Sample records for syphacia obvelata pinworm

  1. Effective eradication of pinworms ( Syphacia muris, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera ) from a rodent breeding colony by oral anthelmintic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lionel Zenner

    1998-01-01

    Summary An oral combination of piperazine and ivermectin was used over a 6-week period for treating three different colonies of mice or rats infested with Syphacia obvelata, Syphacia muris or Aspiculuris tetraptera. No acute toxic effect was found in transgenic lines of mice or rats with these products in a preliminary trial. The colonies were treated with piperazine, 2.1 mg\\/ml

  2. Effective eradication of pinworms (Syphaciamuris, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera) from a rodent breeding colony by oral anthelmintic therapy.

    PubMed

    Zenner, L

    1998-07-01

    An oral combination of piperazine and ivermectin was used over a 6-week period for treating three different colonies of mice or rats infested with Syphacia obvelata, Syphacia muris or Aspiculuris tetraptera. No acute toxic effect was found in transgenic lines of mice or rats with these products in a preliminary trial. The colonies were treated with piperazine, 2.1 mg/ml in tap water for 2 weeks, then with ivermectin, 0.007 mg/ml, in tap water for the third and fourth weeks, and finally with piperazine for two further weeks. Hygiene measures such as a complete cage change, thorough disinfection and cleaning of the rooms were associated with the treatment. All examinations subsequent to completion of treatment have proved negative for further parasites. PMID:9718483

  3. Sensitivity of Perianal Tape Impressions to Diagnose Pinworm (Syphacia spp.) Infections in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred M; Mandrell, Timothy D

    2009-01-01

    We determined the sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to detect Syphacia spp. in rats and mice. We evaluated 300 rat and 200 mouse perianal impressions over 9 wk. Pinworm-positive perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens at necropsy were considered as true positives. Conversely, pinworm-negative perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens were considered false negatives. The sensitivity of perianal tape impressions for detecting Syphacia muris infections in rats was 100%, and for detecting Syphacia obvelata in mice was 85.5%. Intermittent shedding of Syphacia obvelata ova is the most probable explanation for the decreased sensitivity rate we observed in mice. We urge caution in use of perianal tape impressions alone for Syphacia spp. screening in sentinel mice and rats. PMID:19653945

  4. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

  5. Characterization of rat pinworm (Syphacia muris) epidemiology as a means to increase detection and elimination.

    PubMed

    Meade, Theresa M; Watson, Julie

    2014-11-01

    Rodent pinworms persist in many institutions, suggesting deficiencies in eradication and diagnostic processes. When pinworms are detected, treatment success is common, but false-negative test results during health surveillance or after treatment likely contribute to the continued presence of this parasite. PCR testing is not always practical, and increased information regarding the life cycle and general epidemiology of pinworm infestations could improve the sensitivity of traditional nonPCR detection methods and improve eradication efforts. We therefore investigated a pinworm (Syphacia muris) infestation in Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) to develop a more accurate testing strategy. In addition, we sought to determine the duration of egg viability by using an in vitro hatching protocol to assess environmental persistence. Finally, we tested the ovicidal efficacy of a disinfectant used at our institution. Eggs were shed in higher numbers in the midafternoon as compared with other times of the day, and the sex of the host had no consistent effect on egg shedding. Egg shedding showed periodicity over time, with shedding decreasing to 0 at 2- to 3-wk intervals. Neither cecal examination nor tape tests alone reliably predicted pinworm infestation, and results of the 2 tests did not necessarily coincide. Eggs aged for as long as 7 mo remained viable, indicating a potential for recontamination from the environment. Finally, gaseous chlorine dioxide was an effective ovicidal agent, with a kill rate of 99.7%. These results suggest that strategies for S. muris eradication can be optimized to increase detection and elimination. PMID:25650973

  6. Pinworms

    MedlinePLUS

    Pinworms are small worms that infect the intestines. ... Pinworms are the most common worm infection in the United States. They are most common in school-age children. Pinworm eggs are spread directly from person to ...

  7. Diagnosis of the pinworm Syphacia muris in the Wistar rat Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Sousa, J E N; Carvalho, E F G; Levenhagen, M A; Chaves, L A; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to compare three qualitative parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Syphacia muris infection in 30 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) infected naturally. Methods of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman, Pons and Janer, or HPJ) and spontaneous flotation (Willis) for faecal samples and a method of taping (Graham) were performed and compared. The Graham and Willis methods were more sensitive than the HPJ method (P< 0.05). The Graham method was able to detect S. muris eggs in 100% of the samples. Eggs were detected in 83% and 60% of the samples using the Willis and HPJ methods, respectively. Method choice is important for screening for parasites of rats kept under laboratory conditions, as accurate diagnosis helps prevent future environmental contamination and infection. We concluded that the Graham method was the most efficient of those tested in this study for detection of S. muris infection in rats. This method is also rapid, inexpensive and practical, and should be implemented as a necessary measure for infection control. PMID:25327496

  8. Pinworms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of clear tape. Mild infections may not need treatment. If you do need medicine, everyone in the household should take it. To prevent becoming infected or reinfected with pinworms, Bathe after waking up Wash your pajamas and ...

  9. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

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  10. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

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  11. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Disease

    MedlinePLUS

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  12. Exposure to Chlorine Dioxide Gas for 4 Hours Renders Syphacia Ova Nonviable

    PubMed Central

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. PMID:25199091

  13. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 hours renders Syphacia ova nonviable.

    PubMed

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. PMID:25199091

  14. Pinworms (Enterobius Vermicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Pinworm infestation (enterobiasis, syn. oxyuriasis), though not usually dangerous, remains one of the commonest parasitic infections seen by the family physician. Particularly prevalent in the pediatric age group, pinworms also infect adults; in both groups the commonest symptom is pruritus ani. Detailed descriptions of history, life cycle, and epidemiology are given. In addition to hygienic measures useful in treatment, the particulars of drug therapy are also outlined. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:21286054

  15. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

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  16. Pinworm in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vose, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A case of enterobiasis in pregnancy that presented as copious nocturnal vaginal discharge is reported. Enterobius vermicularis is the most common parasite infecting humans. Transmission can be fecal-oral or via fomites, and recently arrived immigrants from developing countries and individuals who live in households with young children are particularly at risk. Pinworms are most frequently found in the gastrointestinal tract but can also enter the vagina and bladder. Patients typically present with nocturnal anal itching, and diagnosis can be made by clinical history. Treatment includes an antihelminthic agent for the patient and members of the household as well as home hygiene measures to prevent transmission. PMID:22432492

  17. Probstmayria vivipara pinworms in ponies.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H J

    1979-01-01

    From 1967--1978 observations were made on the presence of the small equine pinworm, Probstmayria vivipara, in seven experimental ponies. The life cycle of this nematode is unusual in that it is endogenous with development of all stages occurring within the host's digestive tract. Initially, worms were found in the feces of four of seven ponies following treatment with thiabendazole but the infection was later transmitted to all ponies possibly via coprophagy. Still later, based on fecal and postmortem examinations, four of the seven ponies lost their pinworm burdens. At necropsy, the principal sites of infection were observed to be the cecum and right ventral colon. Despite the large number of pinworms present, clinical signs were not observed. PMID:487251

  18. Detection of pinworm eggs in the dust of laboratory animals breeding facility, in the cages and on the hands of the technicians.

    PubMed

    Lytvynets, A; Langrova, I; Lachout, J; Vadlejch, J

    2013-01-01

    Pinworms (Nematoda: Oxyurida) are common contaminants in most laboratory rodent colonies. The aim of the study was to monitor the transmission of Syphacia muris eggs in laboratory rat breeding facilities. Dust in a breeding room was investigated using special grids (free fallout, or through the help suction chamber). Furthermore, the ventilation system, breeding cages and the hands of the laboratory technical staff were examined. In the case of free fallout, the percentage of positive grids increased slightly over time: from 5.5% (after 24 h) to 8.2% (72 h). Similar values were also found when using the suction chamber (7.6%). Many more pinworm eggs were found in samples collected every second month from suction holes of the ventilation system (28.7%). One-half of the samples taken from the breeding cages (before washing) exhibited pinworm eggs (50.8%). Examination of the hands of technical staff showed positive detection in 37.9% of cases. In this study, certain transmission factors (dust, unclean cages and technicians) were proved to be significant in the distribution of pinworm infection in laboratory rodent facilities. PMID:23230226

  19. Dipylidium caninum mimicking recurrent enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection.

    PubMed

    Samkari, Ayman; Kiska, Deanna L; Riddell, Scott W; Wilson, Kathy; Weiner, Leonard B; Domachowske, Joseph B

    2008-05-01

    Pinworm infection is a very common diagnosis in young children that is not always confirmed through laboratory evaluation before empiric therapy is prescribed. This article describes a toddler who was treated several times for pinworms because small white worms were seen in her perianal area. Laboratory analysis of parasite material found in her diaper later confirmed a diagnosis of dipylidiasis. Because the signs of dipylidiasis and pinworm infection overlap and the treatments for these parasitic infections are different, the laboratory should clinically confirm suspected persistent or recurrent pinworms. PMID:18424563

  20. The influence of the nematode Syphacia oblevata on adjuvant arthritis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, D J; Taylor, G

    1975-01-01

    The effect of infestation with the nematode Syphacia oblevata on adjuvant arthritis was studied in the rat. Animals with an established infestation with Syphacia were found to have a reduced incidence of arthritis after injection of Freund's complete adjuvant. Infested animals developing adjuvant arthritis were found to suffer from a less severe form of the disease than animals in which infestation had been eliminated with piperazine before immunization. PMID:1171819

  1. A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini. PMID:24995650

  2. The Use of Cross-foster Rederivation to Eliminate Murine Norovirus, Helicobacter spp., and Murine Hepatitis Virus from a Mouse Colony

    PubMed Central

    Artwohl, James E; Purcell, Jeanette E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Over 10 mo, 287 mouse litters were cross-fostered by using 1 of 2 paradigms to eliminate murine norovirus (MNV), Helicobacter spp., murine hepatitis virus (MHV), and Syphacia obvelata. Paradigm 1 involved cross-fostering litters at younger than 48 h with no attention to the changing of bedding material. Paradigm 2 involved cross-fostering litters at younger than 24 h from cages in which the bedding material was changed within 24 h before cross-fostering. After cross-foster rederivation, mice were tested for the presence of Helicobacter spp. by means of fecal PCR at 4, 8, and 12 wk. Surrogates also were tested for MNV by use of multiplex fluorometric assay serology at 4 wk and fecal PCR at 12 wk. Surrogate mice were tested for MHV by means of MFIA at 4 wk and for pinworms by perianal tape test and fecal flotation at 4 and 12 wk. Compared with those from paradigm 1, litters from paradigm 2 were less likely to be positive for MHV and Helicobacterspp. The use of cross-foster rederivation alone was unsuccessful for the elimination of Syphacia obvelata. For cross-foster rederivation, we recommend that litters be younger than 24 h and from cages in which the bedding material was changed within 24 h before cross-fostering. The presence of MNV, Helicobacter spp., and MHV can be predicted reliably at 12, 8, and 4 wk, respectively. PMID:19049248

  3. The use of cross-foster rederivation to eliminate murine norovirus, Helicobacter spp., and murine hepatitis virus from a mouse colony.

