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1

Neighborhood History as a Factor Shaping Syringe Distribution Networks Among Drug Users at a U.S. Syringe Exchange1  

PubMed Central

Throughout the US, high-visibility drug markets are concentrated in neighborhoods with few economic opportunities, while drug buyers/users are widely dispersed. A study of Pittsburgh Syringe Exchange participants provides data on travel between and network linkages across neighborhoods with different levels of drug activity. There are distinct racial patterns to syringe distribution activity within networks and across neighborhoods. Pittsburgh’s history suggests these patterns emerge from historical patterns of social and economic development. Study data demonstrate the ability of IDUs to form long term social ties across racial and geographic boundaries and use them to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. PMID:19578475

Braine, Naomi; Acker, Caroline; Goldblatt, Cullen; Yi, Huso; Friedman, Samuel; DesJarlais, Don C.

2008-01-01

2

Unstable Housing as a Factor for Increased Injection Risk Behavior at US Syringe Exchange Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess variation in injection risk behavior among unstably housed\\/homeless injecting drug users (IDUs) across programs\\u000a in a national sample of US syringe exchange programs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  About 23 syringe exchange programs were selected through stratified random sampling of moderate to very large US syringe exchange\\u000a programs operating in 2001–2005. Subjects at each program were randomly sampled. Risk behavior interviews were collected

Don C. Des Jarlais; Naomi Braine; Patricia Friedmann

2007-01-01

3

Factors affecting pediatric isotonic fluid resuscitation efficiency: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of syringe size  

PubMed Central

Background Goal-directed therapy guidelines for pediatric septic shock resuscitation recommend fluid delivery at speeds in excess of that possible through use of regular fluid infusion pumps. In our experience, syringes are commonly used by health care providers (HCPs) to achieve rapid fluid resuscitation in a pediatric fluid resuscitation scenario. At present, it is unclear which syringe size health care providers should use when performing fluid resuscitation to achieve maximal fluid resuscitation efficiency. The objective of this study was therefore to determine if an optimal syringe size exists for conducting manual pediatric fluid resuscitation. Methods This 48-participant parallel group randomized controlled trial included 4 study arms (10, 20, 30, 60 mL syringe size groups). Eligible participants were HCPs from McMaster Children’s Hospital, Hamilton, Canada blinded to the purpose of the trial. Consenting participants were randomized using a third party technique. Following a standardization procedure, participants administered 900 mL (60 mL/kg) of isotonic saline to a simulated 15 kg child using prefilled provided syringes of the allocated size in rapid sequence. Primary outcome was total time to administer the 900 mL and this data was collected through video review by two blinded outcome assessors. Sample size was predetermined based upon a primary outcome analysis using one-way ANOVA. Results 12 participants were randomized to each group (n=48) and all completed trial protocol to analysis. Analysis was conducted according to intention to treat principles. A significant difference in fluid resuscitation time (in seconds) was found between syringe size group means: 10 mL, 563s [95% CI 521; 606]; 20 mL, 506s [95% CI 64; 548]; 30 mL, 454s [95% CI 412; 596]; 60 mL, 455s [95% CI 413; 497] (p<0.001). Conclusions The syringe size used when performing manual pediatric fluid resuscitation has a significant impact on fluid resuscitation speed, in a setting where fluid filled syringes are continuously available. Greatest efficiency was achieved with 30 or 60 mL syringes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01494116 PMID:23883424

2013-01-01

4

Experiments with Disposable Hypodermic Syringes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists five experiments or demonstrations involving hypodermic syringes. The titles of experiments are Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Atmospheric Pressure, Expansion of Gases, and Boiling at Reduced Pressure. Provides a list of materials, the typical data, and graphs where appropriate. (YP)

Clayton, G. T.; And Others

1988-01-01

5

Shelf-lives and factors affecting the stability of morphine sulphate and meperidine (pethidine) hydrochloride in plastic syringes for use in patient-controlled analgesic devices.  

PubMed

Published reports regarding the stability of morphine are at variance, especially in syringes used in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) devices. In addition to the effects of container type and vehicle, reasons for this variation include the effect of excipients temperature and light during storage. Furthermore, the literature varies regarding the mechanisms of decomposition for morphine. To our knowledge, the stability of meperidine (pethidine) stored in plastic syringes has not been reported. The purposes of this study were to investigate the stability of morphine sulphate (1 and 5 mg/ml) and meperidine hydrochloride (5 and 10 mg/ml) in plastic syringes for use in PCA devices for a duration of 12 weeks, and evaluate the influence of light (240 foot-candles), temperature (-20, 4 and 23 degrees C), diluent (5% dextrose or normal saline), and drug concentration on the stability of these narcotic analgesics. Samples were taken bi-weekly for solutions protected from light and weekly for solutions exposed to light. Morphine sulphate and meperidine hydrochloride concentrations were quantified using independent, stability-indicating, high performance liquid chromatographic assays. The within-day and between-day coefficients of variation for these assays were < or = 4% over each of the concentration ranges studied. Under the conditions of this study, it is proposed that although decomposition of morphine to its main product, pseudomorphine, can be interpreted using first-order kinetics, consecutive (to form the N-oxide) and parallel mechanisms (to form apomorphine) exist. Morphine solutions were more stable in normal saline than in 5% dextrose. Shelf-life data indicate that morphine is stable for at least 6 weeks when protected from light.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7876368

Strong, M L; Schaaf, L J; Pankaskie, M C; Robinson, D H

1994-12-01

6

Syringe liposculpture: A two-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syringe liposcupture is a method that combines two relatively new techniques of plastic surgery: syringe liposuction and fat grafting. We can reshape the face and the body by removing localized fat deposits and reinjecting this fat where needed. When we do not reinject, we call the technique reduction liposculpture. In 1989 we introduced a new technique—superficial syringe liposculpture—to treat patients

Luiz S. Toledo

1991-01-01

7

The effect on syringe performance of fluid storage and repeated use: implications for syringe pumps.  

PubMed

Syringe stiction has been reported to cause syringe pump malfunction, hence the effect on syringe performance of syringe use and the formulations used in the syringe were investigated. The force required for syringe plunger motion (at 2.5 mm min-1), when filled with soybean oil emulsion (SBOE) and with water, and the extraction of silicone oil from syringes by these fluids, were measured for Primo, Talus and Terumo 10 mL, and Terumo 50 mL syringes. The breakloose, average extrusion and maximum force required to maintain plunger motion increased after storage of SBOE for 7 days in all syringes tested (p < 0.05). The storage of water increased the breakloose force of all syringes, but only increased the maximum force of Talus syringes, and both the average extrusion and maximum forces of Terumo 10 mL syringes. The mechanism for this is most likely swelling of the elastomer of the piston due to sorption of fluid. The force was found to increase logarithmically with repeated syringe use. Electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the silicone oil content of syringe extractions. Three extractions were performed: repeated flushing, vigorous washing, and storage for 7 days with occasional agitation. Up to 69.4% of the silicone oil present in the syringes was extracted with both water and SBOE when they were stored or washed. In contrast to water, SBOE also extracted the lubricant when the syringe was filled and flushed immediately. If syringes are refilled, stored filled before use, or used over a prolonged period, particularly with a SBOE formulation, syringe striction may occur during infusion with a syringe pump. PMID:8846058

Capes, D F; Herring, D; Sunderland, V B; McMillan, D; McDonald, C

1996-01-01

8

Syringe drivers: incorrect selection of syringe type from the syringe menu may result in significant errors in drug delivery.  

PubMed

There have been many reported adverse incidents due to syringe driver use, most of which have been attributable to human error. In this paper we present a previously unreported, but potentially widespread practice which may result in significant over or under-delivery of medication. Even with the naked eye it is evident that syringes of equal volume have different dimensions and to quantify this we sectioned a range of syringes and measured the inner and outer dimensions. Extensive menus for syringe brand and volumes are available on syringe drivers, offering users greater flexibility. However, this feature also allows users to select an incorrect syringe brand with potential consequences for drug delivery. We measured outputs under all selectable permutations, to determine the degree of fluid delivery variation and discovered inaccuracies in volumes ranging from 10% under-delivery to 24% over-delivery. There is a wide variation in syringe metrics and complex syringe menus may increase errors, resulting in significant under or over-delivery of medication. Availability of more than one brand of syringe in a clinical area increases the risk of adverse drug delivery events. Systems need to be implemented to minimise the risk of adverse events. PMID:24967761

Tooke, L J; Howell, L

2014-07-01

9

The cleaning of instruments and syringes  

PubMed Central

The dangers to the handler of syringes used for routine injections were found to be negligible, but known infected syringes and those contaminated with antibiotics should be autoclaved before handling as a high proportion of these carry pathogenic organisms. Mechanical methods of cleaning syringes and instruments are assessed. The use of an artificial soil for testing purposes is described. Using this soil, ultrasonics by themselves are inadequate for cleaning syringes and instruments. Agitation with ultrasonics is essential for syringes, but is insufficient for instruments. Detergents are therefore an essential adjunct to the cleaning process. For syringes Pyroneg proved to be the most satisfactory, particularly if they had been previously siliconized. The best detergent for instruments contaminated with these types of soil was Penesolve 814 at a temperature of 95°C. but the instruments must be adequately rinsed after this treatment. A number of other detergents and cleaning agents are discussed. PMID:14247708

Darmady, E. M.; Hughes, K. E. A.; Drewett, S. E.; Prince, D.; Tuke, Winifred; Verdon, Patricia

1965-01-01

10

Don't Throw Away Syringes!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a variety of laboratory experiments including carbon dioxide reduction, animal respiration, atmospheric pressure determination, and others, that can be performed using discarded syringes. (GS)

John, E.

1975-01-01

11

Techniques for Calibration of the Scale Factor and Image Center for High Accuracy 3-D Machine Vision Metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques are described for calibrating certain intrinsic camera parameters for machine vision. The parameters to be calibrated are the horizontal scale factor, and the image center. The scale factor calibration uses a one-dimensional fast Fourier transform and is accurate and efficient. It also permits the use of only one coplanar set of calibration points for general camera calibration. Three groups

REIMAR K. LENZ; Roger Y. Tsai

1988-01-01

12

The syringe gap: an assessment of sterile syringe need and acquisition among syringe exchange program participants in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Programmatic data from New York City syringe exchange programs suggest that many clients visit the programs infrequently and take few syringes per transaction, while separate survey data from individuals using these programs indicate that frequent injecting – at least daily – is common. Together, these data suggest a possible \\

Daliah I Heller; Denise Paone; Anne Siegler; Adam Karpati

2009-01-01

13

21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880...Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a...

2010-04-01

14

Calibration and Reliability Factors Influencing Sound Velocimeter Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The capability of present sound velocimeter designs is limited by our ability to calibrate and maintain their performance. Environmental control, electronic techniques, and mechanical construction each contribute limitations to direct measurement of the s...

S. P. Ramsay

1966-01-01

15

Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

Haseler, Luke J., E-mail: l.haseler@griffith.edu.au [Griffith University, Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute (Australia); Sibbitt, Randy R., E-mail: THESIBB2@aol.com [Montana Interventional and Dgnstc Radiation (United States); Sibbitt, Wilmer L., E-mail: wsibbitt@salud.unm.edu [University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Department of Internal Medicine (United States); Michael, Adrian A., E-mail: adrian_a_michael@yahoo.com [Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Internal Medicine (United States); Gasparovic, Charles M., E-mail: chuck@unm.edu [University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MIND Institute at the University of New Mexico (United States); Bankhurst, Arthur D., E-mail: abankhurst@salud.unm.edu [University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Department of Internal Medicine (United States)

2011-06-15

16

Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures  

PubMed Central

Purpose Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device (RPD), were studied. 20 operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: 1) vacuum (Torr), 2) time to vacuum (seconds), 3) hand force to generate vacuum (Torr-cm2), 4) operator difficulty during aspiration, 5) biopsy yield (mg), and 6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (p < 0.002). 20 ml syringes achieved a vacuum of ?517 Torr, but required significantly more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (p<0.002). The 10 ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (?435 Torr) than the 20 ml, and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (p<0.002), and provided significantly enhanced needle control (p<0.002). Conclusions To optimize patient safety and control of the needle and maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered. PMID:21057795

Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

2013-01-01

17

Accelerometer calibration with nonlinear scale factor based on multi-position observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calibration of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is a key technique to improve the accuracy of an inertial navigation system. Adding more parameters into the model and reducing the estimation errors is essential for improving the calibration methods. Given its advantage of not requiring high-precision equipment, the multi-position calibration method has been widely discussed and has shown great potential in recent years. In this paper, the multi-position calibration method is improved by introducing the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor. The observation equations for the improved multi-position calibration method are established based on a nonlinear accelerometer model. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is adopted to solve the complicated nonlinear equations. In addition, Allan variance is used to determine the optimal data collection time. The accuracy and the robustness of the proposed calibration method are verified by the simulation test. The laboratory and field experiment results for a navigation-grade IMU prove that the proposed method can successfully identify the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor and improve the multi-position calibration accuracy. The comparison of several other calibration methods highlights the superior performance of the proposed method without precise orientation control.

Cai, Qingzhong; Song, Ningfang; Yang, Gongliu; Liu, Yiliang

2013-10-01

18

Standardization of Factor VIII. I. Calibration of British Standards for Factor VIII clotting activity.  

PubMed

Calibration of successive British Standards for Factor VIII clotting activity against the International Standard (concentrate) has brought to light substantial discrepancies among laboratories and between assay methods. These discrepancies were less in assays of concentrate standards than in calibration of plasma standards. Standardization of reagents in the two-stage assays substantially improved agreement among laboratories using this method. Standardization of the phospholipid reagent and haemophilic substrate separately had little effect on variation among laboratories performing one-stage assays. Standardization of reagents did not alter the basic discrepancy (approximately 20%) between the one-stage and two-stage assay methods. Omission of the aluminium hydroxide adsorption step from the two-stage method reduced the discrepancy between the two methods to less than 10%. Discrepancies did not occur when one plasma standard was assayed against another. Improvements in the stability of VIII:C in freeze-dried plasma now make it feasible to establish a long-term plasma reference standard. PMID:6778499

Barrowcliffe, T W; Kirkwood, T B

1980-11-01

19

Prevalence and predictors of transitions to and away from syringe exchange use over time in 3 US cities with varied syringe dispensing policies  

PubMed Central

Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) can reduce HIV risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) but their use may depend heavily on contextual factors such as local syringe policies. The frequency and predictors of transitioning over time to and from direct, indirect, and non-use of SEPs are unknown. We sought, over one year, to: (1) quantify and characterize transition probabilities of SEP attendance typologies; (2) identify factors associated with (a) change in typology, and (b) becoming and maintaining direct SEP use; and (3) quantify and characterize transition probabilities of SEP attendance before and after changes in policy designed to increase access. Using data collected from 583 IDUs participating in a three-city cohort study of SEPs, we conducted a latent transition analysis and multinomial regressions. Three typologies were detected: Direct SEP users, Indirect SEP users and Isolated IDUs. Transitions to direct SEP use were most prevalent. Factors associated with becoming or maintaining direct SEP use were female sex, Latino ethnicity, fewer injections per syringe, homelessness, recruitment city, injecting speedballs (cocaine and heroin), and police contact involving drug paraphernalia possession. Similar factors influenced transitions in the syringe policy change analysis. Policy change cities experienced an increase in Indirect SEP users (43% to 51%) with little increased direct use (29% to 31%). We found that, over time, IDUs tended to become Direct SEP users. Policies improving syringe availability influenced SEP use by increasing secondary syringe exchange. Interactions with police around drug paraphernalia may encourage SEP use for some IDUs and may provide opportunities for other health interventions. PMID:20537814

Green, Traci C.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Singer, Merrill; Beletsky, Leo; Grau, Lauretta E.; Marshall, Patricia; Heimer, Robert

2010-01-01

20

Lab in a syringe: fully automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with integrated spectrophotometric detection.  

PubMed

A new approach for the integration of various analytical steps inside a syringe (Lab in a Syringe) is presented. Fully automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with integrated spectrophotometric detection is carried out in-syringe using a very simple instrumental setup. The lighter-than-water organic droplets released in the extraction step accumulate at the head of the syringe, where two optical fibers are placed on both sides of the syringe, facing each other and enabling the in situ quantification of the extracted compounds. By this, monitoring of the progressively accumulating droplet in the head of the syringe was further possible. In this first report, the developed instrumental setup has been applied to the determination of the dye rhodamine B in water samples and soft drinks. The main parameters influencing the extraction such as the selection of the extractant and disperser solvents, extractant/disperser and organic/water phase ratios, pH of the aqueous phase, extraction flow rates, and extraction time were investigated. Under the selected conditions, rhodamine B was quantified in a working range of 0.023-2 mg L(-1) with a limit of detection of 0.007 mg L(-1). Good repeatability values of up to 3.2% (RSD) were obtained for ten consecutive extractions. The enrichment factor for a 1 mg L(-1) rhodamine B standard was 23, and up to 51 extractions were accomplished in 1 h. PMID:22699237

Maya, Fernando; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

2012-08-01

21

Prefilled syringes: An innovation in parenteral packaging  

PubMed Central

Parenteral administration of pharmaceutical products is one of the most popular methods used to produce quick onset of action and also 100% bioavailability. Main problem occurs with the parenteral drug delivery is lack of convenience, affordability, accuracy, sterility, safety etc. Such drawbacks with this delivery system makes it less preferable. Hence, all the disadvantages of these systems can be easily overcome by use of prefilled syringes. The objective of this review article is to provide information regarding prefilled syringes; it's method of preparation, direction to use, advantages, its future scope, and development. PMID:23071944

Makwana, Sagar; Basu, Biswajit; Makasana, Yogita; Dharamsi, Abhay

2011-01-01

22

Adiabatic Compression in a Fire Syringe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests using better materials in fire syringes to obtain more effective results during demonstrations which show the elevation in temperature upon a very rapid (adiabatic) compression of air. Also describes an experiment (using ignition temperatures) which introduces students to the use of thermocouples for high temperature measurements. (DH)

Hayn, Carl H.; Baird, Scott C.

1985-01-01

23

Open-Source Syringe Pump Library  

PubMed Central

This article explores a new open-source method for developing and manufacturing high-quality scientific equipment suitable for use in virtually any laboratory. A syringe pump was designed using freely available open-source computer aided design (CAD) software and manufactured using an open-source RepRap 3-D printer and readily available parts. The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are globally available to anyone wishing to use them. Details are provided covering the use of the CAD software and the RepRap 3-D printer. The use of an open-source Rasberry Pi computer as a wireless control device is also illustrated. Performance of the syringe pump was assessed and the methods used for assessment are detailed. The cost of the entire system, including the controller and web-based control interface, is on the order of 5% or less than one would expect to pay for a commercial syringe pump having similar performance. The design should suit the needs of a given research activity requiring a syringe pump including carefully controlled dosing of reagents, pharmaceuticals, and delivery of viscous 3-D printer media among other applications. PMID:25229451

Wijnen, Bas; Hunt, Emily J.; Anzalone, Gerald C.; Pearce, Joshua M.

2014-01-01

24

The Disposable Syringe: More Experiments and Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a variety of experiments that can be performed using the disposable syringe. Among others, these include the removal of oxygen during rusting, convection in a liquid and in air, gas collection in an electrolysis cell, small scale production of a fog, and hydrogen/oxygen extraction from a voltameter. (JR)

Farmer, Andrew

1973-01-01

25

Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries  

SciTech Connect

A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

Coleman, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-01-08

26

A technical study of TLD beta calibration factor for exposures to depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect

The beta calibration factor for converting light output (on reading a thermoluminescent dosimeter) to shallow dose equivalent has been reexamined through theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. The results support the previously determined value for contact with a depleted uranium slab but indicate that for many actual workplace situations, the contact value may be overly conservative.

Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; McMahan, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Souleyrette, M.L.; Bogard, R.S. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1995-06-01

27

Access to syringes for HIV prevention for injection drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia: syringe purchase test study  

PubMed Central

Background The HIV epidemic in Russia is concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). This is especially true for St. Petersburg where high HIV incidence persists among the city’s estimated 80,000 IDUs. Although sterile syringes are legally available, access for IDUs may be hampered. To explore the feasibility of using pharmacies to expand syringe access and provide other prevention services to IDUs, we investigated the current access to sterile syringes at the pharmacies and the correlation between pharmacy density and HIV prevalence in St. Petersburg. Methods 965 pharmacies citywide were mapped, classified by ownership type, and the association between pharmacy density and HIV prevalence at the district level was tested. We selected two districts among the 18 districts – one central and one peripheral – that represented two major types of city districts and contacted all operating pharmacies by phone to inquire if they stocked syringes and obtained details about their stock. Qualitative interviews with 26 IDUs provided data regarding syringe access in pharmacies and were used to formulate hypotheses for the pharmacy syringe purchase test wherein research staff attempted to purchase syringes in all pharmacies in the two districts. Results No correlation was found between the density of pharmacies and HIV prevalence at the district level. Of 108 operating pharmacies, 38 (35%) did not sell syringes of the types used by IDUs; of these, half stocked but refused to sell syringes to research staff, and the other half did not stock syringes at all. Overall 70 (65%) of the pharmacies did sell syringes; of these, 49 pharmacies sold single syringes without any restrictions and 21 offered packages of ten. Conclusions Trainings for pharmacists need to be conducted to reduce negative attitudes towards IDUs and increase pharmacists’ willingness to sell syringes. At a structural level, access to safe injection supplies for IDUs could be increased by including syringes in the federal list of mandatory medical products sold by pharmacies. PMID:23452390

2013-01-01

28

Real-time particle monitor calibration factors and PM2.5 emission factors for multiple indoor sources.  

PubMed

Indoor sources can greatly contribute to personal exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM2.5). To accurately assess PM2.5 mass emission factors and concentrations, real-time particle monitors must be calibrated for individual sources. Sixty-six experiments were conducted with a common, real-time laser photometer (TSI SidePak™ Model AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor) and a filter-based PM2.5 gravimetric sampler to quantify the monitor calibration factors (CFs), and to estimate emission factors for common indoor sources including cigarettes, incense, cooking, candles, and fireplaces. Calibration factors for these indoor sources were all significantly less than the factory-set CF of 1.0, ranging from 0.32 (cigarette smoke) to 0.70 (hamburger). Stick incense had a CF of 0.35, while fireplace emissions ranged from 0.44-0.47. Cooking source CFs ranged from 0.41 (fried bacon) to 0.65-0.70 (fried pork chops, salmon, and hamburger). The CFs of combined sources (e.g., cooking and cigarette emissions mixed) were linear combinations of the CFs of the component sources. The highest PM2.5 emission factors per time period were from burned foods and fireplaces (15-16 mg min(-1)), and the lowest from cooking foods such as pizza and ground beef (0.1-0.2 mg min(-1)). PMID:23784066

Dacunto, Philip J; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Klepeis, Neil E; Repace, James L; Ott, Wayne R; Hildemann, Lynn M

2013-08-01

29

EFFECTS OF POLICE CONFISCATION OF ILLICIT DRUGS AND SYRINGES AMONG INJECTION DRUG USERS IN VANCOUVER  

PubMed Central

Background Drug market policing has been associated with various harms among injection drug users (IDU). However, little is known about instances in which drugs and injecting equipment are confiscated from IDU in the absence of a formal arrest. Methods We examined factors associated with being stopped, searched, or detained by police among participants in the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS) using logistic regression. We also examined actions taken by study participants immediately following instances in which drugs or syringes were confiscated by police. Results Among 465 active IDU, 130 (28.0%) reported being detained by police in the last six months without being arrested. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors associated with being stopped, searched or detained by police included homelessness (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.96, 95%CI: 1.86 – 8.45), recent incarceration (AOR = 3.52, 95% CI: 1.75 – 7.10), frequent crack use (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.34 – 3.74), requiring help injecting (AOR = 5.20, 95% CI: 1.21 – 22.39), and lending syringes (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI: 1.09 – 9.30). Of those who reported being detained, 34% participants reported having had drugs confiscated, and 70% of these reported that they immediately acquired more drugs. 51% of participants who reported being detained also reported having had syringes confiscated, and of this group, 6% reported immediately borrowing used syringes. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the IDU most affected by street-level policing tend to possess various characteristics, such as homeless, that place them at heightened risk for various adverse health outcomes. Our findings also suggest that the confiscation of drugs and/or needles and syringes through discretionary policing practices have potential to exacerbate drug market activity or prompt increased syringe borrowing. These findings indicate the need for ongoing evaluation of the public health impacts of discretionary policing approaches. PMID:17900888

Werb, Daniel; Wood, Evan; Small, Will; Strathdee, Steffanie; Li, Kathy; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

2008-01-01

30

Techniques for calibration of the scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques for calibrating certain intrinsic camera parameters for machine vision. The parameters to be calibrated are the horizontal scale factor, i.e. the factor that relates the sensor element spacing of a discrete array camera to the picture element spacing after sampling by the image acquisition circuitry, and the image center, i.e. the intersection of the optical axis

Reimar K. Lenz; Roger Y. Tsai

1987-01-01

31

HIV Risk Behavior among Amphetamine Injectors at U.S. Syringe Exchange Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to compare HIV risk behaviors of amphetamine and non-amphetamine injectors at syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the United States and to identify factors associated with injection risk. This analysis is based on data from a random cross-section of participants at 13 SEPs in different parts of the country. All interviews…

Braine, Naomi; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Goldblatt, Cullen; Zadoretzky, Cathy; Turner, Charles

2005-01-01

32

Determination of the calibration factor of polysulphone film UV dosemeters for terrestrial solar radiation.  

PubMed

Polysulphone film is used as a personal UV dosemeter in dermatological or epidemiological studies. The relative efficiency of this detector does not exactly match the action spectrum as proposed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and to which the UV dose and exposure limits refer. Therefore, the calibration of the dosemeter depends on the spetrum. In the present paper the variation of the calibration factor for terrestrial solar UV spectra is analysed on the basis of a two year observation period at a site near Munich. Germany. A detailed error estimation is included. It is shown that the variation of the calibration factor within this class of spectra is the main contribution to the total uncertainty of the dose determination, which can be up to 40%. The shape of the spectrum of terrestrial solar UV radiation is mainly determined by the total ozone column and the solar elevation angle. It is shown how the calibration depends on these two parameters and how this additional information can help to reduce the measurement error to a residual uncertainty of 17%. Exposure studies of terrestrial solar UV radiation using polysulphone film as a dosemeter would gain in accuracy if total ozone column values at the study's site could be measured or taken from satellite or weather service data. The interpretation of the magnitude of the dose uncertainty depends on the further use of these data. PMID:11707033

Krins, A; Dörschel, B; Knuschke, P; Seidlitz, H K; Thiel, S

2001-01-01

33

An accurate calibration method for accelerometer nonlinear scale factor on a low-cost three-axis turntable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) requirements are very demanding on gyroscopes and accelerometers as well as on calibration. To improve the accuracy of SINS, high-accuracy calibration is needed. Adding the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor into the model and reducing estimation errors is essential for improving calibration methods. In this paper, the inertial navigation error model is simplified, including only velocity and tilt errors. Based on the simplified error model, the relationship between the navigation errors (the rates of change of velocity errors) and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration parameters is presented. A tracking model is designed to estimate the rates of change of velocity errors. With a special calibration procedure consisting of six rotation sequences, the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor errors can be computed by the estimates of the rates of change of velocity errors. Simulation and laboratory test results show that the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor can be calibrated with satisfactory accuracy on a low-cost three-axis turntable in several minutes. The comparison with the traditional calibration method highlights the superior performance of the proposed calibration method without precise orientation control. In addition, the proposed calibration method saves a lot of time in comparison with the multi-position calibration method.

Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi; Cai, Qingzhong

2014-02-01

34

Could low dead-space syringes really reduce HIV transmission to low levels?  

PubMed

Studies published by Zule and colleagues have suggested that use of low dead-space syringes (LDSS) instead of high dead-space syringes (HDSS) by injecting drug users (IDUs) could dramatically reduce HIV transmission. However, evidence is limited because experiments have considered a small range of syringe types and have been unable to reliably estimate the efficacy of using LDSS for reducing HIV transmission. We critically appraise available evidence to determine whether using LDSS is likely to dramatically reduce HIV transmission. We systematically review the literature on the dead-space volume of syringes and estimate the factor difference in blood volume transferred from sharing LDSS or HDSS. Existing data on the relationship between host viral load and HIV transmission risk is used to evaluate the likely efficacy of using LDSS instead of HDSS. An HIV transmission model is used to make conservative impact projections for switching to using LDSS, and explore the implications of heterogeneity in IDU transmission risk and syringe preferences. Although highly variable, reviewed studies suggest that HDSS have on average 10 times the dead-space volume of LDSS and could result in 6/54/489 times more blood being transferred after 0/1/2 water rinses. Assuming a conservative 2-fold increase in HIV transmission risk per 10-fold increase in infected blood inoculum, HDSS use could be associated with a mean 1.7/3.6/6.5-fold increase in transmission risk compared to LDSS for 0/1/2 rinses. However, even for a low efficacy estimate, modelling suggests that partially transferring to LDSS use from using HDSS could dramatically reduce HIV prevalence (generally >33% if LDSS use is 50%), but impact will depend on IDU behavioural heterogeneity and syringe preference. Indirect evidence suggests that encouraging HDSS users to use LDSS could be a powerful HIV prevention strategy. There is an urgent need to evaluate the real life effectiveness of this strategy. PMID:23206493

Vickerman, P; Martin, N K; Hickman, M

2013-01-01

35

Liquid Drugs and High Dead Space Syringes May Keep HIV and HCV Prevalence High - A Comparison of Hungary and Lithuania  

PubMed Central

Despitevery similar political, drug policy and HIV prevention backgrounds, HIV and HCV prevalence is considerably different in Hungary (low HIV and moderate HCV prevalence) and Lithuania (high HCV and moderate HIV prevalence). Wecompared the drug use profile of Hungarian (n = 215) and Lithuanian (n = 300) injecting drug users (IDUs). Overall, compared with IDUs in Hungary, IDUs in Lithuania often injected opiates purchased in liquid form (‘shirka’), used and shared 2-piece syringes (vs. 1-piece syringes) disproportionately more often, were less likely to acquire their syringes from legal sources and had significantly more experience with injected and less experience with non-injected drugs. It may not be liquid drugs per se that contribute to a higher prevalence of HCV and/or HIV, but it is probably factors associated with the injecting of liquid drugs, such as the wide-spread use and sharing of potentially contaminated 2-piece syringes acquired often from non-legal sources, and syringe-mediated drug sharing with 2-piece syringes. Scaling up substitution therapy, especially heroin replacement, combined with reducing the supply of liquid drugs may decrease the prevalence of high-risk injecting behaviours related to the injecting of liquid drugs and drug injecting-related infections among IDUs in Lithuania. PMID:20798543

Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Li, Nan; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A.

2010-01-01

36

Characterization of responses and comparison of calibration factor for commercial MOSFET detectors.  

PubMed

A commercial metal oxide silicon field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter of model TN502-RD has been characterized for its linearity, reproducibility, field size dependency, dose rate dependency, and angular dependency for Cobalt-60 (60Co), 6-MV, and 15-MV beam energies. The performance of the MOSFET clearly shows that it is highly reproducible, independent of field size and dose rate. Furthermore, MOSFET has a very high degree of linearity, with r-value>0.9 for all 3 energies. The calibration factor for 2 similar MOSFET detectors of model TN502-RD were also estimated and compared for all 3 energies. The calibration factor between the 2 similar MOSFET detectors shows a variation of about 1.8% for 60Co and 15 MV, and for 6 MV it shows variation of about 2.5%, indicating that calibration should be done whenever a new MOSFET is used. However, the detector shows considerable angular dependency of about 8.8% variation. This may be due to the variation in radiation sensitivity between flat and bubble sides of the MOSFET, and indicates that positional care must be taken while using MOSFET for stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy dosimetric applications. PMID:16275563

Bharanidharan, Ganesan; Manigandan, Durai; Devan, Krishnamurthy; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Gopishankar, Natanasabapathi; Ganesh, Tharmar; Joshi, Rakeshchander; Rath, Gourakishore; Velmurugan, Jagadeesan; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

2005-01-01

37

Solute-Filled Syringe For Formulating Intravenous Solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prefilled syringe contains premeasured amount of solute in powder or concentrate form used to deliver solute to sterile interior of large-volume parenteral (LVP) bag. Predetermined amount of sterile water also added to LVP bag through sterilizing filter, and mixed with contents of syringe, yielding sterile intravenous solution of specified concentration.

Owens, Jim; Bindokas, AL; Dudar, Tom; Finley, Mike; Scharf, Mike

1993-01-01

38

Calibrator for microflow delivery systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus for calibrating the fluid flow rate down to 3×10-2ml/h is proposed, based on the volumetric pump working principle. Constant flow rate is assured by means of the constant speed at which the plunger of a laboratory syringe is moved. To test effectiveness of the system, a flow sensor, composed by a differential pressure transducer and a needle was calibrated and afterward utilized for characterizing a clinical drug infusion device. The proposed apparatus showed a full scale (FS) uncertainty approximately equal to 3.5% over a range of 6 ml/h. The calibration range starts at 3×10-2ml/h with a 1 ml syringe and at 3×10-3ml/h with a 0.1 ml syringe. The minimum detectable signal (evaluated at 6 dB SNR) was equal to about 1.4×10-2ml/h by using a syringe of 1 ml. The outcomes of the adopted procedure allowed a characterization of the performance of an infusion pump, without the need of the usual but somewhat cumbersome gravimetric calibration standard. Moreover, some issues about the expected resolution and uncertainty, depending on the characteristics of the system, is also reported.

Marinozzi, Franco; Bini, Fabiano; Cappa, Paolo

2005-01-01

39

21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2010-04-01

40

Developing biotechnology company's future positioning strategy in prefilled syringe market  

E-print Network

The primary goal for the thesis is to develop a recommendation for Amgen's future prefilled syringe strategy related to its drug process development, supplier relationship management plan, supply and sourcing, and procurement. ...

Lee, Joonhaeng, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

41

Calibration of relative sensitivity factors for impact ionization detectors with high-velocity silicate microparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact ionization mass spectrometers, e.g., the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft can quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of impacting particles, if the ionization efficiencies of the elements to be quantified are appropriately calibrated. Although silicates are an abundant dust species inside and outside the Solar System, an experimental calibration was not available for elements typically found in silicates. We performed such a calibration by accelerating orthopyroxene dust of known composition with a modified Van de Graaff accelerator to velocities of up to 37.9 km s-1 and subsequent analyses by a high resolution impact ionization mass spectrometer, the Large Area Mass Analyzer (LAMA). The orthopyroxene dust, prepared from a natural rock sample, contains ?90% orthopyroxene and ?10% additional mineral species, such as clinopyroxene, spinel, amphibole, olivine and glasses, which are present as impurities within the orthopyroxene, due to inclusion or intergrowth. Hence, the dust material can be regarded as a multi-mineral mixture. After analyses, we find that most particle data cluster at a composition ascribed to pure orthopyroxene. Some data scatter is caused by stochastic effects, other data scatter is caused by the chemically different mineral impurities. Our data indicate that these minor mineral phases can be recognized within a multi-mineral mixture. Here, for the first time, we present experimentally derived relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) for impact ionization mass spectroscopy of silicates, enabling the quantitative determination of the composition of cosmic dust grains. Orthopyroxene data were used to infer RSFs for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and K, for particles with radii ranging from 0.04 ?m to 0.2 ?m and velocities between 19 and 37.9 km s-1, impacting on a Rh-target.

Fiege, Katherina; Trieloff, Mario; Hillier, Jon K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Postberg, Frank; Srama, Ralf; Kempf, Sascha; Blum, Jürgen

2014-10-01

42

Non-prescription Syringe Sales in California: A Qualitative Examination of Practices among 12 Local Health Jurisdictions  

PubMed Central

Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California’s 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to demonstrate outcomes defined in the legislation. Using qualitative methods, we examined the systems and procedures associated with implementation; identified facilitators and barriers to implementation among 12 LHJs, and documented the role of public health in initiating and sustaining local programs. We identified consistent activities that led to policy implementation among LHJs and discovered several barriers that were associated with failure to implement local programs. Factors leading to NPSS were public health leadership; an inclusive planning process, marketing the program as a public health initiative; learning from others’ efforts, successes, and failures; and identifying acceptable syringe disposal options in advance of program implementation. Health departments that were confronted with political and moral arguments lost momentum and ultimately assigned a lower priority to the initiative citing the loss of powerful public health advocates or a lack of human resources. Additional barriers were law enforcement, elected officials, and pharmacy opposition, and failure to resolve syringe disposal options to the satisfaction of important stakeholders. The lessons learned in this study should provide useful guidance for the remaining LHJs in California without NPSS programs. PMID:20405227

Backes, Glenn; Martinez, Alexis; McFarland, Willi

2010-01-01

43

Effects of tissue factor, thrombomodulin and elevated clotting factor levels on thrombin generation in the calibrated automated thrombogram.  

PubMed

Elevated procoagulant levels have been correlated with increased thrombin generation in vitro and with increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in epidemiological studies. Thrombin generation tests are increasingly being employed as a high throughput method to provide a global measure of procoagulant activity in plasma samples. The objective of this study was to distinguish the effects of assay conditions [tissue factor (TF), thrombomodulin, platelets/lipids] and factor levels on thrombin generation parameters, and determine the conditions and parameters with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated factor levels. Thrombin generation was measured using calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) in corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-treated platelet-free plasma (PFP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Statistical analysis was performed using logarithms of observed values with analysis of variance that accounted for experiment and treatment. The relative sensitivity of lag time (LT), time to peak (TTP), peak height and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) to elevated factors XI, IX, VIII, X, and prothrombin was as follows: PFP initiated with 1 pM TF > PFP initiated with 5 pM TF > PRP initiated with 1 pM TF. For all conditions, inclusion of thrombomodulin prolonged the LT and decreased the peak and ETP; however, addition of thrombomodulin did not increase the ability of CAT to detect elevated levels of individual procoagulant factors. In conclusion, CAT conditions differentially affected the sensitivity of thrombin generation to elevated factor levels. Monitoring the peak height and/or ETP following initiation of clotting in PFP with 1 pM TF was most likely to detect hypercoagulability due to increased procoagulant factor levels. PMID:19888532

Machlus, Kellie R; Colby, Emily A; Wu, Jogin R; Koch, Gary G; Key, Nigel S; Wolberg, Alisa S

2009-11-01

44

Syringe availability as HIV prevention: A review of modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines recent research into modalities for improving access to sterile syringes for injection drug users (IDUs)\\u000a as a means to reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. English language studies with empirical data were collected\\u000a through Uncover reports and MedLine searches from 1998 to 2000. Although syringe-exchange programs are the most established\\u000a and well-evaluated means of improving access to

Phillip Coffin

2000-01-01

45

Structure of the syringeal muscles in jungle crow (corvus macrorhynchos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds’ vocalizations are produced by the syrinx, which is located between the trachea and the two primary bronchi. Oscine\\u000a birds have multiple pairs of syringeal muscles in the syrinx. To determine the detailed structure of the syringeal muscle\\u000a in jungle crows, an oscine bird, a histological study and gross examination of the syrinx were performed. In the histological\\u000a study, sections

Naoki Tsukahara; Qian Yang; Shoei Sugita

2008-01-01

46

A national physician survey on prescribing syringes as an HIV prevention measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Access to sterile syringes is a proven means of reducing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), viral hepatitis, and bacterial infections among injection drug users. In many U.S. states and territories, drug paraphernalia and syringe prescription laws are barriers to syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs): pharmacists may be reluctant to sell syringes to suspected IDUs, and

GE Macalino; D Dhawan Sachdev; JD Rich; C Becker; LJ Tan; L Beletsky; S Burris

2009-01-01

47

Stability of cephalexin monohydrate suspension in polypropylene oral syringes.  

PubMed

The stability of cephalexin monohydrate suspension in plastic oral syringes was studied. Commercially available cephalexin monohydrate powder for oral administration was reconstituted according to the manufacturer's instructions and stored in the original containers or drawn into 5-mL clear polypropylene oral syringes. The original containers and syringes were divided into groups and stored at -20, 4, 25, 40, 60, or 80 degrees C. Powder from two additional lots was similarly reconstituted and packaged; these original containers and syringes were stored at 80 degrees C only to assess interlot variability. Immediately after reconstitution and at specified times during storage, three syringes and the corresponding three original containers stored at each temperature were removed, and their contents were analyzed for cephalexin concentration using the standard USP iodometric assay for antibiotics. The stability-indicating nature of the assay was documented. Cephalexin monohydrate followed a first-order rate of degradation at temperatures of 40, 60, and 80 degrees C. At temperatures of -20, 4, and 25 degrees C, cephalexin monohydrate exhibited no appreciable degradation during the 90-day study period. Cephalexin monohydrate suspension reconstituted from powder as a suspension and repackaged in clear polypropylene oral syringes was stable for 90 days when stored under ambient, refrigerated, and frozen conditions. PMID:3414705

Sylvestri, M F; Makoid, M C; Cox, B E

1988-06-01

48

The Association Between Law Enforcement Encounters and Syringe Sharing Among IDUs on Skid Row: A Mixed Methods Analysis  

PubMed Central

The legal environment is one factor that influences injection drug users' (IDUs) risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). We examined the association between law enforcement encounters (i.e., arrests and citations) and receptive syringe sharing among IDUs in the context of an intensified policing effort. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of 30 qualitative and 187 quantitative interviews with IDUs accessing services at a Los Angeles, CA syringe exchange program from 2008 to 2009. Qualitative findings illustrate concerns related to visibility, drug withdrawal, and previous history of arrest/incarceration. In quantitative analysis, the number of citations received, current homelessness, and perceiving that being arrested would be a “big problem” were independently associated with recent syringe sharing. Findings illustrate some of the unintended public health consequences associated with intensified street-level policing, including risk for HIV and HCV transmission. PMID:23620243

Simon-Freeman, Rebecca; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

2013-01-01

49

The association between law enforcement encounters and syringe sharing among IDUs on skid row: a mixed methods analysis.  

PubMed

The legal environment is one factor that influences injection drug users' (IDUs) risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). We examined the association between law enforcement encounters (i.e., arrests and citations) and receptive syringe sharing among IDUs in the context of an intensified policing effort. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of 30 qualitative and 187 quantitative interviews with IDUs accessing services at a Los Angeles, CA syringe exchange program from 2008 to 2009. Qualitative findings illustrate concerns related to visibility, drug withdrawal, and previous history of arrest/incarceration. In quantitative analysis, the number of citations received, current homelessness, and perceiving that being arrested would be a "big problem" were independently associated with recent syringe sharing. Findings illustrate some of the unintended public health consequences associated with intensified street-level policing, including risk for HIV and HCV transmission. PMID:23620243

Wagner, Karla D; Simon-Freeman, Rebecca; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

2013-10-01

50

The effectiveness and safety of syringe vending machines as a component of needle syringe programmes in community settings.  

