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1

Demographic, Risk, and Spatial Factors Associated With Over-the-Counter Syringe Purchase Among Injection Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Since 2005, California law allowed over-the-counter (OTC) syringe sales pending local authorization. Although pharmacy sales of OTC syringes are associated with reduced injection-mediated risks and decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates, little is known about the factors associated with syringe purchase among injection drug users (IDUs). Using a cross-sectional design, the authors applied targeted sampling to collect quantitative survey data from IDUs (n = 563) recruited in San Francisco, California, during 2008. They also compiled a comprehensive list of retail pharmacies, their location, and whether they sell OTC syringes. They used a novel combination of geographic information system and statistical analyses to determine the demographic, behavioral, and spatial factors associated with OTC syringe purchase by IDUs. In multivariate analyses, age, race, injection frequency, the type of drug injected, and the source of syringe supply were independently associated with OTC syringe purchases. Notably, the prevalence of OTC syringe purchase was 53% lower among African-American IDUs (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.67) and higher among injectors of methamphetamine (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.70). Two neighborhoods with high densities of IDUs had limited access to OTC syringes. Increased access to OTC syringes would potentially prevent blood-borne infectious diseases among IDUs.

Stopka, Thomas J.; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wenger, Lynn D.; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Geraghty, Estella M.; Kral, Alex H.

2012-01-01

2

Demographic, risk, and spatial factors associated with over-the-counter syringe purchase among injection drug users.  

PubMed

Since 2005, California law allowed over-the-counter (OTC) syringe sales pending local authorization. Although pharmacy sales of OTC syringes are associated with reduced injection-mediated risks and decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates, little is known about the factors associated with syringe purchase among injection drug users (IDUs). Using a cross-sectional design, the authors applied targeted sampling to collect quantitative survey data from IDUs (n = 563) recruited in San Francisco, California, during 2008. They also compiled a comprehensive list of retail pharmacies, their location, and whether they sell OTC syringes. They used a novel combination of geographic information system and statistical analyses to determine the demographic, behavioral, and spatial factors associated with OTC syringe purchase by IDUs. In multivariate analyses, age, race, injection frequency, the type of drug injected, and the source of syringe supply were independently associated with OTC syringe purchases. Notably, the prevalence of OTC syringe purchase was 53% lower among African-American IDUs (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.67) and higher among injectors of methamphetamine (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.70). Two neighborhoods with high densities of IDUs had limited access to OTC syringes. Increased access to OTC syringes would potentially prevent blood-borne infectious diseases among IDUs. PMID:22562660

Stopka, Thomas J; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wenger, Lynn D; Deriemer, Kathryn; Geraghty, Estella M; Kral, Alex H

2012-05-04

3

Social network-related risk factors for bloodborne virus infections among injection drug users receiving syringes through secondary exchange.  

PubMed

Secondary syringe exchange (SSE) refers to the exchange of sterile syringes between injection drug users (IDUs). To date there has been limited examination of SSE in relation to the social networks of IDUs. This study aimed to identify characteristics of drug injecting networks associated with the receipt of syringes through SSE. Active IDUs were recruited from syringe exchange and methadone treatment programs in Montreal, Canada, between April 2004 and January 2005. Information on each participant and on their drug-injecting networks was elicited using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects' network characteristics were examined in relation to SSE using regression models with generalized estimating equations. Of 218 participants, 126 were SSE recipients with 186 IDUs in their injecting networks. The 92 non-recipients reported 188 network IDUs. Networks of SSE recipients and non-recipients were similar with regard to network size and demographics of network members. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age and gender, SSE recipients were more likely than non-recipients to self-report being HIV-positive (OR=3.56 [1.54-8.23]); require or provide help with injecting (OR=3.74 [2.01-6.95]); have a social network member who is a sexual partner (OR=1.90 [1.11-3.24]), who currently attends a syringe exchange or methadone program (OR=2.33 [1.16-4.70]), injects daily (OR=1.77 [1.11-2.84]), and shares syringes with the subject (OR=2.24 [1.13-4.46]). SSE is associated with several injection-related risk factors that could be used to help focus public health interventions for risk reduction. Since SSE offers an opportunity for the dissemination of important prevention messages, SSE-based networks should be used to improve public health interventions. This approach can optimize the benefits of SSE while minimizing the potential risks associated with the practice of secondary exchange. PMID:18038211

De, Prithwish; Cox, Joseph; Boivin, Jean-François; Platt, Robert W; Jolly, Ann M

2007-11-24

4

Social Network-Related Risk Factors for Bloodborne Virus Infections Among Injection Drug Users Receiving Syringes through Secondary Exchange  

PubMed Central

Secondary syringe exchange (SSE) refers to the exchange of sterile syringes between injection drug users (IDUs). To date there has been limited examination of SSE in relation to the social networks of IDUs. This study aimed to identify characteristics of drug injecting networks associated with the receipt of syringes through SSE. Active IDUs were recruited from syringe exchange and methadone treatment programs in Montreal, Canada, between April 2004 and January 2005. Information on each participant and on their drug-injecting networks was elicited using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects’ network characteristics were examined in relation to SSE using regression models with generalized estimating equations. Of 218 participants, 126 were SSE recipients with 186 IDUs in their injecting networks. The 92 non-recipients reported 188 network IDUs. Networks of SSE recipients and non-recipients were similar with regard to network size and demographics of network members. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age and gender, SSE recipients were more likely than non-recipients to self-report being HIV-positive (OR?=?3.56 [1.54–8.23]); require or provide help with injecting (OR?=?3.74 [2.01–6.95]); have a social network member who is a sexual partner (OR?=?1.90 [1.11–3.24]), who currently attends a syringe exchange or methadone program (OR?=?2.33 [1.16–4.70]), injects daily (OR?=?1.77 [1.11–2.84]), and shares syringes with the subject (OR?=?2.24 [1.13–4.46]). SSE is associated with several injection-related risk factors that could be used to help focus public health interventions for risk reduction. Since SSE offers an opportunity for the dissemination of important prevention messages, SSE-based networks should be used to improve public health interventions. This approach can optimize the benefits of SSE while minimizing the potential risks associated with the practice of secondary exchange.

Cox, Joseph; Boivin, Jean-Francois; Platt, Robert W.; Jolly, Ann M.

2007-01-01

5

SWIR calibration of Spectralon reflectance factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit radiometric calibrations. BRF measurements are required throughout the reflected-solar spectrum from the ultraviolet through the shortwave infrared. Spectralon diffusers are commonly used as a reflectance standard for bidirectional and hemispherical geometries.

Georgi T. Georgiev; James J. Butler; Catherine Cooksey; Leibo Ding; Kurtis J. Thome

2011-01-01

6

Syringe possession arrests are associated with receptive syringe sharing in two Mexico-US border cities  

PubMed Central

Aims To identify factors associated with receptive syringe sharing among injection drug users (IDUs) and elucidate the association between syringe possession arrests and syringe sharing. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Mexican border cities of Tijuana, Baja California and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. Participants IDUs in Tijuana (n = 222) and Ciudad Juarez (n = 206) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). IDUs were ?18 years and had injected illicit drugs in the past month. Measurements An interviewer-administered survey was used to collect quantitative data on socio-demographic, behavioral and contextual characteristics, including self-reported syringe sharing and arrests for syringe possession. Associations with receptive syringe sharing were investigated using logistic regression with RDS adjustment. Findings Overall, 48% of participants reported ever being arrested for carrying an unused/sterile syringe, even though syringe purchase and possession is legal in Mexico. Arrest for possessing unused/sterile syringes was associated independently with receptive syringe sharing [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 3.35], as was injecting in a shooting gallery (AOR = 3.60; 95% CI: 2.21, 5.87), injecting in the street (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.54) and injecting methamphetamine (AOR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.41, 5.47) or cocaine (AOR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.36). More than half of participants (57%) had been arrested for possessing a used syringe; in a second model, arrest for used syringe possession was also associated independently with receptive sharing (AOR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.76, 4.69). Conclusions We documented high levels of syringe-related arrests in two Mexican–US border cities and an independent association between these arrests and risky injection practices. Public health collaborations with law enforcement to modify the risk environment in which drug use occurs are essential to facilitate safer injection practices.

Pollini, Robin A.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Lozada, Remedios M.; Ramos, Rebeca; Cruz, Michelle F.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Case, Patricia; Burris, Scott; Pu, Minya; Frost, Simon D. W.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Miller, Cari; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2008-01-01

7

Independent measurements of Raman LIDAR water vapor calibration factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the goals of LIDAR scientists is to obtain long term monitoring of water vapor using Raman LIDAR [1]. Previous LIDAR research suggests that the measurement of water vapor can be improved by better analysis of the LIDAR system’s calibration factor. Currently LIDAR scientists generally use radiosonde data to calibrate LIDAR data. We are using a standard lamp calibration

M. N. Calhoun; D. D. Venable; D. N. Whiteman

2011-01-01

8

The Tacoma Syringe Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over a year, the Tacoma Syringe Exchange has been operating in spite of existing drug paraphernalia laws. One hundred fifty-four subjects have been interviewed regarding drug injection practices for the month prior to first use of the exchange and for the most recent month since using the exchange. Statistically significant reductions in mean frequency of obtaining used syringes, and

Holly Hagan; Don C. Des Jarlais; David Purchase; Terry Reid; Samuel R Friedman

1991-01-01

9

Syringe exchange in Germany.  

PubMed

Syringe exchange in Germany is clearly linked to a recent shift of local responses to drug-use(r) associated problem. Since the end of the 1980s, metropolitan communities in Northern and Central Germany-concerned by the emergence of "Open Drug Scenes," increasing HIV and mortality rates among drug users, and drug-use-related property crime-began to favor measures of survival-oriented drug-user help. While the Federal Government still favors repression and law enforcement efforts, they nevertheless made syringe exchange explicitly legal in 1992-some 5 years after the creation of local Syringe Exchange Programs. In general, the new approach of local authorities includes a variety of services, such as housing facilities, crisis intervention centers, primary medical care, maintenance with substitute drugs, and syringe exchange programs. The creation of pilot heroin maintenance programs is planned for Frankfurt and Hamburg. While the established programs are successfully functioning in large cities such as Hamburg, Bremen, and Frankfurt, the demand for sterile needles and syringes remains unmet in smaller cities and in the conservative governed Bundeslander (states), where pharmacies remain the primary and often single legal supply source for syringes. Another major problem continues to be the drug-use situation in prisons. Although injection drug use is common in prisons, injection equipment is not legally available for the 10,000 injecting drug users imprisoned at any given time. Two of Germany's 220 prisons started an experimental syringe exchange in 1996. PMID:9596378

Weber, U; Schneider, W

1998-04-01

10

Syringe-Mediated Syndemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One consequence of the global HIV\\/AIDS pandemic has been the emergence of a broad awareness of the potential role of syringes\\u000a in the transmission of infectious diseases. In addition to HIV\\/AIDS, the use of unsterile syringes by multiple persons has\\u000a been linked to the spread of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Leishmaniasis, malaria and various other infections. The purpose of this

Nicola Bulled; Merrill Singer

11

Spatial access to sterile syringes and the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe among injectors: a longitudinal multilevel study.  

PubMed

Despite the 2010 repeal of the ban on spending federal monies to fund syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the U.S.A., these interventions--and specifically SEP site locations--remain controversial. To further inform discussions about the location of SEP sites, this longitudinal multilevel study investigates the relationship between spatial access to sterile syringes distributed by SEPs in New York City (NYC) United Hospital Fund (UHF) districts and injecting with an unsterile syringe among injectors over time (1995-2006). Annual measures of spatial access to syringes in each UHF district (N?=?42) were created using data on SEP site locations and site-specific syringe distribution data. Individual-level data on unsterile injecting among injectors (N?=?4,067) living in these districts, and on individual-level covariates, were drawn from the Risk Factors study, an ongoing cross-sectional study of NYC drug users. We used multilevel models to explore the relationship of district-level access to syringes to the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe in >75% of injection events in the past 6 months, and to test whether this relationship varied by district-level arrest rates (per 1,000 residents) for drug and drug paraphernalia possession. The relationship between district-level access to syringes and the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe depended on district-level arrest rates. In districts with low baseline arrest rates, better syringe access was associated with a decline in the odds of frequently injecting with an unsterile syringe (AOR, 0.95). In districts with no baseline syringe access, higher arrest rates were associated with increased odds of frequently injecting with an unsterile syringe (AOR, 1.02) When both interventions were present, arrest rates eroded the protective effects of spatial access to syringes. Spatial access to syringes in small geographic areas appears to reduce the odds of injecting with an unsterile syringe among local injectors, and arrest rates elevate these odds. Policies and practices that curtail syringe flow in geographic areas (e.g., restrictions on SEP locations or syringe distribution) or that make it difficult for injectors to use the sterile syringes they have acquired may damage local injectors' efforts to reduce HIV transmission and other injection-related harms. PMID:22585448

Cooper, Hannah; Des Jarlais, Don; Ross, Zev; Tempalski, Barbara; Bossak, Brian H; Friedman, Samuel R

2012-08-01

12

Calibration of Load Factors for LRFR Bridge Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the findings of a study to determine load factors for use in evaluating the load capacity of existing bridges. The report includes recommended values for load factors and presents the methodology and data used to calibrate the factors...

F. Moses

2001-01-01

13

Prevalence of infections, HIV risk behaviors and factors associated with HIV infection among male injecting drug users attending a needle/syringe exchange program in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh are at the early stages of an HIV epidemic. To understand the dynamics of the HIV epidemic, male IDU (n = 561) were recruited from the needle/syringe exchange program in Dhaka in 2002, who underwent a risk-behavior survey and were tested for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B. Correlates of HIV infection were determined by conducting bivariate and multiple regression analyses. The median age of the IDU was 35 years, 39.6% had no formal education, approximately half were married and/or living with their regular sex partner and 26% were currently homeless. The median age at first injection was 29 years. HIV was detected in 5.9% of the IDU and homelessness was the only factor independently associated with HIV (OR = 5.5). Urgent measures must be undertaken to prevent escalation of the HIV epidemic. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:19085439

Azim, Tasnim; Chowdhury, Ezazul Islam; Reza, Masud; Faruque, Mohammed Omar; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Khan, Repon; Rahman, Motiur; Pervez, Mohammed Moshtaq; Jana, Smarajit; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2008-12-01

14

Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Important Information! Please read this ... References Information for Patients FAQs for Patients A Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse Preventing Unsafe Injection Practices Safe ...

15

Long-Term Effects of Syringe Exchange on Risk Behavior and HIV Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess stability of population-level injection risk behavior over time among participants in a syringe exchange program and com- pare factors affecting syringe sharing at two points in time. Participants of the Tacoma Syringe Exchange Program were interviewed in 1997 and 2001 using audio computer assisted self-interviewing technology. In each wave of data col-

Naomi Braine; Don C. Des Jarlais; Seema Ahmad; Dave Purchase; Charles Turner

2004-01-01

16

Dental impression syringe  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A syringe for injecting a pasty material comprising: a main cylindrical body; a piston slidable in the body; and a tube slotted in the largest part of its length and provided with a handling ring at its rear part, the internal diameter of the main cylindrical body substantially corresponding to the external diameter of the tube so that, when the tube is arranged into the cylinder, this set defines an injection chamber delimited by the internal wall of the tube and, in front of the slot of the tube, by the internal wall of the cylindrical body.

1988-11-15

17

Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most chemical analytical methods need a calibration to convert the meaurement signal into an analytical result. This chapter describes the basics of calibration, different possibilities, how to perform it and the information derived from it. The detection and quantification capabilities of analytical methods often are important if they are used at trace levels of analytes. The description of the standard addition method, a special calibration in the sample finalises the chapter.

Koch, Michael

18

Reuse of disposable insulin syringes.  

PubMed

Seventeen insulin-dependent diabetics reused 111 disposable plastic syringes (Terumo 40/80-U; detachable needle) a total of 2363 times. Each syringe was used for an average of 12.2 days (range, one to 80 days), making an average of 21.3 injections each (range, two to 126 injections). There were no injection-related infections or local reactions. Six syringes from four patients were contaminated by non-pathogenic skin organisms (Staphylococcus albus and Bacillus spp.) without any detrimental effects. Contamination was independent of duration of syringe use or skin preparation technique. The reuse of plastic disposable insulin syringes appears to be a safe, cost-saving practice. PMID:6806586

Stepanas, T V; Turley, H; Tuohy, E A

1982-04-01

19

Syringe driver in terminal care.  

PubMed Central

Continuous subcutaneous infusions of drugs by syringe driver are used often and successfully in the terminal care of patients when drugs cannot be given orally. Diamorphine is the opioid of choice because of its high solubility. If other drugs such as antiemetics, anticholinergics, sedatives, or steroids are required they may also be given by syringe driver. This method is particularly useful for domiciliary care, where the practical difficulties of providing regular parenteral analgesia are otherwise formidable.

Dover, S B

1987-01-01

20

Techniques for Calibration of the Scale Factor and Image Center for High Accuracy 3-D Machine Vision Metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques are described for calibrating certain intrinsic camera parameters for machine vision. The parameters to be calibrated are the horizontal scale factor, and the image center. The scale factor calibration uses a one-dimensional fast Fourier transform and is accurate and efficient. It also permits the use of only one coplanar set of calibration points for general camera calibration. Three groups

REIMAR K. LENZ; Roger Y. Tsai

1988-01-01

21

Early phase evaluations of GLI vicarious calibration factors for ocean-color channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GLI was launched on board the ADEOS-II on December 14, 2002. For the early phase evaluations of the observation radiances, the GLI calibration team carried out vicarious calibrations by using MOBY measurements. To achieve the calibrations, we used two methods, which utilize two near-infrared channels and the measurement of the aerosol optical thickness, to predict the aerosol optical properties. Applying these methods, we derived early GLI vicarious calibration factors for ocean-color channels.

Yoshida, Mayumi; Mitomi, Yasushi; Asanuma, Ichio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Hajime; Sasaoka, Kosei; Clark, Dennis K.; Senga, Yasuhiro

2003-11-01

22

Individual and neighborhood-level factors associated with non-prescription counseling in pharmacies participating in the New York State Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP)  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the individual- and neighborhood-level predictors of frequent non-prescription in-pharmacy counseling. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting 130 pharmacies registered in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP) in New York City. Participants 477 pharmacists, non-pharmacist owner/managers, and technicians/clerks. Main outcome measures Frequent counseling on medical conditions, health insurance, and other products. Results Technicians were less likely than pharmacists to provide frequent counseling on medical conditions or health insurance. In terms of neighborhood-level characteristics, pharmacies in areas of high employment disability were less likely to provide frequent health insurance counseling and pharmacies in areas with higher deprivation were more likely to provide counseling on other products. Conclusion ESAP pharmacy staff is a frequent source of non-prescription counseling for their patients/customers in disadvantaged neighborhoods of NYC. These findings suggest that ESAP pharmacy staff may be amenable to providing relevant counseling services to injection drug using syringe customers and warrants further investigation.

Rivera, Alexis V; Blaney, Shannon; Crawford, Natalie D; White, Kellee; Stern, Rachel J; Amesty, Silvia; Fuller, Crystal

2013-01-01

23

Barriers to pharmacy-based syringe purchase among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico: a mixed methods study.  

PubMed

Injection drug users (IDUs) may be denied purchase of sterile syringes even where purchase without a prescription is legal. This study examined barriers to over-the-counter (OTC) syringe purchase among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. A quantitative survey and subsequent focus groups were used to quantify barriers to purchase, identify their correlates and provide in-depth exploration of syringe purchase experiences. Of 627 IDUs, 81% purchased a syringe in the past 6 months and 16% were refused or overcharged. Factors independently associated with refusal/overcharging were homelessness, receptive syringe sharing, >5 uses per syringe, and number of lifetime abscesses. Few pharmacies sold syringes to IDUs, who adapted by limiting purchase attempts to pharmacies known to sell syringes consistently. Failed purchases occurred when drug withdrawal required purchase at unusual times or locations, often following release from jail. IDUs reported syringe sharing, syringe reuse, and searching through unsecured medical waste for syringes in response to failed purchase attempts. Interventions to expand OTC syringe sales to IDUs, particularly near detention facilities, will facilitate safer injection practices. PMID:20300820

Pollini, Robin A; Lozada, Remedios; Gallardo, Manuel; Rosen, Perth; Vera, Alicia; Macias, Armando; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2010-06-01

24

Barriers to Pharmacy-Based Syringe Purchase Among Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico: A Mixed Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Injection drug users (IDUs) may be denied purchase of sterile syringes even where purchase without a prescription is legal. This study examined barriers to over-the-counter (OTC) syringe purchase among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. A quantitative survey and subsequent focus groups were used to quantify barriers to purchase, identify their correlates and provide in-depth exploration of syringe purchase experiences. Of 627 IDUs, 81% purchased a syringe in the past 6 months and 16% were refused or overcharged. Factors independently associated with refusal/overcharging were homelessness, receptive syringe sharing, >5 uses per syringe, and number of lifetime abscesses. Few pharmacies sold syringes to IDUs, who adapted by limiting purchase attempts to pharmacies known to sell syringes consistently. Failed purchases occurred when drug withdrawal required purchase at unusual times or locations, often following release from jail. IDUs reported syringe sharing, syringe reuse, and searching through unsecured medical waste for syringes in response to failed purchase attempts. Interventions to expand OTC syringe sales to IDUs, particularly near detention facilities, will facilitate safer injection practices.

Lozada, Remedios; Gallardo, Manuel; Rosen, Perth; Vera, Alicia; Macias, Armando; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2010-01-01

25

Free radicals from plastic syringes  

SciTech Connect

The authors have found that disposable sterile plastic syringes can leach free radicals into the fluids they hold. The free radical they observe appears to be a nitroxide (aminoxyl radical) because in aqueous solution it produces a 1:1:1 three line spectrum with a hyperfine splitting constant of 16.9 G.

Buettner, G.R.; Scott, B.D.; Kerber, R.E.; Muegge, A. (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

1991-01-01

26

Effectiveness of sterile needle and syringe programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first comprehensive international review of the evidence for needle syringe programmes. The major, and now overwhelmingly strong, finding is that needle syringe programmes reduce HIV transmission effectively, safely and cost effectively. The size of the benefit is substantial. There is compelling evidence that needle syringe programmes reduce HIV incidence and HIV prevalence by reducing HIV risk behaviour.

Alex Wodak; Annie Cooney

2005-01-01

27

Syringe liposculpture: A two-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syringe liposcupture is a method that combines two relatively new techniques of plastic surgery: syringe liposuction and fat grafting. We can reshape the face and the body by removing localized fat deposits and reinjecting this fat where needed. When we do not reinject, we call the technique reduction liposculpture. In 1989 we introduced a new technique—superficial syringe liposculpture—to treat patients

Luiz S. Toledo

1991-01-01

28

Racial Differences in Acquisition of Syringes from Pharmacies under Conditions of Legal but Restricted Sales  

PubMed Central

Background Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and other bloodborne pathogens through the multi-person use of syringes. Although research has shown that increased access to syringes through syringe exchange programs (SEPs) is an effective strategy to reduce risky injection practices many areas of the United States still do not have SEPs. In the absence of SEPs, legislation allowing pharmacies over-the-counter sales of syringes has also been shown to reduce syringe sharing. The success of pharmacy sales however is limited by other legal stipulations, such as drug paraphernalia laws, which in turn may contribute to fear among IDUs about being caught purchasing and carrying syringes. Methods Between 2003 and 2006, 851 out-of-treatment IDUs were recruited using street outreach in the Raleigh-Durham (North Carolina) area. Data were collected using audio-computer assisted interview (ACASI) technology. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with purchasing syringes from pharmacies. Results In our study sample, African-American IDUs were one-fifth as likely as white IDUs to report pharmacies as their primary source of syringes. Conclusions Given the absence of syringe exchange programs and the relatively high prevalence of HCV and HIV among IDUs in the Raleigh-Durham area, the limited use of pharmacies as a source of syringes among African-American IDUs in this study sample is problematic. The study findings support the need for effective multilevel interventions to increase access to clean needles in this population, as well as for policy interventions, such as legalization of SEPs and elimination of penalties for carrying syringes, to reduce harm and eliminate the health threats posed by receptive syringe sharing.

Costenbader, Elizabeth C.; Zule, William A.; Coomes, Curtis C.

2010-01-01

29

High street prices of syringes correlate with strict syringe possession laws.  

PubMed

The current epidemic of injection drug use in the United States and abroad has precipitated an increase in transmission of infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human T-lymphotrophic virus II (HTLV-II) in injection drug users (IDUs) who share syringes and other injection equipment. Sharing is often due to a lack of available sterile syringes, which is, in part, a result of laws and regulations controlling the purchase and possession of syringes. These laws, in turn, raise the price of questionably sterile black market syringes, inadvertently encouraging the reuse and sharing of syringes. To date, very little information has been gathered on the street price of syringes in different communities. We surveyed 42 needle exchange programs (NEPs) in the United States in July and August 1998 to determine the street prices of syringes. The relationship among local laws regulating syringe possession, the enforcement of those laws, and street syringe prices was examined. There was a strong correlation between the presence of syringe possession laws and higher street syringe price ($2.87 vs. $1.14, p< .01). In areas with syringe possession laws, cost was significantly higher when laws were perceived to be enforced strictly ($3.66 vs. $2.08, p<.01). Street prices for syringes are an easily quantifiable indirect measure of availability of sterile syringes and may reflect syringe sharing and reuse. PMID:10976670

Rich, J D; Foisie, C K; Towe, C W; McKenzie, M; Salas, C M

2000-08-01

30

The effect on syringe performance of fluid storage and repeated use: implications for syringe pumps.  

PubMed

Syringe stiction has been reported to cause syringe pump malfunction, hence the effect on syringe performance of syringe use and the formulations used in the syringe were investigated. The force required for syringe plunger motion (at 2.5 mm min-1), when filled with soybean oil emulsion (SBOE) and with water, and the extraction of silicone oil from syringes by these fluids, were measured for Primo, Talus and Terumo 10 mL, and Terumo 50 mL syringes. The breakloose, average extrusion and maximum force required to maintain plunger motion increased after storage of SBOE for 7 days in all syringes tested (p < 0.05). The storage of water increased the breakloose force of all syringes, but only increased the maximum force of Talus syringes, and both the average extrusion and maximum forces of Terumo 10 mL syringes. The mechanism for this is most likely swelling of the elastomer of the piston due to sorption of fluid. The force was found to increase logarithmically with repeated syringe use. Electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the silicone oil content of syringe extractions. Three extractions were performed: repeated flushing, vigorous washing, and storage for 7 days with occasional agitation. Up to 69.4% of the silicone oil present in the syringes was extracted with both water and SBOE when they were stored or washed. In contrast to water, SBOE also extracted the lubricant when the syringe was filled and flushed immediately. If syringes are refilled, stored filled before use, or used over a prolonged period, particularly with a SBOE formulation, syringe striction may occur during infusion with a syringe pump. PMID:8846058

Capes, D F; Herring, D; Sunderland, V B; McMillan, D; McDonald, C

31

Higher syringe coverage is associated with lower odds of HIV risk and does not increase unsafe syringe disposal among syringe exchange program clients  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if adequate syringe coverage - “one shot for one syringe” - among syringe exchange program (SEP) clients is associated with injection-related HIV risk behaviors and syringe disposal. Design HIV risk assessments with 1,577 injection drug users (IDUs) recruited from 24 SEPs in California between 2001 and 2003. Individual syringe coverage was calculated as a proportion of syringes retained from SEP visits to total number of injections in the last 30 days. Results Participants were divided into four groups based on syringe coverage: <50%, 50% to 99%, 100% to 149%, and 150% or more. In multivariate logistic regression, SEP clients with less than 50% syringe coverage had significantly higher odds of reporting receptive syringe sharing in the last 30 days (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=2.3; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.4, 3.6) and those with 150% or more coverage had lower odds of reporting receptive syringe sharing (AOR=0.5; 95 CI=0.3, 0.8) as compared to SEP clients with adequate syringe coverage of 100% to 149%. Similar associations were observed for other main outcomes of distributive syringe sharing and syringe re-use. No differences in safe syringe disposal were observed by syringe coverage. Conclusions Individual syringe coverage is strongly associated with safer injection behaviors without impacting syringe disposal among SEP clients. Syringe coverage is a useful measure for determining if IDUs are obtaining sufficient syringes to lower HIV risk.

Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil M.; Kral, Alex H.

2007-01-01

32

A syringe that self-destructs.  

PubMed

The reuse of unsterilized syringes is spreading AIDS, hepatitis B and the African Ebola-Marburg virus. In the US 25% of the AIDS cases are related to intravenous drug abuse. In developing countries syringe reuse is related to poor health care delivery systems. In these countries syringes are used over 5 times before sterilization; in some countries the syringes are distributed by people who sell injections of vitamins and antibiotics. In 1986 Halsey challenged the medical community to design a syringe that would not transmit these diseases, and shortly thereafter a separate challenge was issued by the World Health Organization. The requirements of this syringe are its self destruction after use, little requiring retraining of medical personal, and no more than 1 cent to the cost, and be simple to make. These challenges brought 70 various syringe entries and all but 3 were eliminated. The Hopkins syringe is similar to a regular syringe except it has a polymer insert that seals up after one use. When water flows around the polymer insert it swells and closes off the passageway preventing any liquid from flowing in or out of the syringe. Another syringe seals up in 2.5 minutes which allows the health worker time to draw and inject a patient before the syringe destructs. By using hydrogels that are already approved for use in contact lenses and food substances, the safety has been tested. Companies looking at production costs estimate that the polymer insert will add only 1/4 of a cent to the cost of a syringe. PMID:12282933

Newman, A

1989-02-01

33

Basic foundations of the internal structure of the calibration factor for the gamma-ray log  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the ?-ray log calibration factor is discussed with relation to the determination of the ore grade and to geochemical applications. The influence of the physical parameters of the formation (bulk density, porosity) and its elemental composition (equivalent atomic number) on the calibration factor is shown. The two calibration factors: “wet” and “dry” are distinguished in order to determine the “dry” ore grade (in mass of radioactive material per unit mass of dry ore) and the “wet” ore grade (in mass of radioactive material per unit mass of ore in the natural geological formation). Primary and scattered photons are taken into account in the study of the calibration factor characteristics. The entire uranium and thorium radioactive families are taken into account, as well as the case when all three major sources of natural rock radioactivity are present: i.e. potassium, uranium and thorium. The influence of borehole conditions (borehole size and presence of drilling fluid or casing in the borehole) on the calibration factors are discussed. As a result the best experimental conditions for the ?-ray tool calibration have been established. The link of the calibration factors with the API ?-ray units are also presented.

Czubek, Jan A.

1995-06-01

34

Who purchases nonprescription syringes? Characterizing customers of the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP).  

PubMed

This study represents the first attempt in the USA to survey pharmacy nonprescription syringe customers at their point of purchase. We surveyed 62 individuals purchasing nonprescription syringes in seven pharmacies located in NYC and Albany, NY, USA. Three quarters of respondents purchased for illicit use, and 36% purchased for medical use, with differences found by race and gender. Half got their syringes from pharmacies "most of the time." Half had ever been refused a syringe purchase in a NYS pharmacy, with men, Blacks, and Hispanics reporting higher levels of refusals than women or whites. Two thirds reported syringe reuse but very few reported sharing. While approximately one quarter safely obtained and disposed of syringes "most of the time," two thirds used both safe and unsafe methods. Pharmacy-based syringe access programs are essential in areas not served by syringe exchanges. PMID:19434499

Battles, Haven B; Rowe, Kirsten A; Ortega-Peluso, Christina; Klein, Susan J; Tesoriero, James M

2009-11-01

35

Investigation of factors affecting the calibration of strain gage based transducers (``Goodzeit gages``) for SSC magnets  

SciTech Connect

These transducers are designed to measure stresses on SSC collared coils. They are individually calibrated with a bonded ten-stack of SSC inner coil cable by applying a known load and reading corresponding output from the gages. The transducer is supported by a notched ``backing plate`` that allows for bending of the gage beam during calibration or in use with an actual coil. Several factors affecting the calibration and use of the transducers are: the number of times a ``backing plate`` is used, the similarities or difficulties between bonded ten-stacks, and the differences between the ten-stacks and the coil they represent. The latter is probably the most important because a calibration curve is a model of how a transducer should react within a coil. If the model is wrong, the calibration curve is wrong. Information will be presented regarding differences in calibrations between Brookhaven National Labs (also calibrating these transducers) and Fermilab -- what caused these differences, the investigation into the differences between coils and ten-stacks and how they relate to transducer calibration, and some suggestions for future calibrations.

Davidson, M.; Gilbertson, A.; Dougherty, M.

1991-03-01

36

Aberrant halt of syringe pump motion: an improved system to prevent false setting of the syringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A syringe pump is used to inject precise doses of drugs having a strong action; for example, vasoactive drugs. Unexpected\\u000a and undetected halt of a syringe pump can lead to potentially life-threatening complications. We experienced a sudden halt\\u000a in the movement of a syringe pump (Terufusion syringe pump; Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) in two patients while administering norepinephrine\\u000a in the intensive

Joho Tokumine; Kazuhiro Sugahara; Kenichi Nitta; Tatsuya Fuchigami; Masanori Abe; Kouji Gushiken; Masami Oda; Haruka Okayama

2006-01-01

37

Safe Syringe Disposal is Related to Safe Syringe Access among HIV-positive Injection Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of syringe acquisition on syringe disposal among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore,\\u000a New York City, and San Francisco (N = 680; mean age 42 years, 62% male, 59% African-American, 21% Hispanic, 12% White). Independent predictors of safe disposal\\u000a were acquiring syringes through a safe source and ever visiting a syringe exchange program. Weaker predictors included living\\u000a in

Phillip O. Coffin; Mary H. Latka; Carl Latkin; Yingfeng Wu; David W. Purcell; Lisa Metsch; Cynthia Gomez; Marc N. Gourevitch

2007-01-01

38

Accelerometer calibration with nonlinear scale factor based on multi-position observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calibration of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is a key technique to improve the accuracy of an inertial navigation system. Adding more parameters into the model and reducing the estimation errors is essential for improving the calibration methods. Given its advantage of not requiring high-precision equipment, the multi-position calibration method has been widely discussed and has shown great potential in recent years. In this paper, the multi-position calibration method is improved by introducing the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor. The observation equations for the improved multi-position calibration method are established based on a nonlinear accelerometer model. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is adopted to solve the complicated nonlinear equations. In addition, Allan variance is used to determine the optimal data collection time. The accuracy and the robustness of the proposed calibration method are verified by the simulation test. The laboratory and field experiment results for a navigation-grade IMU prove that the proposed method can successfully identify the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor and improve the multi-position calibration accuracy. The comparison of several other calibration methods highlights the superior performance of the proposed method without precise orientation control.

Cai, Qingzhong; Song, Ningfang; Yang, Gongliu; Liu, Yiliang

2013-10-01

39

[Fluctuation of injection pressure of syringe pumps; the effect of syringe volumes and speed settings].  

PubMed

We measured fluctuation of injection pressure by several types of commercially available syringe pumps in order to investigate the effect of syringe volumes (Terumo syringe) and speed settings on the irregularity of injection speeds. We recorded the injection pressure continuously with various speed settings, except that one of the pumps injected irregularly at the settings of 2 and 1 ml.h-1. With 50 ml syringes, only two of the six pumps injected precisely at all the speed settings. With the other four types, a steep increase in pressure was recorded at the speed setting of 1 ml.h-1. However irregular infusion was never observed by using a syringe of a high resistant type (TOP syringe). With 30 ml syringes, injection pressures fluctuated in most of the six syringe pumps at a speed lower than 5 ml.h-1. In conclusion, changes in injection pressures depend on types of syringes, syringe volumes and speed settings. We urge not to use a 30 ml syringe to infuse vasoactive drugs with syringe pumps. PMID:8072151

Takahashi, H; Okubo, N; Naito, H

1994-06-01

40

Prevalence and predictors of transitions to and away from syringe exchange use over time in 3 US cities with varied syringe dispensing policies  

PubMed Central

Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) can reduce HIV risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) but their use may depend heavily on contextual factors such as local syringe policies. The frequency and predictors of transitioning over time to and from direct, indirect, and non-use of SEPs are unknown. We sought, over one year, to: (1) quantify and characterize transition probabilities of SEP attendance typologies; (2) identify factors associated with (a) change in typology, and (b) becoming and maintaining direct SEP use; and (3) quantify and characterize transition probabilities of SEP attendance before and after changes in policy designed to increase access. Using data collected from 583 IDUs participating in a three-city cohort study of SEPs, we conducted a latent transition analysis and multinomial regressions. Three typologies were detected: Direct SEP users, Indirect SEP users and Isolated IDUs. Transitions to direct SEP use were most prevalent. Factors associated with becoming or maintaining direct SEP use were female sex, Latino ethnicity, fewer injections per syringe, homelessness, recruitment city, injecting speedballs (cocaine and heroin), and police contact involving drug paraphernalia possession. Similar factors influenced transitions in the syringe policy change analysis. Policy change cities experienced an increase in Indirect SEP users (43% to 51%) with little increased direct use (29% to 31%). We found that, over time, IDUs tended to become Direct SEP users. Policies improving syringe availability influenced SEP use by increasing secondary syringe exchange. Interactions with police around drug paraphernalia may encourage SEP use for some IDUs and may provide opportunities for other health interventions.

Green, Traci C.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Singer, Merrill; Beletsky, Leo; Grau, Lauretta E.; Marshall, Patricia; Heimer, Robert

2010-01-01

41

Syringe and needle exchange programs: Part I.  

PubMed

Syringe and needle exchange (SANE) programs appear to be a pragmatic approach to reducing the rising incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among intravenous drug users (IVDUs). One purported indication of the effectiveness of SANE programs is lower prevalence rates of cases of AIDS or of HIV seropositivity in cities with SANE programs than in cities without such programs. In each positive comparison cited, however, the lower levels of HIV seropositivity were already present before the establishment of SANE programs. A second indicator of SANE effectiveness is a reduction in prevalence of hepatitis B in SANE program participants. Multiple factors working in concert, not simply the SANE programs, however, account for such progress; such factors include reductions in sharing of uncleaned injection equipment; legal exchange or sale of syringes at pharmacies; regular rinsing of used "works" with bleach; and epidemiologic fluctuations in the prevalence or a saturation level of the hepatitis B virus in IVDUs. A third indicator of the value of SANE programs is that they enable some otherwise unreachable IVDUs to make contact with a social or health facility. SANE programs do not facilitate the induction of new IVDUs or increase the frequency of injection by older addicts. From 60% to 90% of SANE attenders will return borrowed used injection equipment. Most participants reported that they reduced the frequency of lending or borrowing unclean injection equipment. Counterbalancing the above, SANE programs attract only a minority of all IVDUs in most cities, and they fail to attract the youngest subset of IVDUs. The attrition rate is high; only a small percentage of attenders remain with the program for more than a few months. Although many of the initial concerns about SANE programs have not been realized and there have been important public health gains to those who continue to attend them, SANE programs deserve more careful, unbiased, longitudinal research before they are established on a wide scale in the United States. PMID:8451672

Schwartz, R H

1993-03-01

42

Disposable Syringe Used as a Grease Applicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic disposable syringes have many applications in laboratories of natural sciences. This article describes the use of a disposable syringe as a grease applicator. It is possible to grease ground glasses and quickfit joints directly from the tube but then one tube can be used only by one person (whereas sometimes grease is supplied in 250 mg tin packs).

Saqib Ali; M. Danish

1996-01-01

43

Calibration of the Live Load Factor in LRFD Design Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Load and Resistant Factor Design (LRFD) approach is based on the concept of structural reliability. The approach is more rational than the former design approaches such as Load Factor Design or Allowable Stress Design. The LRFD Specification for Bridg...

E. Kim H. Salim O. S. Kwon S. Orton T. Hazlett

2010-01-01

44

A static method for obtaining a calibration factor for SRM bicycle power cranks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scientists and coaches are interested in mechanical power produced during cycling, and use Schoberer Rad Me\\\\technik (SRM)\\u000a bicycle power cranks to obtain this data. However, it has been expensive and difficult to calibrate SRM cranks, causing much\\u000a of the collected data to be unreliable. We present a static method, derived from first principles, for obtaining a calibration\\u000a factor for

Andrea L. Wooles; Anthony J. Robinson; Peter S. Keen

2005-01-01

45

Inactive xylem can explain differences in calibration factors for thermal dissipation probe sap flow measurements.  

PubMed

Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) were calibrated in three diffuse porous fruit trees and one ornamental species in the field by comparison with heat pulse probes (nectarine and persimmon), in a greenhouse on lysimeters (apple and persimmon) and in the laboratory by pushing water through cut branches (apple, Peltophorum and nectarine). Two operational methods were used: continuous (constant thermal dissipation, CTD) and discontinuous, or transient, heating (transient thermal dissipation, TTD). Correction for the radial distribution of sap flux density was with an analytical function derived from a linear decrease in flux density with depth, as measured with a multi-depth 'Tmax' heat pulse system. When analyzed with previous calibration factors, the measured sap flow was <50% of actual value. The underestimations were consistent, and calibrations for each species in the field, greenhouse and laboratory gave approximately the same factors. Reasonable values of tree water use were obtained with the new calibration factors. Evidence is provided that even though the xylem was diffuse porous, the underestimations were caused by contact of the probes with inactive xylem along their length. The average portion of probe in contact with inactive xylem, measured in stained branches following laboratory calibrations, was 0.2-0.24. Using the measured fractions to correct temperature differentials between heated and unheated probes for CTD and TTD, based on Clearwater et al. (in Potential errors in measurement of nonuniform sap flow using heat dissipation probes. Tree Physiol 1999;19:681-687) almost completely compensated for the underestimations. Calibrations are given for each species both before and after corrections of temperature differentials, along with a multispecies calibration. These results should be an important step in reconciling many reports of different calibration factors for TDP probes. PMID:24128850

Paudel, Indira; Kanety, Tal; Cohen, Shabtai

2013-09-01

46

Aberrant halt of syringe pump motion: an improved system to prevent false setting of the syringe.  

PubMed

A syringe pump is used to inject precise doses of drugs having a strong action; for example, vasoactive drugs. Unexpected and undetected halt of a syringe pump can lead to potentially life-threatening complications. We experienced a sudden halt in the movement of a syringe pump (Terufusion syringe pump; Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) in two patients while administering norepinephrine in the intensive care unit (ICU). Fortunately, the patients had only transient hypotension, which was immediately detected and promptly treated, without any untoward sequelae. As a result of the occurrence of such cases, we conducted a detailed investigation of the causes of this sudden halt in the syringe pump. We could not reproduce the aberration of the syringe pump and thus could not specify the cause in the first patient. In the second patient, however, a false setting on the syringe was suspected to be the cause of the problem. In order to prove this, we tried to reproduce the situation where a syringe pump, due to a false syringe setting, abruptly terminated while giving a "syringe loss" warning, after a period of precise functioning. Once we had determined how a false setting of the syringe could occur without the syringe pump giving off an alarm from the onset, we collaborated with the Terumo Company to revise their current instruction manual to incorporate this as a warning. We also helped in the development of a new model, including a new safety feature that would prevent a false setting of the syringe from occurring at all. This new model was released in December 2003. PMID:16633770

Tokumine, Joho; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Nitta, Kenichi; Fuchigami, Tatsuya; Abe, Masanori; Gushiken, Kouji; Oda, Masami; Okayama, Haruka

2006-01-01

47

Local anesthetic syringe ergonomics and student preferences.  

PubMed

With a diverse population of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants, there is a wide range of sizes and shapes of individuals. Ergonomic considerations have resulted in the design of many adjustable delivery systems, chairs, and pieces of equipment. Companies have marketed instrumentation specifically for people with small hands, yet little research has been done regarding the advertising claims. The objective of this study was to compare the perceptions of dental and dental hygiene students after they used a conventional syringe and a petite syringe that has been marketed as advantageous for individuals with smaller hands. The two syringes were compared for aspiration, injection, and sense of control. A total of 181 students were invited to serve as subjects in the study, and ninety participated. The study involved two phases. During phase I, students used conventional and petite syringes to give a simulated inferior alveolar nerve block injection. In phase II, students gave a simulated palatal injection using both sizes of syringes. After performing the simulations, the students responded to a questionnaire. The students reported that the petite syringe gave them control, and 62.2 percent of them preferred it to the conventional syringe. There were differences in preferences between female and male students and also differences in preferences based on students' glove sizes. The female students preferred the petite syringe when aspiration was required. Overall, the students who wore small and extra small gloves had a preference for the petite syringe and felt it provided a sense of control, a key component when learning to provide injections. PMID:19339439

Wiener, R Constance; Crout, Richard J; Sandell, Joan; Howard, Brandi; Ouassa, Lydia; Wearden, Stanley; Wiener, Michael A

2009-04-01

48

21 CFR 872.6770 - Cartridge syringe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...6770 Section 872.6770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6770 Cartridge syringe. (a)...

