion among discharged worms tended to increase as the treatment was repeated. PMID:16108565

Nakano, Tadao; Fukui, Daisuke; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Hasegawa, Hideo

2005-06-01

63

Appendiceal Enterobius vermicularis infestation in adults.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence of Enterobius vermicularis in the appendices of the adult population and a possible relationship between E. vermicularis and acute appendicitis. E. vermicularis was identified in 18 (2%) of 890 patients. Six hundred sixty-five operations were performed for presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis, and E. vermicularis was found in 12 (2%) patients. The histopathological examination revealed acute inflammatory cells in four cases (33%). Three of these four specimens included luminal ova and one E. vermicularis. Histopathological examination of six cases revealed E. vermicularis in 225 incidental appendectomies with no evidence of either acute or chronic inflammatory cells. This study suggests a relationship between the presence of E. vermicularis ova and acute inflammation, but the presence of the pinworm in the lumen of the appendix is coincidental. On the other hand E. vermicularis in the appendix lumen can cause symptoms of acute appendicitis. PMID:18050832

Isik, Burak; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Karadag, Nese; Kahraman, Latif; Sogutlu, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Sezai; Kirimlioglu, Vedat

2007-01-01

64

Prospects for the biological control of Tuta absoluta in tomatoes of the Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

Since its detection in the Mediterranean basin at the end of 2006 and later in other European countries, the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), has become a serious threat to tomato crops. In newly infested areas, it is especially problematic during the first years of its presence. Nevertheless, after 2-3 years, the incidence of T. absoluta has become less severe in certain areas. There are several factors contributing to this decline, such as the increase in growers' knowledge of pest behaviour and biology and the correct application of integrated pest control strategies. The impact of opportunistic native natural enemies (fortuitous biological control) should be considered as one of the key factors in this decline. In this review, available information on indigenous natural enemies is updated, and the current pest management approaches used against T. absoluta are addressed. Finally, future scenarios for biological control of this pest are discussed. PMID:22730076

Urbaneja, Alberto; González-Cabrera, Joel; Arnó, Judit; Gabarra, Rosa

2012-09-01

65

Efficacy of Direct Detection of Pathogens in Naturally Infected Mice by Using a High-Density PCR Array  

PubMed Central

We used a high-density array of real-time PCR assays for commonly reported rodent infectious agents (PRIA) to test naturally infected index mice and sentinel mice exposed by contact and soiled-bedding transfer. PRIA detected 14 pathogens—including viruses, bacteria, fur mites, pinworms, and enteric protozoa—in 97.2% of 28 pooled fecal samples, fur–perianal swabs, and oral swabs from 4 cages containing a total of 10 index mice. Among these pathogens, PRIA (like conventional health monitoring methods) failed to detect Mycoplasma pulmonis, Pasteurella pneumotropica, and Giardia spp. in all of the 9 contact and 9 soiled-bedding sentinels. PRIA demonstrated murine adenovirus and Cryptosporidium and Spironucleus spp. in contact but not soiled-bedding sentinels and detected Helicobacter and pinworms in fewer than half of the soiled-bedding sentinels. Of the 4 species of Helicobacter that species-specific PCR assays identified in index mice, only H. ganmani was found in soiled-bedding and contact sentinels. PRIA detected all of the pathogens in sentinels that were identified by conventional methods. Myobia musculi was detected by PCR in index and sentinel mice but missed by conventional parasitologic examinations. In summary, PRIA reproducibly detected diverse pathogens in heavily pooled specimens collected noninvasively from infected index mice antemortem. The inability of PRIA and conventional health monitoring methods (that is, parasitology, microbiology, and serology) to demonstrate transmission of some pathogens to contact sentinels and the inefficient transmission of others to soiled-bedding sentinels underscores the importance of direct PCR testing to determine the pathogen status of rodents in quarantine and during routine colony surveillance.