PubMed

Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been introduced in Europe and Australasia as part of the effort to increase the availability of sterile needles and syringes to injecting drug users (IDUs). This qualitative review of 14 published and grey literature studies examines whether community-based SVMs as a component of a comprehensive needle syringe programme (NSP) assist to reduce the spread of HIV and other blood-borne viruses amongst IDUs. The available evidence suggests that SVMs increase access to sterile injecting equipment, reduce needle and syringe sharing, and are likely to be cost efficient. SVMs also complement other modes of NSP delivery as they are used by IDUs who are less likely to attend staffed NSPs or pharmacies. If installed and properly maintained in a well-chosen location and with the local community well prepared, SVMs can enhance the temporal and geographical availability of sterile injecting equipment. PMID:17766100

Islam, Mofizul; Wodak, Alex; Conigrave, Katherine M

2008-12-01

51

Particles shed from syringe filters and their effects on agitation-induced protein aggregation.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that foreign particles shed from filters can accelerate the rate of protein aggregation and particle formation during agitation stress. Various types and brands of syringe filters were tested. Particle counts and size distribution (?1 µm) in buffer alone or in solutions of keratinocyte growth factor 2 (KGF-2) were determined with a micro-flow imaging. Submicron particle populations were characterized by dynamic light scattering. Loss of soluble protein during filtration or postfiltration incubation was determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy and bicinchoninic acid protein assay. There was a wide range (from essentially none to >100,000/mL) in the counts for at least 1 µm particles shed into buffer or KGF-2 solution from the different syringe filters (with or without borosilicate glass microfibers). Filtration of KGF-2 with units containing glass microfibers above the membrane resulted in 20%-80% loss of protein due to adsorption to filter components. Filtration with systems containing a membrane alone resulted in 0%-20% loss of KGF-2. Effects of 24-h postfiltration incubation were tested on KGF-2 solution filtered with polyether sulfone membrane filters. Loss of soluble protein and formation of particles during agitation were much greater than that in control, unfiltered KGF-2 solutions. Similar acceleration of protein aggregation and particle formation was observed when unfiltered KGF-2 solution was mixed with filtered buffer and agitated. Particle shedding from syringe filters--and the resulting acceleration of protein aggregation during agitation--varied greatly among the different syringe filters and individual units of a given filter type. Our results demonstrate that nanoparticles and microparticles shed from the filters can accelerate protein aggregation and particle formation, especially during agitation. PMID:22674153

Liu, Lu; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

2012-08-01

52

Sterilizable syringes: excessive risk or cost-effective option?  

PubMed Central

In recent years, many poorer countries have chosen to use disposable instead of sterilizable syringes. Unfortunately, the infrastructure and management systems that are vital if disposables are to be used safely do not exist. WHO estimates that up to 30% of injections administered are unsafe. The traditional sterilizable syringe had many disadvantages, some of which have been minimized through better design and the use of modern materials; others have been overcome because staff are able to demonstrate that they have performed safely. For example, the time-steam saturation-temperature (TST) indicator has enabled staff to demonstrate that a sterilizing cycle has been successfully completed. Health facility staff must be able to sterilize equipment, and the sterilizable syringe remains the least costly means of administering an injection. Data from countries that have acceptable systems for processing clinical waste indicate that safe and environmentally acceptable disposal, destruction and final containment cost nearly as much as the original cost of a disposable syringe. By careful supervision of staff behaviour and good management, some countries have demonstrated that they are able to administer safe injections with sterilizable syringes at a price they can afford. PMID:10593029

Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Nelson, C.

1999-01-01

53

Syringe availability as HIV prevention: a review of modalities.  

PubMed

This review examines recent research into modalities for improving access to sterile syringes for injection drug users (IDUs) as a means to reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. English language studies with empirical data were collected through Uncover reports and MedLine searches from 1998 to 2000. Although syringe-exchange programs are the most established and well-evaluated means of improving access to sterile syringes, research on alternative modalities-such as pharmacy sale, injector-specific packs, mass distribution, and vending machines-and on coverage of special populations suggests the need to pursue multiple avenues of increasing syringe availability simultaneously and, in particular, to explore modalities other than syringe-exchange programs when HIV incidence is under control. The impacts on HIV transmission of cocaine injection and sex with IDUs need to be explored further. Finally, any evidence of declining hepatitis C incidence among young IDUs might serve as a surrogate for a sharp drop in injection-related HIV risk behaviors in that population. PMID:10976607

Coffin, P

2000-09-01

54

Standardisation of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor in plasma: calibration of the 4th International Standard (97/586).  

PubMed

The 4th International Standard (IS) Factor VIII/von Willebrand Factor (FVIII/VWF) plasma was calibrated in 25 laboratories by assay against the 3rd IS plasma and fresh normal plasma pools. Five parameters were measured, FVIII:coagulant activity (FVIII:C), FVIII:Antigen (FVIII:Ag), VWF:Antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF:Ristocetin Cofactor (VWF:RCof), and a new parameter, VWF:collagen binding (VWF:CB). Mean potency estimates for the 4th IS, calculated relative to the 3rd IS, were significantly greater than the mean estimates calculated relative to the fresh normal pools by 15, 14 and 20% respectively for FVIII:C, VWF:Ag and VWF:RCof. These results indicate a drift in the International Unit away from the fresh plasma unit. Partial rectification of this drift was achieved by assigning the mean of the estimates calculated relative to the 3rd IS and the fresh plasma pools, i.e. FVIII:C 0.57 IU/ampoule, VWF:Ag 0.79 IU/ampoule and VWF:RCof 0.73 IU/ampoule. This represents a shift in the IU between the 3rd and 4th IS of 7.5% for FVIII:C, 7% for VWF:Ag and 10% for VWF:RCof. Mean estimates of FVIII:Ag relative to the 3rd IS and the fresh normal pools agreed to give an assigned value of 0.89 IU/ampoule. Excessive inter-laboratory variability and a low number of estimates (n = 6) precluded the assignment of a potency for VWF:CB. The 4th IS Factor VIII/VWF plasma (97/586) was established in October 1998. PMID:11341497

Hubbard, A R; Rigsby, P; Barrowcliffe, T W

2001-04-01

55

Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs) may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Methods Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Results Only 46 (28.4%) of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%), there were no syringes in stock (31.0%), or a prescription was required (20.7%). Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2%) reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5%) had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. Conclusions IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission. PMID:21609471

2011-01-01

56

Clean switch: the case for prison needle and syringe programs.  

PubMed

In Canada and in many other countries, prisons have become incubators for the transmission of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Estimates of HIV and HCV prevalence in Canadian prisons are at least 10 and 20 times, respectively, the reported prevalence in the population as a whole--and prevalence rates have been reported to be significantly higher for people who inject drugs. Although people who inject drugs may inject less frequently while incarcerated, the risks of injection drug use are amplified because of the scarcity of sterile syringes and the sharing of injecting equipment in prison. Making sterile injection equipment available to people in prison is an important response to evidence of the risk of HIV and HCV transmission through sharing syringes to inject drugs. In this article, Sandra Chu explains why the government is obligated under international human rights standards and Canadian correctional and constitutional law to provide prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs). PMID:20225504

Chu, Sandra

2009-12-01

57

A clinical comparison of pain perception and extent of area anesthetized by Wand® and a traditional syringe  

PubMed Central

Background: In the contemporary dental practice, alleviation of pain is the most important factor to ameliorate patient's condition and to gain one's confidence towards the skills of the operator. Such confidence aids to the ultimate success of the treatment procedures. Aims and Objectives: This study compares the pain response of a group of 10 subjects to the Wand® with the response to traditional syringe injections and also compares the extent of the area anesthetized. Materials and Methods: 10 subjects were selected for the study and 20 injections were given contralaterally to them, 10 with Wand®, and rest with the traditional aspirating syringe. Each subject received 2 injections on the palate, Left side with Wand® (test) and Right side with Traditional syringe (control). All injections were given by the same investigator without the use of topical anesthetic spray/gel. Pain perception levels were recorded with a visual analogue scale. Also the extent of area anesthetized with a single palatal injection was assessed by probing. Results: The results showed injections with the syringe were more painful than injections with the Wand® in 2 of 10 subjects. Also the extent of the area anesthetized by both the techniques was similar except in 2 patients. Conclusion: The Wand® results in less painful injections; however, mean ratings of pain for both the groups, were mostly below the annoying level of pain. Also, the areas covered by the anesthetic effect of both the injections were comparatively similar. PMID:23055586

Shah, Meet; Shivaswamy, Sumanth; Jain, Sanjay; Tambwekar, Sonal

2012-01-01

58

Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

2002-01-01

59

Adherence to Hepatitis B Virus Vaccination At Syringe Exchange Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV); however, they often do not receive preventive vaccination. IDUs who use mobile health care services linked to a syringe exchange program in New Haven were rou- tinely screened for HBV, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis. Individuals without prior exposure to HBV were offered three-part vaccination series. Of

Frederick L. Altice; Robert D. Bruce; Mary R. Walton; Marta I. Buitrago

2005-01-01

60

The stability and sterility of epinephrine prefilled syringe.  

PubMed

The commercially available auto-injector epinephrine is considerable expensive. Epinephrine prefilled syringe is an alternative treatment for anaphylaxis patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the stability and sterility of epinephrine prefilled syringe. Epinephrine prefilled syringe was kept in the pencil box to prevent from light exposure. The active ingredients, integrity and level of potency were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sterility was accessed by aerobic bacteria and fungi culture. The epinephrine concentration at 1, 2 and 3 months after the preparation was 101.36, 99.31 and 101.09%, respectively (acceptable range 90 - 110%). The pH was 3.17 - 3.23 (acceptable range 2.8 - 3.6). Nor-epinephrine was undetected. The cultures for bacteria and fungus were both negative. Consequently, epinephrine prefilled syringe was stable and sterile at least three month after preparation. Epinephrine prefilled syrine is an alternative low cost treatment for anaphylaxis patient. PMID:20527517

Kerddonfak, Saowanee; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Sasisakulporn, Cherapat; Teawsomboonkit, Wanlapa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat

2010-03-01

61

41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section...109-27.5009 Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. Effective procedures...management and physical security of hypodermic needles and syringes to prevent illegal use....

2010-07-01

62

Gas compression artefacts when testing peak expiratory flow meters with mechanically-driven syringes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas compression artefacts when testing peak expiratory flow meters with mechanically- driven syringes. D. Navajas, J. Roca, R. Farré, M. Rotger. ©ERS Journal Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Mechanically-driven syringes used to test peak expiratory flow (PEF) meters must produce the American Thoracic Society (ATS) standard waveforms with PEF accuracy of 2%. However, gas compression within the syringe could result in significant

D. Navajas; J. Roca; R. Farré; M. Rotger; Facultat de Medicina

63

The Flawed Nature of the Calibration Factor in Breath-Alcohol Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breath-alcohol analyzers used by law enforcement agencies to evaluate suspected driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) drivers are routinely calibrated with standard, dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol known as simulator solutions. The analyzers are deemed accurate if they generate results within an established margin of error consistent with ethanol concentrations equivalent to the actual concentrations of the simulator solutions. The fundamental flaw of this protocol is that it ignores the fact that a simulator solution is an ideal Henry’s law system, whereas a human test subject is not. Since breath-alcohol analysis is an application of Henry’s law, the level of accuracy ascribed to simulator-based calibrations cannot be applied to analyses involving humans because they are affected by physiological variables that can significantly impact the results of such analyses. This article addresses the importance of these variables, including blood:breath ratio variability, body temperature, and breathing pattern. Moreover, the article notes that, when standard ethanol-in-nitrogen compressed gas mixtures are used instead of aqueous simulator solutions to calibrate breath-alcohol analyzers, the same limitations of accuracy apply. Finally, emphasis is placed on the nature of the ideal calibration standard, namely that it should mimic the system to be analyzed, which is clearly not the case with the calibration protocol employed in breath-alcohol analysis.

Labianca, Dominick A.

2002-10-01

64

Harmonisation of factor VIII:C assay results: study within the framework of the Dutch project 'Calibration 2000'.  

PubMed

In a Dutch project for harmonisation of factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) assays, the commutability of potential calibrators for FVIII:C was assessed by means of a 'twin-study design', which is in essence a multi-centre, split-patient sample, between-field-methods protocol. Commutability was defined as the degree to which a material yielded the same numerical relationships between results of measurements by a given set of measurement procedures as those between the expectations of the relationships for the same procedures applied to those types of material for which the procedures were intended. The study consisted of the simultaneous analysis of fresh frozen patient plasmas and three potential calibrators for FVIII:C by 16 Dutch laboratories forming eight couples. The state-of-the-art intra-laboratory standard deviation was used to assess the commutability of the potential calibrators. One potential calibrator was used to harmonise FVIII:C assay results in a Dutch field study. The inter-laboratory coefficient of variation of two test samples could be reduced significantly, but no significant effect was observed with three other test samples. We recommend that at least three different sample dilutions be used in each FVIII:C assay, in agreement with previous recommendations. PMID:16371022

van den Besselaar, Anton M H P; Haas, Fred J L M; Kuypers, Aldy W H M

2006-01-01

65

Stability of ondansetron hydrochloride and 12 medications in plastic syringes.  

PubMed

The stability and compatibility of ondansetron hydrochloride with neostigmine methylsulfate, naloxone hydrochloride, midazolam hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate, alfentanil hydrochloride, atropine sulfate, morphine sulfate, meperidine hydrochloride, propofol, droperidol, metoclopramide monohydrochloride, and glycopyrrolate were studied. Ondansetron 1.33 or 1.0 mg/mL was combined with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and each of the 12 drugs in duplicate in plastic syringes (or glass for propofol). The syringes were stored at 21.8-23.4 or 4 degrees C in the dark, except for those containing propofol, which were stored at ambient temperature. Samples were removed at 0, 4, 8, and 24 hours for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography and pH measurement; the propofol-containing samples were removed at 0, 1, 2, and 4 hours. Syringes were visually assessed for color and clarity, and particulate content was measured with a particle counter at the end of the study period. All solutions containing ondansetron retained more than 90% of their initial ondansetron concentration. Solutions containing each of the other drugs except droperidol retained more than 90% of their initial concentration of these drugs. The solutions containing droperidol retained more than 90% of their initial droperidol concentration for up to eight hours at ambient temperature but precipitated quickly at 4 degrees C. In combinations of ondansetron 1.33 or 1.0 mg/mL and 10 of 12 drugs, all drugs were stable for 24 hours in plastic syringes at 23 and 4 degrees C; ondansetron hydrochloride 1.0 mg/mL and propofol 1.0 and 5.0 mg/mL in admixtures were stable for 4 hours, and droperidol on its own and combined with ondansetron 1.0 mg/mL was stable for no more than 8 hours at ambient temperature. PMID:9872702

Stewart, J T; Warren, F W; King, D T; Venkateshwaran, T G; Fox, J L

1998-12-15

66

Introduction of “international syringe labelling” in the Republic of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Medication errors are a preventable cause of patient injury. In May 2003, as a result of a joint initiative by the Royal College\\u000a of Anaesthetists, the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland, the Intercollegiate Faculty of Accident and\\u000a Emergency Medicine and the Intensive Care Society, a new colour code chart for syringe labelling was introduced. The introduction\\u000a of

J. Shannon; S. O’Riain

2009-01-01

67

A syringe-like injection mechanism in Photorhabdus luminescens toxins.  

PubMed

Photorhabdus luminescens is an insect pathogenic bacterium that is symbiotic with entomopathogenic nematodes. On invasion of insect larvae, P.?luminescens is released from the nematodes and kills the insect through the action of a variety of virulence factors including large tripartite ABC-type toxin complexes (Tcs). Tcs are typically composed of TcA, TcB and TcC proteins and are biologically active only when complete. Functioning as ADP-ribosyltransferases, TcC proteins were identified as the actual functional components that induce actin-clustering, defects in phagocytosis and cell death. However, little is known about the translocation of TcC into the cell by the TcA and TcB components. Here we show that TcA in P.?luminescens (TcdA1) forms a transmembrane pore and report its structure in the prepore and pore state determined by cryoelectron microscopy. We find that the TcdA1 prepore assembles as a pentamer forming an ?-helical, vuvuzela-shaped channel less than 1.5?nanometres in diameter surrounded by a large outer shell. Membrane insertion is triggered not only at low pH as expected, but also at high pH, explaining Tc action directly through the midgut of insects. Comparisons with structures of the TcdA1 pore inserted into a membrane and in complex with TcdB2 and TccC3 reveal large conformational changes during membrane insertion, suggesting a novel syringe-like mechanism of protein translocation. Our results demonstrate how ABC-type toxin complexes bridge a membrane to insert their lethal components into the cytoplasm of the host cell. We believe that the proposed mechanism is characteristic of the whole ABC-type toxin family. This explanation of toxin translocation is a step towards understanding the host-pathogen interaction and the complex life cycle of P.?luminescens and other pathogens, including human pathogenic bacteria, and serves as a strong foundation for the development of biopesticides. PMID:23515159

Gatsogiannis, Christos; Lang, Alexander E; Meusch, Dominic; Pfaumann, Vanda; Hofnagel, Oliver; Benz, Roland; Aktories, Klaus; Raunser, Stefan

2013-03-28

68

Improvement and calibration of a SSNT personal dosemeter and study of importance of albedo factor for dose calculation.  

PubMed

The Neutriran albedo neutron dosemeter has been improved and calibrated for neutron personal dosimetry. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to calculate the thermal neutrons backscattered from the body (albedo factor). Backscattering from the wall, ceiling and floor in calibration room was considered also via simulation by MCNP4C. A semi automated counting system applying a high-resolution scanner was used for counting of tracks. An 241Am source was used to produce similar alpha particles from 10B (n,alpha)7Li reaction for the optimisation of scanner parameters to distinguish and separate the tracks in SSNTD, which lead to a better distinction between etched alpha tracks and, consequently, a higher linear region of dose characteristic. PMID:16980708

Torkzadeh, F; Taheri, M

2007-01-01

69

Protein aggregation and particle formation in prefilled glass syringes.  

PubMed

The stability of therapeutic proteins formulated in prefilled syringes (PFS) may be negatively impacted by the exposure of protein molecules to silicone oil-water interfaces and air-water interfaces. In addition, agitation, such as that experienced during transportation, may increase the detrimental effects (i.e., protein aggregation and particle formation) of protein interactions with interfaces. In this study, surfactant-free formulations containing either a monoclonal antibody or lysozyme were incubated in PFS, where they were exposed to silicone oil-water interfaces (siliconized syringe walls), air-water interfaces (air bubbles), and agitation stress (occurring during end-over-end rotation). Using flow microscopy, particles (?2 ?m diameter) were detected under all conditions. The highest particle concentrations were found in agitated, siliconized syringes containing an air bubble. The particles formed in this condition consisted of silicone oil droplets and aggregated protein, as well as agglomerates of protein aggregates and silicone oil. We propose an interfacial mechanism of particle generation in PFS in which capillary forces at the three-phase (silicone oil-water-air) contact line remove silicone oil and gelled protein aggregates from the interface and transport them into the bulk. This mechanism explains the synergistic effects of silicone oil-water interfaces, air-water interfaces, and agitation in the generation of particles in protein formulations. PMID:24729310

Gerhardt, Alana; Mcgraw, Nicole R; Schwartz, Daniel K; Bee, Jared S; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

2014-06-01

70

Over-the-counter but out of reach: a pharmacy-based survey of OTC syringe sales in Tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

Sterile syringe access is critical to HIV prevention efforts targeting injection drug users (IDUs) but some pharmacies do not sell syringes over-the-counter (OTC) even where such sales are legal. We conducted a pharmacy survey in Tijuana, Mexico (where OTC sales are legal) to characterize attitudes toward syringe sales and to explore support for expanding pharmacy-based HIV prevention efforts. Of 203 respondents, 28% supported OTC syringe sales to IDUs and 74% said their pharmacy required a prescription for at least some syringe sales. Support for OTC syringe sales was independently associated with selling OTC syringes, understanding the role of sterile syringes in HIV prevention, and recognizing pharmacies as an important health resource for IDUs. Most respondents supported an expanded role for pharmacies in HIV prevention, exclusive of OTC syringe sales. Our study provides information for developing interventions to promote OTC syringe sales and expanding pharmacy-based distribution of HIV-related information and resources. PMID:24858873

Pollini, Robin A; Gallardo, Manuel; Ruiz, Serena; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nickolas; Lozada, Remedios

2014-05-01

71

Introducing auto-disable syringes to the national immunization programme in Madagascar.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and coverage benefits of auto-disable (AD) syringes, weighed against the financial and logis- tical costs, and to create appropriate health policies in Madagascar. METHODS: Fifteen clinics in Madagascar, trained to use AD syringes, were randomized to implement an AD syringe only, mixed (AD syringes used only on non-routine immunization days), or sterilizable syringe only (control) programme. During a five-week period, data on administered vaccinations were collected, interviews were conducted, and observations were recorded. FINDINGS: The use of AD syringes improved coverage rates by significantly increasing the percentage of vaccines administered on non-routine immunization days (AD-only 4.3%, mixed 5.7%, control 1.1% (P<0.05)). AD-only clinics eliminated sterilization sessions for vaccinations, whereas mixed clinics reduced the number of sterilization sessions by 64%. AD syringes were five times more expensive than sterilizable syringes, which increased AD-only and mixed clinics' projected annual injection costs by 365% and 22%, respectively. However, introducing AD syringes for all vaccinations would only increase the national immunization budget by 2%. CONCLUSION: The use of AD syringes improved vaccination coverage rates by providing ready-to-use sterile syringes on non-routine immunization days and decreasing the number of sterilization sessions, thereby improving injection safety. The mixed programme was the most beneficial approach to phasing in AD syringes and diminishing logistical complications, and it had minimal costs. AD syringes, although more expensive, can feasibly be introduced into a developing country's immunization programme to improve vaccination safety and coverage. PMID:14576886

Drain, Paul K.; Ralaivao, Josoa S.; Rakotonandrasana, Alexander; Carnell, Mary A.

2003-01-01

72

[The comparison of the micro-syringe with clinical usage].  

PubMed

Micro-syringe as a result of the high frequency of clinical use, direct contact with patients, the failure of its equipment will have a direct impact on the patient's disease status. Researchers in this paper, by simulating the test fluid, electrical safety testing and analysis of statistical methods such as maintenance records, consider six kinds of common injection pump, in terms of performance, safety and the failure rate of three performance. Compared the performance analysis, summarized the various types of injection pump characteristics, researchers make suggestions to clinical departments, equipment procurement and equipment management departments for usage and improvement. PMID:25330618

Peng, Junyan; Qian, Jianguo; Zhang, Lei

2014-07-01

73

Shelf lives of aseptically prepared medicines—stability of netilmicin injection in polypropylene syringes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no published information on the stability of netilmicin solutions in prefilled syringes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of netilmicin in polypropylene syringes and to determine the optimum validated shelf life so that they may be prepared in bulk in appropriately licensed facilities.The syringes containing netilmicin 10 or 100mg\\/ml were stored at 7°C, room

Diane Clare Rigge; Martin Frederick Jones

2004-01-01

74

Derangement of composite filler distribution inside syringe-type delivery systems.  

PubMed

Used and almost emptied syringes of two brands of composites contained material close to the pestle-head that appeared to be more granular and dry, as compared to the composite obtained from unused syringes. The present results suggest that a derangement of filler and matrix phases occurred inside the used syringes when compared to unused controls. Stress imposed on the composite material inside the unused syringes resulted in a comparable derangement of filler and matrix phases. Although this derangement was limited, the effect could contribute to intra- and interlaboratory scattering of data. PMID:8299865

Braem, M J; Lambrechts, G; Davidson, C L; Vansant, E F; Vanhoof, C

1993-01-01

75

Monte Carlo simulated correction factors for machine specific reference field dose calibration and output factor measurement using fixed and iris collimators on the CyberKnife system.  

PubMed

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of dose to water and dose to detector has been used to calculate the correction factors needed for dose calibration and output factor measurements on the CyberKnife system. Reference field ionization chambers simulated were the PTW 30006, Exradin A12, and NE 2571 Farmer chambers, and small volume chambers PTW 31014 and 31010. Correction factors for Farmer chambers were found to be 0.7%-0.9% larger than those determined from TRS-398 due mainly to the dose gradient across the chamber cavity. For one microchamber where comparison was possible, the factor was 0.5% lower than TRS-398 which is consistent with previous MC simulations of flattening filter free Linacs. Output factor detectors simulated were diode models PTW 60008, 60012, 60017, 60018, Sun Nuclear edge detector, air-filled microchambers Exradin A16 and PTW 31014, and liquid-filled microchamber PTW 31018 microLion. Factors were generated for both fixed and iris collimators. The resulting correction factors differ from unity by up to +11% for air-filled microchambers and -6% for diodes at the smallest field size (5 mm), and tend towards unity with increasing field size (correction factor magnitude <1% for all detectors at field sizes >15 mm). Output factor measurements performed using these detectors with fixed and iris collimators on two different CyberKnife systems showed initial differences between detectors of >15% at 5 mm field size. After correction the measurements on each unit agreed within ?1.5% at the smallest field size. This paper provides a complete set of correction factors needed to apply a new small field dosimetry formalism to both collimator types on the CyberKnife system using a range of commonly used detectors. PMID:22617842

Francescon, P; Kilby, W; Satariano, N; Cora, S

2012-06-21

76

Monte Carlo simulated correction factors for machine specific reference field dose calibration and output factor measurement using fixed and iris collimators on the CyberKnife system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of dose to water and dose to detector has been used to calculate the correction factors needed for dose calibration and output factor measurements on the CyberKnife system. Reference field ionization chambers simulated were the PTW 30006, Exradin A12, and NE 2571 Farmer chambers, and small volume chambers PTW 31014 and 31010. Correction factors for Farmer chambers were found to be 0.7%-0.9% larger than those determined from TRS-398 due mainly to the dose gradient across the chamber cavity. For one microchamber where comparison was possible, the factor was 0.5% lower than TRS-398 which is consistent with previous MC simulations of flattening filter free Linacs. Output factor detectors simulated were diode models PTW 60008, 60012, 60017, 60018, Sun Nuclear edge detector, air-filled microchambers Exradin A16 and PTW 31014, and liquid-filled microchamber PTW 31018 microLion. Factors were generated for both fixed and iris collimators. The resulting correction factors differ from unity by up to +11% for air-filled microchambers and -6% for diodes at the smallest field size (5 mm), and tend towards unity with increasing field size (correction factor magnitude <1% for all detectors at field sizes >15 mm). Output factor measurements performed using these detectors with fixed and iris collimators on two different CyberKnife systems showed initial differences between detectors of >15% at 5 mm field size. After correction the measurements on each unit agreed within ˜1.5% at the smallest field size. This paper provides a complete set of correction factors needed to apply a new small field dosimetry formalism to both collimator types on the CyberKnife system using a range of commonly used detectors.

Francescon, P.; Kilby, W.; Satariano, N.; Cora, S.

2012-06-01

77

Determination of the Specific Heat Ratio of a Gas in a Plastic Syringe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid compression or expansion of a gas in a plastic syringe is a poor approximation of an adiabatic process. Heat exchange with the walls of the syringe brings the gas to equilibrium in an amount of time that is not significantly greater than the length of the compression or expansion itself. Despite this limitation, it is still possible to…

Chamberlain, Jeff

2010-01-01

78

Glass Delamination: a Comparison of the Inner Surface Performance of Vials and Pre-filled Syringes.  

PubMed

The occurrence of glass delamination is a serious concern for parenteral drug products. Over the past several years, there has been a series of product recalls involving glass delamination in parenteral drugs stored in vials which has led to heightened industry and regulatory scrutiny. In this study, a two-pronged approach was employed to assess the inner surface durability of vials and pre-filled syringes. Non-siliconized syringes were used in order to directly compare glass to glass performance between vials and syringes. The vial and syringe performance was screened with pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. The influence of pH, buffer type, ionic strength, and glass type and source was evaluated. In addition, an aggressive but discriminating formulation condition (glutaric acid, pH 11) was used to ascertain the impact of syringe processing. Advanced analytical tools including inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed significant differences in glass performance between vials and syringes. Pre-filled syringes outperform vials for most tests and conditions. The manufacturing conditions for vials lead to glass defects, not found in pre-filled syringes, which result in a less chemically resistant surface. The screening methodology presented in this work can be applied to assess suitability of primary containers for specific drug applications. PMID:24938618

Zhao, Jianxiu; Lavalley, Virginie; Mangiagalli, Paolo; Wright, Justin M; Bankston, Theresa E

2014-12-01

79

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND TESTING OF A MEMS SYRINGE Boris Stoeber, and Dorian Liepmann  

E-print Network

of their long-term stability. For this purpose a disposable syringe has been developed and fabricated using a combination of standard silicon MEMS technology and soft lithography. The MEMS syringe is based on an array of hollow pointed silicon microneedles and a deformable PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) reservoir

Liepmann, Dorian

80

The Washington Needle Depot: fitting healthcare to injection drug users rather than injection drug users to healthcare: moving from a syringe exchange to syringe distribution model.  

PubMed

Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (IDUs) must provide used needles in order to receive new needles. Distribution and retrieval are co-existent in the exchange model. Likewise, limitations on how many needles can be received at a time compel addicts to have multiple points of contact with professionals where the virtues of treatment and detox are impressed upon them. The centre of gravity for syringe distribution programs needs to shift from needle exchange to needle distribution, which provides unlimited access to syringes. This paper provides a case study of the Washington Needle Depot, a program operating under the syringe distribution model, showing that the distribution and retrieval of syringes can be separated with effective results. Further, the experience of IDUs is utilized, through paid employment, to provide a vulnerable population of people with clean syringes to prevent HIV and HCV. PMID:20047690

Small, Dan; Glickman, Andrea; Rigter, Galen; Walter, Thia

2010-01-01

81

Standardisation of von Willebrand Factor in therapeutic concentrates: calibration of the 1st International Standard for von Willebrand Factor concentrate (00/514).  

PubMed

An international study involving 26 laboratories assayed two candidate von Willebrand Factor (VWF) concentrates (B and C) for VWF:Antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF:Ristocetin Cofactor (VWF:RCo) and VWF:Collagen binding (VWF:CB) relative to the 4th International Standard Factor VIII/VWF Plasma (4th IS Plasma) (97/586). Estimates of VWF:Ag showed good agreement between different methods, for both candidates, and the overall combined means were 11.01 IU/ml with inter-laboratory variability (GCV) of 10.9% for candidate B and 14.01 IU/ml (GCV 11.8%) for candidate C. Estimates of VWF:RCo showed no significant difference between methods for both candidates and gave overall means of 9.38 IU/ml (GCV 23.7%) for candidate B and 10.19 IU/ml (GCV 24.4%) for candidate C. Prior to the calibration of the candidates for VWF:CB it was necessary to calibrate the 4th IS Plasma relative to local frozen normal plasma pools; there was good agreement between different collagen reagents and an overall mean of 0.83 IU per ampoule (GCV 11.8%) was assigned. In contrast, estimates of VWF:CB in both candidates showed large differences between collagen reagents with inter-laboratory GCV's of 40%. Candidate B (00/514) was established as the 1st International Standard von Willebrand Factor Concentrate by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation in November 2001 with assigned values for VWF:Ag (11.0 IU/ampoule) and VWF:RCo (9.4 IU/ampoule). Large inter-laboratory variability of estimates precluded the assignment of a value for VWF:CB. PMID:12353064

Hubbard, Anthony R; Sands, Dawn; Chang, Andrew C; Mazurier, Claudine

2002-09-01

82

Pharmacy access to syringes among injecting drug users: follow-up findings from Hartford, Connecticut.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To break the link between drug use and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in 1992 the state of Connecticut rescinded a 14-year ban on pharmacy sales of syringes without a physician's prescription. In 1993, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) evaluated the impact of the new legislation on access to syringes among injecting drug users (IDUs) and found an initial pattern of expanded access. However, it also found that some pharmacies, after negative experiences with IDU customers, reverted to requiring a prescription. This chapter reports findings from a four-year follow-up study of current IDU access to over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy syringes in Hartford, Connecticut. METHODS: Through structured interviews, brief telephone interviews, and mailed surveys, data on nonprescription syringe sale practices were collected on 27 pharmacies, including 18 of the 21 pharmacies in Hartford and none from pharmacies in contiguous towns, during June and July 1997. Interview data on pharmacy syringe purchase from two sample of IDUs, a group of out-of-treatment injectors recruited through street outreach, and a sample of users of the Hartford Needle Exchange Program, also are reported. RESULTS: The study found that, while market trends as well as negative experiences have further limited pharmacy availability of nonprescription syringes, pharmacies remain an important source of sterile syringes for IDUs. However, the distribution of access in not even; in some areas of the city it is much easier to purchase nonprescription syringes than in other. All of the seven pharmacies located on the north end of Hartford reported that they had a policy of selling OTC syringes, whereas only six (54.5%) of the II pharmacies located on the south end have such a policy. Overt racial discrimination was not found to be a barrier to OTC access to syringes. CONCLUSIONS: To further decrease acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk among IDUs, there is a need for public education to counter empirically unsupported stereotypes about IDUs that diminish their access to health care and AIDS prevention resources and services. In states or cities where pharmacy sale of nonprescription syringes is illegal, policy makers should examine the benefits of removing existing barriers to sterile syringe acquisition. In cases in which pharmacy sale of nonprescription syringes is legal, local health departments should implement educational programs to inform pharmacy staff and management about the critically important role low-cost (or cost-free), sterile syringe access can play in HIV prevention. PMID:9722813

Singer, M; Baer, H A; Scott, G; Horowitz, S; Weinstein, B

1998-01-01

83

Dual Syringe Electrospinning of FNfds-modified Hyaluronic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We described the fabrication of a unique HA nanofibrous scaffold using dual syringe reactive electrospinning. 3^'-dithiobis(propanoic dihydrazide)-modified HA (HA-DTPH) and Poly (ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) were selected as the cross-linking system. PEO was blended with HA-DTPH to facilitate the fiber formation. Fibronectin functional domains (FNfds) were incorporated with PEGDA and covalently linked to HA via conjugate addition to improve the cell attachment. The as-spun scaffold was soaked into DI water to remove PEO and yield an FNfds-modified HA-DTPH nanofibrous scaffold. Human dermal fibroblasts CF31 were seeded on FNfds-modified HA-DTPH scaffolds. The CF31 fibroblasts showed a unique extended dendritic morphology which is opposed to the typical flattened morphology of cells on regular 2D geometries. Supported by NSF-MRSEC.

Ji, Yuan; Ghosh, Kaustabh; Shu, Xiaozheng; Sokolov, Jonathan; Prestwich, Glenn; Clark, Richard; Rafailovich, Miriam

2006-03-01

84

A simple pore water hydrogen diffusion syringe sampler  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an important intermediate product and electron donor in microbial metabolism. Concentrations of dissolved H 2 are often diagnostic of the predominant terminal electron-accepting processes in ground water systems or aquatic sediments. H2 concentrations are routinely measured in ground water monitoring wells but are rarely measured in saturated aquatic sediments due to a lack of simple and practical sampling methods. This report describes the design and development (including laboratory and field testing) of a simple, syringe-based H 2 sampler in (1) saturated, riparian sediments, (2) surface water bed sediments, and (3) packed intervals of a fractured bedrock borehole that are inaccessible by standard pumped methods. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

Vroblesky, D. A.; Chapelle, F. H.; Bradley, P. M.

2007-01-01

85

Standardization of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor in plasma: calibration of the WHO 5th International Standard (02/150).  

PubMed

Calibration of the 5th International Standard factor (F)VIII/von Willebrand factor in plasma (02/150) (5th IS) for five parameters [factor VIII: coagulant activity (FVIII:C); FVIII: antigen (FVIII:Ag), von Willebrand factor: antigen (VWF:Ag), von Willebrand factor: ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo), von Willebrand factor: collagen binding (VWF:CB)] was achieved through an international collaborative study involving 37 laboratories. Estimates calculated relative to the previous 4th IS and locally prepared normal plasma pools were not significantly different for estimates of FVIII:Ag, VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo and VWF:CB and hence mean values calculated relative to the 4th IS of 0.94, 0.91, 0.78 and 0.94 IU ampoule(-1), respectively, were assigned. However, estimates for FVIII:C relative to the fresh normal pools (mean 0.61 IU ampoule(-1)) were significantly lower than estimates relative to the 4th IS (mean 0.68 IU ampoule(-1)). In consideration of the good stability of FVIII:C in the 4th IS and the variability of estimates relative to the local pools it was agreed to assign the mean value obtained relative to the 4th IS of 0.68 IU ampoule(-1). For all five parameters the interlaboratory variability (geometric coefficient of variation, GCV%) was larger for estimates calculated relative to the normal pools (range 12.6-16.5%) when compared with estimates calculated relative to the 4th IS (range 3.5-8.3%). An accelerated degradation study performed in six laboratories indicated that the five calibrated parameters are extremely stable when ampoules are stored at -20 degrees C. Mean estimates of predicted loss per year at -20 degrees C ranged from 0% for VWF:CB to 0.029% for VWF:RCo. The 5th IS (02/150) was established by the World Health Organization in November 2003. PMID:15304044

Hubbard, A R; Heath, A B

2004-08-01

86

In-syringe magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for automation and downscaling of methylene blue active substances assay.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method for the determination of the methylene blue active substances assay based on in-syringe automation of magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed. The proposed method proved to be valid for the determination of anionic surfactant in waste, pond, well, tap, and drinking water samples. Sample mixing with reagents, extraction and phase separation were performed within the syringe of an automated syringe pump containing a magnetic stirring bar for homogenization and solvent dispersion. The syringe module was used upside-down to enable the use of chloroform as an extraction solvent of higher density than water. The calibration was found to be linear up to 0.3mg/L using only 200 µL of solvent and 4 mL of sample. The limits of detection (3?) and quantification (10?) were 7.0 µg/L and 22 µg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviation for 10 replicate determinations of 0.1mg/L SBDS was below 3%. Concentrations of anionic surfactants in natural water samples were in the range of 0.032-0.213 mg/L and no significant differences towards the standard method were found. Standard additions gave analyte recoveries between 95% and 106% proving the general applicability and adequateness of the system to MBSA index determination. Compared to the tedious standard method requiring up to 50 mL of chloroform, the entire procedure took only 345 s using 250-times less solvent. PMID:25159446

Suárez, Ruth; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Cerdà, Victor

2014-12-01

87

SUMS calibration test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.

Robertson, G.

1982-01-01

88

Measurement of factor VIII activity using one-stage clotting assay: a calibration curve has not to be systematically included in each run.  

PubMed

Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is usually evaluated using activated partial thromboplastin time-based one-stage clotting assays. Guidelines for clotting factor assays indicate that a calibration curve should be included each time the assay is performed. Therefore, FVIII measurement is expensive, reagent- and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare FVIII activities obtained using the same fully automated assay that was calibrated once (stored calibration curve) or each time the assay was performed. Unique lots of reagents were used throughout the study. We analysed 255 frozen plasma samples from patients who were prescribed FVIII measurement including treated and untreated haemophilia A patients. Twenty-six runs were performed on a 28-week period, each including four lyophilized control and at most 10 patient plasma samples. In control samples, FVIII activities were not significantly different when the assay was performed using the stored calibration curve or was daily calibrated. The same applied to FVIII activities in patient plasma samples that were not significantly different throughout the measuring range of activities [68.3% (<1-179) vs. 67.6% (<1-177), P=0.48] and no relevant bias could be demonstrated when data were compared according to Bland and Altman. These results suggest that in the studied technical conditions, performing the FVIII assay using a stored calibration curve is reliable, for at least 6 months. Therefore, as far as the same lots of reagents are used, it is not mandatory to include a calibration curve each time the FVIII assay was performed. However, this strategy has to be validated if the assay is performed in different technical conditions. PMID:20731727

Lattes, S; Appert-Flory, A; Fischer, F; Jambou, D; Toulon, P

2011-01-01

89

Syringe exchange in Canada: good but not enough to stem the HIV tide.  

PubMed

This article provides a historical perspective on the development of syringe exchange in Canada, the Canadian legal and policy context, evaluation and monitoring strategies, and current challenges facing HIV prevention efforts among injecting drug users. Despite the fact that it is legal to sell, exchange, or provide an IDU with a syringe and there are no laws in Canada requiring a physician's prescription to justify possession of a syringe, policy development and programming have not been adequate to hold HIV at bay in several cities across the country. Although there have been concerted efforts by syringe and needle exchange programs to increase the supply of injecting equipment, HIV prevalence continues to rise, provoking a rethinking of the role of syringe exchange. In a coordinated strategy for HIV prevention among drug users in Canada, needle and syringe exchange is not itself in question; however, ghettoization and needle quota systems may have had an adverse impact on prevention programming. A national action plan has been developed which aims to decentralize both methadone maintenance and syringe and needle exchange programs, increase access to detoxification and treatment modalities, and advocate for changes in the criminal justice system and law enforcement practices. PMID:9596380

Hankins, C A

1998-04-01

90

Direct observation of syringeal muscle function in songbirds and a parrot.  

PubMed

The role of syringeal muscles in controlling the aperture of the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, was evaluated directly for the first time by observing and filming through an endoscope while electrically stimulating different muscle groups of anaesthetised birds. In songbirds (brown thrashers, Toxostoma rufum, and cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis), direct observations of the biomechanical effects of contraction largely confirm the functions of the intrinsic syringeal muscles proposed from indirect studies. Contraction of the dorsal muscles, m. syringealis dorsalis (dS) and m. tracheobronchialis dorsalis, constricts the syringeal lumen and thus reduces airflow by adducting connective tissue masses, the medial (ML) and lateral (LL) labia. Activity of the medial portion of the dS appears to affect the position of the ML and, consequently, plays a previously undescribed role in aperture control. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, full constriction of the syringeal lumen could not be achieved by stimulating adductor muscles. Full closure may require simultaneous activation of extrinsic syringeal muscles or the supine positioning of the bird may have exerted excessive tension on the syrinx. Contraction of m. tracheobronchialis ventralis enlarges the syringeal lumen and thus increases airflow by abducting the LL but does not affect the ML. The largest syringeal muscle, m. syringealis ventralis, plays a minor role, if any, in direct aperture control and thus in gating airflow. In parrots (cockatiels, Nymphicus hollandicus), direct observations show that even during quiet respiration the lateral tympaniform membranes (LTMs) are partially adducted into the tracheal lumen to form a narrow slot. Contraction of the superficial intrinsic muscle, m. syringealis superficialis, adducts the LTMs further into the tracheal lumen but does not close the syringeal aperture fully. The intrinsic deep muscle, m. syringealis profundus, abducts the LTMs through cranio-lateral movement of a paired, protruding half-ring. The weakly developed extrinsic m. sternotrachealis seems to increase tension in the ipsilateral LTM but does not move it in or out of the syringeal lumen. PMID:11818409

Larsen, Ole Naesbye; Goller, Franz

2002-01-01

91

Stability of undiluted and diluted adenosine at three temperatures in syringes and bags.  

