Science.gov

Sample records for system pseudolite-based relative

  1. Global positioning system pseudolite-based relative navigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Monda, Eric W.

    2004-03-01

    Though the Global Positioning System has revolutionized navigation in the modern age, it is limited in its capability for some applications because an unobstructed line of sight to a minimum of four satellites is required. One way of augmenting the system in small areas is by employing pseudolites to broadcast additional signals that can be used to improve the user's position solution. At the Navigation Systems Testing Laboratory (NSTL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, research has been underway on the use of pseudolites to perform precision relative navigation. Based on the findings of previous research done at the NSTL, the method used to process the pseudolite measurements is an extended Kalman filter of the double differenced carrier phase measurements. By employing simulations of the system, as well as processing previously collected data in a real time manner, sub-meter tracking of a moving receiver with carrier phase measurements in the extended Kalman filter appears to be possible.

  2. A Pseudolite-Based Positioning System for Legacy GNSS Receivers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-01-01

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors. PMID:24681674

  3. A pseudolite-based positioning system for legacy GNSS receivers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-01-01

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors. PMID:24681674

  4. How relational systems perform

    SciTech Connect

    Date, C.J.

    1984-02-13

    Contrary to popular belief, relational DBMS can perform at least as well as, and quite possibly better than, older hierarchical or network systems. Ignoring the interference effects introduced when multiple transactions are run in parallel, the author concentrates on the performance of some given database transaction considered in isolation. The two principal factors determining the performance of such a transaction are, of course, the number of I/O operations and the pathlength (amount of CPU processing).

  5. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-01-01

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations. PMID:25938199

  6. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-01-01

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations. PMID:25938199

  7. Galaxies, Axisymmetric Systems and Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCallum, M. A. H.

    2011-06-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Prof. W. B. Bonnor: a biological sketch; Part I. Galaxies and Cosmology: 1. The origin of large scale cosmic structure B. J. T. Jones and P. L. Palmer; 2. The problem of origin of the primordial pertubations and the modern cosmology V. N. Lukash and I. D. Novikov; 3. The automorphism group and field equations for Bianchi universes W. L. Rogue and G. F. R. Ellis; 4. New perspectives on galaxy formation J. Silk; Part II. Axisymmetric Systems: 5. On exact radiative solutions representing finite sources J. Bicak; 6. Proof of a generalized Geroch conjecture I. Hauser and F. J. Ernst; 7. Limits of the double Kerr solution C. Hoenselaers; 8. Non-inheritance of static symmetry by Maxwell fields M. A. H. MacCallum and N. Van den Bergh; 9. Stationary axisymmetric electrovacuum fields in general relativity G. Neugebauer and D. Kramer; 10. An almost conformal approach to axial symmetry Z. Perjes; 11. Conformally stationary axisymmetric space-times J. Winicour; Part III. Relativity: 12. A family of conformally flat space-times having the same curvature tensor in a given co-ordinate frame C. D. Collinson; 13. On the Bell-Szekeres solution for colliding electromagnetic waves J. B. Griffiths; 14. A remark on the Hauser metric A. Held; 15. Numerical relativity by power series R. Penrose; 16. Projective relativity and the equation of motion E. Schmutzer; 17. On generalized equations of goedesic deviation B. F. Schutz; 18. Lobatchevski plane gravitational waves S. T. C. Siklos; 19. Perfect fluid and vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations with flat 3-dimensional slices H. Stephani and Th. Wolf; 20. Self-similar solutions of Einstein's equations J. Wainwright.

  8. Expert systems relations in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael

    1987-01-01

    The problem of expert systems relations as they pertain to space applications is discussed. First, these systems are categorized and the relationships between them are analyzed. Then, the expert systems cooperation paradigm is proposed. This paradigm addresses various types of communication and coordination issues in an attempt to create a general model applicable in a number of situations.

  9. Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Law, Jack D.; Garn, Troy G.; Todd, Terry A.; Macaluso, Lawrence L.

    2012-03-20

    Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods are described. More particularly, fluid transfer connections for a centrifugal separator system having support assemblies with a movable member coupled to a connection tube and coupled to a fixed member, such that the movable member is constrained to movement along a fixed path relative to the fixed member are described. Also, centrifugal separator systems including such fluid transfer connections are described. Additionally, methods of installing, removing and/or replacing centrifugal separators from centrifugal separator systems are described.

  10. Bronchoesophageal and related systems in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the detrimental effects of space flight on the human bronchoesophageal system emphasizing related areas such as the gastric system. In-flight symptoms are listed including congestion, nasopharyngeal irritation, epigastric sensations, anorexia, and nausea. Particular attention is given to space-related effects on eating/drinking associated with the absence of hydrostatic pressure in the vascular system. The atmospheric characteristics of a typical space shuttle flight are given, and the reduced pressure and low humidity are related to bronchial, eye, and nose irritation. Earth and space versions of motion sickness are compared, and some critical differences are identified. It is proposed that more research is required to assess the effects of long-duration space travel on these related systems.

  11. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  12. Rules system for a relational data base management system

    SciTech Connect

    Stonebraker, M; Johnson, R; Rosenberg, S

    1982-04-20

    This paper presents the specification and proposed implementation of a rules system for a relational data base manager. The motivation for this proposal is the fact that integrity constraints, protection, triggers, alerters, and views are ALL examples of special purpose rules systems. We suggest that all five services can be obtained in one unified way through a single rules system.

  13. Smoking related systemic and oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Vellappally, Sajith; Fiala, Zdenĕk; Smejkalová, Jindra; Jacob, Vimal; Somanathan, Rakesh

    2007-01-01

    This article reviewed smoking related systemic diseases and oral diseases. Smoking is related to lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases and many other systemic diseases. Cigarette smoke affects the oral cavity first, so it is evident that smoking has many negative influences on oral cavity, for example, staining of teeth and dental restorations, wound healing, reduction of the ability to smell and taste, and development of oral diseases such as oral cancer, periodontitis, smoker's palate, smoker's melanosis, hairy tongue, leukoplakia, oral candidiasis and implant survival rate. The article also discusses the relationship between smoking and dental caries in detail. PMID:18254267

  14. Selecting a Relational Database Management System for Library Automation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shekhel, Alex; O'Brien, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Describes the evaluation of four relational database management systems (RDBMSs) (Informix Turbo, Oracle 6.0 TPS, Unify 2000 and Relational Technology's Ingres 5.0) to determine which is best suited for library automation. The evaluation criteria used to develop a benchmark specifically designed to test RDBMSs for libraries are discussed. (CLB)

  15. Uncertainty Relation for a Quantum Open System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B. L.; Zhang, Yuhong

    We derive the uncertainty relation for a quantum open system consisting of a Brownian particle interacting with a bath of quantum oscillators at finite temperature. We examine how the quantum and thermal fluctuations of the environment contribute to the uncertainty in the canonical variables of the system. We show that upon contact with the bath (assumed to be ohmic in this paper) the system evolves from a quantum-dominated state to a thermal-dominated state in a time which is the same as the decoherence time in similar models in the discussion of quantum to classical transition. This offers some insight into the physical mechanisms involved in the environment-induced decoherence process. We obtain closed analytic expressions for this generalized uncertainty relation under the conditions of high temperature and weak damping, separately. We also consider under these conditions an arbitrarily squeezed initial state and show how the squeeze parameter enters in the generalized uncertainty relation. Using these results we examine the transition of the system from a quantum pure state to a nonequilibrium quantum statistical state and to an equilibrium quantum statistical state. The three stages are marked by the decoherence time and the relaxation time, respectively. With these observations we explicate the physical conditions under which the two basic postulates of quantum statistical mechanics become valid. We also comment on the inappropriate usage of the word “classicality” in many decoherence studies of quantum to classical transition.

  16. Testing relativity with solar system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellings, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A major breakthrough is described in the accuracy of Solar System dynamical tests of relativistic gravity. The breakthrough was achieved by factoring in ranging data from Viking Landers 1 and 2 from the surface of Mars. Other key data sources included optical transit circle observations, lunar laser ranging, planetary radar, and spacecraft (Mariner 9 to Mars and Mariner 10 to Mercury). The Solar System model which is used to fit the data and the process by which such fits are performed are explained and results are discussed. The results are fully consistent with the predictions of General Relativity.

  17. On locally and nonlocally related potential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.; Bluman, George W.

    2010-07-01

    For any partial differential equation (PDE) system, a local conservation law yields potential equations in terms of some potential variable, which normally is a nonlocal variable. The current paper examines situations when such a potential variable is a local variable, i.e., is a function of the independent and dependent variables of a given PDE system, and their derivatives. In the case of two independent variables, a simple necessary and sufficient condition is presented for the locality of such a potential variable, and this is illustrated by several examples. As a particular example, two-dimensional reductions of equilibrium equations for fluid and plasma dynamics are considered. It is shown that such reductions with respect to helical, axial, and translational symmetries have conservation laws which yield local potential variables. This leads to showing that the well-known Johnson-Frieman-Kruskal-Oberman (JFKO) and Bragg-Hawthorne (Grad-Shafranov) equations are locally related to the corresponding helically and axially symmetric PDE systems of fluid/plasma dynamics. For the axially symmetric case, local symmetry classifications and arising invariant solutions are compared for the original PDE system and the Bragg-Hawthorne (potential) equation. The potential equation is shown to have additional symmetries, denoted as restricted symmetries. Restricted symmetries leave invariant a family of solutions of a given PDE system but not the whole solution manifold, and hence are not symmetries of the given PDE system. Corresponding reductions are shown to yield solutions, which are not obtained as invariant solutions from local symmetry reduction.

  18. [Age-related changes of sensory system].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Hanyu, Haruo; Umahara, Takahiko

    2013-10-01

    Pathological processes usually superimpose on physiological aging even in the sensory system including visual, hearing, olfactory, taste and somatosensory functions. Representative changes of age-related changes are presbyopia, cataracts, and presbyacusis. Reduced sense of smell is seen in normal aging, but the prominent reduction detected by the odor stick identification test is noticed especially in early stage of Alzheimer or Parkinson disease. Reduced sense of taste is well-known especially in salty sense, while the changes of sweet, bitter, and sour tastes are different among individuals. Finally, deep sensation of vibration and proprioception is decreased with age as well as superficial sensation (touch, temperature, pain). As a result, impaired sensory system could induce deterioration of the activities of daily living and quality of life in the elderly. PMID:24261198

  19. Plasma generators, reactor systems and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Lee, James E.

    2007-06-19

    A plasma generator, reactor and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the present invention. A plasma reactor may include multiple sections or modules which are removably coupled together to form a chamber. Associated with each section is an electrode set including three electrodes with each electrode being coupled to a single phase of a three-phase alternating current (AC) power supply. The electrodes are disposed about a longitudinal centerline of the chamber and are arranged to provide and extended arc and generate an extended body of plasma. The electrodes are displaceable relative to the longitudinal centerline of the chamber. A control system may be utilized so as to automatically displace the electrodes and define an electrode gap responsive to measure voltage or current levels of the associated power supply.

  20. Millimeter wave transmission systems and related devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made of the state-of-the-art in millimeter (20 GHz to 300 GHz) wave transmission systems and related devices. The survey includes summaries of analytical studies and theoretical results that were obtained for various transmission line structures. This material was supplemented by further analysis where appropriate. The transmission line structures are evaluated in terms of electrical performance, ease of manufacture, usefulness for building other devices and compatibility with solid state devices. Descriptions of waveguide transmission lines which have commonly been used in the microwave frequency range are provided along with special attention given to the problems that these guides face when their use is extended into the millimeter wave range. Also, guides which have been introduced specifically to satisfy the requirements of millimeter wave transmission are discussed in detail.

  1. Environmentally related disorders of the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.L.; Feldman, R.G.; French, J.G. )

    1990-03-01

    Specific physical and chemical agents found in the workplace and in the general environment are responsible for characteristic pathologic processes within the nervous system. It has been shown that many neurotoxic agents produce a dose-related spectrum of impairment ranging from mild slowing of nerve conducting velocity or prolongation in reaction time to neuropathy and frank encephalopathy. Clinical manifestations are determined by the agent involved, by the dose of exposure, the vulnerability of the cellular target, the ability of the organism to metabolize and excrete the agent, and the ability to repair damage. An occupational history, including evaluation of evidence of specific agents and job history, is a critical component in the clinical management of individuals with suspect neurotoxic disease. Environmentally-induced disorders can be prevented by appropriate environmental controls. Prevention of neurotoxic disease is a complex process requiring continuous involvement of public health agencies and strong scientific research.