Henderson, Kenneth S; Perkins, Cheryl L; Havens, Richard B; Kelly, Mee-Jin E; Francis, Brian C; Dole, Vandana S; Shek, William R

2013-01-01

66

Intestinal parasitic infections in Campalagian district, south Sulawesi, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Intestinal parasitic infections were surveyed in the inhabitants of 3 coastal and 2 inland villages of Campalagian District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in July 1992. A total of 398 fecal samples were examined by using Kato-Katz thick smear, Harada-Mori culture and agar-plate culture techniques. Protozoan cysts were examined by formalin ether concentration technique on 380 fecal samples. Soil-transmitted helminth infections were highly prevalent with the overall positive rates as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 25.3%, Trichuris trichiura 59.3%, hookworm 68.3% and Strongyloides stercoralis 2.3%. Eight species of protozoan were detected with the overall prevalence as follows: Entamoeba histolytica 10.9%, E. hartmanni 16.3%, E. coli 31.9%, Endolimax nana 12.5%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 5.4%, Giardia lamblia 4.6%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8% and Blastocystis hominis 18.0%. In the inland villages, prevalence of hookworm infection was higher than Ascaris and Trichuris infections, while in the coastal villages Trichuris infection was predominant. Egg count revealed that the infection level was light in most of the hookworm and Trichuris carriers. Prevalence of lavatories among houses appeared to be inversely proportional to the prevalence of hookworm infection. Meanwhile, the incomplete structure of the lavatories might result in contamination of environment with Ascaris and Trichuris eggs. Harada-Mori culture was the most efficient method in the detection of hookworm infection compared to other techniques. Both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found in all villages, but the former was the predominant species. An adult pinworm was detected by agar-plate culture of feces. Two types of pinworm males, corresponding to Enterobius vermicularis and E. gregorii, were observed. PMID:8266235

Mangali, A; Sasabone, P; Syafruddin; Abadi, K; Hasegawa, H; Toma, T; Kamimura, K; Miyagi, I

1993-06-01

67

A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined. PMID:25035582

Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz

2014-09-01

68

Endoparasites of rodents from the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Rodents are a key mammalian group highly successful in adapting to a variety of environments throughout the world and play an important role in many zoonotic cycles. Within this project, the gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasite fauna of 76 rodents (Muroidea and Sciuridae) was determined in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in Southeastern Bangladesh. Gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites were examined with macro- and microscopical tools (e.g. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) at a field site in Bandarban. A wide variety of parasites were found in rodent hosts, including protozoa-Giardia sp. (n = 8), Cryptosporidium sp. (n = 1), Entamoeba sp. (n = 8), Trichomonadida (n = 4), Isospora sp. (n = 1), trematodes (Echinostoma sp.; n = 3), cestodes-Hymenolepis nana (n = 1), Hymenolepis diminuta (n = 3), Hymenolepis sp. (n = 2), Taenia taeniaeformis-Larven (n = 4), Catenotaenia sp. (n = 1), Taenia sp. (n = 1), nematodes-Heterakis spumosa (n = 4), Heterakis sp. (n = 1), Aspiculuris tetraptera (n = 2), Capillaria hepatica (n = 2), Capillaria sp. (n = 3), Syphacia sp. (n = 2), Strongyloides sp. (n = 10), Trichostrongylus sp. (n = 2) and Trichuris sp. (n = 1)-and acanthocephalans (Moniliformis moniliformis; n = 2). Several of the examined parasites are of zoonotic importance via direct or indirect transmission (e.g. C. hepatica) and may affect humans. PMID:23064859

Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Treiber, Moritz; Igel, Petra; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald

2012-11-01

69

Ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths of southern flying squirrels in southeast Georgia.  

PubMed

Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from southeastern Georgia were examined for ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths. Ten species of ectoparasites were recovered, including 3 species of sucking lice (Hoplopleura trispinosa, Microphthirus uncinatus, and Neohaematopinus sciuropteri), 1 species of flea (Orchopeas howardi), 2 species of ticks (Amblyomma maculatum and Ixodes scapularis), 3 species of mesostigmatid mites (Androlaelaps casalis, A. fahrenholzi, and Haemogamasus ambulans), and 1 species of chigger (Leptotrombidium peromysci). Only the sucking lice and fleas were common on this host. M. uncinatus is reported for the first time from eastern North America. The 2 most commonly collected ectoparasites, N. sciuropteri (prevalence = 63%) and O. howardi (prevalence = 47%), have previously been shown to be vectors of the rickettsial zoonotic agent that causes sporadic epidemic typhus. Also, 3 nematodes (Citellinema bifurcatum, Strongyloides robusius, and Syphacia thompsoni), 1 unidentified cestode, and 1 acanthocephalan (Moniliformis clarki) were found in flying squirrel gastrointestinal tracts. With the exception of S. thompsoni, which was common and relatively abundant in the cecum (prevalence = 94%, intensity = 51+/-12), both the prevalence and intensity of helminth parasites were low. The nematode S. thompsoni and the acanthocephalan M. clarki are new state records for tree squirrels in Georgia. PMID:11128479

