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1

Design considerations and initial validation of a liquid microflow calibration setup using parallel operated syringe pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Danish Technological Institute (DTI) currently offers traceable calibration of liquid flow rates down to 5 L h-1. However, the industry also requests traceable calibration below this point for flowmeters and pumps. Therefore, DTI is in the process of establishing a traceable calibration setup for such microfluidic devices. This paper addresses the design and uncertainty considerations for a setup based on gravimetric and volume traceability. The flow generation in the setup utilizes two parallel operated syringe pumps with different syringe volumes. The two syringes are programmed so one syringe can replace the pumping action of the second syringe without influencing the resulting flow. In that way it is possible to generate flow rates for calibration in the range from 6 L h-1 to 20 µL h-1. Traceability is currently achieved gravimetrically using special-purpose toploader balances. The resulting expanded uncertainty is expected to be below 0.1% between 6 L h-1 and 100 mL h-1, gradually increasing towards 2% between 100 mL h-1 and 1.2 mL h-1. Furthermore, a concept is proposed to achieve traceability in the full flow range from 6 L h-1 to 20 µL h-1 based on delivered volume divided by time with glass syringes as reference and an expanded uncertainty expected to be below 2%.

Melvad, Claus; Krühne, Ulrich; Frederiksen, John

2010-07-01

2

Demographic, Risk, and Spatial Factors Associated With Over-the-Counter Syringe Purchase Among Injection Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Since 2005, California law allowed over-the-counter (OTC) syringe sales pending local authorization. Although pharmacy sales of OTC syringes are associated with reduced injection-mediated risks and decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates, little is known about the factors associated with syringe purchase among injection drug users (IDUs). Using a cross-sectional design, the authors applied targeted sampling to collect quantitative survey data from IDUs (n = 563) recruited in San Francisco, California, during 2008. They also compiled a comprehensive list of retail pharmacies, their location, and whether they sell OTC syringes. They used a novel combination of geographic information system and statistical analyses to determine the demographic, behavioral, and spatial factors associated with OTC syringe purchase by IDUs. In multivariate analyses, age, race, injection frequency, the type of drug injected, and the source of syringe supply were independently associated with OTC syringe purchases. Notably, the prevalence of OTC syringe purchase was 53% lower among African-American IDUs (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.67) and higher among injectors of methamphetamine (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.70). Two neighborhoods with high densities of IDUs had limited access to OTC syringes. Increased access to OTC syringes would potentially prevent blood-borne infectious diseases among IDUs.

Stopka, Thomas J.; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wenger, Lynn D.; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Geraghty, Estella M.; Kral, Alex H.

2012-01-01

3

Neighborhood History as a Factor Shaping Syringe Distribution Networks Among Drug Users at a U.S. Syringe Exchange1  

PubMed Central

Throughout the US, high-visibility drug markets are concentrated in neighborhoods with few economic opportunities, while drug buyers/users are widely dispersed. A study of Pittsburgh Syringe Exchange participants provides data on travel between and network linkages across neighborhoods with different levels of drug activity. There are distinct racial patterns to syringe distribution activity within networks and across neighborhoods. Pittsburgh’s history suggests these patterns emerge from historical patterns of social and economic development. Study data demonstrate the ability of IDUs to form long term social ties across racial and geographic boundaries and use them to reduce the risk of HIV transmission.

Braine, Naomi; Acker, Caroline; Goldblatt, Cullen; Yi, Huso; Friedman, Samuel; DesJarlais, Don C.

2008-01-01

4

Adsorption of 99mTc-Sestamibi onto Plastic Syringes: Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Degree of Adsorption and Their Impact on Clinical Studies*  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to document the extent of adhesion of 99mTc-sestamibi to syringes in patient procedures, determine factors that influence the degree of adhesion, and evaluate alternatives to our current practice that would either result in a more reproducible degree of adhesion or, ideally, eliminate adhesion. Methods The extent of adhesion was documented in 216 patient procedures and evaluated in detail in an additional 73 patient procedures. We evaluated the nature of the adhesion and its possible causes, including the location of adhesion in injection sets, the effect of syringe type, and the effect of prerinsing of syringes with various solutions of nonradiolabeled sestamibi and 99mTc-sestamibi. The extent of adhesion was reevaluated in 50 procedures performed using the syringe type that demonstrated the lowest adhesion rate. Results The degree of adhesion of 99mTc-sestamibi to the injection set was found to be 20.1% ± 8.0%, with a range (10th–90th percentiles) of 9%–31%. The primary cause of adhesion appeared to be the lubricant used inside the syringe barrel. Evaluation of 6 different syringe types identified a brand with a lower adhesion rate. Reevaluation in patient procedures using this brand showed a 5.2% ± 2.5% degree of adhesion, with a range (10th–90th percentiles) of 2.5%–7.7%. Conclusion Selection of the appropriate type of syringe can significantly reduce the magnitude and variability of residual 99mTc-sestamibi activity. With more reproducible residual activities, we have been able to achieve an approximately 20% reduction in the dispensed dose of 99mTc-sestamibi used in clinical procedures and a more consistent injected dose with less interpatient variation. The frequent changes in syringe design by manufacturers require that a quality control program for monitoring of residual activity be incorporated into clinical practice. This program has allowed us to maintain image quality and achieve more consistent injected patient doses in clinical procedures that use 99mTc-sestamibi.

Swanson, Tiffinee N.; Troung, Duong T.; Paulsen, Andrew; Hruska, Carrie B.; O'Connor, Michael K.

2014-01-01

5

Factors affecting pediatric isotonic fluid resuscitation efficiency: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of syringe size  

PubMed Central

Background Goal-directed therapy guidelines for pediatric septic shock resuscitation recommend fluid delivery at speeds in excess of that possible through use of regular fluid infusion pumps. In our experience, syringes are commonly used by health care providers (HCPs) to achieve rapid fluid resuscitation in a pediatric fluid resuscitation scenario. At present, it is unclear which syringe size health care providers should use when performing fluid resuscitation to achieve maximal fluid resuscitation efficiency. The objective of this study was therefore to determine if an optimal syringe size exists for conducting manual pediatric fluid resuscitation. Methods This 48-participant parallel group randomized controlled trial included 4 study arms (10, 20, 30, 60 mL syringe size groups). Eligible participants were HCPs from McMaster Children’s Hospital, Hamilton, Canada blinded to the purpose of the trial. Consenting participants were randomized using a third party technique. Following a standardization procedure, participants administered 900 mL (60 mL/kg) of isotonic saline to a simulated 15 kg child using prefilled provided syringes of the allocated size in rapid sequence. Primary outcome was total time to administer the 900 mL and this data was collected through video review by two blinded outcome assessors. Sample size was predetermined based upon a primary outcome analysis using one-way ANOVA. Results 12 participants were randomized to each group (n=48) and all completed trial protocol to analysis. Analysis was conducted according to intention to treat principles. A significant difference in fluid resuscitation time (in seconds) was found between syringe size group means: 10 mL, 563s [95% CI 521; 606]; 20 mL, 506s [95% CI 64; 548]; 30 mL, 454s [95% CI 412; 596]; 60 mL, 455s [95% CI 413; 497] (p<0.001). Conclusions The syringe size used when performing manual pediatric fluid resuscitation has a significant impact on fluid resuscitation speed, in a setting where fluid filled syringes are continuously available. Greatest efficiency was achieved with 30 or 60 mL syringes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01494116

2013-01-01

6

Syringe-Mediated Syndemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One consequence of the global HIV\\/AIDS pandemic has been the emergence of a broad awareness of the potential role of syringes\\u000a in the transmission of infectious diseases. In addition to HIV\\/AIDS, the use of unsterile syringes by multiple persons has\\u000a been linked to the spread of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Leishmaniasis, malaria and various other infections. The purpose of this

Nicola Bulled; Merrill Singer

7

Syringe-mediated syndemics.  

PubMed

One consequence of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic has been the emergence of a broad awareness of the potential role of syringes in the transmission of infectious diseases. In addition to HIV/AIDS, the use of unsterile syringes by multiple persons has been linked to the spread of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Leishmaniasis, malaria and various other infections. The purpose of this paper is to extend awareness of the grave risks of multiperson syringe use by examining the role of this behavior in the development of infectious disease syndemics. The term syndemics refers to the clustering, often due to noxious social conditions, of two or more diseases in a population resulting in adverse disease synergies that impact human life and well-being. The contemporary appearance and spread of identified syringe-mediated syndemics, and the potential for the emergence of future syringe-mediated syndemics, both of which are reviewed in this paper, underline the importance of public health measures designed to limit syringe-related disease transmission. PMID:19885727

Bulled, Nicola; Singer, Merrill

2011-10-01

8

Syringe Pumps Integration Influence to Infusion Process Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional and hardware structures of integrated syringe pumps control system (ISPCS) are presented. ISPCS efficiency evaluation in consideration of economic factors is analyzed. Necessity of such system is analyzed and motivated. Operator errors and error reduction possibilities using ISPCS are considered. Main features of integrated syringe pumps system are presented. Advantages of ISPCS integration into clinical information system (CIS) are

Vytautas Markevicius; Dangirutis Navikas

2007-01-01

9

Calibration factors for the SNOOPY NP-100 neutron dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within CANDU nuclear power facilities, only a small fraction of workers are exposed to neutron radiation. For these individuals, roughly 4.5% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. When this figure is considered across all workers receiving external exposure of any kind, only 0.25% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. At many facilities, the NP-100 neutron dosimeter, manufactured by Canberra Industries Incorporated, is employed in both direct and indirect dosimetry methods. Also known as "SNOOPY", these detectors undergo calibration, which results in a calibration factor relating the neutron count rate to the ambient dose equivalent rate, using a standard Am-Be neutron source. Using measurements presented in a technical note, readings from the dosimeter for six different neutron fields in six source-detector orientations were used, to determine a calibration factor for each of these sources. The calibration factor depends on the neutron energy spectrum and the radiation weighting factor to link neutron fluence to equivalent dose. Although the neutron energy spectra measured in the CANDU workplace are quite different than that of the Am-Be calibration source, the calibration factor remains constant - within acceptable limits - regardless of the neutron source used in the calibration; for the specified calibration orientation and current radiation weighting factors. However, changing the value of the radiation weighting factors would result in changes to the calibration factor. In the event of changes to the radiation weighting factors, it will be necessary to assess whether a change to the calibration process or resulting calibration factor is warranted.

Moscu, D. F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chase, J.

2007-10-01

10

Automated application of calibration factors on telemetered data  

SciTech Connect

A long standing problem in telemetry post processing is the application of correct calibration factors to telemetered data generated on a system which has had a history of hardware changes. These calibration problems become most exacerbated when old test data is being examined and there is uncertainty as to hardware configuration at the time of the test. In this paper a mechanism for introducing a high degree of reliability in the application of calibration factors is described in an implementation done for Brilliant Pebbles Flight Experiment Three (FE-3).

Kalibjian, J.R.; Voss, T.J.; Yio, J.J.

1993-04-26

11

Experiments with Disposable Hypodermic Syringes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists five experiments or demonstrations involving hypodermic syringes. The titles of experiments are Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Atmospheric Pressure, Expansion of Gases, and Boiling at Reduced Pressure. Provides a list of materials, the typical data, and graphs where appropriate. (YP)

Clayton, G. T.; And Others

1988-01-01

12

Calibration of Local Area Weather Radar—Identifying significant factors affecting the calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is an X-band weather radar developed to meet the needs of high resolution rainfall data for hydrological applications. The LAWR system and data processing methods are reviewed in the first part of this paper, while the second part of the paper focuses on calibration. The data processing for handling the partial beam filling issue was found to be essential to the calibration. LAWR uses a different calibration process compared to conventional weather radars, which use a power-law relationship between reflectivity and rainfall rate. Instead LAWR uses a linear relationship of reflectivity and rainfall rate as result of the log transformation carried out by the logarithmic receiver as opposed to the linear receiver of conventional weather radars. Based on rain gauge data for a five month period from a dense network of nine gauges within a 500 × 500 m area and data from a nearby LAWR, the existing calibration method was tested and two new methods were developed. The three calibration methods were verified with three external gauges placed in different locations. It can be concluded that the LAWR calibration uncertainties can be reduced by 50% in two out of three cases when the calibration is based on a factorized 3 parameter linear model instead of a single parameter linear model.

Pedersen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Niels Einar; Madsen, Henrik

2010-07-01

13

CALIBRATION OF FORCE REDUCTION FACTORS OF RC BUILDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study is undertaken to assess and calibrate the force reduction factors (R) adopted in modern seismic codes. Refined expressions are employed to calculate the R factors “supply” for 12 buildings of various characteristics represent a wide range of medium-rise RC buildings. The “supply” values are then compared with the “design” and “demand” recommended in the literature. A comprehensive

A. M. MWAFY; A. S. ELNASHAI

2002-01-01

14

Illinois PER Interactive Examples: Syringe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive homework problem for introductory physics relating to the kinetic theory of gases. It features a syringe that has just been used and now lies empty. The syringe must be heated to high temperatures to sterilize it. When the syringe is at its maximum temperature, the number of oxygen molecules is 6.5 x 1019. Using the information given in the problem, the user is asked to find the rms speed of the oxygen molecules. This problem is accompanied by a Socratic-dialog "help" sequence designed to encourage critical thinking as users do a guided conceptual analysis before attempting the mathematics. It is part of a larger collection of interactive problems developed by the Illinois Physics Education Research Group.

Gladding, Gary

2009-01-16

15

jasonSWIR Calibration of Spectralon Reflectance Factor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit radiometric calibrations. BRF measurements are required throughout the reflected-solar spectrum from the ultraviolet through the shortwave infrared. Spectralon diffusers are commonly used as a reflectance standard for bidirectional and hemispherical geometries. The Diffuser Calibration Laboratory (DCaL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is a secondary calibration facility with reflectance measurements traceable to those made by the Spectral Tri-function Automated Reference Reflectometer (STARR) facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). For more than two decades, the DCaL has provided numerous NASA projects with BRF data in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and the Near infraRed (NIR) spectral regions. Presented in this paper are measurements of BRF from 1475nm to 1625nm obtained using an indium gallium arsenide detector and a tunable coherent light source. The sample was a 2 inch diameter, 99% white Spectralon target. The BRF results are discussed and compared to empirically generated data from a model based on NIST certified values of 6deg directional/hemispherical spectral reflectance factors from 900nm to 2500nm. Employing a new NIST capability for measuring bidirectional reflectance using a cooled, extended InGaAs detector, BRF calibration measurements of the same sample were also made using NIST's STARR from 1475nm to 1625nm at an incident angle of 0deg and at viewing angles of 40deg, 45deg, and 50deg. The total combined uncertainty for BRF in this ShortWave Infrared (SWIR) range is less than 1%. This measurement capability will evolve into a BRF calibration service in SWIR region in support of NASA remote sensing missions. Keywords: BRF, BRDF, Calibration, Spectralon, Reflectance, Remote Sensing.

Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Cooksey, Cahterine; Ding, Leibo; Thome, Kurtis J.

2011-01-01

16

Calibration of Gyros with Temperature Dependent Scale Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general problem of gyro calibration can be stated as the estimation of the scale factors, misalignments, and drift-rate biases of the gyro using the on-orbit sensor measurements. These gyro parameters have been traditionally treated as temperature-independent in the operational flight dynamics ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), a scenario which has been successfully applied in the gyro calibration of a large number of missions. A significant departure from this is the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission where, due to the high thermal variations expected during the mission phase, it is necessary to model the scale factors as functions of temperature. This paper addresses the issue of gyro calibration for the MAP gyro model using a manufacturer-supplied model of the variation of scale factors with temperature. The problem is formulated as a least squares problem and solved using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in the MATLAB(R) library function NLSQ. The algorithm was tested on simulated data with Gaussian noise for the quaternions as well as the gyro rates and was found to consistently converge close to the true values. Significant improvement in accuracy was noticed due to the estimation of the temperature-dependent scale factors as against constant scale factors.

Belur, Sheela V.; Harman, Richard

2001-01-01

17

Syringe Drivers: incorrect selection of syringe type from the syringe menu may result in significant errors in drug delivery.  

PubMed

There have been many reported adverse incidents due to syringe driver use, most of which have been attributable to human error. In this paper we present a previously unreported, but potentially widespread practice which may result in significant over or under-delivery of medication. Even with the naked eye it is evident that syringes of equal volume have different dimensions and to quantify this we sectioned a range of syringes and measured the inner and outer dimensions. Extensive menus for syringe brand and volumes are available on syringe drivers, offering users greater flexibility. However, this feature also allows users to select an incorrect syringe brand with potential consequences for drug delivery. We measured outputs under all selectable permutations, to determine the degree of fluid delivery variation and discovered inaccuracies in volumes ranging from 10% under-delivery to 24% over-delivery. There is a wide variation in syringe metrics and complex syringe menus may increase errors, resulting in significant under or over-delivery of medication. Availability of more than one brand of syringe in a clinical area increases the risk of adverse drug delivery events. Systems need to be implemented to minimise the risk of adverse events. PMID:24967761

Tooke, Lj; Howell, L

2014-07-01

18

Prevalence and predictors of transitions to and away from syringe exchange use over time in 3 US cities with varied syringe dispensing policies  

PubMed Central

Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) can reduce HIV risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) but their use may depend heavily on contextual factors such as local syringe policies. The frequency and predictors of transitioning over time to and from direct, indirect, and non-use of SEPs are unknown. We sought, over one year, to: (1) quantify and characterize transition probabilities of SEP attendance typologies; (2) identify factors associated with (a) change in typology, and (b) becoming and maintaining direct SEP use; and (3) quantify and characterize transition probabilities of SEP attendance before and after changes in policy designed to increase access. Using data collected from 583 IDUs participating in a three-city cohort study of SEPs, we conducted a latent transition analysis and multinomial regressions. Three typologies were detected: Direct SEP users, Indirect SEP users and Isolated IDUs. Transitions to direct SEP use were most prevalent. Factors associated with becoming or maintaining direct SEP use were female sex, Latino ethnicity, fewer injections per syringe, homelessness, recruitment city, injecting speedballs (cocaine and heroin), and police contact involving drug paraphernalia possession. Similar factors influenced transitions in the syringe policy change analysis. Policy change cities experienced an increase in Indirect SEP users (43% to 51%) with little increased direct use (29% to 31%). We found that, over time, IDUs tended to become Direct SEP users. Policies improving syringe availability influenced SEP use by increasing secondary syringe exchange. Interactions with police around drug paraphernalia may encourage SEP use for some IDUs and may provide opportunities for other health interventions.

Green, Traci C.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Singer, Merrill; Beletsky, Leo; Grau, Lauretta E.; Marshall, Patricia; Heimer, Robert

2010-01-01

19

Syringe coverage in an Australian setting: does a high level of syringe coverage moderate syringe sharing behaviour?  

PubMed

We examined individual-level syringe coverage among 417 people who inject drugs who were recruited from pharmacies in New South Wales in 2009. There was a U-shaped distribution of syringe coverage with many people having very high (51%) or very low (23%) coverage. Overall, two-thirds of respondents (63%) reported adequate coverage (? 100%). Respondents who had not used a needle and syringe program in the previous month were more likely to report inadequate coverage (AOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.25-4.05) as were those who reported daily or more frequent injecting (AOR 3.69, 95% CI 2.00-6.81). Inadequate syringe coverage was not independently associated with receptive needle sharing. The level of syringe coverage was high among this sample, and met targets set out by UNAIDS and other organisations. We found that inadequate syringe coverage was not independently correlated with receptive needle sharing, possibly because coverage is sufficient to diminish the relationship between syringe availability and sharing behaviours. PMID:21811845

Bryant, Joanne; Paquette, Dana; Wilson, Hannah

2012-07-01

20

Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial spectrographic systems are usually supplied with some wave-length calibration, but it is essential that the experimenter performs his own calibration for reliable measurements. A number of sources emitting well-known emission lines are available, and the best values of their wavelengths may be taken from data banks accessible on the internet. Data have been critically evaluated for many decades by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the USA [13], see also p. 3. Special data bases have been established by the astronomy and fusion communities (Appendix B).

Kunze, Hans-Joachim

21

Syringe Sharing and HIV Incidence Among Injection Drug Users and Increased Access to Sterile Syringes  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the effects of syringe exchange program (SEP) policy on rates of HIV risk behavior and HIV incidence among injection drug users. Methods. Using a multivariate generalized estimating equation and Cox regression methods, we examined syringe borrowing, syringe lending, and HIV incidence among a prospective cohort of 1228 injection drug users in Vancouver, British Columbia. Results. We observed substantial declines in rates of syringe borrowing (from 20.1% in 1998 to 9.2% in 2003) and syringe lending (from 19.1% in 1998 to 6.8% in 2003) following SEP policy change. These declines coincided with a statistically significant increase in the proportion of participants accessing sterile syringes from nontraditional SEP sources (P < .001). In multivariate analyses, the period following the change in SEP policy was independently associated with a greater than 40% reduction in syringe borrowing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49, 0.65) and lending (AOR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.45, 0.60), as well as declining HIV incidence (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.13; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.31). Conclusions. Widespread syringe distribution appears to be a more effective SEP policy than do more restrictive SEP policies that limit syringe access. Efforts should be made to ensure that SEP policies and program design serve to maximize rather than hinder syringe access.

Small, Will; Buchner, Chris; Zhang, Ruth; Li, Kathy; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

2010-01-01

22

Lower syringe sharing and re-use after syringe legalization in Rhode Island.  

PubMed

Increased access to sterile syringes reduces the transmission of HIV, viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases, without increasing injection drug use. In Rhode Island, in 2000, syringes were legalized to reduce spread of disease but remained outlawed in Massachusetts until 2006. Drug users undergoing inpatient detoxification in Rhode Island and Massachusetts were surveyed about their syringe usage between October 2001 and August 2003. Two hundred forty-seven Rhode Island, and 226 Massachusetts inpatients completed surveys. Of these, 61% (n=151) from Rhode Island and 46% (n=105) from Massachusetts reported injecting within 6 months. Respondents from Rhode Island reported reusing a syringe in the last 30 days less often than Massachusetts respondents (0.35 versus 0.50; 95% CI on difference 0.01-0.29). Syringe re-use and sharing among drug injectors in Rhode Island was markedly lower than in Massachusetts. This difference is attributed at least in part to the legalization of non-prescription sterile syringes in Rhode Island in 2000. Laws and policies that increase legal syringe availability can decrease injection related transmission of HIV and other infectious diseases. PMID:17386980

Rich, Josiah D; Hogan, Joseph W; Wolf, Francis; DeLong, Allison; Zaller, Nickolas D; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Reinert, Steven

2007-07-10

23

Accelerometer calibration with nonlinear scale factor based on multi-position observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calibration of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is a key technique to improve the accuracy of an inertial navigation system. Adding more parameters into the model and reducing the estimation errors is essential for improving the calibration methods. Given its advantage of not requiring high-precision equipment, the multi-position calibration method has been widely discussed and has shown great potential in recent years. In this paper, the multi-position calibration method is improved by introducing the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor. The observation equations for the improved multi-position calibration method are established based on a nonlinear accelerometer model. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is adopted to solve the complicated nonlinear equations. In addition, Allan variance is used to determine the optimal data collection time. The accuracy and the robustness of the proposed calibration method are verified by the simulation test. The laboratory and field experiment results for a navigation-grade IMU prove that the proposed method can successfully identify the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor and improve the multi-position calibration accuracy. The comparison of several other calibration methods highlights the superior performance of the proposed method without precise orientation control.

Cai, Qingzhong; Song, Ningfang; Yang, Gongliu; Liu, Yiliang

2013-10-01

24

Combination syringe provides air-free blood samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standard syringe and spinal needle are combined in unique manner to secure air-free blood samples. Combination syringe obtains air free samples because air bubbles become insignificant when samples greater than 1 cc are drawn.

Pool, S. L.

1970-01-01

25

The Disposable Syringe: More Experiments and Uses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a variety of experiments that can be performed using the disposable syringe. Among others, these include the removal of oxygen during rusting, convection in a liquid and in air, gas collection in an electrolysis cell, small scale production of a fog, and hydrogen/oxygen extraction from a voltameter. (JR)

Farmer, Andrew

1973-01-01

26

Adiabatic Compression in a Fire Syringe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests using better materials in fire syringes to obtain more effective results during demonstrations which show the elevation in temperature upon a very rapid (adiabatic) compression of air. Also describes an experiment (using ignition temperatures) which introduces students to the use of thermocouples for high temperature measurements. (DH)

Hayn, Carl H.; Baird, Scott C.

1985-01-01

27

Pharmacy syringe purchase test of nonprescription syringe sales in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010.  

PubMed

The two main legal sources of clean needles for illicit injection drug users (IDUs) in California are syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and nonprescription syringe sales (NPSS) at pharmacies. In 2004, California became one of the last states to allow NPSS. To evaluate the implementation of NPSS and the California Disease Prevention Demonstration Project (DPDP), we conducted syringe purchase tests in San Francisco (SF) and Los Angeles (LA) between March and July of 2010. Large differences in implementation were observed in the two cities. In LA, less than one-quarter of the enrolled pharmacies sold syringes to our research assistant (RA), and none sold a single syringe. The rate of successful purchase in LA is the lowest reported in any syringe purchase test. In both sites, there was notable variation among the gauge size available, and price and quantity of syringes required for a purchase. None of the DPDP pharmacies in LA or SF provided the requisite health information. The findings suggest that more outreach needs to be conducted with pharmacists and pharmacy staff. The pharmacies' failure to disseminate the educational materials may result in missed opportunities to provide needed harm reduction information to IDUs. The varied prices and required quantities may serve as a barrier to syringe access among IDUs. Future research needs to examine reasons why pharmacies do not provide the mandated information, whether the omission of disposal options is indicative of pharmacies' reluctance to serve as disposal sites, and if the dual opt-in approach of NPSS/DPDP is a barrier to pharmacy enrollment. PMID:22718357

Lutnick, Alexandra; Cooper, Erin; Dodson, Chaka; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Kral, Alex H

2013-04-01

28

10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct...

2009-01-01

29

10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct...

2010-01-01

30

Inactive xylem can explain differences in calibration factors for thermal dissipation probe sap flow measurements.  

PubMed

Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) were calibrated in three diffuse porous fruit trees and one ornamental species in the field by comparison with heat pulse probes (nectarine and persimmon), in a greenhouse on lysimeters (apple and persimmon) and in the laboratory by pushing water through cut branches (apple, Peltophorum and nectarine). Two operational methods were used: continuous (constant thermal dissipation, CTD) and discontinuous, or transient, heating (transient thermal dissipation, TTD). Correction for the radial distribution of sap flux density was with an analytical function derived from a linear decrease in flux density with depth, as measured with a multi-depth 'Tmax' heat pulse system. When analyzed with previous calibration factors, the measured sap flow was <50% of actual value. The underestimations were consistent, and calibrations for each species in the field, greenhouse and laboratory gave approximately the same factors. Reasonable values of tree water use were obtained with the new calibration factors. Evidence is provided that even though the xylem was diffuse porous, the underestimations were caused by contact of the probes with inactive xylem along their length. The average portion of probe in contact with inactive xylem, measured in stained branches following laboratory calibrations, was 0.2-0.24. Using the measured fractions to correct temperature differentials between heated and unheated probes for CTD and TTD, based on Clearwater et al. (in Potential errors in measurement of nonuniform sap flow using heat dissipation probes. Tree Physiol 1999;19:681-687) almost completely compensated for the underestimations. Calibrations are given for each species both before and after corrections of temperature differentials, along with a multispecies calibration. These results should be an important step in reconciling many reports of different calibration factors for TDP probes. PMID:24128850

Paudel, Indira; Kanety, Tal; Cohen, Shabtai

2013-09-01

31

Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries  

SciTech Connect

A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

Coleman, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-01-08

32

Camera Calibration: A Quick and Easy Way to Determine the Scale Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a quick and easy solution to the camera calibration problem of finding the scale factor that arises because of a difference between the scanning frequency of the camera sensor plane and the scanning frequency of the image capture board frame buffer. The method presented is based on the observation that the scale factor is related to the

Michael A. Penna

1991-01-01

33

[Change of calibration method for enzyme assay in clinical biochemistry using automatic analyzer--comparison of calibration methods using K factor and human standard serum].  

PubMed

Enzyme activities in serum from experimental animals had been assayed by HITACHI 7150 Automatic Analyzer using K factors for calibration. Because K factor is derived from a molar extinction coefficient and, reagent and sample volumes for each assay system, it is a constant value in usual assay. As an alternative calibration method, a human standard serum, which is commercially available and well-controlled, is presently used in the same assay system because of some difficulties in supply. Four serum enzymes of human, rat, dog and monkey sera were determined by the above two methods. All values calibrated by human standard serum were approx. 10% higher than that using K factors. These small differences are allowable because data calibrated by human standard serum can be compared with previous data given by K factors. PMID:9037874

Saitoh, M; Hasegawa, R; Inoue, T

1996-01-01

34

HIV Risk Behavior among Amphetamine Injectors at U.S. Syringe Exchange Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to compare HIV risk behaviors of amphetamine and non-amphetamine injectors at syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the United States and to identify factors associated with injection risk. This analysis is based on data from a random cross-section of participants at 13 SEPs in different parts of the country. All interviews…

Braine, Naomi; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Goldblatt, Cullen; Zadoretzky, Cathy; Turner, Charles

2005-01-01

35

Could low dead-space syringes really reduce HIV transmission to low levels?  

PubMed

Studies published by Zule and colleagues have suggested that use of low dead-space syringes (LDSS) instead of high dead-space syringes (HDSS) by injecting drug users (IDUs) could dramatically reduce HIV transmission. However, evidence is limited because experiments have considered a small range of syringe types and have been unable to reliably estimate the efficacy of using LDSS for reducing HIV transmission. We critically appraise available evidence to determine whether using LDSS is likely to dramatically reduce HIV transmission. We systematically review the literature on the dead-space volume of syringes and estimate the factor difference in blood volume transferred from sharing LDSS or HDSS. Existing data on the relationship between host viral load and HIV transmission risk is used to evaluate the likely efficacy of using LDSS instead of HDSS. An HIV transmission model is used to make conservative impact projections for switching to using LDSS, and explore the implications of heterogeneity in IDU transmission risk and syringe preferences. Although highly variable, reviewed studies suggest that HDSS have on average 10 times the dead-space volume of LDSS and could result in 6/54/489 times more blood being transferred after 0/1/2 water rinses. Assuming a conservative 2-fold increase in HIV transmission risk per 10-fold increase in infected blood inoculum, HDSS use could be associated with a mean 1.7/3.6/6.5-fold increase in transmission risk compared to LDSS for 0/1/2 rinses. However, even for a low efficacy estimate, modelling suggests that partially transferring to LDSS use from using HDSS could dramatically reduce HIV prevalence (generally >33% if LDSS use is 50%), but impact will depend on IDU behavioural heterogeneity and syringe preference. Indirect evidence suggests that encouraging HDSS users to use LDSS could be a powerful HIV prevention strategy. There is an urgent need to evaluate the real life effectiveness of this strategy. PMID:23206493

Vickerman, P; Martin, N K; Hickman, M

2013-01-01

36

An accurate calibration method for accelerometer nonlinear scale factor on a low-cost three-axis turntable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) requirements are very demanding on gyroscopes and accelerometers as well as on calibration. To improve the accuracy of SINS, high-accuracy calibration is needed. Adding the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor into the model and reducing estimation errors is essential for improving calibration methods. In this paper, the inertial navigation error model is simplified, including only velocity and tilt errors. Based on the simplified error model, the relationship between the navigation errors (the rates of change of velocity errors) and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration parameters is presented. A tracking model is designed to estimate the rates of change of velocity errors. With a special calibration procedure consisting of six rotation sequences, the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor errors can be computed by the estimates of the rates of change of velocity errors. Simulation and laboratory test results show that the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor can be calibrated with satisfactory accuracy on a low-cost three-axis turntable in several minutes. The comparison with the traditional calibration method highlights the superior performance of the proposed calibration method without precise orientation control. In addition, the proposed calibration method saves a lot of time in comparison with the multi-position calibration method.

Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi; Cai, Qingzhong

2014-02-01

37

Syringe Disposal among Injection Drug Users in Harlem and the Bronx during the New York State Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective January 1, 2001, New York State enacted the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program (ESAP), allowing syringes to be sold in pharmacies without a prescription or dispensed through doctors, hospitals, and clinics to adults. A concern in the assessment of ESAP is its effects on syringe disposal practices. Syringe use data regarding…

Cleland, Charles M.; Deren, Sherry; Fuller, Crystal M.; Blaney, Shannon; McMahon, James M.; Tortu, Stephanie; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Vlahov, David

2007-01-01

38

Solute-Filled Syringe For Formulating Intravenous Solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prefilled syringe contains premeasured amount of solute in powder or concentrate form used to deliver solute to sterile interior of large-volume parenteral (LVP) bag. Predetermined amount of sterile water also added to LVP bag through sterilizing filter, and mixed with contents of syringe, yielding sterile intravenous solution of specified concentration.

Owens, Jim; Bindokas, AL; Dudar, Tom; Finley, Mike; Scharf, Mike

1993-01-01

39

41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section 109-27...5009 Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. Effective procedures and practices...physical security of hypodermic needles and syringes to prevent illegal use. Controls...

2010-07-01

40

41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section 109-27...5009 Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. Effective procedures and practices...physical security of hypodermic needles and syringes to prevent illegal use. Controls...

2013-07-01

41

41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section 109-27...5009 Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. Effective procedures and practices...physical security of hypodermic needles and syringes to prevent illegal use. Controls...

2009-07-01

42

Dependence of the LR-115 radon detector calibration factor on track density.  

PubMed

The reliability and accuracy of the methodology based on using LR-115 track detectors for radon measurements have been studied by determining the dependence of their calibration factors on radon exposure at levels reaching 13 MBq m(-3) h. This factor results not constant and demonstrated a decreasing exponential trend vs. exposure that has been explained in terms of the saturation effect and verified using a numerical simulation. This dependence does not affect the parameter that normalizes track density vs. film thickness. This parameter results constant and equal to - 0.30±0.02 cm(-2)/µm in the 300-8000 kBq h m(-3) exposure range. PMID:23694685

De Cicco, F; Pugliese, M; Roca, V; Sabbarese, C

2013-08-01

43

Characterization of responses and comparison of calibration factor for commercial MOSFET detectors.  

PubMed

A commercial metal oxide silicon field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter of model TN502-RD has been characterized for its linearity, reproducibility, field size dependency, dose rate dependency, and angular dependency for Cobalt-60 (60Co), 6-MV, and 15-MV beam energies. The performance of the MOSFET clearly shows that it is highly reproducible, independent of field size and dose rate. Furthermore, MOSFET has a very high degree of linearity, with r-value>0.9 for all 3 energies. The calibration factor for 2 similar MOSFET detectors of model TN502-RD were also estimated and compared for all 3 energies. The calibration factor between the 2 similar MOSFET detectors shows a variation of about 1.8% for 60Co and 15 MV, and for 6 MV it shows variation of about 2.5%, indicating that calibration should be done whenever a new MOSFET is used. However, the detector shows considerable angular dependency of about 8.8% variation. This may be due to the variation in radiation sensitivity between flat and bubble sides of the MOSFET, and indicates that positional care must be taken while using MOSFET for stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy dosimetric applications. PMID:16275563

Bharanidharan, Ganesan; Manigandan, Durai; Devan, Krishnamurthy; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Gopishankar, Natanasabapathi; Ganesh, Tharmar; Joshi, Rakeshchander; Rath, Gourakishore; Velmurugan, Jagadeesan; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

2005-01-01

44

Role of syringeal vibrations in bird vocalizations  

PubMed Central

The sound-generating mechanism in the bird syrinx has been the subject of debate. Recent endoscopic imaging of the syrinx during phonation provided evidence for vibrations of membranes and labia, but could not provide quantitative analysis of the vibrations. We have now recorded vibrations in the intact syrinx directly with an optic vibration detector together with the emitted sound during brain stimulation-induced phonation in anaesthetized pigeons, cockatiels, and a hill myna. The phonating syrinx was also filmed through an endoscope inserted into the trachea. In these species vibrations were always present during phonation, and their frequency and amplitude characteristics were highly similar to those of the emitted sound, including nonlinear acoustic phenomena. This was also true for tonal vocalizations, suggesting that a vibratory mechanism can account for all vocalizations presented in the study. In some vocalizations we found differences in the shape of the waveform between vibrations and the emitted sound, probably reflecting variations in oscillatory behaviour of syringeal structures. This study therefore provides the first direct evidence for a vibratory sound-generating mechanism (i.e. lateral tympaniform membranes or labia acting as pneumatic valves) and does not support pure aerodynamic models. Furthermore, the data emphasize a potentially high degree of acoustic complexity.

Larsen, O. N.; Goller, F.

1999-01-01

45

Non-prescription syringe sales in California: a qualitative examination of practices among 12 local health jurisdictions.  

PubMed

Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California's 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to demonstrate outcomes defined in the legislation. Using qualitative methods, we examined the systems and procedures associated with implementation; identified facilitators and barriers to implementation among 12 LHJs, and documented the role of public health in initiating and sustaining local programs. We identified consistent activities that led to policy implementation among LHJs and discovered several barriers that were associated with failure to implement local programs. Factors leading to NPSS were public health leadership; an inclusive planning process, marketing the program as a public health initiative; learning from others' efforts, successes, and failures; and identifying acceptable syringe disposal options in advance of program implementation. Health departments that were confronted with political and moral arguments lost momentum and ultimately assigned a lower priority to the initiative citing the loss of powerful public health advocates or a lack of human resources. Additional barriers were law enforcement, elected officials, and pharmacy opposition, and failure to resolve syringe disposal options to the satisfaction of important stakeholders. The lessons learned in this study should provide useful guidance for the remaining LHJs in California without NPSS programs. PMID:20405227

Rose, Valerie J; Backes, Glenn; Martinez, Alexis; McFarland, Willi

2010-07-01

46

Non-prescription Syringe Sales in California: A Qualitative Examination of Practices among 12 Local Health Jurisdictions  

PubMed Central

Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California’s 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to demonstrate outcomes defined in the legislation. Using qualitative methods, we examined the systems and procedures associated with implementation; identified facilitators and barriers to implementation among 12 LHJs, and documented the role of public health in initiating and sustaining local programs. We identified consistent activities that led to policy implementation among LHJs and discovered several barriers that were associated with failure to implement local programs. Factors leading to NPSS were public health leadership; an inclusive planning process, marketing the program as a public health initiative; learning from others’ efforts, successes, and failures; and identifying acceptable syringe disposal options in advance of program implementation. Health departments that were confronted with political and moral arguments lost momentum and ultimately assigned a lower priority to the initiative citing the loss of powerful public health advocates or a lack of human resources. Additional barriers were law enforcement, elected officials, and pharmacy opposition, and failure to resolve syringe disposal options to the satisfaction of important stakeholders. The lessons learned in this study should provide useful guidance for the remaining LHJs in California without NPSS programs.

Backes, Glenn; Martinez, Alexis; McFarland, Willi

2010-01-01

47

Applications of spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) for cross-calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To monitor land surface processes over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, it is critical to have coordinated observations of the Earth's surface acquired from multiple spaceborne imaging sensors. However, an integrated global observation framework requires an understanding of how land surface processes are seen differently by various sensors. This is particularly true for sensors acquiring data in spectral bands whose relative spectral responses (RSRs) are not similar and thus may produce different results while observing the same target. The intrinsic offsets between two sensors caused by RSR mismatches can be compensated by using a spectral band adjustment factor (SBAF), which takes into account the spectral profile of the target and the RSR of the two sensors. The motivation of this work comes from the need to compensate the spectral response differences of multispectral sensors in order to provide a more accurate cross-calibration between the sensors. In this paper, radiometric cross-calibration of the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors was performed using near-simultaneous observations over the Libya 4 pseudoinvariant calibration site in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The RSR differences of the analogous ETM+ and MODIS spectral bands provide the opportunity to explore, understand, quantify, and compensate for the measurement differences between these two sensors. The cross-calibration was initially performed by comparing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances between the two sensors over their lifetimes. The average percent differences in the long-term trends ranged from $-$5% to $+$6%. The RSR compensated ETM+ TOA reflectance (ETM+$^{ast}$) measurements were then found to agree with MODIS TOA reflectance to within 5% for all bands when Earth Observing-1 Hy- erion hyperspectral data were used to produce the SBAFs. These differences were later reduced to within 1% for all bands (except band 2) by using Environmental Satellite Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography hyperspectral data to produce the SBAFs.

Gyanesh Chander

2013-01-01

48

Effects of varying geometry on dose calibrator response: cobalt-57 and technetium-99m  

SciTech Connect

A joint project between the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and Biomedical Products Department, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc. compared the indicated activity of (a) cobalt-57 samples in NBS 5-ml ampoules, plastic syringes, Du Pont 27-ml Vial E epoxy- and solution-filled containers, and (b) technetium-99m solutions in NBS 5-ml ampoules, elution vials, and syringes. The measurements were made in ionization chambers from two manufacturers, Capintec and Radcal. The main objective was to examine the use of radionuclides in NBS ampoules and Du Pont Vial E containers as suitable reference sources for ionization chambers used to assay radiopharmaceuticals in elution vials and syringes. The exercise illustrated that regardless of the brand of dose calibrator used, a calibration factor for each geometry should be determined to ensure the highest accuracy. The data show that as much as a 9% difference from the correct activity can be observed for these radionuclides, even when the ampoule reference source gives the appropriate reading.

Calhoun, J.M.; Golas, D.B.; Harris, S.G.

1987-09-01

49

New gas-liquid equilibration method: syringe tonometer.  

PubMed

This new apparatus for gas-liquid equilibration (tonometry) in a transportable vessel is designed for tonometry of blood or buffer solution in a specially designed syringe. Gas enters the syringe chamber through small holes in the tip of the syringe plunger and bubbles upward through the sample. The syringe plunger is a second chamber, which is used for warming and humidifying the gas before it enters the tonometer chamber. The entire syringe is housed in a transparent, temperature-controlled environment during equilibration. After equilibration, the sample is easily entered into a blood-gas analyzer. At most, gas-liquid O2/CO2 equilibration for 2.5 mL of buffer or blood requires less than 13 min. Comparisons with a standard thin-film tonometer show good agreement for pO2 and pCO2 over the range 0-93 kPa (0-700 mmHg) and 2-20 kPa (14-150 mmHg), respectively. The syringe tonometer eliminates contamination of the sample during transfer and transport to the analyzer, thus making tonometry more technique-independent. The apparatus is simple and easy to use, with definite advantages over existing methods of tonometry. PMID:6784964

Wallace, W D; Cutler, C A; Clark, J S

1981-05-01

50

The effectiveness and safety of syringe vending machines as a component of needle syringe programmes in community settings.  

PubMed

Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been introduced in Europe and Australasia as part of the effort to increase the availability of sterile needles and syringes to injecting drug users (IDUs). This qualitative review of 14 published and grey literature studies examines whether community-based SVMs as a component of a comprehensive needle syringe programme (NSP) assist to reduce the spread of HIV and other blood-borne viruses amongst IDUs. The available evidence suggests that SVMs increase access to sterile injecting equipment, reduce needle and syringe sharing, and are likely to be cost efficient. SVMs also complement other modes of NSP delivery as they are used by IDUs who are less likely to attend staffed NSPs or pharmacies. If installed and properly maintained in a well-chosen location and with the local community well prepared, SVMs can enhance the temporal and geographical availability of sterile injecting equipment. PMID:17766100

Islam, Mofizul; Wodak, Alex; Conigrave, Katherine M

2008-12-01

51

The effects of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin  

PubMed Central

Introduct?on: We evaluated the effect of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin. Materials and methods: In this multi-step experimental study, percent dilution ratios (PDRs) and final heparin concentrations (FHCs) were calculated by gravimetric method for determining the effect of syringe volume (1, 2, 5 and 10 mL), needle size (20, 21, 22, 25 and 26 G) and sample volume (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mL). The effect of different PDRs and FHCs on blood gas and electrolyte parameters were determined. The erroneous results from nonstandardized sampling were evaluated according to RiliBAK’s TEa. Results: The increase of PDRs and FHCs was associated with the decrease of syringe volume, the increase of needle size and the decrease of sample volume: from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in 10 mL-syringe to 7.0% and 351 IU/mL in 1 mL-syringe; from 4.9% and 245 IU/mL in 26G to 7.6% and 380 IU/mL in 20 G with combined 1 mL syringe; from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in full-filled sample to 34% and 1675 IU/mL in 0.5 mL suctioned sample into 10 mL-syringe. There was no statistical difference in pH; but the percent decreasing in pCO2, K+, iCa2+, iMg2+; the percent increasing in pO2 and Na+ were statistical significance compared to samples full-filled in syringes. The all changes in pH and pO2 were acceptable; but the changes in pCO2, Na+, K+ and iCa2+ were unacceptable according to TEa limits except fullfilled-syringes. Conclusions: The changes in PDRs and FHCs due nonstandardized sampling in syringe washed with liquid heparin give rise to erroneous test results for pCO2 and electrolytes.