    PubMed

    Artwohl, James E; Purcell, Jeanette E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2008-11-01

    Over 10 mo, 287 mouse litters were cross-fostered by using 1 of 2 paradigms to eliminate murine norovirus (MNV), Helicobacter spp., murine hepatitis virus (MHV), and Syphacia obvelata. Paradigm 1 involved cross-fostering litters at younger than 48 h with no attention to the changing of bedding material. Paradigm 2 involved cross-fostering litters at younger than 24 h from cages in which the bedding material was changed within 24 h before cross-fostering. After cross-foster rederivation, mice were tested for the presence of Helicobacter spp. by means of fecal PCR at 4, 8, and 12 wk. Surrogates also were tested for MNV by use of multiplex fluorometric assay serology at 4 wk and fecal PCR at 12 wk. Surrogate mice were tested for MHV by means of MFIA at 4 wk and for pinworms by perianal tape test and fecal flotation at 4 and 12 wk. Compared with those from paradigm 1, litters from paradigm 2 were less likely to be positive for MHV and Helicobacter spp. The use of cross-foster rederivation alone was unsuccessful for the elimination of Syphacia obvelata. For cross-foster rederivation, we recommend that litters be younger than 24 h and from cages in which the bedding material was changed within 24 h before cross-fostering. The presence of MNV, Helicobacter spp., and MHV can be predicted reliably at 12, 8, and 4 wk, respectively. PMID:19049248

  4. Chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), maintained for more than twenty years in captive chimpanzees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi

    2007-08-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms. PMID:17918364

  5. Pinworm Eradication in Community Residential Settings for People with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A public health approach was used to eliminate pinworm from a system of community residential settings for individuals with developmental disabilities. The approach involved screening and treatment of staff members and clients living and working in close proximity to index cases, and prophylactically treating many clients and staff based on…

  6. Supplement 21, Part 6, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Subject Headings and Treatment

    E-print Network

    Hood, Martha W.; Rayburn, Jane D.

    1976-01-01

    of enterocolitis, swine: Belorussian SSR Age of host Jacobson, R. H.; and Reed, N. D., 1974 b Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata, congenitally athymic mice, heavier infections with increasing age than nortna.1 littermates Age of host Jenkins, D. C...

  7. A cost-effective and efficacious method of pinworm treatment for large colonies of mice.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Debra; Swan, Melissa; Hartman, G Paul

    2008-07-01

    Rodent pinworm infestations are common in modern animal facilities, and treatments to eradicate these nematodes are often costly and labor-intensive. The authors describe a method they developed to treat rodents with ivermectin using the automatic watering system available at their facility. This delivery method proved an efficacious and cost-effective means of eradicating Aspiculuris tetraptera from a large colony of mice. The system might also be used to provide other orally administered agents to mice and other species. PMID:18568009

  8. The effect of levamisole and levamisole+vitamin C on oxidative damage in rats naturally infected with Syphacia muris.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kozan, Esma; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Bacak, Elif

    2010-04-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of levamisole and levamisole+vitamin C against Syphacia muris naturally infection in rats and to detect its effect on the oxidative parameters in blood and tissues of host. For this purpose, natural infection was diagnosed using the cellophane tape method on the perianal region of rats. Infected rats (total 18) were divided into three groups. On the other hand six without helminth rats were used in this study as negative control group. Group 2 was given an orally levamisole HCl treatment with gastric gavage at a dose level of 20mg/kg body weight in distilled water, every alternate day. Group 3 was given levamisole HCl via gastric gavage at a dose level of 20mg/kg and vitamin C was given 1g/L added to the drinking water. All the treatments continued for a period of 7 days. As a result; levamisole administered to rats at dose of 20mg/kg orally 98.34% was found to be effective against adult S. muris in the rats. In addition to levamisole+vitamin C is effective to alleviate the oxidative damage in rats infected with S. muris. PMID:20045691

  9. The acute effects of single-dose orally administered doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin on natural infections of Syphacia muris in rats.

    PubMed

    Sevimli, Feride Kircali; Kozan, Esma; Sevimli, Alper; Do?an, Nurhan; Bülbül, Aziz

    2009-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the acute effects of a single-dose of orally administered doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin on Syphacia muris infection in rats. Rats, naturally infected with S. muris, were divided into four groups: three different treatment groups (n=7) and one positive control (n=7). Cellophane tape preparations were obtained from the treated rats on day 0 pre-treatment and on days 2, 4 and 6 post-treatment. Syphacia sp. eggs were counted. Eprinomectin was found to be 100% effective in eliminating eggs on two post-treatment. However when egg counts on day 6 post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment egg counts, doramectin and selamectin were found to be 99.32 and 98.77% effective in eliminating eggs, respectively. On day 7 post-treatment, blood samples were obtained from all groups, and then the rats were necropsied. Doramectin, eprinomectin and selamectin were found to be 100% effective in eliminating adult S. muris, when compared with the positive control group. PMID:19318096

  10. Pinworm test

    MedlinePLUS

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to determine if there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on 3 separate ...

  11. Selection of processing tomato genotypes with high acyl sugar content that are resistant to the tomato pinworm.

    PubMed

    Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Camargo, L K P; Chagas, R R; Lima, I P

    2013-01-01

    Acyl sugars are allelochemicals present at high concentrations in leaves of accessions of the wild tomato Solanum pennellii; they confer resistance to a large number of arthropod pests, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Accession 'LA716', with high contents of acyl sugars in the leaves, was used as a source of resistance to start a genetic breeding program of processing cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum. We selected plants of the F? generation of an interspecific cross (S. lycopersicum cv. 'Redenção' x S. pennellii 'LA716') for extremes of concentrations (high and low) of acyl sugars in the leaves and evaluated the resistance of selected genotypes to the tomato pinworm, compared with plants of the parental and F? generations. The concentrations of acyl sugars present in the genotypes selected for high contents were close to those of S. pennellii 'LA 716', while the genotypes with low concentrations of acyl sugars were close to cultivar 'Redenção'. The F? hybrid ('Redenção' x 'LA716') had intermediate concentrations of acyl sugars, but was closer to Redenção, indicating that the inheritance of this type of character is due to a recessive major gene, along with minor genes with additive effects. There was a direct association between high contents of acyl sugars and non-preference for oviposition and suppression of larval development, indicating that the allelochemical acts through mechanisms of non-preference for oviposition and through antibiosis. Genotypes with high contents of acyl sugars were more effective in reducing the damage caused by the tomato pinworm. Genotypes RVTA-2010pl#94 and RVTA-2010pl#31, selected for high contents of acyl sugars, showed a good level of resistance to T. absoluta, similar to the wild genotype LA716. These genotypes are promising for use in a breeding program for developing commercial processing tomatoes. PMID:23420362

  12. Why museums matter: a tale of pinworms (Oxyuroidea: Heteroxynematidae) among pikas (Ochotona princeps and O. collaris) in the American west.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P; Pilitt, P A; Galbreath, K E

    2009-04-01

    Permanent and well-supported museum or natural history collections provide a solid foundation for the process of systematics research through creation of an empirical record which validates our understanding of the biosphere. We explore the role of museums in ongoing studies of the complex helminth fauna characteristic of pikas (Ochotona spp.) in the American west. These studies address the taxonomy for pinworms of the Labiostomatinae and the problems associated with the absence of adequate type series and vouchers and with misidentifications in original descriptions. We demonstrate that the types for Labiostomum (Labiostomum) coloradensis are identical to some specimens in the syntype series representing L. (Eugenuris) utahensis, although the published descriptions are in disagreement. Both are identical to L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris and, as a consequence, are reduced as junior synonyms. Only 2 species of large pinworms, namely L. (Labiostomum) rauschi and L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris, are widely distributed in Ochotona collaris and O. princeps. Although this serves to clarify the taxonomy for species in these genera, prior records remain confused, as representative voucher specimens from all major surveys in North America were never submitted to museum collections. We strongly suggest that type and voucher series should not be held in private or personal collections, where such are eventually lost, discarded, or destroyed through neglect due to inattention and the absence of curation. The potential to accumulate meaningful baselines for assessment of environmental change is jeopardized if materials from survey and inventory are not routinely submitted to museum collections. The capacity of museum repositories, as a focus for systematics, ecology, and evolutionary studies and for the development of resources for biodiversity informatics, continues to be undervalued and poorly utilized by a cadre of scientists who are dependant on accurate and definitive information that transcends specific disciplines. PMID:19593896

  13. Assessing European Egg Parasitoids as a Mean of Controlling the Invasive South American Tomato Pinworm Tuta absoluta

    PubMed Central

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

  14. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.

    PubMed

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

  15. Sequence variability in four mitochondrial genes among rabbit pinworm (Passalurus ambiguus) isolates from different localities in China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Li; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-08-01

    Passalurus ambiguus is a common pinworm which parasitizes in the caecum and colon of rabbits. This study examined genetic variability among P. ambiguus isolated from naturally infected rabbits in four different provinces in China. The partial mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1), cytochrome b (pcytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 5 (pnad1 and pnad5) were amplified separately from individual nematodes by PCR and sequenced. The results showed that pcox1, pcytb, pnad1 and pnad5 were 714, 663, 645 and 546?bp in length, respectively. The intra-specific sequence variations within P. ambiguus were 0-1.1% for pcox1, 0-1.2% for pcytb, 0-0.6% for pnad1 and 0-1.3% for pnad5, whereas inter-specific sequence differences with other members of the Oxyuridae were 16.2-17.3% for pcox1, 27.8-30.4% for pcytb, 20.2-24.0% for pnad1 and 27.1-30.3% for pnad5. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, based on the combined sequences of the four partial mtDNA sequences, revealed that all the P. ambiguus samples form monophyletic groups. This study demonstrated the existence of low-level intra-specific variation in cox1, cytb, nad1 and nad5 genes among P. ambiguus isolates from different geographic regions in China, and these four mtDNA sequences can be used as genetic markers for the population genetic studies of P. ambiguus, as well as the differentiation of P. ambiguus from other oxyurid nematodes. PMID:24409849

  16. Total IgE as a serodiagnostic marker to aid murine fur mite detection.

    PubMed

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-03-01

    Mites of 3 genera-Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia -continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

  17. Total IgE as a Serodiagnostic Marker to Aid Murine Fur Mite Detection

    PubMed Central

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-01-01

    Mites of 3 genera—Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia—continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

  18. Supplement 20, Part 6, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Subject Headings And Treatment 

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Shirley J.; Shaw, Judith H.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Hood, Martha W.

    1975-01-01

    , age immunity, mice Age of host Allen, R. W.; Samson,K.S.;and lambs, immunity, Haemon- Wilson, G. I., 1970 a chus sp. Age of host Anderson, N., 1972 a sheep, trichostrongylid larvae, number of species varying between age groups Age of host... cattle, Thelazia sp., T. rhodesi Age of host Eaton, G. J., 1972 a inbred strains of mice, Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculuris tetraptera Age of host Euzlby, J.?.; Gauthey, M.; and Syngamus trachea, chicken, Bordrez, C., 1973 a host resistance Age...