2013-04-01

49

Syringe Disposal Among Injection Drug Users in San Francisco  

PubMed Central

To assess the prevalence of improperly discarded syringes and to examine syringe disposal practices of injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco, we visually inspected 1000 random city blocks and conducted a survey of 602 IDUs. We found 20 syringes on the streets we inspected. IDUs reported disposing of 13% of syringes improperly. In multivariate analysis, obtaining syringes from syringe exchange programs was found to be protective against improper disposal, and injecting in public places was predictive of improper disposal. Few syringes posed a public health threat.

Martinez, Alexis N.; Carpenter, Lisa; Geckeler, Dara; Colfax, Grant; Kral, Alex H.

2011-01-01

50

Calibration of Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts for the New FHWA Design Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) calibration of deep foundation in Louisiana was first completed for driven piles (LTRC Final Report 449) in May 2009 and then for drilled shafts using 1999 FHWA design method (O'Neill and Reese method) (LTRC Fi...

M. N. Haque M. Y. Abu-Farsakh Q. Chen

2013-01-01

51

Evaluation of factors to convert absorbed dose calibrations from graphite to water for the NPL high-energy photon calibration service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) provides a high-energy photon calibration service using 4-19 MV x-rays and 60Co gamma-radiation for secondary standard dosemeters in terms of absorbed dose to water. The primary standard used for this service is a graphite calorimeter and so absorbed dose calibrations must be converted from graphite to water. The conversion factors currently in use were determined

R. F. Nutbrown; S. Duane; D. R. Shipley; R. A. S. Thomas

2002-01-01

52

Techniques for calibration of the scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques for calibrating certain intrinsic camera parameters for machine vision. The parameters to be calibrated are the horizontal scale factor, i.e. the factor that relates the sensor element spacing of a discrete array camera to the picture element spacing after sampling by the image acquisition circuitry, and the image center, i.e. the intersection of the optical axis

Reimar K. Lenz; Roger Y. Tsai

1987-01-01

53

Syringe exchange programs --- United States, 2008.  

PubMed

Persons who inject drugs should use a new, sterile needle and syringe for each injection. Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) provide free sterile syringes and collect used syringes from injection-drug users (IDUs) to reduce transmission of bloodborne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV). As of March 2009, a total of 184 SEPs were known to be operating in 36 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico (North American Syringe Exchange Network [NASEN], unpublished data, 2009). Of these, 123 (67%) SEP directors participated in a mail/telephone survey conducted by NASEN and Beth Israel Medical Center (New York, New York) that covered program operations for the calendar year 2008. To characterize SEPs in the United States, this report summarizes the findings from that survey and compares them with previous SEP survey results from the period 1994-2007. In 2008, the 123 SEPs reported exchanging 29.1 million syringes and had budgets totaling $21.3 million, of which 79% came from state and local governments. Most of the SEPs reported offering preventive health and clinical services in addition to basic syringe exchange: 87% offered HIV counseling and testing, 65% offered hepatitis C counseling and testing, 55% offered sexually transmitted disease screening, and 31% offered tuberculosis screening; 89% provided referrals to substance abuse treatment. Providing comprehensive prevention services and referrals to IDUs, such as those offered by many SEPs, can help reduce the spread of bloodborne infections and should increase access to health care and substance abuse treatment, thus serving as an effective public health approach for this population. PMID:21085091

2010-11-19

54

Prevalence and predictors of transitions to and away from syringe exchange use over time in 3 US cities with varied syringe dispensing policies.  

PubMed

Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) can reduce HIV risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) but their use may depend heavily on contextual factors such as local syringe policies. The frequency and predictors of transitioning over time to and from direct, indirect, and non-use of SEPs are unknown. We sought, over one year, to: (1) quantify and characterize transition probabilities of SEP attendance typologies; (2) identify factors associated with (a) change in typology, and (b) becoming and maintaining Direct SEP use; and (3) quantify and characterize transition probabilities of SEP attendance before and after changes in policy designed to increase access. Using data collected from 583 IDUs participating in a three-city cohort study of SEPs, we conducted a latent transition analysis and multinomial regressions. Three typologies were detected: Direct SEP users, Indirect SEP users and Isolated IDUs. Transitions to Direct SEP use were most prevalent. Factors associated with becoming or maintaining Direct SEP use were female sex, Latino ethnicity, fewer injections per syringe, homelessness, recruitment city, injecting speedballs (cocaine and heroin), and police contact involving drug paraphernalia possession. Similar factors influenced transitions in the syringe policy change analysis. Policy change cities experienced an increase in Indirect SEP users (43-51%) with little increased direct use (29-31%). We found that, over time, IDUs tended to become Direct SEP users. Policies improving syringe availability influenced SEP use by increasing secondary syringe exchange. Interactions with police around drug paraphernalia may encourage SEP use for some IDUs and may provide opportunities for other health interventions. PMID:20537814

Green, Traci C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Singer, Merrill; Beletsky, Leo; Grau, Lauretta E; Marshall, Patricia; Heimer, Robert

2010-05-26

55

Prefilled syringes: An innovation in parenteral packaging  

PubMed Central

Parenteral administration of pharmaceutical products is one of the most popular methods used to produce quick onset of action and also 100% bioavailability. Main problem occurs with the parenteral drug delivery is lack of convenience, affordability, accuracy, sterility, safety etc. Such drawbacks with this delivery system makes it less preferable. Hence, all the disadvantages of these systems can be easily overcome by use of prefilled syringes. The objective of this review article is to provide information regarding prefilled syringes; it's method of preparation, direction to use, advantages, its future scope, and development.

Makwana, Sagar; Basu, Biswajit; Makasana, Yogita; Dharamsi, Abhay

2011-01-01

56

Dependence of the LR-115 radon detector calibration factor on track density.  

PubMed

The reliability and accuracy of the methodology based on using LR-115 track detectors for radon measurements have been studied by determining the dependence of their calibration factors on radon exposure at levels reaching 13 MBq m(-3) h. This factor results not constant and demonstrated a decreasing exponential trend vs. exposure that has been explained in terms of the saturation effect and verified using a numerical simulation. This dependence does not affect the parameter that normalizes track density vs. film thickness. This parameter results constant and equal to - 0.30±0.02 cm(-2)/µm in the 300-8000 kBq h m(-3) exposure range. PMID:23694685

De Cicco, F; Pugliese, M; Roca, V; Sabbarese, C

2013-04-25

57

Characterization of responses and comparison of calibration factor for commercial MOSFET detectors  

SciTech Connect

A commercial metal oxide silicon field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter of model TN502-RD has been characterized for its linearity, reproducibility, field size dependency, dose rate dependency, and angular dependency for Cobalt-60 ({sup 6}Co), 6-MV, and 15-MV beam energies. The performance of the MOSFET clearly shows that it is highly reproducible, independent of field size and dose rate. Furthermore, MOSFET has a very high degree of linearity, with r-value > 0.9 for all 3 energies. The calibration factor for 2 similar MOSFET detectors of model TN502-RD were also estimated and compared for all 3 energies. The calibration factor between the 2 similar MOSFET detectors shows a variation of about 1.8% for {sup 6}Co and 15 MV, and for 6 MV it shows variation of about 2.5%, indicating that calibration should be done whenever a new MOSFET is used. However, the detector shows considerable angular dependency of about 8.8% variation. This may be due to the variation in radiation sensitivity between flat and bubble sides of the MOSFET, and indicates that positional care must be taken while using MOSFET for stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy dosimetric applications.

Bharanidharan, Ganesan [Division of Medical Physics and Lasers, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India); Manigandan, Durai [Division of Medical Physics and Lasers, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India); Devan, Krishnamurthy [Division of Medical Physics and Lasers, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India); Subramani, Vellaiyan [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Gopishankar, Natanasabapathi [Department of Neurosurgery, Gamma Knife Centre, CNC All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Ganesh, Tharmar [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Joshi, Rakeshchander [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Rath, Gourakishore [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Velmurugan, Jagadeesan [Division of Medical Physics and Lasers, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India); Aruna, Prakasarao [Division of Medical Physics and Lasers, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India); Ganesan, Singaravelu [Division of Medical Physics and Lasers, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India)]. E-mail: sganesan@annauniv.edu

2005-01-01

58

Adiabatic Compression in a Fire Syringe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests using better materials in fire syringes to obtain more effective results during demonstrations which show the elevation in temperature upon a very rapid (adiabatic) compression of air. Also describes an experiment (using ignition temperatures) which introduces students to the use of thermocouples for high temperature measurements. (DH)

Hayn, Carl H.; Baird, Scott C.

1985-01-01

59

Adiabatic Compression in a Fire Syringe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests using better materials in fire syringes to obtain more effective results during demonstrations which show the elevation in temperature upon a very rapid (adiabatic) compression of air. Also describes an experiment (using ignition temperatures) which introduces students to the use of thermocouples for high temperature measurements. (DH)|

Hayn, Carl H.; Baird, Scott C.

1985-01-01

60

The Disposable Syringe: More Experiments and Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a variety of experiments that can be performed using the disposable syringe. Among others, these include the removal of oxygen during rusting, convection in a liquid and in air, gas collection in an electrolysis cell, small scale production of a fog, and hydrogen/oxygen extraction from a voltameter. (JR)|

Farmer, Andrew

1973-01-01

61

Pharmacy syringe purchase test of nonprescription syringe sales in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010.  

PubMed

The two main legal sources of clean needles for illicit injection drug users (IDUs) in California are syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and nonprescription syringe sales (NPSS) at pharmacies. In 2004, California became one of the last states to allow NPSS. To evaluate the implementation of NPSS and the California Disease Prevention Demonstration Project (DPDP), we conducted syringe purchase tests in San Francisco (SF) and Los Angeles (LA) between March and July of 2010. Large differences in implementation were observed in the two cities. In LA, less than one-quarter of the enrolled pharmacies sold syringes to our research assistant (RA), and none sold a single syringe. The rate of successful purchase in LA is the lowest reported in any syringe purchase test. In both sites, there was notable variation among the gauge size available, and price and quantity of syringes required for a purchase. None of the DPDP pharmacies in LA or SF provided the requisite health information. The findings suggest that more outreach needs to be conducted with pharmacists and pharmacy staff. The pharmacies' failure to disseminate the educational materials may result in missed opportunities to provide needed harm reduction information to IDUs. The varied prices and required quantities may serve as a barrier to syringe access among IDUs. Future research needs to examine reasons why pharmacies do not provide the mandated information, whether the omission of disposal options is indicative of pharmacies' reluctance to serve as disposal sites, and if the dual opt-in approach of NPSS/DPDP is a barrier to pharmacy enrollment. PMID:22718357

Lutnick, Alexandra; Cooper, Erin; Dodson, Chaka; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Kral, Alex H

2013-04-01

62

Who Purchases Nonprescription Syringes? Characterizing Customers of the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents the first attempt in the USA to survey pharmacy nonprescription syringe customers at their point of\\u000a purchase. We surveyed 62 individuals purchasing nonprescription syringes in seven pharmacies located in NYC and Albany, NY,\\u000a USA. Three quarters of respondents purchased for illicit use, and 36% purchased for medical use, with differences found by\\u000a race and gender. Half got

Haven B. Battles; Kirsten A. Rowe; Christina Ortega-Peluso; Susan J. Klein; James M. Tesoriero

2009-01-01

63

Evaluation of factors to convert absorbed dose calibrations from graphite to water for the NPL high-energy photon calibration service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) provides a high-energy photon calibration service using 4-19 MV x-rays and 60Co ?-radiation for secondary standard dosemeters in terms of absorbed dose to water. The primary standard used for this service is a graphite calorimeter and so absorbed dose calibrations must be converted from graphite to water. The conversion factors currently in use were determined prior to the launch of this service in 1988. Since then, it has been found that the differences in inherent filtration between the NPL LINAC and typical clinical machines are large enough to affect absorbed dose calibrations and, since 1992, calibrations have been performed in heavily filtered qualities. The conversion factors for heavily filtered qualities were determined by interpolation and extrapolation of lightly filtered results as a function of tissue phantom ratio 20,10 (TPR20,10). This paper aims to evaluate these factors for all mega-voltage photon energies provided by the NPL LINAC for both lightly and heavily filtered qualities and for 60Co ?-radiation in two ways. The first method involves the use of the photon fluence-scaling theorem. This states that if two blocks of different material are irradiated by the same photon beam, and if all dimensions are scaled in the inverse ratio of the electron densities of the two media, then, assuming that all photon interactions occur by Compton scatter the photon attenuation and scatter factors at corresponding scaled points of measurement in the phantom will be identical. The second method involves making in-phantom measurements of chamber response at a constant target-chamber distance. Monte Carlo techniques are then used to determine the corresponding dose to the medium in order to determine the chamber calibration factor directly. Values of the ratio of absorbed dose calibration factors in water and in graphite determined in these two ways agree with each other to within 0.2% (1? uncertainty). The best fit to both sets of results agrees with values determined in previous work to within 0.3% (1? uncertainty). It is found that the conversion factor is not sensitive to beam filtration.

Nutbrown, R. F.; Duane, S.; Shipley, D. R.; Thomas, R. A. S.

2002-02-01

64

Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries  

SciTech Connect

A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

Coleman, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-01-08

65

Comparison of injection drug users accessing syringes from pharmacies, syringe exchange programs, and other syringe sources to inform targeted HIV prevention and intervention strategies  

PubMed Central

Objective In New York, syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and pharmacies provide syringe access for IDUs but may be unable to meet the needs of all IDUs. This analysis aims to describe IDUs who access syringes through different outlets to help inform the prevention needs of IDUs who under-utilize safe syringe sources in a city where syringe availability is high relative to other U.S. cities. Design Cross-sectional study Setting New York City (2005–2007) Participants 285 IDUs recruited using street-intercept sampling Intervention(s) Not Applicable Main outcome measure(s) IDUs using SEPs, pharmacies, or other outlets as a primary syringe source were compared by sociodemographic characteristics, injection practices and medical service utilization. Results Chi-square tests and polytomous logistic regression were used to compare IDUs with different self-reported primary syringe sources used 6 months prior to study entry. Compared with IDUs using other syringe sources, those using primarily SEPs were less likely to be Black (AOR:0.26 95%CI:0.11–0.57), more likely to inject daily (AOR:3.32; 95%CI:1.58–6.98), and more likely to inject with a new syringe (AOR:2.68; 95%CI:1.30–5.54). Compared with IDUs using other syringe sources, those using primarily pharmacies were less likely to be Black (AOR:0.39; 95%CI0.17–0.90). Conclusion These data suggest that pharmacies and SEPs may be reaching different populations of IDUs and highlight a sub-population of highly marginalized IDUs (Black and infrequent injectors) who are under-utilizing safe syringe sources in New York City. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce racial disparities and increase utilization of safe syringe outlets.

Rudolph, Abby E.; Crawford, Natalie D.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Benjamin, Ebele O.; Stern, Rachel J.; Fuller, Crystal M.

2011-01-01

66

A questionnaire survey on operability of syringe pumps for prefilled syringes.  

PubMed

Some types of syringe pumps currently available for use of prefilled syringes (PFS) require setting for syringe size which varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. We conducted a questionnaire survey for 10 nurses at the emergency critical care center of this hospital on the operating procedures of two different types of syringe pump (i.e., from turning on the power to PFS setting, PFS mounting, flow rate setting, and start of drug infusion), in terms of (1) manipulation time, (2) accuracy of task performance, and (3) operability. The syringe pumps used were: type A, TE-331S0N (Terumo Corporation), and type B, CSP-100S (Daiken Medical Co., Ltd.). The PFS product used was Inovan Injection 0.3% Syringe (dopamine hydrochloride injection; Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd.). Type A required no mode setting for exclusive use of PFS, while mode setting for exclusive use of PFS is mandatory for type B. The task process from turning on the power to drug infusion start comprised 5 and 13 steps for type A and B, respectively. Manipulation time was significantly shorter with type A, compared to type B. As for accuracy of task performance, 90% of nurses performed manipulations accurately with type A; whereas with type B, 90% of nurses were close to failing or actually failed to follow the procedures appropriately, and only 10% followed accurately. Thus, type A proved superior in 4 of the 5 points of issue except "easy to set flow rate". In conclusion, the results indicate the importance of standardizing the syringe size and other specifications through the cooperation of pharmaceutical companies and medical device manufacturers to cope with the future spread of PFS. PMID:21319034

Nishiyama, Jun'ichi; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Murata, Tomohiko; Saitoh, Keiichiro; Ajimi, Junko

2010-09-20

67

EFFECTS OF POLICE CONFISCATION OF ILLICIT DRUGS AND SYRINGES AMONG INJECTION DRUG USERS IN VANCOUVER  

PubMed Central

Background Drug market policing has been associated with various harms among injection drug users (IDU). However, little is known about instances in which drugs and injecting equipment are confiscated from IDU in the absence of a formal arrest. Methods We examined factors associated with being stopped, searched, or detained by police among participants in the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS) using logistic regression. We also examined actions taken by study participants immediately following instances in which drugs or syringes were confiscated by police. Results Among 465 active IDU, 130 (28.0%) reported being detained by police in the last six months without being arrested. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors associated with being stopped, searched or detained by police included homelessness (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.96, 95%CI: 1.86 – 8.45), recent incarceration (AOR = 3.52, 95% CI: 1.75 – 7.10), frequent crack use (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.34 – 3.74), requiring help injecting (AOR = 5.20, 95% CI: 1.21 – 22.39), and lending syringes (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI: 1.09 – 9.30). Of those who reported being detained, 34% participants reported having had drugs confiscated, and 70% of these reported that they immediately acquired more drugs. 51% of participants who reported being detained also reported having had syringes confiscated, and of this group, 6% reported immediately borrowing used syringes. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the IDU most affected by street-level policing tend to possess various characteristics, such as homeless, that place them at heightened risk for various adverse health outcomes. Our findings also suggest that the confiscation of drugs and/or needles and syringes through discretionary policing practices have potential to exacerbate drug market activity or prompt increased syringe borrowing. These findings indicate the need for ongoing evaluation of the public health impacts of discretionary policing approaches.

Werb, Daniel; Wood, Evan; Small, Will; Strathdee, Steffanie; Li, Kathy; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

2008-01-01

68

Correlates of syringe coverage for heroin injection in 35 large metropolitan areas in the US in which heroin is the dominant injected drug  

PubMed Central

Background Scientific consensus holds that if, at the outset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, injection drug users (IDUs) had had better access to sterile syringes, much of the epidemic among IDUs in the U.S. could have been prevented. In the context of preventing infectious diseases, 100% syringe coverage—that is, one sterile syringe per injector for each injection—is a public health goal. Notably, we know little about variations in syringe coverage within the U.S. and elsewhere, or about the social and political factors that might determine this coverage. Methods Using data from Holmberg (AJPH, 1996), the 1990 United States Census, the 2000 Beth Israel National Syringe Exchange Survey (n=72), and estimates of IDUs in metropolitan areas (MSAs); (Friedman et al., 2004), we explore the impact of (1) political factors (ACT UP, outreach, early syringe exchange programme (SEP) presence, men who have sex with men (MSM) per capita, drug arrests, and police per capita); (2) local resources for SEPs; and (3) indicators of socioeconomic inequality on SEP coverage. We define “syringe coverage” as the ratio of syringes distributed at SEPs to the number of syringes heroin injectors need in a year. We calculated the number of syringes heroin injectors need in a year by multiplying an estimate of the number of IDUs in each MSA by an estimate of the average number of times heroin injectors inject heroin per year (2.8 times per day times 365 days). In this analysis, the sample was limited to 35 MSAs in which the primary drug of choice among injectors was heroin. Results SEP coverage varies greatly across MSAs, with an average of 3 syringes distributed per 100 injection events (std dev = 0.045; range: 2 syringes per 10 injection events, to 3 syringes per 10,000 injection events). In bivariate regression analyses, a 1 unit difference in the proportion of the population that was MSM per 1,000 was associated with a difference of 0.002 in SEP coverage (p=0.052); early SEP presence was associated with a difference of 0.038 in coverage (p=0.012); and having government funding was associated with a 0.040 difference in SEP coverage (p=0.021). Conclusions This analysis suggests that longer duration of SEP presence may increase syringe distribution and enhance successful programme utilization. Furthermore, MSAs with greater proportions of MSM tend to have better SEP coverage, perhaps providing further evidence that grassroots activism plays an important role in programme implementation and successful SEP coverage. This research provides evidence that government funding for SEPs contributes to better syringe coverage.

Tempalski, Barbara; Cooper, Hannah L.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Brady, Joanne; Gostnell, Karla

2009-01-01

69

HIV Risk Behavior among Amphetamine Injectors at U.S. Syringe Exchange Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to compare HIV risk behaviors of amphetamine and non-amphetamine injectors at syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the United States and to identify factors associated with injection risk. This analysis is based on data from a random cross-section of participants at 13 SEPs in different parts of the country. All…

Braine, Naomi; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Goldblatt, Cullen; Zadoretzky, Cathy; Turner, Charles

2005-01-01

70

Impact of probe configuration and calibration techniques on quality factor determination of on-wafer inductors for GHz applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that the quality factors measured on on-wafer (spiral) inductor test-structures are largely influenced by the choice between ground-signal and ground-signal-ground probe configuration. In particular when the SOLT network analyzer calibration technique is used in combination with ground-signal probing, the quality factor value can be overestimated significantly.

R. J. Havens; L. F. Tiemeijer; L. Garnbus

2002-01-01

71

Effects of tissue factor, thrombomodulin and elevated clotting factor levels on thrombin generation in the calibrated automated thrombogram.  

PubMed

Elevated procoagulant levels have been correlated with increased thrombin generation in vitro and with increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in epidemiological studies. Thrombin generation tests are increasingly being employed as a high throughput method to provide a global measure of procoagulant activity in plasma samples. The objective of this study was to distinguish the effects of assay conditions [tissue factor (TF), thrombomodulin, platelets/lipids] and factor levels on thrombin generation parameters, and determine the conditions and parameters with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated factor levels. Thrombin generation was measured using calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) in corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-treated platelet-free plasma (PFP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Statistical analysis was performed using logarithms of observed values with analysis of variance that accounted for experiment and treatment. The relative sensitivity of lag time (LT), time to peak (TTP), peak height and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) to elevated factors XI, IX, VIII, X, and prothrombin was as follows: PFP initiated with 1 pM TF > PFP initiated with 5 pM TF > PRP initiated with 1 pM TF. For all conditions, inclusion of thrombomodulin prolonged the LT and decreased the peak and ETP; however, addition of thrombomodulin did not increase the ability of CAT to detect elevated levels of individual procoagulant factors. In conclusion, CAT conditions differentially affected the sensitivity of thrombin generation to elevated factor levels. Monitoring the peak height and/or ETP following initiation of clotting in PFP with 1 pM TF was most likely to detect hypercoagulability due to increased procoagulant factor levels. PMID:19888532

Machlus, Kellie R; Colby, Emily A; Wu, Jogin R; Koch, Gary G; Key, Nigel S; Wolberg, Alisa S

2009-11-01

72

Effects of tissue factor, thrombomodulin and elevated clotting factor levels on thrombin generation in the calibrated automated thrombogram  

PubMed Central

Summary Elevated procoagulant levels have been correlated with increased thrombin generation in vitro and with increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in epidemiological studies. Thrombin generation tests are increasingly being employed as a high throughput method to provide a global measure of procoagulant activity in plasma samples. The objective of this study was to distinguish the effects of assay conditions [tissue factor (TF), thrombomodulin, platelets/lipids] and factor levels on thrombin generation parameters, and determine the conditions and parameters with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated factor levels. Thrombin generation was measured using calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) in corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-treated platelet-free plasma (PFP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Statistical analysis was performed using logarithms of observed values with analysis of variance that accounted for experiment and treatment. The relative sensitivity of lag time (LT), time to peak (TTP), peak height and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) to elevated factors XI, IX, VIII, X, and prothrombin was as follows: PFP initiated with 1 pM TF > PFP initiated with 5 pM TF > PRP initiated with 1 pM TF. For all conditions, inclusion of thrombomodulin prolonged the LT and decreased the peak and ETP; however, addition of thrombomodulin did not increase the ability of CAT to detect elevated levels of individual procoagulant factors. In conclusion, CAT conditions differentially affected the sensitivity of thrombin generation to elevated factor levels. Monitoring the peak height and/or ETP following initiation of clotting in PFP with 1 pM TF was most likely to detect hypercoagulability due to increased procoagulant factor levels.

Machlus, Kellie R.; Colby, Emily A.; Wu, Jogin R.; Koch, Gary G.; Key, Nigel S.; Wolberg, Alisa S.

2010-01-01

73

Difficulty Accessing Syringes Mediates the Relationship Between Methamphetamine Use and Syringe Sharing Among Young Injection Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection drug users (IDU) who use methamphetamine (MA) are at an increased risk of HIV infection due to engagement in injection-related\\u000a risk behavior including syringe sharing. In this cohort study of young IDU aged 18-30, we investigated the relationship between\\u000a injection MA use and syringe sharing, and whether difficulty accessing sterile syringes mediated this association. Behavioral\\u000a questionnaires were completed by

Brandon D. L. Marshall; Jean A. Shoveller; Evan Wood; Thomas L. Patterson; Thomas Kerr

74

DETECTION OF ENDOGENOUS TISSUE FACTOR LEVELS IN PLASMA USING THE CALIBRATED AUTOMATED THROMBOGRAM ASSAY  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) assay measures thrombin generation in plasma. Objective Use the CAT assay to detect endogenous tissue factor (TF) in recalcified platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-free plasma (PFP). Methods Blood from healthy volunteers was collected into citrate and incubated at 37°C with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 5 hours. PRP and PFP were prepared and clotting was initiated by recalcification. Thrombin generation was measured using the CAT assay. Results The lag time (LT) was significantly shortened in PRP prepared from LPS-treated blood compared with untreated blood (10 ± 3 min versus 20 ± 6 min), and this change was reversed by the addition of inactivated human factor VIIa. LPS stimulation did not change the peak thrombin. Similar results were observed in PFP (21 ± 4 min versus 35 ± 5 min). LPS stimulation also significantly reduced the LT of PRP and PFP derived from blood containing citrate and a factor XIIa inhibitor. Finally, a low concentration of exogenous TF shortened the LT of PFP prepared from unstimulated, citrated blood without affecting the peak thrombin. Conclusion Changes in LT in the CAT assay can be used to monitor levels of endogenous TF in citrated plasma.

Ollivier, Veronique; Wang, Jianguo; Manly, David; Machlus, Kellie R.; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Mackman, Nigel

2009-01-01

75

Syringe Disposal among Injection Drug Users in Harlem and the Bronx during the New York State Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective January 1, 2001, New York State enacted the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program (ESAP), allowing syringes to be sold in pharmacies without a prescription or dispensed through doctors, hospitals, and clinics to adults. A concern in the assessment of ESAP is its effects on syringe disposal practices. Syringe use data regarding…

Cleland, Charles M.; Deren, Sherry; Fuller, Crystal M.; Blaney, Shannon; McMahon, James M.; Tortu, Stephanie; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Vlahov, David

2007-01-01

76

Ex vivo coagulation test on tissue factor-expressing cells with a calibrated automated thrombogram.  

PubMed

A calibrated automated thrombogram is not affected by the turbidity of platelet and cell preparations because the measurement is based on fluorescence. To examine conditions that mimic the physiological state, we investigated thrombograms that show thrombin generation on tissue factor (TF)-bearing cells. An increase in the number of J82 cells did not affect the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) of normal plasma, although the lag time (LT), the peak height, and the time to peak (ttPeak) did depend on cell concentration. When 5 parameters of coagulation factor-deficient plasmas were plotted on a radar graph, the thrombogram pattern of factor XI (FXI)-deficient plasma became slightly reduced. The thrombogram did not improve when washed normal platelets or washed normal platelets with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) were added. FVII-depleted plasma, FVIII-deficient plasma, and FIX-deficient plasma showed remarkably reduced peak heights, ttPeaks, and times to the end of thrombin generation (start tails). The thrombogram of FVII-depleted plasma was characterized by a remarkably prolonged LT, unlike the patterns of FVIII- or FIX-deficient plasma and FXI-depleted plasma. The ETP of FVIII- and FIX-deficient plasma, but not FVII-depleted plasma, improved significantly upon addition of washed normal platelets or washed normal platelets with ADP. The thrombograms of coagulation factor-deficient plasma containing TF-bearing cells differed from those for recombinant TF and phospholipid in the liquid phase. We suggest that thrombograms using TF-bearing cells can be a useful ex vivo test, because this experimental model may be analogous to most coagulation processes in vivo. PMID:19095614

Takamiya, O; Sakata, M

2008-01-01

77

EMI antenna calibration on an absorber-lined ground plane for measuring free-space antenna factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CISPR has been discussing the calibration methods suitable for determining the free-space value of antenna factor of an EMI measuring antenna. One of the promising methods is the standard antenna method employed on an open-area test site covered with radio wave absorbers. To evaluate the effects of absorbers, theoretical and experimental investigations are performed rigorously on the antenna impedance

Tomoki Umeda; Yasushi Matsumoto; Atsuhiro Nishikata; Yukio Yamanaka; Akira Sugiura; Kunimasa Koike

2002-01-01

78

Use of SoloShot autodestruct syringes compared with disposable syringes, in a national immunization campaign in Indonesia.  

PubMed Central

Autodestruct syringes can reduce the improper reuse of syringes, which present a significant risk in the transmission of bloodborne pathogens in developing countries, especially during immunization campaigns owing to the high number of injections given per session. SoloShot is an autodestruct syringe, distributed by UNICEF, which has been shown to be safer and easier to use than standard syringes. This study analyses the accuracy and dose-efficiency of SoloShot, compared with disposable syringes, during a national tetanus toxoid immunization campaign on the Indonesian island of Lombok. Observation and dose measurements revealed that SoloShot syringes delivered more precise and consistent doses and 15% more doses per vial than disposable syringes. Vaccine savings may partially be offset by the higher price of SoloShot. Vaccinators preferred SoloShot, describing it as easier to use, faster, and more accurate than the disposable syringe. The study indicates that SoloShot is highly appropriate for use in immunization campaigns by reducing vaccine wastage and improving injection safety.

Nelson, C. M.; Sutanto, A.; Suradana, I. G.

1999-01-01

79

Investigation of factors affecting the calibration of strain gage based transducers (Goodzeit gages) for SSC magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

These transducers are designed to measure stresses on SSC collared coils. They are individually calibrated with a bonded ten-stack of SSC inner coil cable by applying a known load and reading corresponding output from the gages. The transducer is supported by a notched 'backing plate' that allows for bending of the gage beam during calibration or in use with an

M. Davidson; A. Gilbertson; M. Dougherty

1991-01-01

80

An investigation into factors affecting electron density calibration for a megavoltage cone-beam CT system.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the use of megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) data for radiotherapy treatment planning. To calculate accurate dose distributions, knowledge of the electron density (ED) of the tissues being irradiated is required. In the case of MV CBCT, it is necessary to determine a calibration-relating CT number to ED, utilizing the photon beam produced for MV CBCT. A number of different parameters can affect this calibration. This study was undertaken on the Siemens MV CBCT system, MVision, to evaluate the effect of the following parameters on the reconstructed CT pixel value to ED calibration: the number of monitor units (MUs) used (5, 8, 15 and 60 MUs), the image reconstruction filter (head and neck, and pelvis), reconstruction matrix size (256 by 256 and 512 by 512), and the addition of extra solid water surrounding the ED phantom. A Gammex electron density CT phantom containing EDs from 0.292 to 1.707 was imaged under each of these conditions. The linear relationship between MV CBCT pixel value and ED was demonstrated for all MU settings and over the range of EDs. Changes in MU number did not dramatically alter the MV CBCT ED calibration. The use of different reconstruction filters was found to affect the MV CBCT ED calibration, as was the addition of solid water surrounding the phantom. Dose distributions from treatment plans calculated with simulated image data from a 15 MU head and neck reconstruction filter MV CBCT image and a MV CBCT ED calibration curve from the image data parameters and a 15 MU pelvis reconstruction filter showed small and clinically insignificant differences. Thus, the use of a single MV CBCT ED calibration curve is unlikely to result in any clinical differences. However, to ensure minimal uncertainties in dose reporting, MV CBCT ED calibration measurements could be carried out using parameter-specific calibration measurements. PMID:22955638

Hughes, Jessica; Holloway, Lois C; Quinn, Alexandra; Fielding, Andrew

2012-09-06

81

Needle and syringe sharing among Iranian drug injectors  

PubMed Central

Objective The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Iran. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and associates of needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. Methods In a secondary analysis of a sample of drug dependents who were sampled from medical centers, prisons and streets of the capitals of 29 provinces in the Iran in 2007, 2091 male IDUs entered. Socio-demographic data, drug use data and high risk behaviors entered to a logistic regression to determine independent predictors of lifetime needle and syringe sharing. Results 749(35.8%) reported lifetime experience of needle and syringe sharing. The likelihood of lifetime needle and syringe sharing was increased by female gender, being jobless, having illegal income, drug use by family members, pleasure/enjoyment as causes of first injection, first injection in roofless and roofed public places, usual injection at groin, usual injection at scrotum, lifetime experience of nonfatal overdose, and history of arrest in past year and was decreased by being alone at most injections. Conclusion However this data has been extracted from cross-sectional design and we can not conclude causation, some of the introduced variables with association with needle and syringe sharing may be used in HIV prevention programs which target reducing syringe sharing among IDUs.

Rafiey, Hassan; Narenjiha, Hooman; Shirinbayan, Peymaneh; Noori, Roya; Javadipour, Morteza; Roshanpajouh, Mohsen; Samiei, Mercedeh; Assari, Shervin

2009-01-01

82

Non-prescription Syringe Sales in California: A Qualitative Examination of Practices among 12 Local Health Jurisdictions  

PubMed Central

Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California’s 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to demonstrate outcomes defined in the legislation. Using qualitative methods, we examined the systems and procedures associated with implementation; identified facilitators and barriers to implementation among 12 LHJs, and documented the role of public health in initiating and sustaining local programs. We identified consistent activities that led to policy implementation among LHJs and discovered several barriers that were associated with failure to implement local programs. Factors leading to NPSS were public health leadership; an inclusive planning process, marketing the program as a public health initiative; learning from others’ efforts, successes, and failures; and identifying acceptable syringe disposal options in advance of program implementation. Health departments that were confronted with political and moral arguments lost momentum and ultimately assigned a lower priority to the initiative citing the loss of powerful public health advocates or a lack of human resources. Additional barriers were law enforcement, elected officials, and pharmacy opposition, and failure to resolve syringe disposal options to the satisfaction of important stakeholders. The lessons learned in this study should provide useful guidance for the remaining LHJs in California without NPSS programs.

Backes, Glenn; Martinez, Alexis; McFarland, Willi

2010-01-01

83

A national physician survey on prescribing syringes as an HIV prevention measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Access to sterile syringes is a proven means of reducing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), viral hepatitis, and bacterial infections among injection drug users. In many U.S. states and territories, drug paraphernalia and syringe prescription laws are barriers to syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs): pharmacists may be reluctant to sell syringes to suspected IDUs, and

GE Macalino; D Dhawan Sachdev; JD Rich; C Becker; LJ Tan; L Beletsky; S Burris

2009-01-01

84

The Association Between Law Enforcement Encounters and Syringe Sharing Among IDUs on Skid Row: A Mixed Methods Analysis.  

PubMed

The legal environment is one factor that influences injection drug users' (IDUs) risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). We examined the association between law enforcement encounters (i.e., arrests and citations) and receptive syringe sharing among IDUs in the context of an intensified policing effort. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of 30 qualitative and 187 quantitative interviews with IDUs accessing services at a Los Angeles, CA syringe exchange program from 2008 to 2009. Qualitative findings illustrate concerns related to visibility, drug withdrawal, and previous history of arrest/incarceration. In quantitative analysis, the number of citations received, current homelessness, and perceiving that being arrested would be a "big problem" were independently associated with recent syringe sharing. Findings illustrate some of the unintended public health consequences associated with intensified street-level policing, including risk for HIV and HCV transmission. PMID:23620243

Wagner, Karla D; Simon-Freeman, Rebecca; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

2013-10-01

85

21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

2013-04-01

86

The Flawed Nature of the Calibration Factor in Breath-Alcohol Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breath-alcohol analyzers used by law enforcement agencies to evaluate suspected driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) drivers are routinely calibrated with standard, dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol known as simulator solutions. The analyzers are deemed accurate if they generate results within an established margin of error consistent with ethanol concentrations equivalent to the actual concentrations of the simulator solutions. The fundamental flaw of this protocol is that it ignores the fact that a simulator solution is an ideal Henry’s law system, whereas a human test subject is not. Since breath-alcohol analysis is an application of Henry’s law, the level of accuracy ascribed to simulator-based calibrations cannot be applied to analyses involving humans because they are affected by physiological variables that can significantly impact the results of such analyses. This article addresses the importance of these variables, including blood:breath ratio variability, body temperature, and breathing pattern. Moreover, the article notes that, when standard ethanol-in-nitrogen compressed gas mixtures are used instead of aqueous simulator solutions to calibrate breath-alcohol analyzers, the same limitations of accuracy apply. Finally, emphasis is placed on the nature of the ideal calibration standard, namely that it should mimic the system to be analyzed, which is clearly not the case with the calibration protocol employed in breath-alcohol analysis.

Labianca, Dominick A.

2002-10-01

87

Stability of ampicillin trihydrate suspension in amber plastic oral syringes.  

PubMed

The stability of ampicillin trihydrate oral suspension stored in amber plastic oral syringes was studied. Commercially available ampicillin trihydrate powder for oral suspension was reconstituted according to manufacturer's instructions and drawn into 5-mL amber polypropylene plastic oral syringes. The syringes were divided into groups and stored at -20, 4, 25, 60, or 80 degrees C. Powder from two additional lots was similarly reconstituted and packaged and stored at 80 degrees C only to assess interlot variability. Immediately after reconstitution and at specified times during storage, three syringes at each storage temperature were removed and their contents analyzed for ampicillin trihydrate concentration by a spectrophotometric assay. Samples stored at frozen (-20 degrees C) or refrigerated (4 degrees C) temperature retained at least 90% of the initial ampicillin concentration throughout the 47-day study period. Samples stored at room temperature retained at least 90% of the initial ampicillin concentration for 30 days and exhibited an apparent zero-order degradation rate. Samples stored at heated temperatures (60 and 80 degrees C) exhibited an apparent first-order degradation process, with the concentration of ampicillin decreasing to less than 90% of initial concentration within two hours. Reconstituted ampicillin trihydrate powder for oral suspension is stable for at least 30 days when stored at room, refrigerated, or frozen temperature in the amber plastic oral syringes studied. The expiration dates recommended by the manufacturer for ampicillin trihydrate suspension stored in its original container can also be used for reconstituted suspension stored in these amber plastic syringes. PMID:3728487

Sylvestri, M F; Makoid, M C

1986-06-01

88

[The Baxter AS 50 syringe pump: a comparison with propofol-specific syringe pumps].  

PubMed

We used a Baxter AS 50 syringe pump for intravenous anesthesia with propofol, and compared it with a Grasby 3500 and a Terumo STC-525 X pumps, which are specifically designed for propofol infusion. The AS 50 pump is a programmable syringe infusion pump, which allows us to register up to 70 drug names in 10 categories and various infusion modes for drugs. There are 14 types of continuous infusion mode, a custom dilution mode, and three types of time infusion modes. The continuous infusion mode in mg.kg-1.h-1 is available for propofol anesthesia. Operation of this pump is simple and user-friendly, as with for the other propofol-specific pumps. Although the AS 50 pump is limited to a maximum bolus rate of 438 ml.h-1, this restriction is not a serious problem in clinical practice. The AS 50 pump is also equipped with an RS-232 C digital interface port to allow external remote monitoring or automated control. On-line simulation of blood propofol concentration is possible with a simulation program such as Propofol-Mon. Our impression is that the AS 50 pump is compact, easy to use, accurate and reliable for propofol anesthesia. PMID:11211760

Terai, T; Tanaka, M; Suzuki, N

2001-01-01

89

Investigation of factors affecting the calibration of strain gage based transducers ('Goodzeit gages') for SSC magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These transducers are designed to measure stresses on SSC collared coils. They are individually calibrated with a bonded ten-stack of SSC inner coil cable by applying a known load and reading corresponding output from the gages. The transducer is supporte...

M. Davidson A. Gilbertson M. Dougherty

1991-01-01

90

Using the Hapke Rough Reflectance Factor for Calibration of Atmospheric Emissions at Mercury and the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission lines of atmospheric constituents of the Moon and Mercury (especially sodium and potassium) must be absolutely calibrated before the abundances can be obtained. It is convenient to use the intensity of the surface at an adjacent wavelength as the standard, and to use Hapke theory to obtain this intensity. This procedure and some of its pitfalls are discussed here.

Hunten, Donald M.; Sprague, Ann L.

2002-01-01

91

Impact of increased legal access to needles and syringes on community pharmacies' needle and syringe sales--Connecticut, 1992-1993.  

PubMed

In May 1992, the Connecticut legislature passed new laws aimed at increasing injecting drug users' (IDUs) access to sterile needles and syringes (syringes); as of July 1992, pharmacists were permitted to sell and individuals were permitted to possess up to 10 syringes without medical prescriptions (nonprescription syringes). We evaluated the impact of the new laws by conducting (1) prospective surveillance of syringe sales and policies at selected community pharmacies (pharmacies) and (2) a telephone survey of pharmacy managers' reports of syringe sales and policies at a statewide stratified random sample of pharmacies. Our data provide direct evidence that most, but not all, Connecticut pharmacies sold nonprescription syringes when permitted to do so by the new laws. For example, using the telephone survey data, we estimate that during November, 1993, 83% [95% CI: 77-89%] of all Connecticut pharmacies sold nonprescription syringes and 56,000 [95% CI: 44,000-68,000] nonprescription syringes were sold, during November 1993. Our data provide indirect evidence that IDUs were purchasing nonprescription syringes at pharmacies. For example, in five Hartford pharmacies located in neighborhoods where injection drug use was prevalent, the total number of nonprescription syringes sold per month increased significantly from 460 in July 1992 to 2,482 in June 1993 (p = 0.0001). The data suggest that the new laws increased IDUs' access to sterile syringes in Connecticut. PMID:7648288

Valleroy, L A; Weinstein, B; Jones, T S; Groseclose, S L; Rolfs, R T; Kassler, W J

1995-09-01

92

Pharmacy participation in non-prescription syringe sales in Los Angeles and San Francisco counties, 2007.  