PubMed

The stability of adenosine in various diluents in polypropylene syringes and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags at three temperatures was studied. Portions of pooled undiluted adenosine infusion (3 mg/ mL) were stored in 60-mL capped syringes, 20 for each storage condition. Adenosine infusions were prepared by mixing adenosine with 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, lactated Ringer's injection, or 5% dextrose and lactated Ringer's injection to produce a concentration of 0.75 mg/mL. Samples of each infusion were stored in 60-mL capped syringes and 50-mL bags, 20 syringes and 20 bags for each storage condition. Syringes and bags were stored in the dark at 25, 5, and -15 degrees C. At various sampling times, three syringes and three bags of each infusion were removed for visual inspection, pH measurement, and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. At 10 and 16 days, fungal growth at 25 degrees C was suspected in the infusions prepared with 5% dextrose injection. For all other samples, there was no evidence of precipitation or change in pH. The concentration of adenosine remained constant in all samples at all storage conditions. Adenosine 3 mg/mL was stable in polypropylene syringes for 7 days at 25 degrees C, 14 days at 5 degrees C, and 28 days at -15 degrees C; adenosine 0.75 mg/ mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection was stable in polypropylene syringes and PVC bags for 16 days at 25, 5, and -15 degrees C; and adenosine 0.75 mg/mL in lactated Ringer's injection and in 5% dextrose and lactated Ringer's injection was stable in syringes and bags for 14 days at 25, 5, and -15 degrees C. PMID:9522931

Ketkar, V A; Kolling, W M; Nardviriyakul, N; VanDer Kamp, K; Wurster, D E

1998-03-01

92

Standardisation of factor VIII--V. Calibration of the 2nd International Standard for Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor activities in plasma.  

PubMed

The proposed 2nd International Standard for Factor VIII and von Willebrand Factor activities in plasma, NIBSC code 87/718, was assayed against the 1st IRP, 80/511, and against fresh normal plasma, in 21 laboratories. There were no significant differences between the various assay methods for factor VIII antigen, von Willebrand factor antigen, and von Willebrand factor ristocetin co-factor activity. For factor VIII clotting activity there was a significant difference between the results of one-stage and two-stage assays. Plasma 87/718 has now been established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation as the 2nd IS for factor VIII and vWF in plasma with the following potencies: VIII:C 0.60 IU/ampoule; VIII:Ag 0.91 IU/ampoule; vWF:Ag 0.91 IU/ampoule; vWF/RCo 0.84 IU/ampoule. PMID:1412160

Heath, A B; Barrowcliffe, T W

1992-08-01

93

Millimeter Wave Calibration Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration practices for millimeter wavelengths are somewhat different than that for meter and centimeter wavelengths. There are technological, atmospheric, and historical reasons for this. This lecture reviews the specific techniques used for millimeter wave calibration and highlights the differences between these and the techniques used at longer wavelengths. The importance of the atmosphere at centimeter, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelengths is discussed in detail. Topics include specific calibration techniques such as the hot/sky chopper wheel method, variations such as hot/cold/sky schemes, sky tipping calibration, and the possibilities of subreflector-based calibration sources. Calibration loss factors including rear and forward spillover and error beam losses are described and illustrated. The TA*, TR*, and TMB temperature scales are defined. Techniques for absolute calibration are also discussed.

Jewell, P. R.

2002-12-01

94

Mechanized syringe homogenization of human and animal tissues.  

PubMed

Tissue homogenization is a prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A plethora of hands-on methods are available to homogenize tissues. Here we report a mechanized method for homogenizing animal and human tissues rapidly and easily. The Bio-Mixer 1200 (manufactured by Innovative Products, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK) utilizes the back-and-forth movement of two motor-driven disposable syringes, connected to each other through a three-way stopcock, to homogenize animal or human tissue. Using this method, we were able to homogenize human or mouse tissues (brain, liver, heart, and salivary glands) in 5 min. From sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric enzyme assay for prolidase, we have found that the homogenates obtained were as good or even better than that obtained used a manual glass-on-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) homogenization protocol (all-glass tube and Teflon pestle). Use of the Bio-Mixer 1200 to homogenize animal or human tissue precludes the need to stay in the cold room as is the case with the other hands-on homogenization methods available, in addition to freeing up time for other experiments. PMID:15285912

Kurien, Biji T; Porter, Andrew C; Patel, Nisha C; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Scofield, R Hal

2004-06-01

95

The report analyses the total disposable medical device market with focus on syringes. It compares syringes segments, RTF and bulk syringes by value and volume. The report also analyzes major markets such as US, Germany, UK, Italy, and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposable medical device is a very important part of the total medical device industry. For the last few years disposable market is growing continuously and showing a bright growth trend in near future. Needles and syringes are most on-demand product segment of disposable medical device market. Other segments of the market are also showing positive growth trends like disposable gloves,

96

Optimization of labor allocation at a syringe production facility : design proposals  

E-print Network

At MD Medical (Singapore), the syringe value stream is facing escalating labor cost and high labor turnover. Therefore, optimization of the current labor resources is necessary to control the labor cost effectively without ...

Su, Xiangyong

2008-01-01

97

Optimization of labor allocation at a syringe production facility : work study  

E-print Network

At MD Company (Singapore), the syringe value stream faces escalating labor cost and high labor turnover. Two labor allocations were proposed previously to optimize current labor resources, with the aim of controlling the ...

Ng, Gar Yan

2008-01-01

98

In vivo evaluation of a microneedle-based miniature syringe for intradermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microfabrication process for miniature syringes is described. The MEMS syringes consist of a silicon plate with an array\\u000a of hollow out-of-plane needles and a flexible poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) reservoir attached to the back of the plate. The\\u000a PDMS reservoir can be filled with a drug solution or microparticle suspension which is delivered into the skin simply by the\\u000a pressure of

Urs O. Häfeli; Amir Mokhtari; Dorian Liepmann; Boris Stoeber

2009-01-01

99

Placing the Dynamics of Syringe Exchange Programs in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing upon the broader health, social, and political geography literature this paper outlines a framework for considering\\u000a place-based processes through which syringe exchange availability may be understood. It is argued that the geographic distribution\\u000a of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the United States is linked to the social and political conditions of particular localities\\u000a through three place characteristics: (1) structural

Barbara Tempalski

100

Syringe exchange in the United States: a national level economic evaluation of hypothetical increases in investment.  

PubMed

To examine whether increasing investment in needle/syringe exchange programs (NSPs) in the US would be cost-effective for HIV prevention, we modeled HIV incidence in hypothetical cases with higher NSP syringe supply than current levels, and estimated number of infections averted, cost per infection averted, treatment costs saved, and financial return on investment. We modified Pinkerton's model, which was an adaptation of Kaplan's simplified needle circulation theory model, to compare different syringe supply levels, account for syringes from non-NSP sources, and reflect reduction in syringe sharing and contamination. With an annual $10 to $50 million funding increase, 194-816 HIV infections would be averted (cost per infection averted $51,601-$61,302). Contrasted with HIV treatment cost savings alone, the rate of financial return on investment would be 7.58-6.38. Main and sensitivity analyses strongly suggest that it would be cost-saving for the US to invest in syringe exchange expansion. PMID:24824043

Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Weir, Brian W; Des Jarlais, Don C; Pinkerton, Steven D; Holtgrave, David R

2014-11-01

101

In-syringe dispersive solid phase extraction: a novel format for electrospun fiber based microextraction.  

PubMed

A novel in-syringe dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) system using electrospun silica fibers as adsorbents has been developed in the current work. A few milligrams of electrospun silica fibers were incubated in sample solution in the barrel of a syringe for microextraction assisted by vortex. Due to the benefit of dispersion and the high mass transfer rate of the sub-microscale electrospun silica fibers, the extraction equilibrium was achieved in a very short time (less than 1 min). Moreover, thanks to the long fibrous properties of electrospun fibers, the separation of the adsorbent from sample solution was easily achieved by pushing out the sample solution which therefore simplified the sample pretreatment procedure. Besides, the analytical throughput was largely increased by using a multi-syringe plate to perform the extraction experiment. The performance of the in-syringe dSPE device was evaluated by extraction of endogenous cytokinins from plant tissue samples based on the hydrophilic interaction. Six endogenous cytokinins in 20 mg of Oryza sativa L. (O. sativa) leaves were successfully determined under optimized conditions using in-syringe dSPE combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results demonstrated that the in-syringe dSPE method was a rapid and high-throughput strategy for the extraction of target compounds, which has great potential in microscale sample pretreatment using electrospun fibers. PMID:25317894

Zhu, Gang-Tian; He, Xiao-Mei; Cai, Bao-Dong; Wang, Han; Ding, Jun; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

2014-10-27

102

Calibration of lyophilized standards for ristocetin cofactor activity of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) requires vWF-deficient plasma as diluent for dose-response curves.  

PubMed

Calibration of local standards for ristocetin cofactor activity of von Willebrand's factor (vWF:Rcof) against reference preparations is required to achieve a better standardization of this measurement. We have observed that in calibration assays (multiple line parallel bioassay) for vWF:Rcof, measured aggregometrically, the type of diluent used to obtain the dose-response curves exerted a critical influence on the final potency estimation when a fresh-frozen plasma against a lyophilized standard or two lyophilized preparations were to be compared. This pattern was observed with various commercial standards and also with the First International Reference Preparation for Factor VIII-Related Activities in Plasma. The choice of diluent was not relevant if two fresh-frozen plasma preparations were to be calibrated. Systematic experiments using as diluents Tris-saline, Tris-buffered-albumin solution or vWF-deficient plasma (vW-plasma) showed that the ratio lyophilized/fresh-frozen preparations was invariably lower with albumin solution than with vW-plasma. Tris-saline partially corrected this discrepancy, but yielded less precise estimates. Preliminary results with cryosupernatant-plasma seems to indicate that this material is a valid substitute for vW-plasma, but confirmatory experiments are required. For the moment, plasma obtained from patients with severe type III vW-disease should be considered the "ideal" diluent for calibration assays involving lyophilized preparations. PMID:3502200

Rodeghiero, F; Castaman, G

1987-12-18

103

In-syringe-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of six phthalates in water samples.  

PubMed

A fully automated method for the determination of six phthalates in environmental water samples is described. It is based in the novel sample preparation concept of in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, coupled as a front end to GC-MS, enabling the integration of the extraction steps and sample injection in an instrumental setup that is easy to operate. Dispersion was achieved by aspiration of the organic (extractant and disperser) and the aqueous phase into the syringe very rapidly. The denser-than-water organic droplets released in the extraction step, were accumulated at the head of the syringe, where the sedimented fraction was transferred to a rotary micro-volume injection valve where finally was introduced by an air stream into the injector of the GC through a stainless-steel tubing used as interface. Factors affecting the microextraction efficiency were optimized using multivariate optimization. Figures of merit of the proposed method were evaluated under optimal conditions, achieving a detection limit in the range of 0.03-0.10 ?g/L, while the RSD% value was below 5% (n = 5). A good linearity (0.9956 ? r(2) ? 0.9844) and a broad linear working range (0.5-120 ?g/L) were obtained. The method exhibited enrichment factors and recoveries, ranging from 14.11-16.39 and 88-102%, respectively. PMID:24520043

Clavijo, Sabrina; del Rosario Brunetto, María; Cerdà, Víctor

2014-04-01

104

Calibration and test of DIFAR sonobuoys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method for calibrating and testing DIFAR sonobuoy multiplexer without sea or water is proposed. For this purpose; the architecture of DIFAR sonobuoy is introduced, calibration factors are expressed, calibration and test environment in terms of hardware and software are described, calibration and test procedure is explained, and finally, advantages and disadvantages of the proposed calibration and

Ahmet Kuzu; Uveys Danis; Engin Kurt; Engin Karabulut; Demet Sahinkaya; Eyup Bilgic; Ahmet Kaplaner; Serdar Birecik

2011-01-01

105

SAR calibration technology review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) calibration technology including a general description of the primary calibration techniques and some of the factors which affect the performance of calibrated SAR systems are reviewed. The use of reference reflectors for measurement of the total system transfer function along with an on-board calibration signal generator for monitoring the temporal variations of the receiver to processor output is a practical approach for SAR calibration. However, preliminary error analysis and previous experimental measurements indicate that reflectivity measurement accuracies of better than 3 dB will be difficult to achieve. This is not adequate for many applications and, therefore, improved end-to-end SAR calibration techniques are required.

Walker, J. L.; Larson, R. W.

1981-01-01

106

Calibration factors for determination of relativistic particle induced fission rates in natU, 235U, 232Th, natPb and 197Au foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration factors w, for determination of fission rate in metallic foils of natU, 235U, 232Th, natPb and 197Au were determined for foils in contact with synthetic mica track detectors. Proton-induced fission at proton energies of 0.7 GeV and 1.5 GeV were used. Using our experimental results as well as those of the other authors, w for different foil-mica systems were determined. Two methods were used to calculate w, relative to the calibration factor for uranium-mica system, which has been obtained in a standard neutron field of energy 14.7 MeV. One of these methods requires the knowledge of the mean range of the fission fragments in the foils of interest and other method needs information on the values of the fission cross-sections at the required energies as well as the density of the tracks recorded in the track detectors in contact with the foil surfaces. The obtained w-values were compared with Monte Carlo calculations and good agreements were found. It is shown that a calibration factor obtained at low energy neutron induced fissions in uranium isotopes deviates only by less than 10% from those obtained at relativistic proton induced fissions.

Hashemi-Nezhad, S. R.; Zhuk, Igor; Potapenko, A.; Kievets, M.; Krivopustov, M. I.

2012-02-01

107

Stability of amoxicillin trihydrate-potassium clavulanate in original containers and unit dose oral syringes.  

PubMed

The stability of reconstituted amoxicillin trihydrate-potassium clavulanate oral suspension both in original containers and pre-packaged in commercially available oral syringes stored at various temperatures was determined. Amoxicillin trihydrate 125 mg/5 mL-potassium clavulanate 31.25 mg/5 mL and amoxicillin trihydrate 250 mg/5 mL-potassium clavulanate 62.5 mg/5 mL were reconstituted according to the manufacturer's instructions. The reconstituted suspensions in the original containers and in five brands of oral syringes were stored at 5 degrees C and 25 degrees C and -10 degrees C, 5 degrees C, and 25 degrees C, respectively, for 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days. The concentrations of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate remaining after storage were assayed in triplicate by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, using a stability-indicating method. An F statistic was calculated to determine whether different syringe brands had significantly different effects on drug stability. Amoxicillin trihydrate was stable for at least 10 days in the original containers and all types of oral syringes at 5 degrees C. However, potassium clavulanate was stable for 11.1 days in original containers and less than 5 days in all types of oral syringes at 5 degrees C. The effect of syringe brand on the stability of drugs over time at specific storage conditions and temperature was significant for potassium clavulanate at 5 degrees C and for both amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate at 25 degrees C. The manufacturer's guidelines for storage of reconstituted amoxicillin trihydrate-potassium clavulanate oral suspension in the original containers should not be applied to dosages repackaged in unit dose oral syringes. PMID:3400652

Tu, Y H; Stiles, M L; Allen, L V; Olsen, K M; Barton, C I; Greenwood, R B

1988-05-01

108

Stability and sterility of biosynthetic human insulin stored in plastic insulin syringes for 28 days.  

PubMed

The stability and sterility of biosynthetic human insulin products stored at refrigerator and room temperatures in two types of plastic syringes and the stability of preservatives in the products were studied. Four types of biosynthetic human insulin were used: regular, isophane, combination, and extemporaneously prepared combination. Samples (0.4 mL) were withdrawn from multiple-dose vials into 39 polypropylene and 39 propylene-ethylene copolymer syringes. Three syringes of each type were analyzed immediately; the remaining syringes were stored in plastic bags, half at room temperature (23 degrees C) and half in the refrigerator (4 degrees C). A vial of each type of insulin was maintained under similar conditions. At days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28, samples from each syringe were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for insulin potency and m-cresol and phenol concentrations. Samples of each product were also tested for sterility after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C and 23 degrees C. The potency of insulin in each of the biosynthetic human insulin products did not change significantly during the 28-day study in both types of plastic syringes and at both temperature settings. m-Cresol concentrations decreased in all samples; greater decreases occurred in samples stored at room temperature and in samples stored in polypropylene syringes. Phenol concentrations were less affected than m-cresol concentrations; greater decreases occurred in samples stored at room temperature. No significant decreases in insulin potency or m-cresol or phenol concentrations occurred in control samples stored in vials kept under similar conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1814206

Tarr, B D; Campbell, R K; Workman, T M

1991-12-01

109

Calibrating Dark Energy  

E-print Network

Exploring the diversity of dark energy dynamics, we discover a calibration relation, a uniform stretching of the amplitude of the equation of state time variation with scale factor. This defines homogeneous families of dark energy physics. The calibration factor has a close relation to the standard time variation parameter w_a, and we show that the new, calibrated w_a describes observables, i.e. distance and Hubble parameter as a function of redshift, typically to an accuracy level of 10^{-3}. We discuss implications for figures of merit for dark energy science programs.

Roland de Putter; Eric V. Linder

2008-08-01

110

The TRPA1 Agonist, Methyl Syringate Suppresses Food Intake and Gastric Emptying  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression. PMID:23990963

Song, Seo Hyeon; Jung, Myungji; Kim, Yiseul; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

2013-01-01

111

Negotiating access: Social barriers to purchasing syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background One common public health response to the emergence of HIV has been the provision of sterile syringes to people who inject drugs. In Mexico specialized syringe exchanges are rare, and the sale of needles through pharmacies is often the only way people who inject drugs can obtain sterile syringes. However, people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico report considerable social barriers to successfully purchasing syringes at pharmacies. Methods Between October 2008 and March 2009 we conducted seven in-depth focus groups with 47 people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus group transcripts were analysed using a descriptive and thematic approach rooted in grounded theory. Results We found that injectors offered a number of explanations for why pharmacies were reluctant to sell them syringes, including fear of police; attitudes toward drug use; fear of stereotypical drug user behaviour such as petty theft, violence, or distressing behaviour; and related fears that an obvious drug using clientèle would drive away other customers. Injectors described a range of ways of attempting to re-frame or negotiate interactions with pharmacy staff so that these and related concerns were ameliorated. These included tactics as simple as borrowing cleaner clothing, through to strategies for becoming ‘known’ to pharmacy staff as an individual rather than as a member of a stigmatized group. Conclusion Increasing the ability of pharmacy staff and people who inject drugs to successfully negotiate syringe sales are highly desirable. Interventions designed to improve this likelihood need to capitalize on existing solutions developed ad-hoc by people who inject drugs and pharmacy staff, and should focus on broadening the range of ‘identities’ which pharmacy staff are able to accept as legitimate customers. Approaches to achieve this end might include sensitizing pharmacy staff to the needs of people who inject drugs; facilitating individual drug users meeting individual pharmacy staff; and working with drug users to reduce behaviours seen as problematic by pharmacy staff. PMID:22676968

Davidson, Peter J.; Lozada, Remedios; Rosen, Perth C.; Macias, Armando; Gallardo, Manuel; Pollini, Robin A.

2012-01-01

112

Cross-linked silicone coating: a novel prefilled syringe technology that reduces subvisible particles and maintains compatibility with biologics.  

PubMed

Prefilled syringes (PFSs) offer improvements in the delivery of drugs to patients compared with traditional vial presentations and are becoming necessities in an increasingly competitive biologics market. However, the development of a product in a PFS must take into account potential incompatibilities between the drug and the components of the syringe. One such component is silicone oil, which has previously been suggested to promote protein aggregation, loss of soluble protein, and an increase in the particulate content of injectable formulations. This study evaluated the particulate content in a model buffer system (polysorbate 80/phosphate-buffered saline) after agitation in glass syringes with a novel cross-linked silicone coating. We also evaluated the compatibility of two monoclonal antibodies with these syringes. We report that syringes with this novel coating, compared with standard siliconized syringes, exhibited reduced particle content and enhanced integrity of the lubricant layer as determined by reflectometry, optical microscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements, while maintaining the desired functional properties of the syringe and the antibodies' stability profiles as determined by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. Enhanced integrity of the lubricant coating led to significantly fewer subvisible particles in the liquid formulations, particularly after agitation stresses introduced by shipping of the syringes. PMID:24643773

Depaz, Roberto A; Chevolleau, Tzvetelina; Jouffray, Sébastien; Narwal, Roja; Dimitrova, Mariana N

2014-05-01

113

Sterile syringe access and disposal among injection drug users newly enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We sought to assess injection practices, means of acquiring and disposing of syringes, and utilization and knowledge of harm reduction resources among injection drug users (IDUs) entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). METHODS: Interviews with 100 consecutive patients, including 35 IDUs, entering a MMT program in the Bronx, NY. RESULTS: Utilization of unsafe syringe sources was reported by 69% of

Jennifer McNeely; Julia H Arnsten; Marc N Gourevitch

2006-01-01

114

Community Impact of Pharmacy-Randomized Intervention to Improve Access to Syringes and Services for Injection Drug Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural,…

Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.

2014-01-01

115

Residual Injection Risk Behavior, HIV Infection, and the Evaluation of Syringe Exchange Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed relationships between residual risk behavior (risk behavior among persons participating in effective HIV prevention programs) and HIV infection. Structured interviews and HIV tests were obtained from participants in six large U.S. syringe exchange programs. Program characteristics were obtained through interviews with the…

Des Jarlais, Don C.; Braine, Naomi; Yi, Huso; Turner, Charles

2007-01-01

116

[The syringe pump as actuator--a practical application problem of feedback control systems].  

PubMed

Based on a computer simulation programme, the accuracy of the Graseby 3400 syringe pump was tested for its use in a feedback control system of the neuromuscular block. Firstly, a calculation of errors to determine the difference between the target and actual flow rates was carried out. Next, the characteristic curves of the syringe pump were determined under different flow and sampling rates to correct the application software of the feedback controller with a view to obtaining the correct flow rates online. It was discovered that, particularly with short 12 s sampling rates, dose-dependent errors of almost 100% were provable. Therefore, the application of a robust controller and integration of the characteristic curves at the outlet of the controller software are required. For the adoption of syringe pumps in medical feedback control systems, definite determination of the actual infusion quantity using an exact calculation of errors is required. Especially in cases of short sampling rates in combination with low infusion quantities, the syringe pump comes almost to a standstill, which results in extreme differences between target and actual flow rates. PMID:14768222

Pohl, B; Simanski, O; Hofmockel, R

2003-01-01

117

Force sensing syringe to analyze needle path forces during intramuscular injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramuscular injections are a common medical procedure performed countless times on a daily basis; however the actual procedure of giving an injection is rather complicated and can be intimidating to nursing students new to the medical profession. The instrumented syringe discussed in this paper was conceived as a tool to help train individuals in proper injection procedure and technique. Utilizing

Tyler M. Rideout; John R. LaCourse; Paula L. McWilliam; Elizabeth J. Evans

2011-01-01

118

Experience of unpleasant sensations in the mouth after injection of saline from prefilled syringes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nurses at The Norwegian Radium Hospital have reported that some patients notice an unpleasant smell or taste in accordance with flushing of intravenous lines with commercially available prefilled syringes. We have conducted a study in healthy volunteers to investigate the occurrence, consistency and intensity of this phenomenon. METHODS: A randomised, blinded, crossover study comparing commercial available prefilled saline 9

Ulf E Kongsgaard; Anders Andersen; Marina Øien; Inger-Ann Y Oswald; Laila I Bruun

2010-01-01

119

Pain perception during inferior alveolar injection administered with the Wand or conventional syringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective This study compared a computerised device (the Wand) with a conventional syringe in terms of the pain of needle insertion and injection during inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block injection.Methods and materials The subjects were 40 patients between the ages of 18 and 30 years requiring local anaesthesia for dental restoration in the mandible. Before anaesthetic administration, the patients' anxiety

G. Bulut; T. Ta?demir; C. Yesilyurt

2008-01-01

120

New BRP for human plasma calibrated for coagulation factors V, VIII, XI and XIII - collaborative study for establishment of batches 1 and 2.  

PubMed

A human plasma reference preparation in International Units (IU) must be used in each potency assay of the human coagulation factors V, VIII and XI in human plasma pooled and treated for virus inactivation, according to the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph 1646 and general chapters 2.7.4 and 2.7.22 respectively, and in the potency assay of human coagulation factor XIII in fibrin sealant kits, according to Ph. Eur. monograph 0903. International reference standards for all of these factors are now established, however, regional reference standards were not available for the required routine use. It was therefore proposed by European OMCLs and manufacturers to establish a European reference preparation, and it was the goal of this study to accomplish that. Two candidate biological reference preparations (BRPs), separate lyophilisation lots of the same normal human plasma bulk material, were calibrated against the International Standards (ISs) for human coagulation factors V, VIII, XI and XIII. Twelve European laboratories including OMCLs and manufacturers participated. The candidate material was tested against the ISs in 4 separate assays for each factor using the methods described in the relevant Ph. Eur. monographs and general chapters. No discernable difference was noted between the activities of the 2 candidates. They were shown to be suitable for their intended use and it was recommended to assign to both batches a potency of 0.73 IU/mL for factor V, 0.74 IU/mL for factor VIII, 0.59 IU/mL for factor XI and 0.79 IU/mL for factor XIII. Candidate batch B is proposed to be used first as lot 1, followed upon its depletion by candidate batch A (lot 2). The BRP batches will be monitored regularly for potency throughout their lifetime. EDQM BRP batches 1 and 2 of coagulation factors V, VIII, XI and XIII plasma were formally adopted by the Ph. Eur. Commission at their session in June 2011. PMID:22225765

Bayer, P; Daas, A; Milne, C

2011-11-01

121

Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting  

PubMed Central

Objectives Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG) with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are available as safe, sterile, disposable, compact systems for acquiring high-quality AFG. Presented is a detailed, step-by-step, proven protocol for performing quality autologous structural adipose transplantation. PMID:23630430

Alexander, Robert W; Harrell, David B

2013-01-01

122

Pistol-grip Syringe holder (Cameco syringe pistol) in fine needle aspiration Biopsy: any advantages over the use of direct finger grip?  

PubMed

Aims and Objectives: The study seeks to determine the advantages of using the pistol-grip syringe holder in the performance of FNAB over the use of direct finger grip method. Patients and Methods: The skin is cleaned with gauze soaked in methylated spirit and the lump is located and firmly held between the thumb and fore finger of the free hand. The syringe is held by the out side of the barrel or by pistol-grip, and the needle tip pushed into the lesion. The plunger is partially retracted, creating a negative pressure. The cutting edge of the needle tip frees the cells inside the lesion which are sucked into the fine bore of the needle. The contents of the needle are then emptied on a microscopic slide and thinly smeared. The slides are then fixed in alcohol and later stained. These were examined under the microscope and a comparison between the aspirations using pistol-grip and direct finger grip was made. Results: A total of 266 cases of FNABs were carried out from 1st January to 31st December, 2008. There were 89 breast cases out of which 42 (47%) had pistol-grip method and 47 (53%) had direct finger grip method; 74 thyroid cases out of which 28 (38%) were pistol-grip and 46 (62%) were direct finger grip cases; 56 cases of lymph node FNABs of which 18(32%) and 38 (68%) had pistol-grip and direct finger grip methods respectively. There were 23 cases of salivary gland FNABs having 8 (35%) and 15 (65%) as pistol-grip and direct finger grip methods respectively. Marked cellularity was observed in the majority of cases using both methods of FNABs. Conclusion: This study has shown that the use of pistol-grip syringe holder in the performance of FNABs has no significant advantage compared to the direct finger grip method. PMID:23959352

Mayun, A A; Nggada, H A; Abdulazzez, J O; Musa, A B; Pindiga, U H; Khalil, M I

2013-06-01

123

Anemometer calibrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

1971-01-01

124

Vicarious calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vicarious reflectance-based calibration experiment for the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) airborne simulator, AirMISR, is described as one precursor experiment of this type planned for postlaunch application to MISR itself. The experiment produces a set of multiangle near-top-of-atmosphere radiances that are compared with the multiangle AirMISR radiances, established using a laboratory calibration. The field and aircraft data were collected as

Wedad A Abdou; James E Conel; Stuart H Pilorz; Mark C Helmlinger; Carol J Bruegge; Barbara J Gaitley; William C Ledeboer; John V Martonchik

2001-01-01

125

Tensorial Calibration. 2. Second Order Tensorial Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tensorial calibration provides a useful approach to calibration in general. For calibration of instruments that produce two dimensional (second order) data arrays of data per sample, tensorial concepts are a natural way of solving the calibration problems...

E. Sanchez, B. R. Kowalski

1987-01-01

126

Determination of pyrethroid metabolites in human urine using liquid phase microextraction coupled in-syringe derivatization followed by gas chromatography/electron capture detection.  

PubMed

Metabolites of synthetic pyrethroids such as cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-di-methylcyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid, cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and 4-fluoro-3-PBA are biomarkers for exposure to phenothrin, tetramethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin. In this study, the pyrethroid metabolites in workers' urine samples were monitored for the first time with a novel sample pretreatment process combining hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and in-syringe derivatization (ISD) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) analysis. A micro-syringe pre-filled with derivatizing agents and syringe needle connected to an extracting solvent impregnated hollow fiber segment was used as the LPME probe. Pyrethroid metabolites were extracted and enriched simultaneously from urine samples by HF-LPME sampling and acid hydrolysis at 70 °C for 10 min. After sampling, the ISD was performed by mixing the extracting solution and derivatizing agents through plunger movements, followed by GC-ECD analysis. Parameters influencing the HF-LPME efficiency and ISD were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the method provided enrichment factors of 69.8-154.6, repeatability from 5.0 to 12% (n = 5), and good linearity (R(2) = 0.9980-0.9998) for interested analytes spiked in urine samples. The method detection limits ranged from 1.6 to 17 ng/mL. A comparison was performed between the proposed method and conventional methods. The proposed method was applied to analyze pyrethroid metabolites in the urine samples collected from workers of pesticide formulation plants. The results suggested that the proposed HF-LPME coupled ISD method was a rapid, simple, efficient, and eco-friendly technique in the biomonitoring of metabolites of pyrethroids in workers' urine. PMID:21667061

Lin, Chiu-Hwa; Yan, Cheing-Tong; Kumar, Ponnusamy Vinoth; Li, Hong-Ping; Jen, Jen-Fon

2011-08-01

127

Compatibility and Stability of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate and Ketamine Hydrochloride Subcutaneous Infusions in Polypropylene Syringes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of ketamine hydrochloride injection and dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection, when mixed and stored in polypropylene syringes, was studied. Formulations containing ketamine hydrochloride (50 mg or 600 mg) and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1 mg) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection (to 14 ml) were prepared and stored at 4°C, 23°C, and 37°C, under normal fluorescent light conditions, for 192 hours.

David G. Watson; Mei Lin; Andrew Morton; Colin G. Cable; Dorothy A. McArthur

2005-01-01

128

The Impact of Legalizing Syringe Exchange Programs on Arrests Among Injection Drug Users in California  

PubMed Central

Legislation passed in 2000 allowed syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in California to operate legally if local jurisdictions declare a local HIV public health emergency. Nonetheless, even in locales where SEPs are legal, the possession of drug paraphernalia, including syringes, remained illegal. The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the legal status of SEPs and individual arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia among injection drug users (IDUs) in California from 2001 to 2003. Using data from three annual cross-sections (2001-03) of IDUs attending 24 SEPs in 16 California counties (N?=?1,578), we found that overall, 14% of IDUs in our sample reported arrest or citation for paraphernalia in the 6 months before the interview. Further analysis found that 17% of IDUs attending a legal SEP (defined at the county level) reported arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia compared to 10% of IDUs attending an illegal SEP (p?=?0.001). In multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia was 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.2, 2.3] for IDUs attending legal SEPs compared to IDUs attending illegal SEPs, after controlling for race/ethnicity, age, homelessness, illegal income, injection of amphetamines, years of injection drug use, frequency of SEP use, and number of needles received at last visit. IDUs attending SEPs with legal status may be more visible to police, and hence, more subject to arrest or citation for paraphernalia. These findings suggest that legislative efforts to decriminalize the operation of SEPs without concurrent decriminalization of syringe possession may result in higher odds of arrest among SEP clients, with potentially deleterious implications for the health and well-being of IDUs. More comprehensive approaches to removing barriers to accessing sterile syringes are needed if our public health goals for reducing new HIV/HCV infections are to be obtained. PMID:17265133

Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Kral, Alex H.

2007-01-01

129

Psychiatric distress, risk behavior, and treatment enrollment among syringe exchange participants  

PubMed Central

The present study evaluated psychiatric distress as a predictor of treatment enrollment in out-of-treatment injection opioid users newly registered at the Baltimore Needle Exchange Program (BNEP). Study participants (n = 281) completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), the Risk Assessment Battery (RAB), and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90-R), and were randomly assigned to one of three different conditions for 4-months that evaluated referral strategies designed to promote treatment interest and enrollment. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the SCL-90 was used as a measure of psychiatric distress. A logistic regression showed that higher GSI scores predicted more treatment enrollment (Adjusted OR = 2.15, CI = 1.10 – 4.23, p < .05), after controlling for study condition, demographic variables, syringe exchange site, and severity of drug use. The results suggest that the data from the assessment of psychiatric distress in syringe exchange settings can be used to support motivational strategies for encouraging syringe exchangers to seek substance abuse treatment. PMID:20079972

Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L.; Peirce, Jessica; Burke, Christopher; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K.

2010-01-01

130

The feasibility of a syringe-needle-exchange program in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, syringe-exchange programs have been established in a number of developed countries and have proven effective in reducing the transmission of HIV. Very few similar programs have been established in developing countries. This study reports on the feasibility of establishing a syringe-exchange program in Vietnam. Process data collected since the beginning of the program indicate the feasibility of establishing such a program as well as highlight a number of important issues. These issues are: 1) Acceptability of the program in the community which has been achieved through workshops with key community people including the local police; 2) training and recruitment of ex-user outreach workers; 3) the distribution of clean syringes and needles through outreach services rather than at established exchange sites; 4) the establishment of appropriate methods for the collection of used injection equipment. Further research is needed to examine the efficacy of the program in reducing risks and acceptability of the program in the larger society. PMID:9596375

Quan, V M; Chung, A; Abdul-Quader, A S

1998-04-01

131

Use of a prefilled insulin syringe (Novolin Prefilled) by patients with diabetes.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to assess patients' acceptance of a new insulin injection system, Novolin Prefilled, and to record their opinions about its use during a 4-week study period. Sixty-four patients, aged 20 to 69 years, with type I (n = 19) or type II (n = 45) diabetes mellitus entered and completed the study; 22 were new insulin users and 42 had been treated previously for 6 months to 43 years. Patients received insulin treatment via a prefilled syringe that was designed to provide a convenient alternative method for injecting insulin. The syringe is prefilled with 150 U of insulin and can deliver up to 58 U per dose. After 2 to 4 days of using the new system, patients reported no major problems when asked about mechanical difficulties, and the percentage reporting mild hypoglycemic events was comparable to baseline. During the 4-week study, no patients reported moderate or severe hypoglycemic episodes. The results of attitude questionnaires revealed that after treatment significantly more patients (P < 0.05) reported feeling energetic and full of pep, in good control, and not worried about giving themselves insulin injections. The increase in positive attitudes was most apparent among the patients new to insulin use. Most of the study patients (98%) reported that the prefilled syringe was convenient and easy to use, 95% found it took less time to use at home, and 91% wished to continue using it for insulin delivery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8519048

Plevin, S; Sadur, C

1993-01-01

132

Comparison of bulb syringe, pressurized pulsatile, and hydrosurgery debridement methods for removing bacteria from fracture implants.  

PubMed

Surgical-site infection is a common form of noscomial infection that can occur in fractures following internal fixation. Treatment of these infections has traditionally included preserving stable implants via debridement and antibiotic administration while the fracture is healing. Recent evidence indicated that this algorithm results in less-than-optimal rates of fracture union and infection eradication.The premise for this study is that bacterial removal from fracture implants using the Versajet Hydrosurgery System (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) method is better compared with the bulb syringe and pressurized pulsatile lavage methods. Thirty-two stainless steel, 4-hole, nonlocking, 3.5-mm fracture plates were incubated with Staphylococus aureus and divided into 4 groups. Eight plates in each group underwent irrigation with 1 L of saline using a bulb syringe lavage, pressurized pulsatile lavage, or the Versajet Hydrosurgery System method. Eight plates underwent no irrigation method and served as a control group. The residual bacterial loads following irrigation were quantitatively cultured. Each of the experimental groups had significantly reduced levels of bacteria adherent to the plate following irrigation compared with the control group (P=.0002). Furthermore, the Versajet Hydrosurgery System was most the effective at bacterial removal, followed by the pressurized pulsatile and bulb syringe lavage techniques (P=.0002 to P=.0012, respectively).Novel approaches to eradicate bacteria from implants, such as hydrosurgery technology, while maintaining rigid stability of healing fracture, may improve clinical outcomes. PMID:22784898

Hughes, Michael S; Moghadamian, Eric S; Yin, Li-Yan; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Crist, Brett D

2012-07-01

133

New trend in sample preparation: on-line microextraction in packed syringe for liquid and gas chromatography applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for sample preparation on-line with LC and GC–MS assays was developed. Microextraction in a packed syringe (MEPS) is a new miniaturised, solid-phase extraction technique that can be connected on-line to GC or LC without any modifications. In MEPS approximately 1mg of the solid packing material is inserted into a syringe (100–250?l) as a plug. Sample preparation takes

Mohamed Abdel-Rehim

2004-01-01

134

A mathematical model to predict the risk of hepatitis B infection through needle/syringe sharing in mass vaccination  

PubMed Central

Background The Japanese Government settled a class litigation case with hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers who claim to have been infected through needle/syringe sharing in childhood mass vaccination with a blanket compensation agreement. However, it is difficult to estimate how many of the present HBV carriers were infected horizontally from mass vaccination and how many were infected vertically from mothers. Methods A mathematical model to predict the risk of infection through needle/syringe sharing in mass vaccination was proposed and a formula was developed. The formula was presented in a logarithmic graph enabling users to estimate how many people will be infected if a needle/syringe is shared by how many people for how many times under certain probability of infection. The formula was then applied to the historical data of mass tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and BCG inoculation, from which a best estimate of how much needle/syringe sharing was practiced in different birth cohorts was determined. Results For the oldest cohort born between 1951 and 1955, the prevalence of HBV carriers—0.65% at birth through vertical transmission—more than doubled in 1995 (1.46%) through horizontal transmission. If the probability of infection through needle/syringe sharing is assumed to be 10%, it is theoretically likely that an average of five or more people shared a needle/syringe four times to achieve the prevalence of HBV carriers in 1995. However, for the youngest cohort born between 1981 and 1985, the effects of needle/syringe sharing were negligible because the later prevalence of HBV carriers was lower than the prevalence at birth. Conclusions More than half of the HBV carriers born in the early 1950s might have contracted the disease by mass vaccinations. Japan’s experience needs to be shared with other countries as a caution in conducting mass vaccination programs under scarce needle/syringe supply (291 words). PMID:24252667

2013-01-01

135

Test and calibration of sonobuoys in the air environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method for calibrating and testing DIFAR sonobuoy multiplexer without sea or water is proposed. For this purpose; the architecture of DIFAR sonobuoy is introduced, calibration factors are expressed, calibration and test environment in terms of hardware and software are described, calibration and test procedure is explained, and finally, laboratory test results of a sonobuoy calibrated in

Ahmet Kuzu; Uveys Danis; Engin Kurt; Engin Karabulut; Demet Sahinkaya; Ahmet Kaplaner; Serdar Birecik; Bulent Ozumut; Eyup Bilgic

2012-01-01

136

Iterative Magnetometer Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an iterative method for three-axis magnetometer (TAM) calibration that makes use of three existing utilities recently incorporated into the attitude ground support system used at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The method combines attitude-independent and attitude-dependent calibration algorithms with a new spinning spacecraft Kalman filter to solve for biases, scale factors, nonorthogonal corrections to the alignment, and the orthogonal sensor alignment. The method is particularly well-suited to spin-stabilized spacecraft, but may also be useful for three-axis stabilized missions given sufficient data to provide observability.

Sedlak, Joseph

2006-01-01

137

Spectrophotometric study of the copigmentation of malvidin 3-O-glucoside with p-coumaric, vanillic and syringic acids.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are a natural source of pigments in plants and their processed food products have become attractive and excellent candidates to replace the synthetic colourants due to their characteristic intense colours and associated health benefits. The intermolecular copigmentation between anthocyanins and other colourless compounds has been reported to be an important way to enhance and stabilise the colour intensity of aqueous solutions. In the present work we report the equilibrium constant, stoichiometric ratio and the thermodynamic parameters (?G°, ?H° and ?S°) related to the intermolecular copigmentation reactions of the anthocyanin malvidin 3-O-glucoside with one hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) and two O-methylated hydroxybenzoic acids (vanillic and syringic acid). Different factors which affect their interactions such as copigment concentration, pH and temperature of the medium are examined at two pH levels (pH=2.50 and 3.65) corresponding to those of the major food mediums where these reactions take place (fruit juices, wine, jams etc.). PMID:23993528

Malaj, Naim; De Simone, Bruna Clara; Quartarolo, Angelo Domenico; Russo, Nino

2013-12-15

138

Taste and/or Odour Disturbances in Pediatric Patients Undergoing IV Flush with Normal Saline Administered by Prefilled Syringe  

PubMed Central

Background: At the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, more than 6000 inpatients per year undergo IV saline flushes by prefilled syringe to assess and maintain patency of IV tubing. In studies involving adults, it has been reported that volatile substances may leach from syringe materials into the saline, leading to taste and/or odour disturbances. Objective: To determine the incidence of taste and/or odour disturbances in pediatric patients after flushing of IV tubing with 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) from prefilled syringes. Methods: Inpatients aged 5–18 years who had undergone routine flushing of central or peripheral IV tubing with commercially available prefilled NS syringes were interviewed. Children aged 5–10 years used a visual hedonic scale to rate taste and odour sensations, and those aged 11–18 years used a numeric rating scale. Results: During the study period (April to July 2011), a total of 104 pediatric inpatients (21 aged 5–10 years and 83 aged 11–18 years) underwent NS flushing of central (10 patients [10%]) or peripheral (94 patients [90%]) tubing. For 100 of these patients, BD Posiflush NaCl 0.9% 10-mL sterile prefilled syringes were used, and for 4 patients BD Saline XS NaCl 0.9% 10-mL sterile prefilled syringes were used. Taste and/or odour disturbances were reported by 76 (73%) of the patients. Twelve patients described more than one taste or odour sensation. Taste and odour disturbances were detected by children in both age groups. Conclusions: Flushing of IV tubing with prefilled NS syringes resulted in taste and/or odour disturbances in a pediatric population. PMID:23129865

Celetti, Steven J; Vaillancourt, Regis; Pascuet, Elena; Sharp, Diane

2012-01-01

139

Calibration of human coagulation factor VIII concentrate Ph. Eur. BRP Batch 4 for use in potency assays.  