  19. An Ecological Study of Helminths of Some Wyoming Voles (Microtus spp.) with a Description of a New Species of Nematospiroides (Heligmosomidae: Nematoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merle L. Kuns; Robert L. Rausch

    1950-01-01

    An ecological and taxonomic study of the helminth parasites of voles (Microtus spp.) in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming is reported.\\u000aNematospiroides microti n. sp. from Microtus montanus nanus and M. richardsoni macropus is described and figured.\\u000aA cestode, Paranoplocephala infrequens, and a nematode, Syphacia obvelata, were generally distributed throughout the region in all habitats except the sage flats.

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites biodiversity of Rattus rattus trapped from Khan Younis and Jabalia in Gaza strip, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al Hindi, Adnan Ibrahim; Abu-Haddaf, Eman

    2013-04-01

    This study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of Rattus rattus. A total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and Norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of Gaza strip. After dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. The results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. A high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to other seasons. The intestinal parasites were encountered: G. lamblia 6 (14.6%); E. histolytica/dispar 7 (17.1%); Isospora 4 (9.8%); Acanthocephala 1 (2.4%); Syphacia obvelata 6 (20%); Heligmonoides josephi 3(10%); Strongyloides egg 1 (2.4%); Hymenolepis diminuta 15 (36.6%). The insects were Xenopsylla cheopis 7 (17.1%); Polyplax spinulosa 3 (7.3%). PMID:23697031

  1. Cutaneous mastocytosis exacerbated by pinworms in a young boy.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, Annalisa; Virdi, Annalucia; Neri, Iria

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous mastocytosis in children has an indolent course and undergoes spontaneous regression. Many triggering factors may cause mast cell degranulation and clinical manifestations. Knowledge of these factors is important for patients and their families. We report a case of exacerbation of urticaria pigmentosa due to mast cell degranulation caused by Enterobius vermicularis, which has not been reported before as a triggering factor. PMID:21906155

  2. Chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain: pin the pinworm.

    PubMed

    Rajamanickam, Anitha; Usmani, Ali; Suri, Sanjeev; Dimov, Vesselin

    2009-02-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is the most common helminthic infection in the US. It is usually considered an innocuous parasite that at the most causes perianal itching. We report a case of an 84-year-old female patient from an assisted living facility who presented with symptoms of colitis for 2 months. On detailed history and exam, she was found to have E. vermicularis infection. All her symptoms resolved dramatically within 2 days after a single dose of albendazole. We want to emphasize the importance of including parasitic infections such as E. vermicularis in the differential diagnoses of patients presenting with symptoms of colitis. PMID:19219921

  3. Recurrent paediatric pinworm infection of the vagina as a potential reservoir for Enterobius vermicularis.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, B; Samantray, J C; Kumar, S; Jhamb, R; Singh, A K; Kaur, I R

    2014-09-01

    Enterobius vermicularis infection remains one of the most common parasitic infections, particularly prevalent in children. Enterobiasis, although not usually dangerous, may cause significant morbidity. Elimination of the parasite from a family or an institution often poses problems, either because of an incomplete cure or re-infection. While there have been limited reports of ectopic enterobiasis throughout the world, ours is probably one of the rarest reports of recurrent vaginal E. vermicularis infection in the absence of any gastrointestinal symptoms despite complete treatment. A 4-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of vulval itching on 3-4 occasions over 2 years. There was no pruritis ani nor urinary/gastrointestinal complaints. The vulva was inflamed with 4-5 living worms, 6-7 mm in length, emerging from the anterior vaginal fornix, but with no vaginal discharge. Direct microscopic examination of vaginal swabs revealed adult worms of Enterobius but no eggs. Repeated stool samples from the patient, parents and a sibling were negative. The patient was treated orally with 100 mg of mebendazole for 3 days followed by two more courses at 3-week intervals over a period of 3 months. Recurrent vaginal enterobiasis despite complete treatment and in the absence of any gastrointestinal involvement suggests that the vagina is a potential reservoir for E. vermicularis, which supports the theory of rare ectopic enterobiasis through the ascending pathway of the female genital tract. PMID:23721910

  4. FLOTAC for diagnosis of endo-parasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Rinaldi, L; Ianniello, D; Donnelly, T M; Pepe, P; Capasso, M; Cringoli, G

    2014-02-24

    The present study investigated the occurrence of endoparasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 50 asymptomatic pet squirrels belonging to five different species (Callosciurus finlaysonii, n=6, C. prevosti, n=6; Tamias striatus, n=26, T. sibiricus, n=10; Sciurus carolinensis, n=2) housed both in pet shops and/or in private residences. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, to detect Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. the samples were analyzed by the Remel Xpect(®) immunoassay. Helminth eggs were detected in 9 out of 50 squirrels. Specifically, eggs of Dicrocoelium dendriticum were found in 5 squirrels (C. finlaysonii, n=2; C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); eggs of the pinworm Syphacia spp. in 3 squirrels (C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); and eggs of gastrointestinal nematoda (Nippostrongylus-like) were found in 1 subject (C. prevosti). Finally, two squirrels (C. prevosti) had multiple parasitic infections with D. dendriticum and Capillaria hepatica, and with D. dendriticum and Strongyloides spp., respectively. None of the samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia spp. or any other protozoa (e.g. Eimeria). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a D. dendriticum natural infection in pet rodents. PMID:24389007

  5. WHY MUSEUMS MATTER: A TALE OF PINWORMS (OXYUROIDEA: HETEROXYNEMATIDAE) AMONG PIKAS (OCHOTONA PRINCEPS AND O. COLLARIS) IN THE AMERICAN WEST.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permanent and well supported museum collections provide a solid foundation for the process of systematics research through creation of an empirical record which validates our understanding of the biosphere. We explore the role of museums in ongoing studies of the complex helminth fauna characterist...

  6. Ascariasis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be checked for other intestinal parasites, such as pinworm. Home Treatment If your child has ascariasis, the medicine prescribed ... the doctor if symptoms do not improve with treatment or if new symptoms start. Reviewed by: Scott A. Barron, MD Date reviewed: October ... Test: Ova and Parasites (O&P) Pinworm Toxocariasis Pinworms Why Do I Have to Wash ...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...strongyles, pinworms, Strongyloides and ascarids (including members of the genera Strongylus spp., Cyathostomum spp., Cylicobrachytus spp. and related genera Craterostomum spp., Oesophagodontus spp., Poteriostomum spp., Oxyuris...

  8. 'Wormy'form appendix.

    PubMed

    Jesudoss, Abraham Vincent Samuel; Kaya, Meryem; Lombardo, Rosanna; Rohatgi, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Appendicitis and helminth infections are both common conditions in children. However, helminths (pinworms) infestation causing appendiceal luminal obstruction and presenting as appendicitis is uncommon. PMID:22665583

  9. 21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...roundworms (Parascaris ); pinworms. (Oxyuris ); and threadworms (Strongyloides ). (2) It is administered by stomach tube or as a drench at a dose of 0.9 gram of cambendazole per 100 pounds of body weight (20 milligrams per...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...strongyles, large strongyles (Strongyles spp.), and pinworms (Oxyuris equi ).1 (3) Limitations. Administer by stomach tube or dose syringe after withholding feed overnight or for 8 to 10 hours. Provide water as usual. Resume...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi. ) (3) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground grain portion of the ration to be consumed in one feeding. Discard...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...strongyles, large strongyles (Strongyles spp.), and pinworms (Oxyuris equi ).1 (3) Limitations. Administer by stomach tube or dose syringe after withholding feed overnight or for 8 to 10 hours. Provide water as usual. Resume...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...strongyles, large strongyles (Strongyles spp.), and pinworms (Oxyuris equi ).1 (3) Limitations. Administer by stomach tube or dose syringe after withholding feed overnight or for 8 to 10 hours. Provide water as usual. Resume...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi .) (3) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground grain portion of the ration to be consumed in one feeding. Discard...

  15. 21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...roundworms (Parascaris ); pinworms. (Oxyuris ); and threadworms (Strongyloides ). (2) It is administered by stomach tube or as a drench at a dose of 0.9 gram of cambendazole per 100 pounds of body weight (20 milligrams per...

  16. Itching

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of many health conditions. Common causes are Allergic reactions Eczema Dry skin Insect bites and stings Irritating ... pinworms, scabies, head and body lice Pregnancy Rashes Reactions to medicines To soothe itchy skin, you can ...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of bots (Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum ), pinworms (Oxyuris equi ), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...i) 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight as single oral dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , S. equinus ); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...i) 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight as single oral dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , S. equinus ); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2044 - Pyrantel pamoate paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...i) 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight as single oral dose for removal and control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris , S. edentatus , S. equinus ); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris...

  4. Preparing Your Child for Visits to the Doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and blame. Head lice , embarrassing scratching caused by pinworm , and involuntary daytime wetting or bedwetting are examples ... the things that haven't worked in previous treatment. Kids will be reassured by your active role ...

  5. Albendazole

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treat infections caused by roundworms, hookworms, threadworm, whipworm, pinworm, flukes, and other parasites (a plant or animal ... may order an eye exam before beginning your treatment. Your doctor will also order certain lab tests ...

  6. Mebendazole

    MedlinePLUS

    Mebendazole, an antiworm medication, kills parasites. It is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, whipworm, and other ... Mebendazole comes as a chewable tablet. It usually is taken twice a day, in the morning and ...

  7. Efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against naturally acquired Oxyuris equi infections in horses.

    PubMed

    Reinemeyer, Craig R; Prado, Julio C; Nichols, Eric C; Marchiondo, Alan A

    2010-07-15

    In recent years, numerous veterinary practitioners have reported anecdotal episodes in which anthelmintic treatment did not appear to deliver the expected efficacy against equine pinworms (Oxyuris equi). Anthelmintic resistance has not been demonstrated formally in equine pinworms, so a clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of paste formulations of pyrantel pamoate or ivermectin against naturally acquired infections with O. equi. Twenty-one horses (>4 months to 15 years of age) with patent, naturally acquired pinworm infections were blocked by source of origin and allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: horses (n=7) assigned to Group 1 were treated orally with pyrantel pamoate paste at a dosage of 13.2 mg/kg (2x label dosage), Group 2 horses (n=7) were untreated controls, and horses (n=7) assigned to Group 3 were treated orally with ivermectin paste at a dosage of 200 microg/kg. Fourteen days after treatment, horses were euthanatized, necropsied, and large intestinal contents were processed for recovery of adult pinworms. In addition, duplicate 1% aliquots of intestinal contents from the cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon, and small colon were collected, preserved, and examined for recovery and enumeration of fourth-stage larval O. equi. Anthelmintic efficacy against pinworms was evaluated by comparing the post-treatment worm counts of Groups 1 and 3 to those of control animals. Mean numbers of O. equi adults recovered postmortem were significantly decreased by both pyrantel pamoate (P=0.0366) and ivermectin (P=0.0137) treatment, with respective efficacies of 91.2% and 96.0%. In addition, both products demonstrated >99% efficacy against fourth-stage O. equi larvae. The current study demonstrated acceptable adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of both pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against O. equi and did not support the existence of macrocyclic lactone or pyrimidine resistance in the pinworm populations evaluated. PMID:20307935

  8. Diagnostic Structures of Intestinal Helminths: Enterobius vermicularis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Javier Gutierrez Jimenez (Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas; )

    2011-06-17

    The figure shows an Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) egg found in a feces sample. Generally the ovum measures 50 to 60 μm long by 20 to 40 μm wide. The figure is of an embryonated ovum, flattened on one side, with a thin colorless shell.