Pung, O J; Durden, L A; Patrick, M J; Conyers, T; Mitchell, L R

2000-10-01

70

Differences in richness and composition of gastrointestinal parasites of small rodents (Cricetidae, Rodentia) in a continental and insular area of the Atlantic Forest in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.  

PubMed

The first and only study on gastrointestinal parasites of wild rodents in the Island of Santa Catarina was done in 1987. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites from wild rodents in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz and Santa Catariana Island, and to compare the richness and composition of the gastrointestinal parasite community of both areas. Rodents were captured with live traps, and feces were screened using the sedimentation method and optical microscopy. The following species of rodents were captured in the two areas: Akodon montensis, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Nectomys squamipes. In Santo Amaro da Impetratriz, prevalent parasites were: A. montensis (51%), E. russatus (62%), O. nigripes (53%) and N. squamipes (20%). From the Island of Santa Catarina the rodent prevalence rates were: A. montensis (43%), E. russatus (59%), O. nigripes (30%) and N. squamipes (33%) and the collected parasites were: Hymenolepis sp., Longistriata sp., Strongyloides sp., Hassalstrongylus sp., Syphacia sp., Trichomonas sp., Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Oxyuridae and Eucoccidiorida. The species richness (10.6 ± 0.7) of the endoparasite comunity in the area located on the continent was higher (p < 0.01) and different (p = 0.001) from that of the area located on the island (6.9 ± 0.5). PMID:22990827

Kuhnen, V V; Graipel, M E; Pinto, C J C

2012-08-01

71

The helminth community of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, in the Sierra Espuna, Murcia, Spain.  

PubMed

The helminth community of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, in the Sierra Espuna was characterized after a complete analysis of its helminth community component and infracommunity structure relative to host age, sex and year of capture. The helminth community comprised 13 species: one trematode, four cestodes and eight nematodes. The cestode Pseudocatenotaenia matovi and the nematode Syphacia frederici were the most prevalent and abundant helminth species, respectively. Sixty four percent of mice analysed presented helminths with a direct cycle and 42% presented helminths with an indirect cycle. The helminth community presents a low diversity with infracommunities usually made up of only one or two helminth species. Host age and year of capture seem to play a major role in determining species richness and helminth diversity, but not in determining the abundance of helminths. Host sex does not seem to affect the infection rate nor the diversity. Further studies on more samples of wood mice and other small mammal species in this regional park are needed to explore any possible interactions between helminth communities in the host populations. PMID:15469624

Fuentes, M V; Sáez, S; Trelis, M; Galán-Puchades, M T; Esteban, J G

2004-09-01

72

Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus) in the Belgrade area (Serbia): the effect of sex, age and habitat*  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control). Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris) and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna). The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%). Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host.

Kataranovski, M.; Mirkov, I.; Belij, S.; Popov, A.; Petrovic, Z.; Gacic, Z.; Kataranovski, D.

2011-01-01

73

Effect of fenbendazole on an autoimmune mouse model.  

PubMed

Fenbendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm infection in laboratory rodents. Data regarding possible side effects of fenbendazole on the immune system are conflicting, potentially due to the design of treatment protocols. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of 2 fenbendazole therapeutic regimens (continuous for 5 wk and alternating weeks [that is, 1 wk on, 1 wk off] for 9 wk) on the development of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. No significant differences in survival curves or weight were observed between the treatment groups and cohort mice receiving nonmedicated feed. At the termination of the experiment, there were no differences in tissue pathology. Hematocrit decreased and BUN increased over time in all groups, but no significant differences were present between groups. After the cessation of treatment, mice fed the medicated diet continuously for 5 wk showed an increase in antiDNA antibody. Although this difference was significant, it did not affect survival curves or disease-related tissue or blood changes. These data indicate that common protocols of fenbendazole treatment do not alter the progression of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. PMID:23849411