Kume, Tuncay; Sisman, Ali R?za; Solak, Ahmet; Tuglu, Birsen; Cinkooglu, Burcu; Coker, Canan

2012-01-01

52

[Measuring the calibration factor of a light scattering dust monitor for CO2 arc welding fumes].  

PubMed

In Japan, a light scattering type digital dust monitor is most commonly used for dust concentration measurement in a working environment. In this study, the calibration factors of a digital dust monitor (K-factor) for several welding fumes were measured in a laboratory. During the experiment, fumes were generated from CO2 arc welding performed by an automatic welding robot. The examined welding wires were JIS Z 3312, Z 3313, Z 3315, Z 3317 and Z 3320. The mass and relative concentrations of the welding fumes were measured simultaneously by a total/respirable (TR) dust sampler and a digital dust monitor at a welding current of 100 A, 150 A, 200 A, 250 A and 300 A. The particle size distributions of welding fumes were measured by a low pressure impactor at a welding current of 100 A and 300 A. A significant effect of the welding current on the K-factor was recognized for all the examined wires. In the most remarkable case, a four-fold difference in the K-factors was found when the fumes were generated from a flux cored wire for mild steel (JIS Z 3313). The particle size distributions of fumes were also affected by the welding current. The coefficients of variation in the measured K-factor were 7.8-40.5%. PMID:12506861

Ojima, Jun

2002-12-01

53

Experimental derivation of wall correction factors for ionization chambers used in high dose rate 192Ir source calibration.  

PubMed

At present there are no specific primary standards for 192Ir high dose rate sources used in brachytherapy. Traceability to primary standards is guaranteed through the method recommended by the AAPM that derives the air kerma calibration factor for the 192Ir gamma rays as the average of the air kerma calibration factors for x-rays and 137Cs gamma-rays or the Maréchal et al. method that uses the energy-weighted air kerma calibration factors for 250 kV x rays and 60Co gamma rays as the air kerma calibration factor for the 192Ir gamma rays. In order to use these methods, it is necessary to use the same buildup cap for all energies and the appropriate wall correction factor for each chamber. This work describes experimental work used to derive the A(W) for four different ionization chambers and different buildup cap materials for the three energies involved in the Maréchal et al. method. The A(W) for the two most common ionization chambers used in hospitals, the Farmer NE 2571 and PTW N30001 is 0.995 and 0.997, respectively, for 250 kV x rays, 0.982 and 0.985 for 192Ir gamma rays, and 0.979 and 0.991 for 60Co gamma rays, all for a PMMA build-up cap of 0.550 gm cm(-2). A comparison between the experimental values and Monte Carlo calculations shows an agreement better than 0.9%. Availability of the A(W) correction factors for all commercial chambers allows users of the in-air calibration jig, provided by the manufacturer, to alternatively use the Maréchal et al. method. Calibration laboratories may also used this method for calibration of a well-type ionization chamber with a comparable accuracy to the AAPM method. PMID:11833542

Maréchal, M H; de Almeida, C E; Ferreira, I H; Sibata, C H

2002-01-01

54

Spatial Access to Syringe Exchange Programs and Pharmacies Selling Over-the-Counter Syringes as Predictors of Drug Injectors' Use of Sterile Syringes  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined relationships of spatial access to syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and pharmacies selling over-the-counter (OTC) syringes with New York City drug injectors’ harm reduction practices. Methods. Each year from 1995 to 2006, we measured the percentage of 42 city health districts’ surface area that was within 1 mile of an SEP or OTC pharmacy. We applied hierarchical generalized linear models to investigate relationships between these exposures and the odds that injectors (n = 4003) used a sterile syringe for at least 75% of injections in the past 6 months. Results. A 1-unit increase in the natural log of the percentage of a district's surface area within a mile of an SEP in 1995 was associated with a 26% increase in the odds of injecting with a sterile syringe; a 1-unit increase in this exposure over time increased these odds 23%. A 1-unit increase in the natural log of OTC pharmacy access improved these odds 15%. Conclusions. Greater spatial access to SEPs and OTC pharmacies improved injectors’ capacity to engage in harm reduction practices that reduce HIV and HCV transmission.

Des Jarlais, Don C.; Ross, Zev; Tempalski, Barbara; Bossak, Brian; Friedman, Samuel R.

2011-01-01

55

Particles shed from syringe filters and their effects on agitation-induced protein aggregation.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that foreign particles shed from filters can accelerate the rate of protein aggregation and particle formation during agitation stress. Various types and brands of syringe filters were tested. Particle counts and size distribution (?1 µm) in buffer alone or in solutions of keratinocyte growth factor 2 (KGF-2) were determined with a micro-flow imaging. Submicron particle populations were characterized by dynamic light scattering. Loss of soluble protein during filtration or postfiltration incubation was determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy and bicinchoninic acid protein assay. There was a wide range (from essentially none to >100,000/mL) in the counts for at least 1 µm particles shed into buffer or KGF-2 solution from the different syringe filters (with or without borosilicate glass microfibers). Filtration of KGF-2 with units containing glass microfibers above the membrane resulted in 20%-80% loss of protein due to adsorption to filter components. Filtration with systems containing a membrane alone resulted in 0%-20% loss of KGF-2. Effects of 24-h postfiltration incubation were tested on KGF-2 solution filtered with polyether sulfone membrane filters. Loss of soluble protein and formation of particles during agitation were much greater than that in control, unfiltered KGF-2 solutions. Similar acceleration of protein aggregation and particle formation was observed when unfiltered KGF-2 solution was mixed with filtered buffer and agitated. Particle shedding from syringe filters--and the resulting acceleration of protein aggregation during agitation--varied greatly among the different syringe filters and individual units of a given filter type. Our results demonstrate that nanoparticles and microparticles shed from the filters can accelerate protein aggregation and particle formation, especially during agitation. PMID:22674153

Liu, Lu; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

2012-08-01

56

Pharmacy Participation in Non-Prescription Syringe Sales in Los Angeles and San Francisco Counties, 2007  

PubMed Central

Increasing sterile syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs) is one way to prevent HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in this population. In 2005, California Senate Bill 1159 allowed counties to adopt the Disease Prevention Demonstration Project (DPDP). Where enacted, the DPDP allows pharmacies that register with the county to sell up to ten syringes to adults without a prescription. In the current study, we describe pharmacy participation in nonprescription syringe sales (NPSS) in two counties in California and examine factors associated with NPSS. Telephone and in-person interviews were conducted in Los Angeles (LA) and San Francisco (SF) with 238 pharmacies in 2007 (n = 67 in SF; n = 171 in LA). Quantitative survey items captured pharmacy registration with the county, pharmacy policies/practices, episodes and conditions of NPSS and refusals to sell, potential negative consequences of NPSS, and staff attitudes regarding HIV and HCV prevention for IDUs. Overall, 42% of pharmacies reported NPSS (28% in LA and 81% in SF), although only 34% had registered with the county (17% in LA and 76% in SF). Many pharmacies required proof of a medical condition (80% in LA and 30% in SF) and refused NPSS if the customer was a suspected IDU (74% in LA, 33% in SF). Few negative consequences of NPSS were reported. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that the odds of NPSS were significantly higher among pharmacists who thought syringe access was important for preventing HIV among IDUs [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–7.92], were chain pharmacies (AOR = 12.5; 95% CI = 4.55–33.33), and were located in SF (AOR = 4.88; 95% CI = 1.94–12.28). These results suggest that NPSS were influenced by pharmacists’ perception. NPSS might be increased through greater educational efforts directed at pharmacists, particularly those in non-chain pharmacies.

Cooper, Erin N.; Dodson, Chaka; Stopka, Thomas J.; Riley, Elise D.; Garfein, Richard S.

2010-01-01

57

Pharmacy participation in non-prescription syringe sales in Los Angeles and San Francisco counties, 2007.  

PubMed

Increasing sterile syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs) is one way to prevent HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in this population. In 2005, California Senate Bill 1159 allowed counties to adopt the Disease Prevention Demonstration Project (DPDP). Where enacted, the DPDP allows pharmacies that register with the county to sell up to ten syringes to adults without a prescription. In the current study, we describe pharmacy participation in nonprescription syringe sales (NPSS) in two counties in California and examine factors associated with NPSS. Telephone and in-person interviews were conducted in Los Angeles (LA) and San Francisco (SF) with 238 pharmacies in 2007 (n = 67 in SF; n = 171 in LA). Quantitative survey items captured pharmacy registration with the county, pharmacy policies/practices, episodes and conditions of NPSS and refusals to sell, potential negative consequences of NPSS, and staff attitudes regarding HIV and HCV prevention for IDUs. Overall, 42% of pharmacies reported NPSS (28% in LA and 81% in SF), although only 34% had registered with the county (17% in LA and 76% in SF). Many pharmacies required proof of a medical condition (80% in LA and 30% in SF) and refused NPSS if the customer was a suspected IDU (74% in LA, 33% in SF). Few negative consequences of NPSS were reported. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that the odds of NPSS were significantly higher among pharmacists who thought syringe access was important for preventing HIV among IDUs [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-7.92], were chain pharmacies (AOR = 12.5; 95% CI = 4.55-33.33), and were located in SF (AOR = 4.88; 95% CI = 1.94-12.28). These results suggest that NPSS were influenced by pharmacists' perception. NPSS might be increased through greater educational efforts directed at pharmacists, particularly those in non-chain pharmacies. PMID:20549568

Cooper, Erin N; Dodson, Chaka; Stopka, Thomas J; Riley, Elise D; Garfein, Richard S; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

2010-07-01

58

Sterilizable syringes: excessive risk or cost-effective option?  

PubMed Central

In recent years, many poorer countries have chosen to use disposable instead of sterilizable syringes. Unfortunately, the infrastructure and management systems that are vital if disposables are to be used safely do not exist. WHO estimates that up to 30% of injections administered are unsafe. The traditional sterilizable syringe had many disadvantages, some of which have been minimized through better design and the use of modern materials; others have been overcome because staff are able to demonstrate that they have performed safely. For example, the time-steam saturation-temperature (TST) indicator has enabled staff to demonstrate that a sterilizing cycle has been successfully completed. Health facility staff must be able to sterilize equipment, and the sterilizable syringe remains the least costly means of administering an injection. Data from countries that have acceptable systems for processing clinical waste indicate that safe and environmentally acceptable disposal, destruction and final containment cost nearly as much as the original cost of a disposable syringe. By careful supervision of staff behaviour and good management, some countries have demonstrated that they are able to administer safe injections with sterilizable syringes at a price they can afford.

Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Nelson, C.

1999-01-01

59

Supermarket tampering: cocaine detected in syringes and in fruit.  

PubMed

Product tampering, as detailed by the Federal Anti-Tampering Act of 1983 (1), is a felony punishable by both fine and imprisonment. The rationale for product tampering ranges from pranks and attention seeking acts to extortion, terrorism, and homicide. One such case submitted for analysis involved four medical syringes found in a supermarket and suspected of being used to tamper with various products. One of the syringes was found piercing a pear while the other three syringes were found with needles exposed in other parts of the supermarket. Microscopic analysis was used to collect residue from the syringe barrels and the pear. A multidiscipline approach involving SLM, PLM, including microchemical analysis, FTIR, and GC/MS analyses, performed on the residual liquid found in the syringe barrels and in the suspect pear, confirmed the presence of cocaine. This multidisciplinary approach is often necessary when there is a possible health risk to the public and rapid response is important. With this approach, it was quickly determined which drugs or poisons were used in this tampering. PMID:11210900

Tomlinson, J A; Crowe, J B; Ranieri, N; Kindig, J P; Platek, S F

2001-01-01

60

Novel reduced pressure-balance syringe for chromatographic analysis.  

PubMed

When withdrawing a fluid sample (for additional chromatographic analyses) from an apparatus operated at a reduced pressure, a typical syringe proves to be ineffective (even if it is equipped with a gas tight plunger). It simply does not create enough pressure differential to remove a fluid sample from a reduced pressure environment. We encountered such a situation as part of efforts to extend the operation of the advanced distillation curve protocol to reduced pressures. The problem was solved by the development of a pressure balance syringe that allows reliable and precise sampling from an apparatus operating at sub-ambient pressures. This new device uses an external vacuum source to evacuate a syringe barrel, allowing a user to withdraw fluid samples from environments with pressures as low as 0.5kPa. To demonstrate the operation of the newly developed device, distillate analyses were performed on two fluids at low pressure: a predefined validation mixture, and a commercial soy based biodiesel fuel. The pressure balance syringe was used successfully for sampling in both cases. The use of the pressure balance syringe is not limited to reduced pressure distillations; indeed it can be used for a variety of applications in which chemical/compositional analyses are desired on a fluid contained in a reduced pressure environment. PMID:20961548

Windom, Bret C; Bruno, Thomas J

2010-11-19

61

Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs) may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Methods Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Results Only 46 (28.4%) of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%), there were no syringes in stock (31.0%), or a prescription was required (20.7%). Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2%) reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5%) had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. Conclusions IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission.

2011-01-01

62

DETECTION OF ENDOGENOUS TISSUE FACTOR LEVELS IN PLASMA USING THE CALIBRATED AUTOMATED THROMBOGRAM ASSAY  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) assay measures thrombin generation in plasma. Objective Use the CAT assay to detect endogenous tissue factor (TF) in recalcified platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-free plasma (PFP). Methods Blood from healthy volunteers was collected into citrate and incubated at 37°C with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 5 hours. PRP and PFP were prepared and clotting was initiated by recalcification. Thrombin generation was measured using the CAT assay. Results The lag time (LT) was significantly shortened in PRP prepared from LPS-treated blood compared with untreated blood (10 ± 3 min versus 20 ± 6 min), and this change was reversed by the addition of inactivated human factor VIIa. LPS stimulation did not change the peak thrombin. Similar results were observed in PFP (21 ± 4 min versus 35 ± 5 min). LPS stimulation also significantly reduced the LT of PRP and PFP derived from blood containing citrate and a factor XIIa inhibitor. Finally, a low concentration of exogenous TF shortened the LT of PFP prepared from unstimulated, citrated blood without affecting the peak thrombin. Conclusion Changes in LT in the CAT assay can be used to monitor levels of endogenous TF in citrated plasma.

Ollivier, Veronique; Wang, Jianguo; Manly, David; Machlus, Kellie R.; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Mackman, Nigel

2009-01-01

63

Recoil in vacuum for Te ions: Calibration, models, and applications to radioactive-beam g-factor measurements  

SciTech Connect

In the light of new g factor results for the stable isotopes between {sup 122}Te and {sup 130}Te, the calibration and modeling of the recoil-in-vacuum (RIV) interaction for Te ions is reexamined, and the recent radioactive-beam g factor measurement on {sup 132}Te by the RIV technique is reevaluated. The implications for further RIV g-factor measurements in the {sup 132}Sn region are discussed.

Stuchbery, A. E.; Stone, N. J. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia) and Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

2007-09-15

64

Weighted calibration with reduced number of signals by weighing factor modelling: application to the identification of explosives by ion chromatography.  

PubMed

The linear weighted regression model (LW) can be used to calibrate analytical instrumentation in a range of quantities (e.g. concentration or mass) wider than possible by the linear unweighted regression model, LuW (i.e. the least squares regression model), since this model can be applied when signals are not equally precise through the calibration range. If precision of signals varies within the calibration range, the regression line should be defined taking into account that more precise signals are more reliable and should count more to define regression parameters. Nevertheless, the LW requires the determination of the variation of signals precision through the calibration range. Typically, this information is collected experimentally for each calibration, requiring a large number of replicate collection of signals of calibrators. This work proposes reducing the number of signals needed to perform LW calibrations by developing models of weighing factors robust to daily variations of instrument sensibility. These models were applied to the determination of the ionic composition of the water soluble fraction of explosives. The adequacy of the developed models was tested through the analysis of control standards, certified reference materials and the ion balance of anions and cations in aqueous extracts of explosives, considering the measurement uncertainty estimated by detailed metrological models. The high success rate of the comparisons between estimated and known quantity values of reference solutions, considering results uncertainty, proves the validity of developed metrological models. The relative expanded measurement uncertainty of single determinations ranged from 1.93% to 35.7% for calibrations performed along 4 months. PMID:24267095

Brasil, Beatriz; Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J N; Camões, M Filomena G F C; Salgueiro, Pedro A S

2013-12-01

65

A clinical comparison of pain perception and extent of area anesthetized by Wand® and a traditional syringe  

PubMed Central

Background: In the contemporary dental practice, alleviation of pain is the most important factor to ameliorate patient's condition and to gain one's confidence towards the skills of the operator. Such confidence aids to the ultimate success of the treatment procedures. Aims and Objectives: This study compares the pain response of a group of 10 subjects to the Wand® with the response to traditional syringe injections and also compares the extent of the area anesthetized. Materials and Methods: 10 subjects were selected for the study and 20 injections were given contralaterally to them, 10 with Wand®, and rest with the traditional aspirating syringe. Each subject received 2 injections on the palate, Left side with Wand® (test) and Right side with Traditional syringe (control). All injections were given by the same investigator without the use of topical anesthetic spray/gel. Pain perception levels were recorded with a visual analogue scale. Also the extent of area anesthetized with a single palatal injection was assessed by probing. Results: The results showed injections with the syringe were more painful than injections with the Wand® in 2 of 10 subjects. Also the extent of the area anesthetized by both the techniques was similar except in 2 patients. Conclusion: The Wand® results in less painful injections; however, mean ratings of pain for both the groups, were mostly below the annoying level of pain. Also, the areas covered by the anesthetic effect of both the injections were comparatively similar.

Shah, Meet; Shivaswamy, Sumanth; Jain, Sanjay; Tambwekar, Sonal

2012-01-01

66

Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

2002-01-01

67

Improving needle-point sharpness in prefillable syringes.  

PubMed

Improvement of needle-point sharpness and improved injection comfort for patients remain active areas of research. This article reports on a five-bevel needle for subcutaneous administration with a prefillable syringe, and the results of a clinical trial to verify and validate the bench measure of sharpness. PMID:12774577

Vedrine, L; Prais, W; Laurent, P E; Raynal-Olive, C; Fantino, M

2003-05-01

68

Development of the Syringe Needle Auto-Detaching Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nowadays' medical care, needle-stick injury accounts for a great proportion in all of the accidents. For example when doctors and nurses do the acts of medical treatment, or when relevant personnel dispose of the medical wastes, it is a high probability that they are injured by the used syringe needle. Because there is a serious potential fatal crisis in

C. C. Chen; C. S. Ho; S. H. Ciou; C. H. Chou; S. W. Hong; Y. S. Hwang; Y. L. Chen

2011-01-01

69

Gas compression artefacts when testing peak expiratory flow meters with mechanically-driven syringes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas compression artefacts when testing peak expiratory flow meters with mechanically- driven syringes. D. Navajas, J. Roca, R. Farré, M. Rotger. ©ERS Journal Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: Mechanically-driven syringes used to test peak expiratory flow (PEF) meters must produce the American Thoracic Society (ATS) standard waveforms with PEF accuracy of 2%. However, gas compression within the syringe could result in significant

D. Navajas; J. Roca; R. Farré; M. Rotger; Facultat de Medicina

70

Protective shielding assembly for use in loading a hypodermic syringe with radioactive material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosure of this application is directed to a protective shielding assembly suitable for use in the loading of a hypodermic syringe with radioactive material. The protective shielding device receives and securely holds, at one end, a vial which contains the material to be loaded and at its opposite end a hypodermic syringe with the needle of the syringe approximately

Larrabee

1978-01-01

71

A piezoelectric vibration-based syringe for reducing insertion force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puncturing of the human skin with a needle is perhaps the most common invasive medical procedure. Clinical studies have revealed that tissue deformation and needle deflection are the primary problem for needle misplacement in percutaneous procedures. To avoid this, various techniques for reducing insertion forces during needle insertion have been considered. This paper presents a piezoelectric vibration-based syringe to reduce insertion force. AC power was applied to the piezoelectric elements to vibrate the needle with high frequency and thereby reduce the friction and cutting forces between the needle and tissue. Vibration mode shapes of the needle were observed by finite element analysis and verified by experimental results. Effects of reducing insertion force via the vibrating needle were also confirmed by inserting the needle into the porcine tissues. The proposed syringe, which minimizes the insertion force and overcomes limitations of needle materials, can be widely utilized in robot-assisted needle insertion systems.

Huang, Y. C.; Tsai, M. C.; Lin, C. H.

2012-12-01

72

Benefits of Concurrent Syringe Exchange and Substance Abuse Treatment Participation  

PubMed Central

Participation in syringe exchange programs (SEPs) is associated with many individual and public health benefits, but may have little impact on reducing drug use without concurrent treatment engagement. The present study evaluated rates of drug use, other risk behaviors, and illegal activities in newly registered SEP participants (n = 240) enrolled versus not enrolled in substance abuse treatment over a 4-month observation window, and examined the effect of days in treatment on these outcomes. After controlling for baseline differences, SEP registrants enrolled in treatment (n = 113) reported less days of opioid and cocaine use, injection drug use, illegal activities, and incarceration than those not enrolled in treatment (n=127). For those enrolled in treatment, days of treatment was strongly correlated with each of these outcomes. These findings provide good evidence for a dose-response effect of treatment in syringe exchangers, and suggest that substance abuse treatment significantly expands the harm reduction benefits of SEP participation.

Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L.; Pierce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K.

2010-01-01

73

Stability of ondansetron hydrochloride and 12 medications in plastic syringes.  

PubMed

The stability and compatibility of ondansetron hydrochloride with neostigmine methylsulfate, naloxone hydrochloride, midazolam hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate, alfentanil hydrochloride, atropine sulfate, morphine sulfate, meperidine hydrochloride, propofol, droperidol, metoclopramide monohydrochloride, and glycopyrrolate were studied. Ondansetron 1.33 or 1.0 mg/mL was combined with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and each of the 12 drugs in duplicate in plastic syringes (or glass for propofol). The syringes were stored at 21.8-23.4 or 4 degrees C in the dark, except for those containing propofol, which were stored at ambient temperature. Samples were removed at 0, 4, 8, and 24 hours for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography and pH measurement; the propofol-containing samples were removed at 0, 1, 2, and 4 hours. Syringes were visually assessed for color and clarity, and particulate content was measured with a particle counter at the end of the study period. All solutions containing ondansetron retained more than 90% of their initial ondansetron concentration. Solutions containing each of the other drugs except droperidol retained more than 90% of their initial concentration of these drugs. The solutions containing droperidol retained more than 90% of their initial droperidol concentration for up to eight hours at ambient temperature but precipitated quickly at 4 degrees C. In combinations of ondansetron 1.33 or 1.0 mg/mL and 10 of 12 drugs, all drugs were stable for 24 hours in plastic syringes at 23 and 4 degrees C; ondansetron hydrochloride 1.0 mg/mL and propofol 1.0 and 5.0 mg/mL in admixtures were stable for 4 hours, and droperidol on its own and combined with ondansetron 1.0 mg/mL was stable for no more than 8 hours at ambient temperature. PMID:9872702

Stewart, J T; Warren, F W; King, D T; Venkateshwaran, T G; Fox, J L

1998-12-15

74

Protein aggregation and particle formation in prefilled glass syringes.  

PubMed

The stability of therapeutic proteins formulated in prefilled syringes (PFS) may be negatively impacted by the exposure of protein molecules to silicone oil-water interfaces and air-water interfaces. In addition, agitation, such as that experienced during transportation, may increase the detrimental effects (i.e., protein aggregation and particle formation) of protein interactions with interfaces. In this study, surfactant-free formulations containing either a monoclonal antibody or lysozyme were incubated in PFS, where they were exposed to silicone oil-water interfaces (siliconized syringe walls), air-water interfaces (air bubbles), and agitation stress (occurring during end-over-end rotation). Using flow microscopy, particles (?2 ?m diameter) were detected under all conditions. The highest particle concentrations were found in agitated, siliconized syringes containing an air bubble. The particles formed in this condition consisted of silicone oil droplets and aggregated protein, as well as agglomerates of protein aggregates and silicone oil. We propose an interfacial mechanism of particle generation in PFS in which capillary forces at the three-phase (silicone oil-water-air) contact line remove silicone oil and gelled protein aggregates from the interface and transport them into the bulk. This mechanism explains the synergistic effects of silicone oil-water interfaces, air-water interfaces, and agitation in the generation of particles in protein formulations. PMID:24729310

Gerhardt, Alana; Mcgraw, Nicole R; Schwartz, Daniel K; Bee, Jared S; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

2014-06-01

75

Transmission ionization chambers for measurements of air collision kerma integrated over beam area. Factors limiting the accuracy of calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kerma - area product meters (KAP meters) are frequently used in diagnostic radiology to measure the integral of air-collision kerma over an area perpendicular to the x-ray beam. In this work, a precise method for calibrating a KAP meter to measure is described and calibration factors determined for a broad range of tube potentials (40 - 200 kV). The integral is determined using a large number of TL dosimeters spread over and outside the nominal field area defined as the area within 50% of maximum . The method is compared to a simplified calibration method which approximates the integral by multiplying the kerma in the centre of the field by the nominal field area . While the calibration factor using the precise method is independent of field area and distance from the source, that using the simplified method depends on both. This can be accounted for by field inhomogeneities caused by the heel effect, extrafocal radiation and scattered radiation from the KAP meter. The deviations between the calibration factors were as large as for collimator apertures of and distances from the source of 50 - 160 cm. The uncertainty in the calibration factor using the precise method was carefully evaluated and the expanded relative uncertainty estimated to be with a confidence level of 95%.

Larsson, J. Peter; Persliden, Jan; Sandborg, Michael; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

1996-11-01

76

Harmonisation of factor VIII:C assay results: study within the framework of the Dutch project 'Calibration 2000'.  

PubMed

In a Dutch project for harmonisation of factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) assays, the commutability of potential calibrators for FVIII:C was assessed by means of a 'twin-study design', which is in essence a multi-centre, split-patient sample, between-field-methods protocol. Commutability was defined as the degree to which a material yielded the same numerical relationships between results of measurements by a given set of measurement procedures as those between the expectations of the relationships for the same procedures applied to those types of material for which the procedures were intended. The study consisted of the simultaneous analysis of fresh frozen patient plasmas and three potential calibrators for FVIII:C by 16 Dutch laboratories forming eight couples. The state-of-the-art intra-laboratory standard deviation was used to assess the commutability of the potential calibrators. One potential calibrator was used to harmonise FVIII:C assay results in a Dutch field study. The inter-laboratory coefficient of variation of two test samples could be reduced significantly, but no significant effect was observed with three other test samples. We recommend that at least three different sample dilutions be used in each FVIII:C assay, in agreement with previous recommendations. PMID:16371022

van den Besselaar, Anton M H P; Haas, Fred J L M; Kuypers, Aldy W H M

2006-01-01

77

Survival of Hepatitis C Virus in Syringes: Implication for Transmission among Injection Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Background We hypothesized that the high prevalence of HCV among injection drug users (IDUs) might be due to prolonged virus survival in contaminated syringes. Methods We developed a microculture assay to examine the viability of HCV. Syringes were loaded with blood spiked with HCV reporter virus (Jc1/GLuc2A) to simulate two scenarios of residual volumes; low (2 ?l) void volume for 1-ml insulin syringes, and high (32 ?l) void volume for 1-ml tuberculin syringes. Syringes were stored at 4°C, 22°C, and 37°C for up to 63 days before testing for HCV infectivity using luciferase activity. Results The virus decay rate was biphasic (t½ ? = 0.4h and t½? = 28h). Insulin syringes failed to yield viable HCV beyond day one at all storage temperatures except for 4o in which 5% of syringes yielded viable virus on day 7. Tuberculin syringes yielded viable virus from 96%, 71%, and 52% of syringes following storage at 4o, 22° and 37o for 7 days, respectively, and yielded viable virus up to day 63. Conclusions The high prevalence of HCV among IDUs may be partly due to the resilience of the virus and the syringe type. Our findings may be used to guide prevention strategies.

Paintsil, Elijah; He, Huijie; Peters, Christopher; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Heimer, Robert

2010-01-01

78

Demonstration of compatibility of multiple arterial blood gas syringes with current multi-parameter analyzers.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Since there is a lack of current evidence to support the compatibility of the most commonly used arterial blood gas syringes with the latest multi-parameter analyzers, the objective of this study was to assess the agreement of analyte values between three heparinized arterial blood gas syringes using three different analyzers. Methods: Venous blood from 25 healthy volunteers was drawn into the study syringes (BD Drihep A-Line * , PICO50, and Portex Line Draw Plus (†) ) by four clinician volunteers in a random order (441 total) and immediately (<15 minutes) analyzed (ABL800 FLEX, RAPIDPoint 500 (‡) , i-STAT System (§) ) in a randomized order. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess agreement of analyte values between the syringes for each analyzer. The results by analyte and analyzer were compared across syringes using one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's approach was used to identify statistically significant differences between pairs of syringes. Results: Comparison of the syringes' mean differences and standard deviations showed close agreement for all three analyzers. There were no statistically significant differences between syringes in 14 of the analytes for any of the analyzers (p?>?0.05). For RAPIDPoint and i-STAT, the Ca(2+) value was significantly less for A-Line than for the other syringes. The value for Na(+) was significantly greater for the PICO50 than the A-Line and Line Draw syringes with the i-STAT. Both results were within two standard deviations of the mean of the other two syringes and are not considered clinically significant; however, comparisons were not made between the values from the different analyzers. Conclusions: Dry-balanced lithium heparin ABG syringes used for blood draws should provide reliable results, regardless of syringe type, provided that the clinicians use proper pre-analytical techniques. PMID:24628565

Seiberlich, Laura E; Cifaldi, Lisa M

2014-07-01

79

Rheological and syringeability properties of highly concentrated human polyclonal immunoglobulin solutions.  

PubMed

This study of highly concentrated polyvalent immunoglobulin solutions, IgG, aimed at analyzing the relationships between protein concentration and aggregation on the one hand and viscosity on the other hand. Viscosity variations as a function of IgG concentration showed two well-defined behaviours: a Newtonian behaviour for low-concentrated solutions and a shear-thinning behaviour for highly concentrated ones. The viscosity data fitted very well with the Mooney model, suggesting the absence of intermolecular interactions in the IgG solutions that behaved like a non-interacting suspension of hard particles. The polyclonal nature of IgG seems to prevent intermolecular interaction. The shape factor, determined from Mooney fitting, revealed a non-spherical shape of the polyclonal IgG molecules. The rheological properties were also correlated with the injection force (F) through hypodermic needles by syringeability tests. Here, F was mainly affected by three parameters: the solution viscosity, the injection flow rate, and the needle characteristics. In fact, syringeability tests showed that F increased with IgG concentration and flow rate and decreased with the internal diameter of the needle. A zone for optimal injection conditions was then identified taking into account the different affecting parameters and mainly a maximum force for manual injection, which was fixed at 30N. PMID:20719247

Burckbuchler, V; Mekhloufi, G; Giteau, A Paillard; Grossiord, J L; Huille, S; Agnely, F

2010-11-01

80

Application of Voxel Phantoms to Study the Influence of Heterogeneous Distribution of Actinides in Lungs on In Vivo Counting Calibration Factors Using Animal Experimentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibration of lung counting system dedicated to retention assessment of actinides in the lungs remains critical due to large uncertainties in calibration factors. Among them, the detector positioning, the chest wall thickness and composition (muscle\\/fat) assessment, and the distribution of the contamination are the main parameters influencing the detector response. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a numerical approach based

S. Lamart; N. Pierrat; L. de Carlan; N. Dudoignon; D. Franck; S. Rateau; A. Van der Meeren; E. Rouit; M. Bottlaender

81

A comparison of syringe disposal practices among injection drug users in a city with versus a city without needle and syringe programs  

PubMed Central

Background The United States (U.S.) approved use of federal funds for needle and syringe programs (NSPs) in December 2009. This study compares syringe disposal practices in a U.S. city with NSPs to a U.S. city without NSPs by examining the prevalence of improperly discarded syringes in public places and the self-reported syringe disposal practices of injection drug users (IDUs) in the two cities. Methods We conducted visual inspection walkthroughs in a random sample of the top-quartile of drug-affected neighborhoods in San Francisco, California (a city with NSPs) and Miami, Florida (a city without NSPs). We also conducted quantitative surveys of adult IDUs in San Francisco (N=602) and Miami (N=448). Results In the visual inspections, we found 44 syringes/1000 census blocks in San Francisco, and 371/1000 census blocks in Miami. Survey results showed that in San Francisco 13% of syringes IDUs reported using in the 30 days preceding the study interviews were disposed of improperly versus 95% of syringes by IDUs in Miami. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, IDUs in Miami had over 34 times the adjusted odds of public syringe disposal relative to IDUs in San Francisco (adjusted odds ratio=34.2, 95% CI = 21.92, 53.47). Conclusions We found eight-fold more improperly disposed syringes on walkthroughs in the city without NSPs compared to the city with NSPs, which was corroborated by survey data. NSPs may help IDUs dispose of their syringes safely in cities with large numbers of IDUs.

Tookes, Hansel E.; Kral, Alex H.; Wenger, Lynn D.; Cardenas, Gabriel A.; Martinez, Alexis N.; Sherman, Recinda L.; Pereyra, Margaret; Forrest, David W.; Lalota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R.

2012-01-01

82

Experimental determination of mode correction factors for thermal method spring constant calibration of AFM cantilevers using laser Doppler vibrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mode correction factors (MCFs) represent a significant adjustment to the spring constant values measured using the thermal cantilever calibration method. Usually, the ideal factor of 0.971 for a tipless rectangular cantilever is used, which adjusts the value by 3% for the first flexural mode. An experimental method for determining MCFs has been developed that relies on measuring the areas under the first few resonance peaks for the flexural mode type. Using this method, it has been shown that MCFs for the first flexural mode of commercially available atomic force microscope cantilevers actually vary from 0.95 to 1.0, depending on the shape and end mass of the cantilever. Triangular shaped cantilevers tend to lower MCFs with tipless versions providing the lowest values. Added masses (including tips) tend to increase the first flexural mode’s MCF to higher values with large colloid probes at the high extreme. Using this understanding and applying it to the recently developed laser Doppler vibrometry thermal calibration method it is now possible to achieve very accurate and precise cantilever spring constant calibrations (uncertainties close to ±1%) with commonly available commercial cantilevers such as tipped rectangular and triangular cantilevers, and colloid probes.

Gates, Richard S.; Osborn, William A.; Pratt, Jon R.

2013-06-01

83

Stability of Cefazolin Sodium in Polypropylene Syringes and Polyvinylchloride Minibags  

PubMed Central

Background: Cefazolin is a semisynthetic penicillin derivative with a narrow spectrum of activity covering some gram-positive organisms and a few gram-negative aerobic bacteria. Objective: To determine the physical and chemical stability of cefazolin sodium reconstituted with sterile water for injection and stored in polypropylene syringes or diluted with either 5% dextrose in water (D5W) or 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) and stored in polyvinylchloride (PVC) minibags. Methods: Reconstituted solutions of cefazolin (100 or 200 mg/mL) were packaged in polypropylene syringes. More dilute solutions (20 or 40 mg/mL) were prepared in D5W or NS and packaged in PVC minibags. For each concentration–diluent–container combination, 3 containers were designated for each day of analysis (days 7, 14, 21, and 30). Containers were stored under refrigeration (5°C) with protection from light until the designated day of analysis, at which time one 5-mL sample was collected from each the designated container. The designated containers were then stored at room temperature (21°C to 25°C) with exposure to light for an additional 72 h, and additional samples were drawn. The samples were assayed using a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The colour and clarity of the solutions, as well as their pH, were also monitored on each sampling day. Results: All samples remained clear for the duration of the study; they had a slight yellow colour that darkened over time, and there was an increase in pH. Solutions diluted with sterile water for injection and stored in polypropylene syringes retained at least 94.5% of the initial concentration after 30 days of refrigerated storage and at least 92.1% after an additional 72 h at room temperature with exposure to light. Samples diluted in D5W or NS and stored in PVC minibags retained at least 95.8% of the initial concentration after 30 days of refrigerated storage and at least 91.8% after an additional 72 h at room temperature with exposure to light. Conclusions: Cefazolin at various concentrations stored in polypropylene syringes or PVC minibags was stable for up to 30 days with storage at 5°C with protection from light, followed by an additional 72 h at 21°C to 25°C with exposure to light.

Donnelly, Ronald F

2011-01-01

84

A national physician survey on prescribing syringes as an HIV prevention measure  

PubMed Central

Background Access to sterile syringes is a proven means of reducing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), viral hepatitis, and bacterial infections among injection drug users. In many U.S. states and territories, drug paraphernalia and syringe prescription laws are barriers to syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs): pharmacists may be reluctant to sell syringes to suspected IDUs, and police may confiscate syringes or arrest IDUs who cannot demonstrate a "legitimate" medical need for the syringes they possess. These barriers can be addressed by physician prescription of syringes. This study evaluates physicians' willingness to prescribe syringes, using the theory of planned behavior to identify key behavioral influences. Methods We mailed a survey to a representative sample of physicians from the American Medical Association physician database. Non-responding physicians were then called, faxed, or re-sent the survey, up to four times. Results Twenty percent responded to the survey. Although less than 1 percent of respondents had ever prescribed syringes to a known injection drug user, more than 60% of respondents reported that they would be willing to do so. Physicians' willingness to prescribe syringes was best predicted by the belief that it was a feasible and effective intervention, but individual and peer attitudes were also significant. Conclusion This was the first nationwide survey of the physician willingness to prescribe syringes to IDUs. While the majority of respondents were willing to consider syringe prescription in their clinical practices, multiple challenges need to be addressed in order to improve physician knowledge and attitudes toward IDUs.

Macalino, GE; Sachdev, D Dhawan; Rich, JD; Becker, C; Tan, LJ; Beletsky, L; Burris, S

2009-01-01

85

Long-term survey of a syringe-dispensing machine needle exchange program: answering public concerns  

PubMed Central

Background Syringe-dispensing machines (SDM) provide syringes at any time even to hard-to-reach injecting drug users (IDUs). They represent an important harm reduction strategy in large populated urban areas such as Paris. We analyzed the performance of one of the world's largest SDM schemes based in Paris over 12 years to understand its efficiency and its limitations, to answer public and stakeholder concerns and optimize its outputs. Methods Parisian syringe dispensing and exchange machines were monitored as well as their sharp disposals and associated bins over a 12-year period. Moreover, mechanical counting devices were installed on specific syringe-dispensing/exchange machines to record the characteristics of the exchange process. Results Distribution and needle exchange have risen steadily by 202% for the distribution and 2,000% for syringe recovery even without a coin counterpart. However, 2 machines out of 34 generate 50% of the total activity of the scheme. It takes 14 s for an IDU to collect a syringe, while the average user takes 3.76 syringes per session 20 min apart. Interestingly, collection time stops early in the evening (19 h) for the entire night. Conclusions SDMs had an increasing distribution role during daytime as part of the harm reduction strategy in Paris with efficient recycling capacities of used syringes and a limited number of kits collected by IDU. Using counting devices to monitor Syringe Exchange Programs (SEPs) is a very helpful tool to optimize use and answer public and stakeholder concerns.

2014-01-01

86

Effectiveness of needle/syringe exchange program in Tbilisi.  

PubMed

IDUs are under the high risk of HIV and other blood born diseases. In Georgia injecting drug use is associated with two third of registered HIV/AIDS cases. Majority of them are also infected with B and C Hepatitis. One of the main components of HIV/AIDS prevention among drug users is considered to be harm reduction programs, among them syringe exchange program. We conducted observational cohort study and performed interviewing participants of syringe exchange program using structured questionnaire. The interviewing was conducted at intake, after 3 months and at the end of the program. During interviewing we used risk assessment questionnaire which we have little adapted (Risk Assessment Battery, Navaline, et al, 1994). The data were statistically analysed using SPPS-11, 5 program. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of outreach and needle exchange programs in terms of reduction of HIV risk behavior of injection drug users in Tbilisi. The results of the study show visible reduction in injection risk behavior for clients being in the program for at least three months. There was not seen any significant change in the level of sexual risk behavior, which might suggest the need for targeting this behavior during the further interventions. The results of the study suggest a visible potential benefit to drug users and communities that could be gained through the wide scale implementation of harm reduction programs in Georgia. PMID:17179591

Otiashvili, D; Gambashidze, N; Kapanadze, E; Lomidze, G; Usharidze, D

2006-11-01

87

NBS measurements of sample geometry effects on ionization chamber calibrations  

SciTech Connect

Commercial ionization chambers in the US generally calibrated with glass ampoules containing 5 ml of solution. The US National Bureau of Standards (NBS) provides radioactivity standards for use in nuclear medicine quality control. These standards consist of 5 ml of solution in flame-sealed ampoules, with the exception of radioxenons, which are provided as 5 ml of gas. There may be significant differences in calibration factors between NBS ampoules and other containers assayed with these chambers. The NBS has participated in two projects that demonstrate the effects of container dependence in ionization-chamber measurements. The first project, to be discussed in detail between NBS and E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company Inc. (du Pont), compared the indicated activity of /sup 57/Co and /sup 99m/Tc samples in NBS 5-ml ampoules, syringes, du Pont Vial-E epoxy- and solution-filled containers. The second project was a calibration exercise in which NBS compared the NBS 5-ml ampoule to Vial-E samples, which are provided by three commercial suppliers. Results are presented.

Calhoun, J.M.

1986-01-01

88

Determination of the Specific Heat Ratio of a Gas in a Plastic Syringe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid compression or expansion of a gas in a plastic syringe is a poor approximation of an adiabatic process. Heat exchange with the walls of the syringe brings the gas to equilibrium in an amount of time that is not significantly greater than the length of the compression or expansion itself. Despite this limitation, it is still possible to…

Chamberlain, Jeff

2010-01-01

89

Materials Science Cements Containing Syringic Acid Esters- o-Ethoxybenzoic Acid and Zinc Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fissure caries is reduced when syringic acid is incorporated into a cariogenic diet of rats. It was therefore of interest to synthesize n-hexyl and 2-ethylhexyl syringate and to evaluate the properties of cements with these compounds as ingredients. Liquids containing the esters dissolved in o-ethoxybenzoic acid (EBA) - when mixed with powders made up from zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, and

G. M. Brauer; J. W. Stansbury

1984-01-01

90

The Washington Needle Depot: fitting healthcare to injection drug users rather than injection drug users to healthcare: moving from a syringe exchange to syringe distribution model  

PubMed Central

Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (IDUs) must provide used needles in order to receive new needles. Distribution and retrieval are co-existent in the exchange model. Likewise, limitations on how many needles can be received at a time compel addicts to have multiple points of contact with professionals where the virtues of treatment and detox are impressed upon them. The centre of gravity for syringe distribution programs needs to shift from needle exchange to needle distribution, which provides unlimited access to syringes. This paper provides a case study of the Washington Needle Depot, a program operating under the syringe distribution model, showing that the distribution and retrieval of syringes can be separated with effective results. Further, the experience of IDUs is utilized, through paid employment, to provide a vulnerable population of people with clean syringes to prevent HIV and HCV.