  9. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  10. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  11. Ectopic Enterobius vermicularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. A. McDonald; D. O. B. Hourihane

    1972-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (the pinworm) commonly infests the lumen of the intestine but on rare occasions has been found in the wall or in the tissues outside the gastrointestinal tract. Three such patients have been encountered in whom Enterobius vermicularis was found in the wall of the colon, in the retrocaecal tissues, and on the peritoneum. The pathological lesions and their

  12. Enterobiasis mimicking Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Dajil, Saleh

    2004-01-01

    We report a 20-year-old man who presented with abdominal discomfort for 2 months. Colonoscopy showed skip areas with ulceration, resembling Crohn's disease. Biopsies showed chronic inflammation and a non-necrotizing granuloma. An adult pinworm was found in the lumen from an uninvolved segment. The patient responded to mebendazole. PMID:15333976

  13. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterobius vermicularis and Development of an 18S Ribosomal DNA-Targeted Diagnostic PCR?

    PubMed Central

    Zelck, Ulrike E.; Bialek, Ralf; Weiß, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We genetically characterized pinworms obtained from 37 children from different regions of Germany and established new species-specific molecular diagnostic tools. No ribosomal DNA diversity was found; the phylogenetic position of Enterobius vermicularis within the Oxyurida order and its close relationship to the Ascaridida and Spirurida orders was confirmed. PMID:21248085

  14. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Zein Mohamed; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Tome, Andre Luiz Farinhas; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms. PMID:19030741

  15. [Enterobiasis in pediatric subjects in north-western Italy: a study of home remedies].

    PubMed

    Dutto, M; Montù, D; Raineri, G

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the most common home remedies in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy currently used in the treatment of pediatric enterobiasis, commonly known as pinworm infection. The remedies in question, typically based on popular beliefs and as such are nearly useless, were noted through interviews with subjects who had come to the local Hygiene and Public Health Services offices for information about pinworm prevention and treatment. Analysis of replies by the subjects clearly indicates that local families are ill-prepared to recognize the symptoms this parasitic infection; often it is confused with pediatric ketosis, therefore leading to inappropriate treatment which at times may be potentially harmful to the patient. PMID:22670340

  16. [Dehelmintization of wastewater at treatment plants in Tashkent city].

    PubMed

    Yusupkhuzhaeva, A M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the extent of contamination of wastewater with helminth eggs in Tashkent city, as well as to estimate the efficacy of their deworming at wastewater treatment plants. As a result of the study untreated domestic waste waters were found to contain eggs ofascarids, whipworm, tapeworm dwarf pinworms. Specific weight of the eggs of ascarids among other helminth species is 68%, whipworm eggs--30.9%. PMID:25306697

  17. Pruritus ani: an approach to an itching condition.

    PubMed

    Stermer, Edy; Sukhotnic, Igor; Shaoul, Ron

    2009-05-01

    Pruritus ani is frequently encountered in children by the primary care physician and the pediatrician. It is mainly due to an infection with pinworms, but fecal soiling, poor hygiene, local irritation, and dietary agents should also be considered. Treatment should be directed at the underlying etiology. Once these have been excluded, both general and specific measures must be initiated. There is almost no experience for local treatment modalities in children, and they cannot currently be recommended. PMID:19412003

  18. [Enterobius vermicularis causing symptoms of acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Antal, András; Kocsis, Béla

    2008-08-01

    The authors present a case of enterobiasis of the appendix. Enterobius infection is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible unless there is a strong clinical suspicion. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis. Careful observation of the appendix stump may lead to intraoperative diagnosis of enterobiasis. A quick diagnosis and appropriate treatment may prevent future complications. PMID:18799410

  19. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among Preschool Children in Kindergartens of Taipei City, Taiwan in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tso-Kang; Liao, Chien-Wei; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chou, Chia-Mei; Tsay, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Alice; Guu, Shu-Fen; Kao, Ting-Chang

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children was reported to be low based on a 5-year screening program in Taipei City, Taiwan. The Taipei City government intended to terminate the E. vermicularis screening program among preschool children. Thus, we were entrusted with confirming whether pinworm infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined. From each of 12 administrative districts 2-3 kindergartens were randomly selected for investigation. In total, 4,349 children were examined, of which 2,537 were boys and 1,812 were girls. The cellophane tape adhered to a glass slide was used, and all examinations were done by certified medical technologists. Results indicated that the overall prevalence rate of pinworm infections was 0.62% (27/4,349). Although the infection rate was higher among boys (0.67%, 17/2,537) than in girls (0.55%, 10/1,812), no significant difference was found (?2 = 0.399, P = 0.62). According to the administrative district, the infection rate ranged from no positive cases of E. vermicularis infection in the Xinyi, Zhongzhen, and Wanhua Districts (0%; 0/299, 0/165, and 0/358, respectively), to 0.26% (1/131) in Songshan District, with the highest rate of 1.88% (7/373) in Wenshan District. Because the overall infection rate (0.62%, 27/4,349) in the present study was unchanged compared to that (0.40%, 197/49,541) previously reported in 2005, we propose that regular pinworm screening and treatment programs should be continued in some parts of Taipei City. PMID:19488428

  20. Correlated evolution between host immunity and parasite life histories in primates and oxyurid parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Sorci, Gabriele; Skarstein, Frode; Morand, Serge; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Maturation time is a pivotal life-history trait of parasitic nematodes, determining adult body size, as well as daily and total fecundity. Recent theoretical work has emphasized the influence of prematurational mortality on the optimal values of age and size at maturity in nematodes. Eosinophils are a family of white blood cells often associated with infections by parasitic nematodes. Although the role of eosinophils in nematode resistance is controversial, recent work has suggested that the action of these immune effectors might be limited to the larval stages of the parasite. If eosinophils act on larval survival, one might predict, in line with theoretical models, that nematode species living in hosts with large eosinophil numbers should show reduced age and size at maturity. We tested this prediction using the association between the pinworms (Oxyuridae, Nematoda) and their primate hosts. Pinworms are highly host specific and are expected to be involved in a coevolutionary process with their hosts. We found that the body size of female parasites was negatively correlated with eosinophil concentration, whereas the concentration of two other leucocyte families-neutrophils and lymphocytes-was unrelated to female body size. Egg size of parasites also decreased with host eosinophil concentration, independently of female size. Male body size was unrelated to host immune parameters. Primates with the highest immune defence, therefore, harbour small female pinworms laying small eggs. These results are in agreement with theoretical expectations and suggest that life histories of oxyurid parasites covary with the immune defence of their hosts. Our findings illustrate the potential for host immune defence as a factor driving parasite life-history evolution. PMID:14667339

  1. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among preschool children in kindergartens of Taipei City, Taiwan in 2008.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tso-Kang; Liao, Chien-Wei; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chou, Chia-Mei; Tsay, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Alice; Guu, Shu-Fen; Kao, Ting-Chang; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children was reported to be low based on a 5-year screening program in Taipei City, Taiwan. The Taipei City government intended to terminate the E. vermicularis screening program among preschool children. Thus, we were entrusted with confirming whether pinworm infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined. From each of 12 administrative districts 2-3 kindergartens were randomly selected for investigation. In total, 4,349 children were examined, of which 2,537 were boys and 1,812 were girls. The cellophane tape adhered to a glass slide was used, and all examinations were done by certified medical technologists. Results indicated that the overall prevalence rate of pinworm infections was 0.62% (27/4,349). Although the infection rate was higher among boys (0.67%, 17/2,537) than in girls (0.55%, 10/1,812), no significant difference was found (chi(2) = 0.399, P = 0.62). According to the administrative district, the infection rate ranged from no positive cases of E. vermicularis infection in the Xinyi, Zhongzhen, and Wanhua Districts (0%; 0/299, 0/165, and 0/358, respectively), to 0.26% (1/131) in Songshan District, with the highest rate of 1.88% (7/373) in Wenshan District. Because the overall infection rate (0.62%, 27/4,349) in the present study was unchanged compared to that (0.40%, 197/49,541) previously reported in 2005, we propose that regular pinworm screening and treatment programs should be continued in some parts of Taipei City. PMID:19488428

  2. The potential role of strongyloides robustus on parasite-mediated competition between two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys).

    PubMed

    Krichbaum, Kristle; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A; Turner, Gregory; Hudson, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that populations of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) are declining in the eastern United States, perhaps due to competition with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). Potential causes include parasite-mediated or apparent competition from the shared intestinal nematode, Strongyloides robustus, which has been shown to detrimentally affect the northern flying squirrel but not the southern flying squirrel. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study on the parasite community of both flying squirrel species from sites in Pennsylvania where the two species occur sympatrically and where G. sabrinus is now considered endangered at the state level. We compared these parasite communities with those from northern flying squirrels from northern New York where the southern flying squirrel is absent. We found eight species of gastrointestinal parasites (Pterygodermatites peromysci, Lemuricola sciuri, Syphacia thompsoni, Syphacia spp., Capillaria spp., Citellinema bifurcatum, Strogyloides robustus, and an unidentifiable cestode species) in both species of flying squirrels examined for our study. The parasite-mediated competition hypothesis was partially supported. For example, in Pennsylvania, S. robustus was overdispersed in southern flying squirrels, such that a small proportion of the hosts carried a large proportion of the worm population. In addition, we found S. robustus to be present in northern flying squirrels when the species were sympatric, but not where southern flying squirrels were absent in New York. However, there was no association between S. robustus and the body condition of flying squirrels. We detected a potential parasite community interaction, as S. robustus abundance was positively associated with P. peromysci. PMID:20090036

  3. Microbiological monitoring of laboratory mice and biocontainment in individually ventilated cages: a field study.

    PubMed

    Brielmeier, M; Mahabir, E; Needham, J R; Lengger, C; Wilhelm, P; Schmidt, J

    2006-07-01

    Over recent years, the use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) rack systems in laboratory rodent facilities has increased. Since every cage in an IVC rack may be assumed to be a separate microbiological unit, comprehensive microbiological monitoring of animals kept in IVCs has become a challenging task, which may be addressed by the appropriate use of sentinel mice. Traditionally, these sentinels have been exposed to soiled bedding but more recently, the concept of exposure to exhaust air has been considered. The work reported here was aimed firstly at testing the efficiency of a sentinel-based microbiological monitoring programme under field conditions in a quarantine unit and in a multi-user unit with frequent imports of mouse colonies from various sources. Secondly, it was aimed at determining biocontainment of naturally infected mice kept in an IVC rack, which included breeding of the mice. Sentinels were exposed both to soiled bedding and to exhaust air. The mice which were used in the study carried prevalent infectious agents encountered in research animal facilities including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), mouse parvovirus (MPV), intestinal flagellates and pinworms. Our data indicate that the sentinel-based health monitoring programme allowed rapid detection of MHV, intestinal flagellates and pinworms investigated by a combination of soiled bedding and exhaust air exposure. MHV was also detected by exposure to exhaust air only. The IVC rack used in this study provided biocontainment when infected mice were kept together with non-infected mice in separate cages in the same IVC rack. PMID:16803642

  4. Use of fenbendazole-containing therapeutic diets for mice in experimental cancer therapy studies.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-03-01

    Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research. PMID:22776123

  5. Use of Fenbendazole-Containing Therapeutic Diets for Mice in Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks. We examined the effect of feeding a therapeutic diet containing 150 ppm fenbendazole on the growth of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors implanted into BALB/c Rw mice. Mice were randomized to receive either a fenbendazole-containing or control diet for 1 wk before tumor cells were injected intradermally in the flanks and throughout tumor growth. Tumor growth was monitored by serial measurements of tumor diameters from the time tumors became palpable until they reached 1000 mm3. The medicated diet did not alter tumor growth, invasion, or metastasis. When tumors reached volumes of approximately 100 mm3, some were irradiated locally with 10 Gy of X-rays. Irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth; fenbendazole did not alter the radiation-induced growth delay. However, cell culture studies showed that fenbendazole concentrations not far above those expected in the tissues of mice on this diet altered the growth of the tumor cells in culture. Recent data from other laboratories also have demonstrated effects of fenbendazole that could complicate experiments. Care should therefore be exercised in deciding whether chow containing fenbendazole should be administered to mouse colonies being used in cancer research. PMID:22776123

  6. Comparison of various anthelmintic therapies for the treatment of Trypanoxyuris microon infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae).