Cray, Carolyn; Watson, Toshiba; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

2013-01-01

74

Emerging from Obscurity: Biological, Clinical, and Diagnostic Aspects of Dientamoeba fragilis  

PubMed Central

Ever since its first description in 1918, Dientamoeba fragilis has struggled to gain recognition as a significant pathogen. There is little justification for this neglect, however, since there exists a growing body of case reports from numerous countries around the world that have linked this protozoal parasite to clinical manifestations such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and anorexia. A number of studies have even incriminated D. fragilis as a cause of irritable bowel syndrome, allergic colitis, and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus patients. Although D. fragilis is most commonly identified using permanently stained fecal smears, recent advances in culturing techniques are simplifying as well as improving the ability of investigators to detect this organism. However, there are limitations in the use of cultures since they cannot be performed on fecal samples that have been fixed. Significant progress has been made in the biological classification of this organism, which originally was described as an ameba. Analyses of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences have clearly demonstrated its close relationship to Histomonas, and it is now known to be a trichomonad. How the organism is transmitted remains a mystery, although there is some evidence that D. fragilis might be transmitted via the ova of the pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Also, it remains to be answered whether the two distinct genotypes of D. fragilis recently identified represent organisms with differing virulence.

Johnson, Eugene H.; Windsor, Jeffrey J.; Clark, C. Graham

2004-01-01

75

A Nationwide Survey on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in the Republic of Korea, 2004  

PubMed Central

National surveys on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections have been carried out every 5-7 years since 1971 in the Republic of Korea in order to establish control measures. The present nationwide survey was conducted from June to December 2004. The 10% population sampling data of Population and Housing Census by the Korean government in 2000 was used as the survey population. One sample was selected randomly from each of the 22,858 registered subjects, and a total of 20,541 people were ultimately included in this survey. Fecal examinations were performed by the cellophane thick smear and saturated brine flotation techniques. Pinworm infection was examined by cello-tape anal swab method. This survey also included a questionnaire study for a socioeconomic analysis. The total helminth egg positive rate was 3.7%, and the estimated total positive number among nationwide people was 1,780,000. The rates in urban and rural areas were 3.1% and 6.8%, respectively. As the total egg positive rate in the 6th survey in 1997 was 2.4%, the present survey showed that there was a considerable degree of increase in the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections over the 7-year period following the 6th survey. The largest increases occurred in the egg positive rates of Clonorchis sinensis and heterophyids including Metagonimus yokogawai.

Kim, Tong-Soo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Huh, Sun; Kong, Yoon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Park, Yun-Kyu; Oh, Dae-Kyu

2009-01-01

76

Dientamoeba fragilis in Denmark: epidemiological experience derived from four years of routine real-time PCR.  

PubMed

The intestinal protozoon Dientamoeba fragilis remains a clinical entity of dubious significance. While several previous studies address questions of epidemiology, only a handful have systematically employed and reported on the results from real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the best currently available diagnostic modality, and the comparison of results from different studies is, therefore, difficult. Since 2007, Statens Serum Institut (Denmark) has utilised qPCR for D. fragilis as routine diagnostic work-up for intestinal parasitosis, testing more than 22,000 samples from 2008 through 2011, and the aim of this study was to report on the results and experiences gained in the process. We demonstrate a staggeringly high proportion (43%) of investigated patients positive for D. fragilis, ranging from 12 to 71% depending on age group, showing a bimodal age distribution peaking in children and adults of parental age, as well as a clear association between exposure to children and risk of D. fragilis infection. We discuss these findings in light of the pinworm egg vector hypothesis and substantiate further our knowledge of risk factors pertaining to D. fragilis carriage. PMID:23609513

Röser, D; Simonsen, J; Nielsen, H V; Stensvold, C R; Mølbak, K

2013-10-01

77

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.  