PubMed

Increasing sterile syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs) is one way to prevent HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in this population. In 2005, California Senate Bill 1159 allowed counties to adopt the Disease Prevention Demonstration Project (DPDP). Where enacted, the DPDP allows pharmacies that register with the county to sell up to ten syringes to adults without a prescription. In the current study, we describe pharmacy participation in nonprescription syringe sales (NPSS) in two counties in California and examine factors associated with NPSS. Telephone and in-person interviews were conducted in Los Angeles (LA) and San Francisco (SF) with 238 pharmacies in 2007 (n = 67 in SF; n = 171 in LA). Quantitative survey items captured pharmacy registration with the county, pharmacy policies/practices, episodes and conditions of NPSS and refusals to sell, potential negative consequences of NPSS, and staff attitudes regarding HIV and HCV prevention for IDUs. Overall, 42% of pharmacies reported NPSS (28% in LA and 81% in SF), although only 34% had registered with the county (17% in LA and 76% in SF). Many pharmacies required proof of a medical condition (80% in LA and 30% in SF) and refused NPSS if the customer was a suspected IDU (74% in LA, 33% in SF). Few negative consequences of NPSS were reported. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that the odds of NPSS were significantly higher among pharmacists who thought syringe access was important for preventing HIV among IDUs [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-7.92], were chain pharmacies (AOR = 12.5; 95% CI = 4.55-33.33), and were located in SF (AOR = 4.88; 95% CI = 1.94-12.28). These results suggest that NPSS were influenced by pharmacists' perception. NPSS might be increased through greater educational efforts directed at pharmacists, particularly those in non-chain pharmacies. PMID:20549568

Cooper, Erin N; Dodson, Chaka; Stopka, Thomas J; Riley, Elise D; Garfein, Richard S; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

2010-07-01

93

Pharmacy Participation in Non-Prescription Syringe Sales in Los Angeles and San Francisco Counties, 2007  

PubMed Central

Increasing sterile syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs) is one way to prevent HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in this population. In 2005, California Senate Bill 1159 allowed counties to adopt the Disease Prevention Demonstration Project (DPDP). Where enacted, the DPDP allows pharmacies that register with the county to sell up to ten syringes to adults without a prescription. In the current study, we describe pharmacy participation in nonprescription syringe sales (NPSS) in two counties in California and examine factors associated with NPSS. Telephone and in-person interviews were conducted in Los Angeles (LA) and San Francisco (SF) with 238 pharmacies in 2007 (n = 67 in SF; n = 171 in LA). Quantitative survey items captured pharmacy registration with the county, pharmacy policies/practices, episodes and conditions of NPSS and refusals to sell, potential negative consequences of NPSS, and staff attitudes regarding HIV and HCV prevention for IDUs. Overall, 42% of pharmacies reported NPSS (28% in LA and 81% in SF), although only 34% had registered with the county (17% in LA and 76% in SF). Many pharmacies required proof of a medical condition (80% in LA and 30% in SF) and refused NPSS if the customer was a suspected IDU (74% in LA, 33% in SF). Few negative consequences of NPSS were reported. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that the odds of NPSS were significantly higher among pharmacists who thought syringe access was important for preventing HIV among IDUs [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–7.92], were chain pharmacies (AOR = 12.5; 95% CI = 4.55–33.33), and were located in SF (AOR = 4.88; 95% CI = 1.94–12.28). These results suggest that NPSS were influenced by pharmacists’ perception. NPSS might be increased through greater educational efforts directed at pharmacists, particularly those in non-chain pharmacies.

Cooper, Erin N.; Dodson, Chaka; Stopka, Thomas J.; Riley, Elise D.; Garfein, Richard S.

2010-01-01

94

Particles shed from syringe filters and their effects on agitation-induced protein aggregation.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that foreign particles shed from filters can accelerate the rate of protein aggregation and particle formation during agitation stress. Various types and brands of syringe filters were tested. Particle counts and size distribution (?1 µm) in buffer alone or in solutions of keratinocyte growth factor 2 (KGF-2) were determined with a micro-flow imaging. Submicron particle populations were characterized by dynamic light scattering. Loss of soluble protein during filtration or postfiltration incubation was determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy and bicinchoninic acid protein assay. There was a wide range (from essentially none to >100,000/mL) in the counts for at least 1 µm particles shed into buffer or KGF-2 solution from the different syringe filters (with or without borosilicate glass microfibers). Filtration of KGF-2 with units containing glass microfibers above the membrane resulted in 20%-80% loss of protein due to adsorption to filter components. Filtration with systems containing a membrane alone resulted in 0%-20% loss of KGF-2. Effects of 24-h postfiltration incubation were tested on KGF-2 solution filtered with polyether sulfone membrane filters. Loss of soluble protein and formation of particles during agitation were much greater than that in control, unfiltered KGF-2 solutions. Similar acceleration of protein aggregation and particle formation was observed when unfiltered KGF-2 solution was mixed with filtered buffer and agitated. Particle shedding from syringe filters--and the resulting acceleration of protein aggregation during agitation--varied greatly among the different syringe filters and individual units of a given filter type. Our results demonstrate that nanoparticles and microparticles shed from the filters can accelerate protein aggregation and particle formation, especially during agitation. PMID:22674153

Liu, Lu; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

2012-06-06

95

Primary standards for antenna factor calibration in the frequency range of 30-1000 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two established methods for antenna calibration in the frequency range of 30-1000 MHz: The standard site method assumes ideal, calculable wave propagation conditions on an open-area test site with large metal groundplane. The reference antenna method uses a tuned half-wave dipole as a standard with calculable voltage at the feedpoint when exposed to a certain electric field-strength. The

H. Garn

1996-01-01

96

The Flawed Nature of the Calibration Factor in Breath-Alcohol Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breath-alcohol analyzers used by law enforcement agencies to evaluate suspected driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) drivers are routinely calibrated with standard, dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol known as simulator solutions. The analyzers are deemed accurate if they generate results within an established margin of error consistent with ethanol concentrations equivalent to the actual concentrations of the simulator solutions. The fundamental flaw of this

Dominick A. Labianca

2002-01-01

97

Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs) may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Methods Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Results Only 46 (28.4%) of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%), there were no syringes in stock (31.0%), or a prescription was required (20.7%). Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2%) reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5%) had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. Conclusions IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission.

2011-01-01

98

Sterilizable syringes: excessive risk or cost-effective option?  

PubMed Central

In recent years, many poorer countries have chosen to use disposable instead of sterilizable syringes. Unfortunately, the infrastructure and management systems that are vital if disposables are to be used safely do not exist. WHO estimates that up to 30% of injections administered are unsafe. The traditional sterilizable syringe had many disadvantages, some of which have been minimized through better design and the use of modern materials; others have been overcome because staff are able to demonstrate that they have performed safely. For example, the time-steam saturation-temperature (TST) indicator has enabled staff to demonstrate that a sterilizing cycle has been successfully completed. Health facility staff must be able to sterilize equipment, and the sterilizable syringe remains the least costly means of administering an injection. Data from countries that have acceptable systems for processing clinical waste indicate that safe and environmentally acceptable disposal, destruction and final containment cost nearly as much as the original cost of a disposable syringe. By careful supervision of staff behaviour and good management, some countries have demonstrated that they are able to administer safe injections with sterilizable syringes at a price they can afford.

Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Nelson, C.

1999-01-01

99

Examination of energy spectrum acquisition method using shielded radiopharmaceutical syringes.  

PubMed

I previously reported on a spectrum sampling method with shielded syringes before use, although the report included only data obtained using technetium-99m. In this study, we sampled the energy spectrum in a similar manner using thallium-201, iodine-123, and gallium-67. In spectrum sampling, a radioisotopic source in a cylindrical shield is located midway between two opposed gamma-camera detectors equipped with collimators. An unshielded syringe before use emits excessive radiation and makes count rates too high to obtain accurate photopeak values. With a shielded syringe, we can sample the spectrum of radiation leaked from the needle side of the syringe and the unshielded part of its plunger side. Consequently, the detectors are exposed to lower-dose gamma rays and probably offer count rates appropriate to measure accurate photopeak values. The study results show the general validity of spectrum sampling and photopeak acquisition in our method. However, a syringe should be located accurately perpendicular to each detector; otherwise, gamma rays did not reach the detectors in some cases, resulting in measurement failures. In addition, when low-energy collimators are used for sampling from (123)I sources, photopeak values depend on penetration. More accurate measurements require the use of high-energy collimators. PMID:19828931

Uto, Tomoyuki

2009-09-20

100

New York City pharmacists' attitudes toward sale of needles/syringes to injection drug users before implementation of law expanding syringe access.  

PubMed

In May 2000, New York State passed legislation permitting the sale, purchase, and possession of up to 10 needles and syringes (hereafter "syringes") without a prescription, intended to reduce blood-borne pathogen transmission among injection drug users (IDUs). To obtain baseline data on pharmacists' attitudes and practices related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and IDUs, a telephone survey was administered to 130 pharmacists systematically selected in New York City. Less than half of pharmacists were aware of the new law; 49.6% were willing to or supported providing nonprescription sales of syringes to IDUs. Pharmacists in support tended to be less likely to consider customer appearance "very important." Managing and supervising pharmacists were more likely than staff pharmacists to support syringe sales to IDUs. Managing and supervising pharmacists who stocked packs of 10 syringes and personal sharps disposal containers, pharmacists who supported syringe exchange in the pharmacy, and pharmacists who were willing to sell syringes to diabetics without a prescription were more likely to support syringe sales to IDUs. Syringe disposal was a prominent concern among all pharmacists. Those not in support of syringe sales to IDUs tended to be more likely to believe the practice would increase drug use. These data suggest the need for initiatives to address concerns about syringe disposal and tailored continuing education classes for pharmacists on HIV and viral hepatitis prevention among IDUs. PMID:11194317

Coffin, P O; Linas, B P; Factor, S H; Vlahov, D

2000-12-01

101

Calibrating the P-Factor in the IR Baade-Wesselink Method for Classical and Dwarf Cepheids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baade-Wesselink method using VJK photometry was shown by Laney and Stobie (1995) to yield apparently precise results, free of obvious systematics with phase, surface gravity and microturbulence. Here we extend the empirical calibration of the p-factor [1] to a maximal sample of galactic classical Cepheids. HADS or `dwarf Cepheids' have been shown to follow the same PL relation (at least for high-metallicity objects), and a HADS sample is therefore added in order to extend the period range and examine the variation of the p-factor with period. The derived pulsation parallaxes give a slope of 0.07+/-0.02, in good agreement with the calculations of Nardetto et al. [2]. Applying this period vs. p-factor relation to 68 galactic pulsation parallaxes gives a slope for the galactic PL relation in good agreement with the LMC PL relation.

Laney, C. David; Joner, Michael D.

2009-09-01

102

Needlestick injuries and safety syringes: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Needlestick injuries are a serious concern for nurses and other healthcare workers. One of the main clinical risks from needlestick injury is the possible infection by blood-borne diseases, such as hepatitis and HIV. A number of different measures have been introduced to minimise the risk and impact of needlestick injuries, including the use of fixed-needle safety syringes. However, some healthcare workers refuse to use such devices, for reasons that include the perceived need to change syringe needles between drawing up a medicine and its administration to a patient. This paper will explore the literature relating to needlestick injuries and the reasons commonly given for not using fixed-needle safety syringes. PMID:23752503

Higginson, Ray; Parry, Andy

103

Clean switch: the case for prison needle and syringe programs.  

PubMed

In Canada and in many other countries, prisons have become incubators for the transmission of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Estimates of HIV and HCV prevalence in Canadian prisons are at least 10 and 20 times, respectively, the reported prevalence in the population as a whole--and prevalence rates have been reported to be significantly higher for people who inject drugs. Although people who inject drugs may inject less frequently while incarcerated, the risks of injection drug use are amplified because of the scarcity of sterile syringes and the sharing of injecting equipment in prison. Making sterile injection equipment available to people in prison is an important response to evidence of the risk of HIV and HCV transmission through sharing syringes to inject drugs. In this article, Sandra Chu explains why the government is obligated under international human rights standards and Canadian correctional and constitutional law to provide prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs). PMID:20225504

Chu, Sandra

2009-12-01

104

A pilot syringe exchange program in Washington, DC.  

PubMed Central

The Washington, DC City Council authorized a pilot syringe exchange program to operate for only 60 days at a single drug abuse treatment facility in the District. Only adults on the waiting list for treatment were eligible (n = 467). Of the 33 who enrolled, median duration of drug injection was 18 years. Twenty-seven participants denied needle sharing. Of 209 needles distributed, 69% were returned. Low enrollment might have been due to restrictive entry criteria, inconvenient location, incorrect syringe size, and attitudes of treatment staff. For future efforts to have a public health impact, wider accessibility will be needed.

Vlahov, D; Ryan, C; Solomon, L; Cohn, S; Holt, M R; Akhter, M N

1994-01-01

105

Social-structural contexts of needle and syringe sharing behaviours of HIV-positive injecting drug users in Manipur, India: a mixed methods investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Few investigations have assessed risk behaviours and social-structural contexts of risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Northeast India, where injecting drug use is the major route of HIV transmission. Investigations of risk environments are needed to inform development of effective risk reduction interventions. Methods This mixed methods study of HIV-positive IDUs in Manipur included a structured survey (n = 75), two focus groups (n = 17), seven in-depth interviews, and two key informant interviews. Results One-third of survey participants reported having shared a needle/syringe in the past 30 days; among these, all the men and about one-third of the women did so with persons of unknown HIV serostatus. A variety of social-structural contextual factors influenced individual risk behaviours: barriers to carrying sterile needles/syringes due to fear of harassment by police and "anti-drug" organizations; lack of sterile needles/syringes in drug dealers' locales; limited access to pharmacy-sold needles/syringes; inadequate coverage by needle and syringe programmes (NSPs); non-availability of sterile needles/syringes in prisons; and withdrawal symptoms superseding concern for health. Some HIV-positive IDUs who shared needles/syringes reported adopting risk reduction strategies: being the 'last receiver' of needles/syringes and not a 'giver;' sharing only with other IDUs they knew to be HIV-positive; and, when a 'giver,' asking other IDUs to wash used needles/syringes with bleach before using. Conclusions Effective HIV prevention and care programmes for IDUs in Northeast India may hinge on several enabling contexts: supportive government policy on harm reduction programmes, including in prisons; an end to harassment by the police, army, and anti-drug groups, with education of these entities regarding harm reduction, creation of partnerships with the public health sector, and accountability to government policies that protect IDUs' human rights; adequate and sustained funding for NSPs to cover all IDU populations, including prisoners; and non-discriminatory access by IDUs to affordable needles/syringes in pharmacies.

2011-01-01

106

Titrated intravenous opioids from the same syringe: an infection risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: (1) To compare the rate of contamination of syringes prepared under laminar flow conditions in pharmacy with those prepared by nurses in the emergency department; (2) to determine whether the time elapsed since preparation or number of doses given affected the contamination rate; (3) to determine whether any adverse effects resulted from bacterially contaminated drugs. METHODS: Prospective, blinded trial

M Taylor; J Bourke; M Anderson; R Davey; A M Kelly; B Guthrie

1997-01-01

107

Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

2002-01-01

108

Syringe loading introduces macromolecules into living mammalian cell cytosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We describe a simple, efficient, gentle and inexpensive technique for the introduction of normally impermeant macromolecules into the cytosol of living mammalian cells growing in suspension or attached to the culturing substratum. Loading is achieved by the production of transient, survivable plasma membrane disruptions as cells are passed back and forth through a standard syringe needle or similar narrow

MARK S. F. CLARKE

109

Bilateral syringeal coupling during phonation of a songbird.  

PubMed

The syrinx of oscine birds ("true songbirds") is a double vocal organ, and each side has generally been presumed to function independently under separate neural control during phonation. A significant counterexample is demonstrated here in the production of a common vocalization by the black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus), in which the 2 acoustic sources of the syrinx interact in a nonlinear fashion. The chickadee produces a sound with multiple frequency components that superficially resemble harmonics. An analysis of vocal production after unilateral and bilateral syringeal denervation shows instead that these frequency components are sum and difference frequencies, or heterodyne frequencies, resulting from cross-modulation between the 2 syringeal sides. A limited form of this bilateral coupling may be achieved after unilateral denervation of either syringeal side but not after bilateral denervation. Unilaterally denervated birds are capable of significant improvement in coupling after 10 d, too short a period for neural regrowth. These results suggest that coupling arises from a passive physical interaction between the 2 syringeal sources which is activated or regulated in some fashion by neural control from either side. PMID:3794791

Nowicki, S; Capranica, R R

1986-12-01

110

Reported Experiences During Syringe Purchases in Providence, Rhode Island: Implications for HIV Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of injection drugs remains a public health concern, with injection drug users (IDUs) experiencing an elevated risk of morbidity and mortality. While the sale of non-prescription syringes in pharmacies is legal in most states, some pharmacists choose not to sell non-prescription syringes, or opt to sell syringes in quantities too large for purchase by many IDUs. Thus, we sought

Nickolas D. Zaller; Michael A. Yokell; Naika Apeakorang; Julia Gaggin; Patricia Case

2012-01-01

111

Brand and size matter when choosing a syringe to relieve pressure in a tracheal tube cuff.  

PubMed

We studied the use of an inline syringe as a pressure relief valve for tracheal tube cuffs during exposure to nitrous oxide to see if the technique works. Bench testing was done to determine the stick and slip characteristics of syringes of different brands and sizes. Cuffs were inflated with 20 mL of air, producing a cuff pressure of 100-120 mm Hg. Then the plunger of the syringe was allowed to passively rebound to a steady pressure at which the plunger stopped ("stick pressure"). After several minutes, pressure in the syringe was forcibly increased with a second syringe until the plunger started moving again ("slip pressure"). Stick pressure varied from 18 to 82 mm Hg depending on the brand and size of syringe used. Slip pressures exceeded stick pressures by 20-120 mm Hg. Cuff pressure increased in a linear fashion during nitrous oxide exposure, and no syringe demonstrated automatic pressure reduction. We conclude that a syringe attached to the pilot balloon connector can be used to control tracheal tube cuff pressure during nitrous oxide anesthesia. However, not all syringes are suitable for this purpose: large syringes are better than small syringes, and the Terumo brand is more suitable than BD or Monoject. The system does not work automatically, and intermittent compression of the syringe plunger to overcome static friction is required to avoid overdistension. PMID:15502046

Mac Murdo, Stanley D; Buffington, Charles W

2004-11-01

112

Millimeter Wave Calibration Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration practices for millimeter wavelengths are somewhat different than that for meter and centimeter wavelengths. There are technological, atmospheric, and historical reasons for this. This lecture reviews the specific techniques used for millimeter wave calibration and highlights the differences between these and the techniques used at longer wavelengths. The importance of the atmosphere at centimeter, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelengths is discussed in detail. Topics include specific calibration techniques such as the hot/sky chopper wheel method, variations such as hot/cold/sky schemes, sky tipping calibration, and the possibilities of subreflector-based calibration sources. Calibration loss factors including rear and forward spillover and error beam losses are described and illustrated. The TA*, TR*, and TMB temperature scales are defined. Techniques for absolute calibration are also discussed.

Jewell, P. R.

2002-12-01

113

Transition to injection and sharing of needles\\/syringes: Potential for HIV transmission among heroin users in Chengdu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional survey interviewed heroin injectors admitted in three detoxification centres from August 2003 to June 2004 in Chengdu City, China. Logistic regression and survival analysis were performed to identify factors associated with sharing of needles\\/syringes and time from initiation of heroin to adoption of injection, respectively. Out of 266 subjects studied, 206 (77.44%) were males, 103 (38.72%) never shared

Dick Chamla; Josephine Helen Chamla; Wu Dabin; Han Delin; Nathalie Rennes

2006-01-01

114

Fluctuations in syringe-pump infusions: association with blood pressure variations in infants.  

PubMed

Flow continuity of two brands of syringe pumps and four brands of syringes was studied as a possible cause of hemodynamic fluctuations observed in neonates. Cyclical fluctuations were observed in the blood pressure of 14 neonates receiving dopamine infusions by syringe pump at flow rates from 0.2 to 1 mL/hr. Atom 235 and IVAC 770 pumps and various sizes of Terumo, Becton Dickinson, Omnifix, and IVAC syringes were evaluated. Flow continuity was assessed by using a gravimetric technique. The force needed to initiate and maintain syringe plunger motion was also measured. Noncontinuous flow was encountered most commonly with Terumo syringes, which delivered boluses at regular intervals at flow rates up to 5 mL/hr. The interval was dependent on flow rate and was similar to the time between the blood pressure fluctuations observed clinically. The syringe plunger force exhibited regular fluctuations indicative of the plunger sticking, and simultaneous measurement of flow established a direct temporal relationship with boluses. The other syringes tested did not exhibit such fluctuations. No differences were found between the two syringe pumps. Syringe plunger sticking, resulting in intermittent boluses and potential blood pressure fluctuations, may occur at low flow rates and with certain syringe brands. This appeared to be the cause of hemodynamic fluctuations in neonates receiving dopamine infusions. PMID:7583827

Capes, D F; Dunster, K R; Sunderland, V B; McMillan, D; Colditz, P B; McDonald, C

1995-08-01

115

Investigation of alpha and beta self-absorption factors in the calibration of water sample measurements.  

PubMed

Detector efficiencies and self-absorption factors for a variety of sample preparation methods and naturally occurring dissolved ions have been studied for the gross alpha and gross beta measurement of water samples. The most consistent results are obtained for samples prepared by evaporation of small volumes of water under an infrared lamp. Due to its uniform and homogeneous deposition in the cupped stainless steel planchet, CaCO? was found to best serve as the dry residue radionuclide carrier in this study. Detector efficiencies and self-absorption factors for gross alpha and gross beta measurements closely follow the expected exponential and logarithmic dependence, respectively. PMID:22739965

Valentin, C P; Kratky, J; Brandl, A

2012-08-01

116

Reuse prevention syringes for reconstitution of lyophilized vaccines: Operational study and UNICEF plans for expanding introduction.  

PubMed

Since the 1990s, the United Nation's Children's Fund has encouraged injection safety for immunizations through bundling vaccines with appropriate amounts of supporting equipment and by supplying autodisable (AD) syringes for injections. However, poor vaccine reconstitution practices continue to be reported worldwide. By 2009, UNICEF will begin to phase out the distribution of standard disposable syringes for vaccine reconstitution and replace them with reuse prevention (RUP) syringes, with a full transition expected by the end of 2010. A field evaluation in Indonesia was conducted to identify introduction requirements, issues with healthcare worker training and acceptance, and RUP syringe performance and safety. Managers and health workers felt that RUP syringes improved injection safety and fit easily into country logistical systems. Healthcare workers felt they were intuitive to use, but recommended special training. The integration of RUP reconstitution syringes by UNICEF could increase injection safety by preventing the reuse of syringes and reducing vaccine contamination. PMID:19267121

Fleming, Jessica A; Hoekstra, Edward John; Moniaga, Vanda; Widjaya, Anton; Soepardi, Jane; Supartha, Nyoman; Salovaara, Annika; Khamassi, Selma; Nelson, Carib

117

Embedded nanomicro syringe on chip for molecular therapy  

PubMed Central

Background A novel nanomicro syringe system was proposed for drug storage and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator and atomic buffer. A PANDA ring is a modified optical add/drop filter, named after the well known Chinese bear. In principle, the molecule/drug is trapped by the force generated by different combinations of gradient fields and scattering photons within the PANDA ring. A nanomicro needle system can be formed by optical vortices in the liquid core waveguide which can be embedded on a chip, and can be used for long-term treatment. By using intense optical vortices, the required genes/molecules can be trapped and transported dynamically to the intended destinations via the nanomicro syringe, which is available for drug delivery to target tissues, in particular tumors. The advantage of the proposed system is that by confining the treatment area, the effect can be decreased. The use of different optical vortices for therapeutic efficiency is also discussed.

Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Suwanpayak, Nathaporn; Kulsirirat, Kathawut; Suttirak, Saisudawan; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha P

2011-01-01

118

Comparison of Response Surface Methodology and a One-Factor-At-A-Time Approach as Calibration Techniques for the Bioplume-II Simulation Model of Contaminant Biodegradation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis compared Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to the one-factor-at-a-time approach for calibrating the Bioplume-II simulation model of contaminant biodegradation. The MADE-2 data set from Columbus Air Force Base, Mississippi was used. The one-fa...

B. Shuman

1995-01-01

119

A comparison of syringe disposal practices among injection drug users in a city with versus a city without needle and syringe programs  

PubMed Central

Background The United States (U.S.) approved use of federal funds for needle and syringe programs (NSPs) in December 2009. This study compares syringe disposal practices in a U.S. city with NSPs to a U.S. city without NSPs by examining the prevalence of improperly discarded syringes in public places and the self-reported syringe disposal practices of injection drug users (IDUs) in the two cities. Methods We conducted visual inspection walkthroughs in a random sample of the top-quartile of drug-affected neighborhoods in San Francisco, California (a city with NSPs) and Miami, Florida (a city without NSPs). We also conducted quantitative surveys of adult IDUs in San Francisco (N=602) and Miami (N=448). Results In the visual inspections, we found 44 syringes/1000 census blocks in San Francisco, and 371/1000 census blocks in Miami. Survey results showed that in San Francisco 13% of syringes IDUs reported using in the 30 days preceding the study interviews were disposed of improperly versus 95% of syringes by IDUs in Miami. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, IDUs in Miami had over 34 times the adjusted odds of public syringe disposal relative to IDUs in San Francisco (adjusted odds ratio=34.2, 95% CI = 21.92, 53.47). Conclusions We found eight-fold more improperly disposed syringes on walkthroughs in the city without NSPs compared to the city with NSPs, which was corroborated by survey data. NSPs may help IDUs dispose of their syringes safely in cities with large numbers of IDUs.

Tookes, Hansel E.; Kral, Alex H.; Wenger, Lynn D.; Cardenas, Gabriel A.; Martinez, Alexis N.; Sherman, Recinda L.; Pereyra, Margaret; Forrest, David W.; Lalota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R.

2012-01-01

120

Greater Drug Injecting Risk for HIV, HBV, and HCV Infection in a City Where Syringe Exchange and Pharmacy Syringe Distribution are Illegal  

PubMed Central

Comparing drug-injecting risk between cities that differ in the legality of sterile syringe distribution for injection drug use provides a natural experiment to assess the efficacy of legalizing sterile syringe distribution as a structural intervention to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other parenterally transmitted infections among injection drug users (IDUs). This study compares the parenteral risk for HIV and hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection among IDUs in Newark, NJ, USA, where syringe distribution programs were illegal during the period when data were collected, and New York City (NYC) where they were legal. IDUs were nontreatment recruited, 2004–2006, serotested, and interviewed about syringe sources and injecting risk behaviors (prior 30 days). In multivariate logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for city differences are estimated controlling for potential city confounders. IDUs in Newark (n?=?214) vs. NYC (n?=?312) were more likely to test seropositive for HIV (26% vs. 5%; AOR?=?3.2; 95% CI?=?1.6, 6.1), antibody to the HBV core antigen (70% vs. 27%; AOR?=?4.4; 95% CI?=?2.8, 6.9), and antibody to HCV (82% vs. 53%; AOR?=?3.0; 95% CI?=?1.8, 4.9), were less likely to obtain syringes from syringe exchange programs or pharmacies (AOR?=?0.004; 95% CI?=?0.001, 0.01), and were more likely to obtain syringes from street sellers (AOR?=?74.0; 95% CI?=?29.9, 183.2), to inject with another IDU’s used syringe (AOR?=?2.3; 95% CI?=?1.1, 5.0), to reuse syringes (AOR?=?2.99; 95% CI?=?1.63, 5.50), and to not always inject once only with a new, sterile syringe that had been sealed in a wrapper (AOR?=?5.4; 95% CI?=?2.9, 10.3). In localities where sterile syringe distribution is illegal, IDUs are more likely to obtain syringes from unsafe sources and to engage in injecting risk behaviors. Legalizing and rapidly implementing sterile syringe distribution programs are critical for reducing parenterally transmitted HIV, HBV, and HCV among IDUs.

Zhao, Mingfang; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Cisek, Linda; Friedman, Samuel R.; Baxter, Robert C.

2008-01-01

121

The legal strategies used in operating syringe exchange programs in the United States.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This study sought to identify the strategies used by syringe exchange programs to establish their legality. METHODS. Statutes, court decisions, published studies of exchange programs, and news stories were reviewed, and telephone interviews were conducted with syringe exchange personnel. RESULTS. Twenty-seven exchanges have been authorized by amendments to or judicial interpretations of state drug laws or by administrative action under such laws, or operate in a state that has no laws regulating needles. At least 13 programs operate under claims of legality based on local interpretations of state law, principally public health law. The remaining syringe exchanges operate without a claim of legality. CONCLUSIONS. The deployment of syringe exchanges has been hindered by concerns about their legal status. This study shows that the applicability of drug laws to syringe exchange is open to dispute, and that local public health authorities may under some circumstances rely on their own legal authority to fund or operate syringe exchange programs.

Burris, S; Finucane, D; Gallagher, H; Grace, J

1996-01-01

122

A national physician survey on prescribing syringes as an HIV prevention measure  

PubMed Central

Background Access to sterile syringes is a proven means of reducing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), viral hepatitis, and bacterial infections among injection drug users. In many U.S. states and territories, drug paraphernalia and syringe prescription laws are barriers to syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs): pharmacists may be reluctant to sell syringes to suspected IDUs, and police may confiscate syringes or arrest IDUs who cannot demonstrate a "legitimate" medical need for the syringes they possess. These barriers can be addressed by physician prescription of syringes. This study evaluates physicians' willingness to prescribe syringes, using the theory of planned behavior to identify key behavioral influences. Methods We mailed a survey to a representative sample of physicians from the American Medical Association physician database. Non-responding physicians were then called, faxed, or re-sent the survey, up to four times. Results Twenty percent responded to the survey. Although less than 1 percent of respondents had ever prescribed syringes to a known injection drug user, more than 60% of respondents reported that they would be willing to do so. Physicians' willingness to prescribe syringes was best predicted by the belief that it was a feasible and effective intervention, but individual and peer attitudes were also significant. Conclusion This was the first nationwide survey of the physician willingness to prescribe syringes to IDUs. While the majority of respondents were willing to consider syringe prescription in their clinical practices, multiple challenges need to be addressed in order to improve physician knowledge and attitudes toward IDUs.

Macalino, GE; Sachdev, D Dhawan; Rich, JD; Becker, C; Tan, LJ; Beletsky, L; Burris, S

2009-01-01

123

A sodium bicarbonate-acid powered blow-gun syringe for remote injection of wildlife.  

PubMed

An automatic blow-gun syringe which uses carbon dioxide gas as the injecting force is described. Upon striking the animal, carbon dioxide gas is released by the chemical combination of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and acid (vinegar), within the blow-gun syringe. The syringe has been used successfully with captive collared peccaries (Dicotyles tajacu). It has the advantages of longer stability, dependable gas expansion, reduction of drug loss, and consistent drug injection. PMID:6302330

Lochmiller, R L; Grant, W E

1983-01-01

124

Microparticle-associated tissue factor activity measured with the Zymuphen MP-TF kit and the calibrated automated thrombogram assay.  

PubMed

There is increasing clinical interest for measuring microparticle (MP)-associated tissue factor (TF) activity owing to its possible role as a prothrombotic biomarker in a variety of diseases. However, the methods used are to various extents hampered by lack of (pre)analytical standardization as well as limited published documentation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Zymuphen MP-TF kit and the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) assay in measuring MP-associated TF activity in plasma using a Neisseria meningitidis (Nm)-stimulated whole blood model. In addition, (pre)analytical variables like centrifugation procedures, freezing/thawing and the effect of addition of exogenous phosphatidylserine in plasma were evaluated in the CAT assay. Citrate-anticoagulated blood was stimulated with Nm bacteria for 4 h before platelet-poor plasma (PPP) or platelet-free plasma (PFP) were prepared and assayed with either of the two methods. Nm dose-dependently (10-10 bacteria/ml) induced TF-specific activity, measured as decreased lagtimes, in the CAT assay. The Zymuphen MP-TF kit also detected TF activity, although much higher Nm doses (10?bacteria/ml) were required to achieve measurable levels. Neither freezing/thawing nor the use of PPP vs. PFP influenced the TF activity, measured over a broad range of lagtimes, in the CAT assay. In conclusion, changes in lagtime in the CAT assay reflected levels of MP-associated TF activity in a more sensitive manner than the Zymuphen MP-TF kit did, in our Nm-stimulated whole blood system. PMID:22732249

Hellum, Marit; Øvstebø, Reidun; Trøseid, Anne-Marie S; Berg, Jens P; Brandtzaeg, Petter; Henriksson, Carola E

2012-09-01

125

Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Coupled Offline to Matrix Assisted Laser Desoprtion/Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Syringe Pump Mobilization  

PubMed Central

This work presents several critical details for making cIEF-MALDI-MS a robust technique which will allow for more routine application and aid in automation. This includes emphasis on the hardware necessary for syringe pump mobilization and proper protocol for preventing disruption from gas bubbles. Following these guidelines, excellent elution time reproducibility is demonstrated for six pI markers (RSD < 5%). Additionally, the pI markers are used to calibrate the pH gradient and determine experimental pIs of proteins detected offline by mass spectrometry. This was demonstrated using a standard protein mixture of myoglobin and two forms of ?-lactoglobulin. Experimental determination of protein pIs and molecular weights were found to be in agreement with literature values. The technical details discussed provide a sound foundation for applying the offline coupling of MALDI-MS with cIEF.

Weiss, Noah G.; Zwick, Nicole L.; Hayes, Mark A.

2012-01-01

126

Multisyringe flow injection analysis system for automation of standard addition calibration method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the multi-channel features of multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) were exploited for the first time to implement calibration based on standard addition method (SAM). For this, standard solutions containing different concentrations of target analyte were placed in each syringe of the multisyringe and connected to a flow network where in-line mixing of sample and standard through

João Rodrigo Santos; Marcela A. Segundo; José L. F. C. Lima; Mauro Korn

2009-01-01

127

New York City pharmacists' attitudes toward sale of needles\\/syringes to injection drug users before implementation of law expanding syringe access  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 2000, New York State passed legislation permitting the sale, purchase, and possession of up to 10 needles and syringes\\u000a (hereafter “syringes”) without a prescription, intended to reduce blood-borne pathogen transmission among injection drug users\\u000a (IDUs). To obtain baseline data on pharmacists' attitudes and practices related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention\\u000a and IDUs, a telephone survey was administered

Phillip O. Coffin; Benjamin P. Linas; Stephanie H. Factor; David Vlahov

2000-01-01

128

Syringe access for the prevention of blood borne infections among injection drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases in the United States are associated with the practice of sharing of injection equipment and are preventable through the once-only use of syringes, needles and other injection equipment. DISCUSSION: Sterile syringes may be obtained legally by 4 methods depending on the state. They may be purchased over the counter, prescribed, obtained at

Sharon Stancliff; Bruce Agins; Josiah D Rich; Scott Burris

2003-01-01

129

Determination of the Specific Heat Ratio of a Gas in a Plastic Syringe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The rapid compression or expansion of a gas in a plastic syringe is a poor approximation of an adiabatic process. Heat exchange with the walls of the syringe brings the gas to equilibrium in an amount of time that is not significantly greater than the length of the compression or expansion itself. Despite this limitation, it is still possible to…

Chamberlain, Jeff

2010-01-01

130

Determination of the Specific Heat Ratio of a Gas in a Plastic Syringe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid compression or expansion of a gas in a plastic syringe is a poor approximation of an adiabatic process. Heat exchange with the walls of the syringe brings the gas to equilibrium in an amount of time that is not significantly greater than the length of the compression or expansion itself. Despite this limitation, it is still possible to…

Chamberlain, Jeff

2010-01-01

131

Viability of fat obtained by syringe suction lipectomy: effects of local anesthesia with lidocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of transplantation of free autologous fat obtained by blunt syringe suction lipectomy are unpredictable. We examined if adipose tissue viability is compromised by using syringe suction lipectomy and by infiltration of the tissue with local anesthetics. As reference, we used adipose tissue samples excised during elective surgery. Fat obtained intraoperatively and by lipectomy was digested with collagenase to

John H. Moore; Jerzy W. Kolaczynski; Luz M. Morales; Robert V. Considine; Zbigniew Pietrzkowski; Penny F. Noto; Jose F. Caro

1995-01-01

132

Pharmacy access to syringes among injecting drug users: follow-up findings from Hartford, Connecticut.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To break the link between drug use and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in 1992 the state of Connecticut rescinded a 14-year ban on pharmacy sales of syringes without a physician's prescription. In 1993, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) evaluated the impact of the new legislation on access to syringes among injecting drug users (IDUs) and found an initial pattern of expanded access. However, it also found that some pharmacies, after negative experiences with IDU customers, reverted to requiring a prescription. This chapter reports findings from a four-year follow-up study of current IDU access to over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy syringes in Hartford, Connecticut. METHODS: Through structured interviews, brief telephone interviews, and mailed surveys, data on nonprescription syringe sale practices were collected on 27 pharmacies, including 18 of the 21 pharmacies in Hartford and none from pharmacies in contiguous towns, during June and July 1997. Interview data on pharmacy syringe purchase from two sample of IDUs, a group of out-of-treatment injectors recruited through street outreach, and a sample of users of the Hartford Needle Exchange Program, also are reported. RESULTS: The study found that, while market trends as well as negative experiences have further limited pharmacy availability of nonprescription syringes, pharmacies remain an important source of sterile syringes for IDUs. However, the distribution of access in not even; in some areas of the city it is much easier to purchase nonprescription syringes than in other. All of the seven pharmacies located on the north end of Hartford reported that they had a policy of selling OTC syringes, whereas only six (54.5%) of the II pharmacies located on the south end have such a policy. Overt racial discrimination was not found to be a barrier to OTC access to syringes. CONCLUSIONS: To further decrease acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk among IDUs, there is a need for public education to counter empirically unsupported stereotypes about IDUs that diminish their access to health care and AIDS prevention resources and services. In states or cities where pharmacy sale of nonprescription syringes is illegal, policy makers should examine the benefits of removing existing barriers to sterile syringe acquisition. In cases in which pharmacy sale of nonprescription syringes is legal, local health departments should implement educational programs to inform pharmacy staff and management about the critically important role low-cost (or cost-free), sterile syringe access can play in HIV prevention.

Singer, M; Baer, H A; Scott, G; Horowitz, S; Weinstein, B

1998-01-01

133

Regulating controversial programs for unpopular people: methadone maintenance and syringe exchange programs.  

PubMed Central

One third of all cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States are associated with the injection of illicit drugs. There is mounting evidence for the effectiveness of syringe exchange programs in reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behavior and HIV transmission among injection drug users. Expansion of syringe exchange would require increased public funding and undoubtedly would include government regulation of syringe exchanges. An analogy is drawn with the present system of regulation of methadone maintenance treatment programs and possible regulation of syringe exchange programs. Specific recommendations are offered to reduce the likelihood of repeating the regulatory problems of methadone maintenance treatment in future regulation of syringe exchange programs. Images p1581-a

Des Jarlais, D C; Paone, D; Friedman, S R; Peyser, N; Newman, R G

1995-01-01

134

Adverse event associated with a change in nonprescription syringe sale policy  

PubMed Central

Objective To report and describe the possible correlation of a change in syringe sale policy at a community pharmacy with an adverse clinical outcome. Setting Providence, RI, in summer 2009. Patient description 27-year-old white woman with a long-standing history of chronic relapsing opiate addiction and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. Case summary The patient presented to the hospital emergency department with 5 days of severe diffuse pain, swelling in her hands and feet, and several days of rigors with fevers, sweats, and chills. She was diagnosed with sepsis resulting from a disseminated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics, neurosurgical drainage of an epidural abscess, intensive care unit care for 1 week, and acute hospitalization for 8 weeks. Main outcome measures Not applicable. Results A few weeks before the patient was hospitalized, pharmacists at her local neighborhood pharmacy decided to stop selling syringes in packages of 10. Instead, syringes were sold at a minimum quantity of 100. The patient did not know where to obtain sterile syringes and began reusing syringes. Conclusion The patient introduced pathogenic bacteria from her skin into her bloodstream through unsafe injection practices. The change in syringe sale policy at her local pharmacy likely inadvertently contributed to this severe and life-threatening situation. Consideration of the implications of syringe sale policy must include an understanding of the barriers that influence individual pharmacist’s decisions regarding particular store policies that affect over-the-counter syringe sales. Legalized sale of nonprescription syringes in community pharmacies alone is not enough to curb the epidemic of unsafe injection practices in the United States. All medical risks that are inherent in the use of unsafe syringes, including blood-borne viral pathogens (e.g., HIV, HCV) and bacterial infections (e.g., MRSA), should be considered.

Zaller, Nickolas D.; Yokell, Michael A.; Jeronimo, Alexandra; Bratberg, Jeffrey P.; Case, Patricia; Rich, Josiah D.

2010-01-01

135

[Trial manufacture of a plunger shield for a disposable plastic syringe].  

PubMed

A syringe-type radiopharmaceutical being supplied by a manufacturer has a syringe shield and a plunger shield, whereas an in-hospital labeling radiopharmaceutical is administered by a disposable plastic syringe without the plunger shield. In cooperation with Nihon Medi-Physics Co. Ltd., we have produced a new experimental plunger shield for the disposable plastic syringe. In order to evaluate this shielding effect, we compared the leaked radiation doses of our plunger shield with those of the syringe-type radiopharmaceutical (Medi shield type). Our plunger shield has a lead plate of 21 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick. This shield is equipped with the plunger-end of a disposal plastic syringe. We sealed 99mTc solution into a plastic syringe (Terumo Co.) of 5 ml with our plunger shield and Medi shield type of 2 ml. We measured leaked radiation doses around syringes using fluorescent glass dosimeters (Dose Ace). The number of measure points was 18. The measured doses were converted to 70 microm dose equivalent at 740 MBq of radioactivity. The results of our plunger shield and the Medi shield type were as follows: 4-13 microSv/h and 3-14 microSv/h at shielding areas, 3-545 microSv/h and 6-97 microSv/h at non-shielding areas, 42-116 microSv/h and 88-165 microSv/h in the vicinity of the syringe shield, and 1071 microSv/h and 1243 microSv/h at the front of the needle. For dose rates of shielding areas around the syringe, the shielding effects were approximately the same as those of the Medi shield type. In conclusion, our plunger shield may be useful for reducing finger exposure during the injection of an in-hospital labeled radiopharmaceutical. PMID:18772534

Murakami, Shigeki; Emoto, Takashi; Mori, Hiroshige; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Kubo, Naoki

2008-08-20

136

A new syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium in groundwaters and geothermal fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present details of a newly designed syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH). The device is composed of a commercially available syringe pump connected to coils of Cu tubing, which interface the syringe and the groundwater or geothermal wellhead. Through test deployments at geothermal wells in Iceland and California, we show that well fluids

P. H. Barry; D. R. Hilton; M. D. Tryon; K. M. Brown; J. T. Kulongoski

2009-01-01

137

re ported exp eriences During Syringe Purchases in Providence, rho de is land: im plications for H i V Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of injection drugs remains a public health concern, with injection drug users (IDUs) experiencing an elevated risk of morbidity and mortality. While the sale of non- prescription syringes in pharmacies is legal in most states, some pharmacists choose not to sell non-prescription syringes, or opt to sell syringes in quantities too large for purchase by many IDUs. Thus, we

Nickolas D. Zaller; Michael A. Yokell; Naika Apeakorang

2012-01-01

138

Needle and syringe cleaning practices among injection drug users.  

PubMed

Bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) of needles and syringes (NS) has been advocated as a risk-reduction intervention against HIV among injection drug users (IDUs). The effect of needle exchange on the BMD practices of 176 NS-sharing IDUs was evaluated. IDUs were randomly assigned to either 1) Pharmacy Sales Condition, access to NS via legal sales of nonprescription NS; or 2) Needle Exchange Condition, with additional access to NS via an experimental needle exchange program. Repeated measures analysis revealed a main effect of time on BMD, no effect of assignment condition, and no time by assignment interaction. Logistic regression revealed IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. Future interventions should incorporate behavioral BMD components and address the concerns of those who trade sex for money or drugs. PMID:12206065

Fisher, Dennis G; Harbke, Colin R; Canty, John R; Reynolds, Grace L

2002-01-01

139

Dual Syringe Electrospinning of FNfds-modified Hyaluronic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We described the fabrication of a unique HA nanofibrous scaffold using dual syringe reactive electrospinning. 3^'-dithiobis(propanoic dihydrazide)-modified HA (HA-DTPH) and Poly (ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) were selected as the cross-linking system. PEO was blended with HA-DTPH to facilitate the fiber formation. Fibronectin functional domains (FNfds) were incorporated with PEGDA and covalently linked to HA via conjugate addition to improve the cell attachment. The as-spun scaffold was soaked into DI water to remove PEO and yield an FNfds-modified HA-DTPH nanofibrous scaffold. Human dermal fibroblasts CF31 were seeded on FNfds-modified HA-DTPH scaffolds. The CF31 fibroblasts showed a unique extended dendritic morphology which is opposed to the typical flattened morphology of cells on regular 2D geometries. Supported by NSF-MRSEC.

Ji, Yuan; Ghosh, Kaustabh; Shu, Xiaozheng; Sokolov, Jonathan; Prestwich, Glenn; Clark, Richard; Rafailovich, Miriam

2006-03-01

140

Impact of the change in Connecticut syringe prescription laws on pharmacy sales and pharmacy managers' practices.  