    PubMed

    Bentzel, David E; Bacon, David J

    2007-04-01

    Trypanoxyuris microon is a pinworm that infects New World nonhuman primates, including Aotus nancymae. Although it typically is clinically insignificant, infection may serve as a significant variable during experimental data analysis. In this study we sought to determine the most effective anthelmintic therapy for eradication of T. microon infection in A. nancymae. Animals confirmed to be infected with T. microon by perianal tape test were treated twice (on days 0 and 14) with pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin, or thiabendazole and evaluated for eggs by daily perianal tape test throughout the entire 28-d period. Successful clearance of eggs was defined as 5 consecutive negative perianal tape tests. Pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin were significantly more effective at egg clearance than were thiabendazole and no treatment. Overall, 100% of the pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin treatment groups were cleared of infection after 2 treatments, whereas only 60% of the thiabendazole group became negative for pinworm eggs. In addition, the time after treatment until clearance was 1 to 2 d for pyrantel pamoate, 2 to 4 d for thiabendazole, and 4 to 6.5 d for ivermectin. These results indicate that pyrantel pamoate was the most effective and rapidly acting anthelmintic for the treatment of adult T. microon infection, with ivermectin as a suitable alternative. However because of the potential for continued development of immature stages or reinfection, anthelmintic doses should be repeated after 1 to 2 wk, in combination with effective environmental sanitation. PMID:17536622

  7. Prospects for the biological control of Tuta absoluta in tomatoes of the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Urbaneja, Alberto; González-Cabrera, Joel; Arnó, Judit; Gabarra, Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Since its detection in the Mediterranean basin at the end of 2006 and later in other European countries, the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), has become a serious threat to tomato crops. In newly infested areas, it is especially problematic during the first years of its presence. Nevertheless, after 2-3 years, the incidence of T. absoluta has become less severe in certain areas. There are several factors contributing to this decline, such as the increase in growers' knowledge of pest behaviour and biology and the correct application of integrated pest control strategies. The impact of opportunistic native natural enemies (fortuitous biological control) should be considered as one of the key factors in this decline. In this review, available information on indigenous natural enemies is updated, and the current pest management approaches used against T. absoluta are addressed. Finally, future scenarios for biological control of this pest are discussed. PMID:22730076

  8. Ectopic Enterobius vermicularis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, G S; Hourihane, D O

    1972-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (the pinworm) commonly infests the lumen of the intestine but on rare occasions has been found in the wall or in the tissues outside the gastrointestinal tract. Three such patients have been encountered in whom Enterobius vermicularis was found in the wall of the colon, in the retrocaecal tissues, and on the peritoneum. The pathological lesions and their relationship to the clinical features are discussed. A brief review of the literature is given. It is concluded that Enterobius vermicularis can only penetrate the wall of the gastrointestinal tract if this is diseased. Once in the tissues the worms can cause an inflammatory reaction simulating carcinoma and Crohn's disease, and, by perforation of the intestine, cause a generalized peritonitis. PMID:5077172

  9. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seokha; Jeon, Hyeong Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the prevalence of pinworm infection, the egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis was examined using the adhesive cello-tape anal swab method in 1,512 preschool children sampled from a total of 20 kindergartens in Cheongju city, in November to December of 2004 (951 children from 13 kindergartens) and September to October of 2005 (561 from 7 kindergartens). The overall egg positive rate was found to be 7.9% (119/1,512); 9.3% (73/784) for boys and 6.3% (46/728) for girls, respectively. The 5-year age group evidenced the highest egg positive rate (10.9%, 47/430) among the examined age groups. As compared to those reported from previous works (ranged from 9.2 to 26.1%), the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the Cheongju city area is relatively low. PMID:16969064

  10. Appendicitis-like clinical image elicited by Enterobius vermicularis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vleeschouwers, W; Hofman, Ph; Gillardin, J P; Meert, V; Van Slycke, S

    2013-01-01

    A 17-year-old female patient presented with the clinical features of an acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic exploration a macroscopically normal appendix was found. Since there were no intra-abdominal abnormalities found, the appendix was resected. Anatomopathology demonstrated Enterobius vermicularis, a pinworm infecting only humans, and mostly living in the caecum. This parasite is responsible for possibly the most common helminthic infection in the developed world. Its role in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis is controversial, but more recent studies indicate a stronger association between enterobiasis and appendicitis. Often, enterobius mimics appendicitis by obstructing the lumen of the appendix, thereby causing appendiceal colic. This case report stresses the importance of microscopic examination of all appendectomy resection specimens. In case of enterobius infestation, systemic therapy of patient and family is necessary. PMID:23741933

  11. Strain-related effects of fenbendazole treatment on murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ramp, A A; Hall, C; Orian, J M

    2010-07-01

    Parasitic infections are a concern in animal facilities, in view of their influence on physiological processes and the immune status of animals. Pinworms are effectively controlled with the anthelminthic fenbendazole (FBZ, [5-(phenylthio)-1H-benzamidazol-2-yl]carbamic acid methyl ester; C(15)H(13)N(3)O(2)S); however, questions remain as to whether prolonged FBZ exposure alters the disease course in specific experimental models, such as those pertaining to the immune system. We report that a three-month regimen of FBZ-medicated feed severely affected the onset and disease severity of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease that mimics multiple sclerosis. Differences were recorded between mouse strains used. Our data suggest that where the use of FBZ is mandatory, its full effect should be verified on the particular EAE variant adopted by the laboratory. PMID:20457828

  12. Helminthoxys abrocomae n. sp. (Nematoda: oxyurida) from Abrocoma cinerea in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Hugot, J P; Gardner, S L

    2000-11-01

    A new pinworm parasite is described from Abrocoma cinerea, a caviomorph rodent of the superfamily Octodontoidea from the Andes of Bolivia. The new species, Helminthoxys abrocomae n. sp., possesses special secretory mamelons which we consider a synapomorphy of the genus Helminthoxys. Within Helminthoxys, the closest relatives are found in octodontoid rodents: H. gigantea occurs in Octodon degus in Chile and O. bridgesi in Argentina, and H. freitasi is a parasite of Thrichomys aperoides in Brazil. H. abrocomae n. sp. differs from both other species morphometrically in relation to different parts of the body in both sexes, particularly the size of the body, spicule, gubernaculum and eggs, by the presence of a rough cuticular area around the cephalic sensory papillae and by the possession of very well-developed cervical alae which are strongly curved dorsally. H. abrocomae n. sp. is the tenth nominal species described in Helminthoxys, all of them being parasites of caviomorph rodents. PMID:11071158

  13. Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kamranrashani, B; Kia, EB; Mobedi, I; Mohebali, M; Zarei, Z; Mowlavi, Gh; Hajjaran, H; Abai, MR; Sharifdini, M; Kakooei, Z; Mirjalali, H; Charedar, S

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran. Methods During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites. Results Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae) 37.7%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%. Conclusion R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nematode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host. PMID:23682264

  14. Diversity of nematodes in the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from the Peripannonic region of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cabrilo, B; Jovanovi?, V M; Bjeli?-?abrilo, O; Budinski, I; Blagojevi?, J; Vujoševi?, M

    2014-10-01

    Up to six nematode species were identified from 86 specimens of the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from three mountainous localities known as Avala, Cer and Liškovac in Serbia. The highest prevalence of infection of 97% was recorded from Mt. Avala. Only one nematode species, Syphacia frederici, occurred in all three localities. There was complete overlap in nematode species from Mts. Avala and Liškovac, whereas the taxonomic distinctness of Mt. Cer was seen in the presence of the insect-transmitted species Rictularia proni. Locality was a statistically significant factor in all the best-fitted generalized linear models of variation in abundances. The highest level of both species richness and parasite alpha diversity (Shannon's H= 1.47) was found in the easternmost Mt. Liškovac, whereas the diversity indices were lowest for the westernmost Mt. Cer (Shannon's H= 0.48). In view of this geographical difference, the beta diversity indices were calculated along a west to east longitudinal gradient. PMID:25272984

  15. Parasites of the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Skírnisson, K; Eydal, M; Gunnarsson, E; Hersteinsson, P

    1993-07-01

    Forty-four of 50 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Iceland harbored 15 species of intestinal parasites, including Protozoa: Eimeria sp. or Isospora sp. (in 4%); Trematoda: Cryptocotyle lingua (24%), Plagiorchis elegans (4%), Brachylaemus sp. (12%), Tristriata sp. (10%), and Spelotrema sp. (8%); Cestoda: Mesocestoides canislagopodis (72%), Schistocephalus solidus (2%), and Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (4%); Nematoda: Toxascaris leonina (50%), Toxocara canis (2%), Uncinaria stenocephala (4%), and eggs of the lung worm Capillaria aerophila (6%); and Acanthocephala: Polymorphus meyeri (8%) and Corynosoma hadweni (2%). Only four of the species previously had been recorded in Iceland. Eleven species are new records in Iceland and six appear to be new host records. Two additional nematodes, Stegophorus stercorarii and Syphacia sp., probably were ingested accidentally with the prey. Foxes from coastal habitats harbored 14 parasitic species while only five species were found in foxes from inland habitats. Arctic foxes from coastal habitats generally had higher helminth burdens and harbored more parasitic species per fox than foxes from inland habitats. PMID:8355346