PubMed

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

78

The New Method Developed for Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity by Housefly Worms and Compared with Conventional Earthworm Method  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of any drug when carried out in laboratory conditions by using the isolated worms from nature cannot be adaptable with artificial laboratory conditions. Therefore, the present study aims at developing a new adaptable method for evaluation of anthelmintic activity. The present anthelmintic activity study reveals a new methodology with housefly worms cultured in laboratory conditions that resemble parasitic pinworms found in human being. We studied the anthelmintic activities of various drugs on housefly worms and earthworms. The results showed that the housefly worms had taken more time for paralysis and death. Even after paralysis the time taken for death is more in housefly worms in spite of smaller size and lesser weight of the worms compared to earthworms. The study concluded that the earthworms have not adapted to the artificial laboratory conditions leading to erratic results. Therefore, culturing of housefly worms was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity and found an easy, prominent, eco-friendly, and reproducible method in all aspects such as equal age, size, and weight of worms used for the experiment.

Murugamani, V.; Raju, L.; Anand Raj, V. Baskar; Sarma kataki, Manjir; Sankar, G. Girija

2012-01-01

79

Age-Associated Variability in Susceptibility of Swiss Webster Mice to MPV and Other Excluded Murine Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Detection of mouse parvovirus (MPV) and other murine pathogens in research colonies is dependent on the transmissibility of the agents and the sensitivity of sentinels to those agents. Transmissibility is based on several agent-dependent properties including mode of transmission, infectivity, and environmental stability, whereas host susceptibility can vary according to mouse age, strain, and sex. In this study, 4-wk-old, 12-wk-old, and aged Swiss Webster female sentinel mice were compared for their ability to detect infectious agents by using a standardized health surveillance program, to determine whether sentinels should be replaced more frequently to improve the efficiency of detection of infectious agents within a murine colony. Both experimentally and naturally infected mice were used to transmit MPV and other infectious agents from index mice to sentinels. First, Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with MPV, and transmission to 4-, 12-, and 24-wk-old contact and soiled-bedding sentinels was determined. Second, mice naturally infected with 9 infectious agents were obtained from 2 local pet stores, and transmission to 4-wk-old contact sentinels and 4-, 12-, and 44-wk-old soiled-bedding sentinels was determined. For agents that were transmitted via soiled bedding (MPV, mouse hepatitis virus, murine norovirus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, and pinworms), transmission did not differ in regard to the age of the sentinels. In conclusion, susceptibility to several infectious agents did not differ according to sentinel age in a health-surveillance protocol that used mice older than 12 wk.

Grove, Kristina A; Smith, Peter C; Booth, Carmen J; Compton, Susan R

2012-01-01

80

Clinical trial of efficacy of ivermectin pour-on against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in silvopasturing horses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess, by a clinical trial, the efficacy of an ivermectin-based pour-on treatment against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in naturally infected horses using 2 groups of mature indigenous Pura Raza Galega grazing mares. Faecal and blood samples were collected individually over a 21 week period. Faeces were analysed by the coprological flotation, sedimentation and migration techniques. Changes in circulating blood cells were monitored over the study period. The administration of the ivermectin suppressed the egg-elimination of ascarids and pinworms throughout the study and no strongyle-eggs were observed in the treatment group between the 3rd and 10th weeks. The numbers of red cells increased significantly after the anthelmintic therapy, and a statistical reduction in circulating leucocytes was recorded. No side effects were observed. The pour-on ivermectin formulation was highly successful against gastrointestinal nematodes and appears to be a useful therapeutic routine for large groups of horses. PMID:19927592

Francisco, I; Sánchez, J A; Cortiñas, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Arias, M; Mula, P; Suárez, J L; Morrondo, P; Díez-Baños, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A

2009-09-01

81

Palaeopathology and genes: investigating the genetics of infectious diseases in excavated human skeletal remains and mummies from past populations.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to review the use of genetics in palaeomicrobiology, and to highlight the importance of understanding past diseases. Palaeomicrobiology is the study of disease pathogens in skeletal and mummified remains from archaeological contexts. It has revolutionarised our understanding of health in the past by enabling a deeper knowledge of the origins and evolution of many diseases that have shaped us as a species. Bacterial diseases explored include tuberculosis, leprosy, bubonic plague, typhoid, syphilis, endemic and epidemic typhus, trench fever, and Helicobacter pylori. Viral diseases discussed include influenza, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Parasitic diseases investigated include malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, roundworm, whipworm, pinworm, Chinese liver fluke, fleas and lice. Through a better understanding of disease origins and their evolution, we can place into context how many infectious diseases are changing over time, and so help us estimate how they may change in the future. PMID:23792062

Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

2013-10-01

82

Fenbendazole improves pathological and functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

During a study of spinal cord injury (SCI), mice in our colony were treated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole to treat pinworms detected in other mice not involved in the study. As this was not part of the original experimental design, we subsequently compared pathological and functional outcomes of SCI in female C57BL/6 mice who received fenbendazole (150 ppm, 8 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks prior to moderate contusive SCI (50 kdyn force) as compared to mice on the same diet without added fenbendazole. The fenbendazole-treated mice exhibited improved locomotor function, determined using the Basso mouse scale, as well as improved tissue sparing following contusive SCI. Fenbendazole may exert protective effects through multiple possible mechanisms, one of which is inhibition of the proliferation of B lymphocytes, thereby reducing antibody responses. Autoantibodies produced following SCI contribute to the axon damage and locomotor deficits. Fenbendazole pretreatment reduced the injury-induced CD45R-positive B cell signal intensity and IgG immunoreactivity at the lesion epicenter 6 weeks after contusive SCI in mice, consistent with a possible effect on the immune response to the injury. Fenbendazole and related benzimadole antihelmintics are FDA approved, exhibit minimal toxicity, and represent a novel group of potential therapeutics targeting secondary mechanisms following SCI. PMID:24183965

Yu, C G; Singh, R; Crowdus, C; Raza, K; Kincer, J; Geddes, J W

2014-01-01

83

Enterobius vermicularis worm granuloma mimicking like a pseudo tumor in the anal canal: An unusual clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Enterobius vermicularis is one of the most common intestinal nematode worldwide. Enterobius rarely causes a symptomatic disease. We report here an unusual case of a 60-year old man who came with a polypoidal growth in the anal canal increasing in size for past 20 years. He had pain and intense itching over the mass. The differential diagnosis of squamous papilloma, fibroma and foreign body granuloma were considered. The mass lesion was excised surgically and sent to the pathology laboratory. The mass turned out to be an “E. vermicularis worm granuloma” by histopathologic examination. Thus, timely reporting and surgical resection of such lesion is necessary to prevent further complications. This case is reported here for the unusual presentation of pinworm as a pseudoneoplasm in the anal canal. Incidence of these cases reflected the poor personal hygiene and improper disposal of human excreta in the rural areas. We insist that health education is the only way to control the spread of helminthic infections that causes a heavy disease burden to our country.

Bharathi, K; Anuradha, S; Chandrasekar, VC Ajay; Thirunarayanan, R

2012-01-01

84

Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities.

Tohon, Zilahatou

2014-01-01

85

A nationwide survey on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the Republic of Korea, 2004.  

PubMed

National surveys on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections have been carried out every 5-7 years since 1971 in the Republic of Korea in order to establish control measures. The present nationwide survey was conducted from June to December 2004. The 10% population sampling data of Population and Housing Census by the Korean government in 2000 was used as the survey population. One sample was selected randomly from each of the 22,858 registered subjects, and a total of 20,541 people were ultimately included in this survey. Fecal examinations were performed by the cellophane thick smear and saturated brine flotation techniques. Pinworm infection was examined by cello-tape anal swab method. This survey also included a questionnaire study for a socioeconomic analysis. The total helminth egg positive rate was 3.7%, and the estimated total positive number among nationwide people was 1,780,000. The rates in urban and rural areas were 3.1% and 6.8%, respectively. As the total egg positive rate in the 6th survey in 1997 was 2.4%, the present survey showed that there was a considerable degree of increase in the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections over the 7-year period following the 6th survey. The largest increases occurred in the egg positive rates of Clonorchis sinensis and heterophyids including Metagonimus yokogawai. PMID:19290090

Kim, Tong-Soo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Huh, Sun; Kong, Yoon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Park, Yun-Kyu; Oh, Dae-Kyu; Lee, Jong-Koo

2009-03-01

86

Ozone-induced changes in host-plant suitability: interactions of Keiferia lycopersicella and Lycopersicon esculentum  