PubMed

We assessed the impact of the 1992 change in Connecticut syringe prescription laws on pharmacy sales and pharmacy managers' sales practices. A mail survey was conducted in 1994 of all current pharmacy managers in the five largest cities in Connecticut (Hartford, New Haven, Waterbury, Bridgeport, and Stamford) and a random sample of those practicing in all other areas. Of these, 89.3% of the pharmacies in the five largest cities and 85.1% in the other areas had ever sold syringes without a prescription since the July 1992 law went into effect. Most pharmacists identified safety issues as very important in their personal decision about the sale of syringes without a prescription. Although the purpose of the change in the prescription law was to provide expanded access to sterile syringes by injection drug users (IDUs), only 31.4% of the managers who were allowed to sell in all instances and 18.1% of those who sold at their discretion were very willing to sell syringes to IDUs. In the logistic regression model of pharmacies with a sell-in-all-instances policy, the perceived benefit of the sale of syringes on health and community well-being was the only influence independently associated with managers support for nonprescription sales. Overall, managers reported they did not know what other pharmacists thought (40.4%) or did (42.9%) regarding the sale of syringes. When pharmacists had discretion over syringe sales, managers' beliefs about what other Connecticut pharmacists thought and did about the nonprescription sale of syringes remained a significant influence on the degree of support for sales. Most pharmacies implemented and maintained policies permitting the sale of syringes without a prescription. Several issues, including risk of discarded contaminated syringes around pharmacies and in the community and reluctance to sell to IDUs, reduced pharmacists willingness to sell syringes. Efforts to incorporate pharmacists as active partners in HIV prevention in IDUs should promote the sale of syringes without a prescription to IDUs as acceptable public health practice. PMID:9663632

Wright-De Agüero, L; Weinstein, B; Jones, T S; Miles, J

1998-01-01

141

Lidar calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to its inherent low gain detection of the 1064nm channel and a negligible molecular return from the atmosphere, a boundary condition for the retrieval of optical data by inversion cannot be assumed with high confidence as for the other channels in the multiwavelength Mie lidar. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the calibration constant for the 1064nm channel. Two methods of calibration are studied and compared. One method is calibration by high or low clouds. The other method is calibration by a ceilometer which is itself calibrated and co-located at the lidar site. The results are compared with the aerosol optical depth measured by a calibrated sun photometer co-located at the same site as part of the AERONET network at CCNY. In the latter method, all three instruments are located at the same site, there is no issue of atmospheric differences when comparing data but it makes calibration dependent on that of other instruments. Clouds are a natural and frequent occurrence but the lidar system may change between cloud appearances. Both methods have their merits and shortcomings.

Chaw, Shuki

142

Approval of Syringe Exchange Programs in California: Results From a Local Approach to HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We studied the effect of local approval of syringe exchange programs in California (through Assembly AB136) on program availability and performance. Methods. We determined the number of active syringe exchange programs in California by conducting Internet searches and obtaining information from the state and from local programs. To track changes in program availability and performance between 2000 and 2002, we interviewed 24 program directors annually for 3 years about program characteristics, syringe exchange policies, law enforcement contact, and other issues. We conducted multivariate analyses to determine whether AB136 approval status was associated with changes in performance. Results. Fifteen local governments (13 counties and 2 cities) enacted the new law by 2002, and operating syringe exchange programs increased from 24 to 35. The proportion of these programs that were not locally approved declined from 54% to 40%. No new approved programs were started in high-need counties. Total syringes exchanged increased by more than 1 million per year, average annual budgets increased by more than 50%, and police harassment of the program volunteers, clients, and operators declined. Improvements at approved syringe exchange programs accounted for these changes. Conclusions. Statewide approval and funding appears necessary to further syringe exchange availability in California.

Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Heinzerling, Keith G.; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil M.; Kral, Alex H.

2008-01-01

143

Consequences of syringe size sensor malfunction in a modern infusion pump.  

PubMed

Prompted by an actual case of potentially life-threatening infusion pump malfunction, we investigated the effects of wire breakage(s) within the syringe size sensor circuit in a Graseby 3400 infusion pump. The circuit wires within the sensor were systematically broken. The syringe sizes recognised by the sabotaged circuit and the actual sizes of syringes inserted into the pump were compared. Thirty-eight per cent of the possible wire breakages resulted in a smaller syringe size being recognized, causing the infusion rate to be too fast, and 38% of the possiblewire breakage resulted in a larger syringe size being recognized, causing the infusion rate to be too slow. The volume delivered for each different size of Terumo syringe as a function of distance travelled by the plunger was measured. The errors ranged from 0.4 to 2.6 times that of the expected rate. Only 1.3% of the possible wire breakage(s) were recognised as errors by the pump. The infusion rates were not affected in 22.5% of the cases. Wire breakage within the syringe size sensor in infusion pumps is yet another potential source of infusion error, with important safety implications. PMID:12635400

Derrick, J L; Ho, A M H; Cho, A M W

2003-02-01

144

Tensorial Calibration. 2. Second Order Tensorial Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tensorial calibration provides a useful approach to calibration in general. For calibration of instruments that produce two dimensional (second order) data arrays of data per sample, tensorial concepts are a natural way of solving the calibration problems...

E. Sanchez B. R. Kowalski

1987-01-01

145

Syringe vending machines for injection drug users: an experiment in Marseille, France.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the usefulness of vending machines in providing injection drug users with access to sterile syringes in Marseille, France. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were offered to 485 injection drug users obtaining syringes from 32 pharmacies, 4 needle exchange programs, and 3 vending machines. RESULTS: Of the 343 respondents (response rate = 70.7%), 21.3% used the vending machines as their primary source of syringes. Primary users of vending machines were more likely than primary users of other sources to be younger than 30 years, to report no history of drug maintenance treatment, and to report no sharing of needles or injection paraphernalia. CONCLUSIONS: Vending machines may be an appropriate strategy for providing access to syringes for younger injection drug users, who have typically avoided needle exchange programs and pharmacies.

Obadia, Y; Feroni, I; Perrin, V; Vlahov, D; Moatti, J P

1999-01-01

146

Mechanized syringe homogenization of human and animal tissues.  

PubMed

Tissue homogenization is a prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A plethora of hands-on methods are available to homogenize tissues. Here we report a mechanized method for homogenizing animal and human tissues rapidly and easily. The Bio-Mixer 1200 (manufactured by Innovative Products, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK) utilizes the back-and-forth movement of two motor-driven disposable syringes, connected to each other through a three-way stopcock, to homogenize animal or human tissue. Using this method, we were able to homogenize human or mouse tissues (brain, liver, heart, and salivary glands) in 5 min. From sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric enzyme assay for prolidase, we have found that the homogenates obtained were as good or even better than that obtained used a manual glass-on-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) homogenization protocol (all-glass tube and Teflon pestle). Use of the Bio-Mixer 1200 to homogenize animal or human tissue precludes the need to stay in the cold room as is the case with the other hands-on homogenization methods available, in addition to freeing up time for other experiments. PMID:15285912

Kurien, Biji T; Porter, Andrew C; Patel, Nisha C; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Scofield, R Hal

2004-06-01

147

Challenges in motivating treatment enrollment in community syringe exchange participants.  

PubMed

Participants of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) exhibit high rates of substance use disorder but remain extremely ambivalent about seeking treatment. This study evaluated the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) for encouraging SEP participants to enroll in substance abuse treatment. New opioid-dependent registrants to the Baltimore Needle Exchange Program (BNEP) (n =302) completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment referral conditions: (1) MI, (2) job readiness (JR) (attention control), or (3) standard referral. Participants in each condition who expressed interest in treatment were referred to a treatment readiness group that provided further encouragement and referral to programs that were accepting new admissions. Participants were observed for 1 year following the intervention. The results showed that 10.9% of study participants enrolled in substance abuse treatment, although no condition effects were observed. White participants and those diagnosed with major depression were most likely to enter treatment. The results suggest that a single motivational interview is insufficient to motivate changes in treatment seeking in this population, whereas the identification of predictors of treatment enrollment is worthy of further investigation. PMID:16014875

Kidorf, Michael; Disney, Elizabeth; King, Van; Kolodner, Ken; Beilenson, Peter; Brooner, Robert K

2005-07-13

148

A treatment re-engagement intervention for syringe exchangers  

PubMed Central

Poor sustained treatment engagement limits the effectiveness of all modalities of substance abuse treatment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel treatment re-engagement intervention for a subset of syringe exchange program (SEP) participants (n = 113) that had enrolled in treatment as part of a 4-month clinical trial (Kidorf et al., 2009). Three re-engagement conditions for participants leaving treatment were compared. Motivational referral (MRC) participants (n = 31) could attend group sessions that focused on renewing treatment-interest. MRC plus incentive (MRC+I) participants (n = 49) could receive modest monetary incentives for attending these sessions and re-enrolling in treatment. Standard referral (SCR) participants (n = 33) could not attend groups or receive incentives. Across a one-year observation window, almost all study participants (86%) were discharged from treatment. MRC+I participants attended more group sessions than MRC participants, and were considerably more likely to re-enroll in treatment than participants in the other study conditions. Re-engagement strategies can further enhance the public health benefits of SEPs by increasing rates of treatment participation over time.

King, Van L.; Peirce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K.

2011-01-01

149

Pharmacy Participation in Non-Prescription Syringe Sales in Los Angeles and San Francisco Counties, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing sterile syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs) is one way to prevent HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission\\u000a in this population. In 2005, California Senate Bill 1159 allowed counties to adopt the Disease Prevention Demonstration Project\\u000a (DPDP). Where enacted, the DPDP allows pharmacies that register with the county to sell up to ten syringes to adults without

Erin N. Cooper; Chaka Dodson; Thomas J. Stopka; Elise D. Riley; Richard S. Garfein; Ricky N. Bluthenthal

2010-01-01

150

Placing the Dynamics of Syringe Exchange Programs in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing upon the broader health, social, and political geography literature this paper outlines a framework for considering\\u000a place-based processes through which syringe exchange availability may be understood. It is argued that the geographic distribution\\u000a of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the United States is linked to the social and political conditions of particular localities\\u000a through three place characteristics: (1) structural

Barbara Tempalski

151

A syringe prescription program to prevent infectious disease and improve health of injection drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection drug users (IDUs) are at increased risk for many health problems, including acquisition of human immunodeficiency\\u000a virus (HIV) and hepatitis B and C. These risks are compounded by barriers in obtaining legal, sterile syringes and in accessing\\u000a necessary medical care. In 1999, we established the first-ever syringe prescription program in Providence, Rhode Island, to\\u000a provide legal access to sterile

Josiah D. Rich; Michelle McKenzie; Grace E. Macalino; Lynn E. Taylor; Stephanie Sanford-Colby; Francis Wolf; Susan McNamara; Meenasshi Mehrotra; Michael D. Stein

2004-01-01

152

Monte Carlo-derived TLD cross-calibration factors for treatment verification and measurement of skin dose in accelerated partial breast irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulation was employed to calculate the response of TLD-100 chips under irradiation conditions such as those found during accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system. The absorbed dose versus radius in the last 0.5 cm of the treated volume was also calculated, employing a resolution of 20 µm, and a function that fits the observed data was determined. Several clinically relevant irradiation conditions were simulated for different combinations of balloon size, balloon-to-surface distance and contents of the contrast solution used to fill the balloon. The thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) cross-calibration factors were derived assuming that the calibration of the dosemeters was carried out using a Cobalt 60 beam, and in such a way that they provide a set of parameters that reproduce the function that describes the behavior of the absorbed dose versus radius curve. Such factors may also prove to be useful for those standardized laboratories that provide postal dosimetry services.

Garnica-Garza, H M

2009-03-01

153

Evaluating effectiveness of syringe exchange programmes: current issues and future prospects.  

PubMed

Although a large body of international literature has found syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) to be associated with reduced incidence of blood borne pathogens among injection drug users, recent studies have fuelled controversy surrounding SEP effectiveness. Existing studies are observational in nature and have seldom considered ecologic aspects affecting SEP functioning and evaluation. The authors apply concepts from infectious disease epidemiology to discuss the direct and indirect effects of SEP upon the spread of blood borne pathogens in drug users, their social networks and the broader community. Further, the authors discuss social policies, particularly drug control policies, which have directly and/or indirectly limited SEP functioning at local and national levels. A critical review of the literature suggests that biases common to observational studies can account for higher HIV incidence among SEP attenders relative to non-attenders. Strong selection factors often lead high-risk drug users to be over-represented among SEP attenders. Failure to account for these factors and the indirect effects of SEPs can bias interpretations of programme effectiveness. Future SEP evaluations should consider behavioural data, the local ethnographic context, the prevalence of infectious disease in the groups under study and the structural components of SEP that are most and least effective at reducing incidence of blood borne pathogens. Hierarchical models that take into account the ecological dimensions of SEP are recommended as an approach for future studies. Beyond methodologic concerns, the authors discuss social, legal and programmatic obstacles that must be overcome in order to maximise SEP effectiveness. PMID:11128265

Bastos, F I; Strathdee, S A

2000-12-01

154

A syringe injection rate detector employing a dual Hall-effect sensor configuration.  

PubMed

Injection of fluids in the body using needle syringes is a standard clinical practice. The rate of injection can have various pathological effects on the body such as the pain perceived or in case of anesthesia, the amount of akinesia attained. Hence, a training system with a modified syringe employing a simple measurement scheme where a trainee can observe and practice the rate of injection prior to administering on actual human subjects, can be of great value towards reduction of complications in real life situations. In this paper, we develop a system for measurement of syringe injection rate with two Hall-effect sensors. Ring magnets attached to the body of the syringe along with the dual Hall-effect sensor configuration help in determining the position of the piston with respect to the syringe body. The two Hall-sensors are arranged in a differential configuration such that a linear relationship is obtained between the volume of liquid in the syringe (in ml) and the Hall-effect sensor output voltages. A prototype developed validated the measurement scheme. The rate of injection was displayed in real-time with a LabVIEW based Virtual Instrument. The error was within acceptable limits illustrating its efficacy for practical training purposes. PMID:24110792

Mukherjee, Biswarup; George, Boby; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

2013-07-01

155

Hydrodynamic comparison of the Penumbra system and commonly available syringes in forced-suction thrombectomy.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The Penumbra system uses a coaxial separator and continuous extracorporeal suction to remove a clot from a cerebral artery. Forced-suction thrombectomy (FST) involves aspirating clots through the same reperfusion catheter using only a syringe, decreasing the procedure time and supplies needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate multiple combinations of catheters and syringes to determine the optimal pairing for use in FST. METHODS: Tests were performed using both the Penumbra system and syringes to aspirate water through Penumbra 0.041 inch (041), 4Max, 0.054 inch (054) and 5Max reperfusion catheters and a shuttle sheath. Dynamic pressure and flow at the catheter tip were calculated from the fill times for each system. Static pressure and force for each aspiration source were determined with a vacuum gauge. RESULTS: All syringes provided significantly higher dynamic pressure at the catheter tip than the Penumbra system (p<0.001). Increasing syringe volume significantly increased static pressure (p<0.001). Both flow and aspiration force significantly increased with catheter size (p<0.001). Cases are presented to demonstrate the clinical value of the laboratory principles. CONCLUSIONS: Maximizing static and dynamic pressure when performing FST is achieved by aspirating with a syringe possessing both the largest volume and the largest inlet diameter available. Maximizing aspiration force and flow rate is achieved by using the largest catheter possible. PMID:23531712

Simon, Scott Douglas; Grey, Casey Paul

2013-03-26

156

Torque Calibrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A torque calibrator which has a pair of torque beams with hydraulic cylinders for exerting forces on opposite ends of the torque beams and with load cells mounted at opposite ends of the beams for measuring the forces applied to the beams with the beams d...

R. L. Cameron J. S. Burgess

1988-01-01

157

In-syringe demulsified dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of trace fungicides in environmental water samples.  

PubMed

An in-syringe demulsified dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ISD-DLLME) technique was developed using low-density extraction solvents for the highly sensitive determination of the three trace fungicides (azoxystrobin, diethofencarb and pyrimethanil) in water samples by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatography-diode array detector/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. In the proposed technique, a 5-mL syringe was used as an extraction, separation and preconcentration container. The emulsion was obtained after the mixture of toluene (extraction solvent) and methanol (dispersive solvent) was injected into the aqueous bulk of the syringe. The obtained emulsion cleared into two phases without centrifugation, when an aliquot of methanol was introduced as a demulsifier. The separated floating organic extraction solvent was impelled and collected into a pipette tip fitted to the tip of the syringe. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors for azoxystrobin, diethofencarb and pyrimethanil were 239, 200, 195, respectively. The limits of detection, calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio (SN(-1)), were 0.026 ?g L(-1) for azoxystrobin, 0.071 ?g L(-1) for diethofencarb and 0.040 ?g L(-1) for pyrimethanil. The repeatability study was carried out by extracting the spiked water samples at concentration levels of 0.02 ?g mL(-1) for all the three fungicides. The relative standard deviations varied between 4.9 and 8.2% (n=5). The recoveries of all the three fungicides from tap, lake and rain water samples at spiking levels of 0.2, 1, 5 ?g L(-1) were in the range of 90.0-105.0%, 86.0-114.0% and 88.6-110.0%, respectively. The proposed ISD-DLLME technique was demonstrated to be simple, practical and efficient for the determination of different kinds of fungicide residues in real water samples. PMID:22483208

Xia, Yating; Cheng, Min; Guo, Feng; Wang, Xiangfang; Cheng, Jing

2012-02-09

158

Non-prescription Syringe Sales in California: A Qualitative Examination of Practices among 12 Local Health Jurisdictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention\\u000a designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California’s 61 local health jurisdictions\\u000a (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination\\u000a in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to

Valerie J. Rose; Glenn Backes; Alexis Martinez; Willi McFarland

2010-01-01

159

What do pharmacists think about New York State's new nonprescription syringe sale program? Results of a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to sterile syringes can prevent transmission of blood-borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and\\u000a hepatitis B and C. We conducted a survey of attitudes of pharmacists to aid, in development of the Expanded. Syringe Access\\u000a Demonstration Program (ESAP) in New York State. ESAP is an HIV prevention initiative that authorizes nonprescription sale\\u000a of hypodermic needles and syringes

Susan J. Klein; Kathleen Harris-Valente; Alma R. Candelas; Marleen Radigan; Maryse Narcisse-Pean; James M. Tesoriero; Guthrie S. Birkhead

2001-01-01

160

Calibrating SNAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SNAP (Supernova/Acceleration Probe) mission's primary science goal is the determination of the properties of the dark energy. Specifically, observations of distant Type Ia supernovae will be used to measure the dark energy equation of state constant parameter, w0, and time varying parameter, w1, to a fractional uncertainty of 0.05 and 0.3 respectively. This places stringent requirements on the control of systematics and on the absolute color calibration of these supernovae. The overall calibration for the SNAP CCD and NIR imagers and spectrograph will be conducted through several routes. We envision employing a variety of well-studied stars, certainly including the HST spectrophotometric standard stars (and possibly the Sun) and performing indirect transfer calibrations that permit comparison with NIST irradiance standards to close the loop with fundamental MKS quantities. We discuss the basic issues and possible strategies in order to achieve approximately 2 - 3% color errors over the wavelength range of from 350 to 1700 nm.

Deustua, Susana; Allam, Sahar; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Kent, Steven M.; Lampton, Michael L.; Laubscher, Bryan E.; Mostek, Nick; Mufson, Stuart; Richmond, Michael; Smith, J. A.; Tucker, Douglas

2003-12-01

161

Intravenous infusions in hyperbaric chambers: effect of compression on syringe function.  

PubMed

Haemodynamic instability is a recognised phenomenon in critically ill patients undergoing hyperbaric therapy. Instability may result from the effects of ambient pressure on the cardiovascular system, devices involved in infusion of drugs and fluids, or a combination of the two. The effect of hyperbaric pressure on air-containing spaces in syringes has not been previously measured. We connected 60-ml syringes (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) containing coloured water to low volume extensions via three-way taps. We examined the effect of pressurisation to 2.4 and 2.8 atmospheres absolute (ATA) on the syringes by measuring the displacement of the coloured water in the low volume extension set. There was compression of air spaces within the syringe causing retrograde flow of fluid within the low volume extension set. The mean (95% CI) change in volume was 154 (141-168) microl at 2.4 ATA, and 197 (183-212) microl at 2.8 ATA (both p < 0.0001). We conclude that hyperbaric exposure may cause clinically significant changes in syringe function at infusion rates < 100 ml. h(-1). PMID:17506740

Hopson, A S M; Greenstein, A

2007-06-01

162

Hepatoprotective effect of syringic acid and vanillic acid on CCl4-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

The mycelia of the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes can be cultured in solid medium containing lignin, and the hot-water extracts (L.E.M.) is commercially available as a nutritional supplement. During the cultivation, phenolic compounds, such as syringic acid and vanillic acid, were produced by lignin-degrading peroxidase secreted from L. edodes mycelia. Since these compounds have radical scavenging activity, we examined their protective effect on oxidative stress in mice with CCl(4)-induced liver injury. We examined the hepatoprotective effect of syringic acid and vanillic acid on CCl(4)-induced chronic liver injury in mice. The injection of CCl(4) into the peritoneal cavity caused an increase in the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The intravenous administration of syringic acid and vanillic acid significantly decreased the levels of the transaminases. Four weeks of CCl(4) treatment caused a sufficiently excessive deposition of collagen fibrils. An examination of Azan-stained liver sections revealed that syringic acid and vanillic acid obviously suppressed collagen accumulation and significantly decreased the hepatic hydroxyproline content, which is the quantitative marker of fibrosis. Both of these compounds inhibited the activation of cultured hepatic stellate cells, which play a central role in liver fibrogenesis, and maintained hepatocyte viability. These data suggest that the administration of syringic acid and vanillic acid could suppress hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver injury. PMID:20522963

Itoh, Ayano; Isoda, Katsuhiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Kawase, Masaya; Watari, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Tamesada, Makoto; Yagi, Kiyohito

2010-01-01

163

The TRPA1 Agonist, Methyl Syringate Suppresses Food Intake and Gastric Emptying.  

PubMed

Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression. PMID:23990963

Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Song, Seo Hyeon; Jung, Myungji; Kim, Yiseul; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

2013-08-21

164

ALTEA calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic instrumentation is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic instruments can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the calibration of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First calibration has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to calibrate the full FM Model, 6 SDUs and the DAU, in April 2004 with other ions (possibly Ni and/or Ti and/or V). First analysis are showing good linearity and homogeneous responses of all the silicon detectors in the FM1. At the conference time we plan to have done full analysis of all calibration runs.

Zaconte, V.; Altea Team

165

Public citizens, marginalized communities: the struggle for syringe exchange in Springfield, Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Syringe exchange programs, which, in order to prevent HIV infections, provide injection drug users with sterile syringes in exchange for used ones, operate at the intersection of conflicting social and political beliefs about disease, drugs, the common good, and the law. This paper describes community opposition that emerged from diverse quarters in response to a proposed syringe exchange program (SEP) in Springfield, Massachusetts. White suburban residents and inner-city African-Americans both drew on concepts of personal responsibility and self-sufficiency as they described their opposition to SEP. Through archival research and in-depth interviews with key community figures, I show how their similar political positions resulted from highly divergent views on the role of government in caring for citizens and communities. These arguments about addiction, HIV, and community both index and turn on the unique relationships with government experienced by a range of social actors. PMID:16546832

Shaw, Susan J

166

Effects of sample storage time, temperature and syringe type on blood gas tensions in samples with high oxygen partial pressures.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Although plastic arterial sampling syringes are now commonly used, the effects of sample storage time and temperature on blood gas tensions are poorly described for samples with a high oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) taken with these high density polypropylene syringes. METHODS--Two ml samples of tonometered whole blood (PaO2 86.7 kPa, PaCO2 4.27 kPa) were placed in glass syringes and in three brands of plastic blood gas syringes. The syringes were placed either at room temperature or in iced water and blood gas analysis was performed at baseline and after 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. RESULTS--In the first 10 minutes measured PaO2 in plastic syringes at room temperature fell by an average of 1.21 kPa/min; placing the sample on ice reduced the rate of PaO2 decline to 0.19 kPa/min. The rate of fall of PaO2 in glass at room temperature was 0.49 kPa/min. The changes in PaCO2 were less dramatic and at room temperature averaged increases of 0.47 kPa for plastic syringes and 0.71 kPa for glass syringes over the entire two hour period. These changes in gas tension for plastic syringes would lead to an overestimation of pulmonary shunt measured by the 100% oxygen technique of 0.6% for each minute left at room temperature before analysis. CONCLUSIONS--Glass syringes are superior to plastic syringes in preserving samples with a high PaO2, and prompt and adequate cooling of such samples is essential for accurate blood gas analysis.

Pretto, J J; Rochford, P D

1994-01-01

167

Weighted parallel factor analysis for calibration of HPLC-UV\\/Vis spectrometers in the presence of Beer's law deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extension of the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) methodology is presented to allow accurate and reliable quantitative and qualitative analysis of nonlinear data collected from hyphenated instrumentation. The weighted PARAFAC method is applied to high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet\\/visible (HPLC-UV\\/Vis) diode array spectrometry analysis. It is demonstrated that this method improves the quantitative errors when spectroscopic nonlinearities from solvent–solute interactions or detector

Greger G. Andersson; Brian K. Dable; Karl S. Booksh

1999-01-01

168

Negotiating access: Social barriers to purchasing syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background One common public health response to the emergence of HIV has been the provision of sterile syringes to people who inject drugs. In Mexico specialized syringe exchanges are rare, and the sale of needles through pharmacies is often the only way people who inject drugs can obtain sterile syringes. However, people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico report considerable social barriers to successfully purchasing syringes at pharmacies. Methods Between October 2008 and March 2009 we conducted seven in-depth focus groups with 47 people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus group transcripts were analysed using a descriptive and thematic approach rooted in grounded theory. Results We found that injectors offered a number of explanations for why pharmacies were reluctant to sell them syringes, including fear of police; attitudes toward drug use; fear of stereotypical drug user behaviour such as petty theft, violence, or distressing behaviour; and related fears that an obvious drug using clientèle would drive away other customers. Injectors described a range of ways of attempting to re-frame or negotiate interactions with pharmacy staff so that these and related concerns were ameliorated. These included tactics as simple as borrowing cleaner clothing, through to strategies for becoming ‘known’ to pharmacy staff as an individual rather than as a member of a stigmatized group. Conclusion Increasing the ability of pharmacy staff and people who inject drugs to successfully negotiate syringe sales are highly desirable. Interventions designed to improve this likelihood need to capitalize on existing solutions developed ad-hoc by people who inject drugs and pharmacy staff, and should focus on broadening the range of ‘identities’ which pharmacy staff are able to accept as legitimate customers. Approaches to achieve this end might include sensitizing pharmacy staff to the needs of people who inject drugs; facilitating individual drug users meeting individual pharmacy staff; and working with drug users to reduce behaviours seen as problematic by pharmacy staff.

Davidson, Peter J.; Lozada, Remedios; Rosen, Perth C.; Macias, Armando; Gallardo, Manuel; Pollini, Robin A.

2012-01-01

169

Recent incarceration independently associated with syringe sharing by injection drug users.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Few prospective studies are available on the relationship between incarceration and HIV risk among injection drug users (IDUs). The authors evaluated self-reported rates of syringe sharing and incarceration among a cohort of IDUs. METHODS: This study analyzed syringe lending by HIV-infected IDUs and syringe borrowing by HIV-negative IDUs among participants enrolled in the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS). Since serial measures for each individual were available, variables potentially associated with each outcome (syringe lending and borrowing) were evaluated using generalized estimating equations for binary outcomes. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 1,475 IDUs who were enrolled into the VIDUS cohort from May 1996 through May 2002. At baseline, 1,123 (76%) reported a history of incarceration since they first began injecting drugs. Of these individuals, 351 (31%) reported at baseline that they had injected drugs while incarcerated. Among 318 baseline HIV-infected IDUs, having been incarcerated in the six months prior to each interview remained independently associated with syringe lending during the same period (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06, 1.69; p=0.015). Similarly, among the 1,157 baseline HIV-negative IDUs, having been incarcerated in the six months prior to each interview remained independently associated with reporting syringe borrowing during the same period (adjusted OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.12, 1.44; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Incarceration was independently associated with risky needle sharing for HIV-infected and HIV-negative IDUs. This evidence of HIV risk behavior should reinforce public health concerns about the high rates of incarceration among IDUs.

Wood, Evan; Li, Kathy; Small, Will; Montaner, Julio S.; Schechter, Martin T.; Kerr, Thomas

2005-01-01

170

Cost-Effectiveness of Needle and Syringe Exchange for the Prevention of HIV in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared needle and syringe use among injection drug users continues to be a major mode of transmission of HIV. Needle and syringe exchange (NSE) may be a viable strategy to reduce the transmission of the virus; yet the difficulty in measuring the actual efficacy of NSE has limited attempts to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Using data specific to

Hrishikesh K. Belani; Peter A. Muennig

2008-01-01

171

Sterile syringe access and disposal among injection drug users newly enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We sought to assess injection practices, means of acquiring and disposing of syringes, and utilization and knowledge of harm reduction resources among injection drug users (IDUs) entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). METHODS: Interviews with 100 consecutive patients, including 35 IDUs, entering a MMT program in the Bronx, NY. RESULTS: Utilization of unsafe syringe sources was reported by 69% of

Jennifer McNeely; Julia H Arnsten; Marc N Gourevitch

2006-01-01

172

Are peristaltic pumps as reliable as syringe pumps for metabolic research? assessment of accuracy, precision, and metabolic kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syringe pumps are traditionally used to infuse tracers in metabolic research because they are perceived to be more accurate and precise than peristaltic pumps. This study evaluated the accuracy (actual v programmed infusion rate) and precision (reproducibility of infusion) of a peristaltic pump (Gemini PC 2; IMED, San Diego, CA) and a syringe pump (Model 22; Harvard Apparatus, Natick, MA)

B. Selma Mohammed; David A Fields; Bettina Mittendorfer; Andrew R Coggan; Samuel Klein

2004-01-01

173

Reinforced polydiphenylamine nanocomposite for microextraction in packed syringe of various pesticides.  

PubMed

Reinforced polydiphenylamine (PDPA) nanocomposite was synthesized by oxidation of diphenylamine in 4 molL(-1) sulfuric acid solution containing a fixed amount of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The surface characteristic of PDPA and PDPA/CNT nanocomposites was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared PDPA/CNT nanocomposite was used as an extraction medium for microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) of selected pesticides from aquatic environment. The effect of CNT doping level and the presence of surfactant on the extraction capability of nanocomposite was investigated and it was revealed that when 4% (w/w) of CNT in the presence of CTAB is being used, the highest extraction recovery could be achieved. Eventually, the developed MEPS technique in off-line combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to the analysis of some pesticides including triazine, organophosphorous, organochlorine and aryloxyphenoxy propionic acid pesticides. Important parameters influencing the extraction and desorption processes were optimized and a 25 cycles of draw-eject gave maximum peak area, when desorption was performed using 200 ?L of n-hexane. Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.01-0.1 ngmL(-1) and 0.02-0.1 ngmL(-1) for distilled water and river water respectively, using time scheduled selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method precision (RSD %) with four replicates was in the range of 1.6-14.6% for distilled water and 1.5-16.2% for river water at the concentration level of 5 ngmL(-1) while the linearity of method was in the range of 0.15-100 and 0.5-500 ngmL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to different river water samples and the matrix factor for the spiked river water samples were found to be in the range of 0.74-1.09. PMID:22204935

Bagheri, Habib; Ayazi, Zahra; Es'haghi, Ali; Aghakhani, Ali

2011-12-06

174

Investigation by syringe method of effect of tampons on production in vitro of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed Central

A syringe method was designed to test the effect of tampons on the growth of three toxic shock syndrome-associated strains of Staphylococcus aureus and their in vitro production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) under different conditions. Various amounts of TSST-1 were recovered from different tampons inoculated with these strains. Generally, the addition of 10% porcine blood to the growth medium, incubation in the presence of 5% CO2, or the combination of these two factors resulted in the stimulation of TSST-1 production.

Lee, A C; Crass, B A; Bergdoll, M S

1987-01-01

175

Inadequate bleach contact times during syringe cleaning among injection drug users.  

PubMed

Objectives were to measure syringe cleaning strategies used by injection drug users (IDUs) and to assess syringe contact with bleach during cleaning demonstrations. IDUs were interviewed about cleaning activities during their most recent injection episode; they demonstrated these activities on videotape. Coders reviewed the videotapes, categorized activities, and used stop watches to record bleach exposure. Of 161, 146 subjects reported cleaning at last injection, 85 (58%) of 146 used full strength bleach. Of bleach users, 20% had total contact time (duration of bleach inside syringe) of > or = 30 s; combining draw (time taken to fill syringe) and contact times, 54% of bleach users had total "flush" times of > or = 30 s. Median observed time per bleach flush was 16 s. Median reported cleaning times were twice as long as observed. Recent reports indicate 30 s of exposure to undiluted bleach is necessary to inactivate HIV in the laboratory; here, 80% of IDUs using bleach had contact of < 30 s. Judgment of contact time was inaccurate. On average, instructions advocating two bleach flushes may reach 30 s; here, half the subjects had insufficient time with two flushes. The majority showed inadequate techniques, therefore, alternate cleaning strategies should be developed. PMID:8207661

Gleghorn, A A; Doherty, M C; Vlahov, D; Celentano, D D; Jones, T S

1994-07-01

176

Public opinion about syringe exchange programmes in the USA: an analysis of national surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite scientific evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, syringe exchange programs (SEPs) have not been as widely embraced by policy-makers in the USA as in some other nations. One reason for this disjunction between science and policy may be the effect of public opinion.Methods: To better understand the role of public opinion in shaping SEP policies, we undertook a systematic search

Jon S. Vernick; Scott Burris; Steffanie A. Strathdee

2003-01-01

177

Syringe type and drug injector risk for HIV infection: a case study in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of accidental needlestick exposure to blood containing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shown that the volume of blood in an exposure is a strong predictor of subsequent infection. Illicit drug injectors, a group at elevated risk for HIV transmission, use syringes manufactured in two styles, one of which (the integral cannula type) retains substantially less blood after intravenous use

William A. Zule; David P. Desmond; James Alan Neff

2002-01-01

178

Radiation exposure due to 99m Tc and 131 I manipulated in syringes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose rates around and at the surface of disposable polypropylene syringes of 1 and 2 ml volume filled with 99mTc and 131I solutions were determined by thermoluminescence dosimetry. Data for the efficacy of 0.5 and 1 mm lead shielding of 99mTc and for the dose contribution due to ß- -radiation from 131I are given.

W. Schmidt; R. Nowotny; K. Kletter; H. Frischauf

1979-01-01

179

Chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve in the rat using modified syringe needle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report a method for performing a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the infraorbital nerve (ION) in the rat as a component of a chronic pain model. The surgical approach to the ION is described together with the use of a modified dental syringe needle that simplifies placing two chromic gut ligatures around the ION. This method makes the

Melanie Kernisant; Robert W. Gear; Luc Jasmin; Jean-Philippe Vit; Peter T. Ohara

2008-01-01

180

Residual Injection Risk Behavior, HIV Infection, and the Evaluation of Syringe Exchange Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed relationships between residual risk behavior (risk behavior among persons participating in effective HIV prevention programs) and HIV infection. Structured interviews and HIV tests were obtained from participants in six large U.S. syringe exchange programs. Program characteristics were obtained through interviews with the…

Des Jarlais, Don C.; Braine, Naomi; Yi, Huso; Turner, Charles

2007-01-01

181

[Pressure build-up in 2 rate-controlled syringe infusion pumps].  

PubMed

The use of rate controlled syringe infusion pumps has spread to departments where the need for accurate infusion exists. The simplicity in using these pumps has led to a false feeling of safety. A case of hazardous use of a syringe infusion pump has been reviewed. An Ohmeda 9000- and a Terumo STC 521 syringe pump was here tested, n = 20. The occlusion pressures of the two pumps were different. The occlusion pressure changed with different infusion rates for both pumps. The pressure was built up in a straight linear fashion. The bolus release depended on the occlusion pressure and the amounts given were in the range of 1.0-1.6 ml, both pumps included. The time from occlusion to alarm depended on the occlusion pressures. There might be an advantage in using a soft infusion system. It is recommended not to use syringe pump infusion via peripheral veins so as to avoid the risk of pressure build-up in the subcutaneous tissue in case of infiltration. In the event of occlusion disconnect the infusion system prior to reopening. Don't rely on the occlusion alarm. Use a smooth infusion system. PMID:8016950

Gerlif, C

1994-04-11

182

Patterns of sexual commerce among women at US Syringe Exchange Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the USA, the majority of research on sex work has examined the experiences of women recruited from social locations commonly referred to as the ‘sex industry’, such as street strolls or escort services. This paper presents data from female syringe exchange participants who had sold sex in the last 30 days. The women interviewed for this study report a

Naomi Braine; Don C. Desjarlais; Cullen Goldblatt; Cathy Zadoretzky; Charles Turner

2006-01-01

183

Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting  

PubMed Central

Objectives Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG) with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are available as safe, sterile, disposable, compact systems for acquiring high-quality AFG. Presented is a detailed, step-by-step, proven protocol for performing quality autologous structural adipose transplantation.

Alexander, Robert W; Harrell, David B

2013-01-01

184

Standardizing calibration laboratory practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the calibration lab is becoming more and more important in view of the `global business' environment. Scheduled, regular calibration of test and measuring instruments with measurement traceability to the nationally accepted standards is a prerequisite. Certification to ISO 9000-Quality System Standards becoming a must for exports, the calibration activity being the backbone for quality, calibration laboratory practices

C. Muralikrishna Kumar

1993-01-01

185

Diffusion of the D.A.R.E and Syringe Exchange Programs  

PubMed Central

We examined the diffusion of the D.A.R.E program to reduce use of illicit drugs among school-aged children and youths and the diffusion of syringe exchange programs to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users. The D.A.R.E program was diffused widely in the United States despite a lack of evidence for its effectiveness; there has been limited diffusion of syringe exchange in the United States, despite extensive scientific evidence for its effectiveness. Multiple possible associations between diffusion and evidence of effectiveness exist, from widespread diffusion without evidence of effectiveness to limited diffusion with strong evidence of effectiveness. The decision theory concepts of framing and loss aversion may be useful for further research on the diffusion of public health innovations.

Des Jarlais, Don C.; Sloboda, Zili; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; McKnight, Courtney; Braine, Naomi

2006-01-01

186

Analysis: The Impact of Needle, Syringe, and Lancet Disposal on the Community  

PubMed Central

There are over 7.5 billion needles and syringes used outside of the health care system each year by individuals with diabetes, migraines, allergies, infertility, arthritis, HIV, hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis, psoriasis, or other conditions. Disposal of needles, syringes, lancets, and other medical products are not regulated in the home, while these same products used in health care facilities are strictly regulated. Home-generated medical waste is routinely placed into curbside trash, placing sanitation workers and custodial personnel at personal risk of a needle-stick injury. The Coalition for Safe Community Needle Disposal is working to establish a solution that is satisfactory to all stakeholders, sharing the burden of these programs with the pharmaceutical industry, medical device industry, waste management industry, recycling companies, and local and state governments.

Gold, Kathleen

2011-01-01

187

Measure for Measure: Calibrating Ten Commonly Used Calibration Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the dimensionality of 10 different calibration measures using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The 10 measures were representative of five interpretative families of measures used to assess monitoring accuracy based on a 2 (performance) x 2 (monitoring judgment) contingency table. We computed scores for each of the measures…

Schraw, Gregory; Kuch, Fred; Gutierrez, Antonio P.

2013-01-01

188

Needle and syringe programs in Yunnan, China yield health and financial return  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  As a harm reduction strategy in response to HIV epidemics needle and syringes programs (NSPs) were initiated throughout China\\u000a in 2002. The effectiveness of NSPs in reducing the spread of infection in such an established epidemic is unknown. In this\\u000a study we use data from Yunnan province, the province most affected by HIV in China, to (1) estimate the population

Lei Zhang; Lorraine Yap; Zhuang Xun; Zunyou Wu; David P Wilson

2011-01-01

189

Syringe Pressure Irrigation of Subdermic Tissue after Appendectomy to Decrease the Incidence of Postoperative Wound Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To evaluate syringe pressure irrigation of the surgical wound to decrease its infection after appendectomy, we designed a\\u000a randomized control trial at the Emergency Department of Mexico City General Hospital, including 350 patients with acute abdomen\\u000a suggestive of appendicitis, without any other infection clinically evident. The trial was randomized into 2 groups. Group\\u000a I patients received prophylactic systemic antibiotics

Carlos R. Cervantes-Sánchez; Rafael Gutiérrez-Vega; Jorge A. Vázquez-Carpizo; Cesar Athié-Gutiérrez

2000-01-01

190

Three Years after Legalization of Nonprescription Pharmacy Syringe Sales in California: Where Are We Now?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2005, passage of California Senate Bill 1159 enabled California’s county or city governments to establish disease\\u000a prevention demonstration projects (DPDPs) through which pharmacies could subsequently register to legally sell up to 10 syringes\\u000a to adults without a prescription. California’s 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) were surveyed annually in 2005–2007 to\\u000a monitor the progress of DPDP implementation and assess

Richard S. Garfein; Thomas J. Stopka; Patricia B. Pavlinac; Alessandra Ross; B. Karen Haye; Elise D. Riley; Ricky N. Bluthenthal

2010-01-01

191

Bilateral LMAN lesions cancel differences in HVC neuronal recruitment induced by unilateral syringeal denervation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six-day-old male zebra finches received (1) unilateral section of their tracheosyringeal nerve, (2) bilateral lesions of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (LMAN), and (3) both operations. All birds were kept with an adult, singing male as a tutor until day 65. Tracheo-syringeal nerve-cut birds were able to imitate this model, but LMAN-lesioned birds were not. Bromodeoxyuridine, a

L. Wilbrecht; T. Petersen; F. Nottebohm

2002-01-01

192

The impact of legalizing syringe exchange programs on arrests among injection drug users in California.  

PubMed

Legislation passed in 2000 allowed syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in California to operate legally if local jurisdictions declare a local HIV public health emergency. Nonetheless, even in locales where SEPs are legal, the possession of drug paraphernalia, including syringes, remained illegal. The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the legal status of SEPs and individual arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia among injection drug users (IDUs) in California from 2001 to 2003. Using data from three annual cross-sections (2001-03) of IDUs attending 24 SEPs in 16 California counties (N = 1,578), we found that overall, 14% of IDUs in our sample reported arrest or citation for paraphernalia in the 6 months before the interview. Further analysis found that 17% of IDUs attending a legal SEP (defined at the county level) reported arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia compared to 10% of IDUs attending an illegal SEP (p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia was 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 2.3] for IDUs attending legal SEPs compared to IDUs attending illegal SEPs, after controlling for race/ethnicity, age, homelessness, illegal income, injection of amphetamines, years of injection drug use, frequency of SEP use, and number of needles received at last visit. IDUs attending SEPs with legal status may be more visible to police, and hence, more subject to arrest or citation for paraphernalia. These findings suggest that legislative efforts to decriminalize the operation of SEPs without concurrent decriminalization of syringe possession may result in higher odds of arrest among SEP clients, with potentially deleterious implications for the health and well-being of IDUs. More comprehensive approaches to removing barriers to accessing sterile syringes are needed if our public health goals for reducing new HIV/HCV infections are to be obtained. PMID:17265133

Martinez, Alexis N; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Lorvick, Jennifer; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Kral, Alex H

2007-05-01

193

Microbial Metabolism of the Plant Phenolic Compounds Ferulic and Syringic Acids under Three Anaerobic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic and syringic acids are methoxylated aromatic compounds that often serve as models of the subunits of lignin. Although\\u000a these compounds have important implications for global carbon cycles, there is limited information on their fate in anoxic\\u000a environments. Enrichment cultures were established on these two model compounds under methanogenic, sulfidogenic, and denitrifying\\u000a conditions, using a Raritan River (New Jersey) marsh

C. D. Phelps; L. Y. Young

1997-01-01

194

The Impact of Legalizing Syringe Exchange Programs on Arrests Among Injection Drug Users in California  

PubMed Central

Legislation passed in 2000 allowed syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in California to operate legally if local jurisdictions declare a local HIV public health emergency. Nonetheless, even in locales where SEPs are legal, the possession of drug paraphernalia, including syringes, remained illegal. The objective of this paper is to examine the association between the legal status of SEPs and individual arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia among injection drug users (IDUs) in California from 2001 to 2003. Using data from three annual cross-sections (2001-03) of IDUs attending 24 SEPs in 16 California counties (N?=?1,578), we found that overall, 14% of IDUs in our sample reported arrest or citation for paraphernalia in the 6 months before the interview. Further analysis found that 17% of IDUs attending a legal SEP (defined at the county level) reported arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia compared to 10% of IDUs attending an illegal SEP (p?=?0.001). In multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of arrest or citation for drug paraphernalia was 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.2, 2.3] for IDUs attending legal SEPs compared to IDUs attending illegal SEPs, after controlling for race/ethnicity, age, homelessness, illegal income, injection of amphetamines, years of injection drug use, frequency of SEP use, and number of needles received at last visit. IDUs attending SEPs with legal status may be more visible to police, and hence, more subject to arrest or citation for paraphernalia. These findings suggest that legislative efforts to decriminalize the operation of SEPs without concurrent decriminalization of syringe possession may result in higher odds of arrest among SEP clients, with potentially deleterious implications for the health and well-being of IDUs. More comprehensive approaches to removing barriers to accessing sterile syringes are needed if our public health goals for reducing new HIV/HCV infections are to be obtained.

Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Kral, Alex H.

2007-01-01

195

Cloning and Sequencing of the Sphingomonas (Pseudomonas) paucimobilis Gene Essential for the O Demethylation of Vanillate and Syringate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphingomonas (Pseudomonas) paucimobilis SYK-6 is able to grow on 5,5*-dehydrodivanillic acid (DDVA), syringate, vanillate, and other dimeric model compounds of lignin as a sole carbon source. Nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis of S. paucimobilis SYK-6 was performed, and two mutants with altered DDVA degradation pathways were isolated. The mutant strain NT-1 could not degrade DDVA, but could degrade syringate, vanillate, and 2,2*,3*-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-5,5*-dicarboxybiphenyl (OH-DDVA).

SEIJI NISHIKAWA; TOMONORI SONOKI; TATSUHIDE KASAHARA; TAKAHIRO OBI; SHOKO KUBOTA; SHINYA KAWAI; NORIYUKI MOROHOSHI; YOSHIHIRO KATAYAMA

1998-01-01

196

Effects of Syringe Material, Sample Storage Time, and Temperature on Blood Gases and Oxygen Saturation in Arterialized Human Blood Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The practice of on-ice storage of arterial-blood samples in plastic syringes for delayed analysis continues, and the effects of storage time and temperature on the measurement of blood-oxygen-saturation values (SaO2) have not been adequately described. OBJECTIVE: To de- termine the effects of syringe material, storage time, and storage temperature on normal arterial- ized blood gas and SaO2 values. METHODS:

Thomas P Knowles; RRT RPSGT; F Herbert Douce

197

A robot for weighing syringes used in reference gas mixture preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the preparation of some types of reference gas mixtures, one of the starting materials is a liquid. The liquid is introduced in the cylinder by means of a syringe. The weighing of these syringes before and after injection is critical for the calculation of the gas composition. A robot has been developed to facilitate this weighing of syringes used in the gravimetric preparation of these gas mixtures. From the validation work, it is clear that the robot performs the measurements more reliably and with better repeatability than the manual method. The percentage of non-conforming gas mixtures dropped from approximately 5% to less than 1%. Subsequent experiments to revisit assumptions made in the preparation process have gained new insight into effects such as convection and evaporation of liquid. Additional preventive measures are taken, to further improve the weighing accuracy, and by implication, the accuracy of the gas composition data calculated from preparation. The gain in uncertainty is different for various types of gas mixtures and depends largely on the thermophysical properties of the liquid and the gas mixture being prepared.

van Andel, I.; van der Veen, A. M. H.; Zalewska, E. T.

2012-08-01

198

Survey of syringe and needle safety among student registered nurse anesthetists: are we making any progress?  

PubMed

Anesthesia providers serve a vital role in preventing the transmission of disease by following safe injection practices, yet violations of these standards have occurred. The goal of this study was to determine the extent of unsafe injection practices that exist among student anesthesia providers. An online survey containing 8 yes-no questions that assessed injection practices as outlined by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists was sent to student registered nurse anesthetists with at least 3 months' clinical experience. Three hundred twenty-five students completed the survey. Results showed that 14 (approximately 4%) have administered medications from the same syringe to multiple patients, 59 (18%) have reused a needle on the same patient, 266 (82%) have refilled used syringes, and 2 (0.6%) have reused infusion sets for more than 1 patient. Furthermore, 71 (22%) have reused a syringe or needle to withdraw medication from a multidose vial, and 160 (49%) have reentered a single-use medication vial to prepare doses for multiple patients. Students also were asked to report their experiences with nurse anesthetists who engaged in these practices. The results demonstrate that additional education on injection safety must take place to improve practice, increase patient safety, and reduce healthcare costs. PMID:23513322

Ford, Kelli

2013-02-01

199

The feasibility of a syringe-needle-exchange program in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, syringe-exchange programs have been established in a number of developed countries and have proven effective in reducing the transmission of HIV. Very few similar programs have been established in developing countries. This study reports on the feasibility of establishing a syringe-exchange program in Vietnam. Process data collected since the beginning of the program indicate the feasibility of establishing such a program as well as highlight a number of important issues. These issues are: 1) Acceptability of the program in the community which has been achieved through workshops with key community people including the local police; 2) training and recruitment of ex-user outreach workers; 3) the distribution of clean syringes and needles through outreach services rather than at established exchange sites; 4) the establishment of appropriate methods for the collection of used injection equipment. Further research is needed to examine the efficacy of the program in reducing risks and acceptability of the program in the larger society. PMID:9596375

Quan, V M; Chung, A; Abdul-Quader, A S

1998-04-01

200

Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women's Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Results Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (??=?-0.174, SE?=?0.054, p?calibration equations combining FFQ, 4DFR, 24HR with age, body mass index, race, and the psychosocial and diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are significantly different between the calibration equations with or without the six psychosocial and diet variables for protein density (p?=?0.02), but not for energy (p?=?0.119) or protein intake (p?=?0.077). Conclusions The addition of psychosocial and diet behavior factors to calibration equations significantly increases the amount of total variance explained for protein density and their inclusion would be expected to strengthen the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report for measurement error. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00000611

2013-01-01

201

Calibration Options For Triple Quadrupole LCMS Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Calibration with LC-MS data may be accomplished with different combinations of curve fit, weighting, and origin treatment. Agilent's Mass Hunter Quantitative Analysis software contains a Curve Fit Assistant, which allows comparison of over 100 different calibration options. Curve fit choices include linear, quadratic, power, logarithmic, second order logarithmic, and average of response factors. Weighting choices include equal, inverse x

Patrick N. Friel; Ann Marie Gordon; Rod Gullberg

202

Effectiveness of Structural-Level Needle/Syringe Programs to Reduce HCV and HIV Infection Among People Who Inject Drugs: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Needle-syringe programs (NSP) have been effective in reducing HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). Achieving sustainable reductions in these blood-borne infections requires addressing structural factors so PWID can legally access NSP services. Systematic literature searches collected information on NSP coverage and changes in HIV or HCV infection prevalence or incidence at the population level. Included studies had to document biomarkers (HIV or HCV) coupled with structural-level NSP, defined by a minimum 50 % coverage of PWID and distribution of 10 or more needles/syringe per PWID per year. Fifteen studies reported structural-level NSP and changes in HIV or HCV infection prevalence/incidence. Nine reported decreases in HIV prevalence, six in HCV infection prevalence, and three reported decreases in HIV incidence. The results support NSP as a structural-level intervention to reduce population-level infection and implementation of NSP for prevention and treatment of HIV and HCV infection. PMID:23975473

Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Modi, Shilpa; Stein, Ellen S; Briceno, Alya; Semaan, Salaam; Horvath, Tara; Kennedy, Gail E; Des Jarlais, Don C

2013-11-01

203

Air Kerma Calibration Factors and kch Values for PTW Soft X-ray, NACP and Roos Ionization Chambers at Very Low X-ray Energies (0.035 mm - 1.0 mm Al HVL)  

SciTech Connect

Several national and international protocols have been established for the dosimetry of x-ray beams used in radiotherapy. For the very low energy x-rays (0.035mm-1.0 mm Al HVL) only two codes are available: the UK IPEMB Code of Practice and the German standard, DIN 6809 Part 4. The measurement of very low energy x-ray beams is normally performed with parallel plate ionization chambers calibrated at a standards laboratory and characterized by an air kerma calibration factor N{sub k}. According to the IPEMB Code of Practice the absorbed dose in the user's beam should be determined by taking measurements with the parallel plate chamber positioned such that its entrance window is at the surface of a full-scatter water equivalent phantom. The absorbed dose to water can then be determined using an equation which includes a factor, k{sub ch}, which accounts for the change in response of the ionization chamber between the calibration in air and measurement at the surface of the phantom. N{sub k} and k{sub ch} values for the PTW soft X-ray, NACP and Roos ionization chambers are reported. It was found that k{sub ch} values varied from about 1.01 to 1.08 depending on the chamber, beam quality and phantom material. It is recommended that the IPEMB Code of Practice should be revised to incorporate these values.

Ipe, Nisy E.

1999-07-08

204

The NRC autocollimator calibration facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An autocollimator calibration facility has been developed based upon both a precision rotary table and a sine-bar. The traceability of the system is through sub-division of the circle and hence to the SI unit of angle, and does not require traceability to the definition of the metre. The rotary encoder that measures the angle of the rotary table is calibrated through circle closure techniques to a combined standard uncertainty of 0.013 arcsec at 5° intervals. The rotation of the sine-bar is measured by two interferometers, and together with the rotary encoder, enables calibration of the scale factor of an autocollimator to a combined standard uncertainty of 1.8 × 10-5.

Eves, B. J.

2013-10-01

205

Experimental SAR calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensor packet of the first European remote sensing satellite ERS-1 contains an SAR system. An exact calibration is necessary for the optimal use of the data obtained by this system. This paper describes the calibration.

Seifert, Pedro; Zink, Manfred

1991-08-01

206

Infrasonic pistonphone calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few options exist for calibration of transducers at infrasonic frequencies. A variable frequency infrasonic pistonphone is one option for calibration; however, thermoviscous effects can decrease the accuracy of calibrations made using an infrasonic pistonphone. An infrasonic pistonphone is developed that produces calibration signals between 0.001 and 30 Hz. To decrease calibration uncertainty due to thermo-viscous effects, the pressure inside the constructed pistonphone chamber is calculated using Rott's continuity and momentum equations, readily accepted equations that model thermo-viscous effects in enclosures. The pressure response of the pistonphone chamber is measured, and compared with the pressure predicted by a model incorporating Rott's equations. Example calibrations and thermo-viscous effect corrections are conducted. Results show an increase in calibration accuracy, and demonstrate the potential usefulness of the pistonphone design for the calibration of acoustic transducers at infrasonic frequencies.

Marston, Timothy Merrill

207

Coulometric Calibration of Micropipettes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coulometric method is described for the direct calibration of micropipettes. The only volumetric measurements made are in the preparation of the standard solution and in the pipetting of the sample for titration. No calibration of the instrument is requ...

G. D. Christian

1964-01-01

208

Taste and/or Odour Disturbances in Pediatric Patients Undergoing IV Flush with Normal Saline Administered by Prefilled Syringe  

PubMed Central

Background: At the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, more than 6000 inpatients per year undergo IV saline flushes by prefilled syringe to assess and maintain patency of IV tubing. In studies involving adults, it has been reported that volatile substances may leach from syringe materials into the saline, leading to taste and/or odour disturbances. Objective: To determine the incidence of taste and/or odour disturbances in pediatric patients after flushing of IV tubing with 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) from prefilled syringes. Methods: Inpatients aged 5–18 years who had undergone routine flushing of central or peripheral IV tubing with commercially available prefilled NS syringes were interviewed. Children aged 5–10 years used a visual hedonic scale to rate taste and odour sensations, and those aged 11–18 years used a numeric rating scale. Results: During the study period (April to July 2011), a total of 104 pediatric inpatients (21 aged 5–10 years and 83 aged 11–18 years) underwent NS flushing of central (10 patients [10%]) or peripheral (94 patients [90%]) tubing. For 100 of these patients, BD Posiflush NaCl 0.9% 10-mL sterile prefilled syringes were used, and for 4 patients BD Saline XS NaCl 0.9% 10-mL sterile prefilled syringes were used. Taste and/or odour disturbances were reported by 76 (73%) of the patients. Twelve patients described more than one taste or odour sensation. Taste and odour disturbances were detected by children in both age groups. Conclusions: Flushing of IV tubing with prefilled NS syringes resulted in taste and/or odour disturbances in a pediatric population.

Celetti, Steven J; Vaillancourt, Regis; Pascuet, Elena; Sharp, Diane

2012-01-01

209

SAR calibration: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in synthetic-aperture radar, (SAR) calibration is reviewed. The difficulties of calibrating both airborne and spaceborne SAR image data are addressed. The quantities measured by a SAR, i.e. radar backscatter, are defined and mathematical formulations for the three basic types of SAR image are developed. The difficulties in establishing science requirements for calibration are discussed. The measurement of SAR image

Anthony Freeman

1992-01-01

210

Deformations Of Calibrated Submanifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Assuming the ambient manifold is Kahler, the theory of complex submanifoldscan be placed in the more general context of calibrated submanifolds, see[HL]. It is therefore natural to try to extend some of the many results in complexgeometry to the other calibrated geometries of [HL]. In particular, the question ofdeformability of calibrated submanifolds is addressed here (analogous to Kodaira'swork on

Robert C. Mclean

1996-01-01

211

Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia  

PubMed Central

Background Estonia has experienced an HIV epidemic among intravenous drug users (IDUs) with the highest per capita HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe. We assessed the effects of expanded syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the capital city, Tallinn, which has an estimated 10,000 IDUs. Methods SEP implementation was monitored with data from the Estonian National Institute for Health Development. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys with HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2005, 2007 and 2009 (involving 350, 350 and 327 IDUs respectively). HIV incidence among new injectors (those injecting for < = 3 years) was estimated by assuming (1) new injectors were HIV seronegative when they began injecting, and (2) HIV infection occurred at the midpoint between first injection and time of interview. Results SEP increased from 230,000 syringes exchanged in 2005 to 440,000 in 2007 and 770,000 in 2009. In all three surveys, IDUs were predominantly male (80%), ethnic Russians (>80%), and young adults (mean ages 24 to 27 years). The proportion of new injectors decreased significantly over the years (from 21% in 2005 to 12% in 2009, p = 0.005). HIV prevalence among all respondents stabilized at slightly over 50% (54% in 2005, 55% in 2007, 51% in 2009), and decreased among new injectors (34% in 2005, 16% in 2009, p = 0.046). Estimated HIV incidence among new injectors decreased significantly from 18/100 person-years in 2005 and 21/100 person-years in 2007 to 9/100 person-years in 2009 (p = 0.026). Conclusions In Estonia, a transitional country, a decrease in the HIV prevalence among new injectors and in the numbers of people initiating injection drug use coincided with implementation of large-scale SEPs. Further reductions in HIV transmission among IDUs are still required. Provision of 70 or more syringes per IDU per year may be needed before significant reductions in HIV incidence occur.

2011-01-01

212

Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (i) peak-shift experiments and (ii) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of 239Pu, 187Re, and 238U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multi-detector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions.

Bayne, C.; Donohue, D.; Fiedler, R.

1994-06-01

213

Primary and secondary analysis of local elected officials' decisions to support or oppose pharmacy sale of syringes in California.  

PubMed

Under California law, local governments may authorize pharmacies within their jurisdictions to sell ten or fewer syringes to an adult without prescription, proof of identity, or proof of medical need. Local governments may simultaneously exempt adults from prosecution for violation of state drug paraphernalia codes for possession of ten or fewer syringes for personal use. Both of these provisions are temporary and sunset on December 31, 2010, unless subsequent state legislation amends that date. The objective of our study was to ascertain how and why local policymakers made their decisions regarding non-prescription syringe sale (NPSS). We examined influences on their decisions, including specific messengers and the arguments that were most salient to their decision making. We selected jurisdictions that were geographically representative of California counties; those with and without syringe exchange programs, and those that had passed or rejected NPSS. We conducted nine semi-structured interviews in five jurisdictions. To enrich primary data collection, we analyzed secondary data by reviewing audio, video, and written transcripts of public hearings and newspaper coverage in five jurisdictions, including three jurisdictions without primary interview data. Among proponents of NPSS, we identified common themes, including: (1) public health research provided conclusive evidence for reduction in HIV and hepatitis transmission without problems of crime, drug use, or unsafe discard of syringes; (2) the local health officer was the key to influencing local policymakers; (3) recall of prior debates over syringe exchange served to inform their decision making; and (4) a lack of local opposition or controversy. Common concerns among opponents of NPSS included: (1) that there would be an increase in unsafe discard of syringes; (2) loss of an important law enforcement tool; (3) that drug users were incapable of desired behavior change; and (4) that research was inconclusive, or proved that syringe access would not work in reducing rates of disease. Themes held in common by proponents and opponents of NPSS were identified as well. Syringe access through NPSS is in fact supported by a robust body of public health research and is considered an important component of a comprehensive strategy to reduce HIV and hepatitis transmission. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the perspectives of elected officials in order to ameliorate their concerns without undermining the public health goal of reducing death, disease, and suffering in at-risk communities. PMID:20352356

Backes, Glenn; Rose, Valerie J

2010-07-01

214

40 CFR 89.324 - Calibration of other equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calibration of other equipment. 89.324 Section...Equipment Provisions § 89.324 Calibration of other equipment. (a) Other...may be calculated by use of a single calibration factor for that range. If the...

2012-07-01

215

Chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve in the rat using modified syringe needle.  

PubMed

Here we report a method for performing a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the infraorbital nerve (ION) in the rat as a component of a chronic pain model. The surgical approach to the ION is described together with the use of a modified dental syringe needle that simplifies placing two chromic gut ligatures around the ION. This method makes the surgical procedure easier, the nerve injury more consistent across animals and reduces secondary damage to the ION and surrounding tissue. Pain behavior testing together with immunostaining for markers of nerve injury in the spinal trigeminal nucleus show the suitability of this procedure as a model of orofacial pain. PMID:18501433

Kernisant, Melanie; Gear, Robert W; Jasmin, Luc; Vit, Jean-Philippe; Ohara, Peter T

2008-04-22

216

Oxygen atomic density of atmospheric Ar plasma jet generated with syringe needle-ring electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet is generated with syringe needle-ring electrodes in an 8 kHz sinusoidal excitation voltage. It is found that the rotational temperature of nitrogen is in the range of 333 - 373 K obtained by comparing the simulated spectrum with the measured spectrum at the C3?u ? B3?g (?v = -2) band transition, the electronic excitation temperature is in the range of 3187 - 3243 K determined by the Boltzmann's plot method, and the oxygen atomic density is in the order of magnitude of 1016 cm-3 estimated by the actinometry method, respectively.

Hong, Y.; Li, J.; Pan, J.; Lu, N.; Shang, K. F.; Wu, Y.

2013-03-01

217

Bilateral syringeal interaction in vocal production of an oscine bird sound.  

PubMed

The vocal organ, or syrinx, of oscine birds has two parts, each of which has generally been presumed to operate independently of the other. A significant counter-example is now demonstrated in the production of a common vocalization by the black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus), in which the two acoustic sources interact in a nonlinear fashion. This bird produces a sound with multiple frequency components that are heterodyne products resulting from cross-modulation between two signals, thus providing evidence that avian phonation can involve cooperative coupling between the two syringeal sources. PMID:3945824

Nowicki, S; Capranica, R R

1986-03-14

218

[The switching time of propofol syringes for the propofol specific pump is dependent on the familiarity of pumps].  

PubMed

The switching time of syringes during propofol anesthesia was investigated among various anesthesiologists. One hundred and thirty times of exchanges were observed in the early 82 propofol anesthesia cases using a propofol specific syringe pump STC-525 X (Terumo, Japan) since the introduction of propofol in our hospital. The anesthesiologists were divided into three groups: group A; the board certified anesthesiologists with more than one month experience of propofol anesthesia, group B; the board certificed anesthesiologists with less than one month experience, group C: the trainee. There were no cases of intraoperative recall case. The median times of switching syringes were 14 seconds, 26 seconds, 56 seconds in the group A, group B, group C, respectively. Group A is significantly quicker than the other groups. This indicates that switching time is dependent on the experience with propofol and syringe pumps. We conclude that not only trainees but also expert anesthesiologists should be accustomed to switching syringes in order to avoid intraoperative awareness. PMID:9720344

Nakao, M; Onji, I; Harada, A

1998-07-01

219

Hand-powered microfluidics: A membrane pump with a patient-to-chip syringe interface  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present an on-chip hand-powered membrane pump using a robust patient-to-chip syringe interface. This approach enables safe sample collection, sample containment, integrated sharps disposal, high sample volume capacity, and controlled downstream flow with no electrical power requirements. Sample is manually injected into the device via a syringe and needle. The membrane pump inflates upon injection and subsequently deflates, delivering fluid to downstream components in a controlled manner. The device is fabricated from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silicone, using CO2 laser micromachining, with a total material cost of ?0.20 USD/device. We experimentally demonstrate pump performance for both deionized (DI) water and undiluted, anticoagulated mouse whole blood, and characterize the behavior with reference to a resistor-capacitor electrical circuit analogy. Downstream output of the membrane pump is regulated, and scaled, by connecting multiple pumps in parallel. In contrast to existing on-chip pumping mechanisms that typically have low volume capacity (?5??L) and sample volume throughput (?1–10??l/min), the membrane pump offers high volume capacity (up to 240??l) and sample volume throughput (up to 125??l/min).

Gong, Max M.; MacDonald, Brendan D.; Vu Nguyen, Trung; Sinton, David

2012-01-01

220

Improving treatment enrollment and re-enrollment rates of syringe exchangers: 12-month outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Developing bridges between community syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and substance abuse treatment could benefit syringe exchangers and the public health. Kidorf et al. (2009) showed that motivational approaches employed at an SEP site improved rates of treatment enrollment and reduced drug use over a 4-month observation window. The present study extends this report by evaluating rates of treatment enrollment and re-enrollment over a 12-month period. Methods Opioid dependent individuals (n = 281) newly registered at an SEP were randomly assigned to one of three referral interventions: 1) 8 individual motivational enhancement sessions and 16 treatment readiness group sessions designed to improve treatment interest and readiness (Motivated Referral Condition; MRC-only); 2) MRC-only with monetary incentives for attending sessions and enrolling in treatment (MRC+I); or 3) standard referral (SRC). MRC-only and MRC+I participants discharged from treatment could attend a treatment re-engagement group designed to facilitate return to treatment (MRC+I participants received incentives for attending sessions and re-enrolling in treatment). Results The 4-month outcomes generally extended over 12-months. MRC+I participants were more likely to enroll in methadone maintenance than MRC-only or SRC participants, and to re-enroll in treatment following discharge. MRC+I participants also reported more days of treatment and less heroin and injection use. Conclusions The good harm reduction outcomes for many SEP participants can be enhanced through strategies designed to facilitate treatment enrollment and re-enrollment.

Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L.; Gandotra, Neeraj; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K.

2012-01-01

221

Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe.  

PubMed

A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 muL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0-10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%-0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r(2) = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible. PMID:18924720

Pignalosa, Gustavo; Knochen, Moisés; Cabrera, Noel

2005-01-01

222

Reduction of Systematic Errors in Diagnostic Receivers Through the Use of Balanced Dicke-Switching and Y-Factor Noise Calibrations  

SciTech Connect

Receivers designed for diagnostic applications range from those having moderate sensitivity to those possessing large dynamic range. Digital receivers have a dynamic range which are a function of the number of bits represented by the ADC and subsequent processing. If some of this range is sacrificed for extreme sensitivity, noise power can then be used to perform two-point load calibrations. Since load temperatures can be precisely determined, the receiver can be quickly and accurately characterized; minute changes in system gain can then be detected, and systematic errors corrected. In addition, using receiver pairs in a balanced approach to measuring X+, X-, Y+, Y-, reduces systematic offset errors from non-identical system gains, and changes in system performance. This paper describes and demonstrates a balanced BPM-style diagnostic receiver, employing Dicke-switching to establish and maintain real-time system calibration. Benefits of such a receiver include wide bandwidth, solid absolute accuracy, improved position accuracy, and phase-sensitive measurements. System description, static and dynamic modelling, and measurement data are presented.

John Musson, Trent Allison, Roger Flood, Jianxun Yan

2009-05-01

223

DORIS radar calibration method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the interest expressed by ESA and FGAN, it was decided to realise some evaluation of the DORIS calibration method with the TIRA radar. This paper, organised in four parts, describes: - the importance of radar calibration in the space debris domain - the principle of the DORIS calibration method - the results obtained with the TIRA FGAN radar using the DORIS reference - the advantages of the DORIS calibration and the future uses of this method in an European exercise involving for the ESA benefit both French and German radars.

Ameline, P.

2001-10-01

224

Attitudes of police officers towards syringe access, occupational needle-sticks, and drug use: A qualitative study of one city police department in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of legal barriers to syringe access has been identified as an important part of a comprehensive approach to reducing HIV transmission among injecting drug users (IDUs). Legal barriers include both “law on the books” and “law on the streets,” i.e., the actual practices of law enforcement officers. Changes in syringe and drug control policy can be ineffective in reducing

Leo Beletsky; Grace E. Macalino; Scott Burris

2005-01-01

225

New challenges for agency based syringe exchange schemes: analysis of 11 years of data (1991–2001) in Merseyside and Cheshire, United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Merseyside and Cheshire Drug Monitoring Unit has collected attributable data on agency based syringe exchange program (SEP) clients between 1991 and 2001, representing 14,491 individual injectors. On first presentation to a SEP, clients provide information relating to their drug use and drug service contact. Details relating to all subsequent syringe transactions are also recorded. Over 206,000 transactions took place,

Jim McVeigh; Caryl Beynon; Mark A Bellis

2003-01-01

226

Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency`s Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (1) peak-shift experiments and (2) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 187}Re, and {sup 238}U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multidetector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions. A single detector efficiency factor is not recommended for each detector that would be used to correct routine sample analyses. An alternative three-run peak-shift sample analysis should be considered. A statistical analysis of the data from this peak-shift experiment can adjust the isotopic ratio estimates for detector differences due to each sample analysis.

Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Donohue, D.L.; Fiedler, R. [IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria). Safeguards Analytical Lab.

1994-06-01

227

Moving beyond non-engagement on regulated needle-syringe exchange programs in Australian prisons  

PubMed Central

Background Australia is at a fork in the road with the possibility of a needle-syringe exchange program (NSP) to be introduced at the new prison in the ACT. However, the current situation is characterised by non-engagement from major stakeholders. We explore why informed discussion will not be enough to convince prison officers, policy makers and the wider community of the benefits of prison-based NSPs. Other methods of engagement and communication will be proposed – in that may provide avenues for "breakthrough". Methods A review of the literature on needle-syringe exchanges and harm reduction strategies within the context of prisons and prisoner health was conducted. Literature on strategies to change attitudes and move beyond intractable situations was also consulted. In addition, one author, DM, conducted a two-hour interview with an ex-prison officer. Results No studies were found which investigated the potential efficacy of interventions to modify attitudes or behaviours in the specific context of introducing an NSP into a prison. Nonetheless, several theories were identified which may explain the failure of informed discussion alone to create change in this situation and may therefore lead to suggestions for engagement and communication to move towards a resolution Discussion Cognitive-behavioural therapy highlights the importance of individual cognitions and how they shape behaviours in any change campaign. Social identity theory emphasizes changes to social processes that may open the prison officer workforce to change. Peace studies also suggests socialization strategies such as observing an established and effective prison-based needle-syringe exchange. Social marketing provides suggestions on how to sell an exchange to ensuring the benefits are framed to outweigh the costs. Conclusion Psychology, peace studies and social marketing all agree people's views must be carefully collected and analysed if people are going to be convinced to consider and discuss the issue. By understanding the views and their underlying motivations of those who oppose NSPs, it will be far easier to influence these views. Furthermore, involving all stakeholders, especially prison authorities, will help create a sense of ownership of a solution and therefore increase the chances of that solution succeeding.

Mogg, Daniel; Levy, Michael

2009-01-01

228

Gold Nanoparticles on Modified Glass Surface as Height Calibration Standard for Atomic Force Microscopy Operating in Contact and Tapping Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

th 2005 Topics Covered Abstract Background Factors Affecting The Precision and Accuracy in and Atomic Force Microscope Calibration of Instruments Calibration of Instruments Types of Calibration Samples Shortcomings When Calibrating for Tapping Mode Operation Issues Associated with Reproducibility in Tapping Mode AFM Operation Devising a Calibration Sample for Contact Mode and Tapping Mode AFM Methods and Materials

Beatrice Bonanni; Salvatore Cannistraro

2005-01-01

229

Calibrated Properties Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Office of Repository Development (ORD). The UZ contains the unsaturated rock layers overlying the repository and host unit, which constitute a natural barrier to flow, and the unsaturated rock layers below

J. Wang

2003-01-01

230

Calibration of Personnel Dosimeters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods of calibrating both film and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to photon and electron radiations are described. K fluorescent x-rays, heavily filtered x-ray beams, and isotope gamma rays are used at the Los Alamos calibration facility to measure ...

E. Storm J. R. Cortez G. J. Littlejohn

1977-01-01

231

Calibrating hydraulic network models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although calibration should always be included in any hydraulic analysis, it is often neglected or done haphazardly. As a result, inappropriate data may be used or data errors may be overlooked, so the resulting hydraulic model is of limited value. The novice may see calibrating a hydraulic network model as a task as daunting as climbing Mt. Everest. This article

Lindell E. Ormsbee; Srinivasa Lingireddy

1997-01-01

232

ASTER instrument calibration plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASTER is composed of three radiometers for separate wavelength regions: visible and near infrared radiometer (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared radiometer (SWIR) both in the solar reflection region, and thermal infrared radiometer (TIR) in the thermal emission region. Each radiometer will be calibrated before launch on the ground, and after launch in orbit. This paper describes the calibration plan of ASTER radiometer.

Ono, Akira; Sakuma, Fumihiro

1993-08-01

233

Calibration of attitude sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an on-board computer.

Potapenko, E. M.

1986-04-01

234

ASTER instrument calibration plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASTER is composed of three radiometers for separate wavelength regions: visible and near infrared radiometer (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared radiometer (SWIR) both in the solar reflection region, and thermal infrared radiometer (TIR) in the thermal emission region. Each radiometer will be calibrated before launch on the ground, and after launch in orbit. This paper describes the calibration plan of

Akira Ono; Fumihiro Sakuma

1993-01-01

235

STIS calibration status.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author reports on news about the current state of calibration of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS): biases, darks, flats, flats for imaging, on-axis sensitivity for spectroscopic modes, on-axis sensitivity for imaging modes, wavelength calibration, geometric distortion.

Ferguson, H. C.

1998-10-01

236

Calibration of Radioactive Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All detector systems for the measurement of radioactivity in the different fields of applications need to be calibrated in terms of efficiency with radioactive sources of known activities and of known radionuclides. This is true for the measurement of environmental radioactivity, activities of sources for medical applications, or activities in the field of nuclear industry and nuclear research. It is the task of National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and Calibration Laboratories to calibrate radioactive sources in terms of activity and to provide activity standards appropriate to the special needs of their customers. This chapter describes the methods to calibrate the activity of radioactive materials, the different types of calibration sources, and the wayto establish the traceability and international comparability of activity standards.

Arnold, Dirk; Janßen, Herbert

237

Calibration method for spectroscopic systems  

DOEpatents

Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets.

Sandison, David R. (Edgewood, NM)

1998-01-01

238

Access to sterile syringes for injecting drug users in New York City: politics and perception (1984-2010).  

PubMed

In the United States, political and social environments have shaped public health response to injecting drug use, and New York City represents a salient example. The history of "harm reduction" in New York City is characterized within changing historical periods and in relation to the actions of stakeholders. The expansion is traced over four periods: (i) 1984-1989: emergence, activism, and science; (ii) 1990-1994 reckoning: syringe exchange legislation and consolidation; (iii) 1995-1999: bureaucratization, opposition, and challenges to institutional control; and (iv) 2000-2010 revitalization: expansion of syringe access and harm reduction. It is clear from this review that the leadership of activism and the work of advocates catalyzed syringe access policy and practice. Without this "push," it is unlikely that New York City would have experienced the dramatic decline in HIV infection among drug injectors in the 1990s. Second, successful arguments for expanding syringe access in New York City were based on the high HIV/AIDS infection rates. Thus, program developments were advocated as HIV prevention interventions, rather than as expanded services for addressing broader health and social issues of injecting drug use. PMID:21303234

Heller, Daliah; Paone, Denise

2011-01-01

239

Stability of doxorubicin, daunorubicin and epirubicin in plastic syringes and minibags.  

PubMed

The shelf lives of doxorubicin, daunorubicin and epirubicin in infusion fluids were studied using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods. Doxorubicin and epirubicin were stable (loss in potency of less than 10%) for 24 and 20 days respectively, when dissolved in sodium chloride solution (0.9%; pH, 6.47) at 25 degrees C and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) minibags, while daunorubicin was stable for at least 43 days. All three drugs were stable for at least 43 days in sodium chloride (0.9%; pH 6.47 and 5.20) and dextrose (5%; pH 4.36) at 4 and -20 degrees C. Repeated thawing and re-freezing of these solutions at ambient temperature did not cause degradation. All three drugs were stable for at least 43 days when reconstituted with Water-for-Injections BP and stored in polypropylene syringes at 4 degrees C. PMID:2229207

Wood, M J; Irwin, W J; Scott, D K

1990-08-01

240

Organizational Issues in the Implementation of a Hospital-Based Syringe Exchange Program  

PubMed Central

Little published information exists to guide health care institutions in establishing syringe exchange program (SEP) services. To address this gap, this article discusses organizational issues encountered in the implementation of a hospital-based SEP in San Francisco, California (USA). Investigators collaborated with a community organization in implementing a county hospital-based SEP. SEP services integrated into a public hospital presented unique challenges directly related to their status as a health care institution. In the course of introducing SEP services into a hospital setting as part of a clinical trial, various ethical, legal, and logistical issues were raised. Based on these experiences, this paper provides guidance on how to integrate an SEP into a traditional health care institution.

Masson, Carmen L.; Sorensen, James L.; Grossman, Nina; Sporer, Karl A.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Perlman, David C.

2012-01-01

241

Portable system of programmable syringe pump with potentiometer for determination of promethazine in pharmaceutical applications  

PubMed Central

A simple and fast-automated method was developed and validated for the assay of promethazine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations, based on the oxidation of promethazine by cerium in an acidic medium. A portable system, consisting of a programmable syringe pump connected to a potentiometer, was constructed. The developed change in potential during promethazine oxidation was monitored. The related optimum working conditions, such as supporting electrolyte concentration, cerium(IV) concentration and flow rate were optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical samples as well as synthetic ones. The obtained results were realized by the official British pharmacopoeia (BP) method and comparable results were obtained. The obtained t-value indicates no significant differences between the results of the proposed and BP methods, with the advantages of the proposed method being simple, sensitive and cost effective.

Saleh, Tawfik A.; Abulkibash, A.M.; Ibrahim, Atta E.

2011-01-01

242

Ionization chambers for measuring air kerma integrated over beam area. Deviations in calibration values using simplified calibration methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibrations of kerma-area product meters (KAP meters) are often performed using simplified methods. The accuracy thus obtained can be insufficient, especially when the KAP meters are used for optimizing radiological procedures. The deviations between the best available calibration factor (k) and the simplified calibration factor were measured at different clinical x-ray installations. Depending on the type of x-ray installation and

J. P. Larsson; J. Persliden; G. Alm Carlsson

1998-01-01

243

Three years after legalization of nonprescription pharmacy syringe sales in California: where are we now?  

PubMed

In January 2005, passage of California Senate Bill 1159 enabled California's county or city governments to establish disease prevention demonstration projects (DPDPs) through which pharmacies could subsequently register to legally sell up to 10 syringes to adults without a prescription. California's 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) were surveyed annually in 2005-2007 to monitor the progress of DPDP implementation and assess program coverage, facilitators, and barriers. Completed surveys were returned by mail, fax, e-mail, phone, or internet. We analyzed 2007 survey data to describe current DPDP status; data from all years were analyzed for trends in approval and implementation status. By 2007, 17 (27.9%) LHJs approved DPDPs, of which 14 (82.4%) had registered 532 (17.8%) of the 2,987 pharmacies in these 14 LHJs. Although only three LHJs added DPDPs since 2006, the number of registered pharmacies increased 102% from 263 previously reported. Among the LHJs without approved DPDPs in 2007, one (2.3%) was in the approval process, seven (16.3%) planned to seek approval, and 35 (81.4%) reported no plans to seek approval. Of 35 LHJs not planning to seek approval, the top four reasons were: limited health department time (40%) or interest (34%), pharmacy disinterest (31%), and law enforcement opposition (26%). Among eight LHJs pursuing approval, the main barriers were "time management" (13%), educating stakeholders (13%), and enlisting pharmacy participation (13%). The17 LHJs with DPDP represent 52% of California's residents; they included 62% of persons living with HIV and 59% of IDU-related HIV cases, suggesting that many LHJs with significant numbers of HIV cases have approved DPDPs. Outcome studies are needed to determine whether SB 1159 had the desired impact on increasing syringe access and reducing blood-borne viral infection risk among California IDUs. PMID:20535641

Garfein, Richard S; Stopka, Thomas J; Pavlinac, Patricia B; Ross, Alessandra; Haye, B Karen; Riley, Elise D; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

2010-07-01

244

Three Years after Legalization of Nonprescription Pharmacy Syringe Sales in California: Where Are We Now?  

PubMed Central

In January 2005, passage of California Senate Bill 1159 enabled California’s county or city governments to establish disease prevention demonstration projects (DPDPs) through which pharmacies could subsequently register to legally sell up to 10 syringes to adults without a prescription. California’s 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) were surveyed annually in 2005–2007 to monitor the progress of DPDP implementation and assess program coverage, facilitators, and barriers. Completed surveys were returned by mail, fax, e-mail, phone, or internet. We analyzed 2007 survey data to describe current DPDP status; data from all years were analyzed for trends in approval and implementation status. By 2007, 17 (27.9%) LHJs approved DPDPs, of which 14 (82.4%) had registered 532 (17.8%) of the 2,987 pharmacies in these 14 LHJs. Although only three LHJs added DPDPs since 2006, the number of registered pharmacies increased 102% from 263 previously reported. Among the LHJs without approved DPDPs in 2007, one (2.3%) was in the approval process, seven (16.3%) planned to seek approval, and 35 (81.4%) reported no plans to seek approval. Of 35 LHJs not planning to seek approval, the top four reasons were: limited health department time (40%) or interest (34%), pharmacy disinterest (31%), and law enforcement opposition (26%). Among eight LHJs pursuing approval, the main barriers were “time management” (13%), educating stakeholders (13%), and enlisting pharmacy participation (13%). The17 LHJs with DPDP represent 52% of California’s residents; they included 62% of persons living with HIV and 59% of IDU-related HIV cases, suggesting that many LHJs with significant numbers of HIV cases have approved DPDPs. Outcome studies are needed to determine whether SB 1159 had the desired impact on increasing syringe access and reducing blood-borne viral infection risk among California IDUs.

Stopka, Thomas J.; Pavlinac, Patricia B.; Ross, Alessandra; Haye, B. Karen; Riley, Elise D.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

2010-01-01

245

Syringeal Specialization of Frequency Control during Song Production in the Bengalese Finch (Lonchura striata domestica)  

PubMed Central

Background Singing in songbirds is a complex, learned behavior which shares many parallels with human speech. The avian vocal organ (syrinx) has two potential sound sources, and each sound generator is under unilateral, ipsilateral neural control. Different songbird species vary in their use of bilateral or unilateral phonation (lateralized sound production) and rapid switching between left and right sound generation (interhemispheric switching of motor control). Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) have received considerable attention, because they rapidly modify their song in response to manipulations of auditory feedback. However, how the left and right sides of the syrinx contribute to acoustic control of song has not been studied. Methodology Three manipulations of lateralized syringeal control of sound production were conducted. First, unilateral syringeal muscular control was eliminated by resection of the left or right tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve, which provides neuromuscular innervation of the syrinx. Spectral and temporal features of song were compared before and after lateralized nerve injury. In a second experiment, either the left or right sound source was devoiced to confirm the role of each sound generator in the control of acoustic phonology. Third, air pressure was recorded before and after unilateral denervation to enable quantification of acoustic change within individual syllables following lateralized nerve resection. Significance These experiments demonstrate that the left sound source produces louder, higher frequency, lower entropy sounds, and the right sound generator produces lower amplitude, lower frequency, higher entropy sounds. The bilateral division of labor is complex and the frequency specialization is the opposite pattern observed in most songbirds. Further, there is evidence for rapid interhemispheric switching during song production. Lateralized control of song production in Bengalese finches may enhance acoustic complexity of song and facilitate the rapid modification of sound production following manipulations of auditory feedback.

Secora, Kristen R.; Peterson, Jennifer R.; Urbano, Catherine M.; Chung, Boah; Okanoya, Kazuo; Cooper, Brenton G.

2012-01-01

246

Methyl syringate: a chemical marker of asphodel (Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv.) monofloral honey.  

PubMed

During the liquid chromatographic study of the phenolic fraction of monofloral honeys was detected in the asphodel honey ( Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv.) chromatogram a distinctive peak not detected in other monofloral honeys such as Arbutus unedo L., Hedysarum coronarium , Eucalyptus spp., and Galactites tomentosa . After thin layer chromatography (TLC) purification and characterization by NMR and LC-MS/MS, the compound was identified as methyl syringate (MSYR) and confirmed against an original standard. Levels of MSYR were measured in honeys of 2005, 2006, and 2007 by HPLC-DAD analysis. Level determination of MSYR was repeated in 2008 for 2006 and 2007 honeys to evaluate chemical stability of this phenolic compound. Levels of MSYR measured 1 year after the sampling did not show significant statistical differences (p < 0.05). The stability of MSYR was also confirmed by 12 asphodel honey samples collected in 2005 that showed amounts of methyl syringate comparable with those found in fresh honey. For the evaluation of MSYR origin, samples of nectars were collected from flowers and the content of MSYR was measured. Levels of MSYR in honeys are originated from the nectar with an average contribution of the nectar to the honey of 80%. Melissopalinological analysis did not allow the attribution of the honey monofloral origin because levels of asphodel pollen were <6% for all analyzed samples. Previously reported levels of MSYR for robinia, rape, chestnut, clover, linden blossom, dandelion, sunflower, thyme, manuka, and fir honeys were <5 mg/kg. For this reason, a minimum level of 122.6 mg/kg for MSYR in asphodel honeys can be considered as a chemical marker and, unlike the melissopalynological analysis, can be used for the origin attribution and to evaluate the percent of asphodel nectar in the honey. PMID:19309074

Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Bifulco, Ersilia; Jerkovi?, Igor; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo; Floris, Ignazio

2009-05-13

247

Pharmacists' attitudes about pharmacy sale of needles/syringes and needle exchange programs in a city without needle/syringe prescription laws.  

PubMed

We assessed pharmacists' practices for needle and syringe (NS) sales and their attitudes toward a needle exchange program through a telephone survey of 75 randomly selected pharmacies in Baltimore, Maryland, where possession of drug paraphernalia is illegal but where NS can be purchased without a prescription. Pharmacists' (n=46) procedures for NS sales included asking for picture identification (54%), requiring a prescription (34%), or requiring a diabetic identification (DID, 34%) for NS purchase; multiple responses were allowed. The median number of prescription and nonprescription NS sold per month was 950. Most (86.6%) pharmacists reported selling NS without prescriptions at their discretion. Pharmacists sold a median of 16 nonprescription NS per month. Pharmacists who required prescriptions or DID (56.5%) sold nonprescription NS significantly less often than those who did not require prescriptions or DID (p=.007). Most pharmacists (87%) were aware of the needle exchange program, 78.3% supported the program, and 67.4% supported selling nonprescription NS in pharmacies. Although there was no difference in anticipated effects of needle exchange or in support for needle exchange between pharmacists who did or did not require prescriptions, DID, or both, pharmacists who did require these items were significantly less likely to support pharmacy sales of nonprescription NS than pharmacists with less restrictive sales policies (p=.04). Although most pharmacists surveyed supported access to sterile NS by injection drug users through a needle exchange program, there was a diversity of approaches to nonprescription NS sales among pharmacists in a city that does not require prescriptions for access to sterile NS. Most supported nonpharmacy needle exchange programs, and more than one half limited injection drug users' access to NS through restrictive sales practices. To reduce injection drug users' exposure to HIV, pharmacists should be educated about HIV prevention and injection drug use and be included in development of HIV prevention programs, including legal pharmacy NS sales. PMID:9663630

Gleghorn, A A; Gee, G; Vlahov, D

1998-01-01

248

Spectral Sensitivity Calibration of Spectrophotometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A standard lamp calibrated by NPL was used to measure the spectral sensitivity curve of a spectrophotometer which had previously been calibrated in the ultraviolet region against the ferrioxalate actinometer. The results indicated that the calibration of ...