  2. Gamma-ray binaries and related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubus, Guillaume

    2013-08-01

    After initial claims and a long hiatus, it is now established that several binary stars emit high- (0.1-100 GeV) and very high-energy (>100 GeV) gamma rays. A new class has emerged called "gamma-ray binaries", since most of their radiated power is emitted beyond 1 MeV. Accreting X-ray binaries, novae and a colliding wind binary ( η Car) have also been detected—"related systems" that confirm the ubiquity of particle acceleration in astrophysical sources. Do these systems have anything in common? What drives their high-energy emission? How do the processes involved compare to those in other sources of gamma rays: pulsars, active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants? I review the wealth of observational and theoretical work that have followed these detections, with an emphasis on gamma-ray binaries. I present the current evidence that gamma-ray binaries are driven by rotation-powered pulsars. Binaries are laboratories giving access to different vantage points or physical conditions on a regular timescale as the components revolve on their orbit. I explain the basic ingredients that models of gamma-ray binaries use, the challenges that they currently face, and how they can bring insights into the physics of pulsars. I discuss how gamma-ray emission from microquasars provides a window into the connection between accretion-ejection and acceleration, while η Car and novae raise new questions on the physics of these objects—or on the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Indeed, explaining the gamma-ray emission from binaries strains our theories of high-energy astrophysical processes, by testing them on scales and in environments that were generally not foreseen, and this is how these detections are most valuable.

  3. Entanglement monogamy relations of qubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Na; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the monogamy relations related to the concurrence and the entanglement of formation. General monogamy inequalities given by the αth power of concurrence and entanglement of formation are presented for N-qubit states. The monogamy relation for entanglement of assistance is also established. Based on these general monogamy relations, the residual entanglement of concurrence and entanglement of formation are studied. Some relations among the residual entanglement, entanglement of assistance, and three tangle are also presented.

  4. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  5. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  6. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  7. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  8. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  9. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457... Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning system of therapy-related computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by...

  10. System's flips in climate-related energy (CRE) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Maria-Helena; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Engeland, Kolbjørn; François, Baptiste; Renard, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Several modern environmental questions invite to explore the complex relationships between natural phenomena and human behaviour at a range of space and time scales. This usually involves a number of cause-effect (causal) relationships, linking actions and events. In lay terms, 'effect' can be defined as 'what happened' and 'cause', 'why something happened.' In a changing world or merely moving from one scale to another, shifts in perspective are expected, bringing some phenomena into the foreground and putting others to the background. Systems can thus flip from one set of causal structures to another in response to environmental perturbations and human innovations or behaviors, for instance, as space-time signatures are modified. The identification of these flips helps in better understanding and predicting how societies and stakeholders react to a shift in perspective. In this study, our motivation is to investigate possible consequences of the shift to a low carbon economy in terms of socio-technico systems' flips. The focus is on the regional production of Climate-Related Energy (CRE) (hydro-, wind- and solar-power). We search for information on historic shifts that may help defining the forcing conditions of abrupt changes and extreme situations. We identify and present a series of examples in which we try to distinguish the various tipping points, thresholds, breakpoints and regime shifts that are characteristic of complex systems in the CRE production domain. We expect that with these examples our comprehension of the question will be enriched, providing us the elements needed to better validate modeling attempts, to predict and manage flips of complex CRE production systems. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  11. Performance related issues in distributed database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    The key elements of research performed during the year long effort of this project are: Investigate the effects of heterogeneity in distributed real time systems; Study the requirements to TRAC towards building a heterogeneous database system; Study the effects of performance modeling on distributed database performance; and Experiment with an ORACLE based heterogeneous system.

  12. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering…

  13. Superintegrable systems with a position dependent mass: Kepler-related and oscillator-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rañada, Manuel F.

    2016-06-01

    The superintegrability of two-dimensional Hamiltonians with a position dependent mass (pdm) is studied (the kinetic term contains a factor m that depends of the radial coordinate). First, the properties of Killing vectors are studied and the associated Noether momenta are obtained. Then the existence of several families of superintegrable Hamiltonians is proved and the quadratic integrals of motion are explicitly obtained. These families include, as particular cases, some systems previously obtained making use of different approaches. We also relate the superintegrability of some of these pdm systems with the existence of complex functions endowed with interesting Poisson bracket properties. Finally the relation of these pdm Hamiltonians with the Euclidean Kepler problem and with the Euclidean harmonic oscillator is analyzed.

  14. Polar Satcom System and Related Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, James P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system and method for communication relay via a repeater platform satellite vehicle to a near surface station in the Polar Region is disclosed. A preferred embodiment receives a plurality of positioning and content data from a plurality of constellations of Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) Satellite Vehicles (SAT). Additionally, the system receives a plurality of position, time and altitude data from constellations of available repeater platform (RP) SATs. The system receives a request for content from a near surface station located in an area lacking adequate line-of-sight to the GEO based signal. The system aligns antenna elements onboard the desired RP SATs to amplify and relay the GEO based signal toward the near surface station and vice versa. Additionally, the system commands directional antenna elements onboard the station to send and receive the relayed signal making the GEO based content available to the near surface station.

  15. Thermal protection system and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbe, Duane J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A thermal protection system and a method of manufacturing are disclosed. The thermal protection system may be configured to protect a movable joint, for example, a flexible bearing of a rocket motor nozzle. The thermal protection system includes a series of annular shims separated by a plurality of discrete spacers. Each shim of the series of annular shims may have a larger diameter than the previous shim, and the shims may nest. The shims may comprise a thermally stable material, and the discrete spacers may comprise an elastomer. Optionally, an annular bearing protector may separate the annular shims from the flexible bearing.

  16. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering counterproductive explanatory controversy. A good deal of what is viewed as biological (often thought to be inaccessible or hypothetical) can become publicly measurable variables using currently available and developing technologies. Moreover, such endogenous variables can serve as establishing operations, discriminative stimuli, conjoint mediating events, and maintaining consequences within a functional analysis of behavior and need not lead to reductionistic explanation. I suggest that explanatory misunderstandings often arise from conflating different levels of analysis and that behavior analysis can extend its reach by identifying variables operating within a functional analysis that also serve functions in other biological systems. PMID:17575907

  17. Investigation related to multispectral imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Erickson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of technical progress made during a five year research program directed toward the development of operational information systems based on multispectral sensing and the use of these systems in earth-resource survey applications is presented. Efforts were undertaken during this program to: (1) improve the basic understanding of the many facets of multispectral remote sensing, (2) develop methods for improving the accuracy of information generated by remote sensing systems, (3) improve the efficiency of data processing and information extraction techniques to enhance the cost-effectiveness of remote sensing systems, (4) investigate additional problems having potential remote sensing solutions, and (5) apply the existing and developing technology for specific users and document and transfer that technology to the remote sensing community.

  18. Acoustic Suppression Systems and Related Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R. (Inventor); Kern, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic suppression system for absorbing and/or scattering acoustic energy comprising a plurality of acoustic targets in a containment is described, the acoustic targets configured to have resonance frequencies allowing the targets to be excited by incoming acoustic waves, the resonance frequencies being adjustable to suppress acoustic energy in a set frequency range. Methods for fabricating and implementing the acoustic suppression system are also provided.

  19. Relations Among Systems of Electromagnetic Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    page, Chester H.

    1970-01-01

    Contends that the equations of electromagnetism, whether in rationalized or non-rationalized form, express an invariant set of physical relationships. The relationships among corresponding symbols are given and applied to precise statements about the relation between the oersted and the amphere per meter, the abampere and the ampere, etc.…

  20. Laser metrology in food-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Patricia; Lopez, Daniel; Kongraksawech, Teepakorn; Vazquez, Pedro; Torres, J. Antonio; Ramirez, Jose A.; Huerta-Ruelas, Jorge

    2005-02-01

    An optical system was developed using a low-cost semiconductor laser and commercial optical and electronic components, to monitor food processes by measuring changes in optical rotation (OR) of chiral compounds. The OR signal as a function of processing time and sample temperature were collected and recorded using a computer data acquisition system. System has been tested during two different processes: sugar-protein interaction and, beer fermentation process. To study sugar-protein interaction, the following sugars were used: sorbitol, trehalose and sucrose, and in the place of Protein, Serum Albumin Bovine (BSA, A-7906 Sigma-Aldrich). In some food processes, different sugars are added to protect damage of proteins during their processing, storage and/or distribution. Different sugar/protein solutions were prepared and heated above critical temperature of protein denaturation. OR measurements were performed during heating process and effect of different sugars in protein denaturation was measured. Higher sensitivity of these measurements was found compared with Differential Scanning Calorimetry, which needs higher protein concentration to study these interactions. The brewing fermentation process was monitored in-situ using this OR system and validated by correlation with specific density measurements and gas chromatography. This instrument can be implemented to monitor fermentation on-line, thereby determining end of process and optimizing process conditions in an industrial setting. The high sensitivity of developed OR system has no mobile parts and is more flexible than commercial polarimeters providing the capability of implementation in harsh environments, signifying the potential of this method as an in-line technique for quality control in food processing and for experimentation with optically active solutions.

  1. [DRUG RELATED SYSTEMIC ANAPHYLAXES AND ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK].

    PubMed

    Diot-Junique, Nathalie; Mullet, Christine; Mertes, Paul-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Anaphylactic shock is a systemic immediate hypersensitivity reaction involving 2 or more organs. Symptoms occur in the minutes after the administration of a drug, a food or after hymenoptera sting and are the consequence of the activation of tissue mast cells and blood basophils which release histamine and other inflammatory mediatars. This chapter, written by allergo-anesthesists, concerns mostly, but not exclusively, per-anesthetic anaphylaxis, its diagnosis, prevention and treatment. PMID:26619739

  2. System related testing and analysis of FRECOPA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durin, Christian

    1992-01-01

    Results from the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) system analysis are presented. It was one of the numerous experiments which were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. In our flight configuration (LEO orbit, trailing edge), the environment was a better vacuum than the leading edge, with many thermal cycles (32000) and a large amount of UV radiation (11100 equivalent sun hours). Also, the satellite was mainly bombarded by micro-particles. It saw a low atomic flux and minor doses of protons and electrons.

  3. Cloning systems for Rhodococcus and related bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1990-08-28

    A plasmid transformation system for Rhodococcus was developed using an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle plasmid. Rhodococcus sp. H13-A contains three cryptic indigenous plasmids, designated pMVS100, pMVS200 and pMVS300, of 75, 19.5 and 13.4 kilobases (Kb), respectively. A 3.8 Kb restriction fragment of pMVS300 was cloned into pIJ30, a 6.3 Kb pBR322 derivative, containing the E. coli origin of replication (ori) and ampicillin resistance determinant (bla) as well as a Streptomyces gene for thiostrepton resistance, tsr. The resulting 10.1 Kb recombinant plasmid, designated pMVS301, was isolated from E. coli DH1 (pMVS301) and transformed into Rhodococcus sp. AS-50, a derivative of strain H13-A, by polyethylene glycol-assisted transformation of Rhodococcus protoplasts and selection for thiostrepton-resistant transformants. This strain was deposited with the ATCC on Feb. 1, 1988 and assigned ATCC 53719. The plasmid contains the Rhodococcus origin of replication. The plasmid and derivatives thereof can therefore be used to introduce nucleic acid sequences to and from Rhodococcus for subsequent expression and translation into protein. The isolated origin of replication can also be used in the construction of new vectors. 2 figs.

  4. Cloning systems for Rhodococcus and related bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Finnerty, William R.; Singer, Mary E.

    1990-01-01

    A plasmid transformation system for Rhodococcus was developed using an Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle plasmid. Rhodococcus sp. H13-A contains three cryptic indigenous plasmids, designated pMVS100, pMVS200 and pMVS300, of 75, 19.5 and 13.4 kilobases (Kb), respectively. A 3.8 Kb restriction fragment of pMVS300 was cloned into pIJ30, a 6.3 Kb pBR322 derivative, containing the E. coli origin of replication (ori) and ampicillin resistance determinant (bla) as well as a Streptomyces gene for thiostrepton resistance, tsr. The resulting 10.1 Kb recombinant plasmid, designated pMVS301, was isolated from E. coli DH1 (pMVS301) and transformed into Rhodococcus sp. AS-50, a derivative of strain H13-A, by polyethylene glycol-assisted transformation of Rhodococcus protoplasts and selection for thiostrepton-resistant transformants. This strain was deposited with the ATCC on Feb. 1, 1988 and assigned ATCC 53719. The plasmid contains the Rhodococcus origin of replication. The plasmid and derivatives thereof can therefore be used to introduce nucleic acid sequences to and from Rhodococcus for subsequent expression and translation into protein. The isolated origin of replication can also be used in the construction of new vectors.