2010-01-01

91

Plausible authentication of manuka honey and related products by measuring leptosperin with methyl syringate.  

PubMed

Manuka honey, obtained from Leptospermum scoparium flowers in New Zealand, has strong antibacterial properties. In this study, plausible authentication of the manuka honey was inspected by measuring leptosperin, methyl syringate 4-O-?-D-gentiobiose, along with methyl syringate. Despite a gradual decrease in methyl syringate content over 30 days at 50 °C, even at moderate 37 °C, leptosperin remained stable. A considerable correlation between nonperoxide antibacterial activity and leptosperin content was observed in 20 certified manuka honey samples. Leptosperin and methyl syringate in manuka honey and related products were analyzed using HPLC connected with mass spectrometry. One noncertified brand displayed significant variations in the leptosperin and methyl syringate contents between two samples obtained from different regions. Therefore, certification is clearly required to protect consumers from disguised and/or low-quality honey. Because leptosperin is stable during storage and specific to manuka honey, its measurement may be applicable for manuka honey authentication. PMID:24941263

Kato, Yoji; Fujinaka, Rie; Ishisaka, Akari; Nitta, Yoko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Takimoto, Yosuke

2014-07-01

92

Dual Syringe Electrospinning of FNfds-modified Hyaluronic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We described the fabrication of a unique HA nanofibrous scaffold using dual syringe reactive electrospinning. 3^'-dithiobis(propanoic dihydrazide)-modified HA (HA-DTPH) and Poly (ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) were selected as the cross-linking system. PEO was blended with HA-DTPH to facilitate the fiber formation. Fibronectin functional domains (FNfds) were incorporated with PEGDA and covalently linked to HA via conjugate addition to improve the cell attachment. The as-spun scaffold was soaked into DI water to remove PEO and yield an FNfds-modified HA-DTPH nanofibrous scaffold. Human dermal fibroblasts CF31 were seeded on FNfds-modified HA-DTPH scaffolds. The CF31 fibroblasts showed a unique extended dendritic morphology which is opposed to the typical flattened morphology of cells on regular 2D geometries. Supported by NSF-MRSEC.

Ji, Yuan; Ghosh, Kaustabh; Shu, Xiaozheng; Sokolov, Jonathan; Prestwich, Glenn; Clark, Richard; Rafailovich, Miriam

2006-03-01

93

Calculation of 18F, 99mTc, 111In and 123I calibration factor using the penelope ionization chamber simulation method.  

PubMed

A new method using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE for ionization chamber simulation has already been successfully used for calculating calibration factors needed for the measurements of radionuclides with photon emission (2003, Appl. Radiat. Isot., to be published). This work has been continued at (Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel) in order to calculate the calibration factors for radionuclides with short half-lives used in medical services. Activity measurements of 18F, 99mTc,111In and 123I using the calculated calibration factors were obtained with standard uncertainties equal to 0.6% for 18F, 99mTc and 1.5% for 111In and 123I. PMID:14987697

Amiot, M N

2004-01-01

94

Identification of an extraneous black particle in a glass syringe: extractables/leachables case study.  

PubMed

An unexpected, black particle (?300 microns) was visually observed adhering to the interior shoulder of a prefilled glass syringe containing a biological drug product. The goal of this study was to determine the source, identity, and leachables of the black particle. The particle originated from a polymeric pin used during the syringe manufacturing process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra comparison of the black particle and polymeric pin correlated to a database match of Nylon-MXD6 with glass fibers. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy analyses identified Nylon-MXD6 and Nylon-6 photo-oxidized-related compounds in both the pin extract and syringe solution. The black particle originated from the pin and contained glass fibers, Nylon-MXD6, and Nylon-6. All nylon-related compounds were observed at <260 ng/mL (ppb) in the syringe solution. Syringes without black particles contained no detectable levels of nylon-related compounds, suggesting that routine contact between a pin and syringe barrel may not lead to syringe contamination or leachables originating from the pin. Abnormal heat exposure and/or extensive pin usage may have led to pin wear and tear. PMID:21502024

Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Torraca, Gianni; Liu, Dengfeng; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Zhongqi; Wen, Zai-Qing; Lee, Hans

2010-01-01

95

Evaluation of a filter-syringe set for preparation of packed cell aliquots for neonatal transfusion.  

PubMed

A closed-system filter-syringe set designed for preparation of prefiltered aliquots of packed red cells for neonatal transfusion was evaluated. In three experiments, filter-syringe sets were sterile-connected, and aliquots were prepared at six intervals during 35-day storage of CPDA-1 packed cells. Hemoglobin (HGB), supernatant potassium (K+), and free hemoglobin (fHGB) in the aliquot and primary storage container were compared. There was no tubing weld failure, filter-occlusion, or bacterial contamination of the units. Hemoglobin remained stable over 35 days of storage, with comparable values in the primary collection container and syringe aliquot. Supernatant potassium in the units increased to an average of 89.5 mEq/L at 35 days, and levels in the aliquots closely matched those in the primary containers at each storage interval (maximum average 91.8 mEq/L). Free hemoglobin also progressively and comparably increased in both the primary containers and syringe aliquots. The gentle negative pressure and turbulence during use of the filter-syringe set apparently causes little hemolysis. The set simplifies preparation of aliquots for neonatal small volume and syringe-pump transfusion at costs comparable to alternative preparation methods. When sterile-connected, the filter-syringe set facilitates "assigned unit" inventory management for neonatal transfusion, which has been shown to be highly effective in limiting donor exposures. PMID:7677111

Chambers, L A

1995-09-01

96

A treatment re-engagement intervention for syringe exchangers  

PubMed Central

Poor sustained treatment engagement limits the effectiveness of all modalities of substance abuse treatment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel treatment re-engagement intervention for a subset of syringe exchange program (SEP) participants (n = 113) that had enrolled in treatment as part of a 4-month clinical trial (Kidorf et al., 2009). Three re-engagement conditions for participants leaving treatment were compared. Motivational referral (MRC) participants (n = 31) could attend group sessions that focused on renewing treatment-interest. MRC plus incentive (MRC+I) participants (n = 49) could receive modest monetary incentives for attending these sessions and re-enrolling in treatment. Standard referral (SCR) participants (n = 33) could not attend groups or receive incentives. Across a one-year observation window, almost all study participants (86%) were discharged from treatment. MRC+I participants attended more group sessions than MRC participants, and were considerably more likely to re-enroll in treatment than participants in the other study conditions. Re-engagement strategies can further enhance the public health benefits of SEPs by increasing rates of treatment participation over time.

King, Van L.; Peirce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K.

2011-01-01

97

In vivo evaluation of a microneedle-based miniature syringe for intradermal drug delivery.  

PubMed

A microfabrication process for miniature syringes is described. The MEMS syringes consist of a silicon plate with an array of hollow out-of-plane needles and a flexible poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) reservoir attached to the back of the plate. The PDMS reservoir can be filled with a drug solution or microparticle suspension which is delivered into the skin simply by the pressure of a finger pushing on the miniature syringe. The efficiency of such a syringe for delivering a suspension of microparticles into skin tissue and a radiolabelled protein (albumin) solution into live mice is reported. Such microneedle devices could be used for the intradermal delivery of vaccination agents or for the systemic delivery of highly effective drugs. PMID:19347587

Häfeli, Urs O; Mokhtari, Amir; Liepmann, Dorian; Stoeber, Boris

2009-10-01

98

Comparison of Response Surface Methodology and a One-Factor-At-A-Time Approach as Calibration Techniques for the Bioplume-II Simulation Model of Contaminant Biodegradation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis compared Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to the one-factor-at-a-time approach for calibrating the Bioplume-II simulation model of contaminant biodegradation. The MADE-2 data set from Columbus Air Force Base, Mississippi was used. The one-fa...

B. Shuman

1995-01-01

99

Analysis of gene functions by a syringe infiltration method of VIGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for characterization of functional genes in tomato. In this study,\\u000a we improved the syringe infiltration method on detached tomato fruits. With PDS (phytoene desaturase gene) used as a reporter gene, harvested mature green tomato fruits were syringe-infiltrated with agrobacterium\\u000a strain GV3101 containing pTRV1 and pTRV2-LePDS, which resulted in color changing on the

X. G. Wang; H. L. Zhu; Y. Shao; A. J. Chen; Y. Z. Ma; Y. B. Luo; B. Z. Zhu

2010-01-01

100

Pharmacy Participation in Non-Prescription Syringe Sales in Los Angeles and San Francisco Counties, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing sterile syringe access for injection drug users (IDUs) is one way to prevent HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission\\u000a in this population. In 2005, California Senate Bill 1159 allowed counties to adopt the Disease Prevention Demonstration Project\\u000a (DPDP). Where enacted, the DPDP allows pharmacies that register with the county to sell up to ten syringes to adults without

Erin N. Cooper; Chaka Dodson; Thomas J. Stopka; Elise D. Riley; Richard S. Garfein; Ricky N. Bluthenthal

2010-01-01

101

Calibration of Subsurface Amplification Factors Using Surface/Borehole Strong-motion Records from the KiK-net  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Real-time Earthquake Information System (REIS, Horiuchi et al., 2005) detects earthquakes and determines event parameters using the Hi-net (High-sensitivity seismograph network Japan) data in Japan. The system also predicts the arrival time and seismic intensity at a given site before ground motions arrive. Here, the seismic intensity is estimated based on the intensity magnitude which is derived from data of the Hi-net. As the Hi-net stations are located in the boreholes, intensity estimation on the ground surface is evaluated using a constant for subsurface amplification. But the estimated intensities based on the conventionally used amplification constants are not always in agreement with those observed at specific sites on the ground surface. The KiK-net (KIBAN Kyoshin network Japan) consists of strong motion instruments. Each station has two sets of accelerometers, one set is installed on the ground surface and the other one is co-located with a Hi-net station in the borehole. We use data recorded at the KiK-net stations to calibrate subsurface site amplification factors between the borehole and the ground surface. We selected data recorded for over 200 events during the period of 1997 to 2006 in Hiroshima prefecture and calculated the ratios of peak velocity amplitudes on the ground surface ( Asurf) to those in the borehole ( Abor). The subsurface amplification varies from station to station showing dependency on the propagation distance as well as on the incident direction of seismic waves. Results suggest that the site amplification factors shall be described as a function of distance and incident direction, and are not constants. Thus, we derived empirical amplification formulas between Asurf and the peak velocity amplitudes on the engineering bedrock ( Abed) as a function of distance in place of the conventionally used amplification constants. Here, the engineering bedrock is defined as the depth where the S- wave velocity is 600 m/s. The estimated intensities show substantial improvement in the accuracy at most stations as compared with those calculated using conventional constants. When the amplification dependence on the incident direction was accounted for, the estimated intensities somewhat improved. This calibration will help an earthquake early warning system such as REIS provide more accurate intensity estimates.

Hayashida, T.; Tajima, F.

2007-12-01

102

A syringe injection rate detector employing a dual Hall-effect sensor configuration.  

PubMed

Injection of fluids in the body using needle syringes is a standard clinical practice. The rate of injection can have various pathological effects on the body such as the pain perceived or in case of anesthesia, the amount of akinesia attained. Hence, a training system with a modified syringe employing a simple measurement scheme where a trainee can observe and practice the rate of injection prior to administering on actual human subjects, can be of great value towards reduction of complications in real life situations. In this paper, we develop a system for measurement of syringe injection rate with two Hall-effect sensors. Ring magnets attached to the body of the syringe along with the dual Hall-effect sensor configuration help in determining the position of the piston with respect to the syringe body. The two Hall-sensors are arranged in a differential configuration such that a linear relationship is obtained between the volume of liquid in the syringe (in ml) and the Hall-effect sensor output voltages. A prototype developed validated the measurement scheme. The rate of injection was displayed in real-time with a LabVIEW based Virtual Instrument. The error was within acceptable limits illustrating its efficacy for practical training purposes. PMID:24110792

Mukherjee, Biswarup; George, Boby; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

2013-01-01

103

In-syringe-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of six phthalates in water samples.  

PubMed

A fully automated method for the determination of six phthalates in environmental water samples is described. It is based in the novel sample preparation concept of in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, coupled as a front end to GC-MS, enabling the integration of the extraction steps and sample injection in an instrumental setup that is easy to operate. Dispersion was achieved by aspiration of the organic (extractant and disperser) and the aqueous phase into the syringe very rapidly. The denser-than-water organic droplets released in the extraction step, were accumulated at the head of the syringe, where the sedimented fraction was transferred to a rotary micro-volume injection valve where finally was introduced by an air stream into the injector of the GC through a stainless-steel tubing used as interface. Factors affecting the microextraction efficiency were optimized using multivariate optimization. Figures of merit of the proposed method were evaluated under optimal conditions, achieving a detection limit in the range of 0.03-0.10 ?g/L, while the RSD% value was below 5% (n = 5). A good linearity (0.9956 ? r(2) ? 0.9844) and a broad linear working range (0.5-120 ?g/L) were obtained. The method exhibited enrichment factors and recoveries, ranging from 14.11-16.39 and 88-102%, respectively. PMID:24520043

Clavijo, Sabrina; del Rosario Brunetto, María; Cerdà, Víctor

2014-04-01

104

SCORE Study Report 7: Incidence of Intravitreal Silicone Oil Droplets Associated With Staked-on Versus Luer Cone Syringe Design  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To evaluate the incidence of intravitreal silicone oil (SO) droplets associated with intravitreal injections using a staked-on versus luer cone syringe design in the Standard Care versus COrticosteroid in REtinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE) Study. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, phase III clinical trial. METHODS The incidence of intravitreal SO was compared among participants exposed to the staked-on syringe design, the luer cone syringe design, or both of the syringe designs in the SCORE Study, which evaluated intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection(s) for vision loss secondary to macular edema associated with central or branch retinal vein occlusion. Injections were given at baseline and 4-month intervals, based on treatment assignment and study-defined re-treatment criteria. Because intravitreal SO was observed following injections in some participants, investigators were instructed, on September 22, 2006, to look for intravitreal SO at all study visits. On November 1, 2007, the luer cone syringe design replaced the staked-on syringe design. RESULTS 464 participants received a total of 1205 injections between November 4, 2004 and February 28, 2009. Intravitreal SO was noted in 141/319 (44%) participants exposed only to staked-on syringes, 11/87 (13%) exposed to both syringe designs, and 0/58 exposed only to luer cone syringes (p<0.0001). Among participants with first injections after September 22, 2006, intravitreal SO was noted in 65/114 (57%) injected only with staked-on syringes compared with 0/58 injected only with luer cone syringes. Differential follow-up is unlikely to explain these results. CONCLUSION In the SCORE Study, luer cone syringe design is associated with a lower frequency of intravitreal SO droplet occurrence compared with the staked-on syringe design, likely due to increased residual space in the needle hub with the luer cone design.

Scott, Ingrid U.; Oden, Neal L.; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C.; Ip, Michael S.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Antoszyk, Andrew N.

2009-01-01

105

Strong composition-dependent variation of MCs + calibration factors in TiO x and GeO x ( x ? 2) films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of MCs + secondary ions (M designates the analyte species) from TiO x (0.2 ? x ? 2) and GeO x (0.001 ? x ? 0.8) films under Cs + bombardment was examined. The relative calibration factors of OCs +/TiCs + and OCs +/GeCs + were determined and were found to depend pronouncedly on the O/Ti and O/Ge atomic concentration ratios. Specifically, with increasing oxygen content OCs + ions form much more efficiently (as compared to TiCs + or GeCs + ions), an enhancement amounting to more than a factor of 10 for the highest oxygen concentrations. Concurrently, the formation of TiOCs + or GeOCs + ions increases drastically. For both oxide systems, an empirical relation for the oxygen-concentration dependence of the relative calibration factors could be established.

Gnaser, Hubert; Le, Yongkang; Su, Weifeng

2006-07-01

106

Non-prescription Syringe Sales in California: A Qualitative Examination of Practices among 12 Local Health Jurisdictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention\\u000a designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California’s 61 local health jurisdictions\\u000a (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination\\u000a in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to

Valerie J. Rose; Glenn Backes; Alexis Martinez; Willi McFarland

2010-01-01

107

Development and calibration of a standard for the protein content of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor products.  

PubMed

This collaborative study characterizes a homogeneous standard for the protein content determination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) products with traceability of the measurement. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the average protein content of G-CSF bulk as 2.505 mg/ml (95% C.I: 2.467-2.543 mg/ml, GCV 4.0%). Using G-CSF bulk as a traceability benchmark, the protein content of the final freeze-dried standard using reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) was 215.4 ?g protein per ampoule (95% C.I: 212.407-218.486 ?g/ampoule, GCV 3.4%). A comparative study showed that there was no difference between using Filgrastim CRS (European Pharmacopeia G-CSF reference standard) and freeze-dried homogeneous standard when quantifying G-CSF protein content by RP-HPLC (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in the G-CSF protein content obtained using a serum albumin standard by Lowry assay and a G-CSF standard with RP-HPLC. Therefore, use of RP-HPLC with a freeze-dried homogeneous standard would eliminate the systematic errors introduced when using a serum albumin standard because of the differences in protein composition between the standard and the sample. It would also be helpful to use this method to compare the quality of G-CSF biosimilar products in situations where the protein content has been calibrated using various standards. PMID:22296785

Gao, Kai; Rao, Chunming; Tao, Lei; Han, Chunmei; Shi, Xinchang; Wang, Lan; Fan, Wenhong; Yu, Lei; Wang, Junzhi

2012-03-01

108

Calibration and test of DIFAR sonobuoys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method for calibrating and testing DIFAR sonobuoy multiplexer without sea or water is proposed. For this purpose; the architecture of DIFAR sonobuoy is introduced, calibration factors are expressed, calibration and test environment in terms of hardware and software are described, calibration and test procedure is explained, and finally, advantages and disadvantages of the proposed calibration and

Ahmet Kuzu; Uveys Danis; Engin Kurt; Engin Karabulut; Demet Sahinkaya; Eyup Bilgic; Ahmet Kaplaner; Serdar Birecik

2011-01-01

109

SAR calibration technology review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) calibration technology including a general description of the primary calibration techniques and some of the factors which affect the performance of calibrated SAR systems are reviewed. The use of reference reflectors for measurement of the total system transfer function along with an on-board calibration signal generator for monitoring the temporal variations of the receiver to processor output is a practical approach for SAR calibration. However, preliminary error analysis and previous experimental measurements indicate that reflectivity measurement accuracies of better than 3 dB will be difficult to achieve. This is not adequate for many applications and, therefore, improved end-to-end SAR calibration techniques are required.

Walker, J. L.; Larson, R. W.

1981-01-01

110

Experience of unpleasant sensations in the mouth after injection of saline from prefilled syringes  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses at The Norwegian Radium Hospital have reported that some patients notice an unpleasant smell or taste in accordance with flushing of intravenous lines with commercially available prefilled syringes. We have conducted a study in healthy volunteers to investigate the occurrence, consistency and intensity of this phenomenon. Methods A randomised, blinded, crossover study comparing commercial available prefilled saline 9 mg/ml syringes to saline 9 mg/ml for injection in polyethylene package was performed in 10 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were given intravenous injections of varying volume and speed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and also Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test to compare groups. Results After intravenous injection, 2 of 15 recordings demonstrated any sensation of smell or taste after injection of saline from polyethylene package, while 14 of 15 recordings noted a sensation after injection of saline from prefilled syringes. The intensity of the unpleasant sensation was rated significantly higher after injection of saline from prefilled syringes compared to saline from polyethylene (p = 0.001). Conclusions Injection of saline from prefilled syringes in healthy volunteers resulted in an experience of bad taste or smell. It is important that nurses and health workers are aware of the phenomenon as described in this article in order to choose the preferred product for a given patient.

2010-01-01

111

Calibration factors for determination of relativistic particle induced fission rates in natU, 235U, 232Th, natPb and 197Au foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration factors w, for determination of fission rate in metallic foils of natU, 235U, 232Th, natPb and 197Au were determined for foils in contact with synthetic mica track detectors. Proton-induced fission at proton energies of 0.7 GeV and 1.5 GeV were used. Using our experimental results as well as those of the other authors, w for different foil-mica systems were determined. Two methods were used to calculate w, relative to the calibration factor for uranium-mica system, which has been obtained in a standard neutron field of energy 14.7 MeV. One of these methods requires the knowledge of the mean range of the fission fragments in the foils of interest and other method needs information on the values of the fission cross-sections at the required energies as well as the density of the tracks recorded in the track detectors in contact with the foil surfaces. The obtained w-values were compared with Monte Carlo calculations and good agreements were found. It is shown that a calibration factor obtained at low energy neutron induced fissions in uranium isotopes deviates only by less than 10% from those obtained at relativistic proton induced fissions.

Hashemi-Nezhad, S. R.; Zhuk, Igor; Potapenko, A.; Kievets, M.; Krivopustov, M. I.

2012-02-01

112

Ergometer Calibrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is directed to an apparatus for accurately calibrating ergometers so that the work rate produced during exercising on the ergometer can be determined accurately. The apparatus can be used to calibrate any ergometer that utilizes a rotating s...

R. L. Gause

1973-01-01

113

Numerical study of the calibration factors for the neutron counters in use at the Joint European Torus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple computer model of the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak has been constructed, using the neutron transport code McBEND, to assist in the interpretation of point neutron source data used for empirical calibrations of fission chambers placed near the tokamak to measure the total neutron emission from deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas. A satisfactory simulation of the experimental data using

B. J. Laundy; O. N. Jarvis

1993-01-01

114

Radio-iodination of neurotrophins and their delivery in vivo: advantages of membrane filtration and the use of disposable syringes.  

PubMed

This paper reports two simple improvements for the radio-iodination of neurotrophins and their delivery in vivo. (1) Neurotrophins can be effectively separated from free iodide by using membrane filtration devices. Seven methods for the separation of free iodide are compared, including dialysis, gel filtration, and membrane filtration. Membrane filtration of the iodinated protein has several important advantages over dialysis or gel filtration. These include the precise control over the final concentration; excellent recovery of the neurotrophin; easy and inexpensive procedure; performance of the entire procedure in a fume hood; and reduced volume of radioactive waste. (2) Disposable, inexpensive syringes are suitable for the delivery of small volumes of radio-iodinated or non-radioactive neurotrophins. Plastic disposable insulin syringes are compared with Hamilton syringes. The ejection volume of the disposable syringes is surprisingly reliable in the dose range 2-15 microl. Their in vivo performance was tested by injections in the eyes of chick embryos in ovo. The amounts remaining in the eye varied significantly less with the disposable syringes. Leakage into the surrounding eye-muscles after intraocular injection was significantly more frequent with Hamilton syringes than with the disposable syringes. Thus, disposable syringes can be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for drug delivery of 2-15 microl volumes. PMID:9543487

von Bartheld, C S

1998-02-20

115

In-syringe-stirring: a novel approach for magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.  

PubMed

For the first time, the use of a magnetic stirrer within the syringe of an automated syringe pump and the resulting possible analytical applications are described. A simple instrumentation following roughly the one from sequential injection analyzer systems is used in combination with an adaptor, which is placed onto the barrel of a glass syringe. Swirling around the longitudinal axis of the syringe and holding two strong neodymium magnets, it causes a rotating magnetic field and serves as driver for a magnetic stirring bar placed inside of the syringe. In a first study it was shown that this approach leads to a sealed but also automatically adaptable reaction vessel, the syringe, in which rapid and homogeneous mixing of sample with the required reagents within short time can be carried out. In a second study in-a-syringe magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MSA-DLLME) was demonstrated by the application of the analyzer system to fluorimetric determination of aluminum in seawater samples using lumogallion. A linear working range up to 1.1 ?mol L(-1) and a limit of detection of 6.1 nmol L(-1) were found. An average recovery of 106.0% was achieved for coastal seawaters with a reproducibility of 4.4%. The procedure lasted 210 s including syringe cleaning and only 150 ?L of hexanol and 4.1 mL of sample were required. PMID:23845481

Horstkotte, Burkhard; Suárez, Ruth; Solich, Petr; Cerdà, Víctor

2013-07-25

116

Reinforced polydiphenylamine nanocomposite for microextraction in packed syringe of various pesticides.  

PubMed

Reinforced polydiphenylamine (PDPA) nanocomposite was synthesized by oxidation of diphenylamine in 4 molL(-1) sulfuric acid solution containing a fixed amount of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The surface characteristic of PDPA and PDPA/CNT nanocomposites was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared PDPA/CNT nanocomposite was used as an extraction medium for microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) of selected pesticides from aquatic environment. The effect of CNT doping level and the presence of surfactant on the extraction capability of nanocomposite was investigated and it was revealed that when 4% (w/w) of CNT in the presence of CTAB is being used, the highest extraction recovery could be achieved. Eventually, the developed MEPS technique in off-line combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to the analysis of some pesticides including triazine, organophosphorous, organochlorine and aryloxyphenoxy propionic acid pesticides. Important parameters influencing the extraction and desorption processes were optimized and a 25 cycles of draw-eject gave maximum peak area, when desorption was performed using 200 ?L of n-hexane. Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.01-0.1 ngmL(-1) and 0.02-0.1 ngmL(-1) for distilled water and river water respectively, using time scheduled selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method precision (RSD %) with four replicates was in the range of 1.6-14.6% for distilled water and 1.5-16.2% for river water at the concentration level of 5 ngmL(-1) while the linearity of method was in the range of 0.15-100 and 0.5-500 ngmL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to different river water samples and the matrix factor for the spiked river water samples were found to be in the range of 0.74-1.09. PMID:22204935

Bagheri, Habib; Ayazi, Zahra; Es'haghi, Ali; Aghakhani, Ali

2012-01-27

117

Chemicals and Energy from Medical Polymer Wastes I. Pyrolysis of Disposable Syringes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of the disposable syringes has been studied and reaction products have been characterized by gas-chromatography, density, refractive indices, aniline point analysis and spectroscopic methods. It has been concluded that pyrolysis offers a solution for treatment of this kind of medical polymer wastes and fuels and\\/or chemicals can be obtained.

C. Vasile; M. Brebu; H. Darie; R. D. Deanin; V. Dorneanu; D. M. Pantea; O. G. Ciochina

1997-01-01

118

STS-43 MS Lucid works with BIMDA-02 cell syringes on OV-104's middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-43 Mission Specialist (MS) Shannon W. Lucid works with Bioserve- Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA) cell syringes at the forward lockers on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Fluorescent lighting fixtures are set up at Lucid's left on a mounting bracket and behind her.

1991-01-01

119

[The syringe pump as actuator--a practical application problem of feedback control systems].  

PubMed

Based on a computer simulation programme, the accuracy of the Graseby 3400 syringe pump was tested for its use in a feedback control system of the neuromuscular block. Firstly, a calculation of errors to determine the difference between the target and actual flow rates was carried out. Next, the characteristic curves of the syringe pump were determined under different flow and sampling rates to correct the application software of the feedback controller with a view to obtaining the correct flow rates online. It was discovered that, particularly with short 12 s sampling rates, dose-dependent errors of almost 100% were provable. Therefore, the application of a robust controller and integration of the characteristic curves at the outlet of the controller software are required. For the adoption of syringe pumps in medical feedback control systems, definite determination of the actual infusion quantity using an exact calculation of errors is required. Especially in cases of short sampling rates in combination with low infusion quantities, the syringe pump comes almost to a standstill, which results in extreme differences between target and actual flow rates. PMID:14768222

Pohl, B; Simanski, O; Hofmockel, R

2003-01-01

120

Microextraction in a packed syringe for the analysis of olive biophenols in rat plasma using CMK-3 nanoporous sorbent.  

PubMed

A carbon-based nanoporous sorbent was first used for microextraction in a packed syringe (MEPS) before HPLC/UV analysis of some biophenols in rat plasma. A laboratory-made programmable apparatus was designed and used for automation of the extraction procedure. The MEPS syringe was packed with 2 mg of CMK-3 sorbent, between the barrel and the injection needle, and mounted on an apparatus for programming of the conditioning, sampling, washing, elution and cleaning steps. All steps of the microextraction procedure were carefully optimized on the system. For optimization of important factors, such as the number of adsorption and elution cycles, elution volume and pH, a multivariate central composite design method was used. The highest recoveries were obtained for 24 and 10 times of adsorption and elution cycles, respectively, using 100 ?L of acetonitrile as the eluent and a sample pH of 2. Good results were obtained in terms of the precision (RSD 1.6, 2.5 and 2.3%) and detection limit (0.7, 4.7 and 0.25 ?M) for caffeic acid, tyrsol and oleuropein, respectively. The method was simple, efficient and appropriate for sample clean up before analysis by HPLC, and was successfully applied to the determination of biophenols in the plasma of several rats that received an olive leaves extract either by a gavage or an intraperitoneal injection method. A positive correlation was found between the amount of olive extract's feeding of the rats and the level of their plasma biophenols. PMID:23665625

Khoshdel, Zeynab; Hashemi, Payman; Safdaryan, Mehdi; Delfan, Bahram; Rashidipour, Marzieh; Badiei, Alireza

2013-01-01

121

Stability of nitroglycerin 110 mcg/mL stored in polypropylene syringes.  

PubMed

Various angiography procedures at Mayo Clinic (Rochester campus) require small bolus doses of injectable nitroglycerin. Commercially acquired containers of injectable nitroglycerin provide excessive amounts of drug for these procedural needs, so syringes were chosen as a container for dispensing of the dose needed. Due to nitroglycerin's known chemical attributes of volatility and sorption to plastic surfaces, careful consideration of the stability needs to be taken into account when storing in a syringe. Since there is a lack of stability information in the literature, we studied the stability of nitroglycerin in polypropylene syringes over 90 days. Methods used for this study consisted of a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay, visual appearance, and pH. Samples were stored protected from light at ambient controlled temperature and consisted of nitroglycerin 110 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose injection 10.1 mL in 12 mL Terumo polypropylene syringes. Samples were tested at intervals up to 90 days. Results from the visual portion of the study showed clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the 90-day study period. The pH results started at 4.27 +/- 0.13 (day 0) and ranged from 4.19 +/- 0.17 to 4.92 +/- 0.43 throughout the study period. Potency test results revealed a day 0 concentration of 104.242 +/- 0.193 mcg/mL (batch 1) and 122.483 +/- 0.168 mcg/mL (batch 2). Results trended downward with percentage of day 0 concentration of 92.2% +/- 2.4% at day 14 and of 81.4% +/- 4.9% at day 90. Chromatographic profiles of the samples exhibited insignificant changes over the study period. The nitroglycerin peak was spectrally pure based on peak-purity analysis, suggesting that sorption to the polypropylene syringe is one possible reason for the concentration decline over time, but nitroglycerin is a volatile compound and loss through vaporization cannot be ruled out. Nitroglycerin 110 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose injection, packaged in Terumo polypropylene syringes with 10.1 mL aliquots, maintained 90% of syringe potency for 24 days when stored protected from light under controlled ambient conditions. PMID:24579303

McCluskey, Susan V; Vu, Nicole; Rueter, John

2013-01-01

122

Calculation of Compressibility Factor for Air Over the Ranges of Pressure, Temperature, and Relative Humidity of Interest in Flowmeter Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple yet precise equation has been developed to enable calculation (using programmable calculators) of the compressibility factor, Z, for air from measurements of pressure, temperature, and humidity. The compressibility factor, a factor which accounts...

F. E. Jones

1983-01-01

123

Calibration uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods recommended by the International Standardization Organisation and Eurachem are not satisfactory for the correct estimation\\u000a of calibration uncertainty. A novel approach is introduced and tested on actual calibration data for the determination of\\u000a Pb by ICP-AES. The improved calibration uncertainty was verified from independent measurements of the same sample by demonstrating\\u000a statistical control of analytical results and the absence

Kaj Heydorn; Thomas Anglov

2002-01-01

124

Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting  

PubMed Central

Objectives Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG) with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are available as safe, sterile, disposable, compact systems for acquiring high-quality AFG. Presented is a detailed, step-by-step, proven protocol for performing quality autologous structural adipose transplantation.

Alexander, Robert W; Harrell, David B

2013-01-01

125

MODIS calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MODIS/MCST (MODIS Characterization Support Team) Status Report contains an outline of the calibration strategy, handbook, and plan. It also contains an outline of the MODIS/MCST action item from the 4th EOS Cal/Val Meeting, for which the objective was to locate potential MODIS calibration targets on the Earth's surface that are radiometrically homogeneous on a scale of 3 by 3 Km. As appendices, draft copies of the handbook table of contents, calibration plan table of contents, and detailed agenda for MODIS calibration working group are included.

Barker, John L.

1992-01-01

126

Correlates of syringe coverage for heroin injection in 35 large metropolitan areas in the US in which heroin is the dominant injected drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundScientific consensus holds that if, at the outset of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic, injection drug users (IDUs) had had better access to sterile syringes, much of the epidemic among IDUs in the U.S. could have been prevented. In the context of preventing infectious diseases, 100% syringe coverage – that is, one sterile syringe per injector for each injection – is a

Barbara Tempalski; Hannah L. Cooper; Samuel R. Friedman; Don C. Des Jarlais; Joanne Brady; Karla Gostnell

2008-01-01

127

Pistol-grip Syringe holder (Cameco syringe pistol) in fine needle aspiration Biopsy: any advantages over the use of direct finger grip?  

PubMed

Aims and Objectives: The study seeks to determine the advantages of using the pistol-grip syringe holder in the performance of FNAB over the use of direct finger grip method. Patients and Methods: The skin is cleaned with gauze soaked in methylated spirit and the lump is located and firmly held between the thumb and fore finger of the free hand. The syringe is held by the out side of the barrel or by pistol-grip, and the needle tip pushed into the lesion. The plunger is partially retracted, creating a negative pressure. The cutting edge of the needle tip frees the cells inside the lesion which are sucked into the fine bore of the needle. The contents of the needle are then emptied on a microscopic slide and thinly smeared. The slides are then fixed in alcohol and later stained. These were examined under the microscope and a comparison between the aspirations using pistol-grip and direct finger grip was made. Results: A total of 266 cases of FNABs were carried out from 1st January to 31st December, 2008. There were 89 breast cases out of which 42 (47%) had pistol-grip method and 47 (53%) had direct finger grip method; 74 thyroid cases out of which 28 (38%) were pistol-grip and 46 (62%) were direct finger grip cases; 56 cases of lymph node FNABs of which 18(32%) and 38 (68%) had pistol-grip and direct finger grip methods respectively. There were 23 cases of salivary gland FNABs having 8 (35%) and 15 (65%) as pistol-grip and direct finger grip methods respectively. Marked cellularity was observed in the majority of cases using both methods of FNABs. Conclusion: This study has shown that the use of pistol-grip syringe holder in the performance of FNABs has no significant advantage compared to the direct finger grip method. PMID:23959352

Mayun, A A; Nggada, H A; Abdulazzez, J O; Musa, A B; Pindiga, U H; Khalil, M I

2013-06-01

128

Strainmeter Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Intr oduction In order to interpret data collected by the PBO, all the instruments used will need to be calibrated; in the context of strain measurement, this means that we will need to know what deformation in the Earth corresponds to the different instrument outputs. Usually calibration is something ''done in the lab' 'b ut this is not really

Duncan Agnew; Frank Wyatt; M. Gladwin

129

Monte Carlo-derived TLD cross-calibration factors for treatment verification and measurement of skin dose in accelerated partial breast irradiation.  

PubMed

Monte Carlo simulation was employed to calculate the response of TLD-100 chips under irradiation conditions such as those found during accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system. The absorbed dose versus radius in the last 0.5 cm of the treated volume was also calculated, employing a resolution of 20 microm, and a function that fits the observed data was determined. Several clinically relevant irradiation conditions were simulated for different combinations of balloon size, balloon-to-surface distance and contents of the contrast solution used to fill the balloon. The thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) cross-calibration factors were derived assuming that the calibration of the dosemeters was carried out using a Cobalt 60 beam, and in such a way that they provide a set of parameters that reproduce the function that describes the behavior of the absorbed dose versus radius curve. Such factors may also prove to be useful for those standardized laboratories that provide postal dosimetry services. PMID:19229101

Garnica-Garza, H M

2009-03-21

130

Diffusion of the D.A.R.E and Syringe Exchange Programs  

PubMed Central

We examined the diffusion of the D.A.R.E program to reduce use of illicit drugs among school-aged children and youths and the diffusion of syringe exchange programs to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users. The D.A.R.E program was diffused widely in the United States despite a lack of evidence for its effectiveness; there has been limited diffusion of syringe exchange in the United States, despite extensive scientific evidence for its effectiveness. Multiple possible associations between diffusion and evidence of effectiveness exist, from widespread diffusion without evidence of effectiveness to limited diffusion with strong evidence of effectiveness. The decision theory concepts of framing and loss aversion may be useful for further research on the diffusion of public health innovations.

Des Jarlais, Don C.; Sloboda, Zili; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; McKnight, Courtney; Braine, Naomi

2006-01-01

131

Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research: a technical note.  

PubMed

It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour whereas dimethyl sulfide is generally the major cause of bad breath in extra-oral halitosis. To facilitate research in the field of halitosis, it is highly advantageous to be able to preserve breath samples for longer periods of time before measurement of the VSCs, e.g. for sampling patients at home or when studying a large cohort of patients where an immediate measurement of the VSCs is not possible. After testing numerous sample bags, ultimately the foil balloons, coated inside with the synthetic polymer polyethylene, were the preferred ones. All the VSCs in breath remained quite stable for at least 3 days in these balloons. Besides the sampling bags, the use of an appropriate syringe for sampling mouth air and for injecting samples in e.g. a gas chromatograph is also of great importance. Usually, syringes with a rubber barrel seal are used. However, some rubbers quickly adsorb the VSCs in breath. When preserving breath samples for longer periods, the rubber also releases VSCs, especially methyl mercaptan. It was also found that these syringes release a compound which interferes with dimethyl sulfide, when using gas chromatographic measurements with the OralChroma. We now use all-plastic syringes (B/Braun Injekt), made of polypropylene and polyethylene, in which the VSCs in breath remain quite stable for at least 9 h. PMID:21386155

Winkel, E G; Tangerman, A

2008-03-01

132

Anemometer calibrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

1971-01-01

133

Comparison of bulb syringe, pressurized pulsatile, and hydrosurgery debridement methods for removing bacteria from fracture implants.  

PubMed

Surgical-site infection is a common form of noscomial infection that can occur in fractures following internal fixation. Treatment of these infections has traditionally included preserving stable implants via debridement and antibiotic administration while the fracture is healing. Recent evidence indicated that this algorithm results in less-than-optimal rates of fracture union and infection eradication.The premise for this study is that bacterial removal from fracture implants using the Versajet Hydrosurgery System (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) method is better compared with the bulb syringe and pressurized pulsatile lavage methods. Thirty-two stainless steel, 4-hole, nonlocking, 3.5-mm fracture plates were incubated with Staphylococus aureus and divided into 4 groups. Eight plates in each group underwent irrigation with 1 L of saline using a bulb syringe lavage, pressurized pulsatile lavage, or the Versajet Hydrosurgery System method. Eight plates underwent no irrigation method and served as a control group. The residual bacterial loads following irrigation were quantitatively cultured. Each of the experimental groups had significantly reduced levels of bacteria adherent to the plate following irrigation compared with the control group (P=.0002). Furthermore, the Versajet Hydrosurgery System was most the effective at bacterial removal, followed by the pressurized pulsatile and bulb syringe lavage techniques (P=.0002 to P=.0012, respectively).Novel approaches to eradicate bacteria from implants, such as hydrosurgery technology, while maintaining rigid stability of healing fracture, may improve clinical outcomes. PMID:22784898

Hughes, Michael S; Moghadamian, Eric S; Yin, Li-Yan; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Crist, Brett D

2012-07-01

134

Primary and Secondary Analysis of Local Elected Officials’ Decisions to Support or Oppose Pharmacy Sale of Syringes in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under California law, local governments may authorize pharmacies within their jurisdictions to sell ten or fewer syringes\\u000a to an adult without prescription, proof of identity, or proof of medical need. Local governments may simultaneously exempt\\u000a adults from prosecution for violation of state drug paraphernalia codes for possession of ten or fewer syringes for personal\\u000a use. Both of these provisions are

Glenn Backes; Valerie J. Rose

2010-01-01

135

Numerical study of the calibration factors for the neutron counters in use at the Joint European Torus  

SciTech Connect

A simple computer model of the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak has been constructed, using the neutron transport code McBEND, to assist in the interpretation of point neutron source data used for empirical calibrations of fission chambers placed near the tokamak to measure the total neutron emission from deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas. A satisfactory simulation of the experimental data using a [sup 252]Cf neutron source is obtained. In particular, the preferential moderation and absorption of [sup 252]Cf neutrons, compared with plasma neutrons, resulting from the buildup of equipment around the tokamak in recent years is demonstrated; this differentiation between neutron sources is a consequence of the use of a concrete filler in the spaces between the toroidal field (TF) coils. An unexpected increase in detector response is explained by the substitution of Freon for water as the TF coil coolant. Finally, the McBEND calculations are found to predict correctly the relative responses of both [sup 235]U and [sup 238]U fission chambers to 2.5- and 14-MeV plasma neutrons. 14 refs., 10 refs., 2 tabs.

Laundy, B.J.; Jarvis, O.N. (JET Joint Undertaking Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom))

1993-09-01

136

Calculation of calibration figures and the volume correction factors for 90Y, 125I, 131I and 177Lu radionuclides based on Monte-Carlo ionization chamber simulation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many metrology laboratories are dealing with activity measurements of different radionuclides with special interest in nuclear medicine as well as in radiopharmaceutical industry. In improving the accuracy of radionuclide activity measurements, a key role plays the calculation of calibration figures and the volume correction factors for the radionuclide under study. It is well known that the chamber calibration factors depend on the measurement geometry including the volume of the source and the type of the measurement vessel. In this work, the activity standards in the form of radioactive solutions are delivered in sealed Jena glass 5 ml FIOLAX ®-klar ampoule. Calculation of the calibration figures (or efficiencies) for 90Y, 125I, 131I and 177Lu radionuclides on 5 ml ampoule are presented in this paper. Additionally, their appropriate volume correction factors are determined. These calibration figures for the ISOCAL IV pressurized well re-entrant ionization chamber (IC) are pointed out based on the Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation method of such chamber using the PENELOPE-2005 MC computer simulation code. The chamber is filled with nitrogen gas pressurized to approximately 1 MPa. In determining the volume correction factors, the variation of calibration factors versus the mass of radioactive solution filling the 5 ml ampoule glass is investigated. From the point of view that impurity of 177 mLu isomer is always accompanying the 177Lu radionuclide, for making possible the correction due to presence of this impurity, the calibration factor and the volume correction factors for 177 mLu are reported as well.

Kryeziu, D.; Tschurlovits, M.; Kreuziger, M.; Maringer, F.-J.

2007-09-01

137

A Novel Tetrahydrofolate-Dependent O-Demethylase Gene Is Essential for Growth of Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 with Syringate  

PubMed Central

Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 degrades syringate to 3-O-methylgallate (3MGA), which is finally converted to pyruvate and oxaloacetate via multiple pathways in which protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase, 3MGA dioxygenase, and gallate dioxygenase are involved. Here we isolated the syringate O-demethylase gene (desA), which complemented the growth deficiency on syringate of a Tn5 mutant of the SYK-6 derivative strain. The desA gene is located 929 bp downstream of ferA, encoding feruloyl-coenzyme A synthetase, and consists of a 1,386-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 50,721 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of desA showed 26% identity in a 325-amino-acid overlap with that of gcvT of Escherichia coli, which encodes the tetrahydrofolate (H4folate)-dependent aminomethyltransferase involved in glycine cleavage. The cell extract of E. coli carrying desA converted syringate to 3MGA only when H4folate was added to the reaction mixture. DesA catalyzes the transfer of the methyl moiety of syringate to H4folate, forming 5-methyl-H4folate. Vanillate and 3MGA were also used as substrates for DesA; however, the relative activities toward them were 3 and 0.4% of that toward syringate, respectively. Disruption of desA in SYK-6 resulted in a growth defect on syringate but did not affect growth on vanillate, indicating that desA is essential to syringate degradation. In a previous study the ligH gene, which complements the growth deficiency on vanillate and syringate of a chemical-induced mutant of SYK-6, DC-49, was isolated (S. Nishikawa, T. Sonoki, T. Kasahara, T. Obi, S. Kubota, S. Kawai, N. Morohoshi, and Y. Katayama, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:836-842, 1998). Disruption of ligH resulted in the same phenotype as DC-49; its cell extract, however, was found to be able to convert vanillate and syringate in the presence of H4folate. The possible role of ligH is discussed.