  16. Diversity of gastrointestinal helminths among murid rodents from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaisiri, Kittipong; Chaeychomsri, Win; Siruntawineti, Jindawan; Ribas, Alexis; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal helminths (GI helminths) was investigated among 725 murid rodents, trapped in various habitats of Nan, Loei and Buri Ram Provinces, Thailand. The study revealed 17 species of rodents infected with 21 species or taxonomic groups of parasites (3 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 14 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan). The overall prevalence of infection was 57.7% (418/725). Of the gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, the dominant parasitic group was members of the family Trichostrongylidae (24.3%), followed by the cestodes Raillietina sp (17.1%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (8.6%) and the nematode Syphacia muris (8.6%). The GI helminthic infection rates were highest in Mus caroli (81.8%), Mus cervicolor (76.5%), Leopoldamys edwardsi (75.0%), Bandicota indica (71.5%) and Bandicota savilei (71.4%). Highest rodent species richness (RSR) and helminth species richness (HSR) rates were found in Loei, followed by Nan and Buri Ram. The helminth prevalence rate was higher in rodents from Nan, followed by rodents from Loei and Buri Ram. Rodents from irrigated fields had the highest infection rates followed by rodents from upland or dry agricultural areas, forests and domestic habitats. Raillietina sp, Rodentolepis nana (syn. Hymenolepis nana), Hymenolepis diminuta, Moniliformis moniliformis and Cyclodontostomum purvisi, considered zoonotic parasites, were mainly found in rodents from domestic habitats and lowland irrigated fields. PMID:23082550

  17. Could parasites destabilize mouse populations? The potential role of Pterygodermatites peromysci in the population dynamics of free-living mice, Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Vandegrift, Kurt J; Hudson, Peter J

    2009-09-01

    Peromyscus leucopus populations exhibit unstable population dynamics. Mathematical models predict instability with chronic parasite infections that reduce host fecundity when the parasite distribution within the host population is close to random. We examined the role the nematode Pterygodermatites peromysci may play in influencing the dynamics of these mice. There were seven gastrointestinal worms infecting mice. Pterygodermatites peromysci was the most prevalent and varied seasonally from 12.3% in November to 36.0% in July. Prevalence was higher in adults (30.8%) than juveniles (4.6%) and there were no statistical differences in prevalence or intensity between the sexes. Overall the distribution was random; the relationship between log variance and log mean of P. peromysci intensity from 17 sites was not significantly different from unity. There were significant relationships between infection and breeding condition, suggesting parasites could be the cause of reduced female breeding. A generalized linear model found the likelihood of P. peromysci infection in adults increased with body mass, the presence of other helminths, and when hosts were in breeding condition. Likewise, the intensity of infection was positively related to co-infections and body mass. Pterygodermatites peromysci infection was associated with the presence of the oxyurid nematode Syphacia peromysci but co-infection was lower in females than males. Amongst females, co-infection was greater when breeding, particularly during lactation. The P. peromysci age-intensity relationship increased with age and rose to an asymptote as expected for a parasite with constant mortality and no acquired immunity. Overall, P. peromysci had a random distribution and was associated with reduced breeding; we discuss how these destabilizing processes may influence the dynamics of P. leucopus. PMID:19409901

  18. Tribendimidine: a promising, safe and broad-spectrum anthelmintic agent from China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-Hua; Hui-Ming, Wu; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Chong, Wang

    2005-04-01

    We review, for the first time, a 20-year Chinese story of research and development pertaining to tribendimidine, a promising anthelmintic agent that is safe and exhibits a broad spectrum of activity. Tribendimidine was first synthesized at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases in Shanghai in the mid 1980s. In laboratory studies, tribendimidine showed high efficacy against Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats, Necator americanus in hamsters, Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis in dogs, and Syphacia mesocriceti in mice. Activity was also found against several species of cestodes in chicken. In clinical trials, a single oral dose of 400 mg tribendimidine, administered to patients infected only with N. americanus, or with N. americanus and Ancylostoma duodenalis, resulted in cure rates of 85.7% (132/154) and 89.8% (53/59), respectively. In comparison, a single oral dose of 400 mg albendazole resulted in significantly lower cure rates, namely 65.5% (91/139; chi(2) = 16.47, P < 0.001) and 71.7% (43/60; chi(2) = 6.29, P = 0.012), respectively. Single oral doses of tribendimidine (300 mg) and albendazole (400mg) were equally effective against Ascaris lumbricoides infections; cure rates were 96.0% (97/101) and 98.1% (101/103), respectively. In 5-14-year-old children with an Enterobius vermicularis infection, treated with a single oral dose of 200 mg tribendimidine, a cure rate of 81.6% (93/114) was observed. Tribendimidine was well-tolerated as only mild and transient side effects were observed. It would be of great public health significance if these findings are confirmed in other epidemiological settings, as more than one-quarter of the world population is currently affected by intestinal nematodes, with only very few drugs currently available on the market. PMID:15777691

  19. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans, and these showed high prevalences in the rats, the assessment and regular monitoring of infections carried by wild rodents have important roles to play in public health. PMID:22397763

  20. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  1. Unexpected Antitumorigenic Effect of Fenbendazole when Combined with Supplementary Vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ping; Dang, Chi V; Watson, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Diet containing the anthelminthic fenbendazole is used often to treat rodent pinworm infections because it is easy to use and has few reported adverse effects on research. However, during fenbendazole treatment at our institution, an established human lymphoma xenograft model in C.B-17/Icr-prkdcscid/Crl (SCID) mice failed to grow. Further investigation revealed that the fenbendazole had been incorporated into a sterilizable diet supplemented with additional vitamins to compensate for loss during autoclaving, but the diet had not been autoclaved. To assess the role of fenbendazole and supplementary vitamins on tumor suppression, 20 vendor-supplied 4-wk-old SCID mice were assigned to 4 treatment groups: standard diet, diet plus fenbendazole, diet plus vitamins, and diet plus both vitamins and fenbendazole. Diet treatment was initiated 2 wk before subcutaneous flank implantation with 3 × 107 lymphoma cells. Tumor size was measured by caliper at 4-d intervals until the largest tumors reached a calculated volume of 1500 mm3. Neither diet supplemented with vitamins alone nor fenbendazole alone caused altered tumor growth as compared with that of controls. However, the group supplemented with both vitamins and fenbendazole exhibited significant inhibition of tumor growth. The mechanism for this synergy is unknown and deserves further investigation. Fenbendazole should be used with caution during tumor studies because it may interact with other treatments and confound research results. PMID:19049251

  2. Helicobacter spp. in wild mice (Peromyscus leucopus) found in laboratory animal facilities.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Melissa C; Eaton, Kathryn A; Chang, Cherie

    2009-11-01

    Wild rodents are a potential source for pathogen introduction into laboratory animal research facilities. A study was designed to assess wild mice found at our institution by infectious disease surveillance. Wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were captured with live capture traps placed in areas in which wild mice had been reported in several animal facilities. Captured animals were euthanized by inhalation of CO(2), blood was collected by cardiocentesis (n = 10), and necropsy was performed (n = 8). Serum samples were negative for antibodies to mouse parvovirus (types 1 and 2), mouse minute virus, Sendai virus, pneumonia virus of mice, mouse hepatitis virus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, reovirus, rotavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, mouse adenovirus, ectromelia virus, K virus, cilia-associated respiratory bacillus, and Mycoplasma pulmonis. Of the 8 animals that were necropsied, pelt and cecal examinations were negative for ectoparasites and pinworms, respectively. Histopathologic examination of brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, and small intestine revealed bacteria morphologically compatible with Helicobacter spp. in the cecal and colonic glands and occasionally in the gastric lumen and pits. Mesenteric lymph nodes and feces from 8 of the animals were submitted for PCR analysis for the detection of mouse parvovirus, mouse minute virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and Helicobacter spp.; 7 of the samples were PCR-positive for Helicobacter spp. At this time, wild mice found in our animal facilities do not appear to be a significant source of common laboratory mouse viral pathogens. However, they are a potential source of Helicobacter infections. PMID:19930823

  3. [Report on the first nationwide survey of the distribution of human parasites in China. 1. Regional distribution of parasite species].

    PubMed

    Yu, S; Xu, L; Jiang, Z; Xu, S; Han, J; Zhu, Y; Chang, J; Lin, J; Xu, F

    1994-01-01

    A nationwide (Taiwan Province not included) survey of the distribution of human parasites in China during 1988-1992 was conducted under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Health, with stratified masses randomly sampling. A total of 2,848 pilot sites in 726 counties with a population of 1,477,742 were surveyed, according to unified standard, unified diagnostic method and control quality. The overall infection rate of parasites was 62. 632%. Among them, the infection rate was over 50% in 17 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities (P/A/M), over 80% in Hainan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, Zhejiang and Guizhou, being highest in Hainan (94. 735%). Altogether 56 species were detected. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time at home, Echinochasmus liliputanus and Echinostoma angustitestis are reported for the first time at home and abroad. Echinochasmus fujianensis is a new species. E. histolytica, G. lamblia, A. lumbricoides, whipworm and pinworm were distributed nationwide, while Cysticercus (27 P/A/M), Taenia (27), hookworm (26), Balantidium coli (22), Clonorchis sinensis (22), Paragonimus westermani (21), H. diminuta (21), Echinococcus (18), H. nana (17), Fasciolopsis buski (16), T. spiralis (12) were distributed non-nationwide. A preliminary suggestion on intervention of the common and/or most detrimental parasitic diseases was submitted, including hydatidosis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, trichinellosis, hookworm disease, ascariasis, trichuriasis and enterobiasis. PMID:7720194

  4. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education.

    PubMed

    Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Tohon, Zilahatou

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a "before and after" intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P = 0.04). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P = 0.02). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. PMID:24563779

  5. Enterobius vermicularis worm granuloma mimicking like a pseudo tumor in the anal canal: An unusual clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, K; Anuradha, S; Chandrasekar, VC Ajay; Thirunarayanan, R

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is one of the most common intestinal nematode worldwide. Enterobius rarely causes a symptomatic disease. We report here an unusual case of a 60-year old man who came with a polypoidal growth in the anal canal increasing in size for past 20 years. He had pain and intense itching over the mass. The differential diagnosis of squamous papilloma, fibroma and foreign body granuloma were considered. The mass lesion was excised surgically and sent to the pathology laboratory. The mass turned out to be an “E. vermicularis worm granuloma” by histopathologic examination. Thus, timely reporting and surgical resection of such lesion is necessary to prevent further complications. This case is reported here for the unusual presentation of pinworm as a pseudoneoplasm in the anal canal. Incidence of these cases reflected the poor personal hygiene and improper disposal of human excreta in the rural areas. We insist that health education is the only way to control the spread of helminthic infections that causes a heavy disease burden to our country. PMID:23767020

  6. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis of primary school children in Geoje island

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jin; Lee, Bo Young; Chung, Hyun Kee; Lee, Young Sun; Lee, Kun Hee; Chung, Hae Jin

    2003-01-01

    The status of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) egg positive rate of primary school children in Geoje island was investigated by using adhesive cellotape anal swap method, in September, 2002. Total egg positive rates of E. vermicularis were 9.8% (74/754) and those of male and female were 10.8% and 8.7%, respectively. Among three schools examined, Myeongsa primary school showed the highest egg positive rate (12.6%) followed by Yeoncho [9.8% (26/266)] and Geoje [9.1% (35/385)]. As for the age groups, the 2nd grade had the highest egg positive rate (15.3%), whereas the 5th grade showed the lowest egg positive rate (2.6%). The above result led us to confirm that the egg positive rates of E. vermicularis in primary school children in Geoje island were not significantly different from the those in the whole country including urban and rural areas, showing more than 10%. PMID:12666734