  5. Nanolipoprotein particles and related compositions, methods and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeprich, Paul D; Fischer, Nicholas O; Mason, Peter W; Blanchette, Craig D

    2014-11-11

    Functionalized nanolipoprotein particle presenting an anchor substrate compound for binding with a corresponding anchor compound presented on a target molecule, and related compositions methods and systems.

  6. The Conflict between Interpersonal Relations and Abstract Systems in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Benjamin Endres examines how teaching is caught between the ideals of formal, systemic institutions, on the one hand, and the ideals of more intimate or personal relations, on the other. Endres uses Anthony Giddens's account of "abstract systems" and "pure" relations to suggest that the tension that teachers face is not only the…

  7. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  8. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  9. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  10. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  11. 10 CFR 35.657 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.657 Section 35.657... Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.657 Therapy-related computer... computer systems in accordance with published protocols accepted by nationally recognized bodies. At...

  12. Uncertainty relation for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2013-01-15

    General forms of uncertainty relations for quantum observables of non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered. Special cases of uncertainty relations are discussed. The uncertainty relations for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered in the Schroedinger-Robertson form since it allows us to take into account Lie-Jordan algebra of quantum observables. In uncertainty relations, the time dependence of quantum observables and the properties of this dependence are discussed. We take into account that a time evolution of observables of a non-Hamiltonian quantum system is not an endomorphism with respect to Lie, Jordan, and associative multiplications.

  13. Semiotic aspects of control and modeling relations in complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    1996-08-01

    A conceptual analysis of the semiotic nature of control is provided with the goal of elucidating its nature in complex systems. Control is identified as a canonical form of semiotic relation of a system to its environment. As a form of constraint between a system and its environment, its necessary and sufficient conditions are established, and the stabilities resulting from control are distinguished from other forms of stability. These result from the presence of semantic coding relations, and thus the class of control systems is hypothesized to be equivalent to that of semiotic systems. Control systems are contrasted with models, which, while they have the same measurement functions as control systems, do not necessarily require semantic relations because of the lack of the requirement of an interpreter. A hybrid construction of models in control systems is detailed. Towards the goal of considering the nature of control in complex systems, the possible relations among collections of control systems are considered. Powers arguments on conflict among control systems and the possible nature of control in social systems are reviewed, and reconsidered based on our observations about hierarchical control. Finally, we discuss the necessary semantic functions which must be present in complex systems for control in this sense to be present at all.

  14. Ferromagnetic resonance dispersion relation of spin valve systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2005-08-01

    We derive the FMR dispersion relation of spin valve systems taking into account the competition that can appears between the direct exchange bias coupling and the indirect interlayer coupling. For uncoupled ferromagnetic (FM) layers, the system exhibits a dispersion relation corresponding to two independent systems: a single FM layer (free layer) and an exchange-coupled bilayer (reference/antiferromagnetic layers). In the interlayer coupled regime a unidirectional anisotropy is induced in the free layer and the FMR field is overall downshifted.

  15. Fine-grained uncertainty relation and nonlocality of tripartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, T.; Majumdar, A. S.

    2012-02-01

    The upper bound of the fine-grained uncertainty relation is different for classical physics, quantum physics, and no-signaling theories with maximal nonlocality (superquantum correlation), as was shown in the case of bipartite systems [J. Oppenheim and S. Wehner, ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1192065 330, 1072 (2010)]. Here, we extend the fine-grained uncertainty relation to the case of tripartite systems. We show that the fine-grained uncertainty relation determines the nonlocality of tripartite systems as manifested by the Svetlichny inequality, discriminating between classical physics, quantum physics, and superquantum correlations.

  16. Utility-scale system preventive and failure-related maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Hutchinson, P.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the design and performance background on PVUSA utility-scale systems at Davis and Kerman, California, and reports on a preventative and failure-related maintenance approach and costs.

  17. Verb Semantics in a Relational Data Base System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostert, Bozena Henisz; Thompson, Frederick B.

    Ways of making the natural language of unsophisticated computer users meaningful to the computer are discussed. The discussion is set within the context of the Rapidly Extensible Language (REL) System, a question answering system with underlying relational data bases. Major topics covered include individuals and predicates, the problem of verbs,…

  18. The Network Configuration of an Object Relational Database Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Philip; Harris, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The networking and implementation of the Oracle Database Management System (ODBMS) requires developers to have knowledge of the UNIX operating system as well as all the features of the Oracle Server. The server is an object relational database management system (DBMS). By using distributed processing, processes are split up between the database server and client application programs. The DBMS handles all the responsibilities of the server. The workstations running the database application concentrate on the interpretation and display of data.

  19. A relational approach to the development of expert diagnostic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, K. R.

    1984-01-01

    The proposition that, given a structural and/or functional description of any real or abstract system, an expert system can be built based on this description is examined. First, a model is developed for a microprocessor-controlled end effector/sensor system using a modeling approach called a relational Knowledge-Base Machine (RKBM). Next, an explanation of how the end effector model could be used for the error diagnosis on the operational end effector is given and two versions of an error diagnosis algorithm based on the model are presented. Finally, areas of further research are described that are necessary before an expert system using this approach becomes a reality.

  20. Relations between information system engineering and software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. D.; Hartsough, C.; Morris, R. V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines some of the relations between information system engineering and software engineering. A model for the development process of an information system is presented that focuses on problems common to both disciplines. The concepts of complexity, multiplicity of view, distortion in communication, and concurrency and iteration in implementation are treated. A set of design constructs for the description of an information system is presented. The role of project management is treated. The issue of how to characterize requirements analysis is answered by making it a design activity from the point of view of a user of the product system.

  1. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  2. Generalized monogamy relations of concurrence for N -qubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Na; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2015-12-01

    We present a different kind of monogamous relations based on concurrence and concurrence of assistance. For N -qubit systems A B C1...CN -2 , the monogamy relations satisfied by the concurrence of N -qubit pure states under the partition A B and C1...CN -2 , as well as under the partition A B C1 and C2...CN -2 , are established, which gives rise to a kind of restrictions on the entanglement distribution and trade off among the subsystems.

  3. Multiparticle correlation expansion of relative entropy in lattice systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D’Alessandro, Marco

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the construction of the multiparticle correlation expansion of relative entropy for lattice systems. Thanks to this analysis we are able to express the statistical distance between two systems as a series built over clusters of increasing dimension. Each addend is written in terms of correlation functions and expresses the contribution to the relative entropy due to structural information inside the selected cluster. We present a general procedure for the explicit construction of all the terms of the series. As a first application of this result, we show that the coefficients of the multiparticle correlation expansion of the excess entropy can be computed from our formula, as a particular case.

  4. Applying programmable logic controllers to safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (NSP) recently installed programmable logic controllers (PLCs) in two safety-related systems at its Prairie Island nuclear generating plant. The lessons learned during these applications at the 19-yr old two-unit plant may benefit similar projects. Prairie Island responded to the station black out (SBO) issue by upgrading its electrical distribution system. This included installing additional safeguard diesel generators (DGs), new 4160-V buses, and new 480-V buses. As part of this upgrade, PLCs were commercially dedicated for use in two safety-related applications: (1) bus load sequencer project, (2) 480-V voltage regulator project.

  5. Optics Toolbox: An Intelligent Relational Database System For Optical Designers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Scott W.; Hopkins, Robert E.

    1986-12-01

    Optical designers were among the first to use the computer as an engineering tool. Powerful programs have been written to do ray-trace analysis, third-order layout, and optimization. However, newer computing techniques such as database management and expert systems have not been adopted by the optical design community. For the purpose of this discussion we will define a relational database system as a database which allows the user to specify his requirements using logical relations. For example, to search for all lenses in a lens database with a F/number less than two, and a half field of view near 28 degrees, you might enter the following: FNO < 2.0 and FOV of 28 degrees ± 5% Again for the purpose of this discussion, we will define an expert system as a program which contains expert knowledge, can ask intelligent questions, and can form conclusions based on the answers given and the knowledge which it contains. Most expert systems store this knowledge in the form of rules-of-thumb, which are written in an English-like language, and which are easily modified by the user. An example rule is: IF require microscope objective in air and require NA > 0.9 THEN suggest the use of an oil immersion objective The heart of the expert system is the rule interpreter, sometimes called an inference engine, which reads the rules and forms conclusions based on them. The use of a relational database system containing lens prototypes seems to be a viable prospect. However, it is not clear that expert systems have a place in optical design. In domains such as medical diagnosis and petrology, expert systems are flourishing. These domains are quite different from optical design, however, because optical design is a creative process, and the rules are difficult to write down. We do think that an expert system is feasible in the area of first order layout, which is sufficiently diagnostic in nature to permit useful rules to be written. This first-order expert would emulate an expert

  6. Oscillations of relative inclination angles in compact extrasolar planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Adams, Fred C.

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multitransiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multiplanet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently observed configurations could be due to planet-planet interactions alone. We also provide constraints and predictions for the expected transit duration variations for each planet. In these multiplanet compact Kepler systems, oscillations of their inclination angles are remarkably hard to excite; as a result, they tend to remain continually mutually transiting (CMT-stable). We study this issue further by augmenting the planet masses and determining the enhancement factor required for oscillations to move the systems out of transit. The oscillations of inclination found here inform the recently suggested dichotomy in the sample of Solar systems observed by Kepler.

  7. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: Multiplicity relation and the Solar System

    PubMed Central

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity−multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index –1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets. PMID:25512527

  8. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: multiplicity relation and the Solar System.

    PubMed

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L

    2015-01-01

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity-multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index -1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼ 80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets. PMID:25512527

  9. Facility for the evaluation of space communications and related systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Svoboda, James S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Communications Projects Branch has developed a facility for the evaluation of space communications systems and related types of systems, called the Advanced Space Communications (ASC) Laboratory. The ASC Lab includes instrumentation, testbed hardware, and experiment control and monitor software for the evaluation of components, subsystems, systems, and networks. The ASC lab has capabilities to perform radiofrequency (RF), microwave, and millimeter-wave characterizations as well as measurements using low, medium, or high data rate digital signals. In addition to laboratory measurements, the ASC Lab also includes integrated satellite ground terminals allowing experimentation and measurements accessing operational satellites through real space links.

  10. WATER QUALITY EFFECTS RELATED TO BLENDING WATERS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of blending two or more waters of different quality and to relate their composition to the corrosive effects and calcium carbonate deposition tendency of the water on distribution systems. The EPA mobile water quality monitoring la...

  11. Introducing diagnosis-related groups: is the information system ready?

    PubMed

    Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Han, Wei; Hu, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis-related group (DRG) system is a classification system widely used in health managements, the foundation of which lies in the medical information system. A large effort had been made to improve the quality of discharge data before the introduction of DRGs in Beijing. We extract discharge data from 108 local hospitals spanning 4 years before and after standardization to evaluate the impact of standardization on DRG grouping performance. The data was grouped on an annual basis in accordance with Beijing's local DRG system. Proportion of ungrouped data, coefficient of variation (CV) and reduction in variance (RIV) were used to measure the performance of the DRG system. Both the descriptive and regression analysis indicate a significant reduction in terms of ungrouped data and CV for expenditure, increase of RIV for expenditure and length of stay. However, when there was no intervention, that is, between 2005 and 2006 and between 2008 and 2009, changes in these indicators were all insignificant. Therefore, the standardization of discharge data did improve data quality and consequently enhanced the performance of DRGs. Developing countries with a relatively weak information infrastructure should strengthen their medical information system before the introduction of the DRG system. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25111893

  12. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  13. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  14. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  15. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  16. Ultra-Wideband Tracking System Design for Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun David; Arndt, Dickey; Bgo, Phong; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a design effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being designed for use in localization and navigation of a rover in a GPS deprived environment for surface missions. In one application enabled by the UWB tracking, a robotic vehicle carrying equipments can autonomously follow a crewed rover from work site to work site such that resources can be carried from one landing mission to the next thereby saving up-mass. The UWB Systems Group at JSC has developed a UWB TDOA High Resolution Proximity Tracking System which can achieve sub-inch tracking accuracy of a target within the radius of the tracking baseline [1]. By extending the tracking capability beyond the radius of the tracking baseline, a tracking system is being designed to enable relative navigation between two vehicles for surface missions. A prototype UWB TDOA tracking system has been designed, implemented, tested, and proven feasible for relative navigation of robotic vehicles. Future work includes testing the system with the application code to increase the tracking update rate and evaluating the linear tracking baseline to improve the flexibility of antenna mounting on the following vehicle.