PubMed

The European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparation (Ph. Eur. BRP) Batch 4 was established as an international common working standard for potency determination of human coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) preparations to replace the dwindling stocks of the BRP Batch 3, the current European standard. Similarly, stocks of the current World Health Organisation 7th International Standard (WHO 7th IS) were also running low. Therefore a project was jointly organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM, Council of Europe) and the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC, UK) in order to replace both standards concomitantly. The potency of the BRP Batch 4 was assigned during an international collaborative study involving 38 laboratories with reference to the WHO 7th IS and the BRP Batch 3. Four candidate materials, 2 plasma-derived (samples A and C) and 2 recombinant (samples B and D) have been evaluated, sample C being the specific candidate for the replacement of the BRP Batch 3. Participants were instructed to perform 8 independent assays following their own routine validated methods, by either the one-stage clotting assay or the chromogenic assay, or both. Laboratories returned 22 data sets for the clotting assay and 30 data sets for the chromogenic assay. This publication reports the results obtained with both assays but only the results of the chromogenic assay are highlighted in the conclusions, as it is the assay prescribed by the European Pharmacopoeia. Data were analysed separately for both assays. The consensus potency value was calculated as the unweighted geometric mean of the unweighted geometric means of each individual laboratory. For sample C, there was a significant difference in potency estimate between the chromogenic and the clotting assay. It was therefore not possible to reconcile both results. The chromogenic potencies however were in very good agreement being 10.4 IU/ampoule (n = 30), when assessed against both standards. The inter-laboratory geometric coefficient of variation (GCV) was 4.8 % and 7.1 % against the WHO 7th IS and the BRP Batch 3 respectively. The Ph. Eur. BRP Batch 4 is a freeze-dried, plasma-derived concentrate. The material was filled in approximately 20,000 ampoules and lyophilised. The final residual water content is 0.33 %. Based on accelerated degradation studies, the stability of the material is suitable for a reference preparation. The candidate Ph. Eur. BRP Batch 4 was adopted at the 136th session of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission in March 2010. The standard will be available from the EDQM with the catalogue number H0920000 upon exhaustion of the current batch. PMID:21144486

Raut, S; Costanzo, A; Daniels, S; Heath, A; Buchheit, K-H

2010-10-01

140

Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia  

PubMed Central

Background Estonia has experienced an HIV epidemic among intravenous drug users (IDUs) with the highest per capita HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe. We assessed the effects of expanded syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the capital city, Tallinn, which has an estimated 10,000 IDUs. Methods SEP implementation was monitored with data from the Estonian National Institute for Health Development. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys with HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2005, 2007 and 2009 (involving 350, 350 and 327 IDUs respectively). HIV incidence among new injectors (those injecting for < = 3 years) was estimated by assuming (1) new injectors were HIV seronegative when they began injecting, and (2) HIV infection occurred at the midpoint between first injection and time of interview. Results SEP increased from 230,000 syringes exchanged in 2005 to 440,000 in 2007 and 770,000 in 2009. In all three surveys, IDUs were predominantly male (80%), ethnic Russians (>80%), and young adults (mean ages 24 to 27 years). The proportion of new injectors decreased significantly over the years (from 21% in 2005 to 12% in 2009, p = 0.005). HIV prevalence among all respondents stabilized at slightly over 50% (54% in 2005, 55% in 2007, 51% in 2009), and decreased among new injectors (34% in 2005, 16% in 2009, p = 0.046). Estimated HIV incidence among new injectors decreased significantly from 18/100 person-years in 2005 and 21/100 person-years in 2007 to 9/100 person-years in 2009 (p = 0.026). Conclusions In Estonia, a transitional country, a decrease in the HIV prevalence among new injectors and in the numbers of people initiating injection drug use coincided with implementation of large-scale SEPs. Further reductions in HIV transmission among IDUs are still required. Provision of 70 or more syringes per IDU per year may be needed before significant reductions in HIV incidence occur. PMID:21718469

2011-01-01

141

Comparison with traditional calibration Wide Area Camera Calibration Using  

E-print Network

Comparison with traditional calibration Wide Area Camera Calibration Using Virtual Calibration calibration object to solve for camera position. A space in which a comparison with traditional calibration method compares favorably with traditional calibration methods. Traditional calibration Virtual

Stanford University

142

Surveillance of HIV, Hepatitis B Virus, and Hepatitis C Virus in an Estonian Injection Drug-Using Population: Sensitivity and Specificity of Testing Syringes for Public Health Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Surveillance of bloodborne infections among injection drug users (IDUs) can be accomplished by determining the presence of pathogen markers in used syringes. Parallel testing of returned syringes and venous blood from IDUs was conducted to detect antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Syringe surveillance for HIV yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 89%, respectively, and provided a reasonable estimate of the prevalence of HIV among participants. Because sensitivity for HBV (34%) and HCV (55%) was low, syringe testing may be useful for surveillance of hepatitis over time but not for estimation of prevalence. PMID:16388495

Uuskula, Anneli; Heimer, Robert; DeHovitz, Jack; Fischer, Krista; McNutt, Louise-Anne

2010-01-01

143

Calibration Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Excel Spreadsheet files are offered to help calibrate telescope or camera image scale and orientation with binary stars for any time. One is a personally selected list of fixed position binaries and binaries with well-determined orbits, and the other contains all binaries with published orbits. Both are derived from the web site of the Washington Double Star Library. The spreadsheets give the position angle and separation of the binaries for any entered time by taking advantage of Excel's built in iteration function to solve Kepler's transcendental equation.

Drummond, J.

2011-09-01

144

Hand-powered microfluidics: A membrane pump with a patient-to-chip syringe interface  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present an on-chip hand-powered membrane pump using a robust patient-to-chip syringe interface. This approach enables safe sample collection, sample containment, integrated sharps disposal, high sample volume capacity, and controlled downstream flow with no electrical power requirements. Sample is manually injected into the device via a syringe and needle. The membrane pump inflates upon injection and subsequently deflates, delivering fluid to downstream components in a controlled manner. The device is fabricated from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silicone, using CO2 laser micromachining, with a total material cost of ?0.20 USD/device. We experimentally demonstrate pump performance for both deionized (DI) water and undiluted, anticoagulated mouse whole blood, and characterize the behavior with reference to a resistor-capacitor electrical circuit analogy. Downstream output of the membrane pump is regulated, and scaled, by connecting multiple pumps in parallel. In contrast to existing on-chip pumping mechanisms that typically have low volume capacity (?5??L) and sample volume throughput (?1–10??l/min), the membrane pump offers high volume capacity (up to 240??l) and sample volume throughput (up to 125??l/min). PMID:24143160

Gong, Max M.; MacDonald, Brendan D.; Vu Nguyen, Trung; Sinton, David

2012-01-01

145

Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with drug use and HIV risk in syringe exchange participants.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the effects of psychiatric comorbidity on substance use disorder prevalence, HIV risk behavior, and other problem severity in male and female out-of-treatment injection drug users newly registered at a syringe exchange program. Participants (N = 338) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV, the Addiction Severity Index, and the Risk Assessment Battery, and classified into one of four diagnostic groups: (1) no antisocial personality disorder (APD) or Axis I psychiatric disorder (N = 162), (2) APD only (N = 74), (3) Axis I psychiatric disorder only (N = 55), or (4) APD plus Axis I psychiatric disorder (N = 47). Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with higher rates of substance use disorder and more HIV risk and other problem severity. In general, participants with both APD and an Axis I disorder exhibited the most problem severity. APD was uniquely associated with higher prevalence for each substance use disorder assessed in this study and with elevated HIV risk. These results support and extend studies conducted with opioid-dependent individuals recruited from treatment and community settings, and reinforce the need to develop interventions to encourage syringe exchange program participants to enroll in treatment. PMID:16909065

Disney, Elizabeth; Kidorf, Michael; Kolodner, Ken; King, Van; Peirce, Jessica; Beilenson, Peter; Brooner, Robert K

2006-08-01

146

A simple method for quantifying fentanyl, sufentanil, or morphine in discard syringes from anesthesia procedures.  

PubMed

Fentanyl, sufentanil, and morphine are commonly used in the conduct of anesthesia. Medical staff working with these drugs are at high risk of addiction. To detect and prevent diversion, a method was developed to quantify these drugs in discard syringes using the BioRad REMEDi HS Drug Profiling System. For fentanyl, the lowest concentration detected is 0.1 microg/mL, and the assay is linear to 5.0 microg/mL; the within-run coefficient of variation (CV) is 0.9% (n = 5), and between-run CV is 2.5% (n = 20). For sufentanil, the lowest concentration detected is 0.5 microg/mL, and the assay is linear to 11.0 microg/mL; the within-run CV is 2.0% (n = 5), and the between-run CV is 2.4% (n = 20). For morphine, the lowest concentration detected is 0.5 microg/mL, and the assay is linear to 10.0 microg/mL; the within-run CV is 11.6% (n = 5), and between-run CV is 11.3% (n = 20). Other drugs commonly used in the operating room were checked for cross-reactivity on the REMEDi HS; none cross-reacted. The REMEDi HS can be used for rapid, accurate quantification of fentanyl, sufentanil, and morphine in discard syringes from anesthesia procedures or related medical applications. PMID:12352940

Holth, Laurel S T; Friesen, Robert; Green, Carol; Krahn, John

2002-10-01

147

Accurate calibration for a camera–projector measurement system based on structured light projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate calibration for a camera–projector measurement system based on structured light projection is important to the system measurement accuracy. This study proposes an improved systematic calibration method focusing on three key factors: calibration model, calibration artifact and calibration procedures. The calibration model better describes the camera and projector imaging process by considering higher to fourth order radial and tangential

Xiaobo Chen; Juntong Xi; Ye Jin; Jin Sun

2009-01-01

148

Moving beyond non-engagement on regulated needle-syringe exchange programs in Australian prisons  

PubMed Central

Background Australia is at a fork in the road with the possibility of a needle-syringe exchange program (NSP) to be introduced at the new prison in the ACT. However, the current situation is characterised by non-engagement from major stakeholders. We explore why informed discussion will not be enough to convince prison officers, policy makers and the wider community of the benefits of prison-based NSPs. Other methods of engagement and communication will be proposed – in that may provide avenues for "breakthrough". Methods A review of the literature on needle-syringe exchanges and harm reduction strategies within the context of prisons and prisoner health was conducted. Literature on strategies to change attitudes and move beyond intractable situations was also consulted. In addition, one author, DM, conducted a two-hour interview with an ex-prison officer. Results No studies were found which investigated the potential efficacy of interventions to modify attitudes or behaviours in the specific context of introducing an NSP into a prison. Nonetheless, several theories were identified which may explain the failure of informed discussion alone to create change in this situation and may therefore lead to suggestions for engagement and communication to move towards a resolution Discussion Cognitive-behavioural therapy highlights the importance of individual cognitions and how they shape behaviours in any change campaign. Social identity theory emphasizes changes to social processes that may open the prison officer workforce to change. Peace studies also suggests socialization strategies such as observing an established and effective prison-based needle-syringe exchange. Social marketing provides suggestions on how to sell an exchange to ensuring the benefits are framed to outweigh the costs. Conclusion Psychology, peace studies and social marketing all agree people's views must be carefully collected and analysed if people are going to be convinced to consider and discuss the issue. By understanding the views and their underlying motivations of those who oppose NSPs, it will be far easier to influence these views. Furthermore, involving all stakeholders, especially prison authorities, will help create a sense of ownership of a solution and therefore increase the chances of that solution succeeding. PMID:19413911

Mogg, Daniel; Levy, Michael

2009-01-01

149

Selective growth inhibition of human malignant melanoma cells by syringic acid-derived proteasome inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Background It has been shown that proteasome inhibition leads to growth arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and/or induction of apoptosis. However, it was found that some of these inhibitors do not induce apoptosis in several human normal cell lines. This selective activity makes proteasome inhibition a promising target for new generation of anticancer drugs. Clinical validation of the proteasome, as a therapeutic target in oncology, has been provided by the dipeptide boronic acid derivative; bortezomib. Bortezomib has proven to be effective as a single agent in multiple myeloma and some forms of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Syringic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid, 1), a known phenolic acid, was isolated from the methanol extract of Tamarix aucheriana and was shown to possess proteasome inhibitory activity. Methods Using Surflex-Dock program interfaced with SYBYL, the docking affinities of syringic acid and its proposed derivatives to 20S proteasome were studied. Several derivatives were virtually proposed, however, five derivatives: benzyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate (2), benzyl 4-(benzyloxy)-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate (3), 3'-methoxybenzyl 3,5-dimethoxy-4-(3'-methoxybenzyloxy)benzoate (4), 3'-methoxybenzyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate (5) and 3',5'-dimethoxybenzyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate (6), were selected based on high docking scores, synthesized, and tested for their anti-mitogenic activity against human colorectal, breast and malignant melanoma cells as well as normal human fibroblast cells. Results Derivatives 2, 5, and 6 showed selective dose-dependent anti-mitogenic effect against human malignant melanoma cell lines HTB66 and HTB68 with minimal cytotoxicity on colorectal and breast cancer cells as well as normal human fibroblast cells. Derivatives 2, 5 and 6 significantly (p???0.0001) inhibited the various proteasomal chymotrypsin, PGPH, and trypsin like activities. They growth arrested the growth of HTB66 cells at G1 and G2-phases. They also arrested the growth of HTB68 cells at S- and G2-phase, respectively. Moreover, derivatives 2, 5, and 6 markedly induced apoptosis (? 90%) in both HTB66 and HTB68. Conclusions Computer-derived syringic acid derivatives possess selective anti-mitogenic activity on human malignant melanoma cells that may be attributed to perturbation of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of various 26S proteasomal activities. PMID:23958424

2013-01-01

150

Attitudes of police officers towards syringe access, occupational needle-sticks, and drug use: A qualitative study of one city police department in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of legal barriers to syringe access has been identified as an important part of a comprehensive approach to reducing HIV transmission among injecting drug users (IDUs). Legal barriers include both “law on the books” and “law on the streets,” i.e., the actual practices of law enforcement officers. Changes in syringe and drug control policy can be ineffective in reducing

Leo Beletsky; Grace E. Macalino; Scott Burris

2005-01-01

151

Optical tweezers absolute calibration  

E-print Network

Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...

Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M

2014-01-01

152

Patterns of sexual commerce among women at US Syringe Exchange Programs.  

PubMed

In the USA, the majority of research on sex work has examined the experiences of women recruited from social locations commonly referred to as the 'sex industry', such as street strolls or escort services. This paper presents data from female syringe exchange participants who had sold sex in the last 30 days. The women interviewed for this study report a much broader array of commercial transactions than found in previous US studies, including selling sex to women, paying men for sex, and considerable role fluidity between buying and selling. In addition, approximately one-third of the women report only selling sex 1 day per week or less, and appear to be more socio-economically stable than women who sell sex more often. We argue that this data suggests the existence of an array of commercial sexual transactions outside of the socially recognized sex industry, and that social location may affect condom use. PMID:16846939

Braine, Naomi; Desjarlais, Don C; Goldblatt, Cullen; Zadoretzky, Cathy; Turner, Charles

2006-01-01

153

Illicit buprenorphine use, interest in and access to buprenorphine treatment among syringe exchange participants.  

PubMed

Poor access to buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) may contribute to illicit buprenorphine use. This study investigated illicit buprenorphine use and barriers to BMT among syringe exchange participants. Computer-based interviews conducted at a New York City harm reduction agency determined: prior buprenorphine use; barriers to BMT; and interest in BMT. Of 102 opioid users, 57 had used illicit buprenorphine and 32 had used prescribed buprenorphine. When illicit buprenorphine users were compared to non-users: barriers to BMT ("did not know where to get treatment") were more common (64 vs. 36%, p<0.01); mean levels of interest in BMT were greater (3.37±1.29 vs. 2.80±1.34, p=0.03); and more participants reported themselves likely to initiate treatment (82 vs. 50%, p<0.01). Illicit buprenorphine users were interested in BMT but did not know where to go for treatment. Addressing barriers to BMT could reduce illicit buprenorphine use. PMID:25205666

Fox, Aaron D; Chamberlain, Adam; Sohler, Nancy L; Frost, Taeko; Cunningham, Chinazo O

2015-01-01

154

Immunochemical authentication of manuka honey using a monoclonal antibody specific to a glycoside of methyl syringate.  

PubMed

Leptosperin, a novel glycoside of methyl syringate, is exclusively present in manuka honey derived from the Leptospermum species Leptospermum scoparium. Quantification of leptosperin might thus be applicable for authentication of honey. The concentration of leptosperin has high linearity with antibacterial activity. We established a monoclonal antibody to leptosperin and characterized the antibody in detail by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), comparing the results with those of the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for validation. The antigen in manuka honey was confirmed as leptosperin by HPLC fractionation with quantitation by an ELISA. Leptosperin contents of 50 honey samples were analyzed by an established ELISA, which can handle 20 samples (duplicate) on one 96-well plate. Significant coincidence with the chemical quantitation was observed. Immunochemical quantitation of leptosperin would be an economical and facile method for the possible authentication of manuka honey, allowing many honey samples to be processed and analyzed by an ELISA simultaneously. PMID:25310890

Kato, Yoji; Araki, Yukako; Juri, Maki; Fujinaka, Rie; Ishisaka, Akari; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Nitta, Yoko; Niwa, Toshio; Takimoto, Yosuke

2014-11-01

155

The COS Calibration Pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COS calibration pipeline (CALCOS) includes three main components: basic calibration, wavelength calibration, and spectral extraction. Calibration of modes using the far ultraviolet (FUV) and near ultraviolet (NUV) detectors share a common structure, although the individual reference files differ and there are some additional steps for the FUV channel. The pipeline is designed to calibrate data acquired in either ACCUM

Philip E. Hodge; C. Keyes; M. Kaiser

2007-01-01

156

A syringe-like love dart injects male accessory gland products in a tropical hermaphrodite.  

PubMed

Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner's hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner's hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

Koene, Joris M; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

2013-01-01

157

A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite  

PubMed Central

Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

2013-01-01

158

Syringeal Specialization of Frequency Control during Song Production in the Bengalese Finch (Lonchura striata domestica)  

PubMed Central

Background Singing in songbirds is a complex, learned behavior which shares many parallels with human speech. The avian vocal organ (syrinx) has two potential sound sources, and each sound generator is under unilateral, ipsilateral neural control. Different songbird species vary in their use of bilateral or unilateral phonation (lateralized sound production) and rapid switching between left and right sound generation (interhemispheric switching of motor control). Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) have received considerable attention, because they rapidly modify their song in response to manipulations of auditory feedback. However, how the left and right sides of the syrinx contribute to acoustic control of song has not been studied. Methodology Three manipulations of lateralized syringeal control of sound production were conducted. First, unilateral syringeal muscular control was eliminated by resection of the left or right tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve, which provides neuromuscular innervation of the syrinx. Spectral and temporal features of song were compared before and after lateralized nerve injury. In a second experiment, either the left or right sound source was devoiced to confirm the role of each sound generator in the control of acoustic phonology. Third, air pressure was recorded before and after unilateral denervation to enable quantification of acoustic change within individual syllables following lateralized nerve resection. Significance These experiments demonstrate that the left sound source produces louder, higher frequency, lower entropy sounds, and the right sound generator produces lower amplitude, lower frequency, higher entropy sounds. The bilateral division of labor is complex and the frequency specialization is the opposite pattern observed in most songbirds. Further, there is evidence for rapid interhemispheric switching during song production. Lateralized control of song production in Bengalese finches may enhance acoustic complexity of song and facilitate the rapid modification of sound production following manipulations of auditory feedback. PMID:22479543

Secora, Kristen R.; Peterson, Jennifer R.; Urbano, Catherine M.; Chung, Boah; Okanoya, Kazuo; Cooper, Brenton G.

2012-01-01

159

Improving treatment enrollment and re-enrollment rates of syringe exchangers: 12-month outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Developing bridges between community syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and substance abuse treatment could benefit syringe exchangers and the public health. Kidorf et al. (2009) showed that motivational approaches employed at an SEP site improved rates of treatment enrollment and reduced drug use over a 4-month observation window. The present study extends this report by evaluating rates of treatment enrollment and re-enrollment over a 12-month period. Methods Opioid dependent individuals (n = 281) newly registered at an SEP were randomly assigned to one of three referral interventions: 1) 8 individual motivational enhancement sessions and 16 treatment readiness group sessions designed to improve treatment interest and readiness (Motivated Referral Condition; MRC-only); 2) MRC-only with monetary incentives for attending sessions and enrolling in treatment (MRC+I); or 3) standard referral (SRC). MRC-only and MRC+I participants discharged from treatment could attend a treatment re-engagement group designed to facilitate return to treatment (MRC+I participants received incentives for attending sessions and re-enrolling in treatment). Results The 4-month outcomes generally extended over 12-months. MRC+I participants were more likely to enroll in methadone maintenance than MRC-only or SRC participants, and to re-enroll in treatment following discharge. MRC+I participants also reported more days of treatment and less heroin and injection use. Conclusions The good harm reduction outcomes for many SEP participants can be enhanced through strategies designed to facilitate treatment enrollment and re-enrollment. PMID:22209388

Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L.; Gandotra, Neeraj; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K.

2012-01-01

160

An external evaluation of a peer-run outreach-based syringe exchange in Vancouver, Canada  

PubMed Central

Objective Vancouver, Canada has been the site of an epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among injection drug users (IDU). In response, the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU) initiated a peer-run outreach-based syringe exchange programme (SEP) called the Alley Patrol. We conducted an external evaluation of this programme, using data obtained from the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS). Methods Using generalised estimating equations (GEE) we examined the prevalence and correlates of use of the SEP among VIDUS participants followed from 1 December 2000 to 30 November 2003. Results Of 854 IDU, 233 (27.3%) participants reported use of the SEP during the study period. In multivariate GEE analyses, service use was positively associated with living in unstable housing (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.39 – 2.40), daily heroin injection (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01 – 1.70), daily cocaine injection (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.03 – 1.73), injecting in public (AOR = 3.07, 95% CI: 2.32 – 4.06), and negatively associated with needle reuse (AOR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.46 – 0.92). Conclusion The VANDU Alley Patrol SEP succeeded in reaching a group of IDU at heightened risk for adverse health outcomes. Importantly, access to this service was associated with lower levels of needle reuse. This form of peer-based SEP may extend the reach of HIV prevention programmes by contacting IDU traditionally underserved by conventional syringe exchange programmes. PMID:20359877

Hayashi, Kanna; Wood, Evan; Wiebe, Lee; Qi, Jiezhi; Kerr, Thomas

2010-01-01

161

Cross-calibration experiment of JPL AIRSAR and truck-mounted polarimetric scatterometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

When point calibration targets are used to calibrate a SAR image, the calibration accuracy is governed by two major factors. The first factor stems from the stringent requirement on the radar cross section (RCS) of the point calibration target. To reduce the effect of radar return from the background, the RCS of a point calibration target must be much larger

K. Sarabandi; L. E. Pierce; Y. Oh; M. C. Dobson; F. T. Ulaby; A. Freeman; P. Dubois

1994-01-01

162

Testing the waters: a pilot programme to enhance the opportunities of risk reduction in Needle Syringe Program clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the Needle Syringe Program (NSP) in Australia collects information on occasions of service rather than number of individuals. The limitations experienced in identifying specific client demographic features and injecting practices impacts on NSP’s ability to implement intervention strategies, refer clients into treatment services and adopt service provision appropriate to the injecting drug user (IDU) client group. A networked, ‘real-time’,

Karen Nairn; Nicole McDonald; Rachel Sheather-Reid

2003-01-01

163

The increased incidence of pure red cell aplasia with an Eprex formulation in uncoated rubber stopper syringes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased incidence of pure red cell aplasia with an Eprex formulation in uncoated rubber stopper syringes.BackgroundThe incidence of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) in chronic kidney disease patients treated with epoetins increased substantially in 1998, was shown to be antibody mediated, and was associated predominantly with subcutaneous administration of Eprex®. A technical investigation identified organic compounds leached from uncoated

KATIA BOVEN; SCOTT STRYKER; JOHN KNIGHT; ADRIAN THOMAS; MARC VAN REGENMORTEL; David M. Kemeny; DAVID POWER; JEROME ROSSERT; NICOLE CASADEVALL

2005-01-01

164

Assessment by patients with diabetes mellitus of two insulin pen delivery systems versus a vial and syringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two multicenter surveys were conducted in a total of 1310 insulin users over a 3-week period. The first survey, in which 803 patients participated, assessed the effects of using the Novolin Prefilled insulin delivery system on lifestyle; compliance with insulin, diet, and exercise regimens; and feelings of well-being compared with the traditional insulin vial and syringe. The second survey, in

Marilyn R. Graff; Mark A. McClanahan

1998-01-01

165

Stability of Five Beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Sterile Water for Injection and Stored in Plastic Syringes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intermittent intravenous administration of antibiotics by the syringe-infusion pump system is currently being promoted. To use this system, a dose of medication is prepared in 10-20ml of sterile water for injection and stored in plastic disposable syr...

D. L. Borst

1984-01-01

166

Subcutaneous administration of midazolam: A comparison of the bioject jet injector with the conventional syringe and needle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare jet injection to a syringe and needle in terms of the difference in discomfort and pharmacokinetics after the subcutaneous administration of midazolam.Patients and Methods: Using a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study design, 14 subjects were administered midazolam on two separate occasions (at least 2 weeks apart). The subjects were randomly distributed into

Jeffrey Bennett; Frank Nichols; Martin Rosenblum; James Condry

1998-01-01

167

NIMBY localism and national inequitable exclusion alliances: The case of syringe exchange programs in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) aim to reduce the harm associated with injection drug use (IDU). Although they have been accepted as critical components of HIV prevention in many parts of the world, they are often unwelcome and difficult to set up and maintain, even in communities hardest hit by IDU-related HIV transmission. This research examines socio-cultural and political processes that

Barbara Tempalski; Risa Friedman; Marie Keem; Hannah Cooper; Samuel R. Friedman

2007-01-01

168

Version 3.0 SOP 11 --Calibration of gas loop October 12, 2007 Page 1 of 3  

E-print Network

the syringe to the loop/valve assembly, · Helium leak detector (e.g., Gow-Mac Instrument Co., Bethlehem, PA, U using the helium leak detector. 5.4 Place the valve along with loose port plugs (ZC2, VICI 11 -- Calibration of gas loop Version 3.0 Page 2 of 3 4. Reagents · Helium supply, · Ultra-pure water

169

Sprayer Calibration for Turfgrass  

E-print Network

Proper application of pesticides and fertilizers on turfgrass is possible only with accurately calibrated equipment. This publication explains how to calibrate sprayers and includes a visual inspection checklist....

Taylor, Gene R.; Abernathy, Scott

1999-12-08

170

Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Lead and Cadmium in Waste Water Samples After Enrichment and Separation Using Purolite C-100 E Resin Filled in a Syringe-Mountable Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a new hopeful enrichment\\/separation technique to substitute for batch and column techniques is described. Lead and cadmium were selected as analyte elements. The housing of a syringe mountable membrane filter was filled with Purolite C-100 E cationic resin and mounted to the tip of a plastic syringe. If the sample solution was drawn into the syringe in

Egemen Demirel; Mustafa Ozcan; Suleyman Akman; Nilgun Tokman

2003-01-01

171

The efficiency calibration and development of environmental correction factors for an in situ high-resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system  

SciTech Connect

A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. Absolute efficiency calibration of the GSLS was performed using simple cylindrical borehole geometry. The calibration source incorporated naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) that emitted photons ranging from 186-keV to 2,614-keV. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software. A linear relationship was found between increasing source thickness and relative photon fluence rates at the detector. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, relative photon fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Attenuation effects due to iron, water, PVC, and concrete cylindrical shields were found to agree with previous studies. Regression analyses produced energy-dependent equations for efficiency corrections applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs collected under non-standard borehole conditions.

Giles, J.R.

1996-05-01

172

Standardizing calibration laboratory practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the calibration lab is becoming more and more important in view of the `global business' environment. Scheduled, regular calibration of test and measuring instruments with measurement traceability to the nationally accepted standards is a prerequisite. Certification to ISO 9000-Quality System Standards becoming a must for exports, the calibration activity being the backbone for quality, calibration laboratory practices

C. Muralikrishna Kumar

1993-01-01

173

Evaluation of expanded uncertainties in luminous intensity and illuminance calibrations  

SciTech Connect

Detector-based calibrating methods and expressions for calculation of photometric uncertainties related to uncertainties in the calibrations of luminous intensity of a light source, illuminance responsivity of a photometer head, and calibration factors of an illuminance meter are discussed. These methods permit luminous intensity calibrations of incandescent light sources, luminous responsivity calibrations of photometer heads, and calibration factors of illuminance meters to be carried out with relative expanded uncertainties (with a level of confidence of 95.45%) of 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively.

Sametoglu, Ferhat

2008-11-01

174

Scalar calibration of vector magnetometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence of a magnetic field, three scale factors for normalization of the axes and three non-orthogonality

J. M. G. Merayo; P. Brauer; F. Primdahl; J. R. Petersen; O. V. Nielsen

2000-01-01

175

Calibration Methods for a 3D Triangulation Based Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sensor in a camera takes a gray level image (1536 x 512 pixels), which is reflected by a reference body. The reference body is illuminated by a linear laser line. This gray level image can be used for a 3D calibration. The following paper describes how a calibration program calculates the calibration factors. The calibration factors serve to determine the size of an unknown reference body.

Schulz, Ulrike; Böhnke, Kay

176

Syringe filtration methods for examining dissolved and colloidal trace element distributions in remote field locations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well-established that sampling and sample processing can easily introduce contamination into dissolved trace element samples if precautions are not taken. However, work in remote locations sometimes precludes bringing bulky clean lab equipment into the field and likewise may make timely transport of samples to the lab for processing impossible. Straightforward syringe filtration methods are described here for collecting small quantities (15 mL) of 0.45- and 0.02-microm filtered river water in an uncontaminated manner. These filtration methods take advantage of recent advances in analytical capabilities that require only small amounts of waterfor analysis of a suite of dissolved trace elements. Filter clogging and solute rejection artifacts appear to be minimal, although some adsorption of metals and organics does affect the first approximately 10 mL of water passing through the filters. Overall the methods are clean, easy to use, and provide reproducible representations of the dissolved and colloidal fractions of trace elements in river waters. Furthermore, sample processing materials can be prepared well in advance in a clean lab and transported cleanly and compactly to the field. Application of these methods is illustrated with data from remote locations in the Rocky Mountains and along the Yukon River. Evidence from field flow fractionation suggests that the 0.02-microm filters may provide a practical cutoff to distinguish metals associated with small inorganic and organic complexes from those associated with silicate and oxide colloids.

Shiller, Alan M.

2003-01-01

177

Syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction method for patulin in apple juice.  

PubMed

A syringe-cartridge solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for determination of patulin in apple juice. A 2.5 mL portion of test sample was passed through a conditioned macroporous SPE cartridge and washed with 2 mL 1% sodium bicarbonate followed by 2 mL 1% acetic acid. Patulin was eluted with 1 mL 10% ethyl acetate in ethyl ether and determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using a mobile phase consisting of 81% acetonitrile, 9% water, and 10% 0.05M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 2.4. Recoveries averaged 92% and the relative standard deviation was 8.0% in test samples spiked with 50 ng/mL patulin. The method appears to be applicable for monitoring apple juice samples to meet the U.S. Food and Drug Administration compliance action level of 50 microg/kg in an industrial quality assurance laboratory environment. PMID:14979697

Eisele, Thomas A; Gibson, Midori Z

2003-01-01

178

A laser syringe aimed at delivering drug into the outer layer of human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A desire to eliminate hypodermic needle in transdermal drug delivery may now be realized. Imaging of the skin after injection of fluorescent probe and biotin via the bio-ballistic technique revealed the epidermal and dermal layers which were stained well below 60 ?m underneath the abdominal skin of the guinea-pig. An extensive network of cells are shown in the deeper layer of the stained dermis as the distributed fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dose is administered by repeated injection via the laser-based microjet. Here, we show our method of laser-based microjet drug delivery is capable of breaching guinea-pig's skin tissue and then delivering controlled dose of drug to the targeted region between 10 to 400 ?m underneath the outermost layer of the skin. While minimizing pain and tissue damage by reducing the injection volume to ˜100 nl per pulse and the microjet diameter of half the conventional syringe needle in 100 ?m, the optimally controlled delivery of liquid drug by the irradiated laser pulse is shown possible.

Yoh, Jack J.; Jang, Hun-jae; Park, Mi-ae; Han, Tae-hee; Hah, Jung-moo

2012-07-01

179

Vaccine presentation in the USA: economics of prefilled syringes versus multidose vials for influenza vaccination.  

PubMed

In the USA, influenza vaccines are available as parenteral injections or as an intranasal preparation. Injectable influenza vaccines are available in either multidose vial (MDV), single-dose vial or prefilled syringe (PFS) presentations. PFSs have gained market share in the USA but have not yet reached the levels of uptake currently seen in Western Europe. Here, we review the topic of vaccine presentation in the USA, with a special focus on influenza vaccines. Second, we present the results of a time-motion study that measured administration costs of influenza vaccination comparing MDVs versus PFSs during the 2009/2010 influenza campaign. Vaccinating with MDVs took an average 37.3 s longer than PFSs. The cost of administering 1000 immunizations in 2009 using MDVs were US$8596 versus US$8920.21 using PFSs. In a pandemic situation where 300 million Americans would require vaccination, PFSs would save 3.12 million h in healthcare worker time, worth US$111.1 million. The higher acquisition costs of PFS vaccines compared with MDVs are offset by lower administrative costs and increased safety. PMID:21087111

Pereira, Claudia C; Bishai, David

2010-11-01

180

Multi-Syringe Flow Injection System with In-Line PreConcentration for the Determination of Total Phenolic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-syringe flow injection system for the determination of total phenolics based on the 4-aminoantipyrine reaction is proposed. In-line preconcentration using solid-phase extraction was implemented, offering an environmentally friendly alternative to organic solvent extraction performed in the batch procedure and in previously described flow methodologies. Therefore, phenolic compounds were retained in Amberlite XAD4 resin using acidic conditions. The elution was

Hugo M. Oliveira; Marcela A. Segundo; Salette Reis; José L. F. C. Lima

2005-01-01

181

Manual cleaning of endoscopes: a comparison study of syringe versus suction methods using the endo-suction cleaning system.  

PubMed

The manual syringe method of cleaning endoscopes involves numerous problems, including cross-infection, contamination, wasted time, and employee safety issues. This article describes the development of an alternative system by a nurse entrepreneur for endoscopic cleaning using a suction method. Scientific findings gathered over four years are presented supporting the efficacy and usefulness of this system, the Endo-Suction Cleaning System, also known as the PSK System. PMID:11847730

Puszko, G B

2001-01-01

182

Dual HIV risk: receptive syringe sharing and unprotected sex among HIV-negative injection drug users in New York City.  

PubMed

HIV-negative injection drug users (IDUs) who engage in both receptive syringe sharing and unprotected sex ("dual HIV risk") are at high risk of HIV infection. In a cross-sectional study conducted in New York City in 2009, active IDUs aged ?18 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, interviewed, and tested for HIV. Participants who tested HIV-negative and did not self-report as positive were analyzed (N = 439). Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. The sample was: 77.7 % male; 54.4 % Hispanic, 36.9 % white, and 8.7 % African-American/black. Dual risk was engaged in by 26.2 %, receptive syringe sharing only by 3.2 %, unprotected sex only by 49.4 %, and neither by 21.2 %. Variables independently associated with engaging in dual risk versus neither included Hispanic ethnicity (vs. white) (aOR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 1.0-4.0), married or cohabiting (aOR = 6.3, 95 % CI = 2.5-15.9), homelessness (aOR = 3.4, 95 % CI = 1.6-7.1), ?2 sex partners (aOR = 8.7, 95 % CI = 4.4-17.3), ?2 injecting partners (aOR = 2.9, 95 % CI = 1.5-5.8), and using only sterile syringe sources (protective) (aOR = 0.5, 95 % CI = 0.2-0.9). A majority of IDUs engaged in HIV risk behaviors, and a quarter in dual risk. Interventions among IDUs should simultaneously promote the consistent use of sterile syringes and of condoms. PMID:23640654

Neaigus, Alan; Reilly, Kathleen H; Jenness, Samuel M; Hagan, Holly; Wendel, Travis; Gelpi-Acosta, Camila

2013-09-01

183

A new syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium in groundwaters and geothermal fluids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] We present details of a newly designed syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH). The device is composed of a commercially available syringe pump connected to coils of Cu tubing, which interface the syringe and the groundwater or geothermal wellhead. Through test deployments at geothermal wells in Iceland and California, we show that well fluids are drawn smoothly, accurately, and continuously into the Cu tubing and can be time-stamped through user-determined operating parameters. In the laboratory, the tubing is sectioned to reveal helium (He) characteristics of the fluids at times and for durations of interest. The device is capable of prolonged deployments, up to 6 months or more, with minimal maintenance. It can be used to produce detailed time series records of He, or any other geochemical parameter, in groundwaters and geothermal fluids. SPARTAH has application in monitoring projects assessing the relationship between external transient events (e.g., earthquakes) and geochemical signals in aqueous fluids. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Barry, P.H.; Hilton, D.R.; Tryon, M.D.; Brown, K.M.; Kulongoski, J.T.

2009-01-01

184

A new syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium in groundwaters and geothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present details of a newly designed syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH). The device is composed of a commercially available syringe pump connected to coils of Cu tubing, which interface the syringe and the groundwater or geothermal wellhead. Through test deployments at geothermal wells in Iceland and California, we show that well fluids are drawn smoothly, accurately, and continuously into the Cu tubing and can be time-stamped through user-determined operating parameters. In the laboratory, the tubing is sectioned to reveal helium (He) characteristics of the fluids at times and for durations of interest. The device is capable of prolonged deployments, up to 6 months or more, with minimal maintenance. It can be used to produce detailed time series records of He, or any other geochemical parameter, in groundwaters and geothermal fluids. SPARTAH has application in monitoring projects assessing the relationship between external transient events (e.g., earthquakes) and geochemical signals in aqueous fluids.

Barry, P. H.; Hilton, D. R.; Tryon, M. D.; Brown, K. M.; Kulongoski, J. T.

2009-05-01

185

Improving self-calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Response calibration is the process of inferring how much the measured data depend on the signal one is interested in. It is essential for any quantitative signal estimation on the basis of the data. Here, we investigate self-calibration methods for linear signal measurements and linear dependence of the response on the calibration parameters. The common practice is to augment an external calibration solution using a known reference signal with an internal calibration on the unknown measurement signal itself. Contemporary self-calibration schemes try to find a self-consistent solution for signal and calibration by exploiting redundancies in the measurements. This can be understood in terms of maximizing the joint probability of signal and calibration. However, the full uncertainty structure of this joint probability around its maximum is thereby not taken into account by these schemes. Therefore, better schemes, in sense of minimal square error, can be designed by accounting for asymmetries in the uncertainty of signal and calibration. We argue that at least a systematic correction of the common self-calibration scheme should be applied in many measurement situations in order to properly treat uncertainties of the signal on which one calibrates. Otherwise, the calibration solutions suffer from a systematic bias, which consequently distorts the signal reconstruction. Furthermore, we argue that nonparametric, signal-to-noise filtered calibration should provide more accurate reconstructions than the common bin averages and provide a new, improved self-calibration scheme. We illustrate our findings with a simplistic numerical example.

Enßlin, Torsten A.; Junklewitz, Henrik; Winderling, Lars; Greiner, Maksim; Selig, Marco

2014-10-01

186

Herschel SPIRE FTS Relative Spectral Response Calibration  

E-print Network

Herschel/SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations contain emission from both the Herschel Telescope and the SPIRE Instrument itself, both of which are typically orders of magnitude greater than the emission from the astronomical source, and must be removed in order to recover the source spectrum. The effects of the Herschel Telescope and the SPIRE Instrument are removed during data reduction using relative spectral response calibration curves and emission models. We present the evolution of the methods used to derive the relative spectral response calibration curves for the SPIRE FTS. The relationship between the calibration curves and the ultimate sensitivity of calibrated SPIRE FTS data is discussed and the results from the derivation methods are compared. These comparisons show that the latest derivation methods result in calibration curves that impart a factor of between 2 and 100 less noise to the overall error budget, which results in calibrated spectra for individual observations whose n...

Fulton, Trevor; Baluteau, Jean-Paul; Benielli, Dominique; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Marchili, Nicola; Naylor, David; Polehampton, Edward; Swinyard, Bruce; Valtchanov, Ivan

2014-01-01

187

Reduction of Systematic Errors in Diagnostic Receivers Through the Use of Balanced Dicke-Switching and Y-Factor Noise Calibrations  

SciTech Connect

Receivers designed for diagnostic applications range from those having moderate sensitivity to those possessing large dynamic range. Digital receivers have a dynamic range which are a function of the number of bits represented by the ADC and subsequent processing. If some of this range is sacrificed for extreme sensitivity, noise power can then be used to perform two-point load calibrations. Since load temperatures can be precisely determined, the receiver can be quickly and accurately characterized; minute changes in system gain can then be detected, and systematic errors corrected. In addition, using receiver pairs in a balanced approach to measuring X+, X-, Y+, Y-, reduces systematic offset errors from non-identical system gains, and changes in system performance. This paper describes and demonstrates a balanced BPM-style diagnostic receiver, employing Dicke-switching to establish and maintain real-time system calibration. Benefits of such a receiver include wide bandwidth, solid absolute accuracy, improved position accuracy, and phase-sensitive measurements. System description, static and dynamic modelling, and measurement data are presented.

John Musson, Trent Allison, Roger Flood, Jianxun Yan

2009-05-01

188

[Safe injection rooms and police crackdowns in areas with heavy drug dealing. Evaluation by counting discarded syringes collected from the public space].  