SciTech Connect

Tomato pinworms, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham), survived better and developed faster on tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., damaged by ozone than on plants not subjected to ozone fumigation. Other measures of fitness, including survival during pupation, sex ratio of adults, female longevity, and fecundity, were not affected. Analyses of ozonated foliage at zero, two and seven days following fumigation demonstrated a transient but significant increase (18-24%) in soluble protein concentration. Although the concentration of the total free amino acids in ozonated foliage did not increase significantly, significant changes were observed in at least 10 specific amino acids, some of which are critical for either insect development or the production of plant defensive chemicals. A reduction in total nitrogen in ozonated foliage at seven days postfumigation indicated that nitrogen was being translocated to other portions of the plant. The implications of increases in assimilable forms of nitrogen in ozonated foliage, which lead to improved host-plant suitability for insect herbivores, are discussed both in relation to some current ecological theories and in regard to pest-management strategies. 59 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Trumble, J.T.; Hare, J.D.; Musselman, R.C.; McCool, P.M.

1987-01-01

87

Age-associated variability in susceptibility of Swiss Webster mice to MPV and other excluded murine pathogens.  

PubMed

Detection of mouse parvovirus (MPV) and other murine pathogens in research colonies is dependent on the transmissibility of the agents and the sensitivity of sentinels to those agents. Transmissibility is based on several agent-dependent properties including mode of transmission, infectivity, and environmental stability, whereas host susceptibility can vary according to mouse age, strain, and sex. In this study, 4-wk-old, 12-wk-old, and aged Swiss Webster female sentinel mice were compared for their ability to detect infectious agents by using a standardized health surveillance program, to determine whether sentinels should be replaced more frequently to improve the efficiency of detection of infectious agents within a murine colony. Both experimentally and naturally infected mice were used to transmit MPV and other infectious agents from index mice to sentinels. First, Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with MPV, and transmission to 4-, 12-, and 24-wk-old contact and soiled-bedding sentinels was determined. Second, mice naturally infected with 9 infectious agents were obtained from 2 local pet stores, and transmission to 4-wk-old contact sentinels and 4-, 12-, and 44-wk-old soiled-bedding sentinels was determined. For agents that were transmitted via soiled bedding (MPV, mouse hepatitis virus, murine norovirus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, and pinworms), transmission did not differ in regard to the age of the sentinels. In conclusion, susceptibility to several infectious agents did not differ according to sentinel age in a health-surveillance protocol that used mice older than 12 wk. PMID:23294885

Grove, Kristina A; Smith, Peter C; Booth, Carmen J; Compton, Susan R

2012-11-01

88

Effects of Fenbendazole on the Murine Humoral Immune System  

PubMed Central

Pinworms are highly contagious parasites that have been effectively treated in laboratory rodents with fenbendazole (FBZ). Whether FBZ has any detrimental side effects that may compromise experimental results is unknown. Here we asked whether the immune systems from young and aged mice are altered under FBZ treatment. We compared control and FBZ-treated groups of young (age, 2 to 4 mo) and old (age, 22 to 24 mo) BALB/cN mice. The treated mice received a total of 4 wk (alternating-week treatment regimen) of FBZ-medicated feed. Spleen and bone marrow were collected for immunologic assays, and heart, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and liver were evaluated by histopathology. Our results indicate that FBZ treatment has significant effects on the immune systems of mice; these effects are greater in aged mice. FBZ treatment adversely affected mRNA and protein expression of E2A (a transcription factor crucial for B lymphocytes) in activated precursor B lymphocytes obtained from the bone marrow of young and old mice. These effects were reversed by 6 wk on regular feed after the end of treatment. Activated B lymphocytes from the spleens of young and old mice showed decreased function (cell proliferation, E2A mRNA and protein expression) through the last time point of FBZ treatment but recovered by 2 to 4 wk after treatment. Our findings suggest that FBZ treatment may alter sensitive immune and molecular measures as presented here, and postponing the experimental use of mice until at least 6 wk after treatment should be considered.

Landin, Ana Marie; Frasca, Daniela; Zaias, Julia; Van der Put, Elaine; Riley, Richard L; Altman, Norman H; Blomberg, Bonnie B

2009-01-01

89

[Oxyuriasis and prehistoric migrations].  