  17. Identification of Crew-Systems Interactions and Decision Related Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Evans, Joni K.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Ancel, Ersin; Barr, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    NASA Vehicle System Safety Technology (VSST) project management uses systems analysis to identify key issues and maintain a portfolio of research leading to potential solutions to its three identified technical challenges. Statistical data and published safety priority lists from academic, industry and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed by NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) systems analysis personnel to identify issues and future research needs related to one of VSST's technical challenges, Crew Decision Making (CDM). The data examined in the study were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Aviation Accident and Incident Data System, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Accident/Incident Data System and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). In addition, this report contains the results of a review of safety priority lists, information databases and other documented references pertaining to aviation crew systems issues and future research needs. The specific sources examined were: Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementation (SERFIs), Flight Deck Automation Issues (FDAI) and NTSB Most Wanted List and Open Recommendations. Various automation issues taxonomies and priority lists pertaining to human factors, automation and flight design were combined to create a list of automation issues related to CDM.

  18. Work-related road traffic injury: a multilevel systems protocol

    PubMed Central

    Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne M; Griffin, Mark A; McClure, Roderick J; Heller, Gillian; Sim, Malcolm R; Stevenson, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Background Although road traffic injury is reported as the leading cause of work-related death in Australia, it is not clear, due to limitations in previous methods used, just how large a burden it is. Many organisations are unaware of the extent of work-related road traffic injury and, importantly, what can be done to reduce the burden. The proposed research will (i) estimate the prevalence of work-related road traffic injury and (ii) identify the organisational determinants associated with work-related road traffic injury. Methods and design The current study is designed to enumerate the problem and identify the individual driver-level, the supervisor-level and organisational-level factors associated with work-related road traffic injury. The multilevel systems protocol will involve a series of cross-sectional surveys administered to drivers of fleet vehicles (n=1200), supervisors of the drivers (n=1200) and senior managers (n=300) within the same organisation. Discussion The novel use of the multilevel systems protocol is critical to be able to accurately assess the specific determinants of driving safety within each context of an organisation. Results The results are expected to highlight that reducing injury in the workplace requires more than just individual compliance with safety procedures. It will also establish, for the first time, an occupational translation taskforce to ensure that the research findings are adopted into work-place practice and thereby directly contribute to reductions in work-related road traffic injury. PMID:24478230

  19. Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.

  20. Market Related System Analysis of Satellite Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, V. V.; Panasenkova, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    The report is devoted to the technique of effectiveness analysis of communication space system with satellites in geostationary orbit using market models. The technique is worked out in order to choose the most optimal alternative of communication space system design. The alternative considered optimal and the system effective when the maximum profit from the system with limited system costs is achieved. The key point of the technique is a wide use of market models and application of market related parameters as an integral part of the design technique in order to secure the high commercial output of the communication space system. A range of models for decisive characteristics of communication space system is synthesized in terms of the technique. Flexible market model with detailed insight into the structure of the given market sector and its trends is created. The technique enables to choose the image and key parameters of the future system such as payload and ground sector characteristics so as to make the system most cost-effective and profitable. It is shown that such factors as the choice of launch vehicle can influence the system effectiveness rather dramatically. In particular, it is shown that under certain conditions delivering the small (five hundred kg) satellite to the geostationary orbit with the help of light-weight launch vehicle and the satellite's own electro-rocket thrusters is forty per cent more cost- effective than when the satellite is delivered with the help of the medium-size launch vehicle. The latter case can lead to the significant losses due to high launch costs that are nearly two times higher for the medium size launch vehicle than for the light launce vehicle. The technique is applicable both for designing a wide range of communication space systems and is recommended for those dealing with designing commercial systems. It can also be used to update and improve the systems that are already in operation.

  1. Modifications of bundles, elliptic integrable systems, and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, A. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2013-10-01

    We describe a construction of elliptic integrable systems based on bundles with nontrivial characteristic classes, especially attending to the bundle-modification procedure, which relates models corresponding to different characteristic classes. We discuss applications and related problems such as the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard equations, classical and quantum R-matrices, monopoles, spectral duality, Painlevé equations, and the classical-quantum correspondence. For an SL(N,ℂ)-bundle on an elliptic curve with nontrivial characteristic classes, we obtain equations of isomonodromy deformations.

  2. Spectral behaviour of linked heterocyclic systems and related dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarino, Piero; Viscardi, Guido; Quagliotto, Pierluigi; Barni, Ermanno

    1993-08-01

    A wide series of electronic spectra of assembled heterocyclic systems (pyridine or quinoline, benzoor pyrido-X-azole), of their quaternary salts and of the related polymethine dyes has been considered in the light of general relationships obtained. The position and the intensity of the main bands depend on electronic and steric factors according to the relative positions of the linked rings, the nature of heteroatoms, the number and the position of positive charges and the length of the chromogens. A self-consistent set of simple rules was obtained, which explained and justified peculiar behaviours and/or apparent exceptions.

  3. A Topographical Lidar System for Terrain-Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Spiers, Gary; Bartman, Randy; Lam, Raymond; Alexander, James; Montgomery, James; Goldberg, Hannah; Johnson, Andrew; Meras, Patrick; Palacios, Peter

    2008-01-01

    An imaging lidar system is being developed for use in navigation, relative to the local terrain. This technology will potentially be used for future spacecraft landing on the Moon. Systems like this one could also be used on Earth for diverse purposes, including mapping terrain, navigating aircraft with respect to terrain and military applications. The system has been field-tested aboard a helicopter in the Mojave Desert. When this system was designed, digitizers with sufficient sampling rate (2 GHz) were only available with very limited memory. Also, it was desirable to limit the amount of data to be transferred between the digitizer and the mass storage between individual frames. One of the novelty design features of this system was to design the system around the limited amount of memory of the digitizer. The system is required to operate over an altitude (distance) range from a few meters to approximately 1 km, but for each scan across the full field of view, the digitizer memory is only able to hold data for an altitude range no more than 100 m. Data acquisition methods in support of the limited 100 m wide altitude range are described.

  4. [Employment-related benefit system in the UK].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Keiji; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    Statutory Sick Pay, Jobseeker's Allowance, and Employment and Support Allowance are employment-related benefits in the United Kingdom (UK). They correspond to the Injury and Disease Allowance and Unemployment Insurance in Japan. The Government of the UK is determined to reform the benefit system to make it fairer and to improve financial work incentives, using the slogan "Welfare to Work". Against this background, the government of the UK united some non-contributory benefits into a new "Universal Credit" scheme, which started in April 2013. The labor policy was also reformed to improve work incentives, for example by abolishing the Flexible New Deal program and uniting all the "Welfare to Work" policies into the "Work Programme". These reforms are useful for reconsidering the labor and employment-related policy and benefit system of Japan. PMID:24334698

  5. [Construction of nervous system relative protein and gene secondary database].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Chen, Xinhao; Liu, Xiangming

    2007-10-01

    Along with the rapid research of neural molecular biology, abundant data are produced so that the collection and coordination of high-throughout data about nervous system relative proteins and genes are imperative. Through analyzing the biological primary databases maintained by NCBI and RCSB as the main data source and designing a new data model, a local specialized secondary database is constructed, which mainly includes nucleotide sequences, protein sequences and protein structures, and is established on Sun Blade 2000 System and Oracle 9i. All programs are developed by Java technology. A method of web information automatic retrieval with XML is proposed for sequence data collection and submission to the database. JSP + JavaBean technology is used to support data promulgation on Internet. The establishment of this database provides an excellent platform for the research of neural molecular biology and the pathogenesis of related diseases. PMID:18027688

  6. The relative degree enhancement problem for MIMO nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, D.A.; Oezguener, Ue.

    1995-07-01

    The authors present a result for linearizing a nonlinear MIMO system by employing partial feedback - feedback at all but one input-output channel such that the SISO feedback linearization problem is solvable at the remaining input-output channel. The partial feedback effectively enhances the relative degree at the open input-output channel provided the feedback functions are chosen to satisfy relative degree requirements. The method is useful for nonlinear systems that are not feedback linearizable in a MIMO sense. Several examples are presented to show how these feedback functions can be computed. This strategy can be combined with decentralized observers for a completely decentralized feedback linearization result for at least one input-output channel.

  7. Systemic lupus erythematosus-related hypercalcemia with ectopic calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lidan; Huang, Linfang; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old female with active systemic lupus erythematosus who complained of lethargy and weakness with a moderate renal impairment. Hypercalcemia was confirmed by laboratory examination. Her X-ray revealed significant ectopic calcinosis in subcutaneous tissue of bilateral hands, and Tc-99(m) methylene diphosphonate bone scan revealed a remarkably intense uptake of bilateral lungs. She had no evidence suggestive of other diseases related to hypercalcemia such as hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. She had abnormally high serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) which fell to normal after treatment. Glucocorticoid, cyclophosphamide plus calcitonin and etidronate were administered and the patient improved greatly. Literature review demonstrated that lupus-related hypercalcemia with ectopic calcinosis is a rare complication and increased PTHrP is probably one of the main mechanisms. Lung uptake in bone scan may be a special and reliable clue suggestive of hypercalcemia. PMID:27136920

  8. Pregnancy-Related Challenges in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Taraborelli, Mara; Erkan, Doruk

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of pregnancy-related physiologic changes and complications is critical for the appropriate assessment and management of pregnant patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. The overlapping features of physiologic and pathological changes, selected autoantibodies, and the use of potentially teratogenic medications can complicate their management during pregnancy. While pregnancy in lupus patients presents an additional risk to an already complex situation, in patients with no disease activity, the risk of a future pregnancy-related complication is relatively low. Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies increase the risk of neonatal lupus erythematosus, eg, photosensitive rash and irreversible congenital heart block. Antiphospholipid antibodies increase the risk of pregnancy morbidity, eg, fetal loss and early preeclampsia. Pregnancy usually has a positive effect on rheumatoid arthritis; however, a disease flare is common during the postpartum period. Both the rheumatologist and the obstetrician should partner throughout the pregnancy to manage patients for successful outcomes. PMID:26339942

  9. A relative-intensity two-color phosphor thermography system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merski, N. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The NASA LaRC has developed a relative-intensity two-color phosphor thermography system. This system has become a standard technique for acquiring aerothermodynamic data in LaRC Hypersonic Facilities Complex (HFC). The relative intensity theory and its application to the LaRC phosphor thermography system is discussed along with the investment casting technique which is critical to the utilization of the phosphor method for aerothermodynamic studies. Various approaches to obtaining quantitative heat transfer data using thermographic phosphors are addressed and comparisons between thin-film data and thermographic phosphor data on an orbiter-like configuration are presented. In general, data from these two techniques are in good agreement. A discussion is given on the application of phosphors to integration heat transfer data reduction techniques (the thin film method) and preliminary heat transfer data obtained on a calibration sphere using thin-film equations are presented. Finally, plans for a new phosphor system which uses target recognition software are discussed.

  10. Optimal control of systems with capacity: Related noises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruan, Milfang; Choudhury, Ajit K.

    1991-01-01

    In the ordinary theory of optimal control (LQR and Kalman filter), the variances of the actuators and the sensors are assumed to be known (not related to the capacities of the devices). This assumption is not true in practice. Generally, a device with greater capacity to exert actuating forces and a sensor capable of sensing greater sensing range will generate noise of greater power spectral density. When the ordinary theory of optimal control is used to estimate the errors of the outputs in such cases it will lead to faulty results, because the capacities of such devices are unknown before the system is designed. The performance of the system designed by the ordinary theory will not be optimal as the variances of the sensors and the actuators are neither known nor constant. The interaction between the control system and structure could be serious because the ordinary method will lead to greater feedback (Kalman gain) matrices. Methods which can optimize the performance of systems when noises of the actuators and the sensors are related to their capacities are developed. These methods will result in smaller feedback (Kalman gain) matrix.

  11. Methods and systems relating to an augmented virtuality environment

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Anderson, Matthew O; McKay, Mark D; Wadsworth, Derek C; Boyce, Jodie R; Hruska, Ryan C; Koudelka, John A; Whetten, Jonathan; Bruemmer, David J

    2014-05-20

    Systems and methods relating to an augmented virtuality system are disclosed. A method of operating an augmented virtuality system may comprise displaying imagery of a real-world environment in an operating picture. The method may further include displaying a plurality of virtual icons in the operating picture representing at least some assets of a plurality of assets positioned in the real-world environment. Additionally, the method may include displaying at least one virtual item in the operating picture representing data sensed by one or more of the assets of the plurality of assets and remotely controlling at least one asset of the plurality of assets by interacting with a virtual icon associated with the at least one asset.