Masai, Eiji; Sasaki, Miyuki; Minakawa, Yasunori; Abe, Tomokuni; Sonoki, Tomonori; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao

2004-01-01

138

Test and calibration of sonobuoys in the air environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method for calibrating and testing DIFAR sonobuoy multiplexer without sea or water is proposed. For this purpose; the architecture of DIFAR sonobuoy is introduced, calibration factors are expressed, calibration and test environment in terms of hardware and software are described, calibration and test procedure is explained, and finally, laboratory test results of a sonobuoy calibrated in

Ahmet Kuzu; Uveys Danis; Engin Kurt; Engin Karabulut; Demet Sahinkaya; Ahmet Kaplaner; Serdar Birecik; Bulent Ozumut; Eyup Bilgic

2012-01-01

139

Iterative Magnetometer Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an iterative method for three-axis magnetometer (TAM) calibration that makes use of three existing utilities recently incorporated into the attitude ground support system used at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The method combines attitude-independent and attitude-dependent calibration algorithms with a new spinning spacecraft Kalman filter to solve for biases, scale factors, nonorthogonal corrections to the alignment, and the orthogonal sensor alignment. The method is particularly well-suited to spin-stabilized spacecraft, but may also be useful for three-axis stabilized missions given sufficient data to provide observability.

Sedlak, Joseph

2006-01-01

140

Weighted parallel factor analysis for calibration of HPLC-UV\\/Vis spectrometers in the presence of Beer's law deviations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extension of the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) methodology is presented to allow accurate and reliable quantitative and qualitative analysis of nonlinear data collected from hyphenated instrumentation. The weighted PARAFAC method is applied to high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet\\/visible (HPLC-UV\\/Vis) diode array spectrometry analysis. It is demonstrated that this method improves the quantitative errors when spectroscopic nonlinearities from solvent–solute interactions or detector

Greger G. Andersson; Brian K. Dable; Karl S. Booksh

1999-01-01

141

Retention of 99mTc-DMSA(III) and 99mTc-nanocolloid in different syringes affects imaging quality.  

PubMed

(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA(III)] and colloidal human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-nanocolloid) are widely used radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, in our institution we encountered image quality problems in DMSA scans after changing the brand of syringes we were using, which triggered us to look into the adsorption properties of syringes from different brands for (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. We also describe a clinical case in which adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) caused inferior imaging quality. DMSA and nanocolloid were labeled with (99m)Tc following manufacturer guidelines. After synthesis, syringes with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid were stored for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. We evaluated Luer Lock syringes manufactured by different brands such as Artsana, Henke-Sass-Wolf, B. Braun Medical N.V., CODAN Medizinische Geräte GmbH & Co KG, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Terumo Europe. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid was acceptably low for all syringes (<13%), except for two brands with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) adsorption rates of 36 and 30%, respectively, and for one brand with a (99m)Tc-nanocolloid adsorption rate of 27%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid reaches critical levels in syringes produced by two brands, potentially causing poor image quality--for example, in DMSA scans using pediatric radiopharmaceutical doses. It is advised to check the compatibility of any radiopharmaceutical with syringes as an integral part of the quality assurance program. PMID:24569706

Bauwens, Matthias; Pooters, Ivo; van der Pol, Jochen; Mottaghy, Felix M; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus

2014-04-01

142

Wavelength Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program contains observations that will define the wavelength calibration for the FUSE spectrograph. The intent is to use the wavelength calibration found from the spectrograph alignment measurements performed at CU for the high-order terms in the polynomial fit, and to determine the lowest-order terms from the flight measurements. If this proves impractical, we will use flight data to define all terms in the calibration. We will use absorption lines from interstellar gas to define the wavelength calibration, though in some cases emission lines may be used also. In most cases information from other instruments at longer wavelengths will be required to assign absolute velocities to individual IS gas clouds. Stars will be added to this program as observations determine that they are useful for this purpose. Stars with a fairly dense distribution of absorption lines will be required to define the complete wavelength solution, but spectra with only a few widely-spaced lines in each spectral channel are required for monitoring the wavelength stability.

Kruk, Jeffrey

143

The compatibility and stability of octreotide acetate in the presence of diamorphine hydrochloride in polypropylene syringes.  

PubMed

Varying concentrations of octreotide acetate (Sandostatin) and diamorphine hydrochloride were prepared and stored in polypropylene syringes at 37 degrees C in the dark. The solutions were analysed for octreotide acetate content using a validated HPLC method at regular intervals over a 48-h period. The results indicate that octreotide acetate remains stable in the presence of diamorphine hydrochloride at 37 degrees C for 24 h. In addition, the solutions prepared maintained their clarity, with no signs of precipitation upon visual examination under normal light conditions. PMID:10858828

Fielding, H; Kyaterekera, N; Skellern, G G; Tettey, J N; McDade, J R; Msuya, Z; Watson, D G; Urie, J

2000-05-01

144

Oxygen atomic density of atmospheric Ar plasma jet generated with syringe needle-ring electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet is generated with syringe needle-ring electrodes in an 8 kHz sinusoidal excitation voltage. It is found that the rotational temperature of nitrogen is in the range of 333 - 373 K obtained by comparing the simulated spectrum with the measured spectrum at the C3?u ? B3?g (?v = -2) band transition, the electronic excitation temperature is in the range of 3187 - 3243 K determined by the Boltzmann's plot method, and the oxygen atomic density is in the order of magnitude of 1016 cm-3 estimated by the actinometry method, respectively.

Hong, Y.; Li, J.; Pan, J.; Lu, N.; Shang, K. F.; Wu, Y.

2013-03-01

145

STS-47 Payload Specialist Mohri holds sample syringe during SLJ experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-47 Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri holds sample syringe while conducting Studies on the Effects of Microgravity on the Ultrastructure and Function of Cultured Mammalian Cells (KIDNEY CELLS). Mohri, wearing a lightweight headset, works inside the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. In the background are the NASDA Material Sciences Rack 10 with field sequential (FS) crew cabin camera attached and the SLJ end cone with a banner from Auburn University and portraits of the backup payload specialists. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

1992-01-01

146

Primary and secondary analysis of local elected officials' decisions to support or oppose pharmacy sale of syringes in California.  

PubMed

Under California law, local governments may authorize pharmacies within their jurisdictions to sell ten or fewer syringes to an adult without prescription, proof of identity, or proof of medical need. Local governments may simultaneously exempt adults from prosecution for violation of state drug paraphernalia codes for possession of ten or fewer syringes for personal use. Both of these provisions are temporary and sunset on December 31, 2010, unless subsequent state legislation amends that date. The objective of our study was to ascertain how and why local policymakers made their decisions regarding non-prescription syringe sale (NPSS). We examined influences on their decisions, including specific messengers and the arguments that were most salient to their decision making. We selected jurisdictions that were geographically representative of California counties; those with and without syringe exchange programs, and those that had passed or rejected NPSS. We conducted nine semi-structured interviews in five jurisdictions. To enrich primary data collection, we analyzed secondary data by reviewing audio, video, and written transcripts of public hearings and newspaper coverage in five jurisdictions, including three jurisdictions without primary interview data. Among proponents of NPSS, we identified common themes, including: (1) public health research provided conclusive evidence for reduction in HIV and hepatitis transmission without problems of crime, drug use, or unsafe discard of syringes; (2) the local health officer was the key to influencing local policymakers; (3) recall of prior debates over syringe exchange served to inform their decision making; and (4) a lack of local opposition or controversy. Common concerns among opponents of NPSS included: (1) that there would be an increase in unsafe discard of syringes; (2) loss of an important law enforcement tool; (3) that drug users were incapable of desired behavior change; and (4) that research was inconclusive, or proved that syringe access would not work in reducing rates of disease. Themes held in common by proponents and opponents of NPSS were identified as well. Syringe access through NPSS is in fact supported by a robust body of public health research and is considered an important component of a comprehensive strategy to reduce HIV and hepatitis transmission. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the perspectives of elected officials in order to ameliorate their concerns without undermining the public health goal of reducing death, disease, and suffering in at-risk communities. PMID:20352356

Backes, Glenn; Rose, Valerie J

2010-07-01

147

Primary and Secondary Analysis of Local Elected Officials' Decisions to Support or Oppose Pharmacy Sale of Syringes in California  

PubMed Central

Under California law, local governments may authorize pharmacies within their jurisdictions to sell ten or fewer syringes to an adult without prescription, proof of identity, or proof of medical need. Local governments may simultaneously exempt adults from prosecution for violation of state drug paraphernalia codes for possession of ten or fewer syringes for personal use. Both of these provisions are temporary and sunset on December 31, 2010, unless subsequent state legislation amends that date. The objective of our study was to ascertain how and why local policymakers made their decisions regarding non-prescription syringe sale (NPSS). We examined influences on their decisions, including specific messengers and the arguments that were most salient to their decision making. We selected jurisdictions that were geographically representative of California counties; those with and without syringe exchange programs, and those that had passed or rejected NPSS. We conducted nine semi-structured interviews in five jurisdictions. To enrich primary data collection, we analyzed secondary data by reviewing audio, video, and written transcripts of public hearings and newspaper coverage in five jurisdictions, including three jurisdictions without primary interview data. Among proponents of NPSS, we identified common themes, including: (1) public health research provided conclusive evidence for reduction in HIV and hepatitis transmission without problems of crime, drug use, or unsafe discard of syringes; (2) the local health officer was the key to influencing local policymakers; (3) recall of prior debates over syringe exchange served to inform their decision making; and (4) a lack of local opposition or controversy. Common concerns among opponents of NPSS included: (1) that there would be an increase in unsafe discard of syringes; (2) loss of an important law enforcement tool; (3) that drug users were incapable of desired behavior change; and (4) that research was inconclusive, or proved that syringe access would not work in reducing rates of disease. Themes held in common by proponents and opponents of NPSS were identified as well. Syringe access through NPSS is in fact supported by a robust body of public health research and is considered an important component of a comprehensive strategy to reduce HIV and hepatitis transmission. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the perspectives of elected officials in order to ameliorate their concerns without undermining the public health goal of reducing death, disease, and suffering in at-risk communities.

Rose, Valerie J.

2010-01-01

148

Improving treatment enrollment and re-enrollment rates of syringe exchangers: 12-month outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Developing bridges between community syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and substance abuse treatment could benefit syringe exchangers and the public health. Kidorf et al. (2009) showed that motivational approaches employed at an SEP site improved rates of treatment enrollment and reduced drug use over a 4-month observation window. The present study extends this report by evaluating rates of treatment enrollment and re-enrollment over a 12-month period. Methods Opioid dependent individuals (n = 281) newly registered at an SEP were randomly assigned to one of three referral interventions: 1) 8 individual motivational enhancement sessions and 16 treatment readiness group sessions designed to improve treatment interest and readiness (Motivated Referral Condition; MRC-only); 2) MRC-only with monetary incentives for attending sessions and enrolling in treatment (MRC+I); or 3) standard referral (SRC). MRC-only and MRC+I participants discharged from treatment could attend a treatment re-engagement group designed to facilitate return to treatment (MRC+I participants received incentives for attending sessions and re-enrolling in treatment). Results The 4-month outcomes generally extended over 12-months. MRC+I participants were more likely to enroll in methadone maintenance than MRC-only or SRC participants, and to re-enroll in treatment following discharge. MRC+I participants also reported more days of treatment and less heroin and injection use. Conclusions The good harm reduction outcomes for many SEP participants can be enhanced through strategies designed to facilitate treatment enrollment and re-enrollment.

Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L.; Gandotra, Neeraj; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K.

2012-01-01

149

Hand-powered microfluidics: A membrane pump with a patient-to-chip syringe interface  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present an on-chip hand-powered membrane pump using a robust patient-to-chip syringe interface. This approach enables safe sample collection, sample containment, integrated sharps disposal, high sample volume capacity, and controlled downstream flow with no electrical power requirements. Sample is manually injected into the device via a syringe and needle. The membrane pump inflates upon injection and subsequently deflates, delivering fluid to downstream components in a controlled manner. The device is fabricated from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silicone, using CO2 laser micromachining, with a total material cost of ?0.20 USD/device. We experimentally demonstrate pump performance for both deionized (DI) water and undiluted, anticoagulated mouse whole blood, and characterize the behavior with reference to a resistor-capacitor electrical circuit analogy. Downstream output of the membrane pump is regulated, and scaled, by connecting multiple pumps in parallel. In contrast to existing on-chip pumping mechanisms that typically have low volume capacity (?5??L) and sample volume throughput (?1–10??l/min), the membrane pump offers high volume capacity (up to 240??l) and sample volume throughput (up to 125??l/min).

Gong, Max M.; MacDonald, Brendan D.; Vu Nguyen, Trung; Sinton, David

2012-01-01

150

Using measured 30-150 kVp polychromatic tungsten x-ray spectra to determine ion chamber calibration factors, Nx (Gy C(-1)).  

PubMed

Two methods for determining ion chamber calibration factors (Nx) are presented for polychromatic tungsten x-ray beams whose spectra differ from beams with known Nx. Both methods take advantage of known x-ray fluence and kerma spectral distributions. In the first method, the x-ray tube potential is unchanged and spectra of differing filtration are measured. A primary standard ion chamber with known Nx for one beam is used to calculate the x-ray fluence spectrum of a second beam. Accurate air energy absorption coefficients are applied to the x-ray fluence spectra of the second beam to calculate actual air kerma and Nx. In the second method, two beams of differing tube potential and filtration with known Nx are used to bracket a beam of unknown Nx. A heuristically derived Nx interpolation scheme based on spectral characteristics of all three beams is described. Both methods are validated. Both methods improve accuracy over the current half value layer Nx estimating technique. PMID:11007462

Mercier, J R; Kopp, D T; McDavid, W D; Dove, S B; Lancaster, J L; Tucker, D M

2000-10-01

151

Antenna Calibration and Measurement Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the Antenna Calibration & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with instrumentation enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna calibration measurements and to generate antenna calibration data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and instrument calibration. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and calibration engineers.

Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez

2012-01-01

152

Selective growth inhibition of human malignant melanoma cells by syringic acid-derived proteasome inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Background It has been shown that proteasome inhibition leads to growth arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and/or induction of apoptosis. However, it was found that some of these inhibitors do not induce apoptosis in several human normal cell lines. This selective activity makes proteasome inhibition a promising target for new generation of anticancer drugs. Clinical validation of the proteasome, as a therapeutic target in oncology, has been provided by the dipeptide boronic acid derivative; bortezomib. Bortezomib has proven to be effective as a single agent in multiple myeloma and some forms of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Syringic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid, 1), a known phenolic acid, was isolated from the methanol extract of Tamarix aucheriana and was shown to possess proteasome inhibitory activity. Methods Using Surflex-Dock program interfaced with SYBYL, the docking affinities of syringic acid and its proposed derivatives to 20S proteasome were studied. Several derivatives were virtually proposed, however, five derivatives: benzyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate (2), benzyl 4-(benzyloxy)-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate (3), 3'-methoxybenzyl 3,5-dimethoxy-4-(3'-methoxybenzyloxy)benzoate (4), 3'-methoxybenzyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate (5) and 3',5'-dimethoxybenzyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate (6), were selected based on high docking scores, synthesized, and tested for their anti-mitogenic activity against human colorectal, breast and malignant melanoma cells as well as normal human fibroblast cells. Results Derivatives 2, 5, and 6 showed selective dose-dependent anti-mitogenic effect against human malignant melanoma cell lines HTB66 and HTB68 with minimal cytotoxicity on colorectal and breast cancer cells as well as normal human fibroblast cells. Derivatives 2, 5 and 6 significantly (p???0.0001) inhibited the various proteasomal chymotrypsin, PGPH, and trypsin like activities. They growth arrested the growth of HTB66 cells at G1 and G2-phases. They also arrested the growth of HTB68 cells at S- and G2-phase, respectively. Moreover, derivatives 2, 5, and 6 markedly induced apoptosis (? 90%) in both HTB66 and HTB68. Conclusions Computer-derived syringic acid derivatives possess selective anti-mitogenic activity on human malignant melanoma cells that may be attributed to perturbation of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of various 26S proteasomal activities.

2013-01-01

153

Accuracy testing of dose calibrators  

SciTech Connect

Current methods for testing a dose calibrator's accuracy use measurements of /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 57/Co, and /sup 133/Ba sources but do not directly measure the accuracy of clinical radionuclides such as /sup 99m/Tc, /sup 123/I, /sup 111/In, /sup 67/Ga, or /sup 201/Tl. It is possible that some dose calibrators inaccurately determine the activity of these clinical radiopharmaceuticals. To correct this possible deficiency, the authors have devised a method to test the accuracy of each radionuclide setting on a dose calibrator using a single long-lived calibration source. Differences in emission characteristics of assayed radionuclides are incorporated in the ionization current-to-activity conversion factors (CAF) that are determined experimentally by the manufacturer. The correct functioning of a dose calibrator requires that each CAF be accurately reproduced electronically by the calibrator circuitry and that the measured ionization current be consistent and precise. The results have shown that their procedure tests the total function of the dose calibrator for detecting all radionuclides specified by the manufacturer including the accuracy of the electron representations of the CAF. The procedure is easily implemented for all dose calibrator systems using one of several possible sources available in most laboratories (e.g., /sup 57/Co, /sup 137/Cs, or /sup 133/Ba).

Logan, K.W.; Blondeau, K.L.; Widmer, D.J.; Holmes, R.A.

1985-12-01

154

Multiresidue determination of pesticides from aquatic media using polyaniline nanowires network as highly efficient sorbent for microextraction in packed syringe.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid and sensitive method based on microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS), in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. Polyaniline (PANI) nanowires network was synthesized and used as sorbent of MEPS for the multiresidue determination of selected analytes from triazine, organochlrorine and organophosphorous pesticides in aqueous samples. The PANI nanowires network was prepared using soft template technique and its characterization was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of micelles in this methodology showed to be an important parameter in shaping the growing polymer. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) was used as structure directing agent in PANI preparation procedure and this was led to the formation of nanowires with diameters ranging from 35 nm to 45 nm. The synthesized PANI nanowires network showed higher extraction capability in comparison with the bulk PANI. Important parameters influencing the extraction and desorption processes including desorption solvent, elution volume, draw-eject cycles of sample, draw-eject mode, pH effect and amount of sorbent were optimized. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.07-0.3 ng mL(-1) using time scheduled selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The linearity of method was in the range from 0.5-200 ng mL(-1) to 0.2-1000 ng mL(-1). The method precision (RSD %) with three replicates were in the range of 5.3-18.4% at the concentration level of 5 ng mL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to the Zayandeh-rood river water samples and the matrix factor obtained for the spiked real water samples were in the range of 0.79-0.94. PMID:22840649

Bagheri, Habib; Alipour, Noshin; Ayazi, Zahra

2012-08-31

155

Portable system of programmable syringe pump with potentiometer for determination of promethazine in pharmaceutical applications  

PubMed Central

A simple and fast-automated method was developed and validated for the assay of promethazine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations, based on the oxidation of promethazine by cerium in an acidic medium. A portable system, consisting of a programmable syringe pump connected to a potentiometer, was constructed. The developed change in potential during promethazine oxidation was monitored. The related optimum working conditions, such as supporting electrolyte concentration, cerium(IV) concentration and flow rate were optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical samples as well as synthetic ones. The obtained results were realized by the official British pharmacopoeia (BP) method and comparable results were obtained. The obtained t-value indicates no significant differences between the results of the proposed and BP methods, with the advantages of the proposed method being simple, sensitive and cost effective.

Saleh, Tawfik A.; Abulkibash, A.M.; Ibrahim, Atta E.

2011-01-01

156

Organizational Issues in the Implementation of a Hospital-Based Syringe Exchange Program  

PubMed Central

Little published information exists to guide health care institutions in establishing syringe exchange program (SEP) services. To address this gap, this article discusses organizational issues encountered in the implementation of a hospital-based SEP in San Francisco, California (USA). Investigators collaborated with a community organization in implementing a county hospital-based SEP. SEP services integrated into a public hospital presented unique challenges directly related to their status as a health care institution. In the course of introducing SEP services into a hospital setting as part of a clinical trial, various ethical, legal, and logistical issues were raised. Based on these experiences, this paper provides guidance on how to integrate an SEP into a traditional health care institution.

Masson, Carmen L.; Sorensen, James L.; Grossman, Nina; Sporer, Karl A.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Perlman, David C.

2012-01-01

157

Syringeal Specialization of Frequency Control during Song Production in the Bengalese Finch (Lonchura striata domestica)  

PubMed Central

Background Singing in songbirds is a complex, learned behavior which shares many parallels with human speech. The avian vocal organ (syrinx) has two potential sound sources, and each sound generator is under unilateral, ipsilateral neural control. Different songbird species vary in their use of bilateral or unilateral phonation (lateralized sound production) and rapid switching between left and right sound generation (interhemispheric switching of motor control). Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) have received considerable attention, because they rapidly modify their song in response to manipulations of auditory feedback. However, how the left and right sides of the syrinx contribute to acoustic control of song has not been studied. Methodology Three manipulations of lateralized syringeal control of sound production were conducted. First, unilateral syringeal muscular control was eliminated by resection of the left or right tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve, which provides neuromuscular innervation of the syrinx. Spectral and temporal features of song were compared before and after lateralized nerve injury. In a second experiment, either the left or right sound source was devoiced to confirm the role of each sound generator in the control of acoustic phonology. Third, air pressure was recorded before and after unilateral denervation to enable quantification of acoustic change within individual syllables following lateralized nerve resection. Significance These experiments demonstrate that the left sound source produces louder, higher frequency, lower entropy sounds, and the right sound generator produces lower amplitude, lower frequency, higher entropy sounds. The bilateral division of labor is complex and the frequency specialization is the opposite pattern observed in most songbirds. Further, there is evidence for rapid interhemispheric switching during song production. Lateralized control of song production in Bengalese finches may enhance acoustic complexity of song and facilitate the rapid modification of sound production following manipulations of auditory feedback.

Secora, Kristen R.; Peterson, Jennifer R.; Urbano, Catherine M.; Chung, Boah; Okanoya, Kazuo; Cooper, Brenton G.

2012-01-01

158

Three Years after Legalization of Nonprescription Pharmacy Syringe Sales in California: Where Are We Now?  

PubMed Central

In January 2005, passage of California Senate Bill 1159 enabled California’s county or city governments to establish disease prevention demonstration projects (DPDPs) through which pharmacies could subsequently register to legally sell up to 10 syringes to adults without a prescription. California’s 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) were surveyed annually in 2005–2007 to monitor the progress of DPDP implementation and assess program coverage, facilitators, and barriers. Completed surveys were returned by mail, fax, e-mail, phone, or internet. We analyzed 2007 survey data to describe current DPDP status; data from all years were analyzed for trends in approval and implementation status. By 2007, 17 (27.9%) LHJs approved DPDPs, of which 14 (82.4%) had registered 532 (17.8%) of the 2,987 pharmacies in these 14 LHJs. Although only three LHJs added DPDPs since 2006, the number of registered pharmacies increased 102% from 263 previously reported. Among the LHJs without approved DPDPs in 2007, one (2.3%) was in the approval process, seven (16.3%) planned to seek approval, and 35 (81.4%) reported no plans to seek approval. Of 35 LHJs not planning to seek approval, the top four reasons were: limited health department time (40%) or interest (34%), pharmacy disinterest (31%), and law enforcement opposition (26%). Among eight LHJs pursuing approval, the main barriers were “time management” (13%), educating stakeholders (13%), and enlisting pharmacy participation (13%). The17 LHJs with DPDP represent 52% of California’s residents; they included 62% of persons living with HIV and 59% of IDU-related HIV cases, suggesting that many LHJs with significant numbers of HIV cases have approved DPDPs. Outcome studies are needed to determine whether SB 1159 had the desired impact on increasing syringe access and reducing blood-borne viral infection risk among California IDUs.

Stopka, Thomas J.; Pavlinac, Patricia B.; Ross, Alessandra; Haye, B. Karen; Riley, Elise D.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

2010-01-01

159

A computer-controlled syringe driver for use during anaesthesia. A modification of the Graseby MS16A.  

PubMed

The requirements of a drug infusion device for use in theatre are discussed. A modification of the Graseby MS16A syringe pump and an interface circuit permitting its remote control by microcomputer are described. The pump is controlled via a standard computer interface (RS232) which makes it a unique and powerful research tool. Aspects of safety are considered. PMID:3707804

Cohen, A T

1986-06-01

160

Assessment by patients with diabetes mellitus of two insulin pen delivery systems versus a vial and syringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two multicenter surveys were conducted in a total of 1310 insulin users over a 3-week period. The first survey, in which 803 patients participated, assessed the effects of using the Novolin Prefilled insulin delivery system on lifestyle; compliance with insulin, diet, and exercise regimens; and feelings of well-being compared with the traditional insulin vial and syringe. The second survey, in

Marilyn R. Graff; Mark A. McClanahan

1998-01-01

161

Effect of Syringeal Denervation in the Budgerigar ( Melopsittacus undulatus): The Role of the Syrinx in Call Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the budgerigar, the left and right tracheosyringeal nerves (ts) were sectioned both above and below the common anastomosis in order to assess the roles of the hypoglossal nuclei and syringeal muscle halves in the control of call production. Signal processing software was used to quantify changes in contact call fundamental frequency and duration, and similarity analysis for pre- and

J. T. Heaton; S. M. Farabaugh; S. E. Brauth

1995-01-01

162

Stability of Five Beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Sterile Water for Injection and Stored in Plastic Syringes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intermittent intravenous administration of antibiotics by the syringe-infusion pump system is currently being promoted. To use this system, a dose of medication is prepared in 10-20ml of sterile water for injection and stored in plastic disposable syr...

D. L. Borst

1984-01-01

163

Bioequivalence of subcutaneous injections of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (Puregon(R)) by Pen-injector and syringe.  

PubMed

A randomized, single-centre, cross-over study was designed to compare the bioavailability of two pharmaceutical formulations of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (recFSH; Puregon(R)): (i) a dissolved cake injected by a normal syringe; and (ii) a ready-for-use solution injected using a device referred to as Puregon(R)Pen. Twenty-two healthy female volunteers underwent one of two administration sequences: Puregon(R)Pen/syringe or syringe/Puregon(R)Pen, by which they received a single subcutaneous dose of recFSH (150 IU). Endogenous gonadotrophin production had been previously suppressed using an oral contraceptive (Lyndiol(R)). Pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing rate [peak concentration (Cmax) and time of peak concentration (tmax)] and extent [area under the curve (AUC) and clearance (CL)] of absorption were obtained from 20 subjects. After injection with both formulations, serum FSH concentrations reached a peak of 3.4 IU/l at 13 h after injection. The elimination half-life was approximately 34 h, irrespective of formulation. A difference of approximately 18% was found between serum FSH concentrations obtained using the two formulations, which was caused by differences between the anticipated and the actual volume injected with the normal syringe. After correction for injection losses by weighing the amount injected with a normal syringe, the two formulations were found to be bioequivalent with respect to Cmax, AUC and CL. For tmax, bioequivalence could not be proven due to high intra-subject variability and broad absorption peaks of FSH. Both methods were well tolerated, local reactions being generally mild and short-lived. PMID:10402370

Voortman, G; van de Post, J; Schoemaker, R C; van Gerven, J M

1999-07-01

164

Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators—A tool for quality assessment and improvement in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national program of ongoing comparisons for assaying gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for amount of radioactivity using radionuclide calibrators was begun in 2000. Nuclides of the most wide-spread use in Cuban nuclear medicine, 131I, 201Tl and 99mTc, as well as two measurement geometries, glass vials and plastic syringes, were employed.In this paper, the participants’ performance is assessed by mean of a statistical

P. Oropesa; A. T. Hernández; R. Serra; C. Varela

2005-01-01

165

Camera Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given an image that has been scaled both horizontally and vertically (possibly with different scale factors in the two directions), we determine the camera position and orientation, as well as the scale factors for sampling in the u and v axes of the imag...

I. Rigoutsos C. M. Brown

1986-01-01

166

Virtual camera calibration using optical design software.  

PubMed

Camera calibration is a critical step in many vision applications. It is a delicate and complex process that is highly sensitive to environmental conditions. This paper presents a novel virtual calibration technique that can be used to study the impact of various factors on the calibration parameters. To highlight the possibilities of the method, the calibration parameters' behavior has been studied regarding the effects of tolerancing and temperature for a specific lens. This technique could also be used in many other promising areas to make calibration in the laboratory or in the field easier. PMID:24921866

Poulin-Girard, Anne-Sophie; Dallaire, Xavier; Thibault, Simon; Laurendeau, Denis

2014-05-01

167

Visualization calibration method of an intelligent methane detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduced a visual calibrating technology for the intelligent methane detection system. For the human factors, the calibration has prevented the methane detection system from being widely used. The technology and device for communication interface were designed based on PC and ATmega48V. The system display calibration curve of concentration in real-time, achieves the automatic and visualized calibration process of

Zhang Xuhui

2011-01-01

168

A Confirmatory Approach to Calibrating Congeneric Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demonstrates how the problem of calibrating measures can be formulated in terms of confirmatory factor analysis. The relationships between traditional approaches and a confirmatory factor approach are specified. (Author/CTM)

Werts, C. E.; And Others

1980-01-01

169

Cross-calibration experiment of JPL AIRSAR and truck-mounted polarimetric scatterometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

When point calibration targets are used to calibrate a SAR image, the calibration accuracy is governed by two major factors. The first factor stems from the stringent requirement on the radar cross section (RCS) of the point calibration target. To reduce the effect of radar return from the background, the RCS of a point calibration target must be much larger

K. Sarabandi; L. E. Pierce; Y. Oh; M. C. Dobson; F. T. Ulaby; A. Freeman; P. Dubois

1994-01-01

170

Are major reductions in new HIV infections possible with people who inject drugs? The case for low dead-space syringes in highly affected countries.  

PubMed

Circumstantial evidence from laboratory studies, mathematical models, ecological studies and bio behavioural surveys, suggests that injection-related HIV epidemics may be averted or reversed if people who inject drugs (PWID) switch from using high dead-space to using low dead-space syringes. In laboratory experiments that simulated the injection process and rinsing with water, low dead space syringes retained 1000 times less blood than high dead space syringes. In mathematical models, switching PWID from high dead space to low dead space syringes prevents or reverses injection-related HIV epidemics. No one knows if such an intervention is feasible or what effect it would have on HIV transmission among PWID. Feasibility studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be needed to answer these questions definitively, but these studies will be very expensive and take years to complete. Rather than waiting for them to be completed, we argue for an approach similar to that used with needle and syringe programs (NSP), which were promoted and implemented before being tested more rigorously. Before implementation, rapid assessments that involve PWID will need to be conducted to ensure buy-in from PWID and other local stakeholders. This commentary summarizes the existing evidence regarding the protective effects of low dead space syringes and estimates potential impacts on HIV transmission; it describes potential barriers to transitioning PWID from high dead space to low dead space needles and syringes; and it presents strategies for overcoming these barriers. PMID:22884539

Zule, William A; Cross, Harry E; Stover, John; Pretorius, Carel

2013-01-01

171

Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women's Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Results Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (??=?-0.174, SE?=?0.054, p?calibration equations combining FFQ, 4DFR, 24HR with age, body mass index, race, and the psychosocial and diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are significantly different between the calibration equations with or without the six psychosocial and diet variables for protein density (p?=?0.02), but not for energy (p?=?0.119) or protein intake (p?=?0.077). Conclusions The addition of psychosocial and diet behavior factors to calibration equations significantly increases the amount of total variance explained for protein density and their inclusion would be expected to strengthen the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report for measurement error. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00000611

2013-01-01

172

Simple Syringe Filtration Methods for Reliably Examining Dissolved and Colloidal Trace Element Distributions in Remote Field Locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for obtaining reliable dissolved trace element samples frequently utilize clean labs, portable laminar flow benches, or other equipment not readily transportable to remote locations. In some cases unfiltered samples can be obtained in a remote location and transported back to a lab for filtration. However, this may not always be possible or desirable. Additionally, methods for obtaining information on colloidal composition are likewise frequently too cumbersome for remote locations as well as being time-consuming. For that reason I have examined clean methods for collecting samples filtered through 0.45 and 0.02 micron syringe filters. With this methodology, only small samples are collected (typically 15 mL). However, with the introduction of the latest generation of ICP-MS's and microflow nebulizers, sample requirements for elemental analysis are much lower than just a few years ago. Thus, a determination of a suite of first row transition elements is frequently readily obtainable with samples of less than 1 mL. To examine the "traditional" (<0.45 micron) dissolved phase, 25 mm diameter polypropylene syringe filters and all polyethylene/polypropylene syringes are utilized. Filters are pre-cleaned in the lab using 40 mL of approx. 1 M HCl followed by a clean water rinse. Syringes are pre-cleaned by leaching with hot 1 M HCl followed by a clean water rinse. Sample kits are packed in polyethylene bags for transport to the field. Results are similar to results obtained using 0.4 micron polycarbonate screen filters, though concentrations may differ somewhat depending on the extent of sample pre-rinsing of the filter. Using this method, a multi-year time series of dissolved metals in a remote Rocky Mountain stream has been obtained. To examine the effect of colloidal material on dissolved metal concentrations, 0.02 micron alumina syringe filters have been utilized. Other workers have previously used these filters for examining colloidal Fe distributions in lake and sea water. Filters are pre-cleaned in the lab using clean pH 2 water followed by a clean water rinse and then dried with clean air. Because of the significant pressure that must be placed on the syringe for some minutes to effect a filtration, a simple plastic press and stand has been devised. Polarization artifacts, which can affect this type of ultra-filtration, do not appear to be significant. This may be due to the comparatively large pore size of these filters (equivalent to approx. 40 kDa). These filters, in combination with the 0.45 micron filters, are being used in a multi-year study of trace elements in the Yukon River system.

Shiller, A. M.

2002-12-01

173

Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

1991-02-01

174

Distribution of silicone oil in prefilled glass syringes probed with optical and spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Prefilled glass syringes (PFSs) have become the most commonly used device for the delivery of recombinant protein therapeutics in parenteral formulations. In particular, auto-injectors preloaded with PFSs greatly facilitate the convenient and efficient self-administration of protein therapeutics by patients. Silicone oil is used as a lubricant in PFSs to facilitate the smooth motion of the plunger during injection. However, there have been few sophisticated analytical techniques that can qualitatively and quantitatively characterize in-situ the morphology, thickness, and distribution of silicone oil in PFSs. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of three optical techniques including confocal Raman microscopy, Schlieren optics, and thin film interference reflectometry to visualize and characterize silicone oil distribution in PFS. The results showed that a container coating process could produce unevenly distributed silicone oil on the glass barrel of PFSs. An insufficiency of the amount of silicone oil on the glass barrel of a PFS can cause stalling when the device is preloaded into an auto-injector. These analytical techniques can be applied to monitor the silicone oil distribution in PFSs. PMID:19634353

Wen, Zai-Qing; Vance, Aylin; Vega, Fabian; Cao, Xiaolin; Eu, Bruce; Schulthesis, Robert

2009-01-01

175

Functional evaluation and characterization of a newly developed silicone oil-free prefillable syringe system.  

PubMed

The functionality of a newly developed silicone oil-free (SOF) syringe system, of which the plunger stopper is coated by a novel coating technology (i-coating™), was assessed. By scanning electron microscopy observations and other analysis, it was confirmed that the plunger stopper surface was uniformly covered with the designed chemical composition. A microflow imaging analysis showed that the SOF system drastically reduced both silicone oil (SO) doplets and oil-induced aggregations in a model protein formulation, whereas a large number of subvisible particles and protein aggregations were formed when a SO system was used. Satisfactory container closure integrity (CCI) was confirmed by means of dye and microorganism penetration studies. Furthermore, no significant difference between the break loose and gliding forces was observed in the former, and stability studies revealed that the SOF system could perfectly show the aging independence in break loose force observed in the SO system. The results suggest that the introduced novel SOF system has a great potential and represents an alternative that can achieve very low subvisible particles, secure CCI, and the absence of a break loose force. In particular, no risk of SO-induced aggregation can bring additional value in the highly sensitive biotech drug market. PMID:24643749

Yoshino, Keisuke; Nakamura, Koji; Yamashita, Arisa; Abe, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro; Kanazawa, Yukie; Funatsu, Kaori; Yoshimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shigeru

2014-05-01

176

Single crystal growth of InBi 1- xSe x by syringe pulling method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, III-V compounds have received some attention as potential candidates for infrared application in the 8-12 ?m range. Single crystal of InBi:Se belonging to the same system has been grown by Syringe pulling method. The charge was allowed to cool freely to room temperature, which took about 10 min. The stainless steel needle serves as heat sink and site of nucleation. Crystals were cleaved along the cleavage plane (0 0 1) parallel to the vertical growth axis. Growth features were studied on the surface of crystals. XRD technique has been used for testing the presence of constituent element of InBi:Se single crystal. Standard test for a new dislocation etchant has been carried out successfully and results are reported. The optical absorption was measured in the wave number range 500-4000 cm -1. The bandgap has been evaluated from these data and studied as a function of concentration. The increase in concentration has been also found to affect their hardness.

Shah, Dimple; Pandya, Girish; Vyas, Sandip; Jani, Maunik; Jariwala, Bhakti

2010-04-01

177

Syringe filtration methods for examining dissolved and colloidal trace element distributions in remote field locations.  

PubMed

It is well-established that sampling and sample processing can easily introduce contamination into dissolved trace element samples if precautions are not taken. However, work in remote locations sometimes precludes bringing bulky clean lab equipment into the field and likewise may make timely transport of samples to the lab for processing impossible. Straightforward syringe filtration methods are described here for collecting small quantities (15 mL) of 0.45- and 0.02-microm filtered river water in an uncontaminated manner. These filtration methods take advantage of recent advances in analytical capabilities that require only small amounts of waterfor analysis of a suite of dissolved trace elements. Filter clogging and solute rejection artifacts appear to be minimal, although some adsorption of metals and organics does affect the first approximately 10 mL of water passing through the filters. Overall the methods are clean, easy to use, and provide reproducible representations of the dissolved and colloidal fractions of trace elements in river waters. Furthermore, sample processing materials can be prepared well in advance in a clean lab and transported cleanly and compactly to the field. Application of these methods is illustrated with data from remote locations in the Rocky Mountains and along the Yukon River. Evidence from field flow fractionation suggests that the 0.02-microm filters may provide a practical cutoff to distinguish metals associated with small inorganic and organic complexes from those associated with silicate and oxide colloids. PMID:12967118

Shiller, Alan M

2003-09-01

178

Syringe filtration methods for examining dissolved and colloidal trace element distributions in remote field locations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well-established that sampling and sample processing can easily introduce contamination into dissolved trace element samples if precautions are not taken. However, work in remote locations sometimes precludes bringing bulky clean lab equipment into the field and likewise may make timely transport of samples to the lab for processing impossible. Straightforward syringe filtration methods are described here for collecting small quantities (15 mL) of 0.45- and 0.02-microm filtered river water in an uncontaminated manner. These filtration methods take advantage of recent advances in analytical capabilities that require only small amounts of waterfor analysis of a suite of dissolved trace elements. Filter clogging and solute rejection artifacts appear to be minimal, although some adsorption of metals and organics does affect the first approximately 10 mL of water passing through the filters. Overall the methods are clean, easy to use, and provide reproducible representations of the dissolved and colloidal fractions of trace elements in river waters. Furthermore, sample processing materials can be prepared well in advance in a clean lab and transported cleanly and compactly to the field. Application of these methods is illustrated with data from remote locations in the Rocky Mountains and along the Yukon River. Evidence from field flow fractionation suggests that the 0.02-microm filters may provide a practical cutoff to distinguish metals associated with small inorganic and organic complexes from those associated with silicate and oxide colloids.

Shiller, Alan M.

2003-01-01

179

Monte Carlo simulation of activity measurement of 123I, 111In and 153Sm with a radionuclide calibrator.  

PubMed

The response of radionuclide calibrators for radionuclides with high abundances of high energy X-rays is very sensitive to changes in the source geometry. The magnitude of this effect was explored for Bqmetr (Konsorcium BQM, CR) calibrators with (123)I, (111)In and (153)Sm in several vial and syringe geometries. Dependencies of chamber responses on solution volume and container position were calculated using MCNP transport code. The possibility of usage of an additional copper filter to reduce chamber sensitivity was studied and found to be suitable. PMID:19963393

Olsovcová, Veronika

2010-01-01

180

A new syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium in groundwaters and geothermal fluids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] We present details of a newly designed syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH). The device is composed of a commercially available syringe pump connected to coils of Cu tubing, which interface the syringe and the groundwater or geothermal wellhead. Through test deployments at geothermal wells in Iceland and California, we show that well fluids are drawn smoothly, accurately, and continuously into the Cu tubing and can be time-stamped through user-determined operating parameters. In the laboratory, the tubing is sectioned to reveal helium (He) characteristics of the fluids at times and for durations of interest. The device is capable of prolonged deployments, up to 6 months or more, with minimal maintenance. It can be used to produce detailed time series records of He, or any other geochemical parameter, in groundwaters and geothermal fluids. SPARTAH has application in monitoring projects assessing the relationship between external transient events (e.g., earthquakes) and geochemical signals in aqueous fluids. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Barry, P. H.; Hilton, D. R.; Tryon, M. D.; Brown, K. M.; Kulongoski, J. T.

2009-01-01

181

Scalar calibration of vector magnetometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence of a magnetic field, three scale factors for normalization of the axes and three non-orthogonality

J. M. G. Merayo; P. Brauer; F. Primdahl; J. R. Petersen; O. V. Nielsen

2000-01-01

182

The efficiency calibration and development of environmental correction factors for an in situ high-resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system  

SciTech Connect

A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. Absolute efficiency calibration of the GSLS was performed using simple cylindrical borehole geometry. The calibration source incorporated naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) that emitted photons ranging from 186-keV to 2,614-keV. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software. A linear relationship was found between increasing source thickness and relative photon fluence rates at the detector. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, relative photon fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Attenuation effects due to iron, water, PVC, and concrete cylindrical shields were found to agree with previous studies. Regression analyses produced energy-dependent equations for efficiency corrections applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs collected under non-standard borehole conditions.

Giles, J.R.

1996-05-01

183

Syringic acid ameliorates (L)-NAME-induced hypertension by reducing oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of syringic acid (SA), a phenolic acid, on N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in adult male albino rats by oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) dissolved in drinking water daily for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with different doses of SA (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)). Systolic blood pressure of control and experimental rats was recorded. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid peroxidative products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes, and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were estimated in erythrocytes, plasma, and tissues of experimental rats. Hepatic marker enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and renal functional markers such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine were also estimated in serum. The increased levels of blood pressure, lipid peroxidation products, hepatic and renal function markers, and the decreased level of NOx and antioxidants in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats were reversed upon SA treatment. The protective effect at the dose of the three tested doses (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of SA at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. exerts optimum protection. Biochemical findings are substantiated by the histological observation. The protective effects of SA are mediated by reducing oxidative stress and retaining the bioavailability of NO in the cardiovascular system. PMID:23079793

Kumar, Subramanian; Prahalathan, Pichavaram; Raja, Boobalan

2012-12-01

184

Effect of syringe filter and i.v. administration set on delivery of propofol emulsion.  