PubMed

Parasite findings in archeological material have made it possible to trace the dispersion of infectious agents and their human hosts in ancient times. These findings allow us to re-examine theories proposed at the beginning of the century concerning transpacific contacts that Asian populations may have had with South America. This has been the case, for example, with hookworm eggs found in archeological material dating up to 7,000 years before present. Because of the increase in scientific production in this area, it has now become necessary to undertake syntheses that assess the state of the art and propose workable paleoepidemological models of the prehistoric dispersion of human parasitoses. Based on findings of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in archeological material in the Americas, the present study is an effort in this direction. Unlike the hookworm, the pinworm does not require a soil cycle in order to be transmitted from one host to another, thereby meaning that its persistence in a given human population does not depend on climatic conditions. Thus, it could have been brought from the old to the new continent, possibly by human migrations across the Bering Strait. This may explain the greater geographical dispersion and dissemination of these findings in North America from 10,000 yrs B.P. till today. In South America, on the other hand, archeological findings have only confirmed existence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs within the Andean region, with findings located specifically in Chile and northern Argentina. Although a large number of samples have been examined, no such eggs have been found in coprolites in Brazil. The paper discusses models that account for the known distribution of this parasitosis in prehistoric populations. PMID:11625244

Araújo, A; Ferreira, L F

1995-01-01

90

Infectious diseases in wild mice (Mus musculus) collected on and around the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) Campus.  

PubMed

Laboratory mice serve as important models in biomedical research. Monitoring these animals for infections and infestations and excluding causative agents requires extensive resources. Despite advancements in detection and exclusion over the last several years, these activities remain challenging for many institutions. The infections and infestations present in laboratory mouse colonies are well documented, but their mode of introduction is not always known. One possibility is that wild rodents living near vivaria somehow transmit infections to and between the colonies. This study was undertaken to determine what infectious agents the wild mice on the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) campus were carrying. Wild mice were trapped and evaluated for parasites, viruses, and selected bacteria by using histopathology, serology, and PCR-based assays. Results were compared with known infectious agents historically circulating in the vivaria housing mice on campus and were generally different. Although the ectoparasitic burdens found on the 2 populations were similar, the wild mice had a much lower incidence of endoparasites (most notably pinworms). The seroprevalence of some viral infections was also different, with a low prevalence of mouse hepatitis virus among wild mice. Wild mice had a high prevalence of murine cytomegalovirus, an agent now thought to be confined to wild mouse populations. Helicobacter DNA was amplified from more than 90% of the wild mice (59% positive for H. hepaticus). Given the results of this study, we conclude that wild mice likely are not a source of infection for many of the agents that are detected in laboratory mouse colonies at the University of Pennsylvania. PMID:19887025

Parker, Sharon E; Malone, Sarah; Bunte, Ralph M; Smith, Abigail L

2009-10-01

91

Biological control strategies for the South American tomato moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomatoes.  

PubMed

The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been introduced into new geographic areas, including the Mediterranean region, where it has become a serious threat to tomato production. Three greenhouse trials conducted in tomato crops during 2009 and 2010 explored control strategies using the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti compared with chemical control. The effectiveness of the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) was also tested. In greenhouses with early pest infestations (discrete generations), periodic inundative releases (eight releases at a rate of 50 adults/m2, twice a week) were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (85.63 +/- 5.70%) early in the growing season. However, only one inoculative release (100 adults/m2) was sufficient to achieve a comparatively high parasitism level (91.03 +/- 12.58%) under conditions of high pest incidence and overlapping generations. Some intraguild competition was observed between T. achaeae and the predator, N. tenuis. This mirid species is commonly used in Mediterranean greenhouse tomato crops for the control of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Tomato cultivars were also observed to influence the activity of natural enemies, mainly N. tenuis (whose average numbers ranged between 0.17 +/- 0.03 and 0.41 +/- 0.05 nymphs per leaf depending on the cultivar). This may be because of differences in plant nutrients in different cultivars, which may affect the feeding of omnivorous insects. In contrast, cultivar effects on T. achaeae were less apparent or possibly nonexistent. Nevertheless, there was an indirect effect in as much as T. achaeae was favored in cultivars not liked by N. tenuis. PMID:23356074

Cabello, Tomas; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Vila, Enric; Del Pino, Modesto; Hernandez-Suarez, Estrella

2012-12-01