  12. Traffic and related self-driven many-particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk

    2001-10-01

    Since the subject of traffic dynamics has captured the interest of physicists, many surprising effects have been revealed and explained. Some of the questions now understood are the following: Why are vehicles sometimes stopped by ``phantom traffic jams'' even though drivers all like to drive fast? What are the mechanisms behind stop-and-go traffic? Why are there several different kinds of congestion, and how are they related? Why do most traffic jams occur considerably before the road capacity is reached? Can a temporary reduction in the volume of traffic cause a lasting traffic jam? Under which conditions can speed limits speed up traffic? Why do pedestrians moving in opposite directions normally organize into lanes, while similar systems ``freeze by heating''? All of these questions have been answered by applying and extending methods from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics to self-driven many-particle systems. This article considers the empirical data and then reviews the main approaches to modeling pedestrian and vehicle traffic. These include microscopic (particle-based), mesoscopic (gas-kinetic), and macroscopic (fluid-dynamic) models. Attention is also paid to the formulation of a micro-macro link, to aspects of universality, and to other unifying concepts, such as a general modeling framework for self-driven many-particle systems, including spin systems. While the primary focus is upon vehicle and pedestrian traffic, applications to biological or socio-economic systems such as bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, panics, and stock market dynamics are touched upon as well.

  13. INTRODUCTION: Wetting and dewetting in bio-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    Research on such genuinely soft-matter related phenomena as wetting and dewetting would not be complete without reminiscence to biological systems. The recent stir around what has been known as the lotus effect, the amazing ultra-hydrophobic properties of many plants, has highlighted the interconnections of wetting with bio-systems. In the first paper of this section (Mock et al), a `biomimetic' system is conceived which imitates the properties of plant leaves with elastic hairs. The synthesis of such a system turns out to be tricky, but the progress is encouraging. The next three papers deal with surfactant layers, as they occur in many biological systems, such as the plasma membrane. Various experimental techniques, such as fluorescence microscopy (Tanaka et al), neutron reflectivity (Steitz et al), and x-ray scattering (Ahrens et al), are demonstrated as powerful tools for their investigation. The last paper (Heim et al) takes us back to where we started: the morphologies emerging upon dewetting of a liquid. This time, the full diversity of patterns is shown which appears in the deposited solute, once the liquid has evaporated. The motivation of this work is the morphology of deposition of DNA on bio-chips, which may affect the readout results of such devices. It is shown that although much can already be understood, a lot of work has still to be done, and many beautiful mechanisms may still be discovered.

  14. Optical system design for lens with large relative aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaisheng; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Zefeng; Yan, Aqi; Fei, Jiaqi; Mei, Chao; Zhang, Gaopeng

    2015-10-01

    As the space remote sensing technology progresses, the developing trend of telescope is larger and larger aperture, higher and higher resolution. An Optical system with the relative aperture of 1:2 is introduced. The primary optical properties are: focal length of 120mm, F number of 2, field angle of 7.4°. It has the advantages of large high resolution, small size and excellent image quality. Several kinds of aberration curves and the MTF curve are given. Its imaging quality is nearly diffraction limited so that the spatial frequency is greater than 70lp/mm when its modulated transfer function (MTF) value of the optical system is equal to 0.8,and the optical system distortion is less than 1%. At last, the stray light is analyzed and the baffle of the telescope is designed. The solid model of the Optical system was constructed in Tracepro software, the point sources transmittance (PST) cure was given at different off-axis angle between 7.4°~80° the analysis result indicates that the PST values are less than 10-6 when off-axis angle are larger than soar critical angle. So the system is suitable for observation or photography of deep sky objects.

  15. Spray forming system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  16. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

    2014-09-01

    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed. PMID:25205499

  17. Targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat anxiety-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Korem, Nachshon; Zer-Aviv, Tomer Mizrachi; Ganon-Elazar, Eti; Abush, Hila; Akirav, Irit

    2016-05-01

    The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the control of emotions, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders. The most common self-reported reason for using cannabis is rooted in its ability to reduce feelings of stress, tension, and anxiety. Nevertheless, there are only few studies in controlled clinical settings that confirm that administration of cannabinoids can benefit patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are considerable encouraging preclinical data to suggest that endocannabinoid-targeted therapeutics for anxiety disorders should continue. In this review, we will describe data supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system in preventing and treating anxiety-like behavior in animal models and PTSD patients. Cannabinoids have shown beneficial outcomes in rat and mouse models of anxiety and PTSD, but they also may have untoward effects that discourage their chronic usage, including anxiogenic effects. Hence, clinical and preclinical research on the endocannabinoid system should further study the effects of cannabinoids on anxiety and help determine whether the benefits of using exogenous cannabinoids outweigh the risks. In general, this review suggests that targeting the endocannabinoid system represents an attractive and novel approach to the treatment of anxiety-related disorders and, in particular, PTSD. PMID:26426887

  18. Fluctuation-Dissipation Relation for Systems with Spatially Varying Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farago, Oded; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels

    2014-09-01

    When a particle diffuses in a medium with spatially dependent friction coefficient at constant temperature , it drifts toward the low friction end of the system even in the absence of any real physical force . This phenomenon, which has been previously studied in the context of non-inertial Brownian dynamics, is termed "spurious drift", although the drift is real and stems from an inertial effect taking place at the short temporal scales. Here, we study the diffusion of particles in inhomogeneous media within the framework of the inertial Langevin equation. We demonstrate that the quantity which characterizes the dynamics with non-uniform is not the displacement of the particle (where is the initial position), but rather , where is the primitive function of . We derive expressions relating the mean and variance of to , , and the duration of the dynamics . For a constant friction coefficient , these expressions reduce to the well known forms of the force-drift and fluctuation-dissipation relations. We introduce a very accurate method for Langevin dynamics simulations in systems with spatially varying , and use the method to validate the newly derived expressions.

  19. Spin Related Transport in Rashba 2DEG Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Junsaku

    Transport in mesoscopic conductors is determined not only by orbital motion of carriers but also by quantum interference effect. However, it is well known that the quantum interference such as weak localization is much modified in the presence of spin-orbit interaction (SOI), leading to weak anti-localization. We discuss the origin of the Rashba SOI and spin related mesoscopic transport in InGaAs based two dimensional electron gases (2DEG) affected by the Rashba SOI. It is experimentally shown that the strength of the Rashba SOI in InGaAs 2DEG systems can be controlled by the gate voltage.1 The spin dynamics in solid systems is commonly determined by the competition between Zeeman effect and SOI. The spin relaxation time and dephasing time are studied from weak anti-localization analysis as a function of the relative strength of the Zeeman energy (EZ) and the Rashba SOI energy (ESOI). The (EZ) was introduced by applying magnetic field parallel to the 2DEG plane. This in-pane magnetic field does not affect the orbital motion of electrons. The spin relaxation time increases with the Zeeman energy. The dephasing time associated with the spin-induced time reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking saturates when EZ becomes comparable to ESOI. Moreover, we show that the spin-induced TRS breaking mechanism is a universal function of the ratio EZ/ESOI within the experimental accuracy.2 Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  20. Remote resupply systems for unmanned FCS-related vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.; Gonzalez, Noel; Fitz-Coy, Norman G.; Papila, Nilay; Shyy, Wei

    2003-09-01

    This paper summarizes a study on refueling and rearming FCS-related vehicles in the field. In keeping with the FCS philosophy, the resupply process should be unmanned. For the purposes of the study, a resupply (RS) system is defined as an autonomous robotic platform, which interacts with a combat vehicle (CV). The purpose of the interaction is transfer of liquid fuel and/or ammunition. The RS may be capable of providing both the fuel and the ammunition simultaneously, or there may be separate resupply vehicles, each dedicated to one consumable. The CV may be resupplied while on-station and operational or may be taken out of service and moved to a resupply point. The study proposed a resupply system, which consists of two RS vehicles (i.e., separate vehicles for fuel and ammunition) to refuel the CV. Four families of scenarios were considered: the RS moves to the CV ("door to door"), the RS and CV both move ("rendezvous"), the CV move the RS ("filling station"), and the CV move to a pod dropped nearby. The "door to door" scenario was rated the most feasible, with the rendezvous scenario a close second. The study ascertained that RS vehicles using a robotic manipulator for the transfer mechanism is based on best engineering practices and constitute a low risk design. The required level of autonomy to accomplish resupply is teleoperation, though a mixed-initiative approach poses relatively low risk. A teleoperator or simple mixed-initiative system can be completed in 3 years, and offers significant performance benefits. Full autonomy was determined to be too high risk, but mixed-initiative work could serve as a basis for evolving to full autonomy. The study also considered the impact of emerging technologies on resupply. The key technical risks in ascending order of investment priority are: platform design, munitions transfer mechanism, and human-robot interaction (HRI). The platform design and munitions transfer mechanism are lower risk than HRI, which is a

  1. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system relation.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Turkovic, Branko; Rokotov, Dinko Stancic; Brcic, Luka; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Ilic, Spomenko; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Suran, Jelena; Barisic, Ivan; Dzidic, Senka; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Sebecic, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157's particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia (amputation, heparin, warfarin, aspirin)) and in a series of different injurious models, acute and chronic, BPC 157 consistently advances healing after severe injuries in various tissues spontaneously unable to heal; stimulates egr-1 and naB2 genes; exhibits high safety (LD1 not achieved)). Hypothesis, that BPC 157 (since formed constitutively in the gastric mucosa, stable in human gastric juice, along with significance of NO-synthase and the basal formation of NO in stomach mucosa, greater than that seen in other tissues) exhibits a general, effective competing both with L-arginine analogues (i. e., L-NAME) and L-arginine, and that this has some physiologic importance (NO-generation), later, practically supports its beneficial effects illustrating BPC 157 and NOsystem mutual (with L-NAME/L-arginine; alone and together) relations in (i) gastric mucosa and mucosal protection, following alcohol lesions, in cytoprotection course, NO-generation, and blood pressure regulation; (ii) alcohol acute/chronic intoxication, and withdrawal; (iii) cardiovascular disturbances, chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and arrhythmias; (iv) disturbances after hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, and potassium-cell membrane dysfunction; and finally, in (v) complex healing failure, proved by the fistulas healing, colocutaneous and esophagocutaneous. However, how this advantage of modulating NO-system (i. e., particular effect on eNOS gene), may be practically translated into an enhanced clinical performance remains to be determined. PMID:23755725

  2. Dual Systems Competence [Image Omitted] Procedural Processing: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach to Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricco, Robert B.; Overton, Willis F.

    2011-01-01

    Many current psychological models of reasoning minimize the role of deductive processes in human thought. In the present paper, we argue that deduction is an important part of ordinary cognition and we propose that a dual systems Competence [image omitted] Procedural processing model conceptualized within relational developmental systems theory…

  3. Out of the Blue! Azuliporphyrins and Related Carbaporphyrinoid Systems.

    PubMed

    Lash, Timothy D

    2016-03-15

    First reported in 1997, azuliporphyrins have proven to be a truly remarkable family of porphyrin analogues. In this system, although the porphyrin framework is retained, one of the pyrrolic moieties has been replaced by an azulene unit. Azulene favors electrophilic substitution at the 1,3-positions, which are structurally analogous to the α-positions in pyrrole, and this property facilitates the construction of azulene-containing porphyrinoid systems. Azuliporphyrins were first prepared from tripyrranes and 1,3-azulenedicarbaldehyde using a "3 + 1" variant on the MacDonald reaction. Subsequently, azulenes were shown to react with acetoxymethylpyrroles under acidic conditions to generate azulitripyrranes that could be utilized in a back-to-front "3 + 1" methodology to form azuliporphyrins and related heteroporphyrinoids. In addition, the favorability of azulenes toward 1,3-substitution was applied to one-pot syntheses of tetraarylazuliporphyrins and calix[4]azulenes. Azuliporphyrins have significant diatropic character that is greatly enhanced upon protonation. They have been shown to form organometallic complexes with Ni(II), Pd(II), Pt(II), Ir(III), Rh(III), and Ru(II) and undergo selective oxidations at the internal carbon with copper(II) or silver(I) salts to afford 21-oxyazuliporphyrins. In addition, oxidative ring contractions readily occur under basic conditions in the presence of peroxides to give benzocarbaporphyrins, and this reactivity provides access to tetraarylbenzocarbaporphyrins and their organometallic derivatives. A diazulenylmethane dialdehyde has been shown to react with dipyrrylmethanes in the presence of HCl or HBr to give diazuliporphyrins that were isolated in a monoprotonated form, and metalation with palladium(II) acetate afforded a stable zwitterionic palladium(II) complex. Equally intriguing dicarbaporphyrinoids incorporating indene and azulene rings have been reported, and these systems exhibit significant aromatic character. Recent

  4. Current-voltage relation for the Saturnian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, L. C.; Galand, M.; Delamere, P. A.; Fleshman, B. L.