PubMed

The evolution of drug injection in public places is analysed using as indicator the number of syringes collected from public spaces, evaluating as well the influence of public health harm reduction interventions and of police actions, with a before and after quasi experimental study. Monthly syringe counts on the semester before and after each intervention were compared both in the involved district and in the city as a whole, using the U and z tests with a 95% confidence level. The average number of collected syringes drops from 13.132 in 2004 to 3.190 in 2012. Comparing indicators before and after health and police interventions, the opening of a facility with a supervised drug consumption room in the inner city was associated with a huge reduction in the number of abandoned syringes in the city, while its number did not rise in the district where the facility was located. The subsequent opening of another drug consumption room did not have a significant impact in collected syringes in the area. Some police interventions in 2005-2006 and 2011 had a significant impact in the indicators of the involved districts, while others did not. Harm reduction programs might have a favourable impact on drug injection in public spaces and related syringe presence. Some police interventions appear to have an impact while others do not or just have a modest local and temporary effect. PMID:24217502

Vecino, Carmen; Villalbí, Joan R; Guitart, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Bartroli, Montserrat; Castellano, Yolanda; Brugal, M Teresa

2013-01-01

189

A semi-automatic microextraction in packed sorbent, using a digitally controlled syringe, combined with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography as a new and ultra-fast approach for the determination of prenylflavonoids in beers.  

PubMed

In this work a highly selective and sensitive analytical procedure based on semi-automatic microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) technique, using a new digitally controlled syringe (eVol(®)) combined with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC), is proposed to determine the prenylated chalcone derived from the hop (Humulus lupulus L.), xanthohumol (XN), and its isomeric flavonone isoxanthohumol (IXN) in beers. Extraction and UHPLC parameters were accurately optimized to achieve the highest recoveries and to enhance the analytical characteristics of the method. Important parameters affecting MEPS performance, namely the type of sorbent material (C2, C8, C18, SIL, and M1), elution solvent system, number of extraction cycles (extract-discard), sample volume, elution volume, and sample pH, were evaluated. The optimal experimental conditions involves the loading of 500?L of sample through a C18 sorbent in a MEPS syringe placed in the semi-automatic eVol(®) syringe followed by elution using 250?L of acetonitrile (ACN) in a 10 extractions cycle (about 5min for the entire sample preparation step). The obtained extract is directly analyzed in the UHPLC system using a binary mobile phase composed of aqueous 0.1% formic acid (eluent A) and ACN (eluent B) in the gradient elution mode (10min total analysis). Under optimized conditions good results were obtained in terms of linearity within the established concentration range with correlation coefficients (R) values higher than 0.986, with a residual deviation for each calibration point below 12%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) obtained were 0.4ngmL(-1) and 1.0ngmL(-1) for IXN, and 0.9ngmL(-1) and 3.0ngmL(-1) for XN, respectively. Precision was lower than 4.6% for IXN and 8.4% for XN. Typical recoveries ranged between 67.1% and 99.3% for IXN and between 74.2% and 99.9% for XN, with relative standard deviations %RSD no larger than 8%. The applicability of the proposed analytical procedure in commercial beers, revealed the presence of both target prenylchalcones in all samples being IXN the most abundant with concentration of between 0.126 and 0.200?gmL(-1). PMID:23871283

Gonçalves, João L; Alves, Vera L; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Figueira, José A; Câmara, José S

2013-08-23

190

Calibrated Peer Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is Calibrated Peer ReviewTM? Calibrated Peer ReviewTM (CPR) (more info) is a web-based writing and peer review tool free to instructors and their classes. Students write short essays on a given topic following ...

191

Spreader Calibration for Turfgrass  

E-print Network

To apply pesticides and fertilizers on turfgrass properly, you must have accurately calibrated equipment. This publication explains how to calibrate rotary and drop spreaders. A list of spreader operation tips is included....

Taylor, Gene R.; Abernathy, Scott

1999-12-08

192

Automated Camera Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in three-dimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process.

Chen, Siqi; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg

2006-01-01

193

Analytical multicollimator camera calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calibration with the U.S. Geological survey multicollimator determines the calibrated focal length, the point of symmetry, the radial distortion referred to the point of symmetry, and the asymmetric characteristiecs of the camera lens. For this project, two cameras were calibrated, a Zeiss RMK A 15/23 and a Wild RC 8. Four test exposures were made with each camera. Results are tabulated for each exposure and averaged for each set. Copies of the standard USGS calibration reports are included. ?? 1978.

Tayman, W. P.

1978-01-01

194

Local Calibration for Fatigue Cracking Models Used in the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identified two important calibration factors for a Midwest implementation of the Mechanistic- Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The calibration factors are for the fatigue damage model in flexible pavements. The gathering of the data required for calibration is labor intensive because the data resides in various and incongruent data sets. Spreadsheet templates specifically designed to manage the calibration

Teresa M. Adams

195

Stability and preservation of primary calibration solutions of nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of commercially available calibration solutions in a seawater matrix, the accurate determination of concentrations of nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, silicate) relies primarily on laboratory calibration solutions, especially primary salt solutions. Their stability is therefore a main factor for quality assurance of data. Since the existing information on nutrient calibration solution stability does not refer to published

Alain Aminot; Roger Kérouel

1996-01-01

196

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Clark, Mr

2012-10-31

197

Residual gas analyzer calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique which employs known gas mixtures to calibrate the residual gas analyzer (RGA) is described. The mass spectra from the RGA are recorded for each gas mixture. This mass spectra data and the mixture composition data each form a matrix. From the two matrices the calibration matrix may be computed. The matrix mathematics requires the number of calibration gas mixtures be equal to or greater than the number of gases included in the calibration. This technique was evaluated using a mathematical model of an RGA to generate the mass spectra. This model included shot noise errors in the mass spectra. Errors in the gas concentrations were also included in the valuation. The effects of these errors was studied by varying their magnitudes and comparing the resulting calibrations. Several methods of evaluating an actual calibration are presented. The effects of the number of gases in then, the composition of the calibration mixture, and the number of mixtures used are discussed.

Lilienkamp, R. H.

1972-01-01

198

Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear observers for gyro calibration are presented. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. Simulated test results are presented for each system.

Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

2003-01-01

199

When calibration is not enough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When added CD (Critical Dimension) capacity is needed there are several routes that can be taken -- add shifts and people to existing equipment, obtain additional equipment and staff or use an outside service provider for peak and emergency work. In all but the first scenario the qualification of the 'new' equipment, and correlation to the existing measurements, is key to meaningful results. In many cases simply calibrating the new tool with the same reference material or standard used to calibrate the existing tools will provide the level of agreement required. In fact, calibrating instruments using different standards can provide an acceptable level of agreement in cases where accuracy is a second tier consideration. However, there are also situations where factors outside of calibration can influence the results. In this study CD measurements from a mask sample being used to qualify an outside service provider showed good agreement for the narrower linewidths, but significant deviation occurred with increasing CD. In the course of a root cause investigation, it was found that there are a variety of factors that may influence the agreement found between two tools. What are these 'other factors' and how are they found? In the present case the results of a 'round robin' consensus from a variety of tools was used to initially determine which tool needed to be investigated. The instrument parameters felt to be the most important causes of the disagreement were identified and experiments run to test their influence. The factors investigated as the cause of the disagreement included (1) Type of detector and location with respect to sample, (2) Beam Voltage, (3) Scan Rotation/Sample Orientation issues and (4) Edge Detection Algorithm.

Kingsley, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Leslie

1999-12-01

200

Automated in-syringe single-drop head-space micro-extraction applied to the determination of ethanol in wine samples.  

PubMed

A novel approach of head-space single-drop micro-extraction applied to the determination of ethanol in wine is presented. For the first time, the syringe of an automated syringe pump was used as an extraction chamber of adaptable size for a volatile analyte. This approach enabled to apply negative pressure during the enrichment step, which favored the evaporation of the analyte. Placing a slowly spinning magnetic stirring bar inside the syringe, effective syringe cleaning as well as mixing of the sample with buffer solution to suppress the interference of acetic acid was achieved. Ethanol determination was based on the reduction of a single drop of 3mmol L(-1) potassium dichromate dissolved in 8mol L(-1) sulfuric acid. The drop was positioned in the syringe inlet in the head-space above the sample with posterior spectrophotometric quantification. The entire procedure was carried out automatically using a simple sequential injection analyzer system. One analysis required less than 5min including the washing step. A limit of detection of 0.025% (v/v) of ethanol and an average repeatability of less than 5.0% RSD were achieved. The consumption of dichromate reagent, buffer, and sample per analysis were only 20?L, 200?L, and 1mL, respectively. The results of real samples analysis did not differ significantly from those obtained with the references gas chromatography method. PMID:24845815

Srámková, Ivana; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Solich, Petr; Sklená?ová, Hana

2014-05-30

201

The COS Calibration Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COS calibration pipeline (CALCOS) includes three main components: basic calibration, wavelength calibration, and spectral extraction. Calibration of modes using the far ultraviolet (FUV) and near ultraviolet (NUV) detectors share a common structure, although the individual reference files differ and there are some additional steps for the FUV channel. The pipeline is designed to calibrate data acquired in either ACCUM or time-tag mode. The basic calibration includes pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. Wavelength calibration can be done either by using separate lamp exposures or by taking several short lamp exposures concurrently with a science exposure. For time-tag data, the latter mode ("tagflash") will allow better correction of potential drift of the spectrum on the detector. One-dimensional spectra will be extracted and saved in a FITS binary table. Separate columns will be used for the flux-calibrated spectrum, error estimate, and the associated wavelengths. CALCOS is written in Python, with some functions in C. It is similar in style to other HST pipeline code in that it uses an association table to specify which files to be included, and the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to use are specified by header keywords. Currently, in conjunction with the Instrument Definition Team (led by J. Green), the ground-based reference files are being refined, delivered, and tested with the pipeline.

Hodge, Philip E.; Keyes, C.; Kaiser, M.

2007-12-01

202

[Growth hormone (GH) deficiency treatment in children: comparison between uses of pen versus bottles/syringes on GH administration].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare two preparations of recombinant human GH (rGH) in the treatment of GH deficient patients. Ten prepubertal GH-deficient children were followed during 6 months. They received injections with syringe for 3 months, followed by pen administration for the subsequent 3 months. Acceptability was evaluated through a questionnaire. Waste of medication was calculated by the difference between the number of used bottles or refills and the calculated amount for the period. Treatment response was evaluated by SDS gain of height measured each 3 months. After 6 months, 90% of patients/family members declared they preferred the pen regarding technical facility and local pain, and all patients considered the pen easier to transport and store. The waste of medication was lower with pen administration, as was the final cost. We concluded that pen-administered rGH treatment is more convenient, better accepted by the patients, and leads to less waste of medication when compared to the syringe administration. PMID:18157384

Marchisotti, Frederico G; Carvalho, Luciani R S; Berger, Karina; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Mendonça, Berenice B

2007-10-01

203

Student understanding of the volume, mass, and pressure of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem-solving strategies in the physical sciences have been characterized by a dependence on algorithmic techniques often devoid of any reasoning skills. The purpose of this study was to examine student responses to a task relating to Boyle's Law for gases, which did not demand the use of a mathematical equation for its solution. Students (17- to 18-year-olds) in lower sixth form from two colleges in the Leeds district of Yorkshire in England were asked to respond to a task relating to pressure and volume measurements of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression. Both qualitative and quantitative tasks for the sealed syringe system were examined. It was found that 34% to 38% of students did not understand the concepts of volume and mass, respectively, of a gas under such circumstances. Performance on an inverse ratio (2:1) task was shown to depend on gender and those students who performed well on the 2:1 inverse ratio task did not necessarily perform well on a different inverse ratio task when an arithmetic averaging principle was present. Tasks which draw upon qualitative knowledge as well as quantitative knowledge have the potential to reduce dependence on algorithms, particularly equation substitution and solution. The implications for instructional design are discussed.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 29 June 1994;

de Berg, Kevin Charles

204

Calibration of the Ph. Eur. BRP Batch 3/Mega 2 (US/FDA) standard for human coagulation factor VIII concentrate for use in the potency assay.  

PubMed

The European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparation Batch 3/Mega 2 (United States/Food and Drug Administration) (Ph. Eur. BRP Batch 3/Mega 2 (US/FDA)) was developed as an internationally available, common working standard to replace the dwindling stocks of Mega 1 (the current US standard) and Ph. Eur. BRP Batch 2 (the current European standard). The potency was assigned in an international collaborative study with reference to four currently established standards, Ph. Eur. BRP batch 2, WHO 5th and 6th International Standard and Mega 1. Thirty-eight laboratories participated in the collaborative study. Each laboratory was asked to perform four independent assays. Participants used either the one stage clotting assay or the chromogenic assay or both. This publication reports the results obtained with both assays. The summary and conclusion, however highlight the results mainly with respect to the chromogenic assay, which is the assay prescribed in the European Pharmacopoeia. Data were analysed for both assays separately. A consensus potency value was calculated as the unweighted average of mean potencies determined against the four standards. A potency of 8.6 IU/vial as determined in the chromogenic substrate method was assigned to the candidate standard. Inter-laboratory agreement as assessed by calculation of the geometric coefficient of variation was below 10% for mean potencies against all four calibrators for the chromogenic assay. Ph. Eur. BRP Batch 3/Mega 2 (US/FDA) is a freeze-dried, plasma derived, high-purity concentrate. The material was filled into approximately 100,000 vials and lyophilised to a final residual moisture of < or = 2%. Approximately 90,000 vials of the standard are available, equally shared between the two co-ordinating centers. Based on the stability studies, the predicted mean percentage loss per year at -20 degrees C is 0.000% and thus the candidate standard appears to be stable. The Ph. Eur. BRP batch 3 was adopted by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission in November 2001. PMID:12448031

Kirschbaum, N; Wood, L; Lachenbruch, P; Weinstein, M; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Spieser, J M; Buchheit, K H

2002-06-01

205

On-Orbit Calibration of Satellite Gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to maneuver satellites accurately from one attitude to another, onboard rate sensing gyroscopes usually must be calibrated after launch. Several algorithms have been used to determine gyro biases, misalignments, and scale factors. This paper describes algorithms that have been used in the past, discusses their advantages and limitations, and describes a new algorithm and the gyro calibration results obtained using this new algorithm. The new algorithm has significant operational advantages in addition to being at least as accurate as other algorithms.

Hashmall, Joseph A.; Radomski, Mark; Sedlak, Joseph; Harman, Richard (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

206

Comparative study of capillary and arterial, blood gas values in plastic and glass syringes at various intervals in normal and asthmatic subjects.  

PubMed

Fifty-six normal healthy subjects and forty-four patients with bronchial asthma were subjected to capillary and arterial blood gas analysis. Arterial blood values were measured immediately and at two and four hours interval after storing the samples between 0-4 degrees C using glass and plastic syringes. It was observed that PO2 of arterial blood was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than capillary PO2 values, while material of syringe and time interval of analysis did not make any significant alteration. PCO2 and pH values in arterial samples at various intervals and in different syringes were comparable in normal as well as in asthmatic subjects. PMID:2638665

Mathur, U S; Manchanda, A; Singh, V; Rishi, J P; Athaiya, V

1989-01-01

207

Field calibration of reference reflectance panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure for calibrating reference reflectance panels using the sun as the radiation source and a pressed-polytetrafluoroethylene powder standard is described. The directional/directional reflectance factor and the directional/hemispheric reflectance factor are examined. Directional/directional voltage responses for pressed-halon are analyzed. Three painted BaSO4 and one painted halon were calibrated using the proposed procedure. The effects of diffuse irradiance on reflectance-factor measurements are investigated. It is determined that the method has an accuracy on the order of 1 percent. The advantages and disadvantages of this method are discussed.

Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. Susan; Slater, Philip N.; Biggar, Stuart F.

1987-01-01

208

A combined geometric-volumetric calibration of inclined cylindrical underground storage tanks using the regularized least-squares method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to some technical and economical factors, the conventional geometric calibration cannot be completely applied to inclined underground storage tanks (UST), nor can the regular volumetric calibration. We propose a novel calibration method called combined geometric-volumetric calibration. The method is based on the data fitting of a level-volume (LV) characteristic curve where LV data are acquired through partially volumetric calibration.

Wathanyoo Khaisongkram; David Banjerdpongchai

2004-01-01

209

Towards Automating Spacecraft Attitude Sensor Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a view towards reducing cost and complexity for spacecraft early mission support at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), efforts are being made to automate the attitude sensor calibration process. This paper addresses one of the major components needed by such a system. The beneficiaries of an improved calibration process are missions that demand moderate to high precision attitude knowledge or that need to perform accurate attitude slews. Improved slew accuracy reduces the time needed for re-acquisition of fine-pointing after each attitude maneuver, Rapid target acquisition can be very important for astronomical targeting or for off-nadir surface feature targeting by Earth-oriented spacecraft. The normal sequence of on-orbit calibration starts with alignment calibration of the star trackers and possibly the Sun sensor. Their relative alignment needs to be determined using a sufficiently large data set so their fields of view are adequately sampled. Next, the inertial reference unit (IRU) is calibrated for corrections to its alignment and scale factors. The IRU biases are estimated continuously by the onboard attitude control system, but the IRU alignment and scale factors are usually determined on the ground using a batch-processing method on a data set that includes several slews sufficient to give full observability of all the IRU calibration parameters. Finally, magnetometer biases, alignment, and its coupling to the magnetic torquers are determined in order io improve momentum management and occasionally for use in the attitude determination system. The detailed approach used for automating calibrations will depend on whether the automated system resides on the ground or on the spacecraft with an ultimate goal of autonomous calibration. Current efforts focus on a ground-based system driving subsystems that could run either on the ground or onboard. The distinction is that onboard calibration should process the data sequentially rather than in a single large batch since onboard computer data storage is limited. Very good batch- processing calibration utilities have been developed and used extensively at NASA/GSFC for mission support but no sequential calibration utilities are available. To meet this need, this paper presents the mathematical description of a sequential IRU calibration system. The system has been tested using flight data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during a series of attitude slews. The paper also discusses the current state of the overall automated system and describes plans for adding sequential alignment calibration and other additions that will reduce the amount of analyst time and input.

Sedlak, Joseph; Welter, Gary; Ottenstein, Neil

2003-01-01

210

Millimeter Wave Calibration Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibration practices for millimeter wavelengths are somewhat different than that for meter and centimeter wavelengths. There are technological, atmospheric, and historical reasons for this. This lecture reviews the specific techniques used for millimeter wave calibration and highlights the differences between these and the techniques used at longer wavelengths. The importance of the atmosphere at centimeter, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelengths is

P. R. Jewell

2002-01-01

211

Mercury Calibration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

2009-01-01

212

Calibration facility safety plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of requirements is presented to insure the highest practical standard of safety for the Apollo 17 Calibration Facility in terms of identifying all critical or catastrophic type hazard areas. Plans for either counteracting or eliminating these areas are presented. All functional operations in calibrating the ultraviolet spectrometer and the testing of its components are described.

Fastie, W. G.

1971-01-01

213

OLI Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals: (1) Present an overview of the pre-launch radiance, reflectance & uniformity calibration of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) (1a) Transfer to orbit/heliostat (1b) Linearity (2) Discuss on-orbit plans for radiance, reflectance and uniformity calibration of the OLI

Markham, Brian; Morfitt, Ron; Kvaran, Geir; Biggar, Stuart; Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

2011-01-01

214

Sandia WIPP calibration traceability  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

215

Calibration method for spectroscopic systems  

DOEpatents

Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets.

Sandison, David R. (Edgewood, NM)

1998-01-01

216

Calibration method for spectroscopic systems  

DOEpatents

Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets. 3 figs.

Sandison, D.R.

1998-11-17

217

Stellar models in IR calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the astronomical community analyzing ISO-SWS data, a first point to assess when judging and qualifying the observational data concerns the flux calibration accuracy. Since the calibration process is not straightforward and since a wrong calibration may lead to an over- or underestimation of the results, knowledge on the full calibration process and on the still remaining calibration problems is

L. Decin

2001-01-01

218

Stellar Models in IR Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the astronomical community analysing ISO-SWS data, a first point to assess when judging and qualifying the observational data concerns the flux calibration accuracy. Since the calibration process is not straightforward and since a wrong calibration may lead to an over- or underestimation of the results, knowledge on the full calibration process and on the still remaining calibration problems is

L. Decin

2003-01-01

219

Absolute Calibration and Characterization of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. I. The Stellar Calibrator Sample and the 24 mum Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the stellar calibrator sample and the conversion from instrumental to physical units for the 24 mum channel of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The primary calibrators are A stars, and the calibration factor based on those stars is 4.54×10-2 MJy sr-1 (DN s-1)-1, with a nominal uncertainty of 2%. We discuss the data reduction procedures required

C. W. Engelbracht; M. Blaylock; K. Y. L. Su; J. Rho; G. H. Rieke; J. Muzerolle; D. L. Padgett; D. C. Hines; K. D. Gordon; D. Fadda; A. Noriega-Crespo; D. M. Kelly; W. B. Latter; J. L. Hinz; K. A. Misselt; J. E. Morrison; J. A. Stansberry; D. L. Shupe; S. Stolovy; Wm. A. Wheaton; E. T. Young; G. Neugebauer; S. Wachter; P. G. Pérez-González; D. T. Frayer; F. R. Marleau

2007-01-01

220

Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

2009-12-15

221

Herschel SPIRE FTS relative spectral response calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herschel/SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations contain emission from both the Herschel Telescope and the SPIRE Instrument itself, both of which are typically orders of magnitude greater than the emission from the astronomical source, and must be removed in order to recover the source spectrum. The effects of the Herschel Telescope and the SPIRE Instrument are removed during data reduction using relative spectral response calibration curves and emission models. We present the evolution of the methods used to derive the relative spectral response calibration curves for the SPIRE FTS. The relationship between the calibration curves and the ultimate sensitivity of calibrated SPIRE FTS data is discussed and the results from the derivation methods are compared. These comparisons show that the latest derivation methods result in calibration curves that impart a factor of between 2 and 100 less noise to the overall error budget, which results in calibrated spectra for individual observations whose noise is reduced by a factor of 2-3, with a gain in the overall spectral sensitivity of 23 % and 21 % for the two detector bands, respectively.

Fulton, Trevor; Hopwood, Rosalind; Baluteau, Jean-Paul; Benielli, Dominique; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Marchili, Nicola; Naylor, David; Polehampton, Edward; Swinyard, Bruce; Valtchanov, Ivan

2014-07-01

222

Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities  

PubMed Central

The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors. PMID:18963907

Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

2009-01-01

223

Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

1993-01-01

224

Aerosol backscatter lidar calibration and data interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A treatment of the various factors involved in lidar data acquisition and analysis is presented. This treatment highlights sources of fundamental, systematic, modeling, and calibration errors that may affect the accurate interpretation and calibration of lidar aerosol backscatter data. The discussion primarily pertains to ground based, pulsed CO2 lidars that probe the troposphere and are calibrated using large, hard calibration targets. However, a large part of the analysis is relevant to other types of lidar systems such as lidars operating at other wavelengths; continuous wave (CW) lidars; lidars operating in other regions of the atmosphere; lidars measuring nonaerosol elastic or inelastic backscatter; airborne or Earth-orbiting lidar platforms; and lidars employing combinations of the above characteristics.

Kavaya, M. J.; Menzies, R. T.

1984-01-01

225

DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

1987-01-01

226

Compact radiometric microwave calibrator  

SciTech Connect

The calibration methods for the ARCADE II instrument are described and the accuracy estimated. The Steelcast coated aluminum cones which comprise the calibrator have a low reflection while maintaining 94% of the absorber volume within 5 mK of the base temperature (modeled). The calibrator demonstrates an absorber with the active part less than one wavelength thick and only marginally larger than the mouth of the largest horn and yet black (less than -40 dB or 0.01% reflection) over five octaves in frequency.

Fixsen, D. J.; Wollack, E. J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Fixsen, S. M. [SSAI Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Code 665, Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); SSAI Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); SSAI Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

2006-06-15

227

Airdata Measurement and Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This memorandum provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The memorandum informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This memorandum is not intended to be all inclusive; this paper contains extensive reference and bibliography sections.

Haering, Edward A., Jr.

1995-01-01

228

Multi-syringe flow injection system with in-line microwave digestion for the determination of phosphorus.  

PubMed

A multi-syringe system for spectrophotometric determination of total phosphorus involving in-line digestion is proposed. Sample and digestion solution were dispensed and directed towards a digestion vessel located inside a domestic microwave oven (MWO) where sample digestion took place. Afterwards, the digested sample was merged with the necessary reagents for the colorimetric determination based on the molybdenum blue method. Several digestion conditions were studied regarding composition of digestion solution, digestion time and power set on the MWO. The system was applied to waste water samples and results shown a good agreement with the reference method. Repeatable results (R.S.D.<2.41%) and determination frequency of 12h(-1) were obtained. PMID:18969743

Almeida, M Inês G S; Segundo, Marcela A; Lima, José L F C; Rangel, António O S S

2004-12-15

229

Unassisted 3D camera calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

2012-03-01

230

High Dead-Space Syringes and the Risk of HIV and HCV Infection among Injecting Drug Users  

PubMed Central

This study examines the association between using and sharing high dead-space syringes (HDSSs)—which retain over 1,000 times more blood after rinsing than low dead-space syringes (LDSSs)—and prevalent HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among injecting drug users (IDUs). A sample of 851 out-of-treatment IDUs was recruited in Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, between 2003 and 2005. Participants were tested for HIV and HCV antibodies. Demographic, drug use, and injection practice data were collected via interviews. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Participants had a mean age of 40 years and 74% percent are male, 63% are African American, 29% are non-Hispanic white, and 8% are of other race/ethnicity. Overall, 42% of participants had ever used an HDSS and 12% had shared one. HIV prevalence was 5% among IDUs who had never used an HDSS compared with 16% among IDUs who had shared one. The HIV model used a propensity score approach to adjust for differences between IDUs who had used an HDSS and those who had never used one. The HCV models included all potential confounders as covariates. A history of sharing HDSSs was associated with prevalent HIV (Odds Ratio = 2.50; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.01, 6.15). Use and sharing of HDSSs were also associated with increased odds of HCV infection. Prospective studies are needed to determine if sharing HDSSs is associated with increased HIV and HCV incidence among IDUs. PMID:19004579

Zule, William A.; Bobashev, Georgiy; International, RTI

2009-01-01

231

Evaluation of the Amount of Debris extruded apically by using Conv-entional Syringe, Endovac and Ultrasonic Irrigation Technique: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background: To compare the amount of debris extruded apically by using conventional syringe, Endovac & Ultrasonic irrigation. Materials & Methods: Thirty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were selected, working length was determined and mounted in a debris and collection apparatus. The canals were prepared. After each instrument change, 1 ml. of 3% sodium hypochlorite was used as irrigation. Debris extruded apically by using conventional syringe, endovac& ultrasonic irrigation tech, was measured using the electronic balance to determine its weight and statistical analysis was performed. The mean difference between the groups was determined using statistical analysis within the groups &between the groups for equal variances. Results: Among all the groups, significantly less debris were found apically in the Endovac group (0.96) compared to conventional and ultrasonic group (1.23) syringe. Conclusion: The present study showed that endovac system extrudes less amount of debris apically as compared to ultrasonic followed by conventional so incidence of flare up can be reduce by using endovac irrigation system. How to cite this article: Tambe V H, Nagmode P S, Vishwas J R, Saujanya K P, Angadi P, Ali F M. Evaluation of the Amount of Debris extruded apically by using Conventional Syringe, Endovac and Ultrasonic Irrigation Technique: An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):63-66. PMID:24155604

Tambe, Varsha H; Nagmode, Pradnya S; Vishwas, Jayshree R; P, Saujanya K; Angadi, Prabakar; Ali, Fareedi Mukram

2013-01-01

232

Pharmacy staff characteristics associated with support for pharmacy-based HIV-testing in pharmacies participating in the New York State Expanded Access Syringe Exchange Program  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine support of in-pharmacy HIV-testing among pharmacy staff and the individual-level characteristics associated with in-pharmacy HIV testing support. Design Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study. Setting New York City (NYC) during January 2008 to March 2009. Intervention 131 pharmacies registered in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP) completed a survey. Participants 480 pharmacy staff, including pharmacists, owners/managers, and technicians/clerks. Main outcome measures Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing. Results Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among pharmacy staff (79.4%). Pharmacy staff that supported in-pharmacy vaccinations were significantly more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Pharmacy staff that think that selling syringes to IDUs causes the community to be littered with dirty syringes were significantly less likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Conclusion Support for in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among our sample of ESAP pharmacy staff actively involved in non-prescription syringe sales. These findings suggest that active ESAP pharmacy staff may be amenable to providing HIV counseling and testing to injection drug users and warrants further investigation. PMID:22825227

Amesty, Silvia; Blaney, Shannon; Crawford, Natalie D.; Rivera, Alexis V.; Fuller, Crystal

2013-01-01

233

A multicenter, open-label, phase II study of the immunogenicity and safety of a new prefilled syringe (liquid) formulation of avonex in patients with multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A new liquid formulation of Avonex (interferon beta-1a [IFN?-1a]) in a prefilled syringe has been developed to make administration of the drug easier for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This formulation does not contain human serum albumin (HSA), often added to interferon (IFN) products for stabilization. However, formulation changes may alter the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of IFN?

J. Theodore Phillips; George Rice; Elliot Frohman; Luc Vande Gaer; Thomas Scott; Judith Haas; Eric Eggenberger; Mark S Freedman; William Stuart; Luis Cunha; Lawrence Jacobs; Joel Oger; Douglas Arnold; T Jock Murray; Mary DiBiase; Vijay Jethwa; Susan Goelz

2004-01-01

234

Syringeless power injector versus dual-syringe power injector: economic evaluation of user performance, the impact on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) workflow exams, and hospital costs  

PubMed Central

Objective The utilization of diagnostic imaging has substantially increased over the past decade in Europe and North America and continues to grow worldwide. The purpose of this study was to develop an economic evaluation of a syringeless power injector (PI) versus a dual-syringe PI for contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in a hospital setting. Materials and methods Patients (n=2379) were enrolled at the Legnano Hospital between November 2012 and January 2013. They had been referred to the hospital for a CECT analysis and were randomized into two groups. The first group was examined with a 256-MDCT (MultiDetector Computed Tomography) scanner using a syringeless power injector, while the other group was examined with a 64-MDCT scanner using a dual-syringe. Data on the operators’ time required in the patient analysis steps as well as on the quantity of consumable materials used were collected. The radiologic technologists’ satisfaction with the use of the PIs was rated on a 10-point scale. A budget impact analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed under the base-case scenario. Results A total of 1,040 patients were examined using the syringeless system, and 1,339 with the dual-syringe system; the CECT examination quality was comparable for both PI systems. Equipment preparation time and releasing time per examination for syringeless PIs versus dual-syringe PIs were 100±30 versus 180±30 seconds and 90±30 and 140±20 seconds, respectively. On average, 10±3 mL of contrast media (CM) wastage per examination was observed with the dual-syringe PI and 0±1 mL with the syringeless PI. Technologists had higher satisfaction with the syringeless PI than with the dual-syringe system (8.8 versus 8.0). The syringeless PI allows a saving of about €6.18 per patient, both due to the lower cost of the devices and to the better performance of the syringeless system. The univariate sensitivity analysis carried out on the base-case results within the standard deviation range confirmed the saving generated by using the syringeless device, with saving values between €5.40 and €6.20 per patient. Conclusion The syringeless PI was found to be more user-friendly and efficient, minimizing contrast wastage and providing similar contrast enhancement quality compared to the dual-syringe injector, with comparable CECT examination quality. PMID:24235851

Colombo, Giorgio L; Andreis, Ivo A Bergamo; Di Matteo, Sergio; Bruno, Giacomo M; Mondellini, Claudio

2013-01-01

235

SRAM Detector Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Custom proton sensitive SRAM chips are being flown on the BMDO Clementine missions and Space Technology Research Vehicle experiments. This paper describes the calibration procedure for the SRAM proton detectors and their response to the space environment.

Soli, G. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Beuhler, M. G.

1994-01-01

236

Roundness calibration standard  

DOEpatents

A roundness calibration standard is provided with a first arc constituting the major portion of a circle and a second arc lying between the remainder of the circle and the chord extending between the ends of said first arc.

Burrus, Brice M. (6620 Wachese La., Knoxville, TN 37912)

1984-01-01

237

Calibrating Radiocarbon Ages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calibrating Radiocarbon Ages This activity was developed during the Teaching Climate Change from the Geological Record workshop, held in August 2010.Contributed by Eric Grimm, Jared Beeton, and Mark Skidmore. ...

238

Calibrating the Younger Dryas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calibrating the Younger Dryas Contributed by: Thom Davis, Greg Wiles, Roger Brown, David Bary This activity was developed during the Teaching Climate Change from the Geological Record workshop, held in August ...

239

Radar Calibration Test Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A satellite has been designed for application to radar calibration. Electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics of the satellite and their influence on the selection of shape and other parameters are discussed. Theoretical and experimental scattering data are included.

L. J. Kaplan; J. F. A. Ormsby; EVERT N. FOWLE; KENT R. JOHNSON; Richard T. Bates; S. H. Bickel

1969-01-01

240

Link calibration against receiver calibration: an assessment of GPS time transfer uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a direct comparison between two different techniques for the relative calibration of time transfer between remote time scales when using the signals transmitted by the Global Positioning System (GPS). Relative calibration estimates the delay of equipment or the delay of a time transfer link with respect to reference equipment. It is based on the circulation of some travelling GPS equipment between the stations in the network, against which the local equipment is measured. Two techniques can be considered: first a station calibration by the computation of the hardware delays of the local GPS equipment; second the computation of a global hardware delay offset for the time transfer between the reference points of two remote time scales. This last technique is called a ‘link’ calibration, with respect to the other one, which is a ‘receiver’ calibration. The two techniques require different measurements on site, which change the uncertainty budgets, and we discuss this and related issues. We report on one calibration campaign organized during Autumn 2013 between Observatoire de Paris (OP), Paris, France, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), Calern, France, and NERC Space Geodesy Facility (SGF), Herstmonceux, United Kingdom. The travelling equipment comprised two GPS receivers of different types, along with the required signal generator and distribution amplifier, and one time interval counter. We show the different ways to compute uncertainty budgets, leading to improvement factors of 1.2 to 1.5 on the hardware delay uncertainties when comparing the relative link calibration to the relative receiver calibration.

Rovera, G. D.; Torre, J.-M.; Sherwood, R.; Abgrall, M.; Courde, C.; Laas-Bourez, M.; Uhrich, P.

2014-10-01

241

Stability of Droperidol 0.625 mg/mL Diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection and Stored in Polypropylene Syringes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the stability of droperidol 0.625 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride solution that was packaged in polypropylene syringes and stored at controlled ambient conditions. Samples of droperidol 0.625 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared and assessed for chemical stability using a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. A total of 18 syringe samples were submitted for chemical stability testing by high-performance liquid chromatography. The syringes were protected from light and stored under controlled ambient conditions (23*C to 27*C; 55% to 65% relative humidity) in an environmental chamber. Three samples were tested initially and at 14-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 180-day intervals. Each syringe sample assayed once. Additional samples were assessed for pH and inspected for color and visible particulate matter. Stability was defined as the retention of 90% to 110% of the initial drug concentration. Droperidol injection maintained the appearance of a clear, colorless solution, with mean +/- standard deviation. Throughout the study period, pH values ranged from 2.87 +/- 0.02 to 3.29 +/- 0.04. Recovery of fentanyl ranged from 99.9% +/- 0.1% to 103.2% +/- 0.6% of the initial concentration, with no detectable changes in the chromatographic profiles of all tested samples. Droperidol 0.625 mg per milliliter in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, packaged in 1.1-ml aliquots in polypropylene syringes and stored protected from light was stable for 180 days under controlled ambient conditions. PMID:23696086

McClusky, Susan V; Lovely, Jenna K

2011-01-01

242

The roles of law, client race and program visibility in shaping police interference with the operation of US syringe exchange programs  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine the comparative levels of and associations between policing interference and characteristics of US syringe exchange programs (SEPs). Design Cross-sectional. Setting A national survey of US SEPs. Participants A total of 111 program managers (representing 59% of all US SEPs). Measurements Program manager self-report. Findings With overall interference profiles ranging from systematic to totally interference-free, 43% of respondents reported at least monthly client harassment, 31% at least monthly unauthorized confiscation of clients’ syringes, 12% at least monthly client arrest en route to or from SEP and 26% uninvited police appearances at program sites at least every 6 months. In multivariate modeling, legal status of SEP, jurisdiction’s syringe regulation environment and affiliation with health department were not associated with frequency of police interference. Programs serving pre-dominantly injection drug users (IDUs) of color were 3.56 times more likely to report frequent client arrest en route to or from SEP and 3.92 times more likely to report unauthorized syringe confiscation. Those serving more than three sites were 3.96 times more likely to report client harassment, while stationary operation was protective against uninvited police appearances. The majority (56%) reported not documenting adverse police events; those who did were 2.92 times more likely to report unauthorized syringe confiscation from clients. Conclusions Findings highlight limitations of the impact of legal reforms on aligning police activities with SEP operations. Systematic adverse event surveillance and evidence-based structural interventions are needed to maximize the benefits of public health prevention targeting IDUs and other criminalized populations. SEPs that report no adverse events may represent programs already working in harmony with law enforcement agencies, a priority highlighted in US Centers for Disease Control’s new SEP guidelines. The significance of mechanisms translating criminal justice disparities into health disparities is discussed. PMID:21054615

Beletsky, Leo; Grau, Lauretta E.; White, Edward; Bowman, Sarah; Heimer, Robert

2011-01-01

243

OPTIMUM FREQUENCY OF CALIBRATION MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper develops an algorithm by which to compute the optimal frequency of calibration monitoring to minimize the total cost of analyzing a set of samples and the required calibration standards. Optimum calibration monitoring is needed because of the high cost and calibration d...

244

Calibration Under Uncertainty.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a white paper summarizing the literature and different approaches to the problem of calibrating computer model parameters in the face of model uncertainty. Model calibration is often formulated as finding the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the model-computed data (the predicted data) and the actual experimental data. This approach does not allow for explicit treatment of uncertainty or error in the model itself: the model is considered the %22true%22 deterministic representation of reality. While this approach does have utility, it is far from an accurate mathematical treatment of the true model calibration problem in which both the computed data and experimental data have error bars. This year, we examined methods to perform calibration accounting for the error in both the computer model and the data, as well as improving our understanding of its meaning for model predictability. We call this approach Calibration under Uncertainty (CUU). This talk presents our current thinking on CUU. We outline some current approaches in the literature, and discuss the Bayesian approach to CUU in detail.

Swiler, Laura Painton; Trucano, Timothy Guy

2005-03-01

245

GTC Photometric Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing the calibration programme for GTC using techniques similar to the ones use for the space telescope calibration (Hammersley et al. 1998, A&AS, 128, 207; Cohen et al. 1999, AJ, 117, 1864). We are planning to produce a catalogue with calibration stars which are suitable for a 10-m telescope. These sources will be not variable, non binary and do not have infrared excesses if they are to be used in the infrared. The GTC science instruments require photometric calibration between 0.35 and 2.5 microns. The instruments are: OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy), ELMER and EMIR (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infrarrojo) and the Acquisition and Guiding boxes (Di Césare, Hammersley, & Rodriguez Espinosa 2005, RevMexAA Ser. Conf., 24, 231). The catalogue will consist of 30 star fields distributed in all of North Hemisphere. We will use fields containing sources over the range 12 to 22 magnitude, and spanning a wide range of spectral types (A to M) for the visible and near infrared. In the poster we will show the method used for selecting these fields and we will present the analysis of the data on the first calibration fields observed.

di Cesare, M. A.; Hammersley, P. L.; Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.

2006-06-01

246

Psychophysical contrast calibration  

PubMed Central

Electronic displays and computer systems offer numerous advantages for clinical vision testing. Laboratory and clinical measurements of various functions and in particular of (letter) contrast sensitivity require accurately calibrated display contrast. In the laboratory this is achieved using expensive light meters. We developed and evaluated a novel method that uses only psychophysical responses of a person with normal vision to calibrate the luminance contrast of displays for experimental and clinical applications. Our method combines psychophysical techniques (1) for detection (and thus elimination or reduction) of display saturating nonlinearities; (2) for luminance (gamma function) estimation and linearization without use of a photometer; and (3) to measure without a photometer the luminance ratios of the display’s three color channels that are used in a bit-stealing procedure to expand the luminance resolution of the display. Using a photometer we verified that the calibration achieved with this procedure is accurate for both LCD and CRT displays enabling testing of letter contrast sensitivity to 0.5%. Our visual calibration procedure enables clinical, internet and home implementation and calibration verification of electronic contrast testing. PMID:23643843

To, Long; Woods, Russell L; Goldstein, Robert B; Peli, Eli

2013-01-01

247

Exploration of new multivariate spectral calibration algorithms.  

SciTech Connect

A variety of multivariate calibration algorithms for quantitative spectral analyses were investigated and compared, and new algorithms were developed in the course of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. We were able to demonstrate the ability of the hybrid classical least squares/partial least squares (CLSIPLS) calibration algorithms to maintain calibrations in the presence of spectrometer drift and to transfer calibrations between spectrometers from the same or different manufacturers. These methods were found to be as good or better in prediction ability as the commonly used partial least squares (PLS) method. We also present the theory for an entirely new class of algorithms labeled augmented classical least squares (ACLS) methods. New factor selection methods are developed and described for the ACLS algorithms. These factor selection methods are demonstrated using near-infrared spectra collected from a system of dilute aqueous solutions. The ACLS algorithm is also shown to provide improved ease of use and better prediction ability than PLS when transferring calibrations between near-infrared calibrations from the same manufacturer. Finally, simulations incorporating either ideal or realistic errors in the spectra were used to compare the prediction abilities of the new ACLS algorithm with that of PLS. We found that in the presence of realistic errors with non-uniform spectral error variance across spectral channels or with spectral errors correlated between frequency channels, ACLS methods generally out-performed the more commonly used PLS method. These results demonstrate the need for realistic error structure in simulations when the prediction abilities of various algorithms are compared. The combination of equal or superior prediction ability and the ease of use of the ACLS algorithms make the new ACLS methods the preferred algorithms to use for multivariate spectral calibrations.

Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Melgaard, David Kennett; Martin, Laura Elizabeth; Wehlburg, Christine Marie; Pell, Randy J. (The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI); Guenard, Robert D. (Merck & Co. Inc., West Point, PA)

2004-03-01

248

Additional Comments about Calibration of Orthovoltage  

E-print Network

: Determine jig factor for whole body mouse irradiation 7 mice random Constancy irradiation #12;Dose in various media TG-61 provides procedures and data for calibrating conventional x ray units in various patient" Anatomical Phantoms · Image a phantom with imageable lesion · Treat phantom as prescribed

249

TA489A calibrator: SANDUS  

SciTech Connect

The TA489A Calibrator, designed to operate in the MA164 Digital Data Acquisition System, is used to calibrate up to 128 analog-to-digital recording channels. The TA489A calibrates using a dc Voltage Source or any of several special calibration modes. Calibration schemes are stored in the TA489A memory and are initiated locally or remotely through a Command Link.

LeBlanc, R.

1987-08-01

250

Absolute Calibration and Characterization of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. I. The Stellar Calibrator Sample and the 24 micron Calibration  

E-print Network

We present the stellar calibrator sample and the conversion from instrumental to physical units for the 24 micron channel of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The primary calibrators are A stars, and the calibration factor based on those stars is 4.54*10^{-2} MJy sr^{-1} (DN/s)^{-1}, with a nominal uncertainty of 2%. We discuss the data-reduction procedures required to attain this accuracy; without these procdures, the calibration factor obtained using the automated pipeline at the Spitzer Science Center is 1.6% +/- 0.6% lower. We extend this work to predict 24 micron flux densities for a sample of 238 stars which covers a larger range of flux densities and spectral types. We present a total of 348 measurements of 141 stars at 24 micron. This sample covers a factor of ~460 in 24 micron flux density, from 8.6 mJy up to 4.0 Jy. We show that the calibration is linear over that range with respect to target flux and background level. The calibration is based on observations made using 3-second exposures; a preliminary analysis shows that the calibration factor may be 1% and 2% lower for 10- and 30-second exposures, respectively. We also demonstrate that the calibration is very stable: over the course of the mission, repeated measurements of our routine calibrator, HD 159330, show a root-mean-square scatter of only 0.4%. Finally, we show that the point spread function (PSF) is well measured and allows us to calibrate extended sources accurately; Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) and MIPS measurements of a sample of nearby galaxies are identical within the uncertainties.

C. W. Engelbracht; M. Blaylock; K. Y. L. Su; J. Rho; G. H. Rieke; J. Muzerolle; D. L. Padgett; D. C. Hines; K. D. Gordon; D. Fadda; A. Noriega-Crespo; D. M. Kelly; W. B. Latter; J. L. Hinz; K. A. Misselt; J. E. Morrison; J. A. Stansberry; D. L. Shupe; S. Stolovy; Wm. A. Wheaton; E. T. Young; G. Neugebauer; S. Wachter; P. G. Pérez-González; D. T. Frayer; F. R. Marleau

2007-04-17

251

Gamma spectrometry and calibration methods used in neutron dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron activation rates are calculated from measured gamma-ray spectral data obtained from calibrated lithium drifted germanium (Ge(Li)) detectors. The calibration techniques, which include energy, efficiency, pulse height analyzer data reduction, and geometry factors, are discussed. Problems encountered when analyzing highly radioactive samples, specifically random coincidence summing, sample size, air absorption, and use of absorbers, are also discussed briefly. To illustrate

R. L. Malewicki; R. R. Heinrich; R. J. Popek

1979-01-01

252

40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.  

...the calibration is wrong, since other factors can influence the accuracy of the system...event that a CVS has a multiple speed drive, a calibration for each range must be...top center and bottom center of the pump drive headplate are exposed to the actual...

2014-07-01

253

40 CFR 86.119-90 - CVS calibration.  

...the calibration is wrong, since other factors can influence the accuracy of the system...event that a CVS has a multiple speed drive, a calibration for each range used must...top center and bottom center of the pump drive headplate are exposed to the actual...

2014-07-01

254

Portable Dynamic Pressure Calibrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable, dynamic pressure calibrator was fabricated for use on wind tunnel models at NASA-Ames Research Center. The calibrator generates sine wave pressures at levels up to 1 PSIG P-P(168dB) at frequencies from 10Hz to 6KHz and .5 PSIG P.P (162dB) at frequencies from 6KHz to 20KHz. The calibrator consists of two units connected by a single cable. The handheld unit contains a pressure transducer, speaker, and deadman switch. This unit allows application of dynamic pressure to transducers/ports on installed wind tunnel models. The base unit contains all of power supplies, controls and displays. This unit allows amplitude and frequency to be set and verified at a safe location off of the model.

Wright, Morgan S.; Maynard, Everett (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

255

Calibration Systems Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.

Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.

2006-02-01

256

BATSE spectroscopy detector calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the channel-to-energy calibration of the Spectroscopy Detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). These detectors consist of NaI(TI) crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes whose output in turn is measured by a pulse height analyzer. The calibration of these detectors has been complicated by frequent gain changes and by nonlinearities specific to the BATSE detectors. Nonlinearities in the light output from the NaI crystal and in the pulse height analyzer are shifted relative to each other by changes in the gain of the photomultiplier tube. We present the analytical model which is the basis of our calibration methodology, and outline how the empirical coefficients in this approach were determined. We also describe the complications peculiar to the Spectroscopy Detectors, and how our understanding of the detectors' operation led us to a solution to these problems.

Band, D.; Ford, L.; Matteson, J.; Lestrade, J. P.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.; Cline, T.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.

1992-01-01

257

Minerva Detector Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current and future neutrino oscillation experiments depend on precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections. Minerva is a neutrino scattering experiment at Fermilab. Minerva was designed to make precision measurements of low energy neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on a variety of different materials (plastic scintillator, C, Fe, Pb, He and H2O). In Order to make these measurements, it is crucial that the detector is carefully calibrated.This talk will describe how MINERvA uses muons from upstream neutrino interactions as a calibration source to convert electronics output to absolute energy deposition.

Rakotondravohitra, Laza

2013-04-01

258

Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

2011-01-01

259

A Comparison of Two Balance Calibration Model Building Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulated strain-gage balance calibration data is used to compare the accuracy of two balance calibration model building methods for different noise environments and calibration experiment designs. The first building method obtains a math model for the analysis of balance calibration data after applying a candidate math model search algorithm to the calibration data set. The second building method uses stepwise regression analysis in order to construct a model for the analysis. Four balance calibration data sets were simulated in order to compare the accuracy of the two math model building methods. The simulated data sets were prepared using the traditional One Factor At a Time (OFAT) technique and the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) approach. Random and systematic errors were introduced in the simulated calibration data sets in order to study their influence on the math model building methods. Residuals of the fitted calibration responses and other statistical metrics were compared in order to evaluate the calibration models developed with different combinations of noise environment, experiment design, and model building method. Overall, predicted math models and residuals of both math model building methods show very good agreement. Significant differences in model quality were attributable to noise environment, experiment design, and their interaction. Generally, the addition of systematic error significantly degraded the quality of calibration models developed from OFAT data by either method, but MDOE experiment designs were more robust with respect to the introduction of a systematic component of the unexplained variance.

DeLoach, Richard; Ulbrich, Norbert

2007-01-01

260

Precision electromagnetic calibration technique for micro-Newton thrust stands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new direct non-contact electromagnetic calibration technique for high precision measurements of micro-thrust and impulse. A ring-shaped electromagnet with an air gap is used in the calibration. The calibration force is produced by the interaction of a uniform magnetic field with a copper wire current in the air gap. This force depends linearly on this current as well as the steady angular displacement of the torsion arm of the thrust stand. The range of calibration force is very large and the calibration force is easy to generate and insensitive to the arm displacement. The calibration uncertainty for a 150-?N force is 4.17 ?N. The more influential factor on the calibration uncertainty is the magnetization of the electromagnet core due to the copper wire current. In the impulse calibration, the exerted impulse is linearly dependent on the maximal angular displacement of the torsion arm. The uncertainty in the impulse calibration is determined by uncertainties in both the force calibration and the pulse time.

He, Zhen; Wu, Jianjun; Zhang, Daixian; Lu, Gaofei; Liu, Zejun; Zhang, Rui

2013-05-01

261

CALIBRATION Galileo Scale Model  

E-print Network

see Jupiter and some of its 4 largest moons, just as Galileo Galilei did in Italy in 1610. While youPRINTING CALIBRATION Galileo Scale Model PARTS SHEET 1: The High-Gain Antenna PRINT ON TRANSPARENCY MATERIAL Galileo's High-Gain Antenna (HGA) was designed to unfold like an umbrella. It needed to be folded

262

Optical detector calibrator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

263

Roundness Calibration Standard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A roundness calibration standard is provided with a first arc constituting the major portion of a circle and a second arc lying between the remainder of the circle and the chord extending between the ends of said first arc. (ERA citation 08:008125)

B. M. Burrus

1982-01-01

264

Determination of clenbuterol from pork samples using surface molecularly imprinted polymers as the selective sorbents for microextraction in packed syringe.  

PubMed

In this study, a selective sample pretreatment procedure combing surface molecularly imprinted polymers and microextraction in packed syringe (SMIPs-MEPS) was developed for the analysis of clenbuterol (CLB) from pork samples. SMIPs for CLB were synthesized on silica gel particles through a sol-gel process. A series of characterization and adsorption experiments revealed that the SMIPs exhibited porous structures, good thermal stability, high adsorption capacity and a fast mass transfer rate. The obtained SMIPs were employed as selective sorbents of SMIPs-MEPS for extraction of CLB from pork samples. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the pH of sample solution, number of draw-eject cycles, volume of sample, type and volume of washing solution, and the type and volume of elution solution. Under the optimized conditions, a simple and rapid method for the determination of CLB from pork samples was established by coupling with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The whole pretreatment process was rapid and it can be accomplished with 2min. The limit of quantitation and the limit of detection for CLB were 0.02 and 0.009?gkg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of CLB at three spiked levels ranged from 86.5% to 91.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) ?6.3%. PMID:24463040

Du, Wei; Lei, Chunmei; Zhang, Siruo; Bai, Gang; Zhou, Huiyan; Sun, Min; Fu, Qiang; Chang, Chun

2014-03-01

265

Laws prohibiting over-the-counter syringe sales to injection drug users: relations to population density, HIV prevalence, and HIV incidence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess relations of laws prohibiting over-the-counter syringe sales (anti-OTC laws) to population prevalence of injection drug users and HIV prevalence or incidence among 96 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used. RESULTS: Metropolitan areas with anti-OTC laws had a higher mean HIV prevalence (13.8% vs 6.7%) than other metropolitan areas (pseudo-P < .001). In 83 metropolitan areas with HIV prevalence of less than 20%, anti-OTC laws were associated with HIV incidence rates of 1% or greater (pseudo-P < .001). Population proportions of injection drug users did not vary by presence of anti-OTC laws. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-OTC laws are not associated with lower population proportions of injection drug users. Laws restricting syringe access are associated with HIV transmission and should be repealed. PMID:11344889

Friedman, S R; Perlis, T; Des Jarlais, D C

2001-01-01

266

Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform ground target areas having different reflectance values. The target areas can be natural or artificial and must be large enough to minimize adjacent-pixel contamination effects. The radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain needs to be approximately the same for the two targets. This condition can be met for relatively uniform backgrounds when the distance between the targets is within a few hundred meters. For each target area, the radiance leaving the ground in the direction of the satellite is measured with a radiometrically calibrated spectroradiometer. Using the radiance measurements from the two targets, atmospheric adjacency and atmospheric scattering effects can be subtracted, thereby eliminating many assumptions about the atmosphere and the radiative interaction between the atmosphere and the terrain. In addition, the radiometrically calibrated spectroradiometer can be used with a known reflectance target to estimate atmospheric transmission and diffuse- to-global ratios without the need for ancillary sun photometers. Several comparisons between the simplified method and traditional techniques were found to agree within a few percent. Hence, the simplified method reduces the overall complexity of performing vicarious calibrations and can serve as a method for validating traditional radiative transfer models

Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

2010-01-01

267

Internet-Based Calibration of a Multifunction Calibrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are co...

Bunting Baca Duda Walker Oldham Parker

2000-01-01

268

Uncertainty and calibration analysis  

SciTech Connect

All measurements contain some deviation from the true value which is being measured. In the common vernacular this deviation between the true value and the measured value is called an inaccuracy, an error, or a mistake. Since all measurements contain errors, it is necessary to accept that there is a limit to how accurate a measurement can be. The undertainty interval combined with the confidence level, is one measure of the accuracy for a measurement or value. Without a statement of uncertainty (or a similar parameter) it is not possible to evaluate if the accuracy of the measurement, or data, is appropriate. The preparation of technical reports, calibration evaluations, and design calculations should consider the accuracy of measurements and data being used. There are many methods to accomplish this. This report provides a consistent method for the handling of measurement tolerances, calibration evaluations and uncertainty calculations. The SRS Quality Assurance (QA) Program requires that the uncertainty of technical data and instrument calibrations be acknowledged and estimated. The QA Program makes some specific technical requirements related to the subject but does not provide a philosophy or method on how uncertainty should be estimated. This report was prepared to provide a technical basis to support the calculation of uncertainties and the calibration of measurement and test equipment for any activity within the Experimental Thermal-Hydraulics (ETH) Group. The methods proposed in this report provide a graded approach for estimating the uncertainty of measurements, data, and calibrations. The method is based on the national consensus standard, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1.

Coutts, D.A.

1991-03-01

269

Calibration Results Of The Strofio Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensor Strofio is a mass spectrometer, part of the Serena plasma/neutral particles package for the BepiColombo mission to Mercury. During several campaignes of calibraion at the Southwest Research Institute and at the University of Bern we calibrated the characteristics of the Flight Unit and determined the calibration factors of the sensor. All the measured responses of Strofio to external stimuly are compatible with the requirements necessary to characterize the tenuous exosphere of Mercury. In the measured particluar sensitivity (0.14 (cts/sec)/(1/cm3)), resolution (m/dm>90), mass range (4-60 + 80-120) and capability of background rejection ( > 40) are well fitted to the expected conditions around the planet. We present the current understanding of composition and variability of the Hemean exosphere, the derived physical measurables, and show the relevant Strofio calibration results.

Livi, S. A.; Allegrini, F.; Miles, P. F.

2013-12-01

270

Calibration of the Urbana lidar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for calibrating data obtained by the Urban sodium lidar system is presented. First, an expression relating the number of photocounts originating from a specific altitude range to the soodium concentration is developed. This relation is then simplified by normalizing the sodium photocounts with photocounts originating from the Rayleigh region of the atmosphere. To evaluate the calibration expression, the laser linewidth must be known. Therefore, a method for measuring the laser linewidth using a Fabry-Perot interferometer is given. The laser linewidth was found to be 6 + or - 2.5 pm. Problems due to photomultiplier tube overloading are discussed. Finally, calibrated data is presented. The sodium column abundance exhibits something close to a sinusoidal variation throughout the year with the winter months showing an enhancement of a factor of 5 to 7 over the summer months.

Cerny, T.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

1980-01-01

271

Calibrating transport lines using LOCO techniques  

SciTech Connect

With the 12GeV upgrade underway at CEBAF, there is a need to re-characterize the beamlines after the modifications made to it to accommodate running at higher energies. We present a linear perturbation approach to calibrating the optics model of transport lines. This method is adapted from the LOCO method in use for storage rings. We consider the effect of quadrupole errors, dipole construction errors as well as beam position monitors and correctors calibrations. The ideal model is expanded to first order in Taylor series of the quadrupole errors. A set of difference orbits obtained by exciting the correctors along the beamline is taken, yielding the measured response matrix. An iterative procedure is invoked and the quadrupole errors as well as beam position monitors and corrector calibration factors are obtained. Here we present details of the method and results of first measurements at CEBAF in early 2011.

Yves Roblin

2011-09-01

272

The provision of non-needle\\/syringe drug injecting paraphernalia in the primary prevention of HCV among IDU: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sharing drug injecting paraphernalia other than needles and syringes (N\\/S) has been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among injecting drug users (IDU). We aimed to determine whether the provision of sterile non-N\\/S injecting paraphernalia reduces injecting risk behaviours or HCV transmission among IDU. METHODS: A systematic search of seven databases and the grey literature for

Michelle Gillies; Norah Palmateer; Sharon Hutchinson; Syed Ahmed; Avril Taylor; David Goldberg

2010-01-01

273

The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Receptive Syringe Sharing Among Young Female Injection Drug Users: An Analysis of Mediation Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to explore the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and receptive syringe sharing (RSS)\\u000a among young female injection drug users (IDUs) and to examine mediating variables. Cross-sectional behavioral assessments\\u000a were completed by 797 female IDUs in five U.S. cities who reported having at least one main sexual partner in the past three\\u000a months. Linear regression was used

Karla D. Wagner; Sharon M. Hudson; Mary H. Latka; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Hanne Thiede; Mary Ellen Mackesy-Amiti; Richard S. Garfein

2009-01-01

274

Subcutaneously administered methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis, by prefilled syringes versus prefilled pens: patient preference and comparison of the self-injection experience  

PubMed Central

Purpose This multicenter, randomized, crossover study compared preference, ease of use, acceptability, satisfaction, and safety of repeated subcutaneous (SC) self-administrations with prefilled pens and prefilled syringes delivering methotrexate (MTX), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients and methods The study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01793259) enrolled 120 patients requiring initiation or intensification of MTX therapy for RA. Patients were randomized to receive the test drug, a prefilled pen (Metex® PEN/Metoject® PEN), or the reference drug, a prefilled syringe (Metex®/Metoject®), at doses of 15, 17.5, or 20 mg MTX SC once a week for 3 weeks. This was followed by receipt of the reference drug (prefilled syringe) or the test drug (prefilled pen) in a crossover design, with each patient serving as his/her own control. Questionnaires regarding patient preference, the Self-Injection Assessment Questionnaire (SIAQ), and diaries regarding local tolerability were used to document outcomes. Results Overall patient preference for the MTX prefilled pen was 75% (P<0.0001). In a six-item questionnaire, 73% to 76% of the patients preferred the prefilled pen in relation to use, acceptability, and satisfaction, and 67% of the patients confirmed that it did not take much effort to overcome SC self-injection with the pen. The SIAQ showed no clinical differences, in any domain scores, between both devices. Overall patient attitude towards self-injection at baseline was positive, as was patient experience with both devices during the study. As well, 92% of physicians and study nurses indicated that they would recommend the MTX prefilled pen to patients for future MTX treatment. The formulations were generally well tolerated. Conclusion SC self-injection of MTX with a prefilled pen was generally preferred, by patients with RA, over a prefilled syringe with regard to use, acceptability, and satisfaction. This is supported by the strong appreciation of their attending study nurses and physicians, for its convenience. PMID:25125973

Demary, Winfried; Schwenke, Holger; Rockwitz, Karin; Kastner, Peter; Liebhaber, Anke; Schoo, Ulrich; Hubner, Georg; Pichlmeier, Uwe; Guimbal-Schmolck, Cecile; Muller-Ladner, Ulf

2014-01-01

275

40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of a single calibration factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds two percent at any point, use the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data to within two percent of each test point to determine...

2011-07-01

276

40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of a single calibration factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds two percent at any point, use the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data to within two percent of each test point to determine...

2011-07-01

277

Calibration Samples Our calibrations are established using critically scrutinized samples  

E-print Network

Calibration Samples Our calibrations are established using critically scrutinized samples of of the 0.2 dex or better accuracy in our new activity-rotation-age calibrations for stars aged between-R diagram methods may be more accurate. Stellar Age Estimation from ~3 Myr to ~3 Gyr Lynne Hillenbrand

Hillenbrand, Lynne

278

Mercury Calibration System  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on actual capabilities of the current calibration technology. As part of the current effort, WRI worked with Thermo Fisher elemental mercury calibrator units to conduct qualification experiments to demonstrate their performance characteristics under a variety of conditions and to demonstrate that they qualify for use in the CEM calibration program. Monitoring of speciated mercury is another concern of this research. The mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are comprised of both elemental and oxidized mercury. Current CEM analyzers are designed to measure elemental mercury only. Oxidized mercury must first be converted to elemental mercury prior to entering the analyzer inlet in order to be measured. CEM systems must demonstrate the ability to measure both elemental and oxidized mercury. This requires the use of oxidized mercury generators with an efficient conversion of the oxidized mercury to elemental mercury. There are currently two basic types of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) generators used for this purpose. One is an evaporative HgCl{sub 2} generator, which produces gas standards of known concentration by vaporization of aqueous HgCl{sub 2} solutions and quantitative mixing with a diluent carrier gas. The other is a device that converts the output from an elemental Hg generator to HgCl{sub 2} by means of a chemical reaction with chlorine gas. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer system involves reaction of elemental mercury vapor with chlorine gas at an elevated temperature. The draft interim protocol for oxidized mercury units involving reaction with chlorine gas requires the vendors to demonstrate high efficiency of oxidation of an elemental mercury stream from an elemental mercury vapor generator. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer unit is designed to operate at the power plant stack at the probe outlet. Following oxidation of elemental mercury from reaction with chlorine gas, a high temperature module reduces the mercuric chloride back to elemental mercury. WRI conducted work with a custom laboratory configured stand-alone oxidized mercury generator unit prov

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

2009-03-11

279

Mercury CEM Calibration  

SciTech Connect

Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The outputs of mercury generators are compared to one another using a nesting procedure which allows direct comparison of one generator with another and eliminates analyzer variability effects. The qualification portion of the EPA interim traceability protocol requires the vendors to define generator performance as affected by variables such as pressure, temperature, line voltage, and shipping. WRI is focusing efforts to determine actual generator performance related to the variables defined in the qualification portion of the interim protocol. The protocol will then be further revised by EPA based on what can actually be achieved with the generators. Another focus of the study is to evaluate approaches for field verification of generator performance. Upcoming work includes evaluation of oxidized mercury calibration generators, for which a separate protocol will be prepared by EPA. In addition, the variability of the spectrometers/analyzers under various environmental conditions needs to be defined and understood better. A main objective of the current work is to provide data on the performance and capabilities of elemental mercury generator/calibration systems for the development of realistic NIST traceability protocols for mercury vapor standards for continuous emission CEM calibration. This work is providing a direct contribution to the enablement of continuous emissions monitoring at coal-fired power plants in conformance with the CAMR. EPA Specification 12 states that mercury CEMs must be calibrated with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2005). The initial draft of an elemental mercury generator traceability protocol was circulated by EPA in May 2007 for comment, and an interim protocol was issued in August 2007 (EPA 2007). Initially it was assumed that the calibration and implementation of mercury CEMs would be relatively simple, and implementation would follow the implementation of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} monitoring, and sulfur emissions cap and trade. However, mercury has proven to be significantly more difficult

John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

2008-02-29

280

Streak camera time calibration procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time calibration procedures for streak cameras utilizing a modulated laser beam are described. The time calibration determines a writing rate accuracy of 0.15% with a rotating mirror camera and 0.3% with an image converter camera.

Long, J.; Jackson, I.

1978-01-01

281

Clinical Assessment of Pain, Tolerability, and Preference of an Autoinjection Pen Versus a Prefilled Syringe for Patient Self-Administration of the Fully Human, Monoclonal Antibody Adalimumab: The TOUCH Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Adalimumab is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody for SC administration by 2 single-use injection devices providing bioequivalent amounts of adalimumab: a ready-to-use, prefilled syringe and an integrated, disposable delivery system, the autoinjection Pen. Although pens have been shown to be preferred over syringes by patients requiring long-term SC administration of medications, there are no data on preference and pain in the

Alan Kivitz; Steven Cohen; James Edward Dowd; William Edwards; Suman Thakker; Frank R. Wellborne; Cheryl L. Renz; Oscar G. Segurado

2006-01-01

282

OARE flight maneuvers and calibration measurements on STS-58  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), which has flown on STS-40, STS-50, and STS-58, contains a three axis accelerometer with a single, nonpendulous, electrostatically suspended proofmass which can resolve accelerations to the nano-g level. The experiment also contains a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale factor calibration. This on-orbit calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty of ground-based calibrations encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the orbiter, thus providing absolute acceleration measurement accuracy heretofore unachievable. This is the first time accelerometer scale factor measurements have been performed on orbit. A detailed analysis of the calibration process is given along with results of the calibration factors from the on-orbit OARE flight measurements on STS-58. In addition, the analysis of OARE flight maneuver data used to validate the scale factor measurements in the sensor's most sensitive range is also presented. Estimates on calibration uncertainties are discussed. This provides bounds on the STS-58 absolute acceleration measurements for future applications.

Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.; Larman, Kevin T.

1994-01-01

283

Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of dot{{B}} probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two dot{{B}} probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first dot{{B}} probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface mounted probe and 12.0% for the hand-wound probe. The maximum difference between relevant and low magnitude tests was 21.5%.

Pahl, Ryan A.; Rovey, Joshua L.; Pommerenke, David J.

2014-01-01

284

Needlestick injuries among female veterinarians: frequency, syringe contents and side-effects.  

PubMed

In a mixed-mode survey of all 1970-80 female graduates of all US veterinary colleges, information was obtained regarding several health, personal and occupational factors including data on occupational needlestick events. Among the 2,532 survey respondents, 1,620 reported one or more needlesticks after graduation from veterinary college (64.0% of all respondents). A total of 2,663 stick events were reported, although the descriptions of each puncture event varied in quality/completeness, probably due in large part to their retrospective nature. Substances most often injected include vaccines, antibiotics, anaesthetics and animal blood. Of the 438 sticks resulting in at least one side-effect (16.4% of all sticks), 337 were classified as mild and localized at the site of injection (12.4% of all sticks, approximately 77% of sticks producing a side-effect), with 18 characterized as severe and systemic (0.7% of all sticks, approximately 4% of sticks producing a side-effect). One accidental self-injection of a prostaglandin compound resulted in a spontaneous abortion, heightening awareness that occupational needlesticks may also represent a serious human reproductive health hazard. The estimated overall needlestick injury rate for this group of health care professionals was 9.3 sticks per 100 person-years (PYs) of practice, comparable to reported rates among health care workers such as nurses, laboratory technicians and hospital housekeeping staff. Accounting for underreporting of the stick events, the actual injury rate is likely to be at least 20 sticks per 100 PYs. When stick rates were estimated by clinical practice type (small animal, large animal and mixed practice), all-small-animal and mixed-practice veterinarians demonstrated the highest rates, with all-large-animal practitioners demonstrating a rate lower by about 40%. PMID:9604476

Wilkins, J R; Bowman, M E

1997-11-01

285

Passive sonar calibration spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for calibrated sonar targets is addressed with the development and testing of a set of thin-walled spheres filled with a high-density fluid. Using historical research information as a guide, a set of thin-walled metal spheres was developed and filled with a high-density fluid. The combination of the spherical shape and the acoustic focusing effects of the fluid enhanced the acoustic scattering strength of the shape so that it was not only stable with temperature but also significantly greater in amplitude. The simple passive nature of the spheres makes them ideal acoustic targets for long-term unattended deployments. Using a reference level measurement, each sphere was calibrated over a wide frequency range in order to provide the user with a curve of measured scattering strength versus frequency. The resulting curves showed a high degree of correlation between the individual spheres and the modeling that was used to extrapolate the theoretical values.

Deveau, David M.

2002-05-01

286

MIRO Calibration Switch Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed, analyzed, built, and tested a calibration switch mechanism for the MIRO instrument on the ROSETTA spacecraft. MIRO is the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter; this instrument hopes to investigate the origin of the solar system by studying the origin of comets. Specifically, the instrument will be the first to use submillimeter and millimeter wave heterodyne receivers to remotely examine the P-54 Wirtanen comet. In order to calibrate the instrument, it needs to view a hot and cold target. The purpose of the mechanism is to divert the instrument's field of view from the hot target, to the cold target, and then back into space. This cycle is to be repeated every 30 minutes for the duration of the 1.5 year mission. The paper describes the development of the mechanism, as well as analysis and testing techniques.

Suchman, Jason; Salinas, Yuki; Kubo, Holly

2001-01-01

287

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOEpatents

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

288

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOEpatents

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26

289

Phase calibration generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase calibration system was developed for the Deep Space Stations to generate reference microwave comb tones which are mixed in with signals received by the antenna. These reference tones are used to remove drifts of the station's receiving system from the detected data. This phase calibration system includes a cable stabilizer which transfers a 20 MHz reference signal from the control room to the antenna cone. The cable stabilizer compensates for delay changes in the long cable which connects its control room subassembly to its antenna cone subassembly in such a way that the 20 MHz is transferred to the cone with no significant degradation of the hydrogen maser atomic clock stability. The 20 MHz reference is used by the comb generator and is also available for use as a reference for receiver LO's in the cone.

Sigman, E. H.

1988-01-01

290

Microform calibrations in surface metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microform calibrations include the measurement of complex profile forms and position errors of micrometer scale in combination with the measurement of deviations from a specified profile and surface texture of profile segments. Tolerances on the profile form are specified and may correspond geometrically to surface texture parameters. One example of microform calibration is the calibration of Rockwell diamond indenters used

J. F. Song; F. F. Rudder; T. V. Vorburger; A. W. Hartman; B. R. Scace; J. H. Smith

1995-01-01

291

Stellar models in IR calibration  

E-print Network

For the astronomical community analyzing ISO-SWS data, a first point to assess when judging and qualifying the observational data concerns the flux calibration accuracy. Since the calibration process is not straightforward and since a wrong calibration may lead to an over- or underestimation of the results, knowledge on the full calibration process and on the still remaining calibration problems is crucial when processing the data. One way to detect calibration problems is by comparing observed data with theoretical predictions of a whole sample of calibration sources. By using an iterative process in which improvements on both the calibration and the theoretical modelling are involved, we will demonstrate that a consistent theoretical data-set of infrared spectra has been constructed. This data-set has been used to derive the OLP10 flux calibration of the ISO-SWS. We will shown that the relative flux calibration accuracy of (high-flux) ISO-SWS observations has reached a 2% level of accuracy in band 1 and that the flux calibration accuracy in band 2 has improved significantly with the introduction of the memory-effect corrrection and the use of our synthetic spectra for the flux calibration derivation, reaching a 6% level of accuracy in band 2.

L. Decin

2001-05-03

292

Dynamic Calibration of Pressure Transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sinusoidal calibration signal produced in 4- to 100-Hz range. Portable oscillating-pressure device measures dynamic characteristics of pressure transducers installed in models or aircraft at frequency and oscillating-pressure ranges encountered during unsteady-pressure-measurement tests. Calibration is over range of frequencies and amplitudes not available with commercial acoustic calibration devices.

Hess, R. W.; Davis, W. T.; Davis, P. A.

1985-01-01

293

An open-label, multicenter study to evaluate the safe and effective use of the single-use autoinjector with an Avonex® prefilled syringe in multiple sclerosis subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to self-inject in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with a reduced risk of missed injections and drug discontinuation, and a beneficial effect on patients' independence. However, injection anxiety, needle phobia and disease-related disability are major barriers to a patient's ability to self-administer treatment. Use of an autoinjector may improve patients' ability to self-inject. This study evaluated the safe and effective use of Avonex Pen™ (prefilled pen), a single use autoinjector, for intramuscular delivery of interferon beta-1a (IM IFN?-1a, Avonex) in MS patients. Methods This was a Phase IIIb, open-label, single-country, multicenter trial in MS patients currently using IM IFN?-1a prefilled syringes. Patients received weekly 30 mcg IM IFN?-1a treatment over 4 weeks. On Day 1, patients self-administered IM IFN?-1a using a prefilled syringe at the clinic. On Day 8, patients received training on the prefilled pen and self-administered IM IFN?-1a using the device. On Day 15, patients self-administered IM IFN?-1a at home using the prefilled pen. A final injection occurred at the clinic on Day 22 when patients self-administered IM IFN?-1a using the prefilled pen while clinic staff observed and completed a detailed questionnaire documenting patients' ability to self-inject with the device. Serum neopterin levels were evaluated pre and post-injection on Days 1 and 8. Adverse events were monitored throughout. Results Seventy-one (96%) patients completed the study. The overall success rate in safely and effectively using the prefilled pen was 89%. No device malfunctions occurred. One unsuccessful administration occurred at Day 22 due to patient error; no patient injury resulted. Patients gave the prefilled pen high ratings (8.7-9.3) on a 10-point scale for ease of use (0 = extremely difficult, 10 = extremely easy). Ninety-four percent of patients preferred the prefilled pen over the prefilled syringe. Induction of serum neopterin levels, serving as a biomarker for type 1 interferon action, was similar to that of the prefilled syringe. The prefilled pen demonstrated a safety profile comparable to the prefilled syringe. Conclusions The prefilled pen is a safe and effective device for administration of IM IFN?-1a and represents an alternative method for self-injection for MS patients using this therapy. Trial registration This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00828204 PMID:21999176

2011-01-01

294

Calibrated Properties Model  

SciTech Connect

This report has documented the methodologies and the data used for developing rock property sets for three infiltration maps. Model calibration is necessary to obtain parameter values appropriate for the scale of the process being modeled. Although some hydrogeologic property data (prior information) are available, these data cannot be directly used to predict flow and transport processes because they were measured on scales smaller than those characterizing property distributions in models used for the prediction. Since model calibrations were done directly on the scales of interest, the upscaling issue was automatically considered. On the other hand, joint use of data and the prior information in inversions can further increase the reliability of the developed parameters compared with those for the prior information. Rock parameter sets were developed for both the mountain and drift scales because of the scale-dependent behavior of fracture permeability. Note that these parameter sets, except those for faults, were determined using the 1-D simulations. Therefore, they cannot be directly used for modeling lateral flow because of perched water in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain. Further calibration may be needed for two- and three-dimensional modeling studies. As discussed above in Section 6.4, uncertainties for these calibrated properties are difficult to accurately determine, because of the inaccuracy of simplified methods for this complex problem or the extremely large computational expense of more rigorous methods. One estimate of uncertainty that may be useful to investigators using these properties is the uncertainty used for the prior information. In most cases, the inversions did not change the properties very much with respect to the prior information. The Output DTNs (including the input and output files for all runs) from this study are given in Section 9.4.

H. H. Liu

2003-02-14

295

ground (ocean) calibration  

E-print Network

ADM-Aeolus ground (ocean) calibration Jos de Kloe, Ad Stoffelen, L1B PM13 : 22-Apr-2008 #12;L1B-PM Connecting the 2 models Results Averaging #12;L1B-PM13, J. de Kloe, A. Stoffelen, 22 April 2008 3 Problem taking enough data points? Can reflectivity be used to select calm conditions? #12;L1B-PM13, J. de Kloe

Stoffelen, Ad

296

Calibrated Properties Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency.

T. Ghezzehej

2004-10-04

297

Internet-based calibration of a multifunction calibrator  

SciTech Connect

A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multifunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

2000-04-17

298

Internet-Based Calibration of a Multifunction Calibrator  

SciTech Connect

A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multijunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

2000-12-19

299

Development of an automatic routine for calibration of thermographic phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated routine for the continuous calibration of thermographic phosphors was developed as a replacement for the conventional calibration scheme that relied on fixed temperature points. The automated calibration routine was validated using Mg3F2GeO4:Mn as a calibration phosphor. Hardware and software aspects of the calibration process were addressed in this development. The hardware aspect included a new substrate design using a high performance alloy, the Hastelloy-C alloy, whereas the software aspect included an automated acquisition system which was capable of acquiring simultaneous thermocouple temperatures and phosphor decay waveform in real time. The design of the calibration process eliminates the need for a system in thermal equilibrium during a phosphor calibration measurement. Temperature ramping rates of up to 4 K min-1 were employed in the oven without a delay in the temperature response being measured between the phosphor and the thermocouples involved. In addition, the automated calibration setup allowed for detailed investigations on the effect of heat being delivered to the phosphor coating by the laser. These findings were confirmed by a simple heat transfer model, based on lumped system analysis. In comparison to the data acquisition performed at several fixed points with the conventional calibration scheme, the experiment duration was shortened by a factor of 4 with the overall accuracy improved by 1-2 K.

Abou Nada, F.; Knappe, C.; Xu, X.; Richter, M.; Aldén, M.

2014-02-01

300

Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat using a pseudo invariant calibration site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been used for on-orbit radiometric trending of optical satellite systems for more than 15 years. This approach to vicarious calibration has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and repeatability at the level of 1-3% depending on the site, spectral channel, and imaging geometries. A variety of sensors have used this approach for trending because it is broadly applicable and easy to implement. Models to describe the surface reflectance properties, as well as the intervening atmosphere have also been developed to improve the precision of the method. However, one limiting factor of using PICS is that an absolute calibration capability has not yet been fully developed. Because of this, PICS are primarily limited to providing only long term trending information for individual sensors or cross-calibration opportunities between two sensors. This paper builds an argument that PICS can be used more extensively for absolute calibration. To illustrate this, a simple empirical model is developed for the well-known Libya 4 PICS based on observations by Terra MODIS and EO-1 Hyperion. The model is validated by comparing model predicted top-of-atmosphere reflectance values to actual measurements made by the Landsat ETM+ sensor reflective bands. Following this, an outline is presented to develop a more comprehensive and accurate PICS absolute calibration model that can be Système international d'unités (SI) traceable. These initial concepts suggest that absolute calibration using PICS is possible on a broad scale and can lead to improved on-orbit calibration capabilities for optical satellite sensors.

Helder, D.; Thome, K. J.; Mishra, N.; Chander, G.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Choi, Taeyoung

2013-01-01

301

Calibration effects on orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of charged particle and tropospheric calibrations on the orbit determination (OD) process are analyzed. The calibration process consisted of correcting the Doppler observables for the media effects. Calibrated and uncalibrated Doppler data sets were used to obtain OD results for past missions as well as Mariner Mars 1971. Comparisons of these Doppler reductions show the significance of the calibrations. For the MM'71 mission, the media calibrations proved themselves effective in diminishing the overall B-plane error and reducing the Doppler residual signatures.

Madrid, G. A.; Winn, F. B.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Yip, K. B.

1974-01-01

302

Automatic force balance calibration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

303

XMM-Newton calibration - an overview  

E-print Network

This paper introduces the articles that describe detailed aspects of the XMM-Newton calibration. The unique calibration issues of XMM-Newton are highlighted. The original calibration requirements and aspects of the ground calibration are summarized. The life cycle of the in-orbit calibration observations, analysis and ingestion into calibration files is discussed.

D. H. Lumb

2002-03-18

304

Multigamma-ray calibration sources  

SciTech Connect

We have calibrated a self-consistent set of multigamma-ray standards using the automated multi-spectrometry ..gamma..-ray counting facility at LLNL's Nuclear Chemistry Division. Pure sources of long-lived activity were produced by mass separation and/or chemical purification. The sources were counted individually and in combination on several different calibrated spectrometer systems. These systems utilize various detectors ranging from small (x-ray) detectors to large volume high-purity Ge detectors. This has allowed the use of the most ideal individual detector-efficiency characteristics for the determination of the relative ..gamma..-ray intensities. Precise energy measurements, reported earlier (Meyer, 1976) have been performed by an independent method. Both the energy and ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities determined compare well with independently established values such as the recent ICRM intercomparison of /sup 152/Eu. We discuss our investigations aimed at resolving the shape of the efficiency response function up to 10 MeV for large volume Ge(Li) and high-purity Ge detectors. Recent results on the ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities per decay for /sup 149/Gd and /sup 168/Tm multigamma-ray sources are discussed. For /sup 168/Tm, we deduce a 0.01% ..beta../sup -/ branch to the 87.73-keV level in /sup 168/Yb rather than the previous value which was a factor of 200 greater. In addition, we describe current cooperative efforts aimed at establishing a consistent set of data for short-lived fission products. Included are recent measurements on the bromine fission products with ..gamma.. rays up to 7 MeV.

Meyer, R.A.; Massey, T.N.

1983-05-01

305

A novel calibration method of CCD camera for LAMOST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope - LAMOST, with a 1.75m-diameter focal plane on which 4000 optical fibers are arranged, is one of major scientific projects in China. During the surveying process of LAMOST, the optical imaging system makes the astrometric objects be imaged in the focal plane, and the optical fiber positioning system controls the 4000 fibers to be aligned with these objects and obtain their spectrum. In order to correct the positioning error of these optical fibers, the CCD camera is used to detect these fibers’ position in the way of close-range photogrammetry. As we all know, the calibration quality of the CCD camera is one of the most important factors for detection precision. However, the camera calibration has two following problems in the field work of LAMOST. First, the camera parameters are not stable due to the changes of on-site work environment and the vibration during movement. So, the CCD camera must be on-line calibrated. Second, a large-size high-precision calibration target is needed to calibrate the camera, for the focal plane is very big. Making such a calibration target, it is very difficult and costly. Meanwhile, the large calibration target is hard to be fixed on LAMOST because of the space constraint. In this paper, an improved bundle adjustment self-calibration method is proposed to solve the two problems above. The results of experiment indicate that this novel calibration method needs only a few control points while the traditional calibration methods need much more control points to get the same accuracy. So the method could realize the on-line high-precision calibration of CCD camera for LAMOST.

Gu, Yonggang; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

2012-09-01

306

Absolute calibration of the Fourier interferometric transmissometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and the ultimate performance of many electro-optical systems can be strongly affected by atmospheric conditions. It is often difficult to decide which atmospheric transmission model is the most appropriate or accurate in obtaining estimates of the performance of active and passive systems. In order to be able to make a quantitative evaluation of the accuracy and applicability of models, it is necessary to have a data bank of accurate measurements of high spectral resolution transmission at long paths and over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Defence Research Establishment Valcartier (DREV) has set up a 5.7-km transmission range which includes a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer system and an infrared source which will be used to measure atmospheric transmittance. This report presents a detailed analysis of the method used to calibrate the Fourier Interferometric Transmissometer (FIT). Derivation of the calibration equation is based on a fundamental relation of radiometry, the radiance conservation law prime N = TN. Thus, the calibrated spectrum of atmospheric transmission is simply determined by obtaining the ratio of a source signal to a local reference signal and then correcting it by the calibration factor. In addition, this report discusses an experimental procedure to evaluate the quality of collimating systems used as a source in transmissometers.

Theriault, J.-M.; Roney, P. L.

1988-04-01

307

Systematic review research on needle/syringe programs and opiate substitution programs in low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at an elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In many high-income countries, needle and syringe exchange programs (NSPs) have been associated with reductions in blood-borne infections. However, we do not have a good understanding of the effectiveness of NSP in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. A systematic literature review based on PRISMA guidelines was utilized to collect primary study data on coverage of NSP programs and changes in HIV and HCV infection over time among PWID in low- and middle-income and transitional countries (LMICs). Included studies reported laboratory measures of either HIV or HCV and at least 50% coverage of the local injecting population (through direct use or through secondary exchange). We also included national reports on newly reported HIV cases for countries that had national level data for PWID in conjunction with NSP scale-up and implementation. Studies of 11 NSPs with high-coverage from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Estonia, Iran, Lithuania, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam were included in the review. In five studies, HIV prevalence decreased (range ?3% to ?15%) and in three studies HCV prevalence decreased (range ?4.2% to ?10.2%). In two studies, HIV prevalence increased (range +5.6% to +14.8%). HCV incidence remained stable in one study. Of the four national reports of newly reported HIV cases, three reported decreases during NSP expansion, ranging from ?30% to ?93.3%, whereas one national report documented an increase in cases (+37.6%). Estimated incidence among new injectors decreased in three studies, with reductions ranging from ?11/100 person years at risk to ?16/100 person years at risk. While not fully consistent, the data generally support the effectiveness of NSP in reducing HIV and HCV infection in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. If high coverage is achieved, NSP appear to be as effective in LMICs as in high-income countries. Additional monitoring and evaluation research is needed for NSPs where reductions in HIV/HCV infection among PWID are not occurring in order to identify and correct contributing problems.