C. A. Parker C. G. Hatchard

1976-01-01

249

Multichannel camera calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the latest computer vision applications, it becomes more and more popular to take advantage of multichannel cameras (RGB cameras, etc.) to obtain not only gray values but also color information of pixels. The currently most common approach for multichannel camera calibration is the straightforward application of methods developed for calibration of single channel cameras. These conventional calibration methods may give quite poor performances including color fringes and displacement of features, especially for high-resolution multichannel cameras. In order to suppress the undesired effects, a novel multichannel camera calibration approach is introduced and evaluated in this paper. This approach considers each single channel individually and involves different transversal chromatic aberration models. In comparison to the standard approach, the proposed approach provides more accurate calibration results in most cases and should lead subsequently to more reliable estimation results for computer vision issues. Moreover, besides the existing transversal chromatic aberration (TCA) model, further TCA models and correction methods are introduced which are superior to the existing ones. Since the proposed approach is based on the most popular calibration routine, only minimal modifications have to be made to the existing approaches to obtain the improved calibration quality.

Li, Wei; Klein, Julie

2013-01-01

250

Research on digital calibration method for optical surface defect dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital calibration method for defect dimension of the optical surface is put forward to get the correspondence between the actual scale of defect on optical surface and the number of pixels of the defect image captured by CCD. Standard scratches, with their width ranging from 0.5?m to 40?m, are fabricated by electron beam exposure and reactive ion beam etching on two kinds of standard calibration board, quartz calibration board with and without chromium film. Calibration experiments are accomplished in five different microscope magnifications. Threshold segmentation, morphological operation and feature extraction are carried out in the images of calibration board to obtain the width of standard scratches in pixels. Interpret the theoretic trend of the calibration function as well as the linear range of it, and fit the calibration function based on the experimental results. According to the analysis and comparing of the calibration results in different microscope magnifications, error source and the factors limiting the resolving accuracy of the calibration system are analyzed. Ultimately, a standardization process including fabrication of the standard scratch, establishment of the standard calibration library for different microscope magnifications and the rapid calibration of actual detect is established. The calibration of the defects on the optical element in the size of 450mm× 450mm is successfully realized.

Chen, Xiaoyu; Liu, Dong; Wang, Shitong; Cao, Pin; Gao, Xin; Yang, Yongying

2012-10-01

251

The Effects of Focus-Skin Distance and Shaping Block Tray on the Calibration Factor of In-Vivo Dosimetry Diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In-vivo dose measurements during conformal treatments require correction factor evaluations for differences in block shapes, filed size and source-skin distance (SSD). The aim of this paper is to evaluate a single correction factor, CFSSDentrance, depending only on source-skin distance, which takes into account both shape and size of blocked fields, in pelvic treatments. Materials and Methods: A set of

Angelo Ostinelli; Stefania Gelosa; Marco Cacciatori; Milena Frigerio; Angelo Monti; Paola Tognoli

2000-01-01

252

Unassisted 3D camera calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

2012-02-01

253

Calibration of Illinois Roadometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The roadometer is a viscously damped spring-mass system; therefore, it has the characteristics which would allow frequency response analysis. In this calibration, response curves were obtained by subjecting the roadometer to sinusoidal forces over a moder...

J. E. LaCroix

1975-01-01

254

Mercury CEM Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is workin...

J. F. Rovani J. F. Schabron S. S. Sorini

2007-01-01

255

HAWC Timing Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Experiment is a second-generation high sensitivity gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector that builds on the experience and technology of the Milagro observatory. HAWC utilizes the water Cherenkov technique to measure extensive air showers. Instead of a pond filled with water (as in Milagro), an array of closely packed water tanks with 3 PMTs each is used. The cosmic ray's direction will be reconstructed using the times when the PMTs in each tank are triggered. Therefore, the timing calibration will be crucial for reaching an angular resolution as low as 0.1 degrees. We propose to use a laser calibration system, patterned after the calibration system in Milagro. The HAWC optical calibration system uses less than 1 ns laser light pulses, directed into two optical fiber networks. Each network will use optical fan-outs and switches to direct light to specific tanks. The first network is used to measure the light transit time out to each pair of tanks, and the second network sends light to each tank, calibrating each tank's 3 PMTs. Time slewing corrections will be made using neutral density filters to control the light intensity over 4 orders of magnitude. This system is envisioned to run both continuously at a low rate, or at a high rate with many intensity levels. In this presentation, we present the design of the calibration system and first measurements of its performance.

Kelley-Hoskins, Nathan; Huentemeyer, Petra; Matthews, John; Dingus, Brenda

2011-04-01

256

Integrated calibration sphere and calibration step fixture for improved coordinate measurement machine calibration  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for mounting a calibration sphere to a calibration fixture for Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) calibration and qualification is described, decreasing the time required for such qualification, thus allowing the CMM to be used more productively. A number of embodiments are disclosed that allow for new and retrofit manufacture to perform as integrated calibration sphere and calibration fixture devices. This invention renders unnecessary the removal of a calibration sphere prior to CMM measurement of calibration features on calibration fixtures, thereby greatly reducing the time spent qualifying a CMM.

Clifford, Harry J. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-03-22

257

Simple Syringe Filtration Methods for Reliably Examining Dissolved and Colloidal Trace Element Distributions in Remote Field Locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for obtaining reliable dissolved trace element samples frequently utilize clean labs, portable laminar flow benches, or other equipment not readily transportable to remote locations. In some cases unfiltered samples can be obtained in a remote location and transported back to a lab for filtration. However, this may not always be possible or desirable. Additionally, methods for obtaining information on colloidal composition are likewise frequently too cumbersome for remote locations as well as being time-consuming. For that reason I have examined clean methods for collecting samples filtered through 0.45 and 0.02 micron syringe filters. With this methodology, only small samples are collected (typically 15 mL). However, with the introduction of the latest generation of ICP-MS's and microflow nebulizers, sample requirements for elemental analysis are much lower than just a few years ago. Thus, a determination of a suite of first row transition elements is frequently readily obtainable with samples of less than 1 mL. To examine the "traditional" (<0.45 micron) dissolved phase, 25 mm diameter polypropylene syringe filters and all polyethylene/polypropylene syringes are utilized. Filters are pre-cleaned in the lab using 40 mL of approx. 1 M HCl followed by a clean water rinse. Syringes are pre-cleaned by leaching with hot 1 M HCl followed by a clean water rinse. Sample kits are packed in polyethylene bags for transport to the field. Results are similar to results obtained using 0.4 micron polycarbonate screen filters, though concentrations may differ somewhat depending on the extent of sample pre-rinsing of the filter. Using this method, a multi-year time series of dissolved metals in a remote Rocky Mountain stream has been obtained. To examine the effect of colloidal material on dissolved metal concentrations, 0.02 micron alumina syringe filters have been utilized. Other workers have previously used these filters for examining colloidal Fe distributions in lake and sea water. Filters are pre-cleaned in the lab using clean pH 2 water followed by a clean water rinse and then dried with clean air. Because of the significant pressure that must be placed on the syringe for some minutes to effect a filtration, a simple plastic press and stand has been devised. Polarization artifacts, which can affect this type of ultra-filtration, do not appear to be significant. This may be due to the comparatively large pore size of these filters (equivalent to approx. 40 kDa). These filters, in combination with the 0.45 micron filters, are being used in a multi-year study of trace elements in the Yukon River system.

Shiller, A. M.

2002-12-01

258

A semi-automatic microextraction in packed sorbent, using a digitally controlled syringe, combined with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography as a new and ultra-fast approach for the determination of prenylflavonoids in beers.  

PubMed

In this work a highly selective and sensitive analytical procedure based on semi-automatic microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) technique, using a new digitally controlled syringe (eVol(®)) combined with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC), is proposed to determine the prenylated chalcone derived from the hop (Humulus lupulus L.), xanthohumol (XN), and its isomeric flavonone isoxanthohumol (IXN) in beers. Extraction and UHPLC parameters were accurately optimized to achieve the highest recoveries and to enhance the analytical characteristics of the method. Important parameters affecting MEPS performance, namely the type of sorbent material (C2, C8, C18, SIL, and M1), elution solvent system, number of extraction cycles (extract-discard), sample volume, elution volume, and sample pH, were evaluated. The optimal experimental conditions involves the loading of 500?L of sample through a C18 sorbent in a MEPS syringe placed in the semi-automatic eVol(®) syringe followed by elution using 250?L of acetonitrile (ACN) in a 10 extractions cycle (about 5min for the entire sample preparation step). The obtained extract is directly analyzed in the UHPLC system using a binary mobile phase composed of aqueous 0.1% formic acid (eluent A) and ACN (eluent B) in the gradient elution mode (10min total analysis). Under optimized conditions good results were obtained in terms of linearity within the established concentration range with correlation coefficients (R) values higher than 0.986, with a residual deviation for each calibration point below 12%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) obtained were 0.4ngmL(-1) and 1.0ngmL(-1) for IXN, and 0.9ngmL(-1) and 3.0ngmL(-1) for XN, respectively. Precision was lower than 4.6% for IXN and 8.4% for XN. Typical recoveries ranged between 67.1% and 99.3% for IXN and between 74.2% and 99.9% for XN, with relative standard deviations %RSD no larger than 8%. The applicability of the proposed analytical procedure in commercial beers, revealed the presence of both target prenylchalcones in all samples being IXN the most abundant with concentration of between 0.126 and 0.200?gmL(-1). PMID:23871283

Gonçalves, João L; Alves, Vera L; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Figueira, José A; Câmara, José S

2013-07-02

259

Technical communication: design and in vitro testing of a pressure-sensing syringe for endotracheal tube cuffs.  

PubMed

Endotracheal intubation is a frequently performed procedure in the prehospital setting, intensive care unit, and for patients undergoing surgery. The endotracheal tube cuff must be inflated to a pressure that prevents air leaks without compromising tracheal mucosal blood flow. For simultaneous endotracheal tube cuff inflation and measurement, we designed and tested a novel pressure-sensing syringe in vitro. The prototype was developed using a standard 10-mL polycarbonate syringe body that houses a plunger and a silicone rubber bellows, the pressure-sensing element. Bellow feasibility was determined and modeled using finite element analysis. Repeatability testing at each pressure measurement for each bellows (pressure versus deflection) was within an average standard deviation of 0.3 cm to 1.61 cm (1%-5% error). Using an aneroid manometer for comparison, there was excellent linear correlation with a Spearman rank of 0.99 (P < 0.001), up to 30 cm H(2)O. PMID:22492187

Slocum, Alexander H; Slocum, Alexander H; Spiegel, Joan E

2012-04-04

260

Oesophageal manometry. A comparison of hydraulic and syringe catheter infusion systems using a simple hydrostatic bench model.  

PubMed

A simple hydrostatic bench model is described which can be used to validate oesophageal intraluminal manometry measurements. Conventional syringe pump infusion was compared with the hydraulic capillary infusion system using this model. Accurate recording of pressure changes was achieved on the low compliance hydraulic system at infusion rates of 1 X 10(-8) m3 s-1 (0.6 ml min-1). To achieve comparable accuracy with syringe pump infusion, undesirably rapid infusion rates of 10.35 X 10(-8) m3 s-1 (6.2 ml min-1) were required. We believe that the hydrostatic bench model is a useful tool for checking the accuracy of infused catheter systems. PMID:6488724

Byrne, P J; Keane, F B; Hennessy, T P

1984-08-01

261

Improved color image calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique for calibrating color imagery which has been employed by the Tank-Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) includes measurement of red, green, and blue color panels using a colorimeter during the approximate time that the calibration image is captured. This method has the advantage that the luminance and chromaticity coordinates of the color panels are recorded in real time. However, the disadvantage is the amount of time it takes to measure each individual panel. Outside of a laboratory, the environment cannot be controlled, so the light level and correlated color temperature from the source may shift during the calibration period. A new technique using a spectroradiometer has been developed whereby the spectral reflectance of the color panels are measured beforehand and only the light level and spectral content from the source is monitored during the calibration period. This drastically reduces the time required for calibration, thus rendering insignificant any temporal changes in the light level or correlated color temperature of the panels. The actual luminance and chromaticity of the color panels can be calculated subsequently.

Rogers, Glenn A.; Thomas, David J.

1995-06-01

262

TA489A calibrator: SANDUS  

SciTech Connect

The TA489A Calibrator, designed to operate in the MA164 Digital Data Acquisition System, is used to calibrate up to 128 analog-to-digital recording channels. The TA489A calibrates using a dc Voltage Source or any of several special calibration modes. Calibration schemes are stored in the TA489A memory and are initiated locally or remotely through a Command Link.

LeBlanc, R.

1987-08-01

263

Increasing Syringe Access and HIV Prevention in California: Findings from a Survey of Local Health Jurisdiction Key Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents results from the first survey of California local health jurisdictions (LHJs) subsequent to passage\\u000a of legislation that allows for over-the-counter pharmacy sales of syringes. In 2004 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed\\u000a Senate Bill 1159 (SB1159) into law to “prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne disease among drug users,\\u000a their sexual partners and their children.” This

Thomas J. Stopka; Richard S. Garfein; Alessandra Ross; Steven R. Truax

2007-01-01

264

Determination of aliphatic amines by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry after in-syringe derivatization with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and highly sensitive gas chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of low molecular weight short-chain aliphatic amines (SCAAs) after their simultaneous extraction and in-syringe derivatization with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBOC). Derivatization of the low molecular weight aliphatic amines in bicarbonate buffer of pH 10.5 with PFBOC was followed by immersed solvent microextraction. Derivatization conditions, including reagent concentration,

Deepesh Kumar Singh; Sunil Kumar Sanghi; Sorna Gowri; Navin Chandra; Shail Bala Sanghi

2011-01-01

265

Syringe filtration methods for examining dissolved and colloidal trace element distributions in remote field locations.  

PubMed

It is well-established that sampling and sample processing can easily introduce contamination into dissolved trace element samples if precautions are not taken. However, work in remote locations sometimes precludes bringing bulky clean lab equipment into the field and likewise may make timely transport of samples to the lab for processing impossible. Straightforward syringe filtration methods are described here for collecting small quantities (15 mL) of 0.45- and 0.02-microm filtered river water in an uncontaminated manner. These filtration methods take advantage of recent advances in analytical capabilities that require only small amounts of waterfor analysis of a suite of dissolved trace elements. Filter clogging and solute rejection artifacts appear to be minimal, although some adsorption of metals and organics does affect the first approximately 10 mL of water passing through the filters. Overall the methods are clean, easy to use, and provide reproducible representations of the dissolved and colloidal fractions of trace elements in river waters. Furthermore, sample processing materials can be prepared well in advance in a clean lab and transported cleanly and compactly to the field. Application of these methods is illustrated with data from remote locations in the Rocky Mountains and along the Yukon River. Evidence from field flow fractionation suggests that the 0.02-microm filters may provide a practical cutoff to distinguish metals associated with small inorganic and organic complexes from those associated with silicate and oxide colloids. PMID:12967118

Shiller, Alan M

2003-09-01

266

Phthalate analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: blank problems related to the syringe needle.  

PubMed

For the analysis of the most commonly encountered phthalates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), absorption of phthalates from the laboratory air on the outer wall of the syringe needle is shown to be an important contribution to the blank problems. It was investigated for programmed temperature vapourizing (PTV) injection. Cleaning of the needle in automated injection is of modest efficiency, since the needle cannot be immersed deeply enough into the wash vial. Two approaches were studied to minimize the transfer into the column: (i) cleaning of the needle in the injector prior to splitless injection by inserting the needle in split mode while the precolumn is backflushed, which presupposes a high injector temperature to be efficient; (ii) injection under conditions minimizing thermal desorption from the needle wall, i.e. fast injection at low injector temperature (e.g. 40 °C). Both approaches resulted in blank levels of around 0.1 pg for diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and of around 1 pg for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). They could be useful tools in existing or future methods for the analysis of phthalates or other compounds causing blank problems through contamination of the laboratory air. PMID:23265992

Marega, Milena; Grob, Konrad; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco

2012-12-03

267

Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.  

PubMed

Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful. PMID:23865644

Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

2013-07-18

268

New York City Injection Drug Users’ Memories of Syringe-Sharing Patterns and Changes During the Peak of the HIV\\/AIDS Epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this oral history, 23 injection drug users (IDUs) were interviewed about the mid-1970s to mid-1980s when they could not legally purchase or possess syringes, and the threat of AIDS began to loom large. Several themes emerged, including: abrupt changes in syringe-sharing patterns; the effects of illnesses or deaths of others on their understanding of AIDS; and, racial\\/ethnic differences in

Russell Rockwell; Herman Joseph; Samuel R. Friedman

2006-01-01

269

A new syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium in groundwaters and geothermal fluids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] We present details of a newly designed syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH). The device is composed of a commercially available syringe pump connected to coils of Cu tubing, which interface the syringe and the groundwater or geothermal wellhead. Through test deployments at geothermal wells in Iceland and California, we show that well fluids are drawn smoothly, accurately, and continuously into the Cu tubing and can be time-stamped through user-determined operating parameters. In the laboratory, the tubing is sectioned to reveal helium (He) characteristics of the fluids at times and for durations of interest. The device is capable of prolonged deployments, up to 6 months or more, with minimal maintenance. It can be used to produce detailed time series records of He, or any other geochemical parameter, in groundwaters and geothermal fluids. SPARTAH has application in monitoring projects assessing the relationship between external transient events (e.g., earthquakes) and geochemical signals in aqueous fluids. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Barry, P. H.; Hilton, D. R.; Tryon, M. D.; Brown, K. M.; Kulongoski, J. T.

2009-01-01

270

Exploration of new multivariate spectral calibration algorithms.  

SciTech Connect

A variety of multivariate calibration algorithms for quantitative spectral analyses were investigated and compared, and new algorithms were developed in the course of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. We were able to demonstrate the ability of the hybrid classical least squares/partial least squares (CLSIPLS) calibration algorithms to maintain calibrations in the presence of spectrometer drift and to transfer calibrations between spectrometers from the same or different manufacturers. These methods were found to be as good or better in prediction ability as the commonly used partial least squares (PLS) method. We also present the theory for an entirely new class of algorithms labeled augmented classical least squares (ACLS) methods. New factor selection methods are developed and described for the ACLS algorithms. These factor selection methods are demonstrated using near-infrared spectra collected from a system of dilute aqueous solutions. The ACLS algorithm is also shown to provide improved ease of use and better prediction ability than PLS when transferring calibrations between near-infrared calibrations from the same manufacturer. Finally, simulations incorporating either ideal or realistic errors in the spectra were used to compare the prediction abilities of the new ACLS algorithm with that of PLS. We found that in the presence of realistic errors with non-uniform spectral error variance across spectral channels or with spectral errors correlated between frequency channels, ACLS methods generally out-performed the more commonly used PLS method. These results demonstrate the need for realistic error structure in simulations when the prediction abilities of various algorithms are compared. The combination of equal or superior prediction ability and the ease of use of the ACLS algorithms make the new ACLS methods the preferred algorithms to use for multivariate spectral calibrations.

Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Melgaard, David Kennett; Martin, Laura Elizabeth; Wehlburg, Christine Marie; Pell, Randy J. (The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI); Guenard, Robert D. (Merck & Co. Inc., West Point, PA)

2004-03-01

271

Automatic beamline calibration procedures  

SciTech Connect

Recent experience with the SLC and SPEAR accelerators have led to a well-defined set of procedures for calibration of the beamline model using the orbit fitting program, RESOLVE. Difference orbit analysis is used to calibrate quadrupole strengths, BPM sensitivities, corrector strengths, focusing effects from insertion devices, and to determine the source of dispersion and coupling errors. Absolute orbit analysis is used to locate quadrupole misalignments, BPM offsets, or beam loss. For light source applications, the photon beam source coordinates can be found. The result is an accurate model of the accelerator which can be used for machine control. In this paper, automatable beamline calibration procedures are outlined and illustrated with recent examples. 5 refs.

Corbett, W.J. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Lee, M.J. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Zambre, Y. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1992-03-01

272

Calibration Systems Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.

Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.

2006-02-01

273

The MINOS calibration detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the MINOS calibration detector (CalDet) and the procedure used to calibrate it. The CalDet, a scaled-down but functionally equivalent model of the MINOS Far and Near detectors, was exposed to test beams in the CERN PS East Area during 2001 2003 to establish the response of the MINOS calorimeters to hadrons, electrons and muons in the range 0.2 10 GeV/c. The CalDet measurements are used to fix the energy scale and constrain Monte Carlo simulations of MINOS.

Adamson, P.; Crone, G.; Jenner, L.; Nichol, R.; Saakyan, R.; Smith, C.; Thomas, J.; Kordosky, M.; Lang, K.; Vahle, P.; Belias, A.; Nicholls, T.; Pearce, G.; Petyt, D.; Barker, M.; Cabrera, A.; Hartnell, J.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Tagg, N.; Weber, A.; Falk Harris, E.; Harris, P. G.; Morse, R.; Symes, P.; Michael, D.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lee, R.; Boyd, S.

2006-01-01

274

Calibration of proportional counters in microdosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many microdosimetric spectra for low LET as well as high LET radiations are measured using commercially available (similar to EG and G) Rossi proportional counters. The corrections to be applied to data when calibration of the counter is made using one type of radiation, and then the counter is used in a different radiation field. The principal correction factor is

M. N. Varma

1982-01-01

275

Calibration of ionization chambers in air kerma length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pencil ionization chambers are employed for the direct determination of the computed tomography dose index (CTDI), which is used for patient dosimetry in CT examinations. The chambers are calibrated in air kerma length in a reference x-ray field. The precision of calibration is influenced by several factors which are investigated in the present work. It is shown that the best

François O. Bochud; Mihail Grecescu; Jean-François Valley

2001-01-01

276

Self-Calibration and Neural Network Implementation of Photometric Stereo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new approach to neural network implementation of photometric stereo for a rotational object with non-uniform reflectance factor Three input images are acquired under different conditions of illumination. One illumination direction is chosen to be aligned with the viewing direction. We require no separate calibration object to estimate the associated reflectance maps. Instead, self-calibration is done using

Yuji Iwahori; Yumi Watanabe; Robert J. Woodham; Akira Iwata

2002-01-01

277

Calibrated Peer Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a paper-writing and peer review tool that is available free to educators and students. Calibrated Peer Review is a Web-based program that enables frequent writing assignments even in large classes with limited instructional resources. The program is discipline and level independent.

Review, Calibrated P.; Angeles, University O.

278

Calibrated Chemiluminescence Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this project was to provide an absolute photometric calibration for an underwater photometer in use at the Naval Oceans Systems Center in San Diego. This was made by using as a reference light standard, the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol...

J. Lee I. B. C. Matheson J. R. Losee E. F. Zalewski

1982-01-01

279

EPOXI instrument calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's EPOXI mission used the Deep Impact (DI) Flyby spacecraft to deliver a payload of three scientific instruments, two visible cameras and an IR spectrometer, to a close flyby of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 in November 2010. Interpretation of the scientific measurements made using these instruments depends on accurate calibration of the instruments' performance. Updates to the instrument calibrations achieved during the Deep Impact primary mission and results of continued monitoring of their performance during EPOXI are reported here. The instruments' performance has remained remarkably stable over the nearly 7 years of flight. Significant improvements in the understanding and calibration of the IR spectrometer response non-linearity, time-varying background level, flat field, wavelength map, and absolute spectral response have been achieved. Techniques for reducing some semi-coherent horizontal noise stripes in the visible cameras' readouts were developed, and some adjustments have been made to their absolute radiometric conversion constants. The data processing pipeline has been updated to incorporate the improvements in the instrument calibrations.

Klaasen, Kenneth P.; A'Hearn, Michael; Besse, Sebastian; Bodewits, Dennis; Carcich, Brian; Farnham, Tony; Feaga, Lori; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Huisjen, Marty; Kelley, Michael S.; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Merlin, Frederic; Protopapa, Silvia; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

2013-07-01

280

Calibrating Distributed Camera Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in wireless sensor networks have made feasible distributed camera networks, in which cameras and processing nodes may be spread over a wide geographical area, with no centralized processor and limited ability to communicate a large amount of information over long distances. This paper overviews distributed algorithms for the calibration of such camera networks- that is, the automatic estimation

Dhanya Devarajan; Zhaolin Cheng; Richard J. Radke

2008-01-01

281

Uncertainty in audiometer calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to present a metrology study necessary for the accreditation of audiometer calibration procedures at the National Brazilian Institute of Metrology Standardization and Industrial Quality—INMETRO. A model for the calculation of measurement uncertainty was developed. Metrological aspects relating to audiometer calibration, traceability and measurement uncertainty were quantified through comparison between results obtained at the Industrial Noise Laboratory—LARI of the Federal University of Santa Catarina—UFSC and the Laboratory of Electric/acoustics—LAETA of INMETRO. Similar metrological performance of the measurement system used in both laboratories was obtained, indicating that the interlaboratory results are compatible with the expected values. The uncertainty calculation was based on the documents: EA-4/02 Expression of the Uncertainty of Measurement in Calibration (European Co-operation for Accreditation 1999 EA-4/02 p 79) and Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization 1993 1st edn, corrected and reprinted in 1995, Geneva, Switzerland). Some sources of uncertainty were calculated theoretically (uncertainty type B) and other sources were measured experimentally (uncertainty type A). The global value of uncertainty calculated for the sound pressure levels (SPLs) is similar to that given by other calibration institutions. The results of uncertainty related to measurements of SPL were compared with the maximum uncertainties Umax given in the standard IEC 60645-1: 2001 (International Electrotechnical Commission 2001 IEC 60645-1 Electroacoustics—Audiological Equipment—Part 1:—Pure-Tone Audiometers).

Aurélio Pedroso, Marcos; Gerges, Samir N. Y.; Gonçalves, Armando A., Jr.

2004-02-01

282

Improvements in strain calibration for the third LIGO science run  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplitude calibration procedures have been developed by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for use in determining the strain sensitivity of the three LIGO interferometers. These frequency-domain procedures rely on a fiducial calibration taken at a reference time t0. The calibration is then propagated to all other times during the science run via calibration factors (denoted by ? and ?), which are derived from sinusoidal length excitations in interferometer cavity lengths. We briefly review the standard calibration methods that were employed in the first two LIGO science runs (S1 and S2), and then describe improvements in calibration procedures implemented during the third science run S3. This paper was presented in the 9th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop, 15 18 December 2004, Annecy, France.

Landry, Michael; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

2005-09-01

283

Internet-Based Calibration of a Multifunction Calibrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are co...

Bunting Baca Duda Walker Oldham Parker

2000-01-01

284

Calibrated Properties Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Office of Repository Development (ORD). The UZ contains the unsaturated rock layers overlying the repository and host unit, which constitute a natural barrier to flow, and the unsaturated rock layers below the repository which constitute a natural barrier to flow and transport. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10.8 [under Work Package (WP) AUZM06, Climate Infiltration and Flow], and Section I-1-1 [in Attachment I, Model Validation Plans]). In Section 4.2, four acceptance criteria (ACs) are identified for acceptance of this Model Report; only one of these (Section 4.2.1.3.6.3, AC 3) was identified in the TWP (BSC 2002 [160819], Table 3-1). These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, and drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-process models from the UZ Flow, Transport and Coupled Processes Department in the Natural Systems Subproject of the Performance Assessment (PA) Project. The Calibrated Properties Model output will also be used by the Engineered Barrier System Department in the Engineering Systems Subproject. The Calibrated Properties Model provides input through the UZ Model and other process models of natural and engineered systems to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models, in accord with the PA Strategy and Scope in the PA Project of the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC). The UZ process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. UZ flow is a TSPA model component.

J. Wang

2003-06-24

285

Mercury CEM Calibration  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

2007-03-31

286

New approach to calibrating bed load samplers ( calibration curves).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calibration curves are derived by two independent methods using data collected with prototype versions of the Helley-Smith sampler in a large calibration facility capable of continuously measuring transport rates across a 9ft (2.7m) width. Results from both methods agree. Composite calibration curves are obtained for six different versions of the sampler.-from ASCE Publications Information

Hubbell, D. W.; Stevens, H. H.; Skinner, J. V.

1985-01-01

287

Polarimetric SAR calibration experiment using active radar calibrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active radar calibrators are used to derive both the amplitude and phase characteristics of a multichannel polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from the complex image data. Results are presented from an experiment carried out using the NASA\\/JPL DC-8 aircraft SAR over a calibration site at Goldstone, California. As part of the experiment, polarimetric active radar calibrators (PARCs) with adjustable polarization

Anthony Freeman; Yuhsyen Shen; C. L. Werner

1990-01-01

288

Syringic acid ameliorates (L)-NAME-induced hypertension by reducing oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of syringic acid (SA), a phenolic acid, on N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in adult male albino rats by oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) dissolved in drinking water daily for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with different doses of SA (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)). Systolic blood pressure of control and experimental rats was recorded. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid peroxidative products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes, and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were estimated in erythrocytes, plasma, and tissues of experimental rats. Hepatic marker enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and renal functional markers such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine were also estimated in serum. The increased levels of blood pressure, lipid peroxidation products, hepatic and renal function markers, and the decreased level of NOx and antioxidants in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats were reversed upon SA treatment. The protective effect at the dose of the three tested doses (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of SA at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. exerts optimum protection. Biochemical findings are substantiated by the histological observation. The protective effects of SA are mediated by reducing oxidative stress and retaining the bioavailability of NO in the cardiovascular system. PMID:23079793

Kumar, Subramanian; Prahalathan, Pichavaram; Raja, Boobalan

2012-10-19

289

A novel 2.5D pattern for extrinsic calibration of ToF and camera fusion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, many researchers have made efforts for accurate calibration of a Time-of-Flight camera to fully utilize its provided depth values. Yet most previous works focus mainly on intrinsic calibration by modeling its systematic errors and noises while extrinsic calibration is also an important factor when constructing sensor fusion system. In this paper, we present a calibration process that can correctly

Jiyoung Jung; Yekeun Jeong; Hyowon Ha; James Dokyoon Kim; In-So Kweon

2011-01-01

290

Calibrating transport lines using LOCO techniques  

SciTech Connect

With the 12GeV upgrade underway at CEBAF, there is a need to re-characterize the beamlines after the modifications made to it to accommodate running at higher energies. We present a linear perturbation approach to calibrating the optics model of transport lines. This method is adapted from the LOCO method in use for storage rings. We consider the effect of quadrupole errors, dipole construction errors as well as beam position monitors and correctors calibrations. The ideal model is expanded to first order in Taylor series of the quadrupole errors. A set of difference orbits obtained by exciting the correctors along the beamline is taken, yielding the measured response matrix. An iterative procedure is invoked and the quadrupole errors as well as beam position monitors and corrector calibration factors are obtained. Here we present details of the method and results of first measurements at CEBAF in early 2011.

Yves Roblin

2011-09-01

291

Evaluating calibrations of normal incident pyrheliometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer is calibrated against an Eppley Hickey Frieden Absolute Cavity Radiometer, the instrument systematically deviates from the absolute cavity readings. The reason for this deviation is not understood. Comparisons are made between one pyrheliometer and an absolute cavity radiometer on selected clear days over a period of 8 months in Eugene, Oregon. The ratios of the readings from the two instruments are correlated against wind speed, pressure, temperature, relative humidity, beam intensity, and zenith angle to determine if any of these parameters statistically influence the calibration process. Wind speed, pressure, beam intensity, and air mass are shown to be statistically significant factors in determining the responsivity of the normal incident pyrheliometer. The results of these tests are evaluated and discussed. Use of air mass instead of zenith angle is proposed for calibration reports.

Vignola, Frank; Lin, Fuding

2010-08-01

292

Mercury Calibration System  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on actual capabilities of the current calibration technology. As part of the current effort, WRI worked with Thermo Fisher elemental mercury calibrator units to conduct qualification experiments to demonstrate their performance characteristics under a variety of conditions and to demonstrate that they qualify for use in the CEM calibration program. Monitoring of speciated mercury is another concern of this research. The mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are comprised of both elemental and oxidized mercury. Current CEM analyzers are designed to measure elemental mercury only. Oxidized mercury must first be converted to elemental mercury prior to entering the analyzer inlet in order to be measured. CEM systems must demonstrate the ability to measure both elemental and oxidized mercury. This requires the use of oxidized mercury generators with an efficient conversion of the oxidized mercury to elemental mercury. There are currently two basic types of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) generators used for this purpose. One is an evaporative HgCl{sub 2} generator, which produces gas standards of known concentration by vaporization of aqueous HgCl{sub 2} solutions and quantitative mixing with a diluent carrier gas. The other is a device that converts the output from an elemental Hg generator to HgCl{sub 2} by means of a chemical reaction with chlorine gas. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer system involves reaction of elemental mercury vapor with chlorine gas at an elevated temperature. The draft interim protocol for oxidized mercury units involving reaction with chlorine gas requires the vendors to demonstrate high efficiency of oxidation of an elemental mercury stream from an elemental mercury vapor generator. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer unit is designed to operate at the power plant stack at the probe outlet. Following oxidation of elemental mercury from reaction with chlorine gas, a high temperature module reduces the mercuric chloride back to elemental mercury. WRI conducted work with a custom laboratory configured stand-alone oxidized mercury generator unit prov

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

2009-03-11

293

Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experime...

C. K. Bayne D. L. Donohue R. Fiedler

1994-01-01

294

Sub Arc Second Sensor Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility study was performed for a subarcsecond sensor calibration system capable of performing geometrical calibrations on star and Sun sensors of accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond over + or - 1 arcsecond and 10 milliarcseconds over + or - 1 arcdegree, r...

G. Sedmark S. Furlani M. Pucillo L. Rusconi P. Santin

1978-01-01

295

Determination of organophosphorous pesticides in water using in-syringe ultrasound-assisted emulsification and gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.  

PubMed

An in-syringe ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) was developed for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from water samples. The OPPs subsequently analyzed gas chromatography (GC) using a microelectron capture detector (muECD). Ultrasound radiation was applied to accelerate the emulsification of microL-level low-density organic solvent in aqueous solutions to enhance the microextraction efficiency of OPPs in the sample preparation for GC-muECD. Parameters affecting the efficiency of USAEME, such as the extraction solvent, solvent volume, pH, salt-addition, and extraction time were thoroughly investigated. Based on experimental results, OPPs were extracted from a 5mL aqueous sample by the addition of 20microL toluene as the extraction solvent, followed by ultrasonication for 30s, and then centrifugation for 3min at 3200rpm, offered the best extraction efficiency. Detections were linear in the concentration of 0.01-1microg/L with detection limits between 1ng/L and 2ng/L for OPPs. Enrichment factors ranged from 330 to 699. Three spiked aqueous samples were analyzed, and recovery ranged from 90.1% to 104.7% for farm-field water, and 90.1% to 101.8% for industrial wastewater. The proposed method provides a simple, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive, and eco-friendly process for determining OPPs in water samples. PMID:20580004

Su, Yi-Song; Jen, Jen-Fon

2010-06-09

296

Pharmacist and Pharmacy Staff Experiences with Non-prescription (NP) Sale of Syringes and Attitudes Toward Providing HIV Prevention Services for Injection Drug Users (IDUs) in Providence, RI  

PubMed Central

Increased access to sterile syringes among injection drug users (IDUs) has been correlated with reduced syringe sharing. Many states, including Rhode Island, have legalized non-prescription (NP) sale of syringes in pharmacies. Previous studies have suggested that training pharmacists to provide HIV-related services to IDUs may be an important opportunity to engage IDUs and provide them with such services. However, it is not clear to what extent pharmacy staff are willing to expand their roles in providing services to IDUs who come in to purchase syringes. We recruited pharmacists and pharmacy staff from the 48 pharmacies indicating NP sale of syringes in the greater Providence, RI area, to participate in an online survey consisting of demographic information; views about the current syringe laws in Rhode Island; willingness to provide HIV-related services, including referral for HIV testing, substance use treatment, and medical and social services, to IDUs; and past experiences with IDU customers. One hundred and forty-six individuals completed the online survey (32 pharmacies, 114 pharmacy staff). Most participants were employed by chain pharmacies (92%). Most participants thought that pharmacies are important resources for IDU customers (77%) and that they would be willing to provide health and prevention information/referrals to IDU customers who purchase NP syringes (59%). With respect to willingness to offer HIV prevention-related services, access to confidential space and concern about personal safety had the strongest associations with willingness to provide HIV prevention services (OR, 4.3 and 0.1, respectively). As the nature of the retail pharmacy shifts, researchers, pharmacy executives, and health care officials can build upon the willingness of pharmacists and pharmacy staff in order to address the health needs of injection drug users and other underserved populations.

Jeronimo, Alexandra; Bratberg, Jeffrey; Case, Patricia; Rich, Josiah D.

2010-01-01

297

CALIBRATION OF RADIATION MONITORING INSTRUMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation-monitoring instruments are regularly calibrated to assure ; radiological protection of employees at the Savannah River Plant. Radiation ; sources used to calibrate about 1300 portable instruments include 30 curies Co\\/; sup 60\\/, 10 curies Pu²³⁹-Be, and 250 kvp x ray. A separate building for ; this extensive calibration program houses specifically designed equipment with ; which 21,000 calibrations per

Zippler

1963-01-01

298

Joint calibration of multiple sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many calibration methods calibrate a pair of sensors at a time. For robotic systems with many sensors, they are often time-consuming to use, and can also lead to inaccurate results. In this paper, we combine a number of ideas in the literature to derive a unified framework that jointly calibrates many sensors a large system. Key to our approach are

Quoc V. Le; Andrew Y. Ng

2009-01-01

299

JWST Absolute Flux Calibration Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planning for the absolute flux calibration of all four JWST science instruments will be described. The main goal is to provide a uniform calibration (photometric and spectrophotometric) across all instruments using a common set of calibration stars. These stars will include white dwarfs, A0V, and solar type stars. The combination of these different types of stars will serve to

Karl D. Gordon; R. Bohlin

2011-01-01

300

NICMOS Cycle 12 Calibration Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes the NICMOS Calibration Plan for Cycle 12. (CPC12). The plan complements the SMOV3b, the Cycle 10 (interim), and the Cycle 11 calibration programs. These previous programs have shown that the instrument is very stable, which has motivated a reduction in the frequency of the monitoring programs for CPC12. Because this stable behavior, systematic errors in the calibration

S. Arribas; E. Bergeron; T. Boeker; R. Bohlin; D. Calzetti; M. Dickinson; B. Mobasher; K. Nol; E. Roye; A. Schultz; M. Sosey; C. Xu

2003-01-01

301

A Josephson Voltage Calibrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic voltage calibrator for voltages ranging from ?1 V to +1 V is described. The device is based on a Josephson array with Nb-AlOx-Al-AlOx-Nb junctions. Being illuminated by microwave radiation with a frequency of 65.2 GHz, the array, in which the operating supply currents of three junction sections are set by a multichannel digital source controlled by a personal

I. Ya. Krasnopolin; V. L. Ugolev

2005-01-01

302

Calibrated Properties Model  

SciTech Connect

This report has documented the methodologies and the data used for developing rock property sets for three infiltration maps. Model calibration is necessary to obtain parameter values appropriate for the scale of the process being modeled. Although some hydrogeologic property data (prior information) are available, these data cannot be directly used to predict flow and transport processes because they were measured on scales smaller than those characterizing property distributions in models used for the prediction. Since model calibrations were done directly on the scales of interest, the upscaling issue was automatically considered. On the other hand, joint use of data and the prior information in inversions can further increase the reliability of the developed parameters compared with those for the prior information. Rock parameter sets were developed for both the mountain and drift scales because of the scale-dependent behavior of fracture permeability. Note that these parameter sets, except those for faults, were determined using the 1-D simulations. Therefore, they cannot be directly used for modeling lateral flow because of perched water in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain. Further calibration may be needed for two- and three-dimensional modeling studies. As discussed above in Section 6.4, uncertainties for these calibrated properties are difficult to accurately determine, because of the inaccuracy of simplified methods for this complex problem or the extremely large computational expense of more rigorous methods. One estimate of uncertainty that may be useful to investigators using these properties is the uncertainty used for the prior information. In most cases, the inversions did not change the properties very much with respect to the prior information. The Output DTNs (including the input and output files for all runs) from this study are given in Section 9.4.

H. H. Liu

2003-02-14

303

Calibration Sources for CRIRES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our efforts to provide high accuracy wavelength calibration to the scientific observations with the Cryogenic High-Resolution IR Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES), ESO's new high resolution (R?100,000) infrared (IR) spectrograph at the VLT. In order to provide reliable and accurate wavelength standards for CRIRES the European Southern Observatory (ESO), in collaboration with the Space Telescope European Co-ordinating Facility (ST-ECF) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), embarked on a project to establish Th-Ar wavelength standards in the 950nm to 5000nm operating range of CRIRES. Based on current findings we conclude that Th-Ar hollow cathode lamps hold the promise of becoming a standard source for wavelength calibration for near IR astronomy, providing a high density of sharp well-characterized emission lines with the ease and efficiency of operation of a commercial discharge lamp. In addition, and for use at wavelengths larger than 2200, we have established a gas cell filled with N2O as a calibration source based on existing data from NIST. Both sources were extensively tested during CRIRES commissioning runs and both are now being used for routine operations of the instrument.

Kerber, F.; Seifahrt, A.; Bristow, P.; Nave, G.; Käufl, H. U.; Rosa, M. R.; Sansonetti, C. J.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Smette, A.

304

Calibrated Properties Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency.

T. Ghezzehej

2004-10-04

305

Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra  

SciTech Connect

Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.

Haaland, D.M.

1991-01-01

306

Surface EMG force modeling with joint angle based calibration.  

PubMed

In this paper, a calibration method to compensate for changes in SEMG amplitude with joint angle is introduced. Calibration factors were derived from constant amplitude surface electromyogram (SEMG) recordings from the biceps brachii (during elbow flexion) and the triceps brachii (during elbow extension) across seven elbow joint angles. SEMG data were then recorded from the elbow flexors (biceps brachii and brachioradialis) and extensors (triceps brachii) during isometric, constant force flexion and extension contractions at the same joint angles. The resulting force at the wrist was measured. The fast orthogonal search method was used to find a mapping between the system inputs - estimated SEMG amplitudes and joint angle - and the system output - measured force, for both calibrated and non-calibrated SEMG data. Models developed with calibrated data yielded a statistically significant improvement in force estimation compared to models developed with non-calibrated data, suggesting that the calibration method can compensate for changes in the SEMG-force relationship with changing joint angle. It was also found that the number of non-linear, joint angle-dependent terms used in the SEMG-force model was reduced with calibration. Additionally, initial inter-session analysis performed for four subjects suggests that calibration values can be used for subsequent recording sessions, and different output force levels. PMID:23273763

Hashemi, Javad; Morin, Evelyn; Mousavi, Parvin; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan

2012-12-25

307

Study on flexible calibration method for binocular stereo vision system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a binocular stereo vision system for 3D coordinate measurement, system calibration is an important factor for measurement precision. In this paper we present a flexible calibration method for binocular stereo system calibration to estimate the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera and the exterior orientation of the turntable's axis which is installed in front of the binocular stereo vision system to increase the system measurement range. Using a new flexible planar pattern with four big circles and an array of small circles as reference points for calibration, binocular stereo calibration is realized with Zhang Plane-based calibration method without specialized knowledge of 3D geometry. By putting a standard ball in front of the binocular stereo vision system, a sequence pictures is taken at the same by both camera with a few different rotation angles of the turntable. With the method of space intersection of two straight lines, the reference points, the ball center at each turntable rotation angles, for axis calibration are figured out. Because of the rotation of the turntable, the trace of ball is a circle, whose center is on the turntable's axis. All ball centers rotated are in a plane perpendicular to the axis. The exterior orientation of the turntable axis is calibrated according to the calibration model. The measurement on a column bearing is performed in the experiment, with the final measurement precision better than 0.02mm.

Wang, Peng; Sun, Huashu; Sun, Changku

2008-12-01

308

Increasing syringe access and HIV prevention in California: findings from a survey of local health jurisdiction key personnel.  