    2013-06-01

    Saturn's magnetosphere is populated by plasma created from neutrals ejected by the moon Enceladus. These neutrals are ionized and picked up by the planetary magnetic field requiring large amounts of angular momentum to be transferred from Saturn's upper atmosphere to the magnetospheric plasma. The resulting upward currents that supply this angular momentum are associated with electrons, which travel toward the planetary atmosphere. At high magnetic latitudes along the flux tube, parallel electric fields may develop to enhance the field-aligned current density flowing between the two regions. We show that, similar to the Jovian system, the current-voltage relation in the Saturnian system must be evaluated at the top of the acceleration region, which occurs at ~1.5 RS along the magnetic field line as measured from the center of the planet. Owing to the large abundance of protons in the Saturnian system, cold electrons carry the majority of the field-aligned current for net potential drops less than 500 V. For the flux tube intersecting the equatorial plane at 4 RS, field-aligned potentials of 50-130 V are consistent with the energy fluxes inferred from the Enceladus emission. In the middle magnetosphere, field-aligned potentials of ˜1.5 kV produce ionospheric electron energy fluxes of 0.3 mW/m2 when hot electrons comprise 0.3% of the magnetospheric electron population.

  5. Assessing the relative bioavailability of DOC in regional groundwater systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the degree to which a hyperbolic relationship exists between concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater may indicate the relative bioavailability of DOC. This hypothesis was examined for 73 different regional aquifers of the United States using 7745 analyses of groundwater compiled by the National Water Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The relative reaction quotient (RRQ), a measure of the curvature of DOC concentrations plotted versus DO concentrations and regressed to a decaying hyperbolic equation, was used to assess the relative bioavailability of DOC. For the basalt aquifer of Oahu, Hawaii, RRQ values were low (0.0013 mM−2), reflecting a nearly random relationship between DOC and DO concentrations. In contrast, on the island of Maui, treated sewage effluent injected into a portion of the basalt aquifer resulted in pronounced hyperbolic DOC-DO behavior and a higher RRQ (142 mM−2). RRQ values for the 73 aquifers correlated positively with mean concentrations of ammonia, dissolved iron, and manganese, and correlated negatively with mean pH. This indicates that greater RRQ values are associated with greater concentrations of the final products of microbial reduction reactions. RRQ values and DOC concentrations were negatively correlated with the thickness of the unsaturated zone (UNST) and depth to the top of the screened interval. Finally, RRQ values were positively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), and the highest observed RRQ values were associated with aquifers receiving MAP rates ranging between 900 and 1300 mm/year. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperbolic behavior of DOC-DO plots, as quantified by the RRQ metric, can be an indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  6. Phase relations in the forsterite-diopside-jadeite system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butvina, V.; Litvin, Yu.

    2009-04-01

    solidus in this system). Due to this fact forsterite vanishes in subsolidus in the region of compositions rather enriched by jadeite component. The performed experimental investigations testify to complex topological relations of phases in this system at close solidus temperatures what needs further studies. The experimental investigations done earlier and referring to this system (Gasparik & Litvin, 1997) testify to the appearance of a new phase of the composition Na2Mg2Si2O7, which role in the formation of subliquidus and subsolidus assemblages must be more studied. Nevertheless, the obtained preliminary experimental data contain constructive data that make it possible to consider the basic problem of this work and start experimental investigations of liquidus phase relations of the system forsterite-diopside-jadeite. The system forsterite-diopside. The experiments in this section are given at pressure of 7 GPa in the range of temperatures 1600-17000C. The system is pseudobinary due to the appearance of orthopyroxene component that forms an independent phase. According to the preliminary data liquidus assemblages of this system at 7 GPa are Fo + L и DiSS + L, but the type of melting is eutectic. It agrees with the above investigations at pressure of 3 GP (Davis, 1963) where some pseudobinarity of the system forsterite-diopside caused by the appearance of orthopyroxene minal in clinopyroxene solid solution can be also seen. The system forsterite-jadeite-diopside. The experimental data and conclusions obtained for the boundary systems make it possible to start investigating liquidus surface for fusibility diagram of the ternary system forsterite-jadeite-diopside at P 7 GPa. For the experimental study polythermic sections of forsterite-(jadeite50diopside50) and forsterite-(jadeite25diopside75) have been chosen. The obtained data testify to the fact that olivine vanishing and garnet formation are realized in both sections. The problem of further investigations is to search

  7. Itinerant Magnetism in Yttrium COBALT(2) and Related Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, Donald William

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the pseudo-binary systems Y(Co,Al) _2, Y(Co,Si)_2, Y_{.7}Sc_ {.3}(Co,Al)_2, and Sc(Co,Si)_2. Measurements were made of magnetic susceptibility from 2 to 400K, resistivity from 1.5 to 300K, specific heat from 1.5 to 25K, and lattice constant at room temperature. In addition, some of the same measurements were made for (Y,Sc)Co_2 , Zr(Co,Al)_2 and Zr(Co,Si) _2. YCo_2 is a strongly paramagnetic system with a broad maximum in magnetic susceptibility versus temperature. A functional form for this maximum has been derived by proponents of fermi liquid theory. YCo _2 (and some related systems described in this work) can be driven to weak itinerant ferromagnetism by partial substitution of aluminum for cobalt. This can be explained qualitatively by either rigid band depletion or lattice expansion, either of which should increase the density of states at the fermi level. In this study we found that lattice expansion driven from the cobalt site was necessary for the appearance of ferromagnetism. Depletion of the d-electron band shifted the magnetic susceptibility maximum to lower temperatures without causing ferromagnetism; thus a rigid band model would appear inappropriate for ferromagnetism in these systems. The behavior of susceptibility in this study (as a function of impurity concentration) may represent an example of a modification of fermi liquid theory proposed in 1968, and correlates with the impurity behavior observed for the resistivity and specific heat. In addition, the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of YCo_2 was found to have a strong field dependence at low magnetic fields. It is shown that this dependence may be explained by the presence of a ferromagnetic impurity with a high ordering temperature.

  8. Phase relations and adiabats in boiling seafloor geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, James L.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1985-11-01

    Observations of large salinity variations and vent temperatures in the range of 380-400°C suggest that boiling or two-phase separation may be occurring in some seafloor geothermal systems. Consideration of flow rates and the relatively small differences in density between vapors and liquids at the supercritical pressures at depth in these systems suggests that boiling is occurring under closed-system conditions. Salinity and temperature of boiling vents can be used to estimate the pressure-temperature point in the subsurface at which liquid seawater first reached the two-phase boundary. Data are reviewed to construct phase diagrams of coexisting brines and vapors in the two-phase region at pressures corresponding to those of the seafloor geothermal systems. A method is developed for calculating the enthalpy and entropy of the coexisting mixtures, and results are used to construct adiabats from the seafloor to the P-T two-phase boundary. Results for seafloor vents discharging at 2300 m below sea level indicate that a 385°C vent is composed of a brine (7% NaCl equivalent) in equilibrium with a vapor (0.1% NaCl). Brine constitutes 45% by weight of the mixture, and the fluid first boiled at approximately 1 km below the seafloor at 415°C, 330 bar. A 400°C vent is primarily vapor (88 wt.%, 0.044% NaCl) with a small amount of brine (26% NaCl) and first boiled at 2.9 km below the seafloor at 500°C, 520 bar. These results show that adiabatic decompression in the two-phase region results in dramatic cooling of the fluid mixture when there is a large fraction of vapor.

  9. Non-metallocene organometallic complexes and related methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Agapie, Theodor; Golisz, Suzanne Rose; Tofan, Daniel; Bercaw, John E.

    2010-12-07

    A non-metallocene organometallic complex comprising a tridentate ligand and a metal bonded to a tridentate ligand, wherein two substituted aryl groups in the tridentate ligand are connected to a cyclic group at the ortho position via semi-rigid ring-ring linkages, and selected so to provide the resulting non-metallocene organometallic complex with a C.sub.S geometry, a C.sub.1 geometry, a C.sub.2 geometry or a C.sub.2v geometry. Method for performing olefin polymerization with a non-metallocene organometallic complex as a catalyst, related catalytic systems, tridentate ligand and method for providing a non-metallocene organometallic complex.

  10. An expert system for fault section diagnosis of power systems using fuzzy relations

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.J.; Park, J.K.

    1997-02-01

    This paper proposes an expert system using fuzzy relations to deal with uncertainties imposed on fault section diagnosis of power systems. The authors build sagittal diagrams which represent the fuzzy relations for power systems, and diagnose fault sections using the sagittal diagrams. Next, they examine the malfunction or wrong alarm of relays and circuit breakers based on the alarm information and the estimated fault section. The proposed system provides the fault section candidates in terms of the degree of membership and the malfunction or wrong alarm. An operator monitors these candidates and is able to diagnose the fault section, coping with uncertainties. Experimental studies for real power systems reveal usefulness of the proposed technique to diagnose faults that have uncertainty.

  11. Metallic compounds of scandium-tellurium and related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggard, Paul Anthony, Jr.

    2000-10-01

    Research contributions from our group have evinced significant progress in the solid-state chemistry of the rare-earth metal halides. This thesis presents results of the first extension of this progress into the scandium-tellurium and related ternary systems. The first evidence for the existence of metal-rich compounds in this system was the synthesis of Sc2Te. The internal metal-bonded features of the structure are double quasi-infinite chains of trans-edge-sharing metal octahedra, further augmented on each end by square-pyramids down the chain. These scandium chains have a blade-like shape and are spaced apart by tellurium atoms and a scandium zigzag chain. A second metal-rich compound was uncovered in Sc8Te3. Chains of trans-edge-sharing octahedra are again featured in much of the metal framework, but condensed into 2D sheets. In the Y8Te3 analog there is apparent disorder on some of the internal metal positions within the chains. The metal-richest compound synthesized in the scandium-tellurium system was Sc9Te 2. A higher degree of metal aggregation forms in four trans-edge-sharing metal octahedra chains condensed into 3 x 3 blocks, and linked together to form much thicker 2D sheets compared to Sc8Te3. Interesting distortions were analyzed with relationship to higher symmetry structures. The insertion of later transition metals into the earlier transition-metal framework results in the formation of the compounds Sc5Ni 2Te2, Sc6MTe2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), Y5M2Te2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) and the corresponding hydride, Y5Ni2TeH0.41(1). These compounds contain diverse sheet and columnar metal frameworks. Structural interrelationships among the many known ternary compounds are analyzed. The reaction of small amounts of aluminum into the scandium-tellurium systems revealed new substitution chemistry. The systems Sc5BxB' 3-x (B = Al or Ga; B' = Sn, Sb or Te) contained varied amounts of the triel elements (B) substituted on the same sites for either the tetrel, pnictide or

  12. Radiation reaction in binary systems in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennefick, Daniel John

    1997-09-01

    This thesis is concerned with current problems in, and historical aspects of, the problem of radiation reaction in stellar binary systems in general relativity. Part I addresses current issues in the orbital evolution due to gravitational radiation damping of compact binaries. A particular focus is on the inspiral of small bodies orbiting large black holes, employing a perturbation formalism. In addition, the merger, at the end of the insprial, of comparable mass compact binaries, such as neutron star binaries is also discussed. The emphasis of Part I is on providing detailed descriptions of sources and signals with a view to optimising signal analysis in gravitational wave detectors, whether ground- or space- based interferometers, or resonant mass detectors. Part II of the thesis examines the historical controversies surrounding the problem of gravitational waves, and gravitational radiation damping in stellar binaries. In particular, it focuses on debates in the mid 20th-century on whether binary star systems would really exhibit this type of damping and emit gravitational waves, and on the 'quadrupole formula controversy' of the 1970s and 1980s, on the question whether the standard formular describing energy loss due to emission of gravitational waves was correctly derived for such systems. The study shed light on the role of analogy in science, especially where its use is controversial, on the importance of style in physics and on the problem of identity in science, as the use of history as a rhetorical device in controversial debate is examined. The concept of the Theoretician's Regress is introduced to explain the difficulty encountered by relativists in closing debate in this controversy, which persisted in one forms or another for several decades.