Jarlais, Don Des

2014-01-01

308

High coverage needle/syringe programs for people who inject drugs in low and middle income countries: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at an elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In many high-income countries, needle and syringe exchange programs (NSP) have been associated with reductions in blood-borne infections. However, we do not have a good understanding of the effectiveness of NSP in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. Methods A systematic literature review based on PRISMA guidelines was utilized to collect primary study data on coverage of NSP programs and changes in HIV and HCV infection over time among PWID in low-and middle-income and transitional countries (LMICs). Included studies reported laboratory measures of either HIV or HCV and at least 50% coverage of the local injecting population (through direct use or through secondary exchange). We also included national reports on newly reported HIV cases for countries that had national level data for PWID in conjunction with NSP scale-up and implementation. Results Studies of 11 NSPs with high-coverage from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Estonia, Iran, Lithuania, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam were included in the review. In five studies HIV prevalence decreased (range ?3% to ?15%) and in three studies HCV prevalence decreased (range ?4.2% to ?10.2%). In two studies HIV prevalence increased (range +5.6% to +14.8%). HCV incidence remained stable in one study. Of the four national reports of newly reported HIV cases, three reported decreases during NSP expansion, ranging from ?30% to ?93.3%, while one national report documented an increase in cases (+37.6%). Estimated incidence among new injectors decreased in three studies, with reductions ranging from ?11/100 person years at risk to ?16/100 person years at risk. Conclusions While not fully consistent, the data generally support the effectiveness of NSP in reducing HIV and HCV infection in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. If high coverage is achieved, NSP appear to be as effective in LMICs as in high-income countries. Additional monitoring and evaluation research is needed for NSPs where reductions in HIV/HCV infection among PWID are not occurring in order to identify and correct contributing problems. PMID:23332005

2013-01-01

309

Sparsity-Promoting Calibration for GRAPPA Accelerated Parallel MRI Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The amount of calibration data needed to produce images of adequate quality can prevent auto-calibrating parallel imaging reconstruction methods like Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) from achieving a high total acceleration factor. To improve the quality of calibration when the number of auto-calibration signal (ACS) lines is restricted, we propose a sparsity-promoting regularized calibration method that finds a GRAPPA kernel consistent with the ACS fit equations that yields jointly sparse reconstructed coil channel images. Several experiments evaluate the performance of the proposed method relative to un-regularized and existing regularized calibration methods for both low-quality and underdetermined fits from the ACS lines. These experiments demonstrate that the proposed method, like other regularization methods, is capable of mitigating noise amplification, and in addition, the proposed method is particularly effective at minimizing coherent aliasing artifacts caused by poor kernel calibration in real data. Using the proposed method, we can increase the total achievable acceleration while reducing degradation of the reconstructed image better than existing regularized calibration methods. PMID:23584259

Weller, Daniel S.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Grady, Leo; Wald, Lawrence L.; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Goyal, Vivek K

2013-01-01

310

Ability to access community-based needle-syringe programs and injecting behaviors among drug users: a cross-sectional study in Hunan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Needle-syringe exchange programs (NSPs) have been substantially rolled-out in China since 2002. Limited studies reported effectiveness of NSPs in a Chinese setting. This study aimed to assess the association between accessibility to NSPs and drug-use risk behaviors of IDUs by investigating primary (self-reported) data of IDUs recruited from NSP sites, community settings and mandatory detoxification centers (MDCs) in Hunan province, China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hunan province in 2010. IDU recruits participated in a face-to-face interview to provide information related to their ability to access NSPs, demographic characteristics, and injecting behaviors in the past 30 days. Results Of the total 402 participants, 35%, 14% and 51% participants indicated low, medium and high ability to access NSPs in the past 30 days, respectively. A significantly higher proportion of IDUs (77.3%) from the high-access group reported ?2 injecting episodes per day compared with medium- (46.3%) and low-access (58.8%) groups. Only 29.0% of high-access IDUs re-used syringes before disposal in the past 30 days, significantly lower than those in the medium- (43.1%) and low-access (41.3%) groups. Reported levels of needle/syringe sharing decreased significantly as the ability to access NSPs increased (16.3%, 12.7% and 2.5% in the low, medium and high access groups, respectively). Ninety percent of IDUs recruited from MDCs had low ability to access NSPs. Conclusions Increased NSP accessibility is associated with decreased levels of injecting frequency, repetitive use and sharing of injecting equipment among Chinese IDUs. Mandatory detention of IDUs remains as a major barrier for IDUs to access NSPs in China. PMID:23651665

2013-01-01

311

NASA Metrology and Calibration, 1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proceedings of the fourth annual NASA Metrology and Calibration Workshop are presented. This workshop covered (1) review and assessment of NASA metrology and calibration activities by NASA Headquarters, (2) results of audits by the Office of Inspector General, (3) review of a proposed NASA Equipment Management System, (4) current and planned field center activities, (5) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) calibration services for NASA, (6) review of NBS's Precision Measurement and Test Equipment Project activities, (7) NASA instrument loan pool operations at two centers, (8) mobile cart calibration systems at two centers, (9) calibration intervals and decals, (10) NASA Calibration Capabilities Catalog, and (11) development of plans and objectives for FY 1981. Several papers in this proceedings are slide presentations only.

1981-04-01

312

NASA Metrology and Calibration, 1980  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of the fourth annual NASA Metrology and Calibration Workshop are presented. This workshop covered (1) review and assessment of NASA metrology and calibration activities by NASA Headquarters, (2) results of audits by the Office of Inspector General, (3) review of a proposed NASA Equipment Management System, (4) current and planned field center activities, (5) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) calibration services for NASA, (6) review of NBS's Precision Measurement and Test Equipment Project activities, (7) NASA instrument loan pool operations at two centers, (8) mobile cart calibration systems at two centers, (9) calibration intervals and decals, (10) NASA Calibration Capabilities Catalog, and (11) development of plans and objectives for FY 1981. Several papers in this proceedings are slide presentations only.

1981-01-01

313

Calibration of solar cells' photoelectric properties and related uncertainty analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar cells' photoelectric properties calibration, i.e., current-voltage (I-V) characteristics is critical for both fundamental research and photovoltaic production line. This paper will present calibration of solar cells' I-V characteristics by a substitution method under simulate light source. Considering the calibration uncertainty and measurement accuracy, reliable measurement procedures developed in NIM with uncertainty analysis are also demonstrated. By controlling the influencing factors, relative expended combined uncertainty (Urel) of 2.1% (Isc), 1.0% (Voc) and 3.1% (Pmax) was concluded here, with a coverage factor k = 2. The measurement system meets all requirements of IEC 60904-1 and IEC 60904-9, and it has been applied to amounts of solar cells' I-V curves calibration for research institutes as well as industrial plants, which solved the problem of domestic metrology technology shortage in photovoltaic field.

Meng, Haifeng; Xiong, Limin; He, Yingwei; Zhang, Junchao; Tian, Wei; Liu, Dingpu; Zhang, Jieyu; Xie, Linlin; Lei, Liu

2014-07-01

314

Internal Water Vapor Photoacoustic Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water vapor absorption is ubiquitous in the infrared wavelength range where photoacoustic trace gas detectors operate. This technique allows for discontinuous wavelength tuning by temperature-jumping a laser diode from one range to another within a time span suitable for photoacoustic calibration. The use of an internal calibration eliminates the need for external calibrated reference gases. Commercial applications include an improvement of photoacoustic spectrometers in all fields of use.

Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

315

Determination of pyrethroid metabolites in human urine using liquid phase microextraction coupled in-syringe derivatization followed by gas chromatography\\/electron capture detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolites of synthetic pyrethroids such as cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-di-methylcyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid, cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and 4-fluoro-3-PBA are\\u000a biomarkers for exposure to phenothrin, tetramethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin. In this study,\\u000a the pyrethroid metabolites in workers’ urine samples were monitored for the first time with a novel sample pretreatment process\\u000a combining hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and in-syringe

Chiu-Hwa Lin; Cheing-Tong Yan; Ponnusamy Vinoth Kumar; Hong-Ping Li; Jen-Fon Jen

316

Neural networks for calibration tomography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial neural networks are suitable for performing pattern-to-pattern calibrations. These calibrations are potentially useful for facilities operations in aeronautics, the control of optical alignment, and the like. Computed tomography is compared with neural net calibration tomography for estimating density from its x-ray transform. X-ray transforms are measured, for example, in diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry of fluids. Computed tomography and neural net calibration tomography are shown to have comparable performance for a 10 degree viewing cone and 29 interferograms within that cone. The system of tomography discussed is proposed as a relevant test of neural networks and other parallel processors intended for using flow visualization data.

Decker, Arthur

1993-01-01

317

CP-50 calibration facility radiological safety assessment document  

SciTech Connect

The CP-50 Calibration Facility Radiological Safety Assessment document, prepared at the request of the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy to satisfy provisions of ERDA Manual Chapter 0531, presents design features, systems controls, and procedures used in the operation of the calibration facility. Site and facility characteristics and routine and non-routine operations, including hypothetical incidents or accidents are discussed and design factors, source control systems, and radiation monitoring considerations are described.

Chilton, M.W.; Hill, R.L.; Eubank, B.F.

1980-03-01

318

A simple calibration link for a laser radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual-diffuse-scattering calibration device for satellite-laser-ranging instruments is described and demonstrated. The device comprises two diaphragms and two diffuse scatterers (white paper) and has an inherent attenuation factor of 10 to the 13th, permitting operation at the single-photoelectron level using laser energy 100 mJ and a 1000:1 filter. The results of typical calibration runs and error-source investigations are presented graphically.

R. Neubert; L. Grunwaldt

1984-01-01

319

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOEpatents

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

1988-01-01

320

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOEpatents

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25

321

RX130 Robot Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to create precision magnets for an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a new reverse engineering method has been proposed that uses the magnetic scalar potential to solve for the currents necessary to produce the desired field. To make the magnet it is proposed to use a copper coated G10 form, upon which a drill, mounted on a robotic arm, will carve wires. The accuracy required in the manufacturing of the wires exceeds nominal robot capabilities. However, due to the rigidity as well as the precision servo motor and harmonic gear drivers, there are robots capable of meeting this requirement with proper calibration. Improving the accuracy of an RX130 to be within 35 microns (the accuracy necessary of the wires) is the goal of this project. Using feedback from a displacement sensor, or camera and inverse kinematics it is possible to achieve this accuracy.

Fugal, Mario

2012-10-01

322

NIRCam optical calibration sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is one of the four science instruments installed into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on JWST intended to conduct scientific observations over a five-year mission lifetime. NIRCam's requirements include operation at 37 kelvins to produce high resolution images in two wave bands encompassing the range from 0.6 microns to 5 microns. In addition NIRCam is used as a metrology instrument during the JWST observatory commissioning on orbit, during the initial and subsequent precision alignments of the observatory's multiple-segment 6.3 meter primary mirror. JWST is scheduled for launch and deployment in 2012. This paper is an overview of the NIRCam instrument's Optical Calibration Sources (Flat Field and Point Source). It will discuss the source requirements and will explain the optical and electronic technology developed to fulfill their mission requirements.

Somerstein, Stephen F.; Truong, Glen D.

2005-08-01

323

TOD to TTP calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TTP (Targeting Task Performance) metric, developed at NVESD, is the current standard US Army model to predict EO/IR Target Acquisition performance. This model however does not have a corresponding lab or field test to empirically assess the performance of a camera system. The TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) method, developed at TNO in The Netherlands, provides such a measurement. In this study, we make a direct comparison between TOD performance for a range of sensors and the extensive historical US observer performance database built to develop and calibrate the TTP metric. The US perception data were collected doing an identification task by military personnel on a standard 12 target, 12 aspect tactical vehicle image set that was processed through simulated sensors for which the most fundamental sensor parameters such as blur, sampling, spatial and temporal noise were varied. In the present study, we measured TOD sensor performance using exactly the same sensors processing a set of TOD triangle test patterns. The study shows that good overall agreement is obtained when the ratio between target characteristic size and TOD test pattern size at threshold equals 6.3. Note that this number is purely based on empirical data without any intermediate modeling. The calibration of the TOD to the TTP is highly beneficial to the sensor modeling and testing community for a variety of reasons. These include: i) a connection between requirement specification and acceptance testing, and ii) a very efficient method to quickly validate or extend the TTP range prediction model to new systems and tasks.

Bijl, Piet; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Vos, Wouter K.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Fanning, Jonathan D.

2011-05-01

324

Hot-wire calibration in subsonic/transonic flow regimes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A different approach for calibrating hot-wires, which simplifies the calibration procedure and reduces the tunnel run-time by an order of magnitude was sought. In general, it is accepted that the directly measurable quantities in any flow are velocity, density, and total temperature. Very few facilities have the capability of varying the total temperature over an adequate range. However, if the overheat temperature parameter, a(sub w), is used to calibrate the hot-wire then the directly measurable quantity, voltage, will be a function of the flow variables and the overheat parameter i.e., E = f(u,p,a(sub w), T(sub w)) where a(sub w) will contain the needed total temperature information. In this report, various methods of evaluating sensitivities with different dependent and independent variables to calibrate a 3-Wire hot-wire probe using a constant temperature anemometer (CTA) in subsonic/transonic flow regimes is presented. The advantage of using a(sub w) as the independent variable instead of total temperature, t(sub o), or overheat temperature parameter, tau, is that while running a calibration test it is not necessary to know the recovery factor, the coefficients in a wire resistance to temperature relationship for a given probe. It was deduced that the method employing the relationship E = f (u,p,a(sub w)) should result in the most accurate calibration of hot wire probes. Any other method would require additional measurements. Also this method will allow calibration and determination of accurate temperature fluctuation information even in atmospheric wind tunnels where there is no ability to obtain any temperature sensitivity information at present. This technique greatly simplifies the calibration process for hot-wires, provides the required calibration information needed in obtaining temperature fluctuations, and reduces both the tunnel run-time and the test matrix required to calibrate hotwires. Some of the results using the above techniques are presented in an appendix.

Nagabushana, K. A.; Ash, Robert L.

1995-01-01

325

Calibration of the ARID robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has formulated a new, general model for specifying the kinematic properties of serial manipulators. The new model kinematic parameters do not suffer discontinuities when nominally parallel adjacent axes deviate from exact parallelism. From this new theory the author develops a first-order, lumped-parameter, calibration-model for the ARID manipulator. Next, the author develops a calibration methodology for the ARID based on visual and acoustic sensing. A sensor platform, consisting of a camera and four sonars attached to the ARID end frame, performs calibration measurements. A calibration measurement consists of processing one visual frame of an accurately placed calibration image and recording four acoustic range measurements. A minimum of two measurement protocols determine the kinematics calibration-model of the ARID for a particular region: assuming the joint displacements are accurately measured, the calibration surface is planar, and the kinematic parameters do not vary rapidly in the region. No theoretical or practical limitations appear to contra-indicate the feasibility of the calibration method developed here.

Doty, Keith L

1992-01-01

326

Side looking radar calibration study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration of an airborne sidelooking radar is accomplished by the use of a model that relates the radar parameters to the physical mapping situation. Topics discussed include: characteristics of the transmitters; the antennas; target absorption and reradiation; the receiver and map making or radar data processing; and the calibration process.

Edwards, W. D.

1975-01-01

327

NASA's Metrology and Calibration program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's scientific and engineering projects is often based on the capability and quality of the metrology and calibration programs of its field centers and facilities. A Metrology and Calibration Working Group, having representation from each of the NASA field centers and facilities, was established to develop and implement a program to provide

Frederick A. Kern

1991-01-01

328

Laboratory calibration of field reflectance panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method used for calibrating field reflectance panels in the visible and shortwave infrared wavelength range is described. The directional reflectance factor of painted barium sulfate (BaSO4) panels is determined. The reference for this method is the hemispherical reflectance of pressed polytetrafluoroethylene (halon) powder prepared according to National Bureau of Standards (NBS) directions. The panels and a radiometer are mounted on rotation stages to measure the reflectance factor at different incidence and view angles. The sensor can be any laboratory or field filter radiometer small enough to mount on the apparatus. The method is used to measure the reflectance factors of halon and BaSO4 panels between 0.45 and 0.85 micrometers. These reflectance factors are compared to those measured by a field apparatus. The results agree to within 0.013 in reflectance at incidence angles between 15 and 75 degrees.

Biggar, S. F.; Labed, J.; Santer, R. P.; Slater, P. N.; Jackson, R. D.

1988-01-01

329

New Techniques in Primary Accelerometer Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss a newly developed implementation of ISO 16063 style primary accelerometer calibrations. The goal is a laser primary accelerometer calibration system capable of performing low uncertainty primary accelerometer calibrations while maintaining the throughput and simplicity of a traditional back-to-back calibration system. Primary accelerometer calibrations typically require multiple measurement passes at several locations across the device to be

Mark I. Schiefer

330

Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration  

SciTech Connect

Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID/ICP/MS) performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The outputs of mercury calibrators are compared to one another using a nesting procedure which allows direct comparison of one calibrator with another at specific concentrations and eliminates analyzer variability effects. The qualification portion of the EPA interim traceability protocol requires the vendors to define calibrator performance as affected by variables such as pressure, temperature, line voltage, and shipping. In 2007 WRI developed and conducted a series of simplified qualification experiments to determine actual calibrator performance related to the variables defined in the qualification portion of the interim protocol.

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

2009-03-12

331

VLBI Calibrator Surveys - The Foundation of VLBA Astrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microarcsecond VLBA astrometry is possible if and only if there are suitable calibrators with coordinates known at sub-mas level within several degrees from targets. Significant efforts were undertaken for the last 15 years to build a catalogue of ~4000 calibrators. The technology of conducting calibrator survey observing experiments is presented. This includes selection of candidates, evaluation of the probability of their detection, schedule optimization, and data analysis. Optimization of source selection and observing schedules significantly (a factor of 2-4) increases the number of detected sources and reduces systematic errors of their position estimates. The current status of the VLBI calibrator list is presented. Further improvement of the VLBI calibrator catalogue may follow three different avenues. The first way is to observe a list of candidates uniformly distributed over the sky in order to achieve higher calibrator density over the entire sky area visible with the VLBA. The second strategy is to restrict observations to certain zones of the sky of special interest where the higher calibrator density is desirable (for instance, the Galactic plane, the ecliptic) and to observe candidate sources only in that area. The third strategy is to form the list of potential targets and then to observe candidate sources in the disk of 3 deg from each potential target. Arguments pro and contra and programmatic consequences of these strategies are discussed.

Petrov, Leonid; Kovalev, Yury Y.; Fomalont, Ed

2009-07-01

332

Operational calibration of VIIRS reflective solar band sensor data records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is an instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, which launched on October 28, 2011. VIIRS performs measurements in 14 reflective solar bands (RSBs) spanning wavelengths from 412 nm to 2.25 um, which are calibrated by using solar radiance reflected from a Solar Diffuser (SD). The SD reflectance degrades over time, and a Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) is used to track the changes. The ratio between the calculated solar radiance reflected from the SD and the VIIRS measurement of this radiance using the pre-launch calibration coefficients is known as the "F factor." The F factor is applied in the ground processing as a scale correction to the pre-launch calibration coefficients used to generate the calibrated radiances and reflectances comprising the Sensor Data Records (SDRs). The F factor is trended over time to track instrument response degradation. The equation for calculating expected solar radiance, and the coefficients used to convert the raw digital numbers measured by the detectors into radiance and reflectance values, are based on parameters stored in various Look-Up Tables (LUTs). This paper will discuss on-orbit RSB calibration for VIIRS, along with a description of the processing methodology, which includes operational LUT updates based on off-line calculations of F factor trending behavior.

Cardema, Jason C.; Rausch, Kameron W.; Lei, Ning; Moyer, David I.; De Luccia, Frank J.

2012-09-01

333

Drug-Related Arrest Rates and Spatial Access to Syringe Exchange Programs in New York City Health Districts: Combined Effects on the Risk of Injection-Related Infections among Injectors  

PubMed Central

Drug-related law enforcement activities may undermine the protective effects of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) on local injectors’ risk of injection-related infections. We explored the spatial overlap of drug-related arrest rates and access to SEPs over time (1995-2006) in New York City health districts, and used multilevel models to investigate the relationship of these two district-level exposures to the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe. Districts with better SEP access had higher arrest rates, and arrest rates undermined SEPs’ protective relationship with unsterile injecting. Drug-related enforcement strategies targeting drug users should be de-emphasized in areas surrounding SEPs. PMID:22047790

Jarlais, Don C Des; Tempalski, Barbara; Bossak, Brian H; Ross, Zev; Friedman, Samuel R

2011-01-01

334

Economic Assessment of the NIST Thermocouple Calibration  

E-print Network

97-1 Planning Report Economic Assessment of the NIST Thermocouple Calibration Program U of Standards and Technology #12;ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE NIST THERMOCOUPLE CALIBRATION PROGRAM July 11, 1997 ............................................................................................................... 4 1.2 NIST Thermocouple Calibration Program

335

Method for Accurately Calibrating a Spectrometer Using Broadband Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel method has been developed for performing very fine calibration of a spectrometer. This process is particularly useful for modern miniature charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometers where a typical factory wavelength calibration has been performed and a finer, more accurate calibration is desired. Typically, the factory calibration is done with a spectral line source that generates light at known wavelengths, allowing specific pixels in the CCD array to be assigned wavelength values. This method is good to about 1 nm across the spectrometer s wavelength range. This new method appears to be accurate to about 0.1 nm, a factor of ten improvement. White light is passed through an unbalanced Michelson interferometer, producing an optical signal with significant spectral variation. A simple theory can be developed to describe this spectral pattern, so by comparing the actual spectrometer output against this predicted pattern, errors in the wavelength assignment made by the spectrometer can be determined.

Simmons, Stephen; Youngquist, Robert

2011-01-01

336

Calibration of CR-39-based thoron progeny device.  

PubMed

Radon isotopes and their progenies have proven significant role in respiratory tumour formation. In most cases, the radiological effect of one of the radon isotopes (thoron) and its progenies has been neglected together with its measurement technique; however, latest surveys proved that thoron's existence is expectable in flats and in workplace in Europe. Detectors based on different track detector measurement technologies have recently spread for measuring thoron progenies; however, the calibration is not yet completely elaborated. This study deals with the calibration of the track detector measurement method suitable for measuring thoron progenies using different devices with measurement techniques capable of measuring several progenies (Pylon AB5 and WLx, Sarad EQF 3220). The calibration factor values related to the thoron progeny monitors, the measurement uncertainty, reproducibility and other parameters were found using the calibration chamber. In the future, the effects of the different parameters (aerosol distribution, etc.) will be determined. PMID:24723185

Fábián, F; Csordás, A; Shahrokhi, A; Somlai, J; Kovács, T

2014-07-01

337

Airdata Measurement and Calibration. Chapter 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Section provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The Section informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This section is not intended to be all inclusive; readers should review AGARDograph 300, Volume 1, "Calibration of Airdata Systems and Flow Direction Sensors" for more detailed information. [11-1] References 11-2, 11-3, and 11-4 also supply pertinent information to better understand airdata measurement and calibration and related terminology. Airdata are vital to successfully complete an aircraft's mission and are derived from the air surrounding the aircraft. These airdata encompass indicated and true airspeed, pressure altitude, ambient air temperature, angles of attack and sideslip, Mach number, and rate of climb. Typically, pitot and static pressures are sensed and converted (by mechanical means in the instruments themselves) into indications on the altimeter, vertical speed indicator, airspeed indicator, and Machmeter. Similarly, measured local flow angles establish angles of attack and sideslip, and the outside air temperature is measured and indicated in the cockpit. (Instruments that can perform the conversion, such as airspeed indicators, altimeters, and Machmeters, do not correct for errors in the input values.) These measured parameters are commonly input to the airdata computer which, using appropriate algorithms and correction factors (or calibrations, as discussed later), can provide other parameters, such as true airspeed, required by the aircraft's avionics or flight control system. The presence of the aircraft in the airstream causes input errors to the measuring instruments - the aircraft disturbs the air that it flies through, thereby also disturbing the airdata measurements. Figure 11-1 shows the airflow around an airplane wing. The air above the wing has lower pressure than the ambient air, while the pressure below the wing is higher than the ambient air. Compressibility and shock waves also disturb the air and affect the measurements. Compressibility effects become important above approximately Mach number 0.3. As a result the static pressure around an airplane varies considerably with location. Local flow angles also differ from the free-stream flow direction. In straight-and-level flight the airflow rises to the wing leading edge and falls below the trailing edge, causing errors in flow direction measurements. To some extent these errors can be studied in wind tunnels, but wind-tunnel measurements cannot replace in-flight measurements.

Haering, Edward A., Jr.

2005-01-01

338

Calibration of proportional counters in microdosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many microdosimetric spectra for low LET as well as high LET radiations are measured using commercially available (similar to EG and G) Rossi proportional counters. The corrections to be applied to data when calibration of the counter is made using one type of radiation, and then the counter is used in a different radiation field. The principal correction factor is due to differences in W-value of the radiation used for calibration and the radiation for which microdosimetric measurements are made. Both propane and methane base tissue-equivalent (TE) gases are used in these counters. When calibrating the detectors, it is important to use the correct stopping power value for that gas. Deviations in y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ are calculated for Co-60 using different extrapolation procedures from 0.15 keV/micrometers to zero event size. These deviations can be as large as 30%. Advantages of reporting microdosimetric parameters such as y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ above a certain minimum cut-off are discussed.

Varma, M. N.

339

Establishment of a primary reference solar cell calibration technique in Korea: methods, results and comparison with WPVS qualified laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary reference solar cell calibration technique recently established at the Korea Institute of Energy Research in Korea is introduced. This calibration technique is an indoor method that uses a highly collimated continuous-type solar simulator and absolute cavity radiometer traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. The results obtained using this calibration technique are shown with a precise uncertainty analysis, and the system configuration and calibration procedures are introduced. The calibration technique avoids overestimating the short-circuit current of a reference solar cell due to multiple reflections of incident simulator light using a novel method. In addition, the uncertainty analysis indicates that the calibration technique has an expanded uncertainty of approximately 0.7% with a coverage factor of k = 2 for a c-Si reference cell calibration. In addition, the developed primary reference solar cell calibration technique was compared with other techniques established in the World Photovoltaic Scale (WPVS) qualified calibration laboratories to verify its validity and reliability.

Ahn, SeungKyu; Ahn, SeJin; Yun, Jae Ho; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Winter, Stefan; Igari, Sanekazu; Yoon, KyungHoon

2014-06-01

340

FLUX CALIBRATIONS FROM NEARBY ECLIPSING BINARIES AND SINGLE STARS  

SciTech Connect

Eclipsing binaries (EBs) measure distance without need or use for nearby similar objects, with many applications over recent decades. EBs are now considered the most reliable and accurate distance indicators for the very important lower rungs in the cosmic distance ladder, within the Local Group of Galaxies. Among several EB distance algorithms, direct comparison of observed and theoretical fluxes is particularly straightforward, although it requires absolute flux calibrations for which only a modest number of publications exist. Here, we measure UBV RI and uvby flux calibrations and calibration ratios from astronomical objects in ways not previously tried, specifically for EBs, single stars within 80 pc, and the Sun. All of the single stars are below about 6500 K temperature. Interstellar extinction is avoided by a restriction to nearby targets. Some photometric band calibrations in the literature are accurate enough for very good EB distance determinations if star temperatures are accurately known, especially considering that estimated distance has only a square-root dependence on calibration constant, but accurate band-to-band calibration ratios are keys to the combined temperature-distance problem. Band-independent canceling factors (star radii and distances) allow calibration ratio measurement with enhanced accuracy, compared to individual band calibrations. A physical EB model with embedded stellar atmosphere emission optimally matches theory to observations for the binaries. Single star candidates are identified as reliably single if their radial velocity variations are below 100 m s{sup -1}. For the most part, we find good agreement with some of the previous calibrations and the ratios are improved.

Wilson, R. E. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Van Hamme, W. [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Terrell, Dirk, E-mail: vanhamme@fiu.ed, E-mail: terrell@boulder.swri.ed [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

2010-11-10

341

Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration  

SciTech Connect

The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

Johns, B.R.

1994-10-01

342

Calibrating Pesticide Application Ground Equipment  

E-print Network

This pocket-sized guide gives step-by-step instructions for calibrating ground sprayers. Tables provide instructions, examples and sample formulas for determining speed of application, flow rate and the amount of pesticide to add to the tank....

Shaw, Bryan W.

2000-07-05

343

Thermal emission measurement and calibration  

E-print Network

This thesis details a measurement setup and experimental procedures for emittance measurements using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. We calibrate the FTIR measurement system using measurements of a blackbody ...

Brown, Susannah (Susannah R.)

2009-01-01

344

Practical Study of Psychrometer Calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychrometers remain the most widely used instruments for controlling the humidity in climatic test chambers, yet the calibration of these instruments is particularly challenging. Psychrometer calibrations require careful consideration of influence variables such as the fitting and cleanliness of the wick, the effect of the calibration chamber on the air flow past the sensors, on radiation incident on the sensors, and on the dissipation heat from the built-in fan (if included). In addition, uncertainty requirements for calibration of such psychrometers are typically around 1 %rh to 2 %rh, i.e., close to the best calibration and measurement uncertainties (CMCs) claimed by national metrology institutes (NMIs). As well as their role in supporting CMCs, inter-comparisons provide a good test-ground to ensure all influence variables are controlled or otherwise accounted for in the uncertainty budget. This paper presents the results of a comparison of psychrometer calibrations performed by the NMIs in Denmark, Slovenia, and Finland. The comparison was carried out under EURAMET Project No. 1033 with the aim to investigate the equivalence of psychrometer calibrations performed at the highest level and to gather practical experience to be used in similar comparisons in the future. An aspirated electro-psychrometer was used for the comparison, and calibrations were carried out in the range from 15 %rh to 93 %rh in a temperature range from 15 °C to 70 °C. While the results show good agreement at high relative humidity, significant differences at low relative humidity are reported. It is suggested that the differences are caused by a combination of psychrometer wick contamination and a difference in the wick-wetting methods used by the participant laboratories.

Kentved, Anders Bonde; Heinonen, Martti; Hudoklin, Domen

2012-09-01

345

Recent Developments in Multivariate Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers the area of multivariate calibration; from pre-processing of data prior to modeling and applications of regression methods for calibration and prediction. The importance of pre-treatment of data is highlighted with many of the recently developed methods together with traditional methods. Several articles provide comparisons between different pre-processing methods. Methods for data from coupled chromatographic methods, which have

Jon Gabrielsson; Johan Trygg

2006-01-01

346

SWS In-flight Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calibration of the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on ISO developed significantly throughout ISO's mission and well into the Post Operations phase. The guiding principles, however, were laid down in the In-Orbit Calibration Document (IOCD) before the launch of ISO. This document specified the essential calibration procedures for SWS and aided greatly the success of the SWS instrument. Within the framework of the IOCD, the SWS calibration and processing were allowed to remain flexible and could adjust to AOT logic changes, model updates and changes in the calibration methods used in the Post Mission phase. The result is that the final accuracies surpass pre-launch requirements. During the mission a number of expected and unexpected issues arose. The majority of these have been addressed either as changes to observation strategies or as changes in data reduction. Some issues, like memory effects, were purely instrumental and dealt with entirely in the Post Operations Phase. There are other problems, however, which have been identified but have, as yet, no correction in the SWS calibration and processing. These issues form the caveats to the SWS data products.

Shipman, R. F.; Morris, P. W.; Beintema, D. A.; Boxhoorn, D.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Heras, A. M.; Huygen, R.; Kester, D.; Lahuis, F.; Leech, K.; Lorente, R.; Lutz, D.; Roelfsema, P.; Salama, A.; Schaeidt, S. G.; Valentijn, E.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wieprecht, E.

347

WFC3: UVIS Dark Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a fourth-generation imaging instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), has exhibited excellent performance since its installation during Servicing Mission 4 in May 2009. The UVIS detector, comprised of two e2v CCDs, is one of two channels available on WFC3 and is named for its ultraviolet and visible light sensitivity. We present the various procedures and results of the WFC3/UVIS dark calibration, which monitors the health and stability of the UVIS detector, provides characterization of hot pixels and dark current, and produces calibration files to be used as a correction for dark current in science images. We describe the long-term growth of hot pixels and the impacts that UVIS Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) losses, postflashing, and proximity to the readout amplifiers have on the population. We also discuss the evolution of the median dark current, which has been slowly increasing since the start of the mission and is currently ~6 e-/hr/pix, averaged across each chip. We outline the current algorithm for creating UVIS dark calibration files, which includes aggressive cosmic ray masking, image combination, and hot pixel flagging. Calibration products are available to the user community, typically 3-5 days after initial processing, through the Calibration Database System (CDBS). Finally, we discuss various improvements to the calibration and monitoring procedures. UVIS dark monitoring will continue throughout and beyond HST’s current proposal cycle.

Bourque, Matthew; Biretta, John A.; Anderson, Jay; Baggett, Sylvia M.; Gunning, Heather C.; MacKenty, John W.

2014-06-01

348

Comparison of Air Temperature Calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European national metrology institutes use calibration systems of various types for calibrating thermometers in air. These were compared to each other for the first time in a project organized by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). This EURAMET P1061 comparison project had two main objectives: (1) to study the equivalence of calibrations performed by different laboratories and (2) to investigate correlations between calibration methods and achievable uncertainties. The comparison was realized using a pair of 100 platinum resistance thermometer probes connected to a digital thermometer bridge as the transfer standard. The probes had different dimensions and surface properties. The measurements covered the temperature range between and , but each laboratory chose a subrange most relevant to its scope and performed measurements at five nominal temperature points covering the subrange. To enable comparison between the laboratories, comparison reference functions were determined using weighted least-squares fitting. Various effects related to variations in heat transfer conditions were demonstrated but clear correlations to specific characteristics of calibration system were not identified. Calibrations in air and liquid agreed typically within at and . Expanded uncertainties determined by the participants ranged from to and they were shown to be realistic in most cases.

Heinonen, M.; Anagnostou, M.; Bartolo, J.; Bell, S.; Benyon, R.; Bergerud, R. A.; Bojkovski, J.; Böse, N.; Dinu, C.; Smorgon, D.; Flakiewicz, K.; Martin, M. J.; Nedialkov, S.; Nielsen, M. B.; O?uz Aytekin, S.; Otych, J.; Pedersen, M.; Rujan, M.; Testa, N.; Turzó-András, E.; Vilbaste, M.; White, M.

2014-07-01

349

[The on-line simulation of blood propofol concentration by personal computer transmitting settings of the syringe pump via a digital port].  

PubMed

A program for on-line simulation of blood propofol concentration was developed. Various pharmacokinetic model programs are available for the estimation of intravenous anesthetic concentration. But manual entry of data such as body weight, rate of infusion and the timing of changing the flow rate is mandatory in these programs. This limited the use of these programs for investigational use only. In a new program, the data required such as total dose, flow rate, body weight and time were collected automatically on-line via the digital outlet of the syringe driven pump (Terumo STC525X, Japan and Graseby 3500, UK) to a personal computer (Apple Macintosh Power Book Duo230 or Power Book 520, USA). Based on the obtained data, pharmacokinetic model was solved with personal computer. Calculated blood concentrations of propofol were displayed in a numeric form and a trend graph was obtained. This program provides useful information for maintainance of anesthesia with propofol. PMID:9071117

Nakao, M

1997-02-01

350

Proof-of-concept demonstration of a total internal reflection based module for fluorescence and absorbance detection using a 3D-printed syringe pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we demonstrate the proof-of-concept of an optofluidic module capable of simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and absorbance (ABS) detection based on total internal reflection (TIR) optics. We discuss the design of the optofluidic detection module, its fabrication, and the setup used for the proof-of-concept. The injection of sample under test is done using two 3D printed syringe pumps, managing accurate injection and repeatable sample propagation through the detector module. We discuss the process of development behind these pumps and review their technical specifications. With this demonstrator setup we find that the limits of detection for the ABS and LIF detection of coumarin 480 are 500 nM and 100 nM respectively.

Verschooten, Tom; Ottevaere, Heidi; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo

2014-05-01

351

Experimental Section : THF was distilled over LiAlH4 before use, and was transferred by syringe. Jones reagent was prepared freshly from CrO3-H2SO4-H2O. All the Grignard  

E-print Network

Experimental Section : THF was distilled over LiAlH4 before use, and was transferred by syringe and dried under vacuum to provide 2.42g (89%) of the product as a white solid. Yield : 2.42g (89%). M. p

Hergenrother, Paul J.

352

Legal access to needles and syringes\\/ needle exchange programmes versus HIV counselling and testing to prevent transmission of HIV among intravenous drug users: A comparative study of Denmark, Norway and Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Countries have adopted different strategies to prevent the transmission of HIV among intravenous drug users. Legal access to needles and syringes\\/needle exchange programmes as part of such a strategy has been heavily debated. HIV counselling and testing has also been part of prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to discuss the effectiveness of legal access to needles

ELLEN J. AMUNDSEN; ANNE ESKILD; HEIN STIGUM; ELSE SMITH; ODD O. AALEN

2003-01-01

353

A first order wavefront estimation algorithm for P1640 calibrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

P1640 calibrator is a wavefront sensor working with the P1640 coronagraph and the Palomar 3000 actuator adaptive optics system (P3K) at the Palomar 200 inch Hale telescope. It measures the wavefront by interfering post-coronagraph light with a reference beam formed by low-pass filtering the blocked light from the coronagraph focal plane mask. The P1640 instrument has a similar architecture to the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and its performance is currently limited by the quasi-static speckles due to non-common path wavefront errors, which comes from the non-common path for the light to arrive at the AO wavefront sensor and the coronagraph mask. By measuring the wavefront after the coronagraph mask, the non-common path wavefront error can be estimated and corrected by feeding back the error signal to the deformable mirror (DM) of the P3K AO system. Here, we present a first order wavefront estimation algorithm and an instrument calibration scheme used in experiments done recently at Palomar observatory. We calibrate the P1640 calibrator by measuring its responses to poking DM actuators with a sparse checkerboard pattern at different amplitudes. The calibration yields a complex normalization factor for wavefront estimation and establishes the registration of the DM actuators at the pupil camera of the P1640 calibrator, necessary for wavefront correction. Improvement of imaging quality after feeding back the wavefront correction to the AO system demonstrated the efficacy of the algorithm.

Zhai, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.; Crepp, J.; Dekany, R.; Hinkley, S.; Hillenbrand, L.; Ligon, E. R.; Parry, I.; Pueyo, L.; Rice, E.; Roberts, L. C.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Soummer, R.; Vescelus, F.; Wallace, K.; Zimmerman, N.

2012-07-01

354

HST/WFC3 flux calibration ladder: Vega  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vega is one of only a few stars calibrated against an SI-traceable blackbody, and is the historical flux standard. Photometric zeropoints of the Hubble Space Telescope's instruments rely on Vega, through the transfer of its calibration via stellar atmosphere models to the suite of standard stars. HST's recently implemented scan mode has enabled us to develop a path to an absolute SI traceable calibration for HST IR observations. To fill in the crucial gap between 0.9 and 1.7 micron in the absolute calibration, we acquired -1st order spectra of Vega with the two WFC3 infrared grisms. At the same time, we have improved the calibration of the -1st orders of both WFC3 IR grisms, as well as extended the dynamic range of WFC3 science observations by a factor of 10000. We describe our progress to date on the WFC3 `flux calibration ladder' project to provide currently needed accurate zeropoint measurements in the IR

Deustua, Susana E.; Bohlin, Ralph; Pirzkal, Nor; MacKenty, John

2014-08-01

355

Improved Radial GRAPPA Calibration for Real-Time Free-Breathing Cardiac Imaging  

PubMed Central

In order to generate real-time, non-gated, free-breathing cardiac images, the undersampled radial trajectory combined with parallel imaging in the form of radial GRAPPA has shown promise. However, this method starts to fail at high undersampling factors due to the assumptions that must be made for the purposes of calibrating the GRAPPA weight sets. In this manuscript, a novel through-time radial GRAPPA calibration scheme is proposed which greatly improves image quality for the high acceleration factors required for real-time cardiac imaging. This through-time calibration method offers better image quality than standard radial GRAPPA, but it requires many additional calibration frames to be acquired. By combining the through-time calibration method proposed here with the standard through-k-space radial GRAPPA calibration method, images with high acceleration factors can be reconstructed using few calibration frames. Both the through-time and the hybrid through-time/through-k-space methods are investigated to determine the most advantageous calibration parameters for an R=6 in vivo short-axis cardiac image. Once the calibration parameters have been established, they are then used to reconstruct several in vivo real-time, free-breathing cardiac datasets with temporal resolutions better than 45ms, including one with a temporal resolution of 35ms and an in-plane resolution of 1.56mm2. PMID:20872865

Seiberlich, Nicole; Ehses, Philipp; Duerk, Jeff; Gilkeson, Robert; Griswold, Mark

2010-01-01

356

The calibration methods for Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous, over two-decade data record from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is ideal for climate research which requires timely and accurate information of important atmospheric components such as gases, aerosols, and clouds. Except for parameters derived from MFRSR measurement ratios, which are not impacted by calibration error, most applications require accurate calibration factor(s), angular correction, and spectral response function(s) from calibration. Although a laboratory lamp (or reference) calibration can provide all the information needed to convert the instrument readings to actual radiation, in situ calibration methods are implemented routinely (daily) to fill the gaps between lamp calibrations. In this paper, the basic structure and the data collection and pretreatment of the MFRSR are described. The laboratory lamp calibration and its limitations are summarized. The cloud screening algorithms for MFRSR data are presented. The in situ calibration methods, the standard Langley method and its variants, the ratio-Langley method, the general method, Alexandrov's comprehensive method, and Chen's multi-channel method, are outlined. The reason that all these methods do not fit for all situations is that they assume some properties, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), total optical depth (TOD), precipitable water vapor (PWV), effective size of aerosol particles, or angstrom coefficient, are invariant over time. These properties are not universal and some of them rarely happen. In practice, daily calibration factors derived from these methods should be smoothed to restrain error.