PubMed

This article presents results from the first survey of California local health jurisdictions (LHJs) subsequent to passage of legislation that allows for over-the-counter pharmacy sales of syringes. In 2004 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 1159 (SB1159) into law to "prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne disease among drug users, their sexual partners and their children." This legislation permits counties and cities to authorize a local disease prevention demonstration project (DPDP). Once authorized, a DPDP permits individuals to legally purchase and possess up to ten syringes from registered pharmacies without a doctor's prescription. From June to August 2005, we surveyed health departments in all 61 LHJs to assess implementation status of SB1159. Fifty-seven (93%) LHJs responded. Nine (16%) had approved a DPDP by August 2005, 17 (30%) were in the process of obtaining authorization, and 18 (32%) anticipated that SB1159 would never be authorized in their LHJ. Among LHJs that do not plan to approve a DPDP (n = 18), the reasons included: strong community opposition (41%), competing priorities (35%), law enforcement opposition (29%), and little or no interest among pharmacies (29%). In LHJs that have authorized a DPDP, 31.4% of pharmacies registered to legally sell nonprescription syringes. Preliminary results indicate that local coalitions, comprised of public health, waste management and pharmacy officials, have been instrumental in facilitating DPDP authorization. Further research is needed to identify facilitators and barriers to adopting SB1159, to identify areas for improving technical assistance to implementers, and to assess the public health impact of the legislation. PMID:17151941

Stopka, Thomas J; Garfein, Richard S; Ross, Alessandra; Truax, Steven R

2007-01-01

309

Increasing Syringe Access and HIV Prevention in California: Findings from a Survey of Local Health Jurisdiction Key Personnel  

PubMed Central

This article presents results from the first survey of California local health jurisdictions (LHJs) subsequent to passage of legislation that allows for over-the-counter pharmacy sales of syringes. In 2004 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 1159 (SB1159) into law to “prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne disease among drug users, their sexual partners and their children.” This legislation permits counties and cities to authorize a local disease prevention demonstration project (DPDP). Once authorized, a DPDP permits individuals to legally purchase and possess up to ten syringes from registered pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription. From June to August 2005, we surveyed health departments in all 61 LHJs to assess implementation status of SB1159. Fifty-seven (93%) LHJs responded. Nine (16%) had approved a DPDP by August 2005, 17 (30%) were in the process of obtaining authorization, and 18 (32%) anticipated that SB1159 would never be authorized in their LHJ. Among LHJs that do not plan to approve a DPDP (n?=?18), the reasons included: strong community opposition (41%), competing priorities (35%), law enforcement opposition (29%), and little or no interest among pharmacies (29%). In LHJs that have authorized a DPDP, 31.4% of pharmacies registered to legally sell nonprescription syringes. Preliminary results indicate that local coalitions, comprised of public health, waste management and pharmacy officials, have been instrumental in facilitating DPDP authorization. Further research is needed to identify facilitators and barriers to adopting SB1159, to identify areas for improving technical assistance to implementers, and to assess the public health impact of the legislation.

Garfein, Richard S.; Ross, Alessandra; Truax, Steven R.

2006-01-01

310

Formation and removal of apical vapor lock during syringe irrigation: a combined experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics approach.  

PubMed

AIM: (i) To evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, root canal size and irrigant flow rate on the entrapment of air bubbles in the apical part of a root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation using experiments and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, (ii) to investigate whether the irrigant contact angle affects bubble entrapment, (iii) to examine if an established vapor lock can be removed by syringe irrigation. METHODOLOGY: Bubble entrapment during irrigation of straight artificial root canals of size 35 or 50 was evaluated by real-time visualizations. The irrigant was delivered by a closed-ended or an open-ended needle positioned at 1 or 3 mm short of working length (WL) and at a flow rate of 0.033-0.260 mL s(-1) . Results were analysed by nonparametric tests at 0.05 significance. Selected cases were also simulated by a two-phase CFD model. RESULTS: A vapor lock was observed in 48% of the cases investigated experimentally. Increasing the apical size, using an open-ended needle, positioning the needle closer to WL and delivering the irrigant at higher flow rate resulted in significantly smaller vapor lock. An increased contact angle resulted in the entrapment of a larger bubble when a low flow rate was used. Both brief insertion of the needle to WL whilst irrigating at a flow rate of 0.083 mL s(-1) and delivering the irrigant at 0.260 mL s(-1) without changing the needle position were capable of removing an established vapor lock. CONCLUSIONS: Apical vapor lock may occur under certain conditions, but appears to be easily prevented or removed by syringe irrigation. PMID:23711027

Boutsioukis, C; Kastrinakis, E; Lambrianidis, T; Verhaagen, B; Versluis, M; van der Sluis, L W M

2013-04-25

311

NICMOS Cycle 7 Calibration Plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report fully describes NICMOS calibration activities for cycle 7 as well as contingency calibration programs that will be executed only if the cameras show large physical displacements. NIC3 specific calibration programs are also included. These will be executed if NIC3 comes back into the PAM focus range. This report describes the scientific motivation and requirements for each individual calibration program. A revision of this calibration program will be undertaken by the end of the year, after we gain experience during the first 5-6 months of cycle 7.

Colina, L.; Axon, D.; Bergeron, E.; Calzetti, D.; Daou, D.; Gilmore, D.; Holfeltz, S.; MacKenty, J.; Noll, K.; Ritchie, C.; Schultz, A.; Skinner, C.; Sparks, B.; Storrs, A.; Suchkov, A.

1997-06-01

312

A H.P. 8409B Based Power Sensor Calibration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate manual calibration of RF\\/microwave power sensors (Thermistor, Thermoelectric and Diode Bridge mounts) is quite complex. The complete calibration process requires the measurement of both the complex impedance and Effective Efficiency of the device under test. The Calibration Factor and Statement of Uncertainties are calculated. The entire procedure can be streamlined by using computers to reduce data and to produce

J. G. Burns

1986-01-01

313

A general procedure for evaluation of calibration baths in precision temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the proposed paper is to develop a standardized procedure for evaluation of various calibration baths in precision temperature measurements. Since the uncertainties of transfer measurement and temperature standards such as SPRTs in particular are decreasing, metrological characteristics of calibration baths are becoming limiting factor in temperature calibrations by comparison. Due to the fact, that a time invariance

J. Drnovsek; Jovan Bojkovski; I. Pusnik

1997-01-01

314

What do pharmacists think about New York state's new nonprescription syringe sale program? Results of a survey.  

PubMed

Access to sterile syringes can prevent transmission of blood-borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B and C. We conducted survey of attitudes of pharmacists to aid in development of the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program (ESAP) in New York State. ESAP is an HIV prevention initiative that authorizes nonprescription sale of hypodermic needles and syringes by registered pharmacies in New York State beginning January 1, 2001. As part of planning for program implementation, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), in collaboration with the New York State Education Department, conducted mailed survey of all 4, 392 licensed pharmacies in New York State during the summer of 2000. Some surveys (171) were returned as undeliverable. Of the 4,221 eligible respondents, 874 (20.7%) completed surveys were received, of which 574 (65.7%) indicated that their pharmacy would likely participate in ESAP. An additional 11.0% were not sure. Only 139 (15.9%) indicated that they would definitely not participate; 7.4% left this question blank. There were 608 responses to questions on safe disposal practices. Of these, 315 (51.8%) respondents indicated that their pharmacy sold sharps containers, and an additional 29 made them available at no cost. Only 133 (21.9%) respondents to this question did not offer sharps containers and were not interested in doing so. In all, 54 responses indicated that they accepted used hypodermic needles and syringes for disposal. Some (170, 28%) that did not accept sharps for disposal were interested in doing so. More than half (382, 63.0%) did not wish to do so. NYSDOH considered respondent suggestions and minimized ESAP requirements. By March 31, 2001, only 3 months after ESAP became effective, more than half of all licensed pharmacies in New York State were registered for ESAP. Survey results provided useful information to NYSDOH and good indication of likelihood of registration. The high level of pharmacy participation in ESAP may be reflective of NYSDOH attention to issues raised by pharmacists, as well as the direct effects of outreach to pharmacy chains regarding ESAP. PMID:11796814

Klein, S J; Harris-Valente, K; Candelas, A R; Radigan, M; Narcisse-Pean, M; Tesoriero, J M; Birkhead, G S

2001-12-01

315

A variable acceleration calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

Johnson, Thomas H.

316

Statistical design of mass spectrometry calibration procedures  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this task was to agree on calibration procedures to estimate the system parameters (i.e., dead-time correction, ion-counting conversion efficiency, and detector efficiency factors) for SAL`s new Finnigan MAT-262 mass spectrometer. SAL will use this mass spectrometer in a clean-laboratory which was opened in December 1995 to measure uranium and plutonium isotopes on environmental samples. The Finnigan MAT-262 mass spectrometer has a multi-detector system with seven Faraday cup detectors and one ion- counter for the measurement of very small signals (e.g. 10{sup -17} Ampere range). ORNL has made preliminary estimates of the system parameters based on SAL`s experimental data measured in late 1994 when the Finnigan instrument was relatively new. SAL generated additional data in 1995 to verify the calibration procedures for estimating the dead-time correction factor, the ion-counting conversion factor and the Faraday cup detector efficiency factors. The system parameters estimated on the present data will have to be reestablished when the Finnigan MAT-262 is moved-to the new clean- laboratory. Different methods will be used to analyzed environmental samples than the current measurement methods being used. For example, the environmental samples will be electroplated on a single filament rather than using the current two filament system. An outline of the calibration standard operating procedure (SOP) is included.

Bayne, C.K.

1996-11-01

317

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Clark, Mr

2012-10-31

318

A Programming Model for Instrument Calibration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programming model for instrument calibration system is designed applying the concepts and techniques of software architecture. The model consists of two parts: one is the instrument calibration framework that provides an infrastructure and general functions to the calibration system, and the other is the calibration component library that performs different instrument calibration tasks. A calibration system was implemented applying

Xu Lili

2007-01-01

319

Calibration and Alignment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrepancies between estimates of rainfall from ground-based radar and satellite observing systems can be attributed to either calibration differences or to geolocation and sampling differences. These latter include differences due to radar or satellite misregistration, differences in observation times, or variations in instrument and retrieval algorithm sensitivities. A new methodology has been developed and tested for integrating radar- and satellite-based estimates of precipitation using a feature calibration and alignment (FCA) technique. The parameters describing the calibration and alignment are found using a variational approach, and are composed of displacement and amplitude adjustments to the satellite rainfall retrievals, which minimize the differences with respect to the radar data and satisfy additional smoothness and magnitude constraints. In this approach the amplitude component represents a calibration of the satellite estimate to the radar, whereas the displacement components correct temporal and/or geolocation differences between the radar and satellite data.The method has been tested on a number of cases of the NASA WetNet PIP-2 dataset. These data consist of coincident estimates of rainfall by ground-based radar and the DMSP SSM/I. Sensitivity tests were conducted to tune the parameters of the algorithm. Results indicate the effectiveness of the technique in minimizing the discrepancies between radar and satellite observations of rainfall for a variety of rainfall events ranging from midlatitude frontal precipitation to heavy convection associated with a tropical cyclone (Hurricane Andrew). A remaining issue to be resolved is the incorporation of knowledge about location dependencies in the errors of the radar and microwave estimates.Once the satellite data have been adjusted to match the radar observations, the two independent estimates (radar and adjusted SSM/I rain rates) may be blended to improve the overall depiction of the rainfall event in a single analysis. The FCA technique also has potential applications in 1) the development of satellite rainfall retrieval algorithms that may be tuned to radar rain rates and 2) error assessment of rainfall predictions using radar or satellite rain rates as verification.

Grassotti, Christopher; Iskenderian, Haig; Hoffman, Ross N.

1999-06-01

320

Structured light camera calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structured light camera which is being designed with the joined effort of Institute of Radioelectronics and Institute of Optoelectronics (both being large units of the Warsaw University of Technology within the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology) combines various hardware and software contemporary technologies. In hardware it is integration of a high speed stripe projector and a stripe camera together with a standard high definition video camera. In software it is supported by sophisticated calibration techniques which enable development of advanced application such as real time 3D viewer of moving objects with the free viewpoint or 3D modeller for still objects.

Garbat, P.; Skarbek, W.; Tomaszewski, M.

2013-03-01

321

ALTEA: The instrument calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALTEA program is an international and multi-disciplinary project aimed at studying particle radiation in space environment and its effects on astronauts’ brain functions, as the anomalous perception of light flashes first reported during Apollo missions. The ALTEA space facility includes a 6-silicon telescopes particle detector, and is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006. In this paper, the detector calibration at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI Darmstadt will be presented and compared to the Geant 3 Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the results of a neural network analysis that was used for ion discrimination on fragmentation data will also be presented.

Zaconte, V.; Belli, F.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; di Fino, L.; Narici, L.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Sannita, W. G.; Finetti, N.; Nurzia, G.; Rantucci, E.; Scrimaglio, R.; Segreto, E.; Schardt, D.

2008-05-01

322

Procedures used in the calibration of AC calibrators  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an automatic calibration system used in the calibration of all precision AC calibrators. The system includes an AC-DC Transfer Standard, a DC Voltage Standard, and a high-resolution digital multimeter, with an IBM-XT Personal Computer for data acquisition and analysis. Specialized instrumentation and measurement techniques make it possible to achieve high accuracy measurements with repeatability. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Salazar, M.T.

1991-02-01

323

NIMBY localism and national inequitable exclusion alliances: The case of syringe exchange programs in the United States.  

PubMed

Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) aim to reduce the harm associated with injection drug use (IDU). Although they have been accepted as critical components of HIV prevention in many parts of the world, they are often unwelcome and difficult to set up and maintain, even in communities hardest hit by IDU-related HIV transmission. This research examines socio-cultural and political processes that shape community and institutional resistance toward establishing and maintaining SEPs. These processes are configured and reinforced through the socio-spatial stigmatizing of IDUs, and legal and public policy against SEPs. Overarching themes the paper considers are: (1) institutional and/or political opposition based on (a) political and law enforcement issues associated with state drug paraphernalia laws and local syringe laws; (b) harassment of drug users and resistance to services for drug users by local politicians and police; and (c) state and local government (in)action or opposition; and (2) the stigmatization of drug users and location of SEPs in local neighborhoods and business districts. Rather than be explained by "not in my back yard" localism, this pattern seems best conceptualized as an "inequitable exclusion alliance" (IEA) that institutionalizes national and local stigmatizing of drug users and other vulnerable populations. PMID:18978931

Tempalski, Barbara; Friedman, Risa; Keem, Marie; Cooper, Hannah; Friedman, Samuel R

2007-11-01

324

NIMBY localism and national inequitable exclusion alliances: The case of syringe exchange programs in the United States  

PubMed Central

Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) aim to reduce the harm associated with injection drug use (IDU). Although they have been accepted as critical components of HIV prevention in many parts of the world, they are often unwelcome and difficult to set up and maintain, even in communities hardest hit by IDU-related HIV transmission. This research examines socio-cultural and political processes that shape community and institutional resistance toward establishing and maintaining SEPs. These processes are configured and reinforced through the socio-spatial stigmatizing of IDUs, and legal and public policy against SEPs. Overarching themes the paper considers are: (1) institutional and/or political opposition based on (a) political and law enforcement issues associated with state drug paraphernalia laws and local syringe laws; (b) harassment of drug users and resistance to services for drug users by local politicians and police; and (c) state and local government (in)action or opposition; and (2) the stigmatization of drug users and location of SEPs in local neighborhoods and business districts. Rather than be explained by “not in my back yard” localism, this pattern seems best conceptualized as an “inequitable exclusion alliance” (IEA) that institutionalizes national and local stigmatizing of drug users and other vulnerable populations.

Tempalski, Barbara; Friedman, Risa; Keem, Marie; Cooper, Hannah; Friedman, Samuel R.

2007-01-01

325

Integrated Lab-in-Syringe Platform Incorporating a Membraneless Gas-Liquid Separator for Automatic Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.  

PubMed

This manuscript reports the proof-of-concept of a novel integrated lab-in-syringe/gas-liquid separation (LIS/GLS) batch-flow system based on a programmable flow for automatic cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric assays. Homogeneous mixing of metered volumes of sample and reagent solutions drawn up in a sandwich-type mode along with in situ vapor generation are accomplished inside the microsyringe in a closed manner, while the separation of vapor species is achieved via the membraneless GLS located at the top of the syringe's valve in the upright position. The potentials of the proposed manifold were demonstrated for trace inorganic mercury determination in drinking waters and seawater. For a 3.0 mL sample, the limit of detection and repeatability (RSD) were found to be 0.03 ?g L(-1) Hg(II) and 3.1% (at the 2.0 ?g L(-1) concentration level), respectively, with a dynamic range extending up to 10.0 ?g L(-1). The proposed system fulfills the requirements of US-EPA, WHO, and EU Council Directives for measurements of the maximum allowed concentrations of inorganic mercury in drinking water. PMID:23977837

Giakisikli, Georgia; Miró, Manuel; Anthemidis, Aristidis

2013-09-12

326

Student understanding of the volume, mass, and pressure of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem-solving strategies in the physical sciences have been characterized by a dependence on algorithmic techniques often devoid of any reasoning skills. The purpose of this study was to examine student responses to a task relating to Boyle's Law for gases, which did not demand the use of a mathematical equation for its solution. Students (17- to 18-year-olds) in lower sixth form from two colleges in the Leeds district of Yorkshire in England were asked to respond to a task relating to pressure and volume measurements of air within a sealed syringe in different states of compression. Both qualitative and quantitative tasks for the sealed syringe system were examined. It was found that 34% to 38% of students did not understand the concepts of volume and mass, respectively, of a gas under such circumstances. Performance on an inverse ratio (2:1) task was shown to depend on gender and those students who performed well on the 2:1 inverse ratio task did not necessarily perform well on a different inverse ratio task when an arithmetic averaging principle was present. Tasks which draw upon qualitative knowledge as well as quantitative knowledge have the potential to reduce dependence on algorithms, particularly equation substitution and solution. The implications for instructional design are discussed.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 29 June 1994;

de Berg, Kevin Charles

327

Searching for VLTI Calibrators with the JMMC's Search Calibrators Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new version of ASPRO "Virtual observatory" companion tool looking for possible calibrators in the vicinity of a science object has been released. This user dedicated software creates an evolutive catalog of stars giving the useful information for the selection of calibrators with respect to the requirements of the astrophysical program and of the instrumental configuration. SearchCal (for Search Calibrators) includes an K-Band (for AMBER) and an N-Band (for MIDI) calibrator search. It can be found on the JMMC Web site: http://mariotti.fr/aspro_page.htm

Bonneau, D.; Delfosse, X.; Cetre, S.; Clausse, J.-M.; Zins, G.; Chesneau, O.; Duvert, G.; Mourard, D.; Cruzalèbes, P.

328

The use of anion-exchange disks in an optrode coupled to a multi-syringe flow-injection system for the determination and speciation analysis of iron in natural water samples.  

PubMed

A combination of multi-syringe flow-injection analysis (MSFIA) technique with an optical fibre reflectance sensor for the determination of iron in water samples has been developed in this work. Anion-exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) disks have been used as solid phase. Ammonium thiocyanate has been chosen as chromogenic reagent for Fe(III). The complex Fe[SCN](6)(3-) is retained onto the SPE disk and spectrophotometrically detected at 480nm. The complex is eluted with 0.25moll(-1) hydrochloric acid in 75% ethanol. Total iron can be determined by oxidising Fe(II) to Fe(III) with hydrogen peroxide. A mass calibration was run within the range of 0.4-37.5ng. The detection limit (3s(b)/S) was 0.4ng. The repeatability (RSD), calculated from 9 replicates using 0.5ml injections of a 25microgl(-1) concentration, was 3.6%. The repeatability between five anion-exchange disks was 5.4%. An injection throughput of 7 injections per hour for a sampling volume of 1ml has been achieved. The applicability of the proposed methodology in natural water samples has been proved. The properties of anion-exchange and chelating SPE disks have been studied and compared. PMID:18969983

Pons, Carmen; Forteza, Rafael; Cerdà, Víctor

2004-12-24

329

Multigamma-ray calibration sources  

SciTech Connect

We have calibrated a self-consistent set of multigamma-ray standards using the automated multi-spectrometry ..gamma..-ray counting facility at LLNL's Nuclear Chemistry Division. Pure sources of long-lived activity were produced by mass separation and/or chemical purification. The sources were counted individually and in combination on several different calibrated spectrometer systems. These systems utilize various detectors ranging from small (x-ray) detectors to large volume high-purity Ge detectors. This has allowed the use of the most ideal individual detector-efficiency characteristics for the determination of the relative ..gamma..-ray intensities. Precise energy measurements, reported earlier (Meyer, 1976) have been performed by an independent method. Both the energy and ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities determined compare well with independently established values such as the recent ICRM intercomparison of /sup 152/Eu. We discuss our investigations aimed at resolving the shape of the efficiency response function up to 10 MeV for large volume Ge(Li) and high-purity Ge detectors. Recent results on the ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities per decay for /sup 149/Gd and /sup 168/Tm multigamma-ray sources are discussed. For /sup 168/Tm, we deduce a 0.01% ..beta../sup -/ branch to the 87.73-keV level in /sup 168/Yb rather than the previous value which was a factor of 200 greater. In addition, we describe current cooperative efforts aimed at establishing a consistent set of data for short-lived fission products. Included are recent measurements on the bromine fission products with ..gamma.. rays up to 7 MeV.

Meyer, R.A.; Massey, T.N.

1983-05-01

330

Hepatitis C Virus Acquisition among Injecting Drug Users: A Cohort Analysis of a National Repeated Cross-sectional Survey of Needle and Syringe Program Attendees in Australia, 1995-2004  

PubMed Central

High hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence has been documented among many injecting drug user (IDU) populations worldwide; however, there is limited published data on trends in incidence of infection in these epidemics over time. To address this, we used a novel method of analyzing data collected via repeat, cross-sectional sero-surveys by injection initiation cohorts to investigate trends in HCV seropositivity among a population of needle and syringe program (NSP) attendees in Australia between 1995 and 2004, and thereby infer annual incidence trends. Injection initiation cohorts were defined by their time of entry into the IDU population. We also investigated the associations between HCV antibody seroprevalence and risk factor data, and trends in risk factor data over the decade. Approximately 20,000 NSP attendees participated in the study over the 10-year period. Within each injection initiation cohort, we found an increase in HCV prevalence over time, with prevalence appearing to reach saturation around 90%. There was little indication that the slopes of increase had changed with more recent initiation cohorts. While duration of injecting was most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity in this study, we also found that self-reported history of needle and syringe sharing and imprisonment were independently associated with higher HCV prevalence regardless of duration of injecting, with the exception of IDUs who have 15 or more years injecting experience. In this group, recent risk behavior had no relationship to prevalence. In summary, our findings suggest a persistent HCV epidemic despite significant harm reduction efforts in Australia since the mid-1980s, with HIV incidence effectively constant in successive initiation cohorts.

Kaldor, John M.; Maher, Lisa

2008-01-01

331

NASA Metrology and Calibration, 1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proceedings of the fourth annual NASA Metrology and Calibration Workshop are presented. This workshop covered (1) review and assessment of NASA metrology and calibration activities by NASA Headquarters, (2) results of audits by the Office of Inspector General, (3) review of a proposed NASA Equipment Management System, (4) current and planned field center activities, (5) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) calibration services for NASA, (6) review of NBS's Precision Measurement and Test Equipment Project activities, (7) NASA instrument loan pool operations at two centers, (8) mobile cart calibration systems at two centers, (9) calibration intervals and decals, (10) NASA Calibration Capabilities Catalog, and (11) development of plans and objectives for FY 1981. Several papers in this proceedings are slide presentations only.

1981-04-01

332

Comparison of TLD calibration methods for 192Ir dosimetry.  

PubMed

For the purpose of dose measurement using a high-dose rate (192)Ir source, four methods of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) calibration were investigated. Three of the four calibration methods used the (192)Ir source. Dwell times were calculated to deliver 1 Gy to the TLDs irradiated either in air or water. Dwell time calculations were confirmed by direct measurement using an ionization chamber. The fourth method of calibration used 6 MV photons from a medical linear accelerator, and an energy correction factor was applied to account for the difference in sensitivity of the TLDs in (192)Ir and 6 MV. The results of the four TLD calibration methods are presented in terms of the results of a brachytherapy audit where seven Australian centers irradiated three sets of TLDs in a water phantom. The results were in agreement within estimated uncertainties when the TLDs were calibrated with the (192)Ir source. Calibrating TLDs in a phantom similar to that used for the audit proved to be the most practical method and provided the greatest confidence in measured dose. When calibrated using 6 MV photons, the TLD results were consistently higher than the (192)Ir-calibrated TLDs, suggesting this method does not fully correct for the response of the TLDs when irradiated in the audit phantom. PMID:23318392

Haworth, Annette; Butler, Duncan J; Wilfert, Lisa; Ebert, Martin A; Todd, Stephen P; Hayton, Anna J M; Kron, Tomas

2013-01-07

333

Objective Calibration of Sunspot Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waldmeier [1971] found a very tight relationship between the F10.7 solar radio flux and the sunspot number and suggested using the flux for an objective calibration of the sunspot number. He suggested that if this relationship changed later on, the sunspot number should be re-calibrated, assuming that the calibration must have drifted with time. I repeat his analysis using data up to the present and it is, indeed, clear that the relationship has changed significantly. This could be due to a drift of the calibration or to a secular change in the visibility of sunspots, or both.

Svalgaard, L.

2010-12-01

334

Quality Management and Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good specification of a product’s performance requires adequate characterization of relevant properties. Particulate products are usually characterized by some PSD, shape or porosity parameter(s). For proper characterization, adequate sampling, dispersion, and measurement procedures should be available or developed and skilful personnel should use appropriate, well-calibrated/qualified equipment. The characterization should be executed, in agreement with customers, in a wellorganized laboratory. All related aspects should be laid down in a quality handbook. The laboratory should provide proof for its capability to perform the characterization of stated products and/or reference materials within stated confidence limits. This can be done either by internal validation and audits or by external GLP accreditation.

Merkus, Henk G.

335

RX130 Robot Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to create precision magnets for an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a new reverse engineering method has been proposed that uses the magnetic scalar potential to solve for the currents necessary to produce the desired field. To make the magnet it is proposed to use a copper coated G10 form, upon which a drill, mounted on a robotic arm, will carve wires. The accuracy required in the manufacturing of the wires exceeds nominal robot capabilities. However, due to the rigidity as well as the precision servo motor and harmonic gear drivers, there are robots capable of meeting this requirement with proper calibration. Improving the accuracy of an RX130 to be within 35 microns (the accuracy necessary of the wires) is the goal of this project. Using feedback from a displacement sensor, or camera and inverse kinematics it is possible to achieve this accuracy.

Fugal, Mario

2012-10-01

336

TOD to TTP calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TTP (Targeting Task Performance) metric, developed at NVESD, is the current standard US Army model to predict EO/IR Target Acquisition performance. This model however does not have a corresponding lab or field test to empirically assess the performance of a camera system. The TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) method, developed at TNO in The Netherlands, provides such a measurement. In this study, we make a direct comparison between TOD performance for a range of sensors and the extensive historical US observer performance database built to develop and calibrate the TTP metric. The US perception data were collected doing an identification task by military personnel on a standard 12 target, 12 aspect tactical vehicle image set that was processed through simulated sensors for which the most fundamental sensor parameters such as blur, sampling, spatial and temporal noise were varied. In the present study, we measured TOD sensor performance using exactly the same sensors processing a set of TOD triangle test patterns. The study shows that good overall agreement is obtained when the ratio between target characteristic size and TOD test pattern size at threshold equals 6.3. Note that this number is purely based on empirical data without any intermediate modeling. The calibration of the TOD to the TTP is highly beneficial to the sensor modeling and testing community for a variety of reasons. These include: i) a connection between requirement specification and acceptance testing, and ii) a very efficient method to quickly validate or extend the TTP range prediction model to new systems and tasks.

Bijl, Piet; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Vos, Wouter K.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Fanning, Jonathan D.

2011-05-01

337

Performance comparison of accelerometer calibration algorithms based on 3D-ellipsoid fitting methods.  

PubMed

Calibration of accelerometers can be reduced to 3D-ellipsoid fitting problems. Changing extrinsic factors like temperature, pressure or humidity, as well as intrinsic factors like the battery status, demand to calibrate the measurements permanently. Thus, there is a need for fast calibration algorithms, e.g. for online analyses. The primary aim of this paper is to propose a non-iterative calibration algorithm for accelerometers with the focus on minimal execution time and low memory consumption. The secondary aim is to benchmark existing calibration algorithms based on 3D-ellipsoid fitting methods. We compared the algorithms regarding the calibration quality and the execution time as well as the number of quasi-static measurements needed for a stable calibration. As evaluation criterion for the calibration, both the norm of calibrated real-life measurements during inactivity and simulation data was used. The algorithms showed a high calibration quality, but the execution time differed significantly. The calibration method proposed in this paper showed the shortest execution time and a very good performance regarding the number of measurements needed to produce stable results. Furthermore, this algorithm was successfully implemented on a sensor node and calibrates the measured data on-the-fly while continuously storing the measured data to a microSD-card. PMID:23566707

Gietzelt, Matthias; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Marschollek, Michael; Haux, Reinhold

2013-04-06

338

Reducing the computational cost of automatic calibration through model preemption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational budget is frequently a limiting factor in both uncertainty-based (e.g., through generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE)) and optimization-based (e.g., through least squares minimization) calibration of computationally intensive environmental simulation models. This study introduces and formalizes the concept of simulation model preemption during automatic calibration. The proposed “model preemption” method terminates a simulation model early to save computational budget if

Saman Razavi; Bryan A. Tolson; L. Shawn Matott; Neil R. Thomson; Angela MacLean; Frank R. Seglenieks

2010-01-01

339

Photometric calibration of the Swift ultraviolet\\/optical telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the photometric calibration of the Swift Ultraviolet\\/Optical Telescope (UVOT) which includes: optimum photometric and background apertures, effective area curves, colour transformations, conversion factors for count rates to flux and the photometric zero-points (which are accurate to better than 4 per cent) for each of the seven UVOT broad-band filters. The calibration was performed with observations of standard stars

T. S. Poole; A. A. Breeveld; M. J. Page; W. Landsman; S. T. Holland; P. Roming; N. P. M. Kuin; P. J. Brown; C. Gronwall; S. Hunsberger; S. Koch; K. O. Mason; P. Schady; D. vanden Berk; A. J. Blustin; P. Boyd; P. Broos; M. Carter; M. M. Chester; A. Cucchiara; B. Hancock; H. Huckle; S. Immler; M. Ivanushkina; T. Kennedy; F. Marshall; A. Morgan; S. B. Pandey; M. de Pasquale; P. J. Smith; M. Still

2008-01-01

340

New tank calibration method could be wave of the future  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the electro optical distance ranging (EODR) method offers state-of-the-art technology for internal calibration of vertical, cylindrical tanks. The method provides a safe, accurate alternative to manual strapping methods. With EODR, calibration can be achieved from ground level. The capacity of each course is determined from the measured average radii, taking into account corrections for such factors as deadwood.

Sivaraman, S. (Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, NJ (United States)); Wallace, R.I. (Maunder Wallace Associates, Bebington, Wirral (Guadeloupe))

1992-10-19

341

Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities  

PubMed Central

The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors.

Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

2009-01-01

342

Visual calibration of CRT monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop and test a technique for calibrating a computer-controlled television monitor using a visual comparison instead of a photometer. The basic principle of the calibration is to compare a patch of pixels that are uniformly driven for an adjustable voltage with a patch in which a predetermined fraction of the pixels are set to the maximum

Elisa Colombo; Andrew Derrington

2001-01-01

343

The Herschel PACS photometer calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a flux calibration scheme for the PACS chopped point-source photometry observing mode based on the photometry of five stellar standard sources. This mode was used for science observations only early in the mission. Later, it was only used for pointing and flux calibration measurements. Its calibration turns this type of observation into fully validated data products in the Herschel Science Archive. Systematic differences in calibration with regard to the principal photometer observation mode, the scan map, are derived and amount to 5 - 6 %. An empirical method to calibrate out an apparent response drift during the first 300 Operational Days is presented. The relative photometric calibration accuracy (repeatability) is as good as 1 % in the blue and green band and up to 5 % in the red band. Like for the scan map mode, inconsistencies among the stellar calibration models become visible and amount to 2 % for the five standard stars used. The absolute calibration accuracy is therefore mainly limited by the model uncertainty, which is 5 % for all three bands.

Nielbock, Markus; Müller, Thomas; Klaas, Ulrich; Altieri, Bruno; Balog, Zoltán; Billot, Nicolas; Linz, Hendrik; Okumura, Koryo; Sánchez-Portal, Miguel; Sauvage, Marc

2013-09-01

344

Crystal Calibrator Ts-810/U.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual contains the information necessary for calibrating the TS-810/U Crystal Calibrator, herein referred to as the Test Instrument. This portable, general-purpose instrument provides sharply-peaked pulse outputs at any one of five frequencies: 100 c...

1964-01-01

345

Calibration of Shielded Net Radiometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net radiation is an important term because of its use in water bal- ance and other studies. Faulty data results from net radiometers that are not calibrated properly. Using the total shading method to cali- brate shielded net radiometers (NRs) results in faulty calibration coef- ficients because large negative net radiation is included in the results. The proposed partial shading

Leo J. Fritschen; Charles L. Fritschen

2007-01-01

346

Calibration of a Horizontal Sundial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes how a horizontal sundial can be calibrated in a classroom without using the nontrivial equations of projective geometry. If one understands how a simple equatorial sundial works, one will also understand the procedure of calibrating a horizontal (or "garden," as it is also called) sundial.|

Rovsek, Barbara

2010-01-01

347

Calibration of attitude control sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an onboard computer.

Potapenko, Ye. M.

1987-05-01

348

Automated calibration of temperature sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the essential problems associated with the automatic calibration of industrial thermometric sensors in the temperature range of 200°C+1300°C carried out by means of the comparison method. The sensors to be calibrated and the reference one should be placed in a uniform and stable temperature field. It is necessary to use a dedicated furnace to generate such a

M. Orzylowski; M. Hering; T. Kaluzniacki; W. Lobodzinski; P. Ostrowski; J. Wiechowski

2000-01-01

349

NICMOS Cycle 11 Calibration Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes the NICMOS calibration activities for Cycle 11. It complements the SMOV3b and the NICMOS Cycle 10 interim calibration programs. These activities cover a period of 13 months and pursue the following major objectives: i) to monitor the main instrument properties, ii) to test the model for generating darks, iii) to analyze in detail the intra-pixel sensitivity effects

S. Arribas; S. Malhotra; D. Calzetti; E. Bergeron; T. Boeker; M. Dickinson; D. Hines; R. Gilliland; L. Mazzuca; B. Mobasher; K. Noll; E. Roye; A. Schultz; M. Sosey; C. Xu

2002-01-01

350

Calibration of a Horizontal Sundial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how a horizontal sundial can be calibrated in a classroom without using the nontrivial equations of projective geometry. If one understands how a simple equatorial sundial works, one will also understand the procedure of calibrating a horizontal (or ``garden,'' as it is also called) sundial.

Rovšek, Barbara

2010-09-01

351

Multilevel Community-Based Intervention to Increase Access to Sterile Syringes Among Injection Drug Users Through Pharmacy Sales in New York City  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Research has indicated that there is minimal use of pharmacies among injection drug users (IDUs) in specific neighborhoods and among Black and Hispanic IDUs. We developed a community-based participatory research partnership to determine whether a multilevel intervention would increase sterile syringe access through a new policy allowing nonprescription syringe sales in pharmacies. Methods. We targeted Harlem, NY (using the South Bronx for comparison), and disseminated informational material at community forums, pharmacist training programs, and counseling or outreach programs for IDUs. We compared cross-sectional samples in 3 target populations (pre- and postintervention): community members (attitudes and opinions), pharmacists (opinions and practices), and IDUs (risk behaviors). Results. Among community members (N = 1496) and pharmacists (N = 131), negative opinions of IDU syringe sales decreased in Harlem whereas there was either no change or an increase in negative opinions in the comparison community. Although pharmacy use by IDUs (N=728) increased in both communities, pharmacy use increased significantly among Black IDUs in Harlem, but not in the comparison community; syringe reuse significantly decreased in Harlem, but not in the comparison community. Conclusions. Targeting the individual and the social environment through a multilevel community-based intervention reduced high-risk behavior, particularly among Black IDUs.

Fuller, Crystal M.; Galea, Sandro; Caceres, Wendy; Blaney, Shannon; Sisco, Sarah; Vlahov, David

2007-01-01

352

Pharmacy staff characteristics associated with support for pharmacy-based HIV-testing in pharmacies participating in the New York State Expanded Access Syringe Exchange Program  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine support of in-pharmacy HIV-testing among pharmacy staff and the individual-level characteristics associated with in-pharmacy HIV testing support. Design Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study. Setting New York City (NYC) during January 2008 to March 2009. Intervention 131 pharmacies registered in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP) completed a survey. Participants 480 pharmacy staff, including pharmacists, owners/managers, and technicians/clerks. Main outcome measures Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing. Results Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among pharmacy staff (79.4%). Pharmacy staff that supported in-pharmacy vaccinations were significantly more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Pharmacy staff that think that selling syringes to IDUs causes the community to be littered with dirty syringes were significantly less likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Conclusion Support for in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among our sample of ESAP pharmacy staff actively involved in non-prescription syringe sales. These findings suggest that active ESAP pharmacy staff may be amenable to providing HIV counseling and testing to injection drug users and warrants further investigation.

Amesty, Silvia; Blaney, Shannon; Crawford, Natalie D.; Rivera, Alexis V.; Fuller, Crystal

2013-01-01

353

Extracting Syringe for determination of organochlorine pesticides in leachate water and soil-water slurry: A novel technology for environmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Extracting Syringe (ESy), a novel membrane-based sample preparation technique directly coupled as an autosampler to gas chromatography, has been employed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in raw leachate water. The ESy has also been applied for extraction of OCPs from contaminated soil samples and its performance has been compared to liquid–solid extraction (LSE) and accelerated solvent extraction

Thaer Barri; Staffan Bergström; Ahmed Hussen; Jan Norberg; Jan-Åke Jönsson

2006-01-01

354

Evaluation of the Amount of Debris extruded apically by using Conv-entional Syringe, Endovac and Ultrasonic Irrigation Technique: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background: To compare the amount of debris extruded apically by using conventional syringe, Endovac & Ultrasonic irrigation. Materials & Methods: Thirty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were selected, working length was determined and mounted in a debris and collection apparatus. The canals were prepared. After each instrument change, 1 ml. of 3% sodium hypochlorite was used as irrigation. Debris extruded apically by using conventional syringe, endovac& ultrasonic irrigation tech, was measured using the electronic balance to determine its weight and statistical analysis was performed. The mean difference between the groups was determined using statistical analysis within the groups &between the groups for equal variances. Results: Among all the groups, significantly less debris were found apically in the Endovac group (0.96) compared to conventional and ultrasonic group (1.23) syringe. Conclusion: The present study showed that endovac system extrudes less amount of debris apically as compared to ultrasonic followed by conventional so incidence of flare up can be reduce by using endovac irrigation system. How to cite this article: Tambe V H, Nagmode P S, Vishwas J R, Saujanya K P, Angadi P, Ali F M. Evaluation of the Amount of Debris extruded apically by using Conventional Syringe, Endovac and Ultrasonic Irrigation Technique: An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):63-66.

Tambe, Varsha H; Nagmode, Pradnya S; Vishwas, Jayshree R; P, Saujanya K; Angadi, Prabakar; Ali, Fareedi Mukram

2013-01-01

355

The ENEA-IRP thoron calibration facility.  

PubMed

To check the consistency of a (220)Rn measurement, performed by passive alpha track detector (ATD), the use of an accurate (220)Rn exposure calibration facility is mandatory. The ENEA Radon Service developed a new CR-39 ATD-Tn, coupled to the radon ATD-Rn and, to assess its sensitivity, had to design a small calibration facility, which has been recently modified to improve the spatial homogeneity exposure conditions inside the chamber, to get a continuous monitoring of the (220)Rn concentration and to reduce radon contamination. A better knowledge of the circuit response allowed selecting the best-operating conditions and how to regulate the thoron concentration. The active thoron monitor has been changed to serve as a continuous sampling and measuring device rather than a grab one; particular care has been devoted to assess the (216)Po losses on the device's inner surfaces and to evaluate the chamber transit time correction factor. PMID:20846973

Calamosca, M; Penzo, S

2010-09-16

356

HIV-1 RNA load in needles/syringes from shooting galleries in Miami: a preliminary laboratory report.  

PubMed

We quantified HIV-1 RNA load in rinses from needles/syringes (N/S) obtained at shooting galleries in Miami and also analyzed the rinses for antibodies for viral proteins. In rinses from 36 N/S that contained visible blood, 14 (39%) had detectable amounts of HIV-1 RNA. Numbers of copies of HIV-1 RNA ranged from the detection limit (400 copies/ml) to 268,000 copies/ml. We also detected antibodies to HIV-1 polypeptides in 34/36 (94%) of rinses from visibly contaminated N/S using Western blots specific for the HIV-1 proteins. No antibodies were detected in laboratory rinses from six visibly clean needles. The presence of HIV-1 RNA in N/S is an important indication of the risk created by N/S sharing as well as by shared paraphernalia and wash waters by injecting drug users. PMID:10669066

Shapshak, P; Fujimura, R K; Page, J B; Segal, D; Rivers, J E; Yang, J; Shah, S M; Graham, G; Metsch, L; Weatherby, N; Chitwood, D D; McCoy, C B

2000-02-01

357

Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration  

SciTech Connect

Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID/ICP/MS) performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The outputs of mercury calibrators are compared to one another using a nesting procedure which allows direct comparison of one calibrator with another at specific concentrations and eliminates analyzer variability effects. The qualification portion of the EPA interim traceability protocol requires the vendors to define calibrator performance as affected by variables such as pressure, temperature, line voltage, and shipping. In 2007 WRI developed and conducted a series of simplified qualification experiments to determine actual calibrator performance related to the variables defined in the qualification portion of the interim protocol.

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

2009-03-12

358

The roles of law, client race and program visibility in shaping police interference with the operation of US syringe exchange programs  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine the comparative levels of and associations between policing interference and characteristics of US syringe exchange programs (SEPs). Design Cross-sectional. Setting A national survey of US SEPs. Participants A total of 111 program managers (representing 59% of all US SEPs). Measurements Program manager self-report. Findings With overall interference profiles ranging from systematic to totally interference-free, 43% of respondents reported at least monthly client harassment, 31% at least monthly unauthorized confiscation of clients’ syringes, 12% at least monthly client arrest en route to or from SEP and 26% uninvited police appearances at program sites at least every 6 months. In multivariate modeling, legal status of SEP, jurisdiction’s syringe regulation environment and affiliation with health department were not associated with frequency of police interference. Programs serving pre-dominantly injection drug users (IDUs) of color were 3.56 times more likely to report frequent client arrest en route to or from SEP and 3.92 times more likely to report unauthorized syringe confiscation. Those serving more than three sites were 3.96 times more likely to report client harassment, while stationary operation was protective against uninvited police appearances. The majority (56%) reported not documenting adverse police events; those who did were 2.92 times more likely to report unauthorized syringe confiscation from clients. Conclusions Findings highlight limitations of the impact of legal reforms on aligning police activities with SEP operations. Systematic adverse event surveillance and evidence-based structural interventions are needed to maximize the benefits of public health prevention targeting IDUs and other criminalized populations. SEPs that report no adverse events may represent programs already working in harmony with law enforcement agencies, a priority highlighted in US Centers for Disease Control’s new SEP guidelines. The significance of mechanisms translating criminal justice disparities into health disparities is discussed.

Beletsky, Leo; Grau, Lauretta E.; White, Edward; Bowman, Sarah; Heimer, Robert

2011-01-01

359

Calibrating the Cryogenian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IGCP 512 sub-commission on the Neoproterozoic is currently discussing criteria for the definition of the Cryogenian period. Herein we provide new U/Pb ID-TIMS ages and carbon and oxygen isotope data from Fifteenmile and Mt. Harper Groups in the Yukon Territory that inform the basis for the placement of the basal Cryogenian “golden spike”. Our U/Pb ages are from volcanic tuffs interbedded within glaciogenic, fossiliferous, and carbonate strata. With the current lack of Neoproterozoic index fossils and the paucity of radiogenic age constraints, chemo-stratigraphic correlations are particularly important for tuning the Neoproterozoic timescale. In an effort to move beyond conventional 'wiggle matching', chemostratigraphic correlations are determined using a new statistical method1, which indicates that the resulting chemo-stratigraphic correlations are statistically significant. These results permit us to refine and integrate Neoproterozoic climate, microfossil, and geochemical proxy records both regionally and globally. The newly calibrated microfossil record points to a eukaryotic radiation roughly coincident with the Bitter Springs isotopic stage and a barren interval between the Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations. 1 Haam, E. & Huybers, P., 2009, A test for the presence of covariance between time-uncertain series of data with applications to the Dongge Cave speleothem and atmospheric radiocarbon records, Paleoceanography, in press.