PubMed

Propofol emulsion was studied to determine the effects of filtration and of passage through an i.v. administration set on drug concentration. To study syringe filter effects, propofol emulsion samples (Diprivan Injection, 10 mg/mL) were discharged through either a 5-mm filtering needle or a standard needle. To determine the effects of the i.v. administration set on propofol delivery, a diluted dispersion containing approximately 2 mg/mL was prepared from propofol emulsion and 5% dextrose injection. This formulation was siphoned into a 6-foot length of administration set tubing, from which samples were withdrawn at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. Another 2-mg/mL diluted dispersion of propofol and 5% dextrose injection was placed in a glass reservoir and delivered through a 6-foot i.v. set at a rate of 1.75 mL/min, which corresponds to a low dosage rate of 0.05 mg.kg-1.min-1. Samples of the effluent were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Samples collected from all three tests were assayed by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean propofol concentrations in the filtered and unfiltered samples were 96.05% and 96.09% of label claim, respectively, after discharge through needles; the difference was not significant. In the static study of the i.v. tubing effects, a 31.54-34.74% loss of propofol occurred after 120 min. In the study of propofol flowing through the i.v. tubing, the concentration dropped slightly in the initial sample, which was taken after the propofol was placed in the tubing. The concentration remained essentially constant for the first hour and then declined, with an overall average loss of 7.70%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1814205

Bailey, L C; Tang, K T; Rogozinski, B A

1991-12-01

185

Improving Viability of Stem Cells During Syringe Needle Flow Through the Design of Hydrogel Cell Carriers  

PubMed Central

Cell transplantation is a promising therapy for a myriad of debilitating diseases; however, current delivery protocols using direct injection result in poor cell viability. We demonstrate that during the actual cell injection process, mechanical membrane disruption results in significant acute loss of viability at clinically relevant injection rates. As a strategy to protect cells from these damaging forces, we hypothesize that cell encapsulation within hydrogels of specific mechanical properties will significantly improve viability. We use a controlled in vitro model of cell injection to demonstrate success of this acute protection strategy for a wide range of cell types including human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human adipose stem cells, rat mesenchymal stem cells, and mouse neural progenitor cells. Specifically, alginate hydrogels with plateau storage moduli (G?) ranging from 0.33 to 58.1?Pa were studied. A compliant crosslinked alginate hydrogel (G?=29.6?Pa) yielded the highest HUVEC viability, 88.9%±5.0%, while Newtonian solutions (i.e., buffer only) resulted in 58.7%±8.1% viability. Either increasing or decreasing the hydrogel storage modulus reduced this protective effect. Further, cells within noncrosslinked alginate solutions had viabilities lower than media alone, demonstrating that the protective effects are specifically a result of mechanical gelation and not the biochemistry of alginate. Experimental and theoretical data suggest that extensional flow at the entrance of the syringe needle is the main cause of acute cell death. These results provide mechanistic insight into the role of mechanical forces during cell delivery and support the use of protective hydrogels in future clinical stem cell injection studies.

Aguado, Brian A.; Mulyasasmita, Widya; Su, James; Lampe, Kyle J.

2012-01-01

186

Implicit Spacecraft Gyro Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an implicit algorithm for spacecraft onboard instrument calibration, particularly to onboard gyro calibration. This work is an extension of previous work that was done where an explicit gyro calibration algorithm was applied to the AQUA spacecraft gyros. The algorithm presented in this paper was tested using simulated data and real data that were downloaded from the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft. The calibration tests gave very good results. A comparison between the use of the implicit calibration algorithm used here with the explicit algorithm used for AQUA spacecraft indicates that both provide an excellent estimation of the gyro calibration parameters with similar accuracies.

Harman, Richard; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

2003-01-01

187

Spray Nozzle Calibrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spray nozzle calibration techniques were evaluated. Ten spray nozzles to be utilized for producing simulated icing clouds were calibrated to determine the ranges of mass median droplet diameter and water flow rate. The number and types of spray nozzles ca...

J. D. Hunt

1986-01-01

188

Calibrated Peer Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is Calibrated Peer ReviewTM? Calibrated Peer ReviewTM (CPR) (more info) is a web-based writing and peer review tool free to instructors and their classes. Students write short essays on a given topic following ...

189

Flight calibration assessment of HiRAP accelerometer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight derived method of calibrating the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) flight data has been developed and is discussed for Shuttle Orbiter missions STS-35 and STS-40. These two mission data sets have been analyzed using ground calibration factors and flight derived calibration factors. This flight technique evolved early in the flight program when it was recognized that ground calibration factors are insufficient to determine absolute low-acceleration levels. The application of flight calibration factors to the data sets from these missions produced calibrated acceleration levels within an accuracy of less than +/- 1.5 microgravity of zero during a time in the flight when the acceleration level was known to be less than 1.0 microgravity. This analysis further confirms the theory that flight calibrations are required in order to obtain the absolute measurement of low-frequency, low-acceleration flight signals.

Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moast, Christina D.

1993-01-01

190

Pharmacist and pharmacy staff experiences with non-prescription (NP) sale of syringes and attitudes toward providing HIV prevention services for injection drug users (IDUs) in Providence, RI.  

PubMed

Increased access to sterile syringes among injection drug users (IDUs) has been correlated with reduced syringe sharing. Many states, including Rhode Island, have legalized non-prescription (NP) sale of syringes in pharmacies. Previous studies have suggested that training pharmacists to provide HIV-related services to IDUs may be an important opportunity to engage IDUs and provide them with such services. However, it is not clear to what extent pharmacy staff are willing to expand their roles in providing services to IDUs who come in to purchase syringes. We recruited pharmacists and pharmacy staff from the 48 pharmacies indicating NP sale of syringes in the greater Providence, RI area, to participate in an online survey consisting of demographic information; views about the current syringe laws in Rhode Island; willingness to provide HIV-related services, including referral for HIV testing, substance use treatment, and medical and social services, to IDUs; and past experiences with IDU customers. One hundred and forty-six individuals completed the online survey (32 pharmacies, 114 pharmacy staff). Most participants were employed by chain pharmacies (92%). Most participants thought that pharmacies are important resources for IDU customers (77%) and that they would be willing to provide health and prevention information/referrals to IDU customers who purchase NP syringes (59%). With respect to willingness to offer HIV prevention-related services, access to confidential space and concern about personal safety had the strongest associations with willingness to provide HIV prevention services (OR, 4.3 and 0.1, respectively). As the nature of the retail pharmacy shifts, researchers, pharmacy executives, and health care officials can build upon the willingness of pharmacists and pharmacy staff in order to address the health needs of injection drug users and other underserved populations. PMID:21116724

Zaller, Nickolas; Jeronimo, Alexandra; Bratberg, Jeffrey; Case, Patricia; Rich, Josiah D

2010-12-01

191

Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment: Calibration Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), which has flown on STS-40, STS-50, and STS-58, contains a three-axis accelerometer with a single, nonpendulous, electrostatically suspended proofmass, which can resolve accelerations to the 10(sub -9) g level. The experiment also contains a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale-factor calibration. This on-orbit calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty of ground-based calibrations encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the Orbiter, and thus provides absolute acceleration measurement accuracy heretofore unachievable. This is the first time accelerometer scale-factor measurements have been performed on orbit. A detailed analysis of the calibration process is given, along with results of the calibration factors from the on-orbit OARE flight measurements on STS-58. In addition, the analysis of OARE flight-maneuver data used to validate the scale-factor measurements in the sensor's most sensitive range are also presented. Estimates on calibration uncertainties are discussed. These uncertainty estimates provides bounds on the STS-58 absolute acceleration measurements for future applications.

Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.; Larman, Kevin T.

1995-01-01

192

Directional borehole radar calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing an innovative low-noise directional borehole radar system. Harsh and changing operating environments are a challenge to the low-noise sensitive electronic design. Additionally a system with such high sensitivity is susceptible to temperature changes and to component parameter variations. Therefore a calibration module was developed to calibrate the overall measurement system with a test signal generator. This calibration

O. Borchert; K. Behaimanot; A. Glasmachers

2009-01-01

193

Assessment of adherence and healthcare costs of insulin device (FlexPen®) versus conventional vial\\/syringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Diabetes is difficult to manage and treatment involves significant lifestyle adjustments. Unlike the traditional method of\\u000a insulin administration via the vial and syringe method, insulin pens might be perceived as less cumbersome and have potential\\u000a to significantly increase patient adherence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using “real world” data, we examined the differences in adherence and costs between diabetic patients using an insulin FlexPen®\\u000a (Novo

Onur Baser; Jonathan Bouchard; Tony DeLuzio; Henry Henk; Mark Aagren

2010-01-01

194

Automated in-syringe single-drop head-space micro-extraction applied to the determination of ethanol in wine samples.  

PubMed

A novel approach of head-space single-drop micro-extraction applied to the determination of ethanol in wine is presented. For the first time, the syringe of an automated syringe pump was used as an extraction chamber of adaptable size for a volatile analyte. This approach enabled to apply negative pressure during the enrichment step, which favored the evaporation of the analyte. Placing a slowly spinning magnetic stirring bar inside the syringe, effective syringe cleaning as well as mixing of the sample with buffer solution to suppress the interference of acetic acid was achieved. Ethanol determination was based on the reduction of a single drop of 3mmolL(-1) potassium dichromate dissolved in 8molL(-1) sulfuric acid. The drop was positioned in the syringe inlet in the head-space above the sample with posterior spectrophotometric quantification. The entire procedure was carried out automatically using a simple sequential injection analyzer system. One analysis required less than 5min including the washing step. A limit of detection of 0.025% (v/v) of ethanol and an average repeatability of less than 5.0% RSD were achieved. The consumption of dichromate reagent, buffer, and sample per analysis were only 20?L, 200?L, and 1mL, respectively. The results of real samples analysis did not differ significantly from those obtained with the references gas chromatography method. PMID:24845815

Srámková, Ivana; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Solich, Petr; Sklená?ová, Hana

2014-05-30

195

Assessment of MODIS Reflected Solar Calibration Uncertainty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determination of the calibration accuracy and traceability of a remote sensing instrument is a driving issue in the use of satellite data for calibration inter-comparisons and studying climate change. The Terra and Aqua MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments have successfully operated for more than 11 and 9 years, respectively. Twenty of the thirty six MODIS spectral bands are in the reflected solar region with center wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 2.2 microns. MODIS reflective solar band (RSB) on-orbit calibration is reflectance based through the use of an on-board solar diffuser (SO). The calibration uncertainty requirements are +/-2.0% for the RSB reflectance factors at sensor specified typical scene reflectances or radiances. The SO bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) was characterized pre-launch and its on-orbit changes are tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). This paper provides an assessment of MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration traceability and uncertainty for its Level 1B (L1B) reflectance factors. It examines in details each of the uncertainty contributors, including those from pre-launch measurements as well as on-orbit observations. Common challenging issues and differences due to individual sensors' specific characteristics and on-orbit performance are also discussed in this paper. Guidance and recommendations are presented, based on lessons from MODIS RSB calibration uncertainty assessment, for the development of future instrument calibration and validation plans.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Butler, James

2011-01-01

196

Outbreak of viral hepatitis B in a rural community in India linked to inadequately sterilized needles and syringes.  

PubMed

In India, virtually all outbreaks of viral hepatitis are considered to be due to faeco-orally transmitted hepatitis E virus. Recently, a cluster of 15 cases of viral hepatitis B was found in three villages in Gujarat State. The cases were epidemiologically linked to the use of inadequately sterilized needles and syringes by a local unqualified medical practitioner. The outbreak evolved slowly over a period of 3 months and was marked by a high case fatality rate (46.7%), probably because of concurrent infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) or sexually transmitted infections. But for the many fatalities within 2-3 weeks of the onset of illness, the outbreak would have gone unnoticed. The findings emphasize the importance of inadequately sterilized needles and syringes in the transmission of viral hepatitis B in India, the need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organize an education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection. PMID:9615501

Singh, J; Bhatia, R; Gandhi, J C; Kaswekar, A P; Khare, S; Patel, S B; Oza, V B; Jain, D C; Sokhey, J

1998-01-01

197

Outbreak of viral hepatitis B in a rural community in India linked to inadequately sterilized needles and syringes.  

PubMed Central

In India, virtually all outbreaks of viral hepatitis are considered to be due to faeco-orally transmitted hepatitis E virus. Recently, a cluster of 15 cases of viral hepatitis B was found in three villages in Gujarat State. The cases were epidemiologically linked to the use of inadequately sterilized needles and syringes by a local unqualified medical practitioner. The outbreak evolved slowly over a period of 3 months and was marked by a high case fatality rate (46.7%), probably because of concurrent infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) or sexually transmitted infections. But for the many fatalities within 2-3 weeks of the onset of illness, the outbreak would have gone unnoticed. The findings emphasize the importance of inadequately sterilized needles and syringes in the transmission of viral hepatitis B in India, the need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organize an education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection.

Singh, J.; Bhatia, R.; Gandhi, J. C.; Kaswekar, A. P.; Khare, S.; Patel, S. B.; Oza, V. B.; Jain, D. C.; Sokhey, J.

1998-01-01

198

Syringe test (modified larval immersion test): a new bioassay for testing acaricidal activity of plant extracts against Rhipicephalus microplus.  

PubMed

We report a new bioassay "syringe test" (modified larval immersion test) for in vitro evaluation of acaricidal activity of crude plant extracts. Prepared syringes, containing eggs of tick, were incubated until 14 d after hatching of eggs, when the bioassay was performed on the larvae. Lethal concentrations for 50% of larvae (LC(50)), LC(90) and LC(99) values were calculated for each tested product. 95% confidence intervals for LC(50) were very narrow, indicating a high degree of repeatability for the new bioassay on larvae of R. microplus. Bioassays were applied to six crude aqueous-methanol extracts from five plants (Acacia nilotica, Buxus papillosa, Fumaria parviflora, Juniperus excelsa, and Operculina turpethum), of which three showed discernible effects. Twenty-four hours post exposure, LC(99) values were 11.9% (w/v) for F. parviflora, 20.8% (w/v) and 29.2% (w/v) for B. papillosa and A. nilotica, respectively. After six days of exposure these values were; 9.1% (w/v), 9.2% (w/v) and 15.5 (w/v) for F. parviflora, A. nilotica and B. papillosa, respectively. PMID:22516644

Sindhu, Zia-ud-Din; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Iqbal, Zafar

2012-09-10

199

Semisolid systems containing propolis for the treatment of periodontal disease: in vitro release kinetics, syringeability, rheological, textural, and mucoadhesive properties.  

PubMed

Formulations containing poloxamer 407 (P407), carbopol 934P (C934P), and propolis extract (PE) were designed for the treatment of periodontal disease. Gelation temperature, in vitro drug release, rheology, hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, mucoadhesion, and syringeability of formulations were determined. Propolis release from formulations was controlled by the phenomenon of relaxation of polymer chains. Formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and low degrees of thixotropy or rheopexy. In most samples, increasing the concentration of C934P content significantly increased storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and dynamic viscosity (eta'), at 5 degrees C, G'' exceeded G'. At 25 and 37 degrees C, eta' of each formulation depended on the oscillatory frequency. Formulations showed thermoresponsive behavior, existing as a liquid at room temperature and gel at 34-37 degrees C. Increasing the C934P content or temperature significantly increased formulation hardness, compressibility, and adhesiveness. The greatest mucoadhesion was noted in the formulation containing 15% P407 (w/w) and 0.25% C934P (w/w). The work of syringeability values of all formulations were similar and very desirable with regard to ease of administration. The data obtained in these formulations indicate a potentially useful role in the treatment of periodontitis and suggest they are worthy of clinical evaluation. PMID:17301966

Bruschi, Marcos L; Jones, David S; Panzeri, Heitor; Gremião, Maria P D; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Lara, Elza H G

2007-08-01

200

Recognition and identification of UV-absorbing leachables in EPREX pre-filled syringes: an unexpected occurrence at a formulation-component interface.  

PubMed

During the period of 1998 to 2002, there was an increase in the incidence of antibody-positive pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) in patients receiving subcutaneous administration of EPREX (epoetinum alfa). As part of the investigation of this event, the aqueous formulation containing polysorbate 80, introduced in 1998, facilitated the leaching of small-molecule, aromatic compounds from the uncoated rubber syringe stoppers. The leachables were identified using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy, Electrospray Ionisation-MS/MS, Dithiothreitol reduction, and Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange. The major leachable was identified as a dialkylphenol disulfide, and the majority of the remaining peaks were identified as structural variants containing different numbers of sulfur atoms in the sulfide bridge. In this report, we describe the strategies and experimental designs that were used to overcome the analytical challenges and that led to successful structural identification of the leachables in EPREX pre-filled syringes with uncoated syringe stoppers. PMID:18410043

Pang, James; Blanc, Tim; Brown, John; Labrenz, Steven; Villalobos, Annabelle; Depaolis, Anneli; Gunturi, Srinivas; Grossman, Steve; Lisi, Peter; Heavner, George A

2007-01-01

201

Needle and syringe sharing practices of injecting drug users participating in an outreach HIV prevention program in Tehran, Iran: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

HIV infection rates have reached epidemic proportions amongst injecting drug users (IDUs) in Iran. Although a number of community-based interventions have being implemented in the country, there is little information on the risk behaviors of IDU participants in these programs. This cross-sectional report aimed to compare the risk behaviors of injecting drug users with differential exposure rates to an HIV outreach program in Tehran, Iran. Results indicated that shared use of needle/syringe in the past month was significantly lower among IDUs who received estimated ? 7 syringes per week than those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 14.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30–89.56]. While the effectiveness of this outreach program needs further evaluation through a longitudinal investigation, our preliminary findings suggest that the outreach program in Tehran may have been beneficial in reducing direct sharing among those who received more than several needles/syringes from the program.

Vazirian, Mohsen; Nassirimanesh, Bijan; Zamani, Saman; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Mortazavi Ravari, Shahrzad; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

2005-01-01

202

Solar energy harvesting scheme using syringe-like ZnO nanorod arrays for InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells.  

PubMed

Syringe-like ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) synthesized by a hydrothermal method were applied as the light-harvesting layer on InGaN-based multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells. Theoretical calculations show that the NRAs with an abrupt shrinkage of tip diameter can further suppress surface reflectance in comparison with the flat NRAs. InGaN-based MQW solar cells with the syringe-like NRAs exhibit greatly improved conversion efficiencies by 36%. These results are attributed to the improved flatness of the refractive index profile at the air/device interface, which results in enhanced light trapping effect on the device surface. PMID:22212791

Lin, G J; Lai, K Y; Lin, C A; He, J H

2012-01-01

203

Radiation standards and calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research program encompasses: reviewing calibration standards, regulations, and handbooks; assuring that calibration procedures used are in agreement with technically accepted methods; maintaining basic radioactive sources and instruments that serve as radiological standards; and providing traceability to the National Bureau of Standards where possible. In addition, major efforts are being expended to upgrade the 318 calibration facility. This report focuses on major accomplishments during FY-1981. However, most maintenance and quality assurance efforts involve routine support and only a summary report is provided.

Roberson, P. L.; Yoder, R. C.; Fox, R. A.; Hooker, C. D.; Hogan, R. T.; Holbrook, K. L.; Hadley, R. T.

1982-07-01

204

Acoustic emission calibration instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

An automatic calibration instrument was developed to improve calibration accuracy of acoustic emission (AE) transducers by one order-of-magnitude over commercially available equipment. The instrument facilitates calibration by automatically displaying the maximum value of the stress used to produce AE calibration pulses and the AE pulse. Low-noise amplifiers and filters were also developed to improve the sensitivity of AE measurements by more than one order-of-magnitude over commercially available instruments; thus smaller signals may be detected in parts. 1 ref., 10 figs.

Duncan, M.G.; Whittaker, J.W.

1987-11-13

205

Metrology and Calibration Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Equipment calibration issues are the name of the game here. Topics addressed range from "the adjustment dilemma" to terminology (for example "calibration" vs. "verification") to worldwide calibration standards. The site is sponsored by Agilent Technologies, a company that provides the semiconductor, electronics, communications, and related industries with testing solutions for test instruments, systems, equipment and monitoring tools. Users can be sure that every measurement is traceable to National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) through Agilent-engineered calibration procedures that verify instrument specifications. The site allows users to stay up-to-date on changing compliance requirements and their practical applications by working with Agilent meteorologists who collaborate with international standards organizations.

206

Field calibration of reference reflectance panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure for calibrating reference reflectance panels using the sun as the radiation source and a pressed-polytetrafluoroethylene powder standard is described. The directional/directional reflectance factor and the directional/hemispheric reflectance factor are examined. Directional/directional voltage responses for pressed-halon are analyzed. Three painted BaSO4 and one painted halon were calibrated using the proposed procedure. The effects of diffuse irradiance on reflectance-factor measurements are investigated. It is determined that the method has an accuracy on the order of 1 percent. The advantages and disadvantages of this method are discussed.

Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. Susan; Slater, Philip N.; Biggar, Stuart F.

1987-01-01

207

Towards Automating Spacecraft Attitude Sensor Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a view towards reducing cost and complexity for spacecraft early mission support at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), efforts are being made to automate the attitude sensor calibration process. This paper addresses one of the major components needed by such a system. The beneficiaries of an improved calibration process are missions that demand moderate to high precision attitude knowledge or that need to perform accurate attitude slews. Improved slew accuracy reduces the time needed for re-acquisition of fine-pointing after each attitude maneuver, Rapid target acquisition can be very important for astronomical targeting or for off-nadir surface feature targeting by Earth-oriented spacecraft. The normal sequence of on-orbit calibration starts with alignment calibration of the star trackers and possibly the Sun sensor. Their relative alignment needs to be determined using a sufficiently large data set so their fields of view are adequately sampled. Next, the inertial reference unit (IRU) is calibrated for corrections to its alignment and scale factors. The IRU biases are estimated continuously by the onboard attitude control system, but the IRU alignment and scale factors are usually determined on the ground using a batch-processing method on a data set that includes several slews sufficient to give full observability of all the IRU calibration parameters. Finally, magnetometer biases, alignment, and its coupling to the magnetic torquers are determined in order io improve momentum management and occasionally for use in the attitude determination system. The detailed approach used for automating calibrations will depend on whether the automated system resides on the ground or on the spacecraft with an ultimate goal of autonomous calibration. Current efforts focus on a ground-based system driving subsystems that could run either on the ground or onboard. The distinction is that onboard calibration should process the data sequentially rather than in a single large batch since onboard computer data storage is limited. Very good batch- processing calibration utilities have been developed and used extensively at NASA/GSFC for mission support but no sequential calibration utilities are available. To meet this need, this paper presents the mathematical description of a sequential IRU calibration system. The system has been tested using flight data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during a series of attitude slews. The paper also discusses the current state of the overall automated system and describes plans for adding sequential alignment calibration and other additions that will reduce the amount of analyst time and input.

Sedlak, Joseph; Welter, Gary; Ottenstein, Neil

2003-01-01

208

The use of anion-exchange disks in an optrode coupled to a multi-syringe flow-injection system for the determination and speciation analysis of iron in natural water samples.  

PubMed

A combination of multi-syringe flow-injection analysis (MSFIA) technique with an optical fibre reflectance sensor for the determination of iron in water samples has been developed in this work. Anion-exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) disks have been used as solid phase. Ammonium thiocyanate has been chosen as chromogenic reagent for Fe(III). The complex Fe[SCN](6)(3-) is retained onto the SPE disk and spectrophotometrically detected at 480nm. The complex is eluted with 0.25moll(-1) hydrochloric acid in 75% ethanol. Total iron can be determined by oxidising Fe(II) to Fe(III) with hydrogen peroxide. A mass calibration was run within the range of 0.4-37.5ng. The detection limit (3s(b)/S) was 0.4ng. The repeatability (RSD), calculated from 9 replicates using 0.5ml injections of a 25microgl(-1) concentration, was 3.6%. The repeatability between five anion-exchange disks was 5.4%. An injection throughput of 7 injections per hour for a sampling volume of 1ml has been achieved. The applicability of the proposed methodology in natural water samples has been proved. The properties of anion-exchange and chelating SPE disks have been studied and compared. PMID:18969983

Pons, Carmen; Forteza, Rafael; Cerdà, Víctor

2005-03-31

209

Calibration of Personnel Dosimeters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods of calibrating both film and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to photon and electron radiations are described. K fluorescent x-rays, heavily filtered x-ray beams, and isotope gamma rays are used at the Los Alamos calibration facility to measure ...

E. Storm J. R. Cortez G. J. Littlejohn

1977-01-01

210

Calibration facility safety plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of requirements is presented to insure the highest practical standard of safety for the Apollo 17 Calibration Facility in terms of identifying all critical or catastrophic type hazard areas. Plans for either counteracting or eliminating these areas are presented. All functional operations in calibrating the ultraviolet spectrometer and the testing of its components are described.

Fastie, W. G.

1971-01-01

211

OLI Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals: (1) Present an overview of the pre-launch radiance, reflectance & uniformity calibration of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) (1a) Transfer to orbit/heliostat (1b) Linearity (2) Discuss on-orbit plans for radiance, reflectance and uniformity calibration of the OLI

Markham, Brian; Morfitt, Ron; Kvaran, Geir; Biggar, Stuart; Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

2011-01-01

212

Thermal calibration target  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blackbody source calibrates the response of a medium resolution infrared radiometer used on a meteorological satellite. This approach controls the temperature of a thermal calibrating device over a wide range without the need for controlling a liquid nitrogen input to the device. The availability of liquid nitrogen achieves the required thermal control.

Buller, J. S.

1969-01-01

213

Calibration of attitude sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an on-board computer.

Potapenko, E. M.

1986-04-01

214

Calibration of hydrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief description of the different methods employed in periodic calibration of hydrometers used in most cases to measure the density of liquids in the range between 500 kg m-3 and 2000 kg m-3, particular emphasis is given to the multipoint procedure based on hydrostatic weighing, known as well as Cuckow's method. The features of the calibration apparatus and

Salvatore Lorefice; Andrea Malengo

2006-01-01

215

TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time calibrator of an electric signal displayed on an oscilloscope ; is described. In contrast to the conventional technique of using time-calibrated ; divisions on the face of the oscilloscope, this invention provides means for ; directly superimposing equal time spaced markers upon a signal displayed upon an ; oscilloscope. More explicitly, the present invention includes generally a ;

H. M. Owren; B. M. Johnson; V. L. Smith

1958-01-01

216

A time and motion study of peripheral venous catheter flushing practice using manually prepared and prefilled flush syringes.  

PubMed

Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are the simplest and most frequently used method for drug, fluid, and blood product administration in the hospital setting. It is estimated that up to 90% of patients in acute care hospitals require a PVC; however, PVCs are associated with inherent complications, which can be mechanical or infectious. There have been a range of strategies to prevent or reduce PVC-related complications that include optimizing patency through the use of flushing. Little is known about the current status of flushing practice. This observational study quantified preparation and administration time and identified adherence to principles of Aseptic Non-Touch Technique and organizational protocol on PVC flushing by using both manually prepared and prefilled syringes. PMID:24583939

Keogh, Samantha; Marsh, Nicole; Higgins, Niall; Davies, Karen; Rickard, Claire

2014-01-01

217

Calibration method for spectroscopic systems  

DOEpatents

Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets. 3 figs.

Sandison, D.R.

1998-11-17

218

Implementation Study of Patient-Ready Syringes Containing 25?mg/mL Methotrexate Solution for Use in Treating Ectopic Pregnancy.  

PubMed

Background. Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality during the first trimester of pregnancy. Small unruptured tubal pregnancies can be treated medically with a single dose of methotrexate (MTX). Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of a 25?mg/mL solution of MTX to devise a secure delivery circuit for the preparation and use of this medication in the management of EP. Method. MTX solutions were packaged in polypropylene syringes, stored over an 84-day period, and protected from light either at +2 to +8°C or at 23°C. We assessed the physical and chemical stability of the solutions at various time points over the storage period. A pharmaceutical delivery circuit was implemented that involved the batch preparation of MTX syringes. Results. We show that 25?mg/mL MTX solutions remain stable over an 84-day period under the storage conditions tested. Standard doses were prepared, ranging from 50?mg to 100?mg. The results of this study suggest that MTX syringes can be prepared in advance by the pharmacy, ready to be dispensed at any time that a diagnosis of EP is made. Conclusion. The high stability of a 25?mg/mL MTX solution in polypropylene syringes makes it possible to implement a flexible and cost-effective delivery circuit for ready-to-use preparations of this drug, providing 24-hour access and preventing treatment delays. PMID:24900977

Respaud, R; Gaudy, A S; Arlicot, C; Tournamille, J F; Viaud-Massuard, M C; Elfakir, C; Antier, D

2014-01-01

219

Implementation Study of Patient-Ready Syringes Containing 25 mg/mL Methotrexate Solution for Use in Treating Ectopic Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background. Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality during the first trimester of pregnancy. Small unruptured tubal pregnancies can be treated medically with a single dose of methotrexate (MTX). Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of a 25?mg/mL solution of MTX to devise a secure delivery circuit for the preparation and use of this medication in the management of EP. Method. MTX solutions were packaged in polypropylene syringes, stored over an 84-day period, and protected from light either at +2 to +8°C or at 23°C. We assessed the physical and chemical stability of the solutions at various time points over the storage period. A pharmaceutical delivery circuit was implemented that involved the batch preparation of MTX syringes. Results. We show that 25?mg/mL MTX solutions remain stable over an 84-day period under the storage conditions tested. Standard doses were prepared, ranging from 50?mg to 100?mg. The results of this study suggest that MTX syringes can be prepared in advance by the pharmacy, ready to be dispensed at any time that a diagnosis of EP is made. Conclusion. The high stability of a 25?mg/mL MTX solution in polypropylene syringes makes it possible to implement a flexible and cost-effective delivery circuit for ready-to-use preparations of this drug, providing 24-hour access and preventing treatment delays.

Respaud, R.; Gaudy, A. S.; Arlicot, C.; Tournamille, J. F.; Viaud-Massuard, M. C.; Elfakir, C.; Antier, D.

2014-01-01

220

Pharmacy staff characteristics associated with support for pharmacy-based HIV-testing in pharmacies participating in the New York State Expanded Access Syringe Exchange Program  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine support of in-pharmacy HIV-testing among pharmacy staff and the individual-level characteristics associated with in-pharmacy HIV testing support. Design Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study. Setting New York City (NYC) during January 2008 to March 2009. Intervention 131 pharmacies registered in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP) completed a survey. Participants 480 pharmacy staff, including pharmacists, owners/managers, and technicians/clerks. Main outcome measures Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing. Results Support of in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among pharmacy staff (79.4%). Pharmacy staff that supported in-pharmacy vaccinations were significantly more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Pharmacy staff that think that selling syringes to IDUs causes the community to be littered with dirty syringes were significantly less likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing. Conclusion Support for in-pharmacy HIV testing is high among our sample of ESAP pharmacy staff actively involved in non-prescription syringe sales. These findings suggest that active ESAP pharmacy staff may be amenable to providing HIV counseling and testing to injection drug users and warrants further investigation.

Amesty, Silvia; Blaney, Shannon; Crawford, Natalie D.; Rivera, Alexis V.; Fuller, Crystal

2013-01-01

221

Preconcentration and separation of copper(II), cadmium(II) and chromium(III) in a syringe filled with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane supported on silica gel.  

PubMed

In this study, a syringe was filled with silica gel loaded with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, for the separation and preconcentration of copper, cadmium and chromium prior to their determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) in seawater. For this purpose, a syringe was filled with 0.5 g of modified silica gel and the sample solution was drawn into the syringe and ejected back again. The analyte elements were quantitatively retained at pH 5. Then, the elements sorbed by the silica gel were eluted with 2.0 M of HCl and determined by GFAAS. At optimum conditions, the recovery of Cu, Cd and Cr were 96-98%. Detection limits (3delta) were 6.6, 7.5 and 6.0 micro g L(-1) for Cu, Cd and Cr, respectively. The elements could be concentrated by drawing and discharging several portions of sample successively but eluting only once. Cu, Cd and Cr added to a seawater sample were quantitatively recovered (>95%) in the range of the 95% confidence level. The method proposed in this paper was compared with a column technique. Optimum experimental conditions, reproducibility, precision and recoveries of both techniques are the same, but the syringe technique is much faster, easier and more practical than the column technique. It is a portable system and allows one to make the sorption process in the source of sample. In addition, the risk of contamination is less than in the column technique. PMID:12434258

Tokman, Nilgun; Akman, Suleyman; Ozcan, Mustafa; Koklu, Unel

2002-11-01

222

Multilevel Community-Based Intervention to Increase Access to Sterile Syringes Among Injection Drug Users Through Pharmacy Sales in New York City  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Research has indicated that there is minimal use of pharmacies among injection drug users (IDUs) in specific neighborhoods and among Black and Hispanic IDUs. We developed a community-based participatory research partnership to determine whether a multilevel intervention would increase sterile syringe access through a new policy allowing nonprescription syringe sales in pharmacies. Methods. We targeted Harlem, NY (using the South Bronx for comparison), and disseminated informational material at community forums, pharmacist training programs, and counseling or outreach programs for IDUs. We compared cross-sectional samples in 3 target populations (pre- and postintervention): community members (attitudes and opinions), pharmacists (opinions and practices), and IDUs (risk behaviors). Results. Among community members (N = 1496) and pharmacists (N = 131), negative opinions of IDU syringe sales decreased in Harlem whereas there was either no change or an increase in negative opinions in the comparison community. Although pharmacy use by IDUs (N=728) increased in both communities, pharmacy use increased significantly among Black IDUs in Harlem, but not in the comparison community; syringe reuse significantly decreased in Harlem, but not in the comparison community. Conclusions. Targeting the individual and the social environment through a multilevel community-based intervention reduced high-risk behavior, particularly among Black IDUs.

Fuller, Crystal M.; Galea, Sandro; Caceres, Wendy; Blaney, Shannon; Sisco, Sarah; Vlahov, David

2007-01-01

223

Evaluation of the Amount of Debris extruded apically by using Conv-entional Syringe, Endovac and Ultrasonic Irrigation Technique: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background: To compare the amount of debris extruded apically by using conventional syringe, Endovac & Ultrasonic irrigation. Materials & Methods: Thirty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were selected, working length was determined and mounted in a debris and collection apparatus. The canals were prepared. After each instrument change, 1 ml. of 3% sodium hypochlorite was used as irrigation. Debris extruded apically by using conventional syringe, endovac& ultrasonic irrigation tech, was measured using the electronic balance to determine its weight and statistical analysis was performed. The mean difference between the groups was determined using statistical analysis within the groups &between the groups for equal variances. Results: Among all the groups, significantly less debris were found apically in the Endovac group (0.96) compared to conventional and ultrasonic group (1.23) syringe. Conclusion: The present study showed that endovac system extrudes less amount of debris apically as compared to ultrasonic followed by conventional so incidence of flare up can be reduce by using endovac irrigation system. How to cite this article: Tambe V H, Nagmode P S, Vishwas J R, Saujanya K P, Angadi P, Ali F M. Evaluation of the Amount of Debris extruded apically by using Conventional Syringe, Endovac and Ultrasonic Irrigation Technique: An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):63-66.

Tambe, Varsha H; Nagmode, Pradnya S; Vishwas, Jayshree R; P, Saujanya K; Angadi, Prabakar; Ali, Fareedi Mukram

2013-01-01

224

Syringeless power injector versus dual-syringe power injector: economic evaluation of user performance, the impact on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) workflow exams, and hospital costs  

PubMed Central

Objective The utilization of diagnostic imaging has substantially increased over the past decade in Europe and North America and continues to grow worldwide. The purpose of this study was to develop an economic evaluation of a syringeless power injector (PI) versus a dual-syringe PI for contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in a hospital setting. Materials and methods Patients (n=2379) were enrolled at the Legnano Hospital between November 2012 and January 2013. They had been referred to the hospital for a CECT analysis and were randomized into two groups. The first group was examined with a 256-MDCT (MultiDetector Computed Tomography) scanner using a syringeless power injector, while the other group was examined with a 64-MDCT scanner using a dual-syringe. Data on the operators’ time required in the patient analysis steps as well as on the quantity of consumable materials used were collected. The radiologic technologists’ satisfaction with the use of the PIs was rated on a 10-point scale. A budget impact analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed under the base-case scenario. Results A total of 1,040 patients were examined using the syringeless system, and 1,339 with the dual-syringe system; the CECT examination quality was comparable for both PI systems. Equipment preparation time and releasing time per examination for syringeless PIs versus dual-syringe PIs were 100±30 versus 180±30 seconds and 90±30 and 140±20 seconds, respectively. On average, 10±3 mL of contrast media (CM) wastage per examination was observed with the dual-syringe PI and 0±1 mL with the syringeless PI. Technologists had higher satisfaction with the syringeless PI than with the dual-syringe system (8.8 versus 8.0). The syringeless PI allows a saving of about €6.18 per patient, both due to the lower cost of the devices and to the better performance of the syringeless system. The univariate sensitivity analysis carried out on the base-case results within the standard deviation range confirmed the saving generated by using the syringeless device, with saving values between €5.40 and €6.20 per patient. Conclusion The syringeless PI was found to be more user-friendly and efficient, minimizing contrast wastage and providing similar contrast enhancement quality compared to the dual-syringe injector, with comparable CECT examination quality.

Colombo, Giorgio L; Andreis, Ivo A Bergamo; Di Matteo, Sergio; Bruno, Giacomo M; Mondellini, Claudio

2013-01-01

225

Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

2009-12-15

226

The COS Calibration Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, COS, (Green, J, et al., 2000, Proc SPIE, 4013) will be installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the next servicing mission. This will be the most sensitive ultraviolet spectrograph ever flown aboard HST. The program (CALCOS) for pipeline calibration of HST/COS data has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute. As with other HST pipelines, CALCOS uses an association table to list the data files to be included, and it employs header keywords to specify the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to be used. COS includes both a cross delay line detector for the far ultraviolet (FUV) and a MAMA detector for the near ultraviolet (NUV). CALCOS uses a common structure for both channels, but the specific calibration steps differ. The calibration steps include pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. A 1-D spectrum will be extracted and flux calibrated. Data will normally be taken in TIME-TAG mode, recording the time and location of each detected photon, although ACCUM mode will also be supported. The wavelength calibration uses an on-board spectral line lamp. To enable precise wavelength calibration, default operations will simultaneously record the science target and lamp spectrum by executing brief (tag-flash) lamp exposures at least once per external target exposure.

Hodge, Philip E.; Kaiser, M. E.; Keyes, C. D.; Ake, T. B.; Aloisi, A.; Friedman, S. D.; Oliveira, C. M.; Shaw, B.; Sahnow, D. J.; Penton, S. V.; Froning, C. S.; Beland, S.; Osterman, S.; Green, J.; COS/STIS STScI Team; IDT, COS

2008-05-01

227

Dose calibrator manufacturer-dependent bias in assays of ¹²³I.  

PubMed

Calibration factors for commercial ionization chambers (i.e. dose calibrators) were determined for a solution of (123)I; the activity was based on the 1976 NBS standard. A link between the NIST standard and the International Reference System (SIR) was established. The two major U.S. dose calibrator manufacturers recommend oppositely biased calibration factors, giving a spread of 11.3% in measured activities. With modern quantitative imaging techniques capable of ?10% accuracy, this bias for a SPECT nuclide is highly significant. PMID:24705009

Bergeron, Denis E; Cessna, Jeffrey T; Golas, Daniel B; Young, Rheannan K; Zimmerman, Brian E

2014-08-01

228

Dynamic Pressure Calibration Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vibrating columns of fluid used to calibrate transducers. Dynamic pressure calibration standard developed for calibrating flush diaphragm-mounted pressure transducers. Pressures up to 20 kPa (3 psi) accurately generated over frequency range of 50 to 1,800 Hz. System includes two conically shaped aluminum columns one 5 cm (2 in.) high for low pressures and another 11 cm (4.3 in.) high for higher pressures, each filled with viscous fluid. Each column mounted on armature of vibration exciter, which imparts sinusoidally varying acceleration to fluid column. Signal noise low, and waveform highly dependent on quality of drive signal in vibration exciter.

Schutte, P. C.; Cate, K. H.; Young, S. D.

1986-01-01

229

Unassisted 3D camera calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

2012-02-01

230

New technique for calibrating hydrocarbon gas flowmeters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for measuring calibration correction factors for hydrocarbon mass flowmeters is described. It is based on the Nernst theorem for matching the partial pressure of oxygen in the combustion products of the test hydrocarbon, burned in oxygen-enriched air, with that in normal air. It is applied to a widely used type of commercial thermal mass flowmeter for a number of hydrocarbons. The calibration correction factors measured using this technique are in good agreement with the values obtained by other independent procedures. The technique is successfully applied to the measurement of differences as low as one percent of the effective hydrocarbon content of the natural gas test samples.

Singh, J. J.; Puster, R. L.

1984-01-01

231

Evaluating molecular clock calibrations using Bayesian analyses with soft and hard bounds.  

PubMed

A limiting factor in many molecular dating studies is shortage of reliable calibrations. Current methods for choosing calibrations (e.g. cross-validation) treat them as either correct or incorrect, whereas calibrations probably lie on a continuum from highly accurate to very poor. Bayesian relaxed clock analysis permits inclusion of numerous candidate calibrations as priors: provided most calibrations are reliable, the model appropriate and the data informative, the accuracy of each calibration prior can be evaluated. If a calibration is accurate, then the analysis will support the prior so that the posterior estimate reflects the prior; if a calibration is poor, the posterior will be forced away from the prior. We use this approach to test two fossil dates recently proposed as standard calibrations within vertebrates. The proposed bird-crocodile calibration (approx. 247Myr ago) appears to be accurate, but the proposed bird-lizard calibration (approx. 255Myr ago) is substantially too recent. PMID:17363358

Sanders, Kate L; Lee, Michael S Y

2007-06-22

232

COBE ground segment gyro calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is the calibration of the scale factors and rate biases for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft gyroscopes, with the emphasis on the adaptation for COBE of an algorithm previously developed for the Solar Maximum Mission. Detailed choice of parameters, convergence, verification, and use of the algorithm in an environment where the reference attitudes are determined form the Sun, Earth, and star observations (via the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) are considered. Results of some recent experiments are given. These include tests where the gyro rate data are corrected for the effect of the gyro baseplate temperature on the spacecraft electronics.

Freedman, I.; Kumar, V. K.; Rae, A.; Venkataraman, R.; Patt, F. S.; Wright, E. L.

1991-01-01

233

Mercury CEM Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is workin...

J. F. Rovani J. F. Schabron S. S. Sorini

2007-01-01

234

Gauge calibration by diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum gage calibration by diffusing a known quantity of gas through a heated barrier into a gauge is examined. The gas flow raises the pressure in the gauge to known level and is then compared with the gauge's pressure reading.

Brock, F. J.; Feakes, F. (inventors)

1968-01-01

235

Calibrated Properties Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00 (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions.

C.F. Ahlers, H.H. Liu

2001-12-18

236

Calibrating Radiocarbon Ages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calibrating Radiocarbon Ages This activity was developed during the Teaching Climate Change from the Geological Record workshop, held in August 2010.Contributed by Eric Grimm, Jared Beeton, and Mark Skidmore. ...

237

Roundness calibration standard  

DOEpatents

A roundness calibration standard is provided with a first arc constituting the major portion of a circle and a second arc lying between the remainder of the circle and the chord extending between the ends of said first arc.

Burrus, Brice M. (6620 Wachese La., Knoxville, TN 37912)

1984-01-01

238

Double Chooz Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current best limit on the neutrino mixing angle ?13(sin2(2?13)?0.15@90%C.L.) was established by Chooz experiment. The Double Chooz experiment is being prepared and is aiming to surpass the limit by almost an order of magnitude. Extensive calibration program is necessary to achieve the claimed sensitivity. Dedicated embedded and deployable calibration systems developed for Double Chooz are described.