  7. Infection rates of Enterobius vermicularis and Clonorchis sinensis of primary school children in Hamyang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do (Province), Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jin; Yeon, Je Wook

    2001-01-01

    The egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis and Clonorchis sinensis of school children in the rural area was studied in Hamyang-gun. Gyeongsangnam-do in Korea. Cellotape anal swab and formalin ether concentration methods were performed one time to 720 primary school children. The total egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 12.6% in two schools (Baekjeon and Wiseong). In the Baekjeon and Wiseong primary school, the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 4.6% and 13.4%, respectively. Pinworm egg positive rate was 17.6% in the lower grades (1st. 2nd and 3rd), and 7.7% in higher grades (4th, 5th and 6th). The total egg positive rate of male and female was 12.6% and 12.7%, respectively. The egg positive rate of C. sinensis of Baekjeon and Wiseong primary school was 1.5% and 0.46%, respectively. The total egg positive rate of C. sinensis was 0.56%. This survey showed that continuous education and chemotherapy is necessary to treat and prevent reinfection of E. vermicularis. In the case of C. sinensis, health education for school children is recommended to prevent potential infection of adolescents. PMID:11775334

  8. Exposure to Mebendazole and Pyrvinium during Pregnancy: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Torp-Pedersen, A.; Jimenez-Solem, E.; Andersen, J. T.; Broedbaek, K.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Poulsen, H. E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Families with children are frequently exposed to pinworm infection and treatment involves the whole family. Information on consequences of exposure during, pregnancy is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to pyrvinium and mebendazole before, during, and after pregnancy in a Danish nationwide cohort. Methods. From nationwide administrative registers, we identified 718, 900 births in Denmark between January 1997 and December 2007 as well as maternal prescription data of anthelmintics and maternal characteristics. Redemption of a prescription for pyrvinium or mebendazole was used to identify exposure. Results. 4715 women redeemed a prescription for pyrvinium or mebendazole during pregnancy; 1606 for pyrvinium, 2575 for mebendazole, and 534 for both drugs. Having >2 children compared to having no previous children was associated with exposure to pyrvinium (OR: 7.1, 95% CI: 5.8–8.7) and mebendazole (OR: 20.8, 95% CI: 17.3–24.9). Conclusion. 4715 pregnant women redeemed a prescription for either mebendazole or pyrvinium. We believe the exposure to be even higher since pyrvinium is also sold over-the-counter. Limited information on birth outcomes is available at present time, and considering the number of exposed pregnancies, we recommend that studies are to be undertaken to assess the safety of pyrvinium and mebendazole during pregnancy. PMID:23028209

  9. Evaluation of two fecal examination techniques for detection of Trypanoxyuris spp. infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae).

    PubMed

    Bentzel, David E; Lescano, Andrés G; Lucas, Carmen; Bacon, David J

    2007-09-01

    Infections of Trypanoxyuris spp. pinworms in Aotus nancymae and other New World primates are typically subclinical, but infection during experimental use could confound interpretation of experimental data. Further, Trypanoxyuris species are highly infective, and rapid diagnosis is important to prevent an outbreak in the animal colony. This study sought to determine whether a fecal flotation technique was sensitive enough to replace the perianal tape test for diagnosis of Trypanoxyuris spp., thereby reducing stress to the animal and sample collection time. On days 0 and 3, we collected fecal samples from 45 animals confirmed to be infected with Trypanoxyuris spp. by perianal tape testing. Fecal samples were evaluated by both a commercial analysis system and by sucrose flotation with centrifugation. For both detection methods, no significant difference in sensitivity was detected between tests conducted on day 0 versus day 3. The sensitivity of repeated commercial tests was 80%, significantly higher than the 60% for sucrose flotation. The commercial test was significantly more sensitive than sucrose flotation, indicating that the commercial system was a better method for detecting Trypanoxyuris spp. However, sensitivity of only 80% confers a considerable risk of false negatives, thereby potentially delaying treatment and further contributing to environmental contamination. In our opinion, neither method of fecal analysis was a suitable replacement for the perianal tape test to diagnose Trypanoxyuris spp. in owl monkeys. PMID:17877329

  10. Effect of fenbendazole on an autoimmune mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn; Watson, Toshiba; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2013-01-01

    Fenbendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm infection in laboratory rodents. Data regarding possible side effects of fenbendazole on the immune system are conflicting, potentially due to the design of treatment protocols. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of 2 fenbendazole therapeutic regimens (continuous for 5 wk and alternating weeks [that is, 1 wk on, 1 wk off] for 9 wk) on the development of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. No significant differences in survival curves or weight were observed between the treatment groups and cohort mice receiving nonmedicated feed. At the termination of the experiment, there were no differences in tissue pathology. Hematocrit decreased and BUN increased over time in all groups, but no significant differences were present between groups. After the cessation of treatment, mice fed the medicated diet continuously for 5 wk showed an increase in antiDNA antibody. Although this difference was significant, it did not affect survival curves or disease-related tissue or blood changes. These data indicate that common protocols of fenbendazole treatment do not alter the progression of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. PMID:23849411

  11. Effect of Fenbendazole on an Autoimmune Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Cray, Carolyn; Watson, Toshiba; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2013-01-01

    Fenbendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm infection in laboratory rodents. Data regarding possible side effects of fenbendazole on the immune system are conflicting, potentially due to the design of treatment protocols. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of 2 fenbendazole therapeutic regimens (continuous for 5 wk and alternating weeks [that is, 1 wk on, 1 wk off] for 9 wk) on the development of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. No significant differences in survival curves or weight were observed between the treatment groups and cohort mice receiving nonmedicated feed. At the termination of the experiment, there were no differences in tissue pathology. Hematocrit decreased and BUN increased over time in all groups, but no significant differences were present between groups. After the cessation of treatment, mice fed the medicated diet continuously for 5 wk showed an increase in antiDNA antibody. Although this difference was significant, it did not affect survival curves or disease-related tissue or blood changes. These data indicate that common protocols of fenbendazole treatment do not alter the progression of autoimmune disease in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. PMID:23849411

  12. Environmental Factors Related to Enterobiasis in a Southeast Region of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Kim, Bo Young; Park, Sang Kyun

    2013-01-01

    Pinworm infection can occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by ingestion or even through inhalation of infective eggs. We have limited information regarding environmental contamination by eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. In order to determine environmental risk factors associated with the rate of E. vermicularis infection, we investigated possible environmental risk factors using a questionnaire from 46 kindergartens in 3 different cities of the southeast area of Korea. In total, using the cellotape anal swab technique, 3,422 children were examined for E. vermicularis infection. We evaluated E. vermicularis egg of books, educational materials, toys, room door handles, dusts of window edges, desks, chairs, tables, and dusts of classrooms. The overall egg-positive rate for E. vermicularis was 6.0%, and the prevalence of enterobiasis in each kindergarten ranged between 0% and 16.9%. We found that 78.9% of egg positive kindergartens were managed by private foundations, which was significantly higher, compared with kindergartens managed by public foundations or the nation. Compared with public or national kindergartens, most private kindergartens were located in residential areas and the number of children in these areas was significantly higher. In conclusion, numbers of children in kindergartens was found to be an environmental risk factor associated with transmission of enterobiasis in Korea. PMID:23468007

  13. Biologic effects of fenbendazole in rats and mice: a review.

    PubMed

    Villar, David; Cray, Carolyn; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2007-11-01

    This review summarizes findings from toxicologic, carcinogenic, immunologic, and metabolic studies on fenbendazole (FBZ). Currently, FBZ is used to treat or prevent pinworm outbreaks in laboratory rodents. Because antiparasitic treatments usually are not part of experimental designs, interactions from the medication on the outcomes of ongoing experiments are a concern. At therapeutic levels, FBZ does not alter the total content of cytochromes P450 but does induce certain hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms, namely 1A1, 1A2, and 2B1. Although expressed constitutively at low or undetectable levels, these isoforms particularly are known for bioactivating a number of procarcinogens. Lifetime studies in rats have shown that FBZ is not a carcinogen but that it may behave as a tumor promoter when given after certain initiators. Unlike in other animal species, FBZ treatment-associated myelosuppression has not been reported to occur in rodents. The few currently available immunologic studies in mice, including an autoimmune model, have not shown effects on selected immune responses. However, data from other animal species suggest that the ability of B and T lymphocytes to proliferate in the secondary immune response may be suppressed during treatment with FBZ. PMID:17994667

  14. Antiparasitic mebendazole shows survival benefit in 2 preclinical models of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Aprhys, Colette M; Gallia, Gary L; Riggins, Gregory J

    2011-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain cancer, and despite treatment advances, patient prognosis remains poor. During routine animal studies, we serendipitously observed that fenbendazole, a benzimidazole antihelminthic used to treat pinworm infection, inhibited brain tumor engraftment. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments with benzimidazoles identified mebendazole as the more promising drug for GBM therapy. In GBM cell lines, mebendazole displayed cytotoxicity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 µM. Mebendazole disrupted microtubule formation in GBM cells, and in vitro activity was correlated with reduced tubulin polymerization. Subsequently, we showed that mebendazole significantly extended mean survival up to 63% in syngeneic and xenograft orthotopic mouse glioma models. Mebendazole has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for parasitic infections, has a long track-record of safe human use, and was effective in our animal models with doses documented as safe in humans. Our findings indicate that mebendazole is a possible novel anti-brain tumor therapeutic that could be further tested in clinical trials. PMID:21764822

  15. Antiparasitic mebendazole shows survival benefit in 2 preclinical models of glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Aprhys, Colette M.; Gallia, Gary L.; Riggins, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain cancer, and despite treatment advances, patient prognosis remains poor. During routine animal studies, we serendipitously observed that fenbendazole, a benzimidazole antihelminthic used to treat pinworm infection, inhibited brain tumor engraftment. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments with benzimidazoles identified mebendazole as the more promising drug for GBM therapy. In GBM cell lines, mebendazole displayed cytotoxicity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 µM. Mebendazole disrupted microtubule formation in GBM cells, and in vitro activity was correlated with reduced tubulin polymerization. Subsequently, we showed that mebendazole significantly extended mean survival up to 63% in syngeneic and xenograft orthotopic mouse glioma models. Mebendazole has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for parasitic infections, has a long track-record of safe human use, and was effective in our animal models with doses documented as safe in humans. Our findings indicate that mebendazole is a possible novel anti-brain tumor therapeutic that could be further tested in clinical trials. PMID:21764822

  16. [Dipylidium caninum infection in an infant].