MacDonald, F. A.; Schmitz, M. D.; Crowley, J. L.; Haam, E.; Huybers, P.; Cohen, P. A.; Johnston, D. T.

2009-12-01

360

NIST Measurement Services: NIST Multifunction Calibration System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NIST automated Multifunction Calibration System (MCS) for voltage, current, and resistance is described. Developed primarily to calibrate digital multimeters and calibrators, the system can also be used to test thermal converters, and micropotentiomet...

N. Oldham M. Parker

1998-01-01

361

40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Torque calibration. 1065.310 Section 1065.310...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Measurement of...Ambient Conditions § 1065.310 Torque calibration. (a) Scope and...

2009-07-01

362

14 CFR 33.45 - Calibration tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.45 Section 33.45...Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.45 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to the calibration tests necessary to establish...

2013-01-01

363

40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Torque calibration. 1065.310 Section 1065.310...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Measurement of...Ambient Conditions § 1065.310 Torque calibration. (a) Scope and...

2013-07-01

364

14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85...Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to those calibration tests necessary to establish...

2013-01-01

365

Calibration of Shock and Vibration Measuring Transducers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book is an authoritative reference on the calibration procedures used in both primary and secondary calibration laboratories. Contains well-established basic calibration methods, describes transducer, force gage, and impedance head characteristics to...

R. R. Bouche

1979-01-01

366

Digital breast tomosynthesis geometry calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D x-ray technique for imaging the breast. The x-ray tube, mounted on a gantry, moves in an arc over a limited angular range around the breast while 7-15 images are acquired over a period of a few seconds. A reconstruction algorithm is used to create a 3D volume dataset from the projection images. This procedure reduces the effects of tissue superposition, often responsible for degrading the quality of projection mammograms. This may help improve sensitivity of cancer detection, while reducing the number of false positive results. For DBT, images are acquired at a set of gantry rotation angles. The image reconstruction process requires several geometrical factors associated with image acquisition to be known accurately, however, vibration, encoder inaccuracy, the effects of gravity on the gantry arm and manufacturing tolerances can produce deviations from the desired acquisition geometry. Unlike cone-beam CT, in which a complete dataset is acquired (500+ projections over 180°), tomosynthesis reconstruction is challenging in that the angular range is narrow (typically from 20°-45°) and there are fewer projection images (?7-15). With such a limited dataset, reconstruction is very sensitive to geometric alignment. Uncertainties in factors such as detector tilt, gantry angle, focal spot location, source-detector distance and source-pivot distance can produce several artifacts in the reconstructed volume. To accurately and efficiently calculate the location and angles of orientation of critical components of the system in DBT geometry, a suitable phantom is required. We have designed a calibration phantom for tomosynthesis and developed software for accurate measurement of the geometric parameters of a DBT system. These have been tested both by simulation and experiment. We will present estimates of the precision available with this technique for a prototype DBT system.

Wang, Xinying; Mainprize, James G.; Kempston, Michael P.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Yaffe, Martin J.

2007-03-01

367

Development of calibration sources for the CUORE detector calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CUORE, the cryogenic underground observatory for rare events, is a search for neutrinoless double beta decay(0???) that utilizes 988 TeO2 bolometers at a temperature of 10 mK within a cryogen-free cryostat. Periodic precise energy calibration, particularly in the energy region surrounding the double beta decay Q-value of ^130Te (2527 keV), is required to reliably establish and maintain an understanding of the bolometer responses. The detector calibration system (DCS) uses 12 gamma-source strings that are lowered into the detector region of the cryostat through a series of internal guide tubes for monthly calibration. The main constraints on our source string design are radiopurity of the production materials, mechanical reliability, and the load introduced into the cryostat from friction, thermal conductance, and radiation. We discuss the design, fabrication, and quality assurance of the radioactive source strings for the CUORE calibration system.

Clark, Jess

2012-10-01

368

JWST Absolute Flux Calibration Plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plan for the absolute flux calibration of all JWST instruments will be described. The science goal is to be able to predict the absolute flux of stars for all JWST instruments to sub-1% accuracy. A set of A0V, solar, and hot stars have been picked as a preliminary calibration sample. This calibration sample has been chosen specifically to provide at least 5 stars of each type in all the observing modes of each JWST instrument. In addition to existing Hubble and Spitzer observations, ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy will be obtained to provide strong, independent constraints on the best fitting model stellar atmospheres for each star.

Gordon, Karl D.; Bohlin, R.

2013-01-01

369

Operational calibration of VIIRS reflective solar band sensor data records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is an instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, which launched on October 28, 2011. VIIRS performs measurements in 14 reflective solar bands (RSBs) spanning wavelengths from 412 nm to 2.25 um, which are calibrated by using solar radiance reflected from a Solar Diffuser (SD). The SD reflectance degrades over time, and a Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) is used to track the changes. The ratio between the calculated solar radiance reflected from the SD and the VIIRS measurement of this radiance using the pre-launch calibration coefficients is known as the "F factor." The F factor is applied in the ground processing as a scale correction to the pre-launch calibration coefficients used to generate the calibrated radiances and reflectances comprising the Sensor Data Records (SDRs). The F factor is trended over time to track instrument response degradation. The equation for calculating expected solar radiance, and the coefficients used to convert the raw digital numbers measured by the detectors into radiance and reflectance values, are based on parameters stored in various Look-Up Tables (LUTs). This paper will discuss on-orbit RSB calibration for VIIRS, along with a description of the processing methodology, which includes operational LUT updates based on off-line calculations of F factor trending behavior.

Cardema, Jason C.; Rausch, Kameron W.; Lei, Ning; Moyer, David I.; De Luccia, Frank J.

2012-09-01

370

Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration  

SciTech Connect

The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

Johns, B.R.

1994-10-01

371

Calibrating Atmospheric Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's atmosphere is a wavelength-, directionally- and time-dependent turbid refractive element for every ground-based telescope. Changes in atmospheric transmission are the most significant systematic error limiting photometric measurement precision and accuracy. While considerable resources have been devoted to correcting the effects of the atmosphere on angular resolution, the effects on precision photometry have largely been ignored. To correct photometric measurements for the transmission of the atmosphere requires direct measurements of the wavelength-dependent transmission in the same direction and at the same time that the supported photometric telescope is acquiring its data. We describe the multi-wavelength lidar, the Facility Lidar for Astronomical Measurement of Extinction (FLAME) that observes the stable stratosphere, and a spectrophotometer (the Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer - AESoP) that creates and maintains NIST absolute standard stars, the combination of which enables fundamentally statistically limited photometric precision of both the stellar spectra and atmospheric transmission. The throughput of both FLAME and AESoP are calibrated to NIST radiometric standards. This inexpensive and replicable instrument suite provides the lidar-determined monochromatic transmission of Earth's atmosphere at visible and near-infrared wavelengths to 0.25% per airmass and the wavelength-dependent transparency to less than 1% uncertainty per nanometer per minute of time. These atmospheric data are merged to create a metadata stream that allows throughput corrections from data acquired at the time of the scientific observations to be applied to broadband and spectrophotometric scientific data. This new technique replaces the classical use of nightly mean atmospheric extinction coefficients, which invoke a stationary and plane-parallel atmosphere and ultimately limit ground-based all-sky photometry to 1% - 2% precision. This research is supported by NIST Award 60NANB9D9121 and NSF Grant AST-1009878.

Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Vorobiev, D. M.; Zirzow, D. C.; Karle, J. C.; Lykke, K. R.; Woodward, J. T.; Cramer, C. E.

2012-01-01

372

Calibration and high fidelity measurement of a quantum photonic chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated quantum photonic circuits are becoming increasingly complex. Accurate calibration of device parameters and detailed characterization of the prepared quantum states are critically important for future progress. Here we report on an effective experimental calibration method based on Bayesian updating and Markov chain Monte Carlo integration. We use this calibration technique to characterize a two qubit chip and extract the reflectivities of its directional couplers. An average quantum state tomography fidelity of 93.79 ± 1.05% against the four Bell states is achieved. Furthermore, comparing the measured density matrices against a model using the non-ideal device parameters derived from the calibration we achieve an average fidelity of 97.57 ± 0.96%. This pinpoints non-ideality of chip parameters as a major factor in the decrease of Bell state fidelity. We also perform quantum state tomography for Bell states while continuously varying photon distinguishability and find excellent agreement with theory.

Li, H. W.; Wabnig, J.; Bitauld, D.; Shadbolt, P.; Politi, A.; Laing, A.; O'Brien, J. L.; Niskanen, A. O.

2013-06-01

373

Germanium resistance thermometer calibration at superfluid helium temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The rapid increase in resistance of high purity semi-conducting germanium with decreasing temperature in the superfluid helium range of temperatures makes this material highly adaptable as a very sensitive thermometer. Also, a germanium thermometer exhibits a highly reproducible resistance versus temperature characteristic curve upon cycling between liquid helium temperatures and room temperature. These two factors combine to make germanium thermometers ideally suited for measuring temperatures in many cryogenic studies at superfluid helium temperatures. One disadvantage, however, is the relatively high cost of calibrated germanium thermometers. In space helium cryogenic systems, many such thermometers are often required, leading to a high cost for calibrated thermometers. The construction of a thermometer calibration cryostat and probe which will allow for calibrating six germanium thermometers at one time, thus effecting substantial savings in the purchase of thermometers is considered.

Mason, F.C.

1985-01-01

374

Calibration and correction of the device measuring magnetic gradient tensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, four three-axis magnetometers (TAMs) are used to measure magnetic gradient tensor. But the measurement precision of magnetic gradient tensor is tightly connected with the imperfect performance of sensors such as non-orthogonality, different scale factors and biases among sensitive axes, misalignment between different TAMs. It is necessary to calibrate and correct the measurement device to obtain precise magnetic gradient tensor. A mathematical model for calibration of the device measuring magnetic gradient tensor is established, and the calibration algorithm and its steps based on functional link artificial neural network (FLANN) and least-squares method (LSM) are proposed. The numerical simulations prove the effectiveness and good convergence of calibration algorithm, which can improve remarkably the measurement precision of magnetic gradient tensor.

Huang, Yu; Wu, Li-hua

375

Dark Energy Science Constraints on Calibration: Design of the SNAP Calibration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SNAP's primary science goal is investigating dark energy properties, and thereby distinguishing amongst the families of theoretical models. This places requirements on the precision of the determination of dark energy equation of state parameters (w(z) =w0 + wa(1+ z), where w = -?/p (density/pressure) ), corresponding to uncertainties on w0 to 0.05 and wa to 0.3 or better. In this paper we concentrate on the calibration constraints set by the need to obtain multicolor light curves and peak magnitudes of SNe Ia at redshifts between z=0.3 and z=1.7. The key factor in using the SNe Ia magnitude-redshift relation for determining cosmological parameters is the B-band peak magnitude. Thus, to standardize SNe Ia brightnesses, we take the ratios of the observed rest frame B-band magnitudes m(z) to that of a SNe Ia at z=0, e.g. B-J = -2.5 log fB/fJ. Therefore the calibration requirement is on the need for accurate and precise colors and hence on accurate knowledge of the slope of spectral energy distribution of calibrating sources -corresponding to an uncertainty of 1% per filter, and 2% in color. The problem we must solve is how to precisely and accurately measure colors of faint objects in the visible and in the near-infrared, and maintain the reliability or scale of the calibration during the lifetime of the mission. Some of the challenges we need to overcome are the large (ten or more) magnitude difference between current, faint spectrophotometric standards (V 13 mag) and the science targets with magnitudes as faint as 27 mag, the difference is SEDs between stars and supernovae, and the calibration of a half-billion silicon and MgCdTe pixels. This paper briefy describes the calibration methodology needed to ensure that the desired calibration requirements can be met and the calibration scale maintained throughout the SNAP mission.

Deustua, Susana E.; Allam, S.; Bohlin, R.; Kent, S.; Lampton, M. L.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S. L.; Richmond, M.; Smith, J. A.; Tucker, D.; Woodgate, B.; Smadja, G.; SNAP Collaboration

2006-12-01

376

FLUX CALIBRATIONS FROM NEARBY ECLIPSING BINARIES AND SINGLE STARS  

SciTech Connect

Eclipsing binaries (EBs) measure distance without need or use for nearby similar objects, with many applications over recent decades. EBs are now considered the most reliable and accurate distance indicators for the very important lower rungs in the cosmic distance ladder, within the Local Group of Galaxies. Among several EB distance algorithms, direct comparison of observed and theoretical fluxes is particularly straightforward, although it requires absolute flux calibrations for which only a modest number of publications exist. Here, we measure UBV RI and uvby flux calibrations and calibration ratios from astronomical objects in ways not previously tried, specifically for EBs, single stars within 80 pc, and the Sun. All of the single stars are below about 6500 K temperature. Interstellar extinction is avoided by a restriction to nearby targets. Some photometric band calibrations in the literature are accurate enough for very good EB distance determinations if star temperatures are accurately known, especially considering that estimated distance has only a square-root dependence on calibration constant, but accurate band-to-band calibration ratios are keys to the combined temperature-distance problem. Band-independent canceling factors (star radii and distances) allow calibration ratio measurement with enhanced accuracy, compared to individual band calibrations. A physical EB model with embedded stellar atmosphere emission optimally matches theory to observations for the binaries. Single star candidates are identified as reliably single if their radial velocity variations are below 100 m s{sup -1}. For the most part, we find good agreement with some of the previous calibrations and the ratios are improved.

Wilson, R. E. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Van Hamme, W. [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Terrell, Dirk, E-mail: vanhamme@fiu.ed, E-mail: terrell@boulder.swri.ed [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

2010-11-10

377

Calibration of proportional counters in microdosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Many microdosimetric spectra for low LET as well as high LET radiations are measured using commercially available (similar to EG and G) Rossi proportional counters. This paper discusses the corrections to be applied to data when calibration of the counter is made using one type of radiation, and then the counter is used in a different radiation field. The principal correction factor is due to differences in W-value of the radiation used for calibration and the radiation for which microdosimetric measurements are made. Both propane and methane base tissue-equivalent (TE) gases are used in these counters. When calibrating the detectors, it is important to use the correct stopping power value for that gas. Deviations in y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ are calculated for /sup 60/Co using different extrapolation procedures from 0.15 keV/..mu..m to zero event size. These deviations can be as large as 30%. Advantages of reporting microdosimetric parameters such as y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ above a certain minimum cut-off are discussed.

Varma, M.N.

1982-01-01

378

Proposal of in situ density calibration for Thomson scattering measurement by microwave reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

A density calibration using microwave reflectometry for a Thomson scattering measurement is proposed. The calibration can be performed in parallel with a plasma experiment. A compact and simple FM-type reflectometer is preferable due to the small space around the Thomson scattering device. A Bayesian estimation method is also proposed for the derivation of the calibration factor. The Bayesian method requires fewer data from the reflectometer than an average method for an accurate density calibration factor, which is confirmed by a Monte Carlo simulation.

Minami, Takashi; Funaba, Hisamichi; Narihara, Kazumichi; Yamada, Ichihiro; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Kohmoto, Toshikazu [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2008-10-15

379

Equipment calibration and maintenance procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a list of equipment calibration and maintenance procedures established for equipment at the Pinellas Plant, dated July 8, 1993. It contains a list of the procedures followed by the procedures themselves.

1993-01-01

380

Semiautomated Calibration: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A semiautomatic system for use in calibrating digital voltmeters, fixed resistors, and potentiometers is described. Its development from its beginnings in 1970 to the present is traced and some of the problems encountered with ground loops and resistance ...

J. C. Cunningham

1979-01-01

381

Infrasound Sensor Calibration and Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project supports the capability to perform accurate infrasound sensor calibrations using a piston source and large volume chamber whose output has been independently determined and for which the error budget has been accurately assessed. Since the mi...

R. W. Whitaker

2012-01-01

382

Reduced Reference Video Calibration Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes four Reduced Reference (RR) video calibration algorithms of low computational complexity. RR methods are useful for performing end-to-end in-service video quality measurements since these methods utilize a low bandwidth network conne...

M. H. Pinson S. Wolf

2006-01-01

383

Reduced Reference Video Calibration Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes four Reduced Reference (RR) video calibration algorithms of low computational complexity. RR methods are useful for performing end-to-end in-service video quality measurements since these methods utilize a low bandwidth network conne...

M. H. Pinson S. Wolf

2005-01-01

384

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore the relationship between area and multiplication. First, users are asked to input all factor pairs of a given number. Then, selecting each of those factor pairs, the user draws the respective rectangular array by clicking and dragging across a grid. Options include the use of the commutative property (e.g., user must enter both 2x4 and 4x2 for factors of 8 and represent them with different arrays), entering a number of the user's own choice, and an optional scoring feature allowing the user to keep track of the number correct.

2004-01-01

385

PALSAR Radiometric and Geometric Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results obtained from geometric and radiometric calibrations of the Phased-Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite, which has been in space for three years. All of the imaging modes of the PALSAR, i.e., single, dual, and full polarimetric strip modes and scanning synthetic aperture radar (SCANSAR), were calibrated and validated using

Masanobu Shimada; Osamu Isoguchi; Takeo Tadono; Kazuo Isono

2009-01-01

386

Calibrating two scientific echo sounders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Simrad EK500 has been the state-of-the-art scientific echo sounder for surveying marine fish stocks; the EK60 is its successor. Both echo sounders have been calibrated with the same 38-kHz, 12-deg-beamwidth, split-beam transducer by the standard-target method at the acoustic calibration facility on Iselin Dock at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The principal measurements were on-axis target strengths and the

J. Michael Jech; Dezhang Chu; Kenneth G. Foote; Terence R. Hammar

2003-01-01

387

Absolute Radiometric Calibration Of EUNIS, And Calibration Updates For Hinode/EIS And SOHO/CDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrograph sounding rocket payload was flown in 2006 (EUNIS-06) and 2007 (EUNIS-07), each time carrying two independent imaging spectrographs covering wave bands of 300-370 Angstrom in first order and 170-205 Angstrom in second order. For each flight, the absolute radiometric response of the EUNIS long-wavelength (LW) channel was directly measured in the same facility used for pre-flight calibrations of SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS. The wavelength range of the EUNIS LW channel overlaps that of CDS/NIS-1, and so can provide a direct calibration update for it. The EUNIS-06 observation shows that the efficiency of CDS/NIS-1 has decreased by a factor about 1.7 compared to that of the previously implemented calibration. Here we present an update to the absolute calibration for Hinode/EIS derived with a technique that combines a direct comparison of line intensities observed in cospatial EUNIS-07 and EIS spectra, along with density- and temperature-insensitive line intensity ratios.

Wang, Tongjiang; Thomas, R. J.; Brosius, J. W.; Young, P. R.; Rabin, D. M.; Davila, J. M.

2010-05-01

388

Blackbody comparator for thermocouple calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIKES is developing a measurement set-up for calibrating thermocouples in the temperature range 960 °C - 1500 °C. The calibration method is based on direct comparison of thermocouples and radiation thermometers. We have designed a graphite blackbody comparator cell, which is operated in a horizontal single-zone tube furnace. The cell includes two blackbody cavities for radiation temperature measurements. The cavities have openings on opposite sides of the cell, allowing simultaneous measurement with two radiation thermometers. The design of the comparator allows three thermocouples to be calibrated simultaneously. The thermocouples to be calibrated are inserted in thermometer wells around one of the measurement cavities. We characterize the blackbody comparator in terms of repeatability, temperature distribution and emissivity. Finally, we validate the uncertainty analysis by comparing calibration results obtained for type B and S thermocouples to the calibration results reported by Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP), and MIKES. The agreement in the temperature range 1000 °C - 1500 °C is within 0.90 °C, the average deviation being 0.17 °C.

Ojanen, M.; Hahtela, O. M.; Heinonen, M.

2013-09-01

389

Six-position calibration for the fiber optic gyro based on a double calculating program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noncomplete compensated calibration errors of a fiber optic gyro (FOG) can remain in the navigation stage, leading to decreased navigation accuracy. A new approach is presented to calibrate the FOG drift and scale factor error based on a double calculating program. Using an analysis of the relationship between the FOG error and misalignment, a FOG calibration error model is derived, and a three-step six-position calibration path is analyzed. In this method, the FOG drift and scale factor error are calculated from two groups of attitude information, which are resolved, respectively, from calculating programs A and B in the navigation computer. The input signal of these two calculating programs is measured from one FOG. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by simulation and turntable experiments. The results show that this method can further compensate the residual calibration errors with misalignments, thereby improving the FOG calibration accuracy.

Wang, Qiuying; Qi, Zhao; Sun, Feng

2013-04-01

390

Calibration of polarimetric SAR and sensitivity to calibration error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (POLSAR) provides additional information about the scatterers and clutter in a scene over that of single-band SAR. A fully polarimetric sensor contains four imaging channels that, when properly calibrated, can indicate the type of scatterers present. For example, it is possible to discriminate between trihedral-, dihehdral-, and dipole-like scatterers. The orientation of the scatterers can also be extracted. Based upon this additional information, hypotheses can be generated about the objects in the scene that are richer than those generated from single-band data. Combinations of transmission and reception with antennae that ideally represent orthogonal, balanced polarimetric states generate the four channels of the POLSAR system. In practice, the antenna elements are not perfect; crosstalk and imbalances exist between them, so that calibration is necessary. This paper addresses the calibration of POLSAR data, and introduces some new approaches to this problem. These include a novel gradient descent algorithm for crosstalk removal and the application of a rotating dihedral to the calibration of a sensor with receiver characteristics that are transmit-state dependent. The sensitivity of the Cloude polarimetric decomposition to varying amounts of crosstalk and imbalance in an imperfectly calibrated data set is also discussed.

Smith, Warren E.; Filiberti, Daniel P.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Currie, Anthony

2001-08-01

391

Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next.

Sadler, G.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01

392

Comparing two new camera calibration methods with traditional pinhole calibrations.  

PubMed

Two novel camera calibration methods are compared with traditional pinhole calibration: one new method uses an analytic geometrical version of Snell's law (denoted as the Snell model); the other uses 6x6 matrix-based paraxial ray-tracing (referred to as the paraxial model). Pinhole model uses a perspective projection approximation to give a single lumped result for the multiple optical elements in a camera system. It is mathematically simple, but suffers from accuracy limitations since it does not consider the lens system. The Snell model is mathematically the most complex but potentially has the highest levels of accuracy for the widest range of conditions. The paraxial model has the merit of offering analytical equations for calibration. PMID:19532540

Lin, Psang D; Sung, Chi K

2007-03-19

393

Laws prohibiting over-the-counter syringe sales to injection drug users: relations to population density, HIV prevalence, and HIV incidence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess relations of laws prohibiting over-the-counter syringe sales (anti-OTC laws) to population prevalence of injection drug users and HIV prevalence or incidence among 96 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used. RESULTS: Metropolitan areas with anti-OTC laws had a higher mean HIV prevalence (13.8% vs 6.7%) than other metropolitan areas (pseudo-P < .001). In 83 metropolitan areas with HIV prevalence of less than 20%, anti-OTC laws were associated with HIV incidence rates of 1% or greater (pseudo-P < .001). Population proportions of injection drug users did not vary by presence of anti-OTC laws. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-OTC laws are not associated with lower population proportions of injection drug users. Laws restricting syringe access are associated with HIV transmission and should be repealed.

Friedman, S R; Perlis, T; Des Jarlais, D C

2001-01-01

394

Fisheye lens calibration using virtual grid.  

PubMed

We present herein a technique to calibrate fisheye lenses using cross diffractive optical elements. The setup generated a robust and accurate virtual calibration grid, and the calibration was performed by rotating the camera around two axes. We propose a comparison of three fisheye mathematical models and an evaluation of the number of images in the calibration process. The comparison of our experimental data according to the 3D calibration object results showed that our technique is efficient and reliable. PMID:23669664

Arfaoui, Aymen; Thibault, Simon

2013-04-20

395

Hand-held syringe as a portable plastic pump for on-chip continuous-flow PCR: miniaturization of sample injection device.  

PubMed

On-chip continuous-flow polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) generally require peripheral apparatus such as a pump for injecting a sample liquid into the fluidic channel. This makes the overall instrumentation bulky, limiting integration. In this study, we propose a new scheme for injecting a sample employing a hand-held syringe as a portable plastic pump, and apply it to an on-chip continuous-flow PCR. In the proposed injection scheme, sample actuation was realized inside a highly gas-permeable and blunt-ended fluidic conduit connected to a hand-held plastic syringe filled with compressed air. In this system, the degree of air diffusion via the walls of the gas-permeable conduit becomes greater in the anterior (closer to the outlet) end of the sample plug than the posterior (closer to the inlet) end, because a relatively larger quantity of air is retained inside the syringe at the posterior end of the sample plug. This creates a pressure gradient at the inlet and outlet of the fluidic conduit and propels the sample forward toward the outlet. Preliminary experiments were performed for the quantitative analyses and evaluation of the proposed sample injection scheme using gas-permeable silicone tubes. As practical applications, a 230 bp gene fragment from a plasmid vector and the first 282 bp of the interferon-beta (IFN-?) promoter from a human genomic DNA were successfully amplified on a microdevice coupled with a hand-held syringe as a portable sample actuation device, greatly enhancing device portability for on-site analyses. PMID:22186958

Wu, Wenming; Trinh, Kieu The Loan; Lee, Nae Yoon

2011-12-21

396

The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Receptive Syringe Sharing Among Young Female Injection Drug Users: An Analysis of Mediation Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to explore the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and receptive syringe sharing (RSS)\\u000a among young female injection drug users (IDUs) and to examine mediating variables. Cross-sectional behavioral assessments\\u000a were completed by 797 female IDUs in five U.S. cities who reported having at least one main sexual partner in the past three\\u000a months. Linear regression was used

Karla D. Wagner; Sharon M. Hudson; Mary H. Latka; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Hanne Thiede; Mary Ellen Mackesy-Amiti; Richard S. Garfein

2009-01-01

397

Determination of ammonium in aqueous samples using new headspace dynamic in-syringe liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivitazation coupled with liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

A new simultaneous derivatization and extraction method for the preconcentration of ammonia using new one-step headspace dynamic in-syringe liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization was developed for the trace determination of ammonium in aqueous samples by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD). The acceptor phase (as derivatization reagent) containing o-phthaldehyde and sodium sulfite was held within a syringe barrel and immersed in the headspace of sample container. The gaseous ammonia from the alkalized aqueous sample formed a stable isoindole derivative with the acceptor phase inside the syringe barrel through the reciprocated movements of plunger. After derivatization-cum-extraction, the acceptor phase was directly injected into LC-FLD for analysis. Parameters affecting the ammonia evolution and the extraction/derivatization efficiency such as sample matrix, pH, temperature, sampling time, and the composition of derivatization reagent, reaction temperature, and frequency of reciprocated plunger, were studied thoroughly. Results indicated that the maximum extraction efficiency was obtained by using 100?L derivatization reagent in a 1-mL gastight syringe under 8 reciprocated movements of plunger per min to extract ammonia evolved from a 20mL alkalized aqueous solution at 70°C (preheated 4min) with 380rpm stirring for 8min. The detection was linear in the concentration range of 0.625-10?M with the correlation coefficient of 0.9967 and detection limit of 0.33?M (5.6ng mL(-1)) based on SN(-1)=3. The method was applied successfully to determine ammonium in real water samples without any prior cleanup of the samples, and has been proved to be a simple, sensitive, efficient and cost-effective procedure for trace ammonium determination in aqueous samples. PMID:23140954

Muniraj, Sarangapani; Yan, Cheing-Tong; Shih, Hou-Kung; Ponnusamy, Vinoth Kumar; Jen, Jen-Fon

2012-10-10

398

Determination of organophosphorous pesticides in water using in-syringe ultrasound-assisted emulsification and gas chromatography with electron-capture detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-syringe ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) was developed for the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from water samples. The OPPs subsequently analyzed gas chromatography (GC) using a microelectron capture detector (?ECD). Ultrasound radiation was applied to accelerate the emulsification of ?L-level low-density organic solvent in aqueous solutions to enhance the microextraction efficiency of OPPs in the sample preparation for GC-?ECD.

Yi-Song Su; Jen-Fon Jen

2010-01-01

399

The provision of non-needle\\/syringe drug injecting paraphernalia in the primary prevention of HCV among IDU: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sharing drug injecting paraphernalia other than needles and syringes (N\\/S) has been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among injecting drug users (IDU). We aimed to determine whether the provision of sterile non-N\\/S injecting paraphernalia reduces injecting risk behaviours or HCV transmission among IDU. METHODS: A systematic search of seven databases and the grey literature for

Michelle Gillies; Norah Palmateer; Sharon Hutchinson; Syed Ahmed; Avril Taylor; David Goldberg

2010-01-01

400

The calibration methods for Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous, over two-decade data record from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is ideal for climate research which requires timely and accurate information of important atmospheric components such as gases, aerosols, and clouds. Except for parameters derived from MFRSR measurement ratios, which are not impacted by calibration error, most applications require accurate calibration factor(s), angular correction, and spectral response function(s) from calibration. Although a laboratory lamp (or reference) calibration can provide all the information needed to convert the instrument readings to actual radiation, in situ calibration methods are implemented routinely (daily) to fill the gaps between lamp calibrations. In this paper, the basic structure and the data collection and pretreatment of the MFRSR are described. The laboratory lamp calibration and its limitations are summarized. The cloud screening algorithms for MFRSR data are presented. The in situ calibration methods, the standard Langley method and its variants, the ratio-Langley method, the general method, Alexandrov's comprehensive method, and Chen's multi-channel method, are outlined. The reason that all these methods do not fit for all situations is that they assume some properties, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), total optical depth (TOD), precipitable water vapor (PWV), effective size of aerosol particles, or angstrom coefficient, are invariant over time. These properties are not universal and some of them rarely happen. In practice, daily calibration factors derived from these methods should be smoothed to restrain error.

Chen, Maosi; Davis, John; Tang, Hongzhao; Ownby, Carolyn; Gao, Wei

2013-04-01

401

The Hailpad: Materials, Data Reduction and Calibration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on work carried out in the National Hail Research Experiment (NHRE) on hailpad materials, on procedures for reducing hailpad data, and on hailpad calibration. A recommendation is made for a pad constructed of 2.5 cm thick type-SI Styrofoam (manufactured by Dow Chemical USA) and sprayed with a 25-50 m coating of white latex paint for protection from the deteriorating effects of sun-light. Calibration of the hailpad provides a relation between the minor axis of a dent in the pad and the dimensions of the stone producing the dent. It is recommended that measurements of the minor axis be categorized in size intervals no wider than 4 mm.The NHRE laboratory technique for calibrating hailpads involves simulating a hailstone impact by dropping a steel sphere onto a pad from a height such that the impact kinetic energy achieved by the sphere equals that of a hailstone of equal diameter falling onto the pad in an environment with known horizontal wind. The pad is tilted to preserve the stone impact angle found in nature. A second-degree polynomial in sphere diameter D satisfactorily describes the calibration relation between D and the dent minor axis. Application of the calibration relation developed for the particular case of no wind to hailpads which have been hit by hail falling in a wind leads to an overestimate of hailstone diameter of approximately 0.5-1% per meter per second of wind speed. This effect of the wind is about twice as large as that found by others.A theoretical expression is developed that explicitly relates the minor axis of a dent produced by a sphere to the diameter of the sphere. Two controlling parameters in this expression are the impact kinetic energy of the sphere and a factor p, with dimensions of pressure, which quantitatively embodies the response of a pad to a sphere impact. The effect of variations in p on the sphere diameter derived from dent minor axis and information supplied by Dow Chemical USA on possible variability in the compressive modulus of Styrofoam between manufacturing batches together suggest that the user of hailpads obtains a one time all the foam he may need for his work.

Long, Alexis B.; Matson, Richard J.; Crow, Edwin L.

1980-11-01

402

Water-compatible poly (hydroxyethyl methacrylate) polymer sorbent for miniaturized syringe assisted extraction of sulfonamides in milk.  

PubMed

A simple, convenient, and economic self-assembly miniaturized syringe assisted extraction (mini-SAE) using poly (hydroxyethyl methacrylate) polymer (PHEMA) as sorbent coupled with liquid chromatography was proposed for rapid screening of sulfadiazine (SD) and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) in milk. The water-compatible PHEMA was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer precipitation polymerization using trithiocarbonate as chain transfer agent and methanol-water system as reaction medium. The obtained PHEMA sorbent showed good affinity to sulfonamides and was successfully applied as a special sorbent for a mini-SAE device for simultaneous extraction and isolation of SD and SMM in milk samples. Under the optimum condition, good linearity was obtained in a range of 7.0-700ngg(-1) (r?0.9995) and the average recoveries of SD and SMM at three spiked levels were ranged from 85.6 to 100.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) ?6.5%. The presented PHEMA-mini-SAE protocol could be potentially applied as an alternative tool for analyzing the residues of SAs in complicated biological samples. PMID:24120166

Gao, Mengmeng; Yan, Hongyuan; Sun, Ning

2013-09-17

403

Poor uptake of community based sexually transmissible infection testing at an inner city needle and syringe program.  

PubMed

Sydney Sexual Health Centre (SSHC) and the NSW Users and AIDS Association (NUAA), the NSW peer-based drug user organisation, pilot tested an outreach sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing station using self-collected urine and swabs in NUAA's needle and syringe program (NSP) space. The model was based on SSHC's established Xpress clinic. A needs assessment among NUAA clients was undertaken prior to commencement in order to ascertain potential uptake. A computer-assisted self interview was developed with data securely transferred to SSHC daily. During the 6 months from January to July 2011, almost 3000 occasions of service were recorded in the NSP from an estimated 375 clients. Four clients took advantage of NUAA Xpress during this time. Despite initial client interest, promotional efforts and the success of this methodology elsewhere, this outreach model did not have a successful uptake and was discontinued. This project provides value in considering the methodology and implementation of future outreach STI testing projects for people who inject drugs. PMID:23158773

Martin, Lynne; Crawford, Sione; Knight, Vickie; Bath, Nicky; McNulty, Anna

2013-04-01

404

Analytical approach to determine biogenic amines in urine using microextraction in packed syringe and liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to develop and validate an analytical method for the detection and quantification of the biogenic amines serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE), using microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) and liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) in urine. The method was validated according to internationally accepted guidelines from the Food and Drug Administration. Linearity was established between 50 and 1000 ng/mL for 5-HT and between 5 and 1000 ng/mL for DA and NE, with determination coefficients (R(2)) >0.99 for all compounds. The limits of quantification and detection were respectively 50 and 20 ng/mL for 5-HT, and 5 and 2 ng/mL for DA and NE. Within- and between-run precision ranged from 0.84 to 9.41%, while accuracy ranged from 0.79 to 12.76% for all compounds. The intermediate precision and accuracy were 1.50-8.36 and 0.54-13.51%, respectively. The method was found suitable for clinical routine analysis of the studied compounds, using a sample volume of 0.5 mL. This is the first study employing a commercially available MEPS column for the simultaneous detection and quantification of 5-HT, DA and NE in urine by coulometric detection. PMID:23124688

Oppolzer, David; Moreno, Ivo; da Fonseca, Beatriz; Passarinha, Luís; Barroso, Mário; Costa, Suzel; Queiroz, João António; Gallardo, Eugenia

2012-11-05

405

Self-calibrating multiplexer circuit  

DOEpatents

A time domain multiplexer system with automatic determination of acceptable multiplexer output limits, error determination, or correction is comprised of a time domain multiplexer, a computer, a constant current source capable of at least three distinct current levels, and two series resistances employed for calibration and testing. A two point linear calibration curve defining acceptable multiplexer voltage limits may be defined by the computer by determining the voltage output of the multiplexer to very accurately known input signals developed from predetermined current levels across the series resistances. Drift in the multiplexer may be detected by the computer when the output voltage limits, expected during normal operation, are exceeded, or the relationship defined by the calibration curve is invalidated.

Wahl, Chris P. (North Huntingdon, PA)

1997-01-01

406

Self-calibrating multiplexer circuit  

SciTech Connect

A time domain multiplexer system with automatic determination of acceptable multiplexer output limits, error determination, or correction is comprised of a time domain multiplexer, a computer, a constant current source capable of at least three distinct current levels, and two series resistances employed for calibration and testing. A two point linear calibration curve defining acceptable multiplexer voltage limits may be defined by the computer by determining the voltage output of the multiplexer to very accurately known input signals developed from predetermined current levels across the series resistances. Drift in the multiplexer may be detected by the computer when the output voltage limits, expected during normal operation, are exceeded, or the relationship defined by the calibration curve is invalidated. 3 figs.

Wahl, C.P.

1997-04-29

407

GREAT/SOFIA atmospheric calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GREAT observations need frequency-selective calibration across the passband for the residual atmospheric opacity at flight altitude. At these altitudes the atmospheric opacity has both narrow and broad spectral features. To determine the atmospheric transmission at high spectral resolution, GREAT compares the observed atmospheric emission with atmospheric model predictions, and therefore depends on the validity of the atmospheric models. We discuss the problems identified in this comparison with respect to the observed data and the models, and describe the strategy used to calibrate the science data from GREAT/SOFIA during the first observing periods. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Guan, X.; Stutzki, J.; Graf, U. U.; Güsten, R.; Okada, Y.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Simon, R.; Wiesemeyer, H.

2012-06-01

408

XMM-Newton Multiwavelength Calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we identify candidates for suitable X-ray calibration targets that can be used to help calibrate the X-ray instruments. For a given object, assuming the same mechanism is operating over the optical/UV and X-ray energy bands, we can use optical/UV data to fix the parameters of Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), and then use the known SED to compare with the measured X-ray fluxes. We illustrate this with the hot white dwarf G191-B2B and the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304.

Chen, B.; Schartel, N.; Kirsch, M. G. F.; Smith, M. J. S.; Altieri, B.; Pollock, A. M. T.

409

Image based autodocking without calibration  

SciTech Connect

The calibration requirements for visual servoing can make it difficult to apply in many real-world situations. One approach to image-based visual servoing without calibration is to dynamically estimate the image Jacobian and use it as the basis for control. However, with the normal motion of a robot toward the goal, the estimation of the image Jacobian deteriorates over time. The authors propose the use of additional exploratory motion to considerably improve the estimation of the image Jacobian. They study the role of such exploratory motion in a visual servoing task. Simulations and experiments with a 6-DOF robot are used to verify the practical feasibility of the approach.

Sutanto, H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Sharma, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Varma, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-03-01

410

Calibration of current measurement transducers in oversized calibration fixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple one-dimensional (1D) transmission line model has previously been used to derive improved estimates for the transfer impedance of current transducers at high frequencies by taking account of the finite reflections that occur at the ports of the calibration fixture. This approach is further extended to take account of the additional reflections that occur in the system when an

Alastair R. Ruddle

2005-01-01

411

Iterative calibration method for inertial and magnetic sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of three-axis sensor cali- bration. Our focus is on magnetometers. Usual errors (misalign- ment, non-orthogonality, scale factors, biases) are accounted for. We consider a method where no specific calibration hardware is required. We solely use the fact that the norm of the sensed field must remain constant irrespective of the sensors orientation. The proposed algorithm is

Eric Dorveaux; David Vissière; Alain-Pierre Martin; Nicolas Petit

2009-01-01

412

Price Calibration of basket default swap: Evidence from Japanese market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is the price calibration of basket default swap from Japanese market data. The value of this instruments depend on the number of factors including credit rating of the obligors in the basket, recovery rates, intensity of default, basket size and the correlation of obligors in the basket. A fundamental part of the pricing framework is

Abid Fathi; Naifar Nader

2007-01-01

413

Development of Hydrocarbon Flow Calibration Facility as a National Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new primary standard for hydrocarbon flow measurements has been constructed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The facility was designed for the calibration of hydrocarbon flowmeters in the flow rate range between 3 and 300 m3\\/h. The expanded uncertainty is estimated to be 0.03 % for volumetric flow rate and 0.02 % for mass flow rate (coverage factor:

Takashi Shimada; Ryouji Doihara; Yoshiya Terao; Masaki Takamoto

2007-01-01

414

Pre-launch calibration of channels 1 and 2 of the advanced very high resolution radiometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic physical principles underlying the prelaunch calibration of Channels 1 and 2 of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) are presented and discussed. The laboratory procedures for the calibration of the NASA 30-inch integrating sphere source and for the establishment of a simple linear regression relationship between the reflectance factor of the integrating sphere source and the AVHRR

C. R. N. Rao

1987-01-01

415

Thickness calibration of carbon foils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmittance of normally incident, monochromatic light for self-supporting carbon foils is a well-known nondestructive procedure to determine their thickness. The relationship of transmittance and foil thickness can be described using the exact analytical equation for a single unsupported layer, where the only free parameter is the complex refractive index. Using this formula, calibration curves for various data from the

P. Maier-Komor; G. Dollinger; E. Hammann

1991-01-01

416

Assessing LNG tank volume calibrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) is cooperating with others to develop measuring techniques and establish calibration standards for liquefied natural gas (LNG) tankers. A photogrammetric survey technique is now used to determine the volume of each tank, but there are errors inherent in the method that could be very costly. NBS checks of the photographic method are described and

K. Higgins; M. Baum

1979-01-01

417

Relative Calibration of Inertial Seismometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abst rac t - This paper discusses technical problems of performing an acc urate electrical sine-wave calibration of seismograph systems. This topic is we ll known in the seismic scientific community, however it has been presented to a lesser extent to en gineering research and industrial circles. The purpose of the paper is to identify the unsolved technical questions related

Emil Farkas; Iuliu Szekely

418

Camera Calibration Using Line Correspondences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method of determining the essential matrix for uncalibrated cameras is given, based on line matches in three images. The three cameras may have different unknown calibrations, and the essential matrices corresponding to each of the three pairs of cameras may be determined. Determination of the essential matrix for uncalibrated cameras is important, forming the basis for

Richard I. Hartley

1993-01-01

419

Calibration of Radiances from Space.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors compare the performance of broadband radiometers with spectrally dispersed measurements. Spectrally dispersed radiometers may be more accurately calibrated than is possible with broadband filter instruments. They also have a larger information content than have filter measurements. Accuracy and information content are two important requirements for climate observations.

Goody, Richard; Haskins, Robert

1998-04-01

420

EVALUATION OF OZONE CALIBRATION PROCEDURES  

EPA Science Inventory

In October of 1976, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that the calibration procedure then currently in use for reference methods for the measurement of ozone in the atmosphere -- the neutral buffered potassium iodide procedure -- had been found variable and in so...

421

Calibration of a Spectroscopic System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process for absolute calibration of a light detection system is outlined. The photon flux from a tungsten ribbon standard lamp may be calculated from a knowledge of the lamp current (which yields its temperature), the emissivity of the tungsten, and t...

R. M. St. John

1969-01-01

422

Basic considerations for robot calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of kinematic model choice on robot calibration is examined. The literature on the subject is reviewed, and the various possible choices for kinematic modeling are examined. Problems of uniqueness and proportionality are discussed, and a closed-form method for extracting the parameters of a six-parameter model is shown

J. Ziegert; P. Datseris

1988-01-01

423

Calibration of Computer Forensic Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Many,tools are used,in the course,of investigations that later require testimony,in court. Tools such,as radar,guns,and,breathalyzers,must,be calibrated,prior to use for the result to be valid in court. The tools used,in

Dennis M. Dow

424

Blind calibration of sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of blindly calibrating sen- sor response using routine sensor network measurements. We show that as long as the sensors slightly oversample the signals of interest, then unknown sensor gains can be perfectly recovered. Remarkably, neither a controlled stim- ulus nor a dense deployment is required. We also character- ize necessary and sufficient conditions for the

Laura Balzano; Robert Nowak

2007-01-01

425

Calibrating Two Scientific Echo Sounders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Simrad EK500 has been the state-of-the-art scientific echo sounder for surveying marine fish stocks; the EK60 is its successor. Both echo sounders have been calibrated with the same 38-kHz, 12-deg-beamwidth, split- beam transducer by the standard-targ...

D. Chu J. L. Hufnagle J. M. Jech K. G. Foote T. R. Hammar

2003-01-01