Ostrovskiy, Igor; Double Chooz Collaboration

2012-08-01

239

Double Chooz Laser Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Double Chooz experiment focuses on measuring the neutrino mixing angle without the ambiguity of matter effects and CP violation. A multi-detector setup can extend the reach in sensitivity for theta-13 with reduced systematic error. Two identical detectors, the far and the near, are constructed at 1050 m and 400 m respectively, from the Chooz nuclear cores. The far detector is taking data while the near detector is being constructed. The university of alabama group is responsible for the laser calibration system development in both the hardware design and the analysis software including extracting calibration constants of the inner detector PMT gains, charge likelihoods, PMT time offsets and effective speed of light. Two types of lasers are used for the PMT charge and time related calibrations respectively. A UV laser with a wavelength of 380 nm is mainly responsible for the PMT gains and charge likelihoods calibrations. A blue laser of 470 nm wavelength is used in calibrating the PMT time offsets and measuring the speed of light in the medium. In this presentation I will talk about the laser system hardware design and laser calibration data analysis.

Sun, Yujing

2013-04-01

240

Integrated calibration sphere and calibration step fixture for improved coordinate measurement machine calibration  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for mounting a calibration sphere to a calibration fixture for Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) calibration and qualification is described, decreasing the time required for such qualification, thus allowing the CMM to be used more productively. A number of embodiments are disclosed that allow for new and retrofit manufacture to perform as integrated calibration sphere and calibration fixture devices. This invention renders unnecessary the removal of a calibration sphere prior to CMM measurement of calibration features on calibration fixtures, thereby greatly reducing the time spent qualifying a CMM.

Clifford, Harry J. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2011-03-22

241

OARE flight maneuvers and calibration measurements on STS58  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), which has flown on STS-40, STS-50, and STS-58, contains a three axis accelerometer with a single, nonpendulous, electrostatically suspended proofmass which can resolve accelerations to the nano-g level. The experiment also contains a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale factor calibration. This on-orbit calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty of

Robert C. Blanchard; John Y. Nicholson; James R. Ritter; Kevin T. Larman

1994-01-01

242

OPTIMUM FREQUENCY OF CALIBRATION MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper develops an algorithm by which to compute the optimal frequency of calibration monitoring to minimize the total cost of analyzing a set of samples and the required calibration standards. Optimum calibration monitoring is needed because of the high cost and calibration d...

243

Psychophysical contrast calibration.  

PubMed

Electronic displays and computer systems offer numerous advantages for clinical vision testing. Laboratory and clinical measurements of various functions and in particular of (letter) contrast sensitivity require accurately calibrated display contrast. In the laboratory this is achieved using expensive light meters. We developed and evaluated a novel method that uses only psychophysical responses of a person with normal vision to calibrate the luminance contrast of displays for experimental and clinical applications. Our method combines psychophysical techniques (1) for detection (and thus elimination or reduction) of display saturating non-linearities; (2) for luminance (gamma function) estimation and linearization without use of a photometer; and (3) to measure without a photometer the luminance ratios of the display's three color channels that are used in a bit-stealing procedure to expand the luminance resolution of the display. Using a photometer we verified that the calibration achieved with this procedure is accurate for both LCD and CRT displays enabling testing of letter contrast sensitivity to 0.5%. Our visual calibration procedure enables clinical, internet and home implementation and calibration verification of electronic contrast testing. PMID:23643843

To, Long; Woods, Russell L; Goldstein, Robert B; Peli, Eli

2013-09-20

244

Calibration Under Uncertainty.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a white paper summarizing the literature and different approaches to the problem of calibrating computer model parameters in the face of model uncertainty. Model calibration is often formulated as finding the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the model-computed data (the predicted data) and the actual experimental data. This approach does not allow for explicit treatment of uncertainty or error in the model itself: the model is considered the %22true%22 deterministic representation of reality. While this approach does have utility, it is far from an accurate mathematical treatment of the true model calibration problem in which both the computed data and experimental data have error bars. This year, we examined methods to perform calibration accounting for the error in both the computer model and the data, as well as improving our understanding of its meaning for model predictability. We call this approach Calibration under Uncertainty (CUU). This talk presents our current thinking on CUU. We outline some current approaches in the literature, and discuss the Bayesian approach to CUU in detail.

Swiler, Laura Painton; Trucano, Timothy Guy

2005-03-01

245

GTC Photometric Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing the calibration programme for GTC using techniques similar to the ones use for the space telescope calibration (Hammersley et al. 1998, A&AS, 128, 207; Cohen et al. 1999, AJ, 117, 1864). We are planning to produce a catalogue with calibration stars which are suitable for a 10-m telescope. These sources will be not variable, non binary and do not have infrared excesses if they are to be used in the infrared. The GTC science instruments require photometric calibration between 0.35 and 2.5 microns. The instruments are: OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy), ELMER and EMIR (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infrarrojo) and the Acquisition and Guiding boxes (Di Césare, Hammersley, & Rodriguez Espinosa 2005, RevMexAA Ser. Conf., 24, 231). The catalogue will consist of 30 star fields distributed in all of North Hemisphere. We will use fields containing sources over the range 12 to 22 magnitude, and spanning a wide range of spectral types (A to M) for the visible and near infrared. In the poster we will show the method used for selecting these fields and we will present the analysis of the data on the first calibration fields observed.

di Cesare, M. A.; Hammersley, P. L.; Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.

2006-06-01

246

Exploration of new multivariate spectral calibration algorithms.  

SciTech Connect

A variety of multivariate calibration algorithms for quantitative spectral analyses were investigated and compared, and new algorithms were developed in the course of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. We were able to demonstrate the ability of the hybrid classical least squares/partial least squares (CLSIPLS) calibration algorithms to maintain calibrations in the presence of spectrometer drift and to transfer calibrations between spectrometers from the same or different manufacturers. These methods were found to be as good or better in prediction ability as the commonly used partial least squares (PLS) method. We also present the theory for an entirely new class of algorithms labeled augmented classical least squares (ACLS) methods. New factor selection methods are developed and described for the ACLS algorithms. These factor selection methods are demonstrated using near-infrared spectra collected from a system of dilute aqueous solutions. The ACLS algorithm is also shown to provide improved ease of use and better prediction ability than PLS when transferring calibrations between near-infrared calibrations from the same manufacturer. Finally, simulations incorporating either ideal or realistic errors in the spectra were used to compare the prediction abilities of the new ACLS algorithm with that of PLS. We found that in the presence of realistic errors with non-uniform spectral error variance across spectral channels or with spectral errors correlated between frequency channels, ACLS methods generally out-performed the more commonly used PLS method. These results demonstrate the need for realistic error structure in simulations when the prediction abilities of various algorithms are compared. The combination of equal or superior prediction ability and the ease of use of the ACLS algorithms make the new ACLS methods the preferred algorithms to use for multivariate spectral calibrations.

Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Melgaard, David Kennett; Martin, Laura Elizabeth; Wehlburg, Christine Marie; Pell, Randy J. (The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI); Guenard, Robert D. (Merck & Co. Inc., West Point, PA)

2004-03-01

247

TA489A calibrator: SANDUS  

SciTech Connect

The TA489A Calibrator, designed to operate in the MA164 Digital Data Acquisition System, is used to calibrate up to 128 analog-to-digital recording channels. The TA489A calibrates using a dc Voltage Source or any of several special calibration modes. Calibration schemes are stored in the TA489A memory and are initiated locally or remotely through a Command Link.

LeBlanc, R.

1987-08-01

248

Calibration: Practical Experience with ERS-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viewgraphs and discussion of calibration:practical experience with ERS-1 are presented. Topics covered include: radiometric calibration, geometric calibration, phase calibration, and polarimetric calibration. Basic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measureme...

J. Louet

1993-01-01

249

Construction and Calibration Techniques of High Frequency Magnetic Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The details of the construction and calibration of high frequency magnetic probes, used to measure the transient magnetic fields in a linear pinch device, are described. A simple and reliable calibration technique, using conventional laboratory electronic equipment, was developed to measure the absolute sensitivity of magnetic probes in the frequency range of 1–50 Mc. Factors affecting the frequency response of

R. C. Phillips; E. B. Turner

1965-01-01

250

Method for calibrating cameras with large lens distortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new calibration method is proposed for calibrating cameras with large lens distortion, using a planar grid pattern. The distortions are adjusted with an iterative algorithm. When the points on each curve in the image of the grid pattern are fitted with a linear equation in the image space, the distortion correction factors are determined. The camera's optical center is

De Xu; Youfu Li; Min Tan

2006-01-01

251

A Calibration Method for Six-Accelerometer INS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gyroscope free strap-down INS is composed only of accelerometers. Any gyroscope free INS navigation error is deeply affected by the accuracy of the sensor bias, scale factor, orientation and location error. However these parameters can be found by calibration. There is an important research issue about a multi-position calibration method in this paper. It provides a novel method to

Chao-Yu Hung; Sou-Chen Lee

252

MOSES Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analysis of radiometric calibration data for MOSES, the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph. MOSES is an EUV imaging spectrograph which uses a spherical grating to feed three rear illuminated CCDs, one for each of the m = 0 and m = ±1 spectral orders of the grating. MOSES was calibrated end-to-end at the EUV radiometric calibration facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, using a well characterized hollow cathode source traceable to the BESSY synchrotron. We analyze these data and present the end-to-end instrument response (DN per incident photon) for each of MOSES three CCD channels. This work was supported in part by a grant from the NASA Solar and Heliospheric Physics LCAS program.

Rust, Thomas; Fox, J. L.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Thomas, R. J.

2009-05-01

253

Calibration Systems Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact Quantum Cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared imaging systems. These on-board systems will improve the calibration technology for passive sensors, which enable stand-off detection for the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction, by replacing on-board blackbodies with QC laser-based systems. This alternative technology can minimize the impact on instrument size and weight while improving the quality of instruments for a variety of missions. The potential of replacing flight blackbodies is made feasible by the high output, stability, and repeatability of the QC laser spectral radiance.

Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Phillips, Mark C.

2006-02-01

254

Integrating health and prevention services in syringe access programs: a strategy to address unmet needs in a high-risk population.  

PubMed

Injection drug users are at a high risk for a number of preventable diseases and complications of drug use. This article describes the implementation of a nurse-led health promotion and disease prevention program in New Jersey's syringe access programs. Initially designed to target women as part of a strategy to decrease missed opportunities for perinatal HIV prevention, the program expanded by integrating existing programs and funding streams available through the state health department. The program now offers health and prevention services to both men and women, with 3,488 client visits in 2011. These services extend the reach of state health department programs, such as adult vaccination and hepatitis and tuberculosis screening, which clients would have had to seek out at multiple venues. The integration of prevention, treatment, and health promotion services in syringe access programs reaches a vulnerable and underserved population who otherwise may receive only urgent and episodic care. PMID:24385646

Burr, Carolyn K; Storm, Deborah S; Hoyt, Mary Jo; Dutton, Loretta; Berezny, Linda; Allread, Virginia; Paul, Sindy

2014-01-01

255

Life After the Ban: An Assessment of US Syringe Exchange Programs' Attitudes About and Early Experiences With Federal Funding  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We aimed to determine whether syringe exchange programs (SEPs) currently receive or anticipate pursuing federal funding and barriers to funding applications following the recent removal of the long-standing ban on using federal funds for SEPs. Methods. We conducted a telephone-administered cross-sectional survey of US SEPs. Descriptive statistics summarized responses; bivariate analyses examined differences in pursuing funding and experiencing barriers by program characteristics. Results. Of the 187 SEPs (92.1%) that responded, 90.9% were legally authorized. Three received federal funds and 116 intended to pursue federal funding. Perceived federal funding barriers were common and included availability and accessibility of funds, legal requirements such as written police support, resource capacity to apply and comply with funding regulations, local political and structural organization, and concern around altering program culture. Programs without legal authorization, health department affiliation, large distribution, or comprehensive planning reported more federal funding barriers. Conclusions. Policy implementation gaps appear to render federal support primarily symbolic. In practice, funding opportunities may not be available to all SEPs. Increased technical assistance and legal reform could improve access to federal funds, especially for SEPs with smaller capacity and tenuous local support.

Martin, Erika G.; Bowman, Sarah E.; Mann, Marita R.; Beletsky, Leo

2012-01-01

256

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore the relationship between area and multiplication. First, users are asked to input all factor pairs of a given number. Then, selecting each of those factor pairs, the user draws the respective rectangular array by clicking and dragging across a grid. Options include the use of the commutative property (e.g., user must enter both 2x4 and 4x2 for factors of 8 and represent them with different arrays), entering a number of the user's own choice, and an optional scoring feature allowing the user to keep track of the number correct.

2004-01-01

257

Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

2011-01-01

258

Syringe micro vibrator (SMV) a new device being introduced in dentistry to alleviate pain and anxiety of intraoral injections, and a comparative study with a similar device  

PubMed Central

Background Neurologically, it is proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g. using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration- can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "Gate-control" theory of Melzack and Wall. Presentation of the hypothesis Syringe Micro Vibrator is a new design being introduced for the first time in the field of Dentistry. This device is a promising breakthrough in pain and anxiety management and may deliver solution for clinicians plagued with patient pain phobia. It has an off-set rotating micro vibration creator with ultra high frequency and ultra low altitude that can be easily placed on any standard dental syringe and some disposable syringes. This device was registered as an invention in dentistry and received Iran National Patent number of 63765. Testing the hypothesis By creating micro vibration, this device would be effective in reducing the pain and anxiety confronted with most types of intraoral injections as palatal, mandibular block, intraligamental and local infiltration. From the aspect of the patient pain management, this device contributes both physiologically (based on Gate Control Theory of pain) and psychologically (based on the device function as will be explained by dentist to the patient as a modern pain reducing technology). From the aspect of clinician, SMV motor provides vibrations with ultra high frequency to alleviate pain, but since it has ultra low vibration altitude, it has no adverse effect on the clinician dexterity and accuracy during injection and it does not interfere with pin point localization of injection site. Implications of the hypothesis Upon mounting on a conventional dental anesthesia injection syringe, SMV is switched on and the clinician then uses normal injection technique to administer the anesthetic. This device is not only a useful accessory device for ordinary patients, but also more useful for pediatric patients and those who have a phobia of intraoral injection or pain.

2011-01-01

259

The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Receptive Syringe Sharing Among Young Female Injection Drug Users: An Analysis of Mediation Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to explore the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and receptive syringe sharing (RSS)\\u000a among young female injection drug users (IDUs) and to examine mediating variables. Cross-sectional behavioral assessments\\u000a were completed by 797 female IDUs in five U.S. cities who reported having at least one main sexual partner in the past three\\u000a months. Linear regression was used

Karla D. Wagner; Sharon M. Hudson; Mary H. Latka; Steffanie A. Strathdee; Hanne Thiede; Mary Ellen Mackesy-Amiti; Richard S. Garfein

2009-01-01

260

Determination of remifentanil in human plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry utilizing micro extraction in packed syringe (MEPS) as sample preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remifentanil is a synthetic short-acting opioid with a short half-life that is being used during anaesthesia of small children. In this work an LC–MS\\/MS method for remifentanil quantification in 20?L volume of human plasma was developed and validated in connection with a clinical study on neonatal children. Sample preparation was performed with micro extraction in packed syringe (MEPS), which is

Rana Said; Anton Pohanka; Maria Andersson; Olof Beck; Mohamed Abdel-Rehim

2011-01-01

261

Results of the 1989 SAR calibration experiment at Oberpfaffenhofen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from the 1989 Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Calibration Campaign at the DLR test site in Oberpfaffenhofen are presented. Passive corner reflectors were used to derive the receiver and transmitter distortion matrices and the absolute calibration factor of the multispectral polarimetric DC-8 SAR from the complex high resolution data. A basic requirement for cross-calibration of data from different tracks is the stability of the SAR system. The polarimetric properties of the uncalibrated data were used to describe this stability. Quality criteria for a successful polarimetric calibration were provided by the channel balance and cross-talk parameters.

Zink, M.

1991-01-01

262

A Comparison of Two Balance Calibration Model Building Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulated strain-gage balance calibration data is used to compare the accuracy of two balance calibration model building methods for different noise environments and calibration experiment designs. The first building method obtains a math model for the analysis of balance calibration data after applying a candidate math model search algorithm to the calibration data set. The second building method uses stepwise regression analysis in order to construct a model for the analysis. Four balance calibration data sets were simulated in order to compare the accuracy of the two math model building methods. The simulated data sets were prepared using the traditional One Factor At a Time (OFAT) technique and the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) approach. Random and systematic errors were introduced in the simulated calibration data sets in order to study their influence on the math model building methods. Residuals of the fitted calibration responses and other statistical metrics were compared in order to evaluate the calibration models developed with different combinations of noise environment, experiment design, and model building method. Overall, predicted math models and residuals of both math model building methods show very good agreement. Significant differences in model quality were attributable to noise environment, experiment design, and their interaction. Generally, the addition of systematic error significantly degraded the quality of calibration models developed from OFAT data by either method, but MDOE experiment designs were more robust with respect to the introduction of a systematic component of the unexplained variance.

DeLoach, Richard; Ulbrich, Norbert

2007-01-01

263

Full field digital mammography and breast density: comparison of calibrated and non- calibrated measurements  

PubMed Central

Background Mammographic breast density is an important and widely accepted risk factor for breast cancer. A statement about breast density in the mammographic report is becoming a requirement in many States. However, there is significant inter-observer variation between radiologists in their interpretation of breast density. A properly designed automated system could provide benefits in maintaining consistency and reproducibility. We have developed a new automated and calibrated measure of breast density using full field digital mammography (FFDM). This new measure assesses spatial variation within a mammogram and produced significant associations with breast cancer in a small study. The costs of this automation are delays from advanced image and data analyses before the study can be processed. Objectives We evaluated this new calibrated variation measure using a larger dataset than previously. We also explored the possibility of developing an automated measure from unprocessed (raw data) mammograms as an approximation for this calibrated breast density measure. Methods A case-control study comprised of 160 cases and 160 controls matched by age, screening history, and hormone replacement therapy was used to compare the calibrated variation measure of breast density with three variants of a non-calibrated measure of spatial variation. The operator-assisted percentage of breast density measure (PD) was used as a standard reference for comparison. Odds ratio (OR) quartile analysis was used to compare these measures. Linear regression analysis was applied to assess the calibration’s impact on the raw pixel distribution. Results All breast density measures showed significant breast cancer associations. The calibrated spatial variation measure produced the strongest associations [OR: 1.0 (ref.), 4.6, 4.3, 7.4]. The associations for PD were diminished in comparison [OR: 1.0 (ref.), 2.7, 2.9, 5.2]. Two additional non-calibrated measures restricted in region size also showed significant associations [OR: 1.0 (ref.), 2.9, 4.4, 5.4], and [OR: 1.0 (ref.), 3.5, 3.1, 4.9]. Regression analyses indicated the raw image mean is influenced by the calibration more so than its standard deviation. Conclusion Breast density measures can be automated. The associated calibration produced risk information not retrievable from the raw data representation. Although the calibrated measure produced the stronger association, the non-calibrated measures may offer an alternative to PD and other operator based methods after further evaluation, because they can be implemented automatically with a simple processing algorithm.

Heine, John J.; Fowler, Erin E.E.; Flowers, Chris I.

2011-01-01

264

Pleiades Absolute Calibration : Inflight Calibration Sites and Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station) and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering) or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

Lachérade, S.; Fourest, S.; Gamet, P.; Lebègue, L.

2012-07-01

265

Cross calibration of secondary ion mass spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

It is known from previous round-robin experiments that relative sensitivity factors, obtained on identical samples by different SIMS instruments, frequently disagree by a factor of up to 50. A method is suggested for cross-calibrating instruments in such a way that relative elemental sensitivity factors determined on one SIMS instrument may be used on another instrument for quantification of unknown samples. The method consists in actively tuning the operating parameters of instruments in such a way that relative sensitivity factors for B and W (with respect to Fe) in a homogeneous B/sub 15/Fe/sub 75/W/sub 10/ metallic glass sample (primary calibration standard, PCS) are in close agreement on all participating instruments. In an experimental in which this cross-calibration strategy has been adopted, relative sensitivity factors of seven further elements, determined on seven different SIMS instruments (including ion microscopes, ion microprobes, and quadrupole-SIMS), agree within a factor of the order of 1.7. Improvements may be expected with better tuning to the PCS. 11 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

Ruedenauer, F.; Steiger, W.; Riedel, M.; Beske, H.E.; Holzbrecher, H.; Duesterhoeft, H.; Gericke, M.; Richter, C.E.; Rieth, M.; Trapp, M.

1985-07-01

266

Calibrated Ultrasonic Sound Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To calibrate an ultrasonic microphone of new design a requirement arose for a sound intensity standard at frequencies above 40 kHz. This led to the development of a piezoelectric crystal source whose acoustic output matches that of an ideal piston radiato...

R. W. Hermsen W. R. Babcock

1970-01-01

267

Calibration for Automated Microassembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus including a micro-mechanical calibration member having at least a portion that is elastically biasable away from a neutral position in response to mechanical contact. The apparatus may also include a fixed member proximate the micro-mechanica...

A. Geisberger K. Tsui

2004-01-01

268

OLI Radiometric Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Goals: (1) Present an overview of the pre-launch radiance, reflectance & uniformity calibration of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) (1a) Transfer to orbit/heliostat (1b) Linearity (2) Discuss on-orbit plans for radiance, reflectance and uniformity ca...

B. Markham G. Kvaran J. Czapla-Myers N. Leisso R. Morfitt S. Biggar

2011-01-01

269

Computerized tomography calibrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of interchangeable pieces comprising a computerized tomography calibrator, and a method of use thereof, permits focusing of a computerized tomographic (CT) system. The interchangeable pieces include a plurality of nestable, generally planar mother rings, adapted for the receipt of planar inserts of predetermined sizes, and of predetermined material densities. The inserts further define openings therein for receipt of plural sub-inserts. All pieces are of known sizes and densities, permitting the assembling of different configurations of materials of known sizes and combinations of densities, for calibration (i.e., focusing) of a computerized tomographic system through variation of operating variables thereof. Rather than serving as a phanton, which is intended to be representative of a particular workpiece to be tested, the set of interchangeable pieces permits simple and easy standardized calibration of a CT system. The calibrator and its related method of use further includes use of air or of particular fluids for filling various openings, as part of a selected configuration of the set of pieces.

Engel, Herbert P. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

270

EPOXI instrument calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's EPOXI mission used the Deep Impact (DI) Flyby spacecraft to deliver a payload of three scientific instruments, two visible cameras and an IR spectrometer, to a close flyby of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 in November 2010. Interpretation of the scientific measurements made using these instruments depends on accurate calibration of the instruments' performance. Updates to the instrument calibrations achieved during the Deep Impact primary mission and results of continued monitoring of their performance during EPOXI are reported here. The instruments' performance has remained remarkably stable over the nearly 7 years of flight. Significant improvements in the understanding and calibration of the IR spectrometer response non-linearity, time-varying background level, flat field, wavelength map, and absolute spectral response have been achieved. Techniques for reducing some semi-coherent horizontal noise stripes in the visible cameras' readouts were developed, and some adjustments have been made to their absolute radiometric conversion constants. The data processing pipeline has been updated to incorporate the improvements in the instrument calibrations.

Klaasen, Kenneth P.; A'Hearn, Michael; Besse, Sebastian; Bodewits, Dennis; Carcich, Brian; Farnham, Tony; Feaga, Lori; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Huisjen, Marty; Kelley, Michael S.; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Merlin, Frederic; Protopapa, Silvia; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

2013-07-01

271

Uncertainty in audiometer calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to present a metrology study necessary for the accreditation of audiometer calibration procedures at the National Brazilian Institute of Metrology Standardization and Industrial Quality—INMETRO. A model for the calculation of measurement uncertainty was developed. Metrological aspects relating to audiometer calibration, traceability and measurement uncertainty were quantified through comparison between results obtained at the Industrial Noise Laboratory—LARI of the Federal University of Santa Catarina—UFSC and the Laboratory of Electric/acoustics—LAETA of INMETRO. Similar metrological performance of the measurement system used in both laboratories was obtained, indicating that the interlaboratory results are compatible with the expected values. The uncertainty calculation was based on the documents: EA-4/02 Expression of the Uncertainty of Measurement in Calibration (European Co-operation for Accreditation 1999 EA-4/02 p 79) and Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization 1993 1st edn, corrected and reprinted in 1995, Geneva, Switzerland). Some sources of uncertainty were calculated theoretically (uncertainty type B) and other sources were measured experimentally (uncertainty type A). The global value of uncertainty calculated for the sound pressure levels (SPLs) is similar to that given by other calibration institutions. The results of uncertainty related to measurements of SPL were compared with the maximum uncertainties Umax given in the standard IEC 60645-1: 2001 (International Electrotechnical Commission 2001 IEC 60645-1 Electroacoustics—Audiological Equipment—Part 1:—Pure-Tone Audiometers).

Aurélio Pedroso, Marcos; Gerges, Samir N. Y.; Gonçalves, Armando A., Jr.

2004-02-01

272

Retrodirective Radar Calibration Nanosatellite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For more than eight years, the DMSP F-15 and RADCAL satellites have been operating past their operational lifetimes and are facing imminent failure, leaving the US military without a reliable means for C-Band radar calibration and performance monitoring. ...

L. K. Martin N. G. Fisher W. A. Shiroma

2013-01-01

273

Calibrated Peer Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a paper-writing and peer review tool that is available free to educators and students. Calibrated Peer Review is a Web-based program that enables frequent writing assignments even in large classes with limited instructional resources. The program is discipline and level independent.

Review, Calibrated P.; Angeles, University O.

274

Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform ground target areas having different reflectance values. The target areas can be natural or artificial and must be large enough to minimize adjacent-pixel contamination effects. The radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain needs to be approximately the same for the two targets. This condition can be met for relatively uniform backgrounds when the distance between the targets is within a few hundred meters. For each target area, the radiance leaving the ground in the direction of the satellite is measured with a radiometrically calibrated spectroradiometer. Using the radiance measurements from the two targets, atmospheric adjacency and atmospheric scattering effects can be subtracted, thereby eliminating many assumptions about the atmosphere and the radiative interaction between the atmosphere and the terrain. In addition, the radiometrically calibrated spectroradiometer can be used with a known reflectance target to estimate atmospheric transmission and diffuse- to-global ratios without the need for ancillary sun photometers. Several comparisons between the simplified method and traditional techniques were found to agree within a few percent. Hence, the simplified method reduces the overall complexity of performing vicarious calibrations and can serve as a method for validating traditional radiative transfer models

Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

2010-01-01

275

Uncertainty and calibration analysis  

SciTech Connect

All measurements contain some deviation from the true value which is being measured. In the common vernacular this deviation between the true value and the measured value is called an inaccuracy, an error, or a mistake. Since all measurements contain errors, it is necessary to accept that there is a limit to how accurate a measurement can be. The undertainty interval combined with the confidence level, is one measure of the accuracy for a measurement or value. Without a statement of uncertainty (or a similar parameter) it is not possible to evaluate if the accuracy of the measurement, or data, is appropriate. The preparation of technical reports, calibration evaluations, and design calculations should consider the accuracy of measurements and data being used. There are many methods to accomplish this. This report provides a consistent method for the handling of measurement tolerances, calibration evaluations and uncertainty calculations. The SRS Quality Assurance (QA) Program requires that the uncertainty of technical data and instrument calibrations be acknowledged and estimated. The QA Program makes some specific technical requirements related to the subject but does not provide a philosophy or method on how uncertainty should be estimated. This report was prepared to provide a technical basis to support the calculation of uncertainties and the calibration of measurement and test equipment for any activity within the Experimental Thermal-Hydraulics (ETH) Group. The methods proposed in this report provide a graded approach for estimating the uncertainty of measurements, data, and calibrations. The method is based on the national consensus standard, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1.

Coutts, D.A.

1991-03-01

276

Mercury CEM Calibration  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

2007-03-31

277

Calibrated Properties Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Office of Repository Development (ORD). The UZ contains the unsaturated rock layers overlying the repository and host unit, which constitute a natural barrier to flow, and the unsaturated rock layers below the repository which constitute a natural barrier to flow and transport. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10.8 [under Work Package (WP) AUZM06, Climate Infiltration and Flow], and Section I-1-1 [in Attachment I, Model Validation Plans]). In Section 4.2, four acceptance criteria (ACs) are identified for acceptance of this Model Report; only one of these (Section 4.2.1.3.6.3, AC 3) was identified in the TWP (BSC 2002 [160819], Table 3-1). These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, and drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-process models from the UZ Flow, Transport and Coupled Processes Department in the Natural Systems Subproject of the Performance Assessment (PA) Project. The Calibrated Properties Model output will also be used by the Engineered Barrier System Department in the Engineering Systems Subproject. The Calibrated Properties Model provides input through the UZ Model and other process models of natural and engineered systems to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models, in accord with the PA Strategy and Scope in the PA Project of the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC). The UZ process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. UZ flow is a TSPA model component.

J. Wang

2003-06-24

278

MODIS Solar Reflective Calibration Traceability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term climate data records often consist of observations made by multiple sensors. It is, therefore, extremely important to have instrument overlap, to be able to track instrument stability, to quantify, measurement uncertainties, and to establish absolute scale traceable to the International System of Units (SI). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument for both the Terra and Aqua missions, which were launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 micrometers and observes the Earth at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration is reflectance based with reference to the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of its on-board solar diffuser (SD). The SD BRF characterization was made pre-launch by the instrument vendor using reference samples traceable directly to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). On-orbit SD reflectance degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser monitor (SDSM). This paper provides details of this calibration chain, from prelaunch to on-orbit operation, and associated uncertainty assessments. Using MODIS as an example, this paper also discusses challenges and key design requirements for future missions developed for accurate climate studies.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, Jim

2009-01-01

279

Mercury CEM Calibration  

SciTech Connect

Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The outputs of mercury generators are compared to one another using a nesting procedure which allows direct comparison of one generator with another and eliminates analyzer variability effects. The qualification portion of the EPA interim traceability protocol requires the vendors to define generator performance as affected by variables such as pressure, temperature, line voltage, and shipping. WRI is focusing efforts to determine actual generator performance related to the variables defined in the qualification portion of the interim protocol. The protocol will then be further revised by EPA based on what can actually be achieved with the generators. Another focus of the study is to evaluate approaches for field verification of generator performance. Upcoming work includes evaluation of oxidized mercury calibration generators, for which a separate protocol will be prepared by EPA. In addition, the variability of the spectrometers/analyzers under various environmental conditions needs to be defined and understood better. A main objective of the current work is to provide data on the performance and capabilities of elemental mercury generator/calibration systems for the development of realistic NIST traceability protocols for mercury vapor standards for continuous emission CEM calibration. This work is providing a direct contribution to the enablement of continuous emissions monitoring at coal-fired power plants in conformance with the CAMR. EPA Specification 12 states that mercury CEMs must be calibrated with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2005). The initial draft of an elemental mercury generator traceability protocol was circulated by EPA in May 2007 for comment, and an interim protocol was issued in August 2007 (EPA 2007). Initially it was assumed that the calibration and implementation of mercury CEMs would be relatively simple, and implementation would follow the implementation of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} monitoring, and sulfur emissions cap and trade. However, mercury has proven to be significantly more difficult

John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

2008-02-29

280

Randomized evaluation of 5 French catheters for coronary angiography with or without the CO2 powered Hercules syringe.  

PubMed

To evaluate the CO2 power-assisted hand-held Hercules syringe (Cordis) for diagnostic coronary angiography using 5 French catheters (Judkins number 4 exclusively), 200 consecutive patients (excluding patients with valve disease and prior bypass surgery) were randomized to conventional manual or Hercules injections. The angiography was done through a femoral artery with or without a sheath. Total duration and fluoroscopy time from the end of the ventriculogram to the end of the procedure, quantity of contrast medium required, length of cinefilm, quality of film (good, satisfactory, or bad), streaming, technical ease [scale 1 (easy) to 6 (difficult)], and need for larger catheters were analyzed. Adequate quality angiograms were obtained in 193 patients (97%). Crossover to a larger catheter was required in 7 patients due to difficulty in engaging coronary ostia (right 6, left 1). No significant differences between manual or Hercules injections were seen in total duration of the procedure (12.0 +/- 4.6 versus 12.9 +/- 8.5 min), fluoroscopy time (4.0 +/- 3.1 versus 4.2 +/- 4.8 min), quantity of contrast medium (81 +/- 28 versus 89 +/- 29 ml), and length of the film (1.1 +/- 0.6 versus 1.3 +/- 0.7 min). The conventional method was found to be easier (facility scale: conventional 1.7 +/- 0.5, Hercules 2.3 +/- 1.2, p less than 0.05) because there was significantly less dislodgement of the catheter from the coronary ostia during contrast injections. Five French number 4 Judkins catheters permit adequate diagnostic coronary angiograms in 97% of routine coronary patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10149894

Pande, A K; Meier, B; Villavicencio, R; Urban, P; de la Serna, F

1992-04-01

281

A successful strategy for estimating the consumption of needles and syringes by injecting drug users in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

The objectives were to: (i) estimate the extent of the injecting equipment (IE) provided by needle exchange programs (NEPs) to injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Czech Republic in 2010; (ii) subsequently validate the recent methodology used for data collection by the Czech National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (CMC), and (iii) estimate the number of syringes provided to Czech IDUs. A simple document analysis was performed in order to collect data on the production, sale, and consumption of injecting equipment in the Czech Republic in combination with questionnaire screening in the NEPs and 21 brief interviews with key informants. Ten types of IE most commonly used for drug injecting by the Czech drug users were identified. Approximately 5,038,000 pieces of sterile IE were marketed in the Czech Republic in 2010. According to four manufacturers (with a market share of 96%) and with reference to the year 2010, 5,430,694 pieces of sterile IE were provided to Czech injecting drug users (487,694 pieces of IE were sold to IDUs in pharmacies and 5,038,000 pieces of IE were distributed by NEPs in 2010). We compared the amount of IE provided to IDUs as reported to the CMC National registry by NEPs (4,943,000) with that of IE distributed by manufacturers and distributors (5,038,000) in the country in 2010 and found a difference of less than two percent using two different methodologies. This study confirms the accuracy of the data on the amount of IE exchanged as collected by the CMC monitoring system. This study opens up important public health practice and policy-making issues. The methodology of this study may be used in regions where no data collection system is present or where confirmation of the data related to IE is needed. PMID:24652400

Gabrhelík, Roman; Vacek, Jaroslav; Mista, Jan

2014-01-01

282

A comparison of 1-year substance abuse treatment outcomes in community syringe exchange participants versus other referrals.  

PubMed

This longitudinal cohort study of 324 consecutive admissions to methadone maintenance treatment between 08/1994 and 09/1997 compared 1-year outcomes of opioid-dependent patients referred from a syringe exchange program (SEP; n=81) versus other sources (n=243). All participants received stepped-based counseling. The Addiction Severity Index was completed upon admission. Treatment outcomes were assessed using weekly urine testing and days in treatment. GEE regression models were used to evaluate the association between baseline variables and treatment outcomes. SEP referrals were older, included more males and African Americans, reported greater unemployment and heavier heroin, cocaine, and injection drug use at admission. During treatment, SEP referrals used more opioids (OR 2.57; 95% CI 1.86-3.56) and cocaine (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.93-3.95), and were less likely to complete 1 year (35%) compared to other referrals (56%; hazard ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.35-2.62). Nevertheless, referral source was not significantly associated with outcome when adjusted for baseline characteristics. Greater baseline frequency of substance and injection drug use, and younger age were positively associated with ongoing opioid and cocaine use. African American race and baseline unemployment were also associated with ongoing cocaine use. Younger age and greater baseline cocaine use were associated with poorer retention at 1 year. The poorer treatment response of SEP referrals is likely due to higher baseline problem severity. Specialized interventions may be required to reduce drug use and improve retention in this population. PMID:18486360

Neufeld, Karin; King, Van; Peirce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert; Kidorf, Michael

2008-09-01

283

A COMPARISON OF ONE-YEAR SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT OUTCOMES IN COMMUNITY SYRINGE EXCHANGE PARTICIPANTS VERSUS OTHER REFERRALS  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal cohort study of 324 consecutive admissions to methadone maintenance treatment between 08/1994–09/1997 compared one-year outcomes of opioid-dependent patients referred from a Syringe Exchange Program (SEP; n = 81) versus other sources (n = 243). All participants received stepped-based counseling. The Addiction Severity Index was completed upon admission. Treatment outcomes were assessed using weekly urine testing and days in treatment. GEE regression models were used to evaluate the association between baseline variables and treatment outcomes. SEP referrals were older, included more males and African Americans, reported greater unemployment and heavier heroin, cocaine, and injection drug use at admission. During treatment, SEP referrals used more opioids (OR 2.57; 95% CI 1.86–3.56) and cocaine (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.93–3.95), and were less likely to complete one year (35%) compared to other referrals (56%; Hazard Ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.35–2.62). Nevertheless, referral source was not significantly associated with outcome when adjusted for baseline characteristics. Greater baseline frequency of substance and injection drug use, and younger age were positively associated with ongoing opioid and cocaine use. African American race and baseline unemployment were also associated with ongoing cocaine use. Younger age and greater baseline cocaine use were associated with poorer retention at one year. The poorer treatment response of SEP referrals is likely due to higher baseline problem severity. Specialized interventions may be required to reduce drug use and improve retention in this population.

Neufeld, Karin; King, Van; Peirce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert; Kidorf, Michael

2008-01-01

284

OARE flight maneuvers and calibration measurements on STS-58  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), which has flown on STS-40, STS-50, and STS-58, contains a three axis accelerometer with a single, nonpendulous, electrostatically suspended proofmass which can resolve accelerations to the nano-g level. The experiment also contains a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale factor calibration. This on-orbit calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty of ground-based calibrations encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the orbiter, thus providing absolute acceleration measurement accuracy heretofore unachievable. This is the first time accelerometer scale factor measurements have been performed on orbit. A detailed analysis of the calibration process is given along with results of the calibration factors from the on-orbit OARE flight measurements on STS-58. In addition, the analysis of OARE flight maneuver data used to validate the scale factor measurements in the sensor's most sensitive range is also presented. Estimates on calibration uncertainties are discussed. This provides bounds on the STS-58 absolute acceleration measurements for future applications.

Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.; Larman, Kevin T.

1994-01-01

285

Polarimetric SAR calibration experiment using active radar calibrators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active radar calibrators are used to derive both the amplitude and phase characteristics of a multichannel polarimetric SAR from the complex image data. Results are presented from an experiment carried out using the NASA/JPL DC-8 aircraft SAR over a calibration site at Goldstone, California. As part of the experiment, polarimetric active radar calibrators (PARCs) with adjustable polarization signatures were deployed. Experimental results demonstrate that the PARCs can be used to calibrate polarimetric SAR images successfully. Restrictions on the application of the PARC calibration procedure are discussed.

Freeman, Anthony; Shen, Yuhsyen; Werner, Charles L.

1990-01-01

286

Video Graphic Recorder (VGR) calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document outlines a calibration procedure for the Video Graphic Recorder (VGR) on the Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) three and four. Intent is to use this document to check/calibrate the VGR until a calibration procedure can be created by Tan...

J. C. Akers

1995-01-01

287

Calibration Pipeline for VIR Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VIR-MS instrument team has realized a calibration tool that has the goal of producing calibrated (1b level) data starting from the raw (1a level) ones. This tool, developed by using the Java language, has been called "VIR Calibration".

Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Coradini, A.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Filacchione, G.; Ammannito, E.; Tosi, F.; Cartacci, M.; Noschese, R.

2012-03-01

288

Magnetometer Calibration Method and Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A three axis magnetometer is provided with a single calibration coil lying in a plane disposed at equal angles to each of the three orthogonal axes of sensitivity. Energization of the calibration coil with a known current while the calibrated magnetometer...

R. L. Ball P. G. Leverone W. H. Biegler

1977-01-01

289

Microform calibrations in surface metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microform calibrations include the measurement of complex profile forms and position errors of micrometer scale in combination with the measurement of deviations from a specified profile and surface texture of profile segments. Tolerances on the profile form are specified and may correspond geometrically to surface texture parameters. One example of microform calibration is the calibration of Rockwell diamond indenters used

J. F. Song; F. F. Rudder; T. V. Vorburger; A. W. Hartman; B. R. Scace; J. H. Smith

1995-01-01

290

Pipeline Calibration for STIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CALSTIS program for calibration of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph data in the OPUS pipeline differs in several significant ways from calibration for earlier HST instruments, such as the use of FITS format, computation of error estimates, and association of related exposures. Several steps are now done in the pipeline that previously had to be done off-line by the user, such as cosmic ray rejection and extraction of 1-D spectra. Although the program is linked with IRAF for image and table I/O, it is written in ANSI C rather than SPP, which should make the code more accessible. FITS extension I/O makes use of the new IRAF FITS kernel for images and the HEASARC FITSIO package for tables.

Hodge, P. E.; Hulbert, S. J.; Lindler, D.; Busko, I.; Hsu, J.-C.; Baum, S.; McGrath, M.; Goudfrooij, P.; Shaw, R.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; Bohlin, R.

291

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOEpatents

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

292

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOEpatents

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26

293

Phase calibration generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase calibration system was developed for the Deep Space Stations to generate reference microwave comb tones which are mixed in with signals received by the antenna. These reference tones are used to remove drifts of the station's receiving system from the detected data. This phase calibration system includes a cable stabilizer which transfers a 20 MHz reference signal from the control room to the antenna cone. The cable stabilizer compensates for delay changes in the long cable which connects its control room subassembly to its antenna cone subassembly in such a way that the 20 MHz is transferred to the cone with no significant degradation of the hydrogen maser atomic clock stability. The 20 MHz reference is used by the comb generator and is also available for use as a reference for receiver LO's in the cone.

Sigman, E. H.

1988-01-01

294

Polarimetric PALSAR Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarimetric Phased-Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) system parameters are assessed using data sets collected over several calibration sites. The data collected over the Amazonian rain forest help validate the hypothesis that Faraday rotation is zero near the equator. The analysis of the Amazonian forest data and the response of the corner reflectors deployed there during the PALSAR acquisitions lead

Ridha Touzi; Masanobu Shimada

2009-01-01

295

Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact  

DOEpatents

A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

Tran, Hy D. (Albuquerque, NM); Claudet, Andre A. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Andrew D. (Waltham, MA)

2010-09-07

296

Internet-based calibration of a multifunction calibrator  

SciTech Connect

A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multifunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

2000-04-17

297

Internet-Based Calibration of a Multifunction Calibrator  

SciTech Connect

A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multijunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

2000-12-19

298

Calibration Sources for CRIRES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our efforts to provide high accuracy wavelength calibration to the scientific observations with the Cryogenic High-Resolution IR Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES), ESO's new high resolution (R?100,000) infrared (IR) spectrograph at the VLT. In order to provide reliable and accurate wavelength standards for CRIRES the European Southern Observatory (ESO), in collaboration with the Space Telescope European Co-ordinating Facility (ST-ECF) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), embarked on a project to establish Th-Ar wavelength standards in the 950nm to 5000nm operating range of CRIRES. Based on current findings we conclude that Th-Ar hollow cathode lamps hold the promise of becoming a standard source for wavelength calibration for near IR astronomy, providing a high density of sharp well-characterized emission lines with the ease and efficiency of operation of a commercial discharge lamp. In addition, and for use at wavelengths larger than 2200, we have established a gas cell filled with N2O as a calibration source based on existing data from NIST. Both sources were extensively tested during CRIRES commissioning runs and both are now being used for routine operations of the instrument.

Kerber, F.; Seifahrt, A.; Bristow, P.; Nave, G.; Käufl, H. U.; Rosa, M. R.; Sansonetti, C. J.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Smette, A.

299

Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra  

SciTech Connect

Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.

Haaland, D.M.