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Naoki; Koga, Hiroyasu; Hidaka, Hidenobu; Mukai, Fumiko; Ikenaga, Masaaki; Otsu, Yasushi; Masunaga, Kenji; Nagai, Kensuke; Yoneda, Yutaka; Fukuma, Toshihide; Ishimoto, Koji

    2007-07-01

    Dipylidium caninum, the dog tapeworm, is a common intestinal cestode of domestic dogs and cats, but few cases have been reported of human infection by this parasite in Japan. We repot a case of D. caninum infection in a 17 month-old girl, who sometimes had symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and dysphoria at night. Her mother noted the appearance of small white worms in her stool, and she was seen by a local pediatrician. Despite antiparasitic therapy wiht pyrantel pamoate, the problem persisted and was eventually referred for further workup to Kurume University Hospital. The diagnosis was made by microscopic examination of the excreted proglottids, which contained characteristic egg capsules. She was successfully treated with a singledose of praziquantel and four adult parasites were recovered. The longest intact worm was 32cm. Her family had household pets (a dog and a cat). The pets were seen by the local veterinary and both were evidenced D. caninum. Humans, primarily children, become infected when they accidentally ingest fleas. Parents usually find proglottids as multiple white objects, often described as cucumber, melon, or pumpkin seeds, in stool, diapers, or on the perineum. Most general practitioners and pediatricians may treat children with enterobiasis (pinworm) infection, and in case the treatment fails, other parasite infection should be considered such as this worm. A history of dog or cat pets, fleas, and flea bites may be important clues to diagnosis. Pets found to be infected should also be treated. PMID:17695802

  17. Common intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Kucik, Corry Jeb; Martin, Gary L; Sortor, Brett V

    2004-03-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica occur in the United States. E. vermicularis, or pinworm, causes irritation and sleep disturbances. Diagnosis can be made using the "cellophane tape test." Treatment includes mebendazole and household sanitation. Giardia causes nausea, vomiting, malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss. Stool ova and parasite studies are diagnostic. Treatment includes metronidazole. Sewage treatment, proper handwashing, and consumption of bottled water can be preventive. A. duodenale and N. americanus are hookworms that cause blood loss, anemia, pica, and wasting. Finding eggs in the feces is diagnostic. Treatments include albendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, iron supplementation, and blood transfusion. Preventive measures include wearing shoes and treating sewage. E. histolytica can cause intestinal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, fever, gastrointestinal obstruction, and peritonitis. Amebas can cause abscesses in the liver that may rupture into the pleural space, peritoneum, or pericardium. Stool and serologic assays, biopsy, barium studies, and liver imaging have diagnostic merit. Therapy includes luminal and tissue amebicides to attack both life-cycle stages. Metronidazole, chloroquine, and aspiration are treatments for liver abscess. Careful sanitation and use of peeled foods and bottled water are preventive. PMID:15023017

  18. Biological control strategies for the South American tomato moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Tomas; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Vila, Enric; Del Pino, Modesto; Hernandez-Suarez, Estrella

    2012-12-01

    The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been introduced into new geographic areas, including the Mediterranean region, where it has become a serious threat to tomato production. Three greenhouse trials conducted in tomato crops during 2009 and 2010 explored control strategies using the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti compared with chemical control. The effectiveness of the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) was also tested. In greenhouses with early pest infestations (discrete generations), periodic inundative releases (eight releases at a rate of 50 adults/m2, twice a week) were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (85.63 +/- 5.70%) early in the growing season. However, only one inoculative release (100 adults/m2) was sufficient to achieve a comparatively high parasitism level (91.03 +/- 12.58%) under conditions of high pest incidence and overlapping generations. Some intraguild competition was observed between T. achaeae and the predator, N. tenuis. This mirid species is commonly used in Mediterranean greenhouse tomato crops for the control of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Tomato cultivars were also observed to influence the activity of natural enemies, mainly N. tenuis (whose average numbers ranged between 0.17 +/- 0.03 and 0.41 +/- 0.05 nymphs per leaf depending on the cultivar). This may be because of differences in plant nutrients in different cultivars, which may affect the feeding of omnivorous insects. In contrast, cultivar effects on T. achaeae were less apparent or possibly nonexistent. Nevertheless, there was an indirect effect in as much as T. achaeae was favored in cultivars not liked by N. tenuis. PMID:23356074

  19. [Oxyuriasis and prehistoric migrations].

    PubMed

    Araújo, A; Ferreira, L F

    1995-01-01

    Parasite findings in archeological material have made it possible to trace the dispersion of infectious agents and their human hosts in ancient times. These findings allow us to re-examine theories proposed at the beginning of the century concerning transpacific contacts that Asian populations may have had with South America. This has been the case, for example, with hookworm eggs found in archeological material dating up to 7,000 years before present. Because of the increase in scientific production in this area, it has now become necessary to undertake syntheses that assess the state of the art and propose workable paleoepidemological models of the prehistoric dispersion of human parasitoses. Based on findings of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in archeological material in the Americas, the present study is an effort in this direction. Unlike the hookworm, the pinworm does not require a soil cycle in order to be transmitted from one host to another, thereby meaning that its persistence in a given human population does not depend on climatic conditions. Thus, it could have been brought from the old to the new continent, possibly by human migrations across the Bering Strait. This may explain the greater geographical dispersion and dissemination of these findings in North America from 10,000 yrs B.P. till today. In South America, on the other hand, archeological findings have only confirmed existence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs within the Andean region, with findings located specifically in Chile and northern Argentina. Although a large number of samples have been examined, no such eggs have been found in coprolites in Brazil. The paper discusses models that account for the known distribution of this parasitosis in prehistoric populations. PMID:11625244

  20. Effect of Fenbendazole on Three Behavioral Tests in Male C57BL/6N Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gadad, Bharathi S; Daher, João P L; Hutchinson, Eric K; Brayton, Cory F; Dawson, Ted M; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Watson, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Pinworms are highly contagious parasites of laboratory rodents that often are treated with fenbendazole. To our knowledge, the effect of fenbendazole at therapeutic dosages on behavioral tests in mice has not been evaluated. Here we studied 6-wk-old male C57BL/6N mice. We compared the behavior of control mice (fed regular diet) with 3 groups of mice treated with dietary fenbendazole. Treatment groups were 4 wk of fenbendazole, 2 wk of fenbendazole followed by 2 wk of regular diet, and 2 wk of regular diet followed by 2 wk of fenbendazole. At the end of dietary treatment all groups were tested by open field for central, peripheral and vertical activity; elevated plus maze for anxiety; and rotarod for motor ability and then evaluated by clinical pathology and selected histopathology. Treated and control groups showed no differences in open field or elevated plus maze testing, histopathology, or clinical pathology. However mice treated for 4 wk with fenbendazole or 2 wk of fenbendazole followed by 2 wk regular diet stayed on the rotarod for shorter periods than did controls, and mice treated with 2 wk of regular diet followed by 2 wk fenbendazole showed a trend toward shorter rotarod times. In light of this study, we suggest that open field and elevated plus maze testing is unlikely to be affected by 4 wk fenbendazole treatment in male C57BL/6 mice; however, behavioral tests of motor ability such as rotarod tests may be affected during and for at least 2 wk after fenbendazole treatment. PMID:21205447

  1. Effects of Fenbendazole on the Murine Humoral Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Landin, Ana Marie; Frasca, Daniela; Zaias, Julia; Van der Put, Elaine; Riley, Richard L; Altman, Norman H; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2009-01-01

    Pinworms are highly contagious parasites that have been effectively treated in laboratory rodents with fenbendazole (FBZ). Whether FBZ has any detrimental side effects that may compromise experimental results is unknown. Here we asked whether the immune systems from young and aged mice are altered under FBZ treatment. We compared control and FBZ-treated groups of young (age, 2 to 4 mo) and old (age, 22 to 24 mo) BALB/cN mice. The treated mice received a total of 4 wk (alternating-week treatment regimen) of FBZ-medicated feed. Spleen and bone marrow were collected for immunologic assays, and heart, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and liver were evaluated by histopathology. Our results indicate that FBZ treatment has significant effects on the immune systems of mice; these effects are greater in aged mice. FBZ treatment adversely affected mRNA and protein expression of E2A (a transcription factor crucial for B lymphocytes) in activated precursor B lymphocytes obtained from the bone marrow of young and old mice. These effects were reversed by 6 wk on regular feed after the end of treatment. Activated B lymphocytes from the spleens of young and old mice showed decreased function (cell proliferation, E2A mRNA and protein expression) through the last time point of FBZ treatment but recovered by 2 to 4 wk after treatment. Our findings suggest that FBZ treatment may alter sensitive immune and molecular measures as presented here, and postponing the experimental use of mice until at least 6 wk after treatment should be considered. PMID:19476712

  2. Effects of fenbendazole on the murine humoral immune system.

    PubMed

    Landin, Ana Marie; Frasca, Daniela; Zaias, Julia; Van der Put, Elaine; Riley, Richard L; Altman, Norman H; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2009-05-01

    Pinworms are highly contagious parasites that have been effectively treated in laboratory rodents with fenbendazole (FBZ). Whether FBZ has any detrimental side effects that may compromise experimental results is unknown. Here we asked whether the immune systems from young and aged mice are altered under FBZ treatment. We compared control and FBZ-treated groups of young (age, 2 to 4 mo) and old (age, 22 to 24 mo) BALB/cN mice. The treated mice received a total of 4 wk (alternating-week treatment regimen) of FBZ-medicated feed. Spleen and bone marrow were collected for immunologic assays, and heart, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and liver were evaluated by histopathology. Our results indicate that FBZ treatment has significant effects on the immune systems of mice; these effects are greater in aged mice. FBZ treatment adversely affected mRNA and protein expression of E2A (a transcription factor crucial for B lymphocytes) in activated precursor B lymphocytes obtained from the bone marrow of young and old mice. These effects were reversed by 6 wk on regular feed after the end of treatment. Activated B lymphocytes from the spleens of young and old mice showed decreased function (cell proliferation, E2A mRNA and protein expression) through the last time point of FBZ treatment but recovered by 2 to 4 wk after treatment. Our findings suggest that FBZ treatment may alter sensitive immune and molecular measures as presented here, and postponing the experimental use of mice until at least 6 wk after treatment should be considered. PMID:19476712

  3. Effect of fenbendazole on three behavioral tests in male C57BL/6N mice.

    PubMed

    Gadad, Bharathi S; Daher, João P L; Hutchinson, Eric K; Brayton, Cory F; Dawson, Ted M; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Watson, Julie

    2010-11-01

    Pinworms are highly contagious parasites of laboratory rodents that often are treated with fenbendazole. To our knowledge, the effect of fenbendazole at therapeutic dosages on behavioral tests in mice has not been evaluated. Here we studied 6-wk-old male C57BL/6N mice. We compared the behavior of control mice (fed regular diet) with 3 groups of mice treated with dietary fenbendazole. Treatment groups were 4 wk of fenbendazole, 2 wk of fenbendazole followed by 2 wk of regular diet, and 2 wk of regular diet followed by 2 wk of fenbendazole. At the end of dietary treatment all groups were tested by open field for central, peripheral and vertical activity; elevated plus maze for anxiety; and rotarod for motor ability and then evaluated by clinical pathology and selected histopathology. Treated and control groups showed no differences in open field or elevated plus maze testing, histopathology, or clinical pathology. However mice treated for 4 wk with fenbendazole or 2 wk of fenbendazole followed by 2 wk regular diet stayed on the rotarod for shorter periods than did controls, and mice treated with 2 wk of regular diet followed by 2 wk fenbendazole showed a trend toward shorter rotarod times. In light of this study, we suggest that open field and elevated plus maze testing is unlikely to be affected by 4 wk fenbendazole treatment in male C57BL/6 mice; however, behavioral tests of motor ability such as rotarod tests may be affected during and for at least 2 wk after fenbendazole treatment. PMID:21205447