Chen, Maosi; Davis, John; Tang, Hongzhao; Ownby, Carolyn; Gao, Wei

2013-09-01

357

Mariner Mars 1971 scan platform pointing calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was devised for the Mariner Mars 1971 mission wherein both ground and in-flight calibrations were performed. A more analytical approach was used for ground calibration, and in-flight calibration was performed using narrow-angle television pictures of stars. The Mariner Mars 1971 calibration technique and results are summarized.

Pace, G. D.; Jaivin, F. I.; Virzi, R. A.

1972-01-01

358

Camera calibration in photogrammetric practice, introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory, stellar and ground calibrations are developed to assess accuracy and reliability of photographic systems and their components. Calibration of photographic systems is based on analytic assessment systems and software and calibration of aerial images in close-range photogrammetry. Algorithms to obtain simultaneous calibration of photographic systems and aerial images are developed. System reproduction, film printing plate flatness, filter glass plane

G. Kupfer

1985-01-01

359

Waveguide Calibrator for Multi-Element Probe Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A calibrator, referred to as the spider design, can be used to calibrate probes incorporating multiple acoustic sensing elements. The application is an acoustic energy density probe, although the calibrator can be used for other types of acoustic probes. The calibrator relies on the use of acoustic waveguide technology to produce the same acoustic field at each of the sensing elements. As a result, the sensing elements can be separated from each other, but still calibrated through use of the acoustic waveguides. Standard calibration techniques involve placement of an individual microphone into a small cavity with a known, uniform pressure to perform the calibration. If a cavity is manufactured with sufficient size to insert the energy density probe, it has been found that a uniform pressure field can only be created at very low frequencies, due to the size of the probe. The size of the energy density probe prevents one from having the same pressure at each microphone in a cavity, due to the wave effects. The "spider" design probe is effective in calibrating multiple microphones separated from each other. The spider design ensures that the same wave effects exist for each microphone, each with an indivdual sound path. The calibrator s speaker is mounted at one end of a 14-cm-long and 4.1-cm diameter small plane-wave tube. This length was chosen so that the first evanescent cross mode of the plane-wave tube would be attenuated by about 90 dB, thus leaving just the plane wave at the termination plane of the tube. The tube terminates with a small, acrylic plate with five holes placed symmetrically about the axis of the speaker. Four ports are included for the four microphones on the probe. The fifth port is included for the pre-calibrated reference microphone. The ports in the acrylic plate are in turn connected to the probe sensing elements via flexible PVC tubes. These five tubes are the same length, so the acoustic wave effects are the same in each tube. The flexible nature of the tubes allows them to be positioned so that each tube terminates at one of the microphones of the energy density probe, which is mounted in the acrylic structure, or the calibrated reference microphone. Tests performed verify that the pressure did not vary due to bends in the tubes. The results of these tests indicate that the average sound pressure level in the tubes varied by only 0.03 dB as the tubes were bent to various angles. The current calibrator design is effective up to a frequency of approximately 4.5 kHz. This upper design frequency is largely due to the diameter of the plane-wave tubes.

Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.

2007-01-01

360

FTIR Calibration Methods and Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10 years, several space-borne FTIR missions were launched for atmospheric research, environmental monitoring and meteorology. One can think of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) launched by the European Space Agency, the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) launched by the Canadian Space Agency, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) launched by NASA and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched by Eumetsat in Europe. Others are near to be launched, namely the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) from the Integrated Program Of- fice in the United States and the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Moreover, several missions under definition foresee the use of this technology as sensor, e.g. Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), Eumetsat Polar System (EPS) and the Premier mission, one of the six candidates of the next ESA Earth Explorer Core Mission. In order to produce good quality products, calibration is essential. Calibrated data is the output of three main sub-systems that are tightly coupled: the instrument, the calibration targets and the level 1B processor. Calibration requirements must be carefully defined and propagated to each sub-system. Often, they are carried out by different parties which add to the complexity. Under budget and schedule pressure, some aspects are sometimes neglected and jeopardized final quality. For space-borne FTIR, level 1B outputs are spectra that are radiometrically, spectrally calibrated and geolocated. Radiometric calibration means to assign an intensity value in units to the y-axis. Spectral calibration means to assign to the x-axis the proper frequency value in units. Finally, geolocated means to assign a target position over the earth geoid i.e. longitude, latitude and altitude. This paper will present calibration methods and issues related to space-borne FTIR missions, e.g. two points complex calibration algorithm, detector non-linearity, pointing errors, pointing jitters, fringe count errors, spikes and ice contamination. They will be discussed and illustrated using real data. Finally, an outlook will be given for the future missions.

Perron, Gaetan

361

OTDR calibration for attenuation measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cut-back method is the standard test method to check the attenuation of optical fibers. The advantages of this method are low uncertainty, good reproducibility, and an applicability in a broad spectral range. But for some applications, especially in the field service, the optical time domain reflectometry seems to be more useful because (1) this method is non-destructive, (2) measurements can be made from one end of the fiber, and (3) the back-scattered signal contains information about the longitudinal homogeneity of the fiber or the fiber system. For an approval of this technique as a second standard test method, an uncertainty of 0.01 dB/km of the attenuation coefficient measurement is required. This small uncertainty demands a calibration of the loss scale of the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) used. Therefore, a calibration procedure is proposed using a standard fiber as a scale unit. The specification of this fiber, the preparation as a standard and its calibration in an accredited calibration laboratory, are discussed. An uncertainty of about 0.005 dB should be achievable in attenuation measurement of the standard. The calibration of the power scale of the OTDR with the aid of transfer standard, lead-in fiber and/or attenuator, and a proposal for linearizing the scale of power response are presented.

Moeller, Werner; Heitmann, Walter; Reich, Manfred

1991-09-01

362

Evaluation of Procedures for Linking Multidimensional Item Calibrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated multidimensional linking procedures with which multidimensional test data from two separate calibrations were put on a common scale. Data were simulated with known ability distributions varying on two factors which made linking necessary: mean vector differences and variance-covariance (v-c) matrix differences. After the…

Oshima, T. C.; Davey, T. C.

363

40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...use of a single calibration factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds 2 percent at any point, the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data to within 2 percent of each test point shall be used to determine...

2011-07-01

364

40 CFR 90.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of a single calibration factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds two percent at any point, use the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data to within two percent of each test point to determine concentration. (d)...

2011-07-01

365

40 CFR 91.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of a single calibration factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds two percent at any point, use the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data to within two percent of each test point to determine concentration....

2011-07-01

366

Validation Methods for Calibrating Software Effort Models Tim Menzies  

E-print Network

.stukes@jpl.nasa.gov ABSTRACT COCONUT calibrates effort estimation models using an ex- haustive search over the space and fewer attributes (no scale factors). How- ever, a comparison between COCONUT and other methods studies. For a draft of this paper, see http://menzies.us/pdf/ 04coconut.pdf Permission to make digital

Menzies, Tim

367

A positioning free calibration method for mobile laser scanning applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile laser scanning are likely to find more and more applications for high density 3D environmental data. A mobile laser scanning system is composed by three subsystems: a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) that provides position information, an INS (Inertial Navigation System) for attitude determination, and a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). The accuracy of the geolocated LiDAR returns depends on the accuracy of each instrument but also on the bore-sighting parameters and the lever arms between the instruments. Indeed, an imperfect calibration may lead to systematic errors. Calibration may then become the limiting factor of Terrestrial Laser scanning if it is not tackled seriously. Moreover [Ø], it is important to have a reliable value of the calibration precision. This paper presents a new positioning free procedure for the estimation of the LiDAR bore-sighting parameters. Since this method is static, lever arms do not affect the boresight calibration and positioning is not required. That makes the methodology immune to GPS errors. Finally, since it is based on a rigorous mathematical model, it can provide a reliable boresight quality factor. First, the boresight determination problem is explained and existing calibration procedures are introduced. After having explained their drawbacks, a new procedure that tries to overcome these limitations is described. Tests from simulations and real datasets are also presented to illustrate our approach.

Le Scouarnec, R.; Touzé, T.; Lacambre, J. B.; Seube, N.

2013-10-01

368

Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources  

SciTech Connect

A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C. [and others

1996-04-01

369

REAL-TIME ATTITUDE-INDEPENDENT THREE-AXIS MAGNETOMETER CALIBRATION  

E-print Network

REAL-TIME ATTITUDE-INDEPENDENT THREE-AXIS MAGNETOMETER CALIBRATION John L. Crassidis and Kok-axis magnetometer sensor calibration are de- rived. These approaches rely on a conversion of the magnetometer of the full cal- ibration problem involves the determination of the magnetometer bias vector, scale factors

Crassidis, John L.

370

Spectral and radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of the AVIRIS science data collected since 1987 is described. The instrumentation and procedures used in the calibration are discussed and the accuracy achieved in the laboratory as determined by measurement and calculation is compared with the requirements. Instrument performance factors affecting radiometry are described. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans.

Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Miller, Edward A.; Reimer, John H.

1987-01-01

371

Self-calibrating multiplexer circuit  

DOEpatents

A time domain multiplexer system with automatic determination of acceptable multiplexer output limits, error determination, or correction is comprised of a time domain multiplexer, a computer, a constant current source capable of at least three distinct current levels, and two series resistances employed for calibration and testing. A two point linear calibration curve defining acceptable multiplexer voltage limits may be defined by the computer by determining the voltage output of the multiplexer to very accurately known input signals developed from predetermined current levels across the series resistances. Drift in the multiplexer may be detected by the computer when the output voltage limits, expected during normal operation, are exceeded, or the relationship defined by the calibration curve is invalidated.

Wahl, Chris P. (North Huntingdon, PA)

1997-01-01

372

Engineering considerations in anemometer calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased usage of portable anemometers has marked the need for better calibration quality. Efforts being made to achieve correlation between some US Department of Defense laboratories are described. A wind tunnel developed by the Navy Primary Standards Laboratory was used to calibrate 12 models of hot-wire anemometers and 13 models of vane anemometers. The latter category consisted of swinging-vane, mechanical rotating-vane, electrical rotating-vane, torsional-vane anemometers. Stable instruments such as the rotating-vane and electrical rotating-vane types were found to be fairly capable of comparing calibrations made by different facilities. However, greater accuracy and cost-efficiency would be achieved with fewer top-notch facilities as opposed to having a greater number of facilities but with minimum accuracy.

Meserole, L. T.

373

A comparison of calibration data from full field digital mammography units for breast density measurements  

PubMed Central

Background Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor measured from mammograms. The most appropriate method for measuring breast density for risk applications is still under investigation. Calibration standardizes mammograms to account for acquisition technique differences prior to making breast density measurements. We evaluated whether a calibration methodology developed for an indirect x-ray conversion full field digital mammography (FFDM) technology applies to direct x-ray conversion FFDM systems. Methods Breast tissue equivalent (BTE) phantom images were used to establish calibration datasets for three similar direct x-ray conversion FFDM systems. The calibration dataset for each unit is a function of the target/filter combination, x-ray tube voltage, current?×?time (mAs), phantom height, and two detector fields of view (FOVs). Methods were investigated to reduce the amount of calibration data by restricting the height, mAs, and FOV sampling. Calibration accuracy was evaluated with mixture phantoms. We also compared both intra- and inter-system calibration characteristics and accuracy. Results Calibration methods developed previously apply to direct x-ray conversion systems with modification. Calibration accuracy was largely within the acceptable range of?±?4 standardized units from the ideal value over the entire acquisition parameter space for the direct conversion units. Acceptable calibration accuracy was maintained with a cubic-spline height interpolation, representing a modification to previous work. Calibration data is unit specific, can be acquired with the large FOV, and requires a minimum of one reference mAs sample. The mAs sampling, calibration accuracy, and the necessity for machine specific calibration data are common characteristics and in agreement with our previous work. Conclusion The generality of our calibration approach was established under ideal conditions. Evaluation with patient data using breast cancer status as the endpoint is required to demonstrate that the approach produces a breast density measure associated with breast cancer. PMID:24207013

2013-01-01

374

pH Meter Calibration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into pH Meter Calibration, where visitors practice performing a three point calibration of a pH meter using buffer solutions.

2013-08-06

375

NASA's Metrology and Calibration program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's scientific and engineering projects is often based on the capability and quality of the metrology and calibration programs of its field centers and facilities. A Metrology and Calibration Working Group, having representation from each of the NASA field centers and facilities, was established to develop and implement a program to provide a centralized direction and agency wide focus. A brief history of the Group is presented. The development of the Group's operating philosophy, the long term objectives, the measurement research and development program, and review of accomplishments is discussed.

Kern, Frederick A.

1991-05-01

376

Method for calibrating mass spectrometers  

DOEpatents

A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

2002-12-24

377

Stellar Angular Diameter Calibration Cycle 3 Instrument Scientist Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pirmary goal of this proposal is to demonstrate and calibrate the capability of the FGSs to perform absolute angular diameter measurements of stars larger than 15 mas. Three stars of different, known, angular sizes will be observed in the center of the astrometer FGS.

Laurence Taff

1993-01-01

378

Exposure-rate calibration using large-area calibration pads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center (TMC) at the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) in Grand Junction, Colorado, to standardize, calibrate, and compare measurements made in support of DOE remedial action programs. A set of large-area, radioelement-enriched concrete pads was constructed by the DOE in 1978 at

1988-01-01

379

Accurate geometric calibration in stepping-table digital subtraction angiography.  

PubMed

Accurate measurements of vessel dimensions are desirable in many clinical applications. This work uses the known relative motion between X-ray source and the patient in stepping-table digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to provide an accurate geometric calibration for quantitative measurements. The method results in a calibration factor that converts the size of the object measured in pixels on the image to its size in millimetres. The main sources of error relate to: (i) the assessment of relative displacement of a structure in a series of images; (ii) patient motion throughout data acquisition; and (iii) image distortion. Error was evaluated both with a test object consisting of a large grid of ball bearings (2x2 cm spaced) and, in vivo, in five renal DSA examinations performed with identical catheters of known diameter. The calibration factor was calculated with 0.1% accuracy for the test object and at least 2% accuracy in vivo, even with breath holding and pulsatile motion. This demonstrates that the calculation of the calibration factor can be very accurate, and that the method we propose is capable of the submillimetre accuracy required for clinical studies if used in conjunction with an accurate measurement of the vessel size in pixels. In conclusion, accurate geometric measurements can be performed in stepping-table DSA, without the need for external reference objects. PMID:17875596

Schmidt, M A; Nayak, S L; Belli, A-M; Britten, A J

2007-10-01

380

Hyperspectral Imager Characterization and Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current radiometric calibration standards, specifically blackbody and lamp-based optical radiation sources, produce spatially, spectrally, and temporally simple scenes. Hyperspectral imaging instruments, which in-practice view spatially, spectrally, and temporally complex scenes, would benefit from advanced radiometric artifacts that more closely resemble scenes the sensor will ultimately view. Techniques and artifacts that advance sensor characterization and algorithms that reduce the impact of

John T. Woodward; Steven W. Brown; Allan W. Smith; Keith R. Lykke

2009-01-01

381

EVALUATION OF OZONE CALIBRATION PROCEDURES  

EPA Science Inventory

In October of 1976, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that the calibration procedure then currently in use for reference methods for the measurement of ozone in the atmosphere -- the neutral buffered potassium iodide procedure -- had been found variable and in so...

382

Calibration of Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

Calibration of Hubble Space Telescope Guidance Sensors: Application of Seminal Ideas of Eichhorn's on solving important astrometric problem. Introduction Hubble Telescope Guidance Sensors (FGS) designed techniques. 1 #12; 14.0¢ #1 #2 Optical Subsystem Figure 1: showing location of the Hubble Telescope is 2

Jefferys, William

383

Calibration of Computer Forensic Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Many,tools are used,in the course,of investigations that later require testimony,in court. Tools such,as radar,guns,and,breathalyzers,must,be calibrated,prior to use for the result to be valid in court. The tools used,in

Dennis M. Dow

384

Improvements to STIS Pipeline Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few months a number of improvements to the STIS pipeline calibration have been developed and implemented. We have released new low order flat files for use with G140L observations. These flats should reduce variations of the extracted flux with position from 12% to 2%. To better reflect the change with time in the overall shape of the

R. I. Diaz-Miller; J. Kim-Quijano; J. Valenti; C. R. Proffitt; D. Lindler

2002-01-01

385

Calibration of rod position indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a procedure for calibration of a rod position indicator in a nuclear reactor having movable control rods without total shutdown of the reactor. It comprises: noting that the indicated position of a rod differs from a demand position of the rod by an extent exceeding a predetermined error range, determining that the rod is actually within the

A. P. Ginsberg; J. P. Mooney

1991-01-01

386

Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration (ASCAL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

1998-01-01

387

Fast calibration for augmented reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmented Reality overlays computer generated images over the real world. These images have to be generated using transformations which correctly project a point in virtual space onto its corresponding point in the real world.We present a simple and fast calibration scheme for head-mounted displays (HMDs), which does not require additional instrumentation or complicated procedures. The user is interactively guided through

Anton L. Fuhrmann; Dieter Schmalstieg; Werner Purgathofer

1999-01-01

388

Stable Calibration of Raman Lidar Water-Vapor Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been devised to ensure stable, long-term calibration of Raman lidar measurements that are used to determine the altitude-dependent mixing ratio of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Because the lidar measurements yield a quantity proportional to the mixing ratio, rather than the mixing ratio itself, calibration is necessary to obtain the factor of proportionality. The present method involves the use of calibration data from two sources: (1) absolute calibration data from in situ radiosonde measurements made during occasional campaigns and (2) partial calibration data obtained by use, on a regular schedule, of a lamp that emits in a known spectrum determined in laboratory calibration measurements. In this method, data from the first radiosonde campaign are used to calculate a campaign-averaged absolute lidar calibration factor (t(sub 1)) and the corresponding campaign-averaged ration (L(sub 1)) between lamp irradiances at the water-vapor and nitrogen wavelengths. Depending on the scenario considered, this ratio can be assumed to be either constant over a long time (L=L(sub 1)) or drifting slowly with time. The absolutely calibrated water-vapor mixing ratio (q) obtained from the ith routine off-campaign lidar measurement is given by q(sub 1)=P(sub 1)/t(sub 1)=LP(sub 1)/P(sup prime)(sub 1) where P(sub 1) is water-vapor/nitrogen measurement signal ration, t(sub 1) is the unknown and unneeded overall efficiency ratio of the lidar receiver during the ith routine off-campaign measurement run, and P(sup prime)(sub 1) is the water-vapor/nitrogen signal ratio obtained during the lamp run associated with the ith routine off-campaign measurement run. If L is assumed constant, then the lidar calibration is routinely obtained without the need for new radiosonde data. In this case, one uses L=L(sub 1) = P(sup prime)(sub 1)/t(sub 1), where P(sub 1)(sup prime) is the water-vapor/nitrogen signal ratio obtained during the lamp run associated with the first radiosonde campaign. If L is assumed to drift slowly, then it is necessary to postpone calculation of a(sub 1) until after a second radiosonde campaign. In this case, one obtains a new value, L(sub 2), from the second radiosonde campaign, and for the ith routine off-campaign measurement run, one uses an intermediate value of L obtained by simple linear time interpolation between L(sub 1) and L(sub 2).

Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Iain S.

2008-01-01

389

Bundling occupational safety with harm reduction information as a feasible method for improving police receptiveness to syringe access programs: evidence from three U.S. cities  

PubMed Central

Introduction In light of overwhelming evidence that access to sterile injection equipment reduces incidence of injection-attributable bloodborne disease without encouraging drug use, many localities have authorized sterile syringe access programs (SAPs), including syringe exchange and pharmacy-based initiatives. Even where such interventions are clearly legal, many law enforcement officers are unaware of the public health benefits and legal status of these programs and may continue to treat the possession of injection equipment as illegal and program participation as a marker of illegal behavior. Law enforcement practice can impede SAP utilization and may increase the risk of needlestick injury (NSI) among law enforcement personnel. Many SAPs conduct little or no outreach to law enforcement, in part because they perceive law enforcement actors as unreceptive to health-promotion programs targeting drug users. Case description We report on a brief training intervention for law enforcement personnel designed to increase officer knowledge of and positive attitudes towards SAPs by bundling content that addresses officer concerns about infectious disease and occupational safety with information about the legality and public health benefits of these programs. Pilot trainings using this bundled curriculum were conducted with approximately 600 officers in three US cities. Discussion and evaluation Law enforcement officers were generally receptive to receiving information about SAPs through the bundled curriculum. The trainings led to better communication and collaboration between SAP and law enforcement personnel, providing a valuable platform for better harmonization of law enforcement and public health activities targeting injection drug users. Conclusion The experience in these three cities suggests that a harm reduction training curriculum that bundles strategies for increasing officer occupational safety with information about the legality and public health benefits of SAPs can be well received by law enforcement personnel and can lead to better communication and collaboration between law enforcement and harm reduction actors. Further study is indicated to assess whether such a bundled curriculum is effective in changing officer attitudes and beliefs and reducing health risks to officers and injection drug users, as well as broader benefits to the community at large. PMID:19602236

Davis, Corey S; Beletsky, Leo

2009-01-01

390

Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Calibration Using the Modern Design of Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A calibration of a hypersonic wind tunnel has been conducted using formal experiment design techniques and response surface modeling. Data from a compact, highly efficient experiment was used to create a regression model of the pitot pressure as a function of the facility operating conditions as well as the longitudinal location within the test section. The new calibration utilized far fewer design points than prior experiments, but covered a wider range of the facility s operating envelope while revealing interactions between factors not captured in previous calibrations. A series of points chosen randomly within the design space was used to verify the accuracy of the response model. The development of the experiment design is discussed along with tactics used in the execution of the experiment to defend against systematic variation in the results. Trends in the data are illustrated, and comparisons are made to earlier findings.

Rhode, Matthew N.; DeLoach, Richard

2005-01-01

391

Gafchromic film dosimetry: calibration methodology and error analysis  

E-print Network

Purpose : To relate the physical transmittance parameters of the water equivalent Gafchromic EBT 2 Film with the delivered dose in a transparent absolute calibration protocol. The protocol should be easy to understand, easy to perform, and should be able to predict the residual dose error. Conclussions : The gafchromic EBT2 Films are properly calibrated with an accessible robust calibration protocol. The protocol largely deals with the uniformity problems of the Film. The proposed method allowed to relate the dose with the red channel transmittance using only T0, T_inf, and a dose scaling factor. Based on the local and global uniformity the red channel dose errors could be predicted to be smaller than 5%.

Crijns, Wouter; Heuvel, Frank Van den

2011-01-01

392

The KamLAND Full-Volume Calibration System  

SciTech Connect

We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

KamLAND Collaboration; Berger, B. E.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Decowski, M. P.; Dwyer, D. A.; Elor, G.; Frank, A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Galloway, M.; Gray, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Keefer, G.; Lendvai, C.; McKee, D.; O'Donnell, T.; Piepke, A.; Steiner, H. M.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Ebihara, T.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Owada, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Luk, K.-B.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.

2009-03-05

393

The calibration of DD neutron indium activation diagnostic for Shenguang-III facility  

E-print Network

The indium activation diagnostic was calibrated on an accelerator neutron source in order to diagnose deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron yields of implosion experiments on Shenguang-III facility. The scattered neutron background of the accelerator room was measured by placing a polypropylene shield in front of indium sample, in order to correct the calibrated factor of this activation diagnostic. The proper size of this shield was given by Monte Carlo simulation software. The affect from some other activated nuclei on the calibration was verified by judging whether the measured curve obeys exponential decay and contrasting the half life of the activated sample. The calibration results showed that the linear range reached up to 100 cps net count rate in the full energy peak of interest, the scattered neutron background of accelerator room was about 9% of the total neutrons and the possible interferences mixed scarcely in the sample. Subtracting the portion induced by neutron background, the calibrated factor of ...

Song, Zi-Feng; Liu, Zhong-Jie; Zhan, Xia-Yu; Tang, Qi

2014-01-01

394

Christchurch field data for rockfall model calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canterbury earthquake of 2012-2011 triggered devastating rockfalls in the Port Hills in Christchurch, over 8000 boulders resulted in fatalities and severe building damage. There is a requirement for detailed and defensible rockfall hazard analysis to guide planning decisions in response to these rockfall events, most commonly this is performed with the use of a rockfall model. Calibrating a rockfall model requires a robust data set of past rockfall events. Information of rockfall deposit shape and size should be mapped over the affected area, in addition to information on the dynamics of the rockfall events such as jump heights and velocities of rocks. It is often the case that such information is obtained from expensive rock rolling studies; however the dynamics of an event can be estimated from the runout terrain and impact scars. In this study a calibration of a 3D rigid-body rockfall model was performed based on mapped boulder sizes and shapes over the rockfall affected zones of Christchurch, and estimations of boulder velocities gleaned from rock impact scars of individual trajectories and a high resolution digital terrain model produced following the rockfall events. The impact scars were mapped recording their length and depth of penetration into the loess soil cover of the runout zones. Two methods to estimate the boulder velocities have been applied. The first crudely estimates the velocity based on the vertical free fall potential between the rockfall shadow line and the terrain surface, and a velocity correction factor to account for friction. The second uses the impact scars assuming a parabolic trajectory between rock-ground impacts giving an indication of both jump height and velocity. Maximum runout distances produced a shadow angle of 23° in the area. Applying the first method suggests velocities can reach up to ~26 m s-1 and maxima concentrate in gullies and steep terrain. On average the distance between impact scars was 23 m, from which jump heights up to 4 m are estimated. While a first calibration of the rockfall model was possible by matching simulated to mapped deposit locations, many results initially showed unrealistic velocities and jump heights. The additional dynamic data has assisted in refining the calibration to ensure a defensible rockfall hazard analysis.

Vick, L.; Glover, J.; Davies, T. R.

2013-12-01

395

IMU-based online kinematic calibration of robot manipulator.  

PubMed

Robot calibration is a useful diagnostic method for improving the positioning accuracy in robot production and maintenance. An online robot self-calibration method based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) is presented in this paper. The method requires that the IMU is rigidly attached to the robot manipulator, which makes it possible to obtain the orientation of the manipulator with the orientation of the IMU in real time. This paper proposed an efficient approach which incorporates Factored Quaternion Algorithm (FQA) and Kalman Filter (KF) to estimate the orientation of the IMU. Then, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate kinematic parameter errors. Using this proposed orientation estimation method will result in improved reliability and accuracy in determining the orientation of the manipulator. Compared with the existing vision-based self-calibration methods, the great advantage of this method is that it does not need the complex steps, such as camera calibration, images capture, and corner detection, which make the robot calibration procedure more autonomous in a dynamic manufacturing environment. Experimental studies on a GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that this method has better accuracy, convenience, and effectiveness than vision-based methods. PMID:24302854

Du, Guanglong; Zhang, Ping

2013-01-01

396

Calibration Software for Use with Jurassicprok  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jurassicprok Interferometric Calibration Software (also called "Calibration Processor" or simply "CP") estimates the calibration parameters of an airborne synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) system, the raw measurement data of which are processed by the Jurassicprok software described in the preceding article. Calibration parameters estimated by CP include time delays, baseline offsets, phase screens, and radiometric offsets. CP examines raw radar-pulse data, single-look complex image data, and digital elevation map data. For each type of data, CP compares the actual values with values expected on the basis of ground-truth data. CP then converts the differences between the actual and expected values into updates for the calibration parameters in an interferometric calibration file (ICF) and a radiometric calibration file (RCF) for the particular SAR system. The updated ICF and RCF are used as inputs to both Jurassicprok and to the companion Motion Measurement Processor software (described in the following article) for use in generating calibrated digital elevation maps.

Chapin, Elaine; Hensley, Scott; Siqueira, Paul

2004-01-01

397

Calibration intervals at Bendix Kansas City  

SciTech Connect

The calibration interval evaluation methods and control in each calibrating department of the Bendix Corp., Kansas City Division is described, and a more detailed description of those employed in metrology is provided.

James, R.T.

1980-01-01

398

40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dynamometer during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis. Determine each weight's force by multiplying its NIST-traceable...dynamometer during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis. In this case, the reference torque is determined...

2010-07-01

399

CDMS Veto Stability Study and Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most experiments searching for dark matter particles have been led deep underground to minimize the background produced by cosmic rays. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) lies .5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 mile underground in the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. Even though the muon rate is lowered by a factor of ˜10^5, the rate is still high enough to produce background signals. To solve this problem, scintillator panels have been placed around the detector to veto cosmic induced events. This work studies the behavior over time of the scintillator veto panels. By analyzing and tracking the response to a LED pulser system, the stability was determined to be within 3%. The absolute energy scale of the spectrum was then calibrated using radioactive sources, as well as the muon distribution. Knowing the absolute energy scale and where the veto trigger threshold lies provides useful information for calculating the amount of background that can be rejected.

Caceres, Gabriel

2008-04-01

400

Beta calibration system for film dosimeters  

SciTech Connect

The development of a beta calibration system for film dosimeters is described. A variable-cavity extrapolation chamber was used to measure the beta dose-rate at a position to be used for film exposures. The operation of an extrapolation chamber is based on the Bragg-Gray cavity theory. This theory stipulates that the amount of ionization produced in a small, gas-filled cavity is representative of the ionization produced in the surrounding medium provided that the beta flux is not disturbed by the presence of the cavity. The extrapolation chamber is used to make measurements which may be extrapolated to represent a vanishingly small cavity. The limiting scope of the linear relationship between chamber output current and chamber electrode spacing is expressed in amp/cm. The limiting slope (amp/cm) may be manipulated through the application of conversion factors and expressed as a radiation dose-rate (rad/h).

Orcutt, J.A.

1980-01-01

401

Determination of REEs in seawater by ICP-MS after on-line preconcentration using a syringe-driven chelating column.  

PubMed

A syringe-driven chelating column (SDCC) was applied to develop an on-line preconcentration/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for preconcentration and determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in seawater samples. The present on-line preconcentration system consists of only one pump, two valves, an SDCC, an ICP-MS, several connectors, and Teflon tubes. Optimizations of adsorption pH condition, sample loading flow rate, and integration range were carried out to achieve optimum measurement conditions for REEs in seawater sample. Six minutes was enough for a preconcentration and measurement cycle using 10 mL of seawater sample, where the detection limits for different REEs were in the range of 0.005 pg mL(-1) to 0.09 pg mL(-1). Analytical results of REEs in a seawater certified reference material (CRM), NASS-5, confirmed the usefulness of the present method. Furthermore, concentrations of REEs in Nikkawa Beach coastal seawater were determined and discussed with shale normalized REE distribution pattern. PMID:19269446

Zhu, Yanbei; Umemura, Tomonari; Haraguchi, Hiroki; Inagaki, Kazumi; Chiba, Koichi

2009-05-15

402

Comparison of two novel in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction techniques for the determination of iodide in water samples using spectrophotometry.  

PubMed

Two new, rapid methodologies have been developed and applied successfully for the determination of trace levels of iodide in real water samples. Both techniques are based on a combination of in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IS-DLLME) and micro-volume UV-Vis spectrophotometry. In the first technique, iodide is oxidized with nitrous acid to the colorless anion of ICl2(-) at high concentration of hydrochloric acid. Rhodamine B is added and by means of one step IS-DLLME, the ion-pair formed was extracted into toluene and measured spectrophotometrically. Acetone is used as dispersive solvent. The second method is based on the IS-DLLME microextraction of iodide as iodide/1, 10-phenanthroline-iron((II)) chelate cation ion-pair (colored) into nitrobenzene. Methanol was selected as dispersive solvent. Optimal conditions for iodide extraction were determined for both approaches. Methods are compared in terms of analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, speed and limit of detection. Both methods were successfully applied to determining iodide in tap and river water samples. PMID:24239760

Kaykhaii, Massoud; Sargazi, Mona

2014-01-01

403

Determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole in wine using microextraction in packed syringe and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A selective and fast method for the quantitative determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wine was developed. Microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) was optimized for the extraction and preconcentration of the analytes using extremely small volume samples (0.1-1 mL). For GC-EI-MS, the limit of detection (LOD) for red and white wine was in the range 0.17-0.49 microg L(-1) for TCA and TBA. In addition to GC-EI-MS both GC-NCI-MS and GC-HRMS were used to further improve both selectivity and sensitivity. The lowest LODs were achieved using GC-HRMS in the EI mode. In red and white wine samples the LODs were between 0.22-0.75 ng L(-1) for TCA and TBA. The reproducibility and linearity for the GC-HRMS method was good, with RSD-values of 4-10% for spiked red wine samples at 1 ng L(-1) and linearity with R (2) > 0.962 over a concentration range of 1 to 100 ng L(-1). PMID:18529064

Jönsson, S; Hagberg, J; van Bavel, B

2008-07-01

404

Usefulness of specific calibration coefficients for gamma-emitting sources measured by radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In nuclear medicine, the activity of a radionuclide is measured with a radionuclide calibrator that often has a calibration coefficient independent of the container type and filling. Methods: To determine the effect of the container on the accuracy of measuring the activity injected into a patient, The authors simulated a commercial radionuclide calibrator and 18 container types most typically used in clinical practice. The instrument sensitivity was computed for various container thicknesses and filling levels. Monoenergetic photons and electrons as well as seven common radionuclides were considered. Results: The quality of the simulation with gamma-emitting sources was validated by an agreement with measurements better than 4% in five selected radionuclides. The results show that the measured activity can vary by more than a factor of 2 depending on the type of container. The filling level and the thickness of the container wall only have a marginal effect for radionuclides of high energy but could induce differences up to 4%. Conclusions: The authors conclude that radionuclide calibrators should be tailored to the uncertainty required by clinical applications. For most clinical cases, and at least for the low-energy gamma and x-ray emitters, measurements should be performed with calibration coefficients specific to the container type.

Bochud, Francois O.; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Baechler, Sebastien; Kosinski, Marek; Bailat, Claude J. [Institute of Radiation Physics, University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2011-07-15

405

Thermal Targets for Satellite Calibration  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is currently calibrating the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite sponsored by the Department of Energy. The MTI imager is a research and development project with 15 wavebands in the visible, near-infrared, short-wave infrared, mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared spectral regions. A plethora of targets with known temperatures such as power plant heated lakes, volcano lava vents, desert playas and aluminized Mylar tarps are being used in the validation of the five thermal bands of the MTI satellite. SRTC efforts in the production of ''cold targets'' with aluminized Mylar tarps will be described. Visible and thermal imagery and wavelength dependent radiance measurements of the calibration targets will be presented.

Villa-Aleman, E.

2001-01-10

406

Big MACS: Accurate photometric calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Big MACS is a Python program that estimates an accurate photometric calibration from only an input catalog of stellar magnitudes and filter transmission functions. The user does not have to measure color terms which can be difficult to characterize. Supplied with filter transmission functions, Big MACS synthesizes an expected stellar locus for your data and then simultaneously solves for all unknown zeropoints when fitting to the instrumental locus. The code uses a spectroscopic model for the SDSS stellar locus in color-color space and filter functions to compute expected locus. The stellar locus model is corrected for Milky Way reddening. If SDSS or 2MASS photometry is available for stars in field, Big MACS can yield a highly accurate absolute calibration.

Kelly, P. L.; von der Linden, A.; Applegate, D.; Allen, M.; Allen, S. W.; Burchat, P. R.; Burke, D. L.; Ebeling, H.; Capak, P.; Czoske, O.; Donovan, D.; Mantz, A.; Morris, R. G.

2012-08-01

407

Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus  

DOEpatents

An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01

408

The Ground-based Calibration of SWS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a summary of all ground based SWS instrument tests and calibrations together with a description of test equipment and environment. The contents and results of the SWS ground calibration are discussed and their value for the in-flight calibration of SWS is demonstrated.

Feuchtgruber, H.; Katterloher, R. O.; Jakob, G.; Lutz, D.; Barl, L.; Bauer, O. H.; Becher, K.; Beintema, D. A.; Boonstra, A. J.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Coté, J.; Czempiel, S.; van Dijkhuizen, C.; de Graauw, T.; Drapatz, S.; Evers, J.; Frericks, M.; Genzel, R.; Glas, M.; de Groene, P.; Haerendel, G.; Haser, L.; Heras, A. M.; Horinga, W.; van der Hucht, K. A.; van der Hulst, T.; Huygen, R.; Jacobs, H.; Kamm, N.; Kampermann, T.; Kester, D. J. M.; Koornneef, J.; Kunze, D.; Lahuis, F.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Leech, K.; van der Lei, S.; van der Linden, R.; Luinge, W.; Melzner, F.; Morris, P. W.; Ploeger, G. R.; Price, S. D.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Salama, A.; Schaeidt, S. G.; Sijm, N.; Spakman, J.; Späth, H.; Steinmayer, M.; Stöcker, J.; Sturm, E.; Valentijn, E. A.; Vandenbussche, B.; Waelkens, C.; Wesselius, P. R.; Wieprecht, E.; Wiezorrek, E.; Wijnbergen, J. J.; Wildeman, K.; Young, E.

409

MODIS On-orbit Calibration Uncertainty Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). Compared to its heritage sensors, MODIS was developed with very stringent calibration uncertainty requirements. As a result, MODIS was designed and built with a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), which allow key sensor performance parameters and on-orbit calibration coefficients to be monitored and updated. In terms of its calibration traceability, MODIS RSB calibration is reflectance based using an on-board solar diffuser (SD) and the TEB calibration is radiance based using an on-board blackbody (BB). In addition to on-orbit calibration coefficients derived from its OBC, calibration parameters determined from sensor pre-launch calibration and characterization are used in both the RSB and TEB calibration and retrieval algorithms. This paper provides a brief description of MODIS calibration methodologies and an in-depth analysis of its on-orbit calibration uncertainties. Also discussed in this paper are uncertainty contributions from individual components and differences due to Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument characteristics and on-orbit performance.

Chiang, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wu, Aisheng

2011-01-01

410

MODIS Radiometric Calibration and Uncertainty Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS have collected more than II and 9 years of datasets for comprehensive studies of the Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands: 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). Compared to its heritage sensors, MODIS was developed with very stringent calibration and uncertainty requirements. As a result, MODIS was designed and built with a set of state of the art on-board calibrators (OBC), which allow key sensor performance parameters and on-orbit calibration coefficients to be monitored and updated if necessary. In terms of its calibration traceability, MODIS RSB calibration is reflectance based using an on-board solar diffuser (SD) and the TEB calibration is radiance based using an on-board blackbody (BB). In addition to on-orbit calibration coefficients derived from its OBC, calibration parameters determined from sensor pre-launch calibration and characterization are used in both the RSB and TEB calibration and retrieval algorithms. This paper provides a brief description of MODIS calibration methodologies and discusses details of its on-orbit calibration uncertainties. It assesses uncertainty contributions from individual components and differences between Terra and Aqua MODIS due to their design characteristics and on-orbit periormance. Also discussed in this paper is the use of MODIS LIB uncertainty index CUI) product.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wu, Aisheng

2011-01-01

411

Standard Leak Calibration Facility software system  

SciTech Connect

A Standard Leak Calibration Facility Software System has been developed and implemented for controlling, and running a standard Leak Calibration Facility. Primary capabilities provided by the software system include computer control of the vacuum system, automatic leak calibration, and data acquisition, manipulation, and storage.

McClain, S.K.

1989-06-01

412

Model-based calibration for sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibration is the process of mapping raw sensor readings into corrected values by identifying and correcting systematic bias. Calibration is important from both off-line and on-line perspectives. Major objectives of calibration procedure include accuracy, resiliency against random errors, ability to be applied in various scenarios, and to address a variety of error models. In addition, a compact mapping function is

J. Feng; S. Megerian; M. Potkonjak

2003-01-01

413

Calibration and Confidence: Where to next?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the key feedback questions is "where to next?" and this article provides some directions as to where to next for research based on a review of the five articles in this special issue. The directions relate to the critical importance of calibration, the multidimensionality of calibration, the relation of calibration to self-regulation…

Hattie, John

2013-01-01

414

Calibration Fixture For Welding Robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, lightweight device used in any position or orientation. Calibration fixture designed for use on robotic gas/tungsten-arc welding torch equipped with vision-based seam-tracking system. Through optics in hollow torch cylinder, video camera obtains image of weld, viewing along line of sight coaxial with welding electrode. Attaches to welding-torch cylinder in place of gas cup normally attached in use. By use of longer or shorter extension tube, fixture accommodates welding electrode of unusual length.

Holly, Krisztina J.

1990-01-01

415

ASCAL: Autonomous Attitude Sensor Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract In this paper, an approach to increase the degree of autonomy of flight software is proposed. We describe an enhancement of the Attitude Determination and Control System by augmenting it with self-calibration capability. Conventional attitude estimation and control algorithms are combined with higher level decision making and machine learning algorithms in order to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the problem.

Peterson, Chariya; Rowe, John; Mueller, Karl; Ziyad, Nigel

1999-01-01

416

Assessing the role of syringe dispensing machines and mobile van outlets in reaching hard-to-reach and high-risk groups of injecting drug users (IDUs): a review  

PubMed Central

Reaching hard-to-reach and high-risk injecting drug users (IDUs) is one of the most important challenges for contemporary needle syringe programs (NSPs). The aim of this review is to examine, based upon the available international experience, the effectiveness of syringe vending machines and mobile van/bus based NSPs in making services more accessible to these hard-to-reach and high-risk groups of IDUs. A literature search revealed 40 papers/reports, of which 18 were on dispensing machines (including vending and exchange machines) and 22 on mobile vans. The findings demonstrate that syringe dispensing machines and mobile vans are promising modalities of NSPs, which can make services more accessible to the target group and in particular to the harder-to-reach and higher-risk groups of IDUs. Their anonymous and confidential approaches make services attractive, accessible and acceptable to these groups. These two outlets were found to be complementary to each other and to other modes of NSPs. Services through dispensing machines and mobile vans in strategically important sites are crucial elements in continuing efforts in reducing the spread of HIV and other blood borne viruses among IDUs. PMID:17958894

Islam, Md Mofizul; Conigrave, Katherine M

2007-01-01

417

On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphur dioxide emission rate measurements are an important tool for volcanic monitoring and eruption risk assessment. The SO2 camera technique remotely measures volcanic emissions by analysing the ultraviolet absorption of SO2 in a narrow spectral window between 300 and 320 nm using solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere. The SO2 absorption is selectively detected by mounting band-pass interference filters in front of a two-dimensional, UV-sensitive CCD detector. One important step for correct SO2 emission rate measurements that can be compared with other measurement techniques is a correct calibration. This requires conversion from the measured optical density to the desired SO2 column density (CD). The conversion factor is most commonly determined by inserting quartz cells (cuvettes) with known amounts of SO2 into the light path. Another calibration method uses an additional narrow field-of-view Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy sys