1991-01-01

300

Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat using a pseudo invariant calibration site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been used for on-orbit radiometric trending of optical satellite systems for more than 15 years. This approach to vicarious calibration has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and repeatability at the level of 1-3% depending on the site, spectral channel, and imaging geometries. A variety of sensors have used this approach for trending because it is broadly applicable and easy to implement. Models to describe the surface reflectance properties, as well as the intervening atmosphere have also been developed to improve the precision of the method. However, one limiting factor of using PICS is that an absolute calibration capability has not yet been fully developed. Because of this, PICS are primarily limited to providing only long term trending information for individual sensors or cross-calibration opportunities between two sensors. This paper builds an argument that PICS can be used more extensively for absolute calibration. To illustrate this, a simple empirical model is developed for the well-known Libya 4 PICS based on observations by Terra MODIS and EO-1 Hyperion. The model is validated by comparing model predicted top-of-atmosphere reflectance values to actual measurements made by the Landsat ETM+ sensor reflective bands. Following this, an outline is presented to develop a more comprehensive and accurate PICS absolute calibration model that can be Système international d'unités (SI) traceable. These initial concepts suggest that absolute calibration using PICS is possible on a broad scale and can lead to improved on-orbit calibration capabilities for optical satellite sensors.

Helder, D.; Thome, K. J.; Mishra, N.; Chander, G.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Choi, Taeyoung

2013-01-01

301

Calibration of triaxial fluxgate gradiometer  

SciTech Connect

The description of simple and fast calibration procedures used for double-probe triaxial fluxgate gradiometer is provided in this paper. The calibration procedure consists of three basic steps. In the first step both probes are calibrated independently in order to reach constant total field reading in every position. Both probes are numerically aligned in the second step in order that the gradient reading is zero in homogenous magnetic field. The third step consists of periodic drift calibration during measurement. The results and detailed description of each calibration step are presented and discussed in the paper. The gradiometer is finally verified during the detection of the metal object in the measuring grid.

Vcelak, Jan [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Measurement, CTU in Prague, Technicka 2, Prague 6, 166 27 (Czech Republic)

2006-04-15

302

Calibration effects on orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of charged particle and tropospheric calibrations on the orbit determination (OD) process are analyzed. The calibration process consisted of correcting the Doppler observables for the media effects. Calibrated and uncalibrated Doppler data sets were used to obtain OD results for past missions as well as Mariner Mars 1971. Comparisons of these Doppler reductions show the significance of the calibrations. For the MM'71 mission, the media calibrations proved themselves effective in diminishing the overall B-plane error and reducing the Doppler residual signatures.

Madrid, G. A.; Winn, F. B.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Yip, K. B.

1974-01-01

303

Ionization chambers for measuring air kerma integrated over beam area. Deviations in calibration values using simplified calibration methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibrations of kerma-area product meters (KAP meters) are often performed using simplified methods. The accuracy thus obtained can be insufficient, especially when the KAP meters are used for optimizing radiological procedures. The deviations between the best available calibration factor (k) and the simplified calibration factor were measured at different clinical x-ray installations. Depending on the type of x-ray installation and calibration method, the quotient ranged from 0.83 to 1.19, reflecting the error made in practice using these methods. A simple alternative calibration method based on comparison with a KAP meter calibrated by the best available method is described. Depending on tube potential and the stability of the electrometers, the uncertainty in the calibration factor derived with this method was between 3.8% and 5.6% (at 95% confidence level).

Larsson, J. P.; Persliden, J.; Alm Carlsson, G.

1998-03-01

304

ALTEA: The instrument calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALTEA program is an international and multi-disciplinary project aimed at studying particle radiation in space environment and its effects on astronauts’ brain functions, as the anomalous perception of light flashes first reported during Apollo missions. The ALTEA space facility includes a 6-silicon telescopes particle detector, and is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006. In this paper, the detector calibration at the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI Darmstadt will be presented and compared to the Geant 3 Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the results of a neural network analysis that was used for ion discrimination on fragmentation data will also be presented.

Zaconte, V.; Belli, F.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; di Fino, L.; Narici, L.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Sannita, W. G.; Finetti, N.; Nurzia, G.; Rantucci, E.; Scrimaglio, R.; Segreto, E.; Schardt, D.

2008-05-01

305

Multigamma-ray calibration sources  

SciTech Connect

We have calibrated a self-consistent set of multigamma-ray standards using the automated multi-spectrometry ..gamma..-ray counting facility at LLNL's Nuclear Chemistry Division. Pure sources of long-lived activity were produced by mass separation and/or chemical purification. The sources were counted individually and in combination on several different calibrated spectrometer systems. These systems utilize various detectors ranging from small (x-ray) detectors to large volume high-purity Ge detectors. This has allowed the use of the most ideal individual detector-efficiency characteristics for the determination of the relative ..gamma..-ray intensities. Precise energy measurements, reported earlier (Meyer, 1976) have been performed by an independent method. Both the energy and ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities determined compare well with independently established values such as the recent ICRM intercomparison of /sup 152/Eu. We discuss our investigations aimed at resolving the shape of the efficiency response function up to 10 MeV for large volume Ge(Li) and high-purity Ge detectors. Recent results on the ..gamma..-ray-emission probabilities per decay for /sup 149/Gd and /sup 168/Tm multigamma-ray sources are discussed. For /sup 168/Tm, we deduce a 0.01% ..beta../sup -/ branch to the 87.73-keV level in /sup 168/Yb rather than the previous value which was a factor of 200 greater. In addition, we describe current cooperative efforts aimed at establishing a consistent set of data for short-lived fission products. Included are recent measurements on the bromine fission products with ..gamma.. rays up to 7 MeV.

Meyer, R.A.; Massey, T.N.

1983-05-01

306

Computer-aided calibration: Asking the right questions  

SciTech Connect

Anyone involved with instrumentation and control would find it hard to avoid the ever-increasing promotion of calibrators. Calibrators and calibration are everywhere: in magazines, at trade shows, in ISO 9000 audits, and in instrument technician`s shops. The growth in this market is screamingly obvious. However, changes in the market for calibrators are not limited to increased demand for these products. Today`s trends emerge from several root causes. These include shifts in customer preference and behavior, changing relationships between firms involved in the different stages of the chain that supplies customers, and exogenous factors such as stricter government regulations and tighter industrial standards. In recent years, the United States federal government, through its Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has placed increasing demands on {open_quotes}smokestack{close_quotes} industries to demonstrate effective monitoring of pollutants. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all pharmaceutical companies validate their manufacturing processes. Many manufacturers recognize that the industries they serve are faced with increasing demand for instrument recalibration and documentation with decreasing maintenance resources. In response to the need for systems that can square the circle, manufacturers have introduced computer-aided calibration (CAC) systems that automatically execute calibration procedures and collect test and calibration data, which significantly improves productivity. The array of such systems now available is staggering. In certain instances, suppliers offer only hardware, such as calibrators, sources, and simulators that can communicate with a software package. Some software houses offer universal calibration packages, which can communicate with a wide variety of calibrators, or none. Others, usually hardware manufacturers, offer complete packages that consist of a calibrator and proprietary software.

Turvill, I.H. [Rochester Instrument Systems, Inc., NY (United States)

1995-12-01

307

Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator  

SciTech Connect

The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 {mu}g/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process.

Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W. [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); MicroFab Technologies, Inc., 1104 Summit Avenue, Suite 110, Plano, Texas 75074 (United States)

2006-08-15

308

MERIS spectral calibration campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Envisat is ESA's environmental research satellite launched on 1 March 2002. It carries a suit of sensors offering opportunities for a broad range of scientific research and applications. The spectral calibration results from the first 2 years of operation of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) will be presented. Four different methods, Making use of the spectral programmability of the instrument, were used to characterize the five MERIS spectrometers at eight wavelengths covering most of the useful spectral range of the instrument. The onboard spectral calibration uses an Erbium doped SpectralonTM diffuser panel providing useful absorption features at 408 & 522 nm. Configuring the instrument band settings to cover a designated spectral ranges with narrow bands, and acquiring data over natural targets for a limited number of orbits, as well as using the on-board radiometric (white) SpectralonTM diffuser; the instrument's response to a number of Fraunhofer absorption features {395, 486, 656, 854 & 866 nm}, and atmospheric oxygen absorption {760nm} where analysed. The methods and results of this analysis will be presented as well as the final MERIS spectral model derived from these.

Delwart, Steven; Bourg, Ludovic; Preusker, Rene; Santer, Richard

2004-11-01

309

Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 °C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver-on demand-continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 ?g/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process.

Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

2006-08-01

310

Heat flux sensor calibrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat flux to space shuttle main engine (SSME) turbopump turbine blades may be as high as 10 to the 7th power. The heat flux causes thermal transients that are of the order of 1 sec as temperature varies from perhaps 1500 K to 100 K. It is suspected that these transients cause durability problems in the turbine blades. To quantitatively evaluate the effect of these transients, heat flux sensors or gauges were developed to obtain data to verify analytical models. The objective is to design and fabricate a system for steady state and transient calibration and durability testing of heat flux sensors for use in SSME turbine blades. The calibrator consists of: (1) the arc lamp, (2) a high speed positioning table for placing standard and special heat flux sensors in the incident beam of radiant heat flux, (3) provision for cooling the blade and special sensors inserted in the blade, (4) a computer for controlling the positioning table, storing electrical output values from sensors, and calculating heat flux from these values, and (5) a pyrometer for measuring sensor surface temperatures.

Liebert, C. H.

1985-05-01

311

Essentials of JWST Flux Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning for the JWST absolute flux calibration has begun. The science goal is to be able to predict the absolute flux of stars for all JWST instruments to sub-1% accuracy. A set of A0V, solar, and white dwarfs stars have been picked as a preliminary calibration sample. These stars have been observed with a combination of the Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes. The mapping of these stars to the sensitivities of the JWST instruments is shown along with the comparison of the Hubble and Spitzer flux calibrations. The Hubble calibration is 1% lower than the official IRAC calibration of Reach et al. (2005) and 1.5% lower than the proposed calibration of Rieke et al. (2008).

Gordon, K.; Bohlin, R. C.

2010-07-01

312

NASA Metrology and Calibration, 1980  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of the fourth annual NASA Metrology and Calibration Workshop are presented. This workshop covered (1) review and assessment of NASA metrology and calibration activities by NASA Headquarters, (2) results of audits by the Office of Inspector General, (3) review of a proposed NASA Equipment Management System, (4) current and planned field center activities, (5) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) calibration services for NASA, (6) review of NBS's Precision Measurement and Test Equipment Project activities, (7) NASA instrument loan pool operations at two centers, (8) mobile cart calibration systems at two centers, (9) calibration intervals and decals, (10) NASA Calibration Capabilities Catalog, and (11) development of plans and objectives for FY 1981. Several papers in this proceedings are slide presentations only.

1981-01-01

313

Accredited Vector Magnetometer Calibration Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the accredited magnetometer calibration facility of the Nurmijärvi Geophysical Observatory of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The magnetometer calibration is part of the Magnetic Calibration and Test Laboratory of the observatory, which was accredited by the Finnish Accreditation Services (FINAS) in August 2007. The facility comprises a three-axes coil system installed in a non-magnetic building, temperature test system and an automatic control and measuring system. Both analog and digital outputs of magnetometers can be connected to the control electronics and the calibration procedure can be run fully automatic or with a predefined protocol. Accurate orientation with optical methods allows determination of the angles between magnetic and mechanical axes of the magnetometer. Experimental results of a calibration of a satellite magnetometer are included to demonstrate the calibration concept.

Pajunpää, Kari; Klimovich, Evgeny; Korepanov, Valery; Posio, Pentti; Pajunpaa, Kari; Nevanlinna, Heikki; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Lourenço, Andre

2007-11-01

314

Internal Water Vapor Photoacoustic Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water vapor absorption is ubiquitous in the infrared wavelength range where photoacoustic trace gas detectors operate. This technique allows for discontinuous wavelength tuning by temperature-jumping a laser diode from one range to another within a time span suitable for photoacoustic calibration. The use of an internal calibration eliminates the need for external calibrated reference gases. Commercial applications include an improvement of photoacoustic spectrometers in all fields of use.

Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

315

Neural networks for calibration tomography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial neural networks are suitable for performing pattern-to-pattern calibrations. These calibrations are potentially useful for facilities operations in aeronautics, the control of optical alignment, and the like. Computed tomography is compared with neural net calibration tomography for estimating density from its x-ray transform. X-ray transforms are measured, for example, in diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry of fluids. Computed tomography and neural net calibration tomography are shown to have comparable performance for a 10 degree viewing cone and 29 interferograms within that cone. The system of tomography discussed is proposed as a relevant test of neural networks and other parallel processors intended for using flow visualization data.

Decker, Arthur

1993-01-01

316

In situ broadband cryogenic calibration for two-port superconducting microwave resonators  

SciTech Connect

We introduce an improved microwave calibration method for use in a cryogenic environment, based on a traditional three-standard calibration, the Thru-Reflect-Line (TRL) calibration. The modified calibration method takes advantage of additional information from multiple measurements of an ensemble of realizations of a superconducting resonator, as a new pseudo-Open standard, to correct errors in the TRL calibration. We also demonstrate an experimental realization of this in situ broadband cryogenic calibration system utilizing cryogenic switches. All calibration measurements are done in the same thermal cycle as the measurement of the resonator (requiring only an additional 20 min), thus avoiding 4 additional thermal cycles for traditional TRL calibration (which would require an additional 12 days). The experimental measurements on a wave-chaotic microwave billiard verify that the new method significantly improves the measured scattering matrix of a high-quality-factor superconducting resonator.

Yeh, Jen-Hao; Anlage, Steven M. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3285 (United States); CNAM, Physics Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)

2013-03-15

317

Optimized extraction method for LC-MS determination of bisphenol A, melamine and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in selected soft drinks, syringes, and milk powder.  

PubMed

Described below is an optimized solid-phase extraction method (SPE) for the simultaneous determination of three hazardous plastic additives. Two high-performance liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (HPLC-ESI-MS) methods were developed and validated to estimate the melamine (MEL), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and bisphenol A (BPA) contents in drinking water, syringes, soft drinks, and dry milk powder. One extraction procedure optimally recovered all three substances from the different matrices. Two extraction columns were combined and included a silica gel LiChroprep RP-2 column (20:1, g/g, top column) and a Sep-Pak with a C18 column (500mg, bottom column). The analytical column was an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C8 column, 4.6mm×150mm, 5?m, maintained at 50±2°C. MEL and DEHP were monitored by positive triple quad mass spectrometry (TQ-MS) using an acidic mobile phase, while BPA was monitored by negative TQ-MS using a mobile phase containing a 0.05% ammonia solution. The general linear range of the three compounds ranged from 12 to 1000pg/?L in the injected solution (25?L). The average extraction recoveries were within the range of 83.0-102.5%. Relatively high concentrations of BPA and DEHP were found in the milk powder and sterile syringes. PMID:23727873

Khedr, Alaa

2013-07-01

318

Performance comparison of accelerometer calibration algorithms based on 3D-ellipsoid fitting methods.  

PubMed

Calibration of accelerometers can be reduced to 3D-ellipsoid fitting problems. Changing extrinsic factors like temperature, pressure or humidity, as well as intrinsic factors like the battery status, demand to calibrate the measurements permanently. Thus, there is a need for fast calibration algorithms, e.g. for online analyses. The primary aim of this paper is to propose a non-iterative calibration algorithm for accelerometers with the focus on minimal execution time and low memory consumption. The secondary aim is to benchmark existing calibration algorithms based on 3D-ellipsoid fitting methods. We compared the algorithms regarding the calibration quality and the execution time as well as the number of quasi-static measurements needed for a stable calibration. As evaluation criterion for the calibration, both the norm of calibrated real-life measurements during inactivity and simulation data was used. The algorithms showed a high calibration quality, but the execution time differed significantly. The calibration method proposed in this paper showed the shortest execution time and a very good performance regarding the number of measurements needed to produce stable results. Furthermore, this algorithm was successfully implemented on a sensor node and calibrates the measured data on-the-fly while continuously storing the measured data to a microSD-card. PMID:23566707

Gietzelt, Matthias; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Marschollek, Michael; Haux, Reinhold

2013-07-01

319

Absolute calibration of neutron counters on the Compact Helical System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calibration experiment of the neutron counters of the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been carried out in order to determine the calibration factor which relates the neutron-counter output to the extended neutron source of a torus plasma. The instruments employed in the present experiment include a BF3 proportional counter, a 3He proportional counter, an NE213 organic liquid scintillator. The

M. Isobe; M. Osakabe; M. Sasao; K. Matsuoka; J. Fujita

1995-01-01

320

Calibration of radon diffusion cup equipped with CR39 track detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a calibration of diffusion cup equipped with CR-39 which is used for the measurement of radon concentration. The values of calibration factors were determined applying experimental method. The counting of ? track density was done using two optical microscopes each one with two maginifications. The values of calibration factors are 7.10±0.56, 6.21±0.60, 5.72±0.49 and 5.53±0.86 (Bq day

I. Avramovi?; R. Bendera?; D. Veli?kovi?; S. Stankovi?; M. Kova?evi?

1995-01-01

321

RX130 Robot Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to create precision magnets for an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a new reverse engineering method has been proposed that uses the magnetic scalar potential to solve for the currents necessary to produce the desired field. To make the magnet it is proposed to use a copper coated G10 form, upon which a drill, mounted on a robotic arm, will carve wires. The accuracy required in the manufacturing of the wires exceeds nominal robot capabilities. However, due to the rigidity as well as the precision servo motor and harmonic gear drivers, there are robots capable of meeting this requirement with proper calibration. Improving the accuracy of an RX130 to be within 35 microns (the accuracy necessary of the wires) is the goal of this project. Using feedback from a displacement sensor, or camera and inverse kinematics it is possible to achieve this accuracy.

Fugal, Mario

2012-10-01

322

Thermosphere Density Model Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermospheric density models are a main source of error in the orbit determination and prediction of low Earth satellites. The empirical models that are in wide use today show large systematic errors when compared with data derived from accelerometers and spacecraft tracking. This accuracy limit is inherent in their model formulation, which is based on an imperfect correlation of observed thermosphere density with a limited set of certain space weather proxy indices. It has been demonstrated that a substantially higher accuracy can be reached by model calibration using concurrent observations of satellite drag. Such drag observations can be obtained by processing freely available Two-Line Element (TLE) data, which are used for representing and distributing satellite orbit trajectories. Several aspects of this data processing require specific attention. These include the selection of suitable space objects, determining their ballistic coefficients, and taking into account thermospheric winds and radiation pressure accelerations

Doornbos, Eelco

323

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOEpatents

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25

324

Robot geometry calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous robot task execution requires that the end effector of the robot be positioned accurately relative to a reference world-coordinate frame. The authors present a complete formulation to identify the actual robot geometric parameters. The method applies to any serial link manipulator with arbitrary order and combination of revolute and prismatic joints. A method is also presented to solve the inverse kinematic of the actual robot model which usually is not a so-called simple robot. Experimental results performed by utilizing a PUMA 560 with simple measurement hardware are presented. As a result of this calibration a precision move command is designed and integrated into a robot language, RCCL, and used in the NASA Telerobot Testbed.

Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam; Roston, Gerald

1988-01-01

325

Quality Management and Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good specification of a product’s performance requires adequate characterization of relevant properties. Particulate products are usually characterized by some PSD, shape or porosity parameter(s). For proper characterization, adequate sampling, dispersion, and measurement procedures should be available or developed and skilful personnel should use appropriate, well-calibrated/qualified equipment. The characterization should be executed, in agreement with customers, in a wellorganized laboratory. All related aspects should be laid down in a quality handbook. The laboratory should provide proof for its capability to perform the characterization of stated products and/or reference materials within stated confidence limits. This can be done either by internal validation and audits or by external GLP accreditation.

Merkus, Henk G.

326

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOEpatents

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

1988-01-01

327

An Overview of MODIS Calibration and Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key instruments for the NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS). It is currently operating on both EOS Terra and Aqua satellites. The MODIS is a major advance over its heritage sensors in terms of its spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions with frequent global observations and a broad range of science applications. There are 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with center wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 2.l microns and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) from 3.7 to 14.4 microns. The absolute radiometric accuracy requirements (lsigma) at the typical spectral radiance levels are plus or minus 2% for the RSB reflectance factors and plus or minus 5% for the RSB radiance products. With few exceptions, the TEB requirements are plus or minus 1%. To verify that the instruments met their specified design requirements both Terra and Aqua MODIS underwent extensive pre-launch calibration and characterization at various levels, including system-level thermal vacuum testing. On-orbit calibration and characterization are performed by the on-board calibrators: a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), a V-groove flat panel blackbody (BB), and a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). In this paper, we present an overview of MODIS calibration and characterization activities, methodologies, and lessons learned from pre-launch testing and on-orbit operations. Key issues to be discussed include our on-orbit efforts of monitoring detectors noise characterization, tracking solar diffuser and optics degradation, and updating sensor s response versus scan-angle. The MODIS experience has provided invaluable lessons that are being used in designing and testing the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), a direct follow-on to the MODIS that will be flown on the National Polar-Orbit Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) missions.

Xiong, X.; Barnes, W.

2004-01-01

328

Improvements in dissemination of spectral irradiance calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar UV measurements have reached a level where uncertainties and discrepancies of standard lamps used for calibration of the spectroradiometers are already limiting factors in the measurements. Lamps purchased from different national standards laboratories often show discrepancies higher than the stated uncertainties when measured in solar UV intercomparison campaigns. One major source for the deviations between the lamps is changes of the lamp irradiance in transportation. Even if hand-carried, the lamps may be damaged by thermal or mechanical shocks. Short-circuiting of the coils causes spectrally dependent decrease of the spectral irradiance values. This effect can be detected, but not quantified, by monitoring the voltage across the lamp terminals. However, this monitoring does not reveal changes caused by bending of the filaments. At the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), we have developed a portable primary standard of spectral irradiance based on characterised filter radiometers. The standard consists of a filter radiometer with 14 interchangeable narrow-band interference filters for the wavelength region 290 - 900 nm. The filter radiometer is packed in a flight case that allows its transportation to solar UV measurement sites. Thus, the use of the filter radiometer eliminates completely the need to transport lamps. The method has been tested in direct intercomparisons with PTB (Germany), NPL (UK) and NIST (USA). The results of the intercomparisons clearly verify the calculated uncertainties (2 sigma) that range between 2.7% and 1.5% in the solar UV region of 290 - 380 nm. The filter radiometer can also be used to calibrate a solar UV calibrator that has been developed in a collaboration project between HUT and STUK. This calibrator utilises a 1-kW DXW-type lamp that has been enclosed in robust aluminium housing. The lamp is monitored with two narrow-band UV filter radiometers. The calibrator can be assembled on top of any spectroradiometer by using interchangeable adapter plates. The method has been tested in intercomparisons at measurement sites of STUK and Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The tests indicate that the use of the calibrator can improve measurement uncertainties of Brewer and Bentham spectroradiometers. Calibrations can be performed outside even in the middle of the Finnish winter.

Kärhä, P.; Ylianttila, L.; Jokela, K.; Ikonen, E.

2003-04-01

329

Hot-wire calibration in subsonic/transonic flow regimes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A different approach for calibrating hot-wires, which simplifies the calibration procedure and reduces the tunnel run-time by an order of magnitude was sought. In general, it is accepted that the directly measurable quantities in any flow are velocity, density, and total temperature. Very few facilities have the capability of varying the total temperature over an adequate range. However, if the overheat temperature parameter, a(sub w), is used to calibrate the hot-wire then the directly measurable quantity, voltage, will be a function of the flow variables and the overheat parameter i.e., E = f(u,p,a(sub w), T(sub w)) where a(sub w) will contain the needed total temperature information. In this report, various methods of evaluating sensitivities with different dependent and independent variables to calibrate a 3-Wire hot-wire probe using a constant temperature anemometer (CTA) in subsonic/transonic flow regimes is presented. The advantage of using a(sub w) as the independent variable instead of total temperature, t(sub o), or overheat temperature parameter, tau, is that while running a calibration test it is not necessary to know the recovery factor, the coefficients in a wire resistance to temperature relationship for a given probe. It was deduced that the method employing the relationship E = f (u,p,a(sub w)) should result in the most accurate calibration of hot wire probes. Any other method would require additional measurements. Also this method will allow calibration and determination of accurate temperature fluctuation information even in atmospheric wind tunnels where there is no ability to obtain any temperature sensitivity information at present. This technique greatly simplifies the calibration process for hot-wires, provides the required calibration information needed in obtaining temperature fluctuations, and reduces both the tunnel run-time and the test matrix required to calibrate hotwires. Some of the results using the above techniques are presented in an appendix.

Nagabushana, K. A.; Ash, Robert L.

1995-01-01

330

MODIS Solar Calibration Simulation Assisted Refinement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed optical radiometric model has been created of the MODIS instruments solar calibration process. This model takes into account the orientation and distance of the spacecraft with respect to the sun, the correlated motions of the scan mirror and the sun, all of the optical elements, the detector locations on the visible and near IR focal planes, the solar diffuser and the attenuation screen with all of its hundreds of pinholes. An efficient computational scheme, takes into account all of these factors and has produced results which reproduce the observed time dependent intensity variations on the two focal planes with considerable fidelity. This agreement between predictions and observations, has given insight to the causes of some small time dependent variations and how to incorporate them into the overall calibration scheme. The radiometric model is described and modeled and actual measurements are presented and compared.

Waluschka, Eugene; Xiaoxiong, Xiong; Guenther, Bruce; Barnes, William; Moyer, David; Salomonson, Vincent V.

2004-01-01

331

Secondary pressure calibration of measurement microphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments are presented in the practical realization of IEC 61094-5 on the pressure calibration of working standard microphones. Particular emphasis is placed on the simultaneous comparison calibration approach, implemented in an open sound field. Limiting factors as well as those having a significant influence on the determination of the pressure sensitivity are discussed. These include the separation between the microphones, the influence of the test environment and location of the sound source, and issues arising from geometric and electroacoustic dissimilarities between the reference microphone and the microphone under test. Finally, recommendations are given for aspects to be considered in a future revision of IEC 61094-5, including contributions to the measurement uncertainty arising from the matters discussed.

Barham, Richard; Barrera-Figueroa, Salvador; Avison, Janine E. M.

2014-06-01

332

A calibration technique for a laser gyro strapdown inertial navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present system for the calibration of a laser gyro strapdown inertial navigation system on a low cost, two-gimbal test table, accelerometer scale factor and bias and accelerometer and gyro misalignments are calibrated by means of navigation frame acceleration measurements after each rotation. Weighted least squares equations are used to furnish instrument parameter measurements. The accelerometer scale factor, misalignment

A. Brown; R. Ebner; J. Mark

1982-01-01

333

Calibration Technology of Optics Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In active vision system, the linear illumination and vidicon sampling are widely used in obtaining the 3-D information of the objects surface distance and direction. In order to have the accurate data, we need to calibrate the optics sensor. In this paper, an optimized non-linear method was adopted to calibrate the sensor, and the mathiematics model of the method was

Hua Yanqiu; Chen Jing; Dou Chuanwei

2008-01-01

334

Side looking radar calibration study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration of an airborne sidelooking radar is accomplished by the use of a model that relates the radar parameters to the physical mapping situation. Topics discussed include: characteristics of the transmitters; the antennas; target absorption and reradiation; the receiver and map making or radar data processing; and the calibration process.

Edwards, W. D.

1975-01-01

335

Calibration of a Horizontal Sundial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how a horizontal sundial can be calibrated in a classroom without using the nontrivial equations of projective geometry. If one understands how a simple equatorial sundial works, one will also understand the procedure of calibrating a horizontal (or "garden," as it is also called) sundial.

Rovsek, Barbara

2010-01-01

336

Calibration of a Horizontal Sundial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how a horizontal sundial can be calibrated in a classroom without using the nontrivial equations of projective geometry. If one understands how a simple equatorial sundial works, one will also understand the procedure of calibrating a horizontal (or ``garden,'' as it is also called) sundial.

Rovšek, Barbara

2010-09-01

337

Calibration of the ARID robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has formulated a new, general model for specifying the kinematic properties of serial manipulators. The new model kinematic parameters do not suffer discontinuities when nominally parallel adjacent axes deviate from exact parallelism. From this new theory the author develops a first-order, lumped-parameter, calibration-model for the ARID manipulator. Next, the author develops a calibration methodology for the ARID based on visual and acoustic sensing. A sensor platform, consisting of a camera and four sonars attached to the ARID end frame, performs calibration measurements. A calibration measurement consists of processing one visual frame of an accurately placed calibration image and recording four acoustic range measurements. A minimum of two measurement protocols determine the kinematics calibration-model of the ARID for a particular region: assuming the joint displacements are accurately measured, the calibration surface is planar, and the kinematic parameters do not vary rapidly in the region. No theoretical or practical limitations appear to contra-indicate the feasibility of the calibration method developed here.

Doty, Keith L

1992-01-01

338

Calibration of attitude control sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an onboard computer.

Potapenko, Ye. M.

1987-05-01

339

Camera Calibration Using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a procedure for camera calibration using artificial neural networks of the type back propagation perceptron. Camera calibration is employed in computer vision for pose determination and it requires a solution of non-linear system of equations. By employing neural network, it becomes unnecessary to know the parameters of the cameras, such as focus, distortions besides the geometry of

Márcio Mendonça; Ivan N. Da Silva; José E. C. Castanho

2002-01-01

340

ENVISAT-1 MWR: calibration targets and preflight calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ENVISAT Microwave Radiometer (MWR) is an instrument designed and developed as part of the Envisat-1 satellite scientific payload, with Alenia Aerospazio engaged in the phase C-D as instrument Prime Contractor, leading an industrial consortium of European and American companies. The Flight Model of the Instrument was delivered to ESA at the end of July 1997, after successful completion of design, test and calibration activities. An Engineering Model of the instrument was also developed and completed in March 1997. The MWR output products are of prime importance for wind/wave products of the Radar Altimeter (RA-2) Instrument, part of the Envisat-1 payload, providing correction of atmospheric propagation data. The products are also useful for direct evaluation of brightness temperature in order to characterize polar ice, land surface properties and sea surface temperature. In order to achieve the required accuracy and sensitivity performance, an in- flight two-point calibration concept is adopted, with hot and cold calibration reference points for each frequency channel. Periodically the measurements of earth scene radiation are interrupted to allow the measurement of an on-board calibration load and of the deep cold space. The overall ground calibration tasks were performed through an iterative sequence of measurement and relevant model corrections, with an extensive instrument calibration in a thermal-vacuum environment, to derive the final radiometer model coefficients and to verify its performance in the expected in-flight environment. To achieve the required instrument calibration accuracy, extremely accurate blackbody target sources were required, in order to simulate the Earth scene and the deep space (for cold calibration), as seen by the radiometer during its in-flight mission. The definition, development and characterization of such blackbody targets were key aspects to achieving the required stimulus accuracy for proper calibration of the instrument. These tasks were jointly performed by the UK Meteorological Office (UKMO) and Alenia Aerospazio, and lead to the final calibration of the instrument with successful results. Within this paper an overview of the instrument calibration will be given; emphasis will be on the trade-offs and design requirements derived for the Calibration Targets, on their design and calibration, and finally on the achieved results and instrument performance.

Atkinson, Nigel C.; Bombaci, Ornella; L'Abbate, Michele; Ricketts, Marion

1998-12-01

341

BXS Re-calibration  

SciTech Connect

Early in the commissioning it was noticed by Cecile Limborg that the calibration of the BXS spectrometer magnet seemed to be different from the strength of the BX01/BX02 magnets. First the BX01/BX02 currents were adjusted to 135 MeV and the beam energy was adjusted to make the horizontal orbit flat. Then BX01/BX02 magnets were switched off and BXS was adjusted to make the horizontal orbit in the spectrometer line flat, without changing the energy of the beam. The result was that about 140-141 MeV were required on the BXS magnet. This measurement was repeated several times by others with the same results. It was not clear what was causing the error: magnet strength or layout. A position error of about 19 mm of the BXS magnet could explain the difference. Because there was a significant misalignment of the vacuum chamber in the BXS line, the alignment of the whole spectrometer line was checked. The vacuum chamber was corrected, but the magnets were found to be in the proper alignment. So we were left with one (or conceivably two) magnet calibration errors. Because BXS is a wedged shaped magnet, the bend angle depends on the horizontal position of the incoming beam. As mentioned, an offset of the beam position of 19 mm would increase or decrease the bend angle roughly by the ratio of 135/141. The figure of 19 mm is special and caused a considerable confusion during the design and measurement of the BXS magnet. This is best illustrated in Figure 1 which was taken out of the BXS Traveler document. The distance between the horizontal midplanes of the poles and the apex of the beam path was chosen to be 19 mm so the beam is close to the good field region throughout its entire path. Thus it seemed possible that there was an error that resulted in the beam not being on this trajectory, or conversely, that the magnetic measurements were done on the wrong trajectory and the magnet was then mis-calibrated. Mechanical measurements of the vacuum chamber made in the tunnel indicated that the vacuum chamber was in fact in the proper position with respect to the magnet - not 19 mm off to one side - so the former possibility was discounted. Review of the Fiducial Report and an interview with Keith Caban convinced me that there was no error in the coordinate system used for magnet measurements. I went and interviewed Andrew Fischer who did the magnetic measurements of BXS. He had extensive records, including photographs of the setups and could quickly answer quite detailed questions about how the measurement was done. Before the interview, I had a suspicion there might have been a sign flip in the x coordinate which because of the wedge would result in the wrong path length and a miscalibration. Andrew was able to pin-point how this could have happened and later confirmed it by looking an measurement data from the BXG magnet done just after BXS and comparing photographs. It turned out that the sign of the horizontal stage travel that drives the measurement wire was opposite that of the x coordinate in the Traveler, and the sign difference wasn't applied to the data. The origin x = 0 was set up correctly, but the wire moved in the opposite direction to what was expected, just as if the arc had been flipped over about the origin. To quantitatively confirm that this was the cause of the observed difference in calibration I used the 'grid data', which was taken with a Hall probe on the BXS magnet originally to measure the FINT (focusing effect) term, and combined it with the Hall probe data taken on the flipped trajectory, and performed the field integral on a path that should give the same result as the design path. This is best illustrated in Figure 2. The integration path is coincident with the desired path from the pivot points (x = 0) outward. Between the pivot points the integration path is a mirror image of the design path, but because the magnet is fairly uniform, for this portion it gives the same result. Most of the calibration error resulted simply from the different path length between the design path and the measured path. The res

Welch, J; /SLAC; ,

2010-11-24

342

Laboratory calibration of field reflectance panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method used for calibrating field reflectance panels in the visible and shortwave infrared wavelength range is described. The directional reflectance factor of painted barium sulfate (BaSO4) panels is determined. The reference for this method is the hemispherical reflectance of pressed polytetrafluoroethylene (halon) powder prepared according to National Bureau of Standards (NBS) directions. The panels and a radiometer are mounted on rotation stages to measure the reflectance factor at different incidence and view angles. The sensor can be any laboratory or field filter radiometer small enough to mount on the apparatus. The method is used to measure the reflectance factors of halon and BaSO4 panels between 0.45 and 0.85 micrometers. These reflectance factors are compared to those measured by a field apparatus. The results agree to within 0.013 in reflectance at incidence angles between 15 and 75 degrees.

Biggar, S. F.; Labed, J.; Santer, R. P.; Slater, P. N.; Jackson, R. D.

1988-01-01

343

Calibration of platinum resistance thermometers.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of five years experience in calibrating about 1000 commercial platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) are reported. These PRT were relatively small and rugged, with ice-point resistances from 200 to 5000 ohms. Calibrations normalized in terms of resistance-difference ratios (Cragoe Z function) were found to be remarkably uniform for five of six different types of PRT tested, and to agree very closely with normalized calibrations of the primary reference standard type PRT. The Z function normalization cancels residual resistances which are not temperature dependent and simplifies interpolation between calibration points when the quality of a given type of PRT has been established in terms of uniform values of the Z function. Measurements at five or six well spaced base-point temperatures with Z interpolation will suffice to calibrate a PRT accurately from 4 to 900 K.

Sinclair, D. H.; Terbeek, H. G.; Malone, J. H.

1972-01-01

344

Calibration uncertainty of assembled array hydrophones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to predict the uncertainty of a procedure for calibration of fully assembled array hydrophones in a shallow water environment. All error sources (due to measurement elements, instruments, background noise, calibration setup and environment) of the calibration procedure are defined and combine to predict the final calibration uncertainty theoretically. The methodology for predicting the calibration uncertainty

Y. Gao; P. Harvey; P. Cooper; P. Baker

2010-01-01

345

Cobalt source calibration  

SciTech Connect

The data obtained from these tests determine the dose rate of the two cobalt sources in SRTC. Building 774-A houses one of these sources while the other resides in room C-067 of Building 773-A. The data from this experiment shows the following: (1) The dose rate of the No.2 cobalt source in Building 774-A measured 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 17, 1999). The dose rate of the Shepherd Model 109 Gamma cobalt source in Building 773-A measured 9.27 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 25, 1999). These rates come from placing the graduated cylinder containing the dosimeter solution in the center of the irradiation chamber. (2) Two calibration tests in the 774-A source placed the graduated cylinder with the dosimeter solution approximately 1.5 inches off center in the axial direction. This movement of the sample reduced the measured dose rate 0.92% from 1.083 x 10{sup 5} rad/h to 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h. and (3) A similar test in the cobalt source in 773-A placed the graduated cylinder approximately 2.0 inches off center in the axial direction. This change in position reduced the measured dose rate by 10.34% from 1.036 x 10{sup 6} to 9.27 x 10{sup 5}. This testing used chemical dosimetry to measure the dose rate of a radioactive source. In this method, one determines the dose by the chemical change that takes place in the dosimeter. For this calibration experiment, the author used a Fricke (ferrous ammonium sulfate) dosimeter. This solution works well for dose rates to 10{sup 7} rad/h. During irradiation of the Fricke dosimeter solution the Fe{sup 2+} ions ionize to Fe{sup 3+}. When this occurs, the solution acquires a slightly darker tint (not visible to the human eye). To determine the magnitude of the change in Fe ions, one places the solution in an UV-VIS Spectrophotometer. The UV-VIS Spectrophotometer measures the absorbency of the solution. Dividing the absorbency by the total time (in minutes) of exposure yields the dose rate.

Rizvi, H.M.

1999-12-03

346

Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration  

SciTech Connect

Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID/ICP/MS) performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The outputs of mercury calibrators are compared to one another using a nesting procedure which allows direct comparison of one calibrator with another at specific concentrations and eliminates analyzer variability effects. The qualification portion of the EPA interim traceability protocol requires the vendors to define calibrator performance as affected by variables such as pressure, temperature, line voltage, and shipping. In 2007 WRI developed and conducted a series of simplified qualification experiments to determine actual calibrator performance related to the variables defined in the qualification portion of the interim protocol.

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

2009-03-12

347

Dynamic camera calibration to estimate mean vehicle speed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an algorithm to estimate mean vehicle speed from un-calibrated roadside cameras. The algorithm presented creates a new virtual speed sensor that leverages the large numbers of low quality cameras already installed by transportation agencies. The calibration problem considered here is complicated by the ability of the operation staff to pan, tilt, and zoom the un-calibrated roadside cameras. It is in this framework that we present an algorithm that: (1) performs a simplified dynamic calibration and (2) estimates mean vehicle speed. In the work presented, we wish to estimate the mean vehicle speeds and we will demonstrate that a simplified, and perhaps less accurate form of calibration is adequate to make an accurate mean speed estimate. We use 10-second video sequences as training sets to dynamically calibrate the camera. Our proposed method detects moving vehicles in a set of consecutive frames. This information, together with a mean vehicle dimension, allows us to estimate a scaling factor for a one-dimensional transformation between motion in the image and motion in the earth coordinates. As a result, our algorithm requires the estimation of fewer camera calibration parameters. We validate our algorithm with both simulated data and real world traffic scenes.

Pumrin, Suree; Dailey, Daniel

2002-05-01

348

A Micro-Extraction Technique Using a New Digitally Controlled Syringe Combined with UHPLC for Assessment of Urinary Biomarkers of Oxidatively Damaged DNA  

PubMed Central

The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within cells causes damage to biomolecules, including membrane lipids, DNA, proteins and sugars. An important type of oxidative damage is DNA base hydroxylation which leads to the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-HMUra). Measurement of these biomarkers in urine is challenging, due to the low levels of the analytes and the matrix complexity. In order to simultaneously quantify 8-oxodG and 5-HMUra in human urine, a new, reliable and powerful strategy was optimised and validated. It is based on a semi-automatic microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) technique, using a new digitally controlled syringe (eVol®), to enhance the extraction efficiency of the target metabolites, followed by a fast and sensitive ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The optimal methodological conditions involve loading of 250 µL urine sample (1?10 dilution) through a C8 sorbent in a MEPS syringe placed in the semi-automatic eVol® syringe followed by elution using 90 µL of 20% methanol in 0.01% formic acid solution. The obtained extract is directly analysed in the UHPLC system using a binary mobile phase composed of aqueous 0.1% formic acid and methanol in the isocratic elution mode (3.5 min total analysis time). The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), extraction yield, accuracy, precision and matrix effect. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.991) within the established concentration range. The LOD varied from 0.00005 to 0.04 µg mL?1 and the LOQ from 0.00023 to 0.13 µg mL?1. The extraction yields were between 80.1 and 82.2 %, while inter-day precision (n?=?3 days) varied between 4.9 and 7.7 % and intra-day precision between 1.0 and 8.3 %. This approach presents as main advantages the ability to easily collect and store urine samples for further processing and the high sensitivity, reproducibility, and robustness of eVol®MEPS combined with UHPLC analysis, thus retrieving a fast and reliable assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA.

Mendes, Berta; Silva, Pedro; Aveiro, Fernando; Pereira, Jorge; Camara, Jose S.

2013-01-01

349

A micro-extraction technique using a new digitally controlled syringe combined with UHPLC for assessment of urinary biomarkers of oxidatively damaged DNA.  

PubMed

The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within cells causes damage to biomolecules, including membrane lipids, DNA, proteins and sugars. An important type of oxidative damage is DNA base hydroxylation which leads to the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-HMUra). Measurement of these biomarkers in urine is challenging, due to the low levels of the analytes and the matrix complexity. In order to simultaneously quantify 8-oxodG and 5-HMUra in human urine, a new, reliable and powerful strategy was optimised and validated. It is based on a semi-automatic microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) technique, using a new digitally controlled syringe (eVol(®)), to enhance the extraction efficiency of the target metabolites, followed by a fast and sensitive ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The optimal methodological conditions involve loading of 250 µL urine sample (1:10 dilution) through a C8 sorbent in a MEPS syringe placed in the semi-automatic eVol(®) syringe followed by elution using 90 µL of 20% methanol in 0.01% formic acid solution. The obtained extract is directly analysed in the UHPLC system using a binary mobile phase composed of aqueous 0.1% formic acid and methanol in the isocratic elution mode (3.5 min total analysis time). The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), extraction yield, accuracy, precision and matrix effect. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of linearity (r(2) > 0.991) within the established concentration range. The LOD varied from 0.00005 to 0.04 µg mL(-1) and the LOQ from 0.00023 to 0.13 µg mL(-1). The extraction yields were between 80.1 and 82.2 %, while inter-day precision (n = 3 days) varied between 4.9 and 7.7 % and intra-day precision between 1.0 and 8.3 %. This approach presents as main advantages the ability to easily collect and store urine samples for further processing and the high sensitivity, reproducibility, and robustness of eVol(®)MEPS combined with UHPLC analysis, thus retrieving a fast and reliable assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA. PMID:23484022

Mendes, Berta; Silva, Pedro; Aveiro, Fernando; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S

2013-01-01

350

Meteorological Sensor Calibration Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The meteorological sensor calibration facility is designed to test and assess radiosonde measurement quality through actual flights in the atmosphere. United States radiosonde temperature measurements are deficient in that they require correction for errors introduced by long- and short-wave radiation. The effect of not applying corrections results in a large bias between day time and night time measurements. This day/night bias has serious implications for users of radiosonde data, of which NASA is one. The derivation of corrections for the U.S. radiosonde is quite important. Determination of corrections depends on solving the heat transfer equation of the thermistor using laboratory measurements of the emissivity and absorptivity of the thermistor coating. The U.S. radiosonde observations from the World Meteorological Organization International Radiosonde Intercomparison were used as the data base to test whether the day/night height bias can be removed. Twenty-five noon time and 26 night time observations were used. Corrected temperatures were used to calculate new geopotentials. Day/night bias in the geopotentials decreased significantly when corrections were introduced. Some testing of thermal lag attendant with the standard carbon hygristor took place. Two radiosondes with small bead thermistors imbedded in the hygristor were flown. Detailed analysis was not accomplished; however, cursory examination of the data showed that the hygristor is at a higher temperature than the external thermistor indicates.