  13. Capture-related stressors impair immune system function in sablefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lupes, S.C.; Davis, M.W.; Olla, B.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is a valuable North Pacific Ocean species that, when not targeted in various commercial fisheries, is often a part of discarded bycatch. Predictions of the survival of discarded fish are dependent on understanding how a fish responds to stressful conditions. Our objective was to describe the immunological health of sablefish exposed to capture stressors. In laboratory experiments designed to simulate the capture process, we subjected sablefish to various stressors that might influence survival: towing in a net, hooking, elevated seawater and air temperatures, and air exposure time. After stress was imposed, the in vitro mitogen-stimulated proliferation of sablefish leukocytes was used to evaluate the function of the immune system in an assay we validated for this species. The results demonstrated that regardless of fishing gear type, exposure to elevated seawater temperature, or time in air, the leukocytes from stressed sablefish exhibited significantly diminished proliferative responses to the T-cell mitogen, concanavalin A, or the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide. There was no difference in the immunological responses associated with seawater or air temperature. The duration and severity of the capture stressors applied in our study were harsh enough to induce significantly elevated levels of plasma cortisol and glucose, but there was no difference in the magnitude of levels among stressor treatments. These data suggest that immunological suppression occurs in sablefish subjected to capture-related stressors. The functional impairment of the immune system after capture presents a potential reason why delayed mortality is possible in discarded sablefish. Further studies are needed to determine whether delayed mortality in discarded sablefish can be caused by increased susceptibility to infectious agents resulting from stressor-mediated immunosuppression.

  14. Relation between the Classical Sciences and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, A.

    2012-04-01

    As is already known, in recent years, the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS is a deployable occupation. With their help, we offer the opportunity to acquire knowledge through spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric resolutions of remote sensing systems and through analysis and incorporation of data Gis. The representation of facts and results of research on the topography and geomorphology sites of archaeological interest, visualization of them with the help of modern software, is growing. The application of innovative technological methods in classical sciences was and is certainly a challenge for scientists, especially when using them to produce results that lead to understanding the history of a place. So far the formulation of conclusions from the archaeologists was with traditional practices, through sources from the extant ancient texts and by archaeological excavations. In some cases lack of data, to find the exact position of the archaeological monument needs to take place science and technology of Geoinformatics methods and techniques that enable the management of various information from anthropogenic and natural geographic area below of a single digital environment. Since that archeology examines the evolution of historical events through the geography, geomorphology, time and culture, the results of archaeological research is rich in spatial information. The Gis is an experienced program to process these large volumes of data, particularly those referred to the geomorphology. Consequently the aim of the paper is to show us that through the help of software can visualize the archaeological monuments of the region through the geomorphologic background mainly. Having as a study area the prefecture of Arcadia owned in the Peloponnese/ Greece shows the direct relation of geomorphology with archeology through the Geographic Information Systems. Keywords: Gis, Classic science, history, geomorphology and archeology

  15. Relating protein adduction to gene expression changes: a systems approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Shi, Zhiao; Duncan, Dexter T; Prodduturi, Naresh; Marnett, Lawrence J; Liebler, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Modification of proteins by reactive electrophiles such as the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) plays a critical role in oxidant-associated human diseases. However, little is known about protein adduction and the mechanism by which protein damage elicits adaptive effects and toxicity. We developed a systems approach for relating protein adduction to gene expression changes through the integration of protein adduction, gene expression, protein-DNA interaction, and protein-protein interaction data. Using a random walk strategy, we expanded a list of responsive transcription factors inferred from gene expression studies to upstream signaling networks, which in turn allowed overlaying protein adduction data on the network for the prediction of stress sensors and their associated regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrated the general applicability of transcription factor-based signaling network inference using 103 known pathways. Applying our workflow on gene expression and protein adduction data from HNE-treatment not only rediscovered known mechanisms of electrophile stress but also generated novel hypotheses regarding protein damage sensors. Although developed for analyzing protein adduction data, the framework can be easily adapted for phosphoproteomics and other types of protein modification data. PMID:21594272

  16. Development of a Relational Database for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deperlioglu, Omer; Sarpkaya, Yilmaz; Ergun, Ertugrul

    2011-01-01

    In today's world, Web-Based Distance Education Systems have a great importance. Web-based Distance Education Systems are usually known as Learning Management Systems (LMS). In this article, a database design, which was developed to create an educational institution as a Learning Management System, is described. In this sense, developed Learning…

  17. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  18. Analyzing Automated Instructional Systems: Metaphors from Related Design Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; Wilson, Brent G.

    Noting that automation has had an impact on virtually every manufacturing and information operation in the world, including instructional design (ID), this paper suggests three basic metaphors for automating instructional design activities: (1) computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems; (2) expert system advisor systems; and (3)…

  19. Analog solar system model relates celestial bodies spatially

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerg, H. R.

    1966-01-01

    Portable analog planetarium indicates the relative time and space angular locations of the sun and planets. Distance measuring scales, angular direction indicators, and typical probe trajectories are included.

  20. Information on the metric system and related fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, E.

    1976-01-01

    This document contains about 7,600 references on the metric system and conversion to the metric system. These references include all known documents on the metric system as of December 1975, the month of enactment of the Metric Conversion Act of 1975. This bibliography includes books, reports, articles, presentations, periodicals, legislation, motion pictures, TV series, film strips, slides, posters, wall charts, education and training courses, addresses for information, and sources for metric materials and services. A comprehensive index is provided.

  1. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  2. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  3. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  4. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  5. 12 CFR 900.1 - Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basic terms relating to the Finance Board, the Bank System and related entities. 900.1 Section 900.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.1 Basic...

  6. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  7. An Information-Related Systems Theory of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Melvin

    1973-01-01

    The author suggests that a systems theory of counseling should have an adequate theoretical foundation in the way various types of systems handle information. Using the works of W. R. Ashby as a basis, the paper is a beginning attempt to establish this foundation. It describes how information can be used to maintain homeostasis and protect key…

  8. Interactomes, manufacturomes and relational biology: analogies between systems biology and manufacturing systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We review and extend the work of Rosen and Casti who discuss category theory with regards to systems biology and manufacturing systems, respectively. Results We describe anticipatory systems, or long-range feed-forward chemical reaction chains, and compare them to open-loop manufacturing processes. We then close the loop by discussing metabolism-repair systems and describe the rationality of the self-referential equation f = f (f). This relationship is derived from some boundary conditions that, in molecular systems biology, can be stated as the cardinality of the following molecular sets must be about equal: metabolome, genome, proteome. We show that this conjecture is not likely correct so the problem of self-referential mappings for describing the boundary between living and nonliving systems remains an open question. We calculate a lower and upper bound for the number of edges in the molecular interaction network (the interactome) for two cellular organisms and for two manufacturomes for CMOS integrated circuit manufacturing. Conclusions We show that the relevant mapping relations may not be Abelian, and that these problems cannot yet be resolved because the interactomes and manufacturomes are incomplete. PMID:21689427

  9. Discrete systems related to the sixth Painlevé equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramani, A.; Ohta, Y.; Grammaticos, B.

    2006-09-01

    We present discrete Painlevé equations which can be obtained as contiguity relations of the solutions of the continuous Painlevé VI. The derivation is based on the geometry of the affine Weyl group D(1)4 associated with the bilinear formalism. As an offshoot we also present the contiguity relations of the solutions of the Bureau-Ablowitz-Fokas equation, which is a Miura transformed, 'modified', PVI.

  10. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  11. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  12. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  13. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  14. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  15. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  16. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  17. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  18. Magnetic field effects in flavoproteins and related systems

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Emrys W.; Dodson, Charlotte A.; Maeda, Kiminori; Biskup, Till; Wedge, C. J.; Timmel, Christiane R.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the radical pair mechanism, magnetic fields may alter the rate and yields of chemical reactions involving spin-correlated radical pairs as intermediates. Such effects have been studied in detail in a variety of chemical systems both experimentally and theoretically. In recent years, there has been growing interest in whether such magnetic field effects (MFEs) also occur in biological systems, a question driven most notably by the increasing body of evidence for the involvement of such effects in the magnetic compass sense of animals. The blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome is placed at the centre of this debate and photoexcitation of its bound flavin cofactor has indeed been shown to result in the formation of radical pairs. Here, we review studies of MFEs on free flavins in model systems as well as in blue-light photoreceptor proteins and discuss the properties that are crucial in determining the magnetosensitivity of these systems. PMID:24511388

  19. Magnetic field effects in flavoproteins and related systems.

    PubMed

    Evans, Emrys W; Dodson, Charlotte A; Maeda, Kiminori; Biskup, Till; Wedge, C J; Timmel, Christiane R

    2013-10-01

    Within the framework of the radical pair mechanism, magnetic fields may alter the rate and yields of chemical reactions involving spin-correlated radical pairs as intermediates. Such effects have been studied in detail in a variety of chemical systems both experimentally and theoretically. In recent years, there has been growing interest in whether such magnetic field effects (MFEs) also occur in biological systems, a question driven most notably by the increasing body of evidence for the involvement of such effects in the magnetic compass sense of animals. The blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome is placed at the centre of this debate and photoexcitation of its bound flavin cofactor has indeed been shown to result in the formation of radical pairs. Here, we review studies of MFEs on free flavins in model systems as well as in blue-light photoreceptor proteins and discuss the properties that are crucial in determining the magnetosensitivity of these systems. PMID:24511388

  20. Cylindrical Cardboard Model for a Rotating System in Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a cylindrical cardboard model that helps students at the graduate or undergraduate level to visualize the nature of simultaneity and the propagation of light in a rotating coordinate system. (HM)

  1. System Issues Related to Implementing on the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, William; Bagg, Thomas C., III

    1999-01-01

    Implementing capabilities on the World Wide Web should never be taken lightly. A good systems engineer is able to examine such implementations from all points of view, including political, legal, security, access, technical deployment, and quality. The evacuation discussed in this paper was conducted to ensure that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was proceeding in a correct direction by implementing RECALL a Lessons Learned System on the Web and, subsequently, did so successfully. The systems approach extended well beyond technical implementation to several issue that are not often addressed by an implementation team. The resulting evaluation increased the team's sensitivity to such issues and, in fact, the authors believe that the evaluation provided as much benefit as the system itself.

  2. Annotated Bibliography of Global Resources Information Systems Related Publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Cosentino, M. J.; Mann, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of work concerning geophysical data management systems is presented. Major topics under investigation include data acquisition, data storage, long term data preservation, architecture, preprocessing, hydrology, land resources, geology, meteorology, and applications of remote sensing techniques.

  3. Agents in Safety Related Systems Including Ubiquitous Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandén, Lars

    The ADM (Autonomous Decision Maker) concept concerns the possibility of including intelligent interfaces, agent like, for supporting the use of ubiquitous networks, such as the Internet, in safety related applications. The need for such interfaces is inevitable if remote surveillance and control shall be supported. The single most important aspect of ADM is its capability of handling limited resources when making intelligent decisions. Intelligence in ADM is manifested in reasoning and learning. This paper outlines the role of ADM and especially in relation to the standard IEC 61508 and presents the overall properties that result. These are exemplified by a presentation of ADM demonstrator.

  4. Innovative optical power detection array system for relative positioning of inner-formation flying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    The Inner-formation flying system (IFFS) is conceived to feature a spherical proof mass falling freely within a large cavity for space gravity detection, of which first application focuses on the Earth's gravity field recovery. For the IFFS, it is the relative position of the proof mass to its surrounding cavity that is feedback into thrusters for tracking control, even as part of data to detect gravity. Since the demonstration and verification of demanding technologies using small satellite platforms is a very sensible choice prior to detection mission, an optical power detection array system (OPDAS) is proposed to measure the relative position with advantages of low cost and high adaptability. Besides that, its large dynamic range can reduce the requirement for satellite platform and releasing mechanism, which is also an attracting trait for small satellite application. The concept of the OPDAS is firstly presented, followed by the algorithm to position the proof mass. Then the radiation pressure caused by the measuring beam is modeled, and its disturbance on the proof mass is simulated. The experimental system to test the performance of a prototype of the OPDAS is established, and the preliminary results show that a precision of less than 0.4 mm across a dynamic range of several centimeters can be reached by the prototype of the OPDAS.

  5. POS 591: International Relations Seminar "The Modern World-System."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Patrick J.

    The syllabus outlines a college level international relations seminar with a neo-Marxist theoretical orientation. The objective of the seminar is to present an historical and comparative approach to a study of the evolution of the international political economy. Following an introduction explaining seminar objectives, grading, and course…

  6. CHEATING AS RELATED TO THE SOCIAL SYSTEM IN A UNIVERSITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEWIS, DAVID M.

    AN INSTRUMENT WAS DEVELOPED WHICH COULD BE USED TO INVESTIGATE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF SITUATIONS WHICH CONSTITUTE CHEATING. ALSO AN INSTRUMENT WAS DEVELOPED TO INVESTIGATE STUDENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE WILLINGNESS OF FACULTY MEMBERS TO RELATE TO THEM IN A VARIETY OF WAYS AND SITUATIONS. THE PERCEPTION OF TEACHERS AS UNWILLING TO RELATE…

  7. Record Linkage system in a complex relational database - MINPHIS example.

    PubMed

    Achimugu, Philip; Soriyan, Abimbola; Oluwagbemi, Oluwatolani; Ajayi, Anu

    2010-01-01

    In the health sector, record linkage is of paramount importance as clinical data can be distributed across different data repositories leading to duplication. Record Linkage is the process of tracking duplicate records that actually refers to the same entity. This paper proposes a fast and efficient method for duplicates detection within the healthcare domain. The first step is to standardize the data in the database using SQL. The second is to match similar pair records, and third step is to organize records into match and non-match status. The system was developed in Unified Modeling Language and Java. In the batch analysis of 31, 177 "supposedly" distinct identities, our method isolates 25, 117 true unique records and 6, 060 suspected duplicates using a healthcare system called MINPHIS (Made in Nigeria Primary Healthcare Information System) as the test bed. PMID:20841859

  8. Best Estimate Code System to Calculate Thermal & Hydraulic Phenomena in a Nuclear Reactor or Related System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-05-19

    Version 00 RELAP4/MOD7/101 performs best estimate analyses of nuclear reactors or related systems undergoing a transient. Transient thermal-hydraulic, two-phase phenomena are calculated from formulations of one-dimensional, homogeneous, equilibrium conservation equations for water mass, momentum, and energy. Heat structures are modeled using a transient one-dimensional heat conduction solution that is coupled to the fluid through heat transfer relations. Various explicit models are used to calculate nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium behavior including a phase separation model, a vertical slipmore » model, and a nonequilibrium model. Other models are used to represent critical flow, reactor kinetics, pressurized water reactor reflood behavior, nuclear fuel rod swelling and blockage, and components such as pumps, valves, and accumulators.« less

  9. Academic Literacies and Systemic Functional Linguistics: How Do They Relate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline; Donohue, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Two approaches to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research and teaching which have arisen in recent years are systemic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and elsewhere (e.g. Hood, 2006; Lee, 2010; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacies approaches in the UK and elsewhere (e.g. Lillis & Scott, 2008; Thesen & Pletzen,…

  10. Magnetic field in the Lobachevsky space and related integrable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kurochkin, Yu. A. Otchik, V. S.; Ovsiyuk, E. M.

    2012-10-15

    Various possibilities to define analogs of the uniform magnetic field in the Lobachevsky space are considered using different coordinate systems in this space. Quantum mechanical problem of motion in the defined fields is also treated. Variables in the Schroedinger equation are separated and diagonal operators are found. For some cases, exact solutions are obtained.

  11. Environmentally related disorders of the hematologic and immune systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luster, M.I.; Wierda, D.; Rosenthal, G.J. )

    1990-03-01

    From observations in rodents and, to a lesser extent, in humans inadvertently or occupationally exposed, it appears that a number of xenobiotics adversely affect immune homeostatic systems, either through acting as a hapten and resulting in hypersensitivity reactions or through altering hematopoietic or immune functions. At present, however, there is no evidence that the immune or hematopoietic systems of the general population have been compromised by xenobiotics via environmental exposure. Nonetheless, these examples and our current knowledge about the pathogenesis of disease support the possibility that chemical-induced damage to the immune system may be associated with potential pathological conditions, some of which may become detectable only after a long latency. Likewise, exposure to immunotoxic xenobiotics might represent additional risk to individuals with already fragile immune systems (e.g., in malnutrition, infancy, old age). However, it is important to be cautious when attempting to extrapolate meaningful conclusions from experimental data or isolated epidemiologic studies to risk assessment for low-level human exposure.65 references.

  12. Task Related Modulation of the Motor System during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Marc; Mengarelli, Marisa; Riggio, Lucia; Gallese, Vittorio; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological and brain imaging studies have shown that the motor system is involved in language processing. However, it is an open question whether this involvement is a necessary requisite to understand language or rather a side effect of distinct cognitive processes underlying it. In order to clarify this issue we carried out three…

  13. LOUISIANA ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING SYSTEM FOR HYPOXIA RELATED ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmental assessment tool to evaluate the impacts of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants discharged from Mississippi River basins into the Gulf of Mexico and to assess their effects on receiving water quality will be described. This system (Louisiana Environmental Modeling S...

  14. Studies on system-level fault diagnosis and related topics

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, A.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation deals mainly with the diagnosis aspects of fault-tolerant computing. A number of system models are studied, and their diagnosability conditions established. Fault-diagnosis algorithms for some models are proposed and complexity of diagnosis problem analyzed for some other models. Finally, some fault-tolerant computer networks are studied, and efficient routing algorithms are proposed for these networks.

  15. Classrooms as Complex Adaptive Systems: A Relational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne; Knox, John S.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe and model the language classroom as a complex adaptive system (see Logan & Schumann, 2005). We argue that linear, categorical descriptions of classroom processes and interactions do not sufficiently explain the complex nature of classrooms, and cannot account for how classroom change occurs (or does not occur), over…

  16. Water-absorbing capacitor system for measuring relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus using a known water-absorbent polymer as a capacitor which is operated at a dc voltage for measuring relative humidity is presented. When formed as a layer between porous electrically-conductive electrodes and operated in an RC oscillator circuit, the oscillator frequency varies inversely with the partial pressure of the moisture to be measured. In a preferred embodiment, the capacitor is formed from Nafion and is operated at a low dc voltage with a resistor as an RC circuit in an RC oscillator. At the low voltage, the leakage current is proper for oscillation over a satisfactory range. The frequency of oscillation varies in an essentially linear fashion with relative humidity which is represented by the moisture being absorbed into the Nafion. The oscillation frequency is detected by a frequency detector.

  17. Arthritis related to systemic meningococcal disease: 34 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Cabellos, C; Nolla, J M; Verdaguer, R; Pelegrin, I; Ribera, A; Ariza, J; Viladrich, P F

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the clinical characteristics, therapeutic aspects, and outcome of arthritis related to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). All episodes of bacterial meningitis and IMD are recorded systematically. We selected all episodes of IMD, with or without meningitis, that presented arthritis. From 1977 to 2010, 522 episodes of IMD were treated. Thirty-nine of these (7.5 %, 26 women, mean age 33 years) presented arthritis. Of these 39, 37 (95 %) presented skin lesions and 31 (79 %) had meningitis. Twenty (51 %) had positive blood cultures and six (15 %) had shock. No differences were found in skin lesions, shock, or bacteremia compared to cases without arthritis. In contrast to other septic forms, arthritis related to IMD was cured with short antibiotic therapy and without surgical drainage. There was no mortality. All patients recovered and none presented joint sequelae; however, 13 adult patients (33 %) required long-term treatment with steroids due to persistent symptoms. Arthritis related to IMD most frequently affects the knees and ankles, and may be a cause of fever relapse. Short antibiotic therapy is enough in all cases and surgical drainage is not needed. In some adult patients, especially those over 50 years of age, evolution is torpid and steroid therapy may be required in order to achieve recovery. PMID:22476361

  18. Unconventional interaction in N(P)-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weizhou; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Kaixun

    2005-08-01

    Non-conventional intramolecular and intermolecular interactions have been investigated employing glycine (VIIp), NH 3⋯HCl, NH 3⋯H 2O and PH 3⋯H 2O as model systems. Geometries and harmonic frequencies were determined at a correlated ab initio level, which shows a elongating of the Cl-H or O-H bond of the proton donor and a red-shifting of the corresponding Cl-H or O-H bond stretching frequency. NBO analysis indicates there is a significant charge transfer from the proton acceptor to the proton donor. However, this type of interaction cannot be called hydrogen bond according to a comparative analysis of electron density topology in the four systems.

  19. Foreword: Ionospheric effects on communication and related systems (IES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, John M.; Klobuchar, John A.; Soicher, Haim

    1988-07-01

    The special section contained in this issue of Radio Science is the second of two which have been developed from papers presented at the 1987 symposium on the Effect of the Ionosphere on Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance Systems (IES 1987). This technical conference was jointly sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), and the Army Communications-Electronics Command (USACECOM). The symposium was held in Springfield, Virginia on May 5-7, 1987 in cooperation with the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC), the Institute for Telecommunication Sciences (ITS), and the Voice of America (VOA). See the May-June 1988 issue of Radio Science for a more complete foreword (Radio Sci., 23, 209, 1988).

  20. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  1. Systems Life Cycle and Its Relation with the Triple Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Loebl, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the life cycle of complex systems in light of the dynamic interconnections among the university, industry and government sectors. Each sector is motivated in its resource allocation by principles discussed elsewhere in this book and yet remains complementary es-tablishing enduring and fundamental relationships. Industry and Government depend upon an educated workforce; universities depend upon industry to spark the R&D which is needed and to sponsor some basic research and much applied research. Government depends upon industry to address operational needs and provide finished products while universities offer government (along with industry) problem solving and problem solving environments. The life cycle of complex systems in this chapter will be examined in this context, providing historical examples. Current examples will then be examined within this multi-dimensional context with respect to the phases of program and project life cycle management from requirements definition through retirement and closeout of systems. During the explanation of these examples, the advances in research techniques to collect, analyze, and process the data will be examined.

  2. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  3. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  4. Level 2 PSA insights relative to filtered vent system

    SciTech Connect

    Deremer, R.K.; Fleming, K.N.; Landolt, J.

    1996-07-01

    A full-scope Level 2 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) of the Goesgen Nuclear Power Plant was completed early in 1994. During the PSA, a containment filtered vent system was installed at the plant to meet requirements of the Swiss safety authorities. The purpose of the vent system is to provide a mechanism to depressurize the containment atmosphere in a controlled manner during the late phase of a severe accident in order to preclude gradual over pressurization of the containment and filter any release of radioactive materials to the environment. To ensure a high degree of reliability, it was required to include a design feature to open the vent passively via the use of a rupture disc whose opening is highly reliable and independent of operator actions. The PSA addressed two issues associated with the vent system: (1) What is the optimum pressure to select for the rupture disc setpoint? and (2) What is the best strategy for the use of the rupture disc isolation valves (i.e., should they be left open normally to ensure the opening of the vent at the rupture disc setpoint or should they be left closed and opened by the operator only during a severe accident)? Based on the results generated by the PSA, which indicated that the downside risk of inadvertent opening in the early phase of an accident was greater than the upside benefit of a passively actuated vent in the late phase of an accident, it was concluded that it is prudent to have the rupture disc normally isolated from the containment.

  5. Microscale mass spectrometry systems, devices and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, John Michael

    2016-06-21

    Mass spectrometry systems or assemblies therefore include an ionizer that includes at least one planar conductor, a mass analyzer with a planar electrode assembly, and a detector comprising at least one planar conductor. The ionizer, the mass analyzer and the detector are attached together in a compact stack assembly. The stack assembly has a perimeter that bounds an area that is between about 0.01 mm.sup.2 to about 25 cm.sup.2 and the stack assembly has a thickness that is between about 0.1 mm to about 25 mm.

  6. Procedures for analysis of debris relative to Space Shuttle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hae Soo; Cummings, Virginia J.

    1993-01-01

    Debris samples collected from various Space Shuttle systems have been submitted to the Microchemical Analysis Branch. This investigation was initiated to develop optimal techniques for the analysis of debris. Optical microscopy provides information about the morphology and size of crystallites, particle sizes, amorphous phases, glass phases, and poorly crystallized materials. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry is utilized for information on surface morphology and qualitative elemental content of debris. Analytical electron microscopy with wavelength dispersive spectrometry provides information on the quantitative elemental content of debris.

  7. Legislative and regulatory issues related to reusable launch systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinemann, Manfred K. A.

    1996-03-01

    The development of reusable launch systems with private investment funds for primarily commercial launch services raises a number of novel legal and regulatory issues. The issues discussed include requirements for a whole new spectrum of safety and environmental issues; new certification rules, procedures and oversight organizations; liability and jurisdiction definitions, taxation treatments; government commitments and/or participation in commercial enterprises; and international legal and business issues