Schmidlin, F. J.

1988-01-01

351

A calibrated Franklin chimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benjamin Franklin devised a simple yet intriguing device to measure electrification in the atmosphere during conditions of foul weather. He constructed a system of bells, one of which was attached to a conductor that was suspended vertically above his house. The device is illustrated in a well-known painting of Franklin (Cohen, 1985). The elevated conductor acquired a potential due to the electric field in the atmosphere and caused a brass ball to oscillate between two bells. The purpose of this study is to extend Franklin's idea by constructing a set of 'chimes' which will operate both in fair and in foul weather conditions. In addition, a mathematical relationship will be established between the frequency of oscillation of a metallic sphere in a simplified geometry and the potential on one plate due to the electrification of the atmosphere. Thus it will be possible to calibrate the 'Franklin Chimes' and to obtain a nearly instantaneous measurement of the potential of the elevated conductor in both fair and foul weather conditions.

Gonta, Igor; Williams, Earle

1994-05-01

352

Operational calibration of VIIRS reflective solar band sensor data records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is an instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, which launched on October 28, 2011. VIIRS performs measurements in 14 reflective solar bands (RSBs) spanning wavelengths from 412 nm to 2.25 um, which are calibrated by using solar radiance reflected from a Solar Diffuser (SD). The SD reflectance degrades over time, and a Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) is used to track the changes. The ratio between the calculated solar radiance reflected from the SD and the VIIRS measurement of this radiance using the pre-launch calibration coefficients is known as the "F factor." The F factor is applied in the ground processing as a scale correction to the pre-launch calibration coefficients used to generate the calibrated radiances and reflectances comprising the Sensor Data Records (SDRs). The F factor is trended over time to track instrument response degradation. The equation for calculating expected solar radiance, and the coefficients used to convert the raw digital numbers measured by the detectors into radiance and reflectance values, are based on parameters stored in various Look-Up Tables (LUTs). This paper will discuss on-orbit RSB calibration for VIIRS, along with a description of the processing methodology, which includes operational LUT updates based on off-line calculations of F factor trending behavior.

Cardema, Jason C.; Rausch, Kameron W.; Lei, Ning; Moyer, David I.; De Luccia, Frank J.

2012-09-01

353

Mexican national pyronometer network calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to take advantage of the solar radiation as an alternate energy source it is necessary to evaluate the spatial and temporal availability. The Mexican National Meterological Service (SMN) has a network with 136 meteorological stations, each coupled with a pyronometer for measuring the global solar radiation. Some of these stations had not been calibrated in several years. The Mexican Department of Energy (SENER) in order to count on a reliable evaluation of the solar resource funded this project to calibrate the SMN pyrometer network and validate the data. The calibration of the 136 pyronometers by the intercomparison method recommended by the World Meterological Organization (WMO) requires lengthy observations and specific environmental conditions such as clear skies and a stable atmosphere, circumstances that determine the site and season of the calibration. The Solar Radiation Section of the Instituto de Geofísica of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México is a Regional Center of the WMO and is certified to carry out the calibration procedures and emit certificates. We are responsible for the recalibration of the pyronometer network of the SMN. A continuous emission solar simulator with exposed areas with 30cm diameters was acquired to reduce the calibration time and not depend on atmospheric conditions. We present the results of the calibration of 10 thermopile pyronometers and one photovoltaic cell by the intercomparison method with more than 10000 observations each and those obtained with the solar simulator.

VAldes, M.; Villarreal, L.; Estevez, H.; Riveros, D.

2013-12-01

354

40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Torque calibration. 1065.310 Section 1065.310...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Measurement of...Ambient Conditions § 1065.310 Torque calibration. (a) Scope and...

2009-07-01

355

40 CFR 89.307 - Dynamometer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calibrated resistors may not be used for engine flywheel torque transducer calibration, but may be used to span the transducer prior to engine testing. (e) Perform other engine dynamometer system calibrations as dictated by good...

2013-07-01

356

NIST Measurement Services: NIST Multifunction Calibration System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NIST automated Multifunction Calibration System (MCS) for voltage, current, and resistance is described. Developed primarily to calibrate digital multimeters and calibrators, the system can also be used to test thermal converters, and micropotentiomet...

N. Oldham M. Parker

1998-01-01

357

UV/VUV radiometric calibrations at SURF II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1981 more than 150 instrument calibrations have been performed on the radiometric instrumentation calibration beamline at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF II) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This 300 MeV electron storage ring operates routinely at electron currents greater than 250 mA. The spectrometer calibration beamline provides a continuum of radiation from 4 nm through the visual spectral region in the form of an intense beam with total angular divergence of 1.2 mrad. The probable uncertainty for the flux ranges from about 5 percent at 4 nm to less than 2 percent above 20 nm. The new system will radiometrically trace to SURF II, and thus is expected to reduce the calibration uncertainty for diodes in this region by a factor of five to the 1-2 percent level.

Furst, Mitchell L.; Canfield, L. R.

1993-01-01

358

Gulf of Mexico Climate-History Calibration Study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reliable instrumental records of past climate are available for about the last 150 years only. To supplement the instrumental record, reconstructions of past climate are made from natural recorders such as trees, ice, corals, and microfossils preserved in sediments. These proxy records provide information on the rate and magnitude of past climate variability, factors that are critical to distinguishing between natural and human-induced climate change in the present. However, the value of proxy records is heavily dependent on calibration between the chemistry of the natural recorder and of the modern environmental conditions. The Gulf of Mexico Climate and Environmental History Project is currently undertaking a climate-history calibration study with material collected from an automated sediment trap. The primary focus of the calibration study is to provide a better calibration of low-latitude environmental conditions and shell chemistry of calcareous microfossils, such as planktic Foraminifera.

Spear, Jessica W.; Poore, Richard Z.

2010-01-01

359

Germanium resistance thermometer calibration at superfluid helium temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The rapid increase in resistance of high purity semi-conducting germanium with decreasing temperature in the superfluid helium range of temperatures makes this material highly adaptable as a very sensitive thermometer. Also, a germanium thermometer exhibits a highly reproducible resistance versus temperature characteristic curve upon cycling between liquid helium temperatures and room temperature. These two factors combine to make germanium thermometers ideally suited for measuring temperatures in many cryogenic studies at superfluid helium temperatures. One disadvantage, however, is the relatively high cost of calibrated germanium thermometers. In space helium cryogenic systems, many such thermometers are often required, leading to a high cost for calibrated thermometers. The construction of a thermometer calibration cryostat and probe which will allow for calibrating six germanium thermometers at one time, thus effecting substantial savings in the purchase of thermometers is considered.

Mason, F.C.

1985-01-01

360

Calibration and correction of the device measuring magnetic gradient tensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, four three-axis magnetometers (TAMs) are used to measure magnetic gradient tensor. But the measurement precision of magnetic gradient tensor is tightly connected with the imperfect performance of sensors such as non-orthogonality, different scale factors and biases among sensitive axes, misalignment between different TAMs. It is necessary to calibrate and correct the measurement device to obtain precise magnetic gradient tensor. A mathematical model for calibration of the device measuring magnetic gradient tensor is established, and the calibration algorithm and its steps based on functional link artificial neural network (FLANN) and least-squares method (LSM) are proposed. The numerical simulations prove the effectiveness and good convergence of calibration algorithm, which can improve remarkably the measurement precision of magnetic gradient tensor.

Huang, Yu; Wu, Li-hua

361

Calibration of CR-39-based thoron progeny device.  

PubMed

Radon isotopes and their progenies have proven significant role in respiratory tumour formation. In most cases, the radiological effect of one of the radon isotopes (thoron) and its progenies has been neglected together with its measurement technique; however, latest surveys proved that thoron's existence is expectable in flats and in workplace in Europe. Detectors based on different track detector measurement technologies have recently spread for measuring thoron progenies; however, the calibration is not yet completely elaborated. This study deals with the calibration of the track detector measurement method suitable for measuring thoron progenies using different devices with measurement techniques capable of measuring several progenies (Pylon AB5 and WLx, Sarad EQF 3220). The calibration factor values related to the thoron progeny monitors, the measurement uncertainty, reproducibility and other parameters were found using the calibration chamber. In the future, the effects of the different parameters (aerosol distribution, etc.) will be determined. PMID:24723185

Fábián, F; Csordás, A; Shahrokhi, A; Somlai, J; Kovács, T

2014-07-01

362

Method for Accurately Calibrating a Spectrometer Using Broadband Light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel method has been developed for performing very fine calibration of a spectrometer. This process is particularly useful for modern miniature charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometers where a typical factory wavelength calibration has been performed and a finer, more accurate calibration is desired. Typically, the factory calibration is done with a spectral line source that generates light at known wavelengths, allowing specific pixels in the CCD array to be assigned wavelength values. This method is good to about 1 nm across the spectrometer s wavelength range. This new method appears to be accurate to about 0.1 nm, a factor of ten improvement. White light is passed through an unbalanced Michelson interferometer, producing an optical signal with significant spectral variation. A simple theory can be developed to describe this spectral pattern, so by comparing the actual spectrometer output against this predicted pattern, errors in the wavelength assignment made by the spectrometer can be determined.

Simmons, Stephen; Youngquist, Robert

2011-01-01

363

JWST Absolute Flux Calibration Plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plan for the absolute flux calibration of all JWST instruments will be described. The science goal is to be able to predict the absolute flux of stars for all JWST instruments to sub-1% accuracy. A set of A0V, solar, and hot stars have been picked as a preliminary calibration sample. This calibration sample has been chosen specifically to provide at least 5 stars of each type in all the observing modes of each JWST instrument. In addition to existing Hubble and Spitzer observations, ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy will be obtained to provide strong, independent constraints on the best fitting model stellar atmospheres for each star.

Gordon, Karl D.; Bohlin, R.

2013-01-01

364

The GREGOR polarimetric calibration unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new Solar telescope GREGOR is designed to observe small-scale dynamic magnetic structures below a size of 70 km on the Sun with high spectral resolution and polarimetric accuracy. For this purpose, the polarimetric concept of GREGOR is based on a combination of post-focus polarimeters with pre-focus equipment for high precision calibration. The Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam developed the GREGOR calibration unit which is an integral part of the telescope. We give an overview of the function and design of the calibration unit and present the results of extensive testing series done in the Solar Observatory ``Einsteinturm'' and at GREGOR.

Hofmann, A.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S. M.; Bittner, W.; Paschke, J.; Popow, E.; Rendtel, J.; Soltau, D.; Waldmann, T.

2012-11-01

365

Calibration: Practical experience with ERS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs and discussion of calibration:practical experience with ERS-1 are presented. Topics covered include: radiometric calibration, geometric calibration, phase calibration, and polarimetric calibration. Basic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurement parameters are radar backscattering, target position, target speed, and polarization. SAR calibration facilitates quantitative measurements needed to derive geophysical parameters of the area under observation from basic SAR measurements (e.g. soil moisture, biomass, ocean wave energy, ocean currents, ice type, and ice flow).

Louet, Jacques

1993-01-01

366

Proof-of-concept demonstration of a total internal reflection based module for fluorescence and absorbance detection using a 3D-printed syringe pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we demonstrate the proof-of-concept of an optofluidic module capable of simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and absorbance (ABS) detection based on total internal reflection (TIR) optics. We discuss the design of the optofluidic detection module, its fabrication, and the setup used for the proof-of-concept. The injection of sample under test is done using two 3D printed syringe pumps, managing accurate injection and repeatable sample propagation through the detector module. We discuss the process of development behind these pumps and review their technical specifications. With this demonstrator setup we find that the limits of detection for the ABS and LIF detection of coumarin 480 are 500 nM and 100 nM respectively.

Verschooten, Tom; Ottevaere, Heidi; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo

2014-05-01

367

The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Receptive Syringe Sharing Among Young Female Injection Drug Users: An Analysis of Mediation Effects  

PubMed Central

This study sought to explore the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and receptive syringe sharing (RSS) among young female injection drug users (IDUs) and to examine mediating variables. Cross-sectional behavioral assessments were completed by 797 female IDUs in five U.S. cities who reported having at least one main sexual partner in the past three months. Linear regression was used to estimate direct and mediated effects. The product of coefficients method was used to statistically evaluate mediation. Respondents were predominantly white (70%) and mean age was 23 years. Sixty percent reported RSS in the past three months and 33% reported IPV in the past year. The association between IPV and RSS was independently mediated by self-esteem and depression, but not by self-efficacy for safer drug injection. Findings suggest that interventions focused on improving victimized women’s self-esteem and depression may help mitigate some of the negative health effects of IPV.

Hudson, Sharon M.; Latka, Mary H.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Thiede, Hanne; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Garfein, Richard S.

2013-01-01

368

Airdata Measurement and Calibration. Chapter 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Section provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The Section informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This section is not intended to be all inclusive; readers should review AGARDograph 300, Volume 1, "Calibration of Airdata Systems and Flow Direction Sensors" for more detailed information. [11-1] References 11-2, 11-3, and 11-4 also supply pertinent information to better understand airdata measurement and calibration and related terminology. Airdata are vital to successfully complete an aircraft's mission and are derived from the air surrounding the aircraft. These airdata encompass indicated and true airspeed, pressure altitude, ambient air temperature, angles of attack and sideslip, Mach number, and rate of climb. Typically, pitot and static pressures are sensed and converted (by mechanical means in the instruments themselves) into indications on the altimeter, vertical speed indicator, airspeed indicator, and Machmeter. Similarly, measured local flow angles establish angles of attack and sideslip, and the outside air temperature is measured and indicated in the cockpit. (Instruments that can perform the conversion, such as airspeed indicators, altimeters, and Machmeters, do not correct for errors in the input values.) These measured parameters are commonly input to the airdata computer which, using appropriate algorithms and correction factors (or calibrations, as discussed later), can provide other parameters, such as true airspeed, required by the aircraft's avionics or flight control system. The presence of the aircraft in the airstream causes input errors to the measuring instruments - the aircraft disturbs the air that it flies through, thereby also disturbing the airdata measurements. Figure 11-1 shows the airflow around an airplane wing. The air above the wing has lower pressure than the ambient air, while the pressure below the wing is higher than the ambient air. Compressibility and shock waves also disturb the air and affect the measurements. Compressibility effects become important above approximately Mach number 0.3. As a result the static pressure around an airplane varies considerably with location. Local flow angles also differ from the free-stream flow direction. In straight-and-level flight the airflow rises to the wing leading edge and falls below the trailing edge, causing errors in flow direction measurements. To some extent these errors can be studied in wind tunnels, but wind-tunnel measurements cannot replace in-flight measurements.

Haering, Edward A., Jr.

2005-01-01

369

Spectrophotometric Standards for Cross-Observatory Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program will obtain NICMOS spectrophotometry of four main sequence A stars and four K giants, each selected from the Spitzer IRAC photometric calibration target and/or candidate calibration target lists {Reach et al 2005, PASP,117,978}. These observations will supplement existing HST observations of DA white dwarfs and solar analogs, and will provide a broad base of stellar types for spectrophotometric cross calibration of HST, Spitzer, and eventually JWST. The targets are chosen to be faint enough for unsaturated observations with JWST NIRSPEC, yet still bright enough for high signal to noise in relatively short observations with HST+NICMOS and with Spitzer+IRAC.ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST OBS OF 1812095 & KF06T2These data demonstated heavy saturation in the longer exposures. For example, 1812095 {A3V, V=11.8, Ks=11.6} shows a peak rate of 250DN/s in G096, while KF06T2 {K1.5III V=13.8, Ks=11.3} reaches 250DN/s in G206, including the 100DN/s of background. Thus, full saturation of some charge wells occurred after integrating for 100s. Adopting a 2x safety factor, the integration times should be limited to 50s. The brightest stars are Ks=11, or 32% brighter.

Diaz-Miller, Rosa

2005-07-01

370

Calibration of the Oscillating Screen Viscometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have devised a calibration procedure for the oscillating screen viscometer which can provide the accuracy needed for the flight measurement of viscosity near the liquid-vapor critical point of xenon. The procedure, which makes use of the viscometer's wide bandwidth and hydrodynamic similarity, allows the viscometer to be self-calibrating. To demonstrate the validity of this procedure we measured the oscillator's transfer function under a wide variety of conditions. We obtained data using CO2 at temperatures spanning a temperature range of 35 K and densities varying by a factor of 165, thereby encountering viscosity variations as great as 50%. In contrast the flight experiment will be performed over a temperature range of 29 K and at only a single density, and the viscosity is expected to change by less than 40%. The measurements show that, after excluding data above 10 Hz (where frequency-dependent corrections are poorly modeled) and making a plausible adjustment to the viscosity value used at high density, the viscometer's behavior is fully consistent with the use of hydrodynamic similarity for calibration. Achieving this agreement required understanding a 1% anelastic effect present in the oscillator's torsion fiber.

Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

1993-01-01

371

Establishment of a primary reference solar cell calibration technique in Korea: methods, results and comparison with WPVS qualified laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary reference solar cell calibration technique recently established at the Korea Institute of Energy Research in Korea is introduced. This calibration technique is an indoor method that uses a highly collimated continuous-type solar simulator and absolute cavity radiometer traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. The results obtained using this calibration technique are shown with a precise uncertainty analysis, and the system configuration and calibration procedures are introduced. The calibration technique avoids overestimating the short-circuit current of a reference solar cell due to multiple reflections of incident simulator light using a novel method. In addition, the uncertainty analysis indicates that the calibration technique has an expanded uncertainty of approximately 0.7% with a coverage factor of k = 2 for a c-Si reference cell calibration. In addition, the developed primary reference solar cell calibration technique was compared with other techniques established in the World Photovoltaic Scale (WPVS) qualified calibration laboratories to verify its validity and reliability.

Ahn, SeungKyu; Ahn, SeJin; Yun, Jae Ho; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Winter, Stefan; Igari, Sanekazu; Yoon, KyungHoon

2014-06-01

372

Shelf lives of aseptically prepared medicines--stability of hydrocortisone sodium succinate in PVC and non-PVC bags and in polypropylene syringes.  

PubMed

Parenteral aseptic preparations of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HSS) are used frequently in hospitals, but little definitive stability information is available. The purpose of this study was to obtain ultimate shelf lives for typical formulations so that they may be prepared in bulk in appropriately licensed facilities. In the first study, the stability of HSS, 1mg/ml, was determined in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and polyolefine (non-PVC) bags, in 0.9% (w/v) sodium chloride at 7 degrees C, 25 degrees C/60% relative humidity (RH) and room temperature in the light (RTL) with storage for up to 135 days. In the second study, the stability of HSS, 50 mg/ml was determined in polypropylene syringes at 5 degrees C and 25 degrees C/60%RH with storage for up to 120 days. Samples from each admixture were analysed by stability indicating high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and were monitored for pH, appearance of solution and container, and the rate of appearance of decomposition products. Shelf lives were calculated using the maximum rate method. HSS at a concentration of 1 mg/ml in PVC bags was stable for up to 41 days at 7 degrees C, 8 days at 25 degrees C and 7 days at RTL. It was stable in non-PVC bags for up to 48, 8 and 6 days, respectively. HSS in polypropylene syringes at a strength of 50 mg/ml was stable for up to 81 days at 5 degrees C and 6 days at 25 degrees C. PMID:15925227

Rigge, Diane Clare; Jones, Martin Frederick

2005-06-15

373

Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration  

SciTech Connect

The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

Johns, B.R.

1994-10-01

374

Spectrophotometric calibration system for DECam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a spectrophotometric calibration system that is being implemented as part of the DES DECam project at the Blanco 4 meter at CTIO. Our calibration system uses a 1nm wide tunable source to measure the instrumental response function of the telescope optics and detector from 300nm up to 1100nm. This calibration will be performed regularly to monitor any change in the transmission function of the telescope during the 5 year survey. The system consists of a monochromator based tunable light source that provides illumination on a dome flat that is monitored by calibrated photodiodes that allow us to measure the telescope throughput as a function of wavelength. Our system has a peak output power of 2 mW, equivalent to a flux of approximately 800 photons/s/pixel on DECam.

Rheault, J.-P.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Wise, J.; Martin, E.; Williams, P.

2012-09-01

375

Precision Measurement and Calibration. Colorimetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume is one of an extended series which brings together the previously published papers, monographs, abstracts, and bibliographies by NBS authors dealing with the precision measurement of specific physical quantities and the calibration of the relat...

I. Nimeroff

1972-01-01

376

Outlier Detection in Multivariate Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Outlier samples can have very detrimental effects on the performances of multivariate calibration methods, as these methods are generally not very robust. Often, the software implementations of these methods do not check for outliers. If outliers are not ...

E. V. Thomas D. M. Haaland

1989-01-01

377

PALSAR Radiometric and Geometric Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results obtained from geometric and radiometric calibrations of the Phased-Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite, which has been in space for three years. All of the imaging modes of the PALSAR, i.e., single, dual, and full polarimetric strip modes and scanning synthetic aperture radar (SCANSAR), were calibrated and validated using

Masanobu Shimada; Osamu Isoguchi; Takeo Tadono; Kazuo Isono

2009-01-01

378

LLL calibration and standards facility  

SciTech Connect

The capabilities of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Calibration and Standards Facility are delineated. The facility's ability to provide radiation fields and measurements for a variety of radiation safety applications and the available radiation measurement equipment are described. The need for national laboratory calibration labs to maintain traceability to a national standard are discussed as well as the areas where improved standards and standardization techniques are needed.

Campbell, G.W.; Elliott, J.H.

1980-04-15

379

Calibration interval technical basis document  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a method for the establishment and evaluation of calibration intervals for radiation protection instrumentation. This document is applicable to instrumentation used by personnel at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for the measurement of radioactive contamination and the measurement and monitoring of radiation fields for protection of personnel and the environment. Special calibrations are not addressed by this document and should be handled separately.

Chiaro, P.J. Jr.

1998-09-01

380

Recent Developments in Multivariate Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers the area of multivariate calibration; from pre-processing of data prior to modeling and applications of regression methods for calibration and prediction. The importance of pre-treatment of data is highlighted with many of the recently developed methods together with traditional methods. Several articles provide comparisons between different pre-processing methods. Methods for data from coupled chromatographic methods, which have

Jon Gabrielsson; Johan Trygg

2006-01-01

381

Blackbody comparator for thermocouple calibration  

SciTech Connect

MIKES is developing a measurement set-up for calibrating thermocouples in the temperature range 960 °C - 1500 °C. The calibration method is based on direct comparison of thermocouples and radiation thermometers. We have designed a graphite blackbody comparator cell, which is operated in a horizontal single-zone tube furnace. The cell includes two blackbody cavities for radiation temperature measurements. The cavities have openings on opposite sides of the cell, allowing simultaneous measurement with two radiation thermometers. The design of the comparator allows three thermocouples to be calibrated simultaneously. The thermocouples to be calibrated are inserted in thermometer wells around one of the measurement cavities. We characterize the blackbody comparator in terms of repeatability, temperature distribution and emissivity. Finally, we validate the uncertainty analysis by comparing calibration results obtained for type B and S thermocouples to the calibration results reported by Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP), and MIKES. The agreement in the temperature range 1000 °C - 1500 °C is within 0.90 °C, the average deviation being 0.17 °C.

Ojanen, M.; Hahtela, O. M.; Heinonen, M. [Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES), P.O.Box 9, FI-02151 Espoo (Finland)

2013-09-11

382

Calibration of smooth camera models.  

PubMed

Generic imaging models can be used to represent any camera. Current generic models are discrete and define a mapping between each pixel in the image and a straight line in 3D space. This paper presents a modification of the generic camera model that allows the simplification of the calibration procedure. The only requirement is that the coordinates of the 3D projecting lines are related by functions that vary smoothly across space. Such a model is obtained by modifying the general imaging model using radial basis functions (RBFs) to interpolate image coordinates and 3D lines, thereby allowing both an increase in resolution (due to their continuous nature) and a more compact representation. Using this variation of the general imaging model, we also develop a calibration procedure. This procedure only requires that a 3D point be matched to each pixel. In addition, not all the pixels need to be calibrated. As a result, the complexity of the procedure is significantly decreased. Normalization is applied to the coordinates of both image and 3D points, which increases the accuracy of the calibration. Results with both synthetic and real datasets show that the model and calibration procedure are easily applicable and provide accurate calibration results. PMID:23868772

Miraldo, Pedro; Araujo, Helder

2013-09-01

383

WFC3: UVIS Dark Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a fourth-generation imaging instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), has exhibited excellent performance since its installation during Servicing Mission 4 in May 2009. The UVIS detector, comprised of two e2v CCDs, is one of two channels available on WFC3 and is named for its ultraviolet and visible light sensitivity. We present the various procedures and results of the WFC3/UVIS dark calibration, which monitors the health and stability of the UVIS detector, provides characterization of hot pixels and dark current, and produces calibration files to be used as a correction for dark current in science images. We describe the long-term growth of hot pixels and the impacts that UVIS Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) losses, postflashing, and proximity to the readout amplifiers have on the population. We also discuss the evolution of the median dark current, which has been slowly increasing since the start of the mission and is currently ~6 e-/hr/pix, averaged across each chip. We outline the current algorithm for creating UVIS dark calibration files, which includes aggressive cosmic ray masking, image combination, and hot pixel flagging. Calibration products are available to the user community, typically 3-5 days after initial processing, through the Calibration Database System (CDBS). Finally, we discuss various improvements to the calibration and monitoring procedures. UVIS dark monitoring will continue throughout and beyond HST’s current proposal cycle.

Bourque, Matthew; Biretta, John A.; Anderson, Jay; Baggett, Sylvia M.; Gunning, Heather C.; MacKenty, John W.

2014-06-01

384

Radiometric Compensation and Calibration for Radarsat ScanSAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to lack of a standard for modeling the radar echo signal in terms of signal unit and coordinates as well as lack of a standard in designing the gain factors in each stage of a processor, absolute radiometric calibration of a SAR system is usually performed by treating the sensor and processor as one inseparable unit. This often makes the calibration procedure complicated and requiring the involvement of both radar system engineers and processor engineers in the whole process. This paper introduces a standard for modeling the radar echo signal and a standard in designing the gain factor of a ScanSAR processor. In this paper, the radar equation is derived based on the amount of energy instead of the power received from a backscatterer. These efforts lead to simple and easy-to-understand equations for radiometric compensation and calibration.

Jin, Michael Y.

1993-01-01

385

Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next.

Sadler, G.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01

386

Absolute Radiometric Calibration of SERTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. We have recently carried out a complete end-to-end calibration of the instrument to determine its absolute radiometric response over the full bandpass of 300 -- 365 Angstroms. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibration of the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) experiment now flying aboard the SOHO spacecraft. For our SERTS project, the unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany was re-calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (1sigma ) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the SERTS aperture over a range of pitch and yaw angles were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to <= 25%, considering all sources of error. These results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted `insensitive' line ratios. The recent measurements at RAL also give information about the uniformity of illumination across the collimated source beam, as well as about polarization characteristics of both the instrument and radiation source, which may prove helpful in correctly interpreting the original CDS calibration data. We hope to repeat such calibration measurements and to provide future SERTS flights annually, at least throughout the duration of the SOHO mission. Coordinated observing programs would then allow these updated absolute calibrations to be transferred on a regular basis to several of the instruments onboard SOHO, including CDS, EIT, and CELIAS.

Thomas, R. J.; Condor, C. E.; Haas, J. P.; Linard, D. L., II; Swartz, M.; Kent, B. J.; Hollandt, J.

1997-12-01

387

A First Order Wavefront Estimation Algorithm for P1640 Calibrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

P1640 calibrator is a wavefront sensor working with the P1640 coronagraph and the Palomar 3000 actuator adaptive optics system (P3K) at the Palomar 200 inch Hale telescope. It measures the wavefront by interfering post-coronagraph light with a reference beam formed by low-pass filtering the blocked light from the coronagraph focal plane mask. The P1640 instrument has a similar architecture to the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and its performance is currently limited by the quasi-static speckles due to non-common path wavefront errors, which comes from the non-common path for the light to arrive at the AO wavefront sensor and the coronagraph mask. By measuring the wavefront after the coronagraph mask, the non-common path wavefront error can be estimated and corrected by feeding back the error signal to the deformable mirror (DM) of the P3K AO system. Here, we present a first order wavefront estimation algorithm and an instrument calibration scheme used in experiments done recently at Palomar observatory. We calibrate the P1640 calibrator by measuring its responses to poking DM actuators with a sparse checkerboard pattern at different amplitudes. The calibration yields a complex normalization factor for wavefront estimation and establishes the registration of the DM actuators at the pupil camera of the P1640 calibrator, necessary for wavefront correction. Improvement of imaging quality after feeding back the wavefront correction to the AO system demonstrated the efficacy of the algorithm.

Zhaia, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.; Crepp, J.; Dekany, R.; Hinkley, S.; Hillenbrand, L.; Parry, I.; Pueyo, L.; Rice, E.; Roberts, L. C. Jr.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Soummer, R.; Vescelus, F.; Wallace, K.; Zimmerman, N.

2012-01-01

388

A first order wavefront estimation algorithm for P1640 calibrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

P1640 calibrator is a wavefront sensor working with the P1640 coronagraph and the Palomar 3000 actuator adaptive optics system (P3K) at the Palomar 200 inch Hale telescope. It measures the wavefront by interfering post-coronagraph light with a reference beam formed by low-pass filtering the blocked light from the coronagraph focal plane mask. The P1640 instrument has a similar architecture to the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and its performance is currently limited by the quasi-static speckles due to non-common path wavefront errors, which comes from the non-common path for the light to arrive at the AO wavefront sensor and the coronagraph mask. By measuring the wavefront after the coronagraph mask, the non-common path wavefront error can be estimated and corrected by feeding back the error signal to the deformable mirror (DM) of the P3K AO system. Here, we present a first order wavefront estimation algorithm and an instrument calibration scheme used in experiments done recently at Palomar observatory. We calibrate the P1640 calibrator by measuring its responses to poking DM actuators with a sparse checkerboard pattern at different amplitudes. The calibration yields a complex normalization factor for wavefront estimation and establishes the registration of the DM actuators at the pupil camera of the P1640 calibrator, necessary for wavefront correction. Improvement of imaging quality after feeding back the wavefront correction to the AO system demonstrated the efficacy of the algorithm.

Zhai, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.; Crepp, J.; Dekany, R.; Hinkley, S.; Hillenbrand, L.; Ligon, E. R.; Parry, I.; Pueyo, L.; Rice, E.; Roberts, L. C.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Soummer, R.; Vescelus, F.; Wallace, K.; Zimmerman, N.

2012-07-01

389

Improvements of VIIRS and MODIS solar diffuser and lunar calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both VIIRS and MODIS instruments use solar diffuser (SD) and lunar observations to calibrate their reflective solar bands (RSB). A solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) is used to track the SD on-orbit degradation. On-orbit observations have shown similar wavelength-dependent SD degradation (larger at shorter VIS wavelengths) and SDSM detector response degradation (larger at longer NIR wavelengths) for both VIIRS and MODIS instruments. In general, the MODIS scan mirror has experienced more degradation in the VIS spectral region whereas the VIIRS rotating telescope assembly (RTA) mirrors have seen more degradation in the NIR and SWIR spectral region. Because of this wavelength dependent mirror degradation, the sensor's relative spectral response (RSR) needs to be modulated. Due to differences between the solar and lunar spectral irradiance, the modulated RSR could have different effects on the SD and lunar calibration. In this paper, we identify various factors that should be considered for the improvements of VIIRS and MODIS solar and lunar calibration and examine their potential impact. Specifically, we will characterize and assess the calibration impact due to SD and SDSM attenuation screen transmission (uncertainty), SD BRF uncertainty and onorbit degradation, SDSM detector response degradation, and modulated RSR resulting from the sensor's optics degradation. Also illustrated and discussed in this paper are the calibration strategies implemented in the VIIRS and MODIS SD and lunar calibrations and efforts that could be made for future improvements.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Lei, Ning; Sun, Junqiang; Fulbright, Jon; Wang, Zhipeng; McIntire, Jeff; Angal, Amit

2013-09-01

390

MODEL CALIBRATION REPORT FOR THE HOUSATONIC RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Model Calibration Report will present a comparison of the model calibration runs to existing data for the calibration period, over a two year time frame. In addition, the model predictions for the calibration period will be compared to other supporting analyses, such as alter...

391

Robust Camera Calibration using Discrete Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camera calibration is an indispensable step for aug- mented reality or image guided applications where quantitative in- formation should be derived from the images. Usually, a camera calibration is obtained by taking images of a special calibration object and extracting the image coordinates of projected calibration marks enabling the calculation of the projection from the 3d world coordi- nates to

Stephan Rupp; Matthias Elter; Michael Breitung; Walter Zink; Christian Kublbeck

2005-01-01

392

Langley method of calibrating UV filter radiometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Langley method of calibrating UV multifilter shadow band radiometers (UV-MFRSR) is explored in this paper. This method has several advantages over the traditional standard lamp calibrations: the Sun is a free, universally available, and very constant source, and nearly continual automated field calibrations can be made. Although 20 or so Langley events are required for an accurate calibration, the

James Slusser; James Gibson; David Bigelow; Donald Kolinski; Patrick Disterhoft; Kathleen Lantz; Arthur Beaubien

2000-01-01

393

Solid Laboratory Calibration of a Nonimaging Spectroradiometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-based nonimaging spectroradiometers are often used in vicarious calibration experiments for airborne or spaceborne imaging spectrometers. The calibration uncertainties associated with these ground measurements contribute substantially to the overall modeling error in radiance- or reflectance-based vicarious calibration experiments. Because of limitations in the radiometric stability of compact field spectroradiometers, vicarious calibration experiments are based primarily on reflectance measurements rather than

Michael E. Schaepman; Stefan Dangel

2000-01-01

394

The Calibration Technique for Pipelined ADC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calibration technique of pipelined ADCs has developed many years. This paper reviews the history of calibration technique and introduces some typical calibration approaches. According to the status of calibration technique, this paper predicts some possible direction of the future work.

Li Zhang

2008-01-01

395

The calibration methods for Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous, over two-decade data record from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is ideal for climate research which requires timely and accurate information of important atmospheric components such as gases, aerosols, and clouds. Except for parameters derived from MFRSR measurement ratios, which are not impacted by calibration error, most applications require accurate calibration factor(s), angular correction, and spectral response function(s) from calibration. Although a laboratory lamp (or reference) calibration can provide all the information needed to convert the instrument readings to actual radiation, in situ calibration methods are implemented routinely (daily) to fill the gaps between lamp calibrations. In this paper, the basic structure and the data collection and pretreatment of the MFRSR are described. The laboratory lamp calibration and its limitations are summarized. The cloud screening algorithms for MFRSR data are presented. The in situ calibration methods, the standard Langley method and its variants, the ratio-Langley method, the general method, Alexandrov's comprehensive method, and Chen's multi-channel method, are outlined. The reason that all these methods do not fit for all situations is that they assume some properties, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), total optical depth (TOD), precipitable water vapor (PWV), effective size of aerosol particles, or angstrom coefficient, are invariant over time. These properties are not universal and some of them rarely happen. In practice, daily calibration factors derived from these methods should be smoothed to restrain error.

Chen, Maosi; Davis, John; Tang, Hongzhao; Ownby, Carolyn; Gao, Wei

2013-09-01

396

Waveguide Calibrator for Multi-Element Probe Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A calibrator, referred to as the spider design, can be used to calibrate probes incorporating multiple acoustic sensing elements. The application is an acoustic energy density probe, although the calibrator can be used for other types of acoustic probes. The calibrator relies on the use of acoustic waveguide technology to produce the same acoustic field at each of the sensing elements. As a result, the sensing elements can be separated from each other, but still calibrated through use of the acoustic waveguides. Standard calibration techniques involve placement of an individual microphone into a small cavity with a known, uniform pressure to perform the calibration. If a cavity is manufactured with sufficient size to insert the energy density probe, it has been found that a uniform pressure field can only be created at very low frequencies, due to the size of the probe. The size of the energy density probe prevents one from having the same pressure at each microphone in a cavity, due to the wave effects. The "spider" design probe is effective in calibrating multiple microphones separated from each other. The spider design ensures that the same wave effects exist for each microphone, each with an indivdual sound path. The calibrator s speaker is mounted at one end of a 14-cm-long and 4.1-cm diameter small plane-wave tube. This length was chosen so that the first evanescent cross mode of the plane-wave tube would be attenuated by about 90 dB, thus leaving just the plane wave at the termination plane of the tube. The tube terminates with a small, acrylic plate with five holes placed symmetrically about the axis of the speaker. Four ports are included for the four microphones on the probe. The fifth port is included for the pre-calibrated reference microphone. The ports in the acrylic plate are in turn connected to the probe sensing elements via flexible PVC tubes. These five tubes are the same length, so the acoustic wave effects are the same in each tube. The flexible nature of the tubes allows them to be positioned so that each tube terminates at one of the microphones of the energy density probe, which is mounted in the acrylic structure, or the calibrated reference microphone. Tests performed verify that the pressure did not vary due to bends in the tubes. The results of these tests indicate that the average sound pressure level in the tubes varied by only 0.03 dB as the tubes were bent to various angles. The current calibrator design is effective up to a frequency of approximately 4.5 kHz. This upper design frequency is largely due to the diameter of the plane-wave tubes.

Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.

2007-01-01

397

Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources  

SciTech Connect

A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C. [and others

1996-04-01

398

A positioning free calibration method for mobile laser scanning applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile laser scanning are likely to find more and more applications for high density 3D environmental data. A mobile laser scanning system is composed by three subsystems: a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) that provides position information, an INS (Inertial Navigation System) for attitude determination, and a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). The accuracy of the geolocated LiDAR returns depends on the accuracy of each instrument but also on the bore-sighting parameters and the lever arms between the instruments. Indeed, an imperfect calibration may lead to systematic errors. Calibration may then become the limiting factor of Terrestrial Laser scanning if it is not tackled seriously. Moreover [Ø], it is important to have a reliable value of the calibration precision. This paper presents a new positioning free procedure for the estimation of the LiDAR bore-sighting parameters. Since this method is static, lever arms do not affect the boresight calibration and positioning is not required. That makes the methodology immune to GPS errors. Finally, since it is based on a rigorous mathematical model, it can provide a reliable boresight quality factor. First, the boresight determination problem is explained and existing calibration procedures are introduced. After having explained their drawbacks, a new procedure that tries to overcome these limitations is described. Tests from simulations and real datasets are also presented to illustrate our approach.

Le Scouarnec, R.; Touzé, T.; Lacambre, J. B.; Seube, N.

2013-10-01

399

Price Calibration of basket default swap: Evidence from Japanese market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is the price calibration of basket default swap from Japanese market data. The value of this instruments depend on the number of factors including credit rating of the obligors in the basket, recovery rates, intensity of default, basket size and the correlation of obligors in the basket. A fundamental part of the pricing framework is

Abid Fathi; Naifar Nader

2007-01-01

400

Water Lavage and Tissue Calibration Study in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a pulsating water jet delivered at a calibrated known force per unit area at a constant tip-to-tissue distance on oral mucosal sites of varying tissue densities was studied. The degree of tissue damage was determined by two factors: the force of the water jet and the density of the target tissue.

Duane E. Cutright; Joe D. Beasley; Surindar N. Bhaskar; Wayne J. Larson

1973-01-01

401

A new calibration model of camera lens distortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lens distortion is one of the main factors affecting camera calibration. In this paper, a new model of camera lens distortion is presented, according to which lens distortion is governed by the coefficients of radial distortion and a transform from ideal image plane to real sensor array plane. The transform is determined by two angular parameters describing the pose of

Jianhua Wang; Fanhuai Shi; Jing Zhang; Yuncai Liu

2008-01-01

402

A New Calibration Model and Method of Camera Lens Distortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lens distortion is one of the main factors affecting camera calibration. In this paper, a new model of camera lens distortion is presented, according to which lens distortion is governed by the coefficients of radial distortion and a transform from ideal image plane to real sensing array plane. The transform is determined by two angular parameters describing the pose and

Jianhua Wang; Fanhuai Shi; Jing Zhang; Yuncai Liu

2006-01-01

403

40 CFR 86.1319-90 - CVS calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...kPa). (ii) The expansion factor (Y) is calculated...added. The calibration test must be conducted with...new Cd curve fit in the test cell flow computing...injection, flow verification test. (f) CVS system... (1) Obtain a small cylinder that has been...

2011-07-01

404

40 CFR 86.1319-90 - CVS calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...kPa). (ii) The expansion factor (Y) is calculated...added. The calibration test must be conducted with...new Cd curve fit in the test cell flow computing...injection, flow verification test. (f) CVS system... (1) Obtain a small cylinder that has been...

2012-07-01

405

40 CFR 86.1319-90 - CVS calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...kPa). (ii) The expansion factor (Y) is calculated...added. The calibration test must be conducted with...new Cd curve fit in the test cell flow computing...injection, flow verification test. (f) CVS system... (1) Obtain a small cylinder that has been...

2010-07-01

406

40 CFR 89.324 - Calibration of other equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the value at each non-zero data point and within ± 0.3 percent of full scale on the zero, concentration values may be calculated by use of a single calibration factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit...

2013-07-01

407

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the value at each non-zero data point and within ± 0.3 percent of full scale on the zero, concentration values may be calculated by use of a single calibration factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit...

2013-07-01

408

40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the value at each non-zero data point and within ± 0.3 percent of full scale on the zero, concentration values may be calculated by use of a single calibration factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit...

2013-07-01

409

40 CFR 89.321 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the value at each non-zero data point and within ± 0.3 percent of full scale on the zero, concentration values may be calculated by use of a single calibration factor for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit...

2013-07-01

410

Attitude sensor calibration for the ocean topography experiment satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ground-based software system to calibrate the attitude control sensors for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) spacecraft is described. The algorithm determines sensor misalignment, bias and scale factor errors from gyro, sun sensor and star tracker measurements. The inherent yaw slew motion of the spacecraft during normal mission mode is exploited to make the error parameters observable. A two loop

Scott Davis; John Lai

1993-01-01

411

Evaluation of Procedures for Linking Multidimensional Item Calibrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated multidimensional linking procedures with which multidimensional test data from two separate calibrations were put on a common scale. Data were simulated with known ability distributions varying on two factors which made linking necessary: mean vector differences and variance-covariance (v-c) matrix differences. After the…

Oshima, T. C.; Davey, T. C.

412

Single-Vector Calibration of Wind-Tunnel Force Balances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method of calibrating a wind-tunnel force balance involves the use of a unique load application system integrated with formal experimental design methodology. The Single-Vector Force Balance Calibration System (SVS) overcomes the productivity and accuracy limitations of prior calibration methods. A force balance is a complex structural spring element instrumented with strain gauges for measuring three orthogonal components of aerodynamic force (normal, axial, and side force) and three orthogonal components of aerodynamic torque (rolling, pitching, and yawing moments). Force balances remain as the state-of-the-art instrument that provide these measurements on a scale model of an aircraft during wind tunnel testing. Ideally, each electrical channel of the balance would respond only to its respective component of load, and it would have no response to other components of load. This is not entirely possible even though balance designs are optimized to minimize these undesirable interaction effects. Ultimately, a calibration experiment is performed to obtain the necessary data to generate a mathematical model and determine the force measurement accuracy. In order to set the independent variables of applied load for the calibration 24 NASA Tech Briefs, October 2003 experiment, a high-precision mechanical system is required. Manual deadweight systems have been in use at Langley Research Center (LaRC) since the 1940s. These simple methodologies produce high confidence results, but the process is mechanically complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four weeks to complete. Over the past decade, automated balance calibration systems have been developed. In general, these systems were designed to automate the tedious manual calibration process resulting in an even more complex system which deteriorates load application quality. The current calibration approach relies on a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) methodology, where each independent variable is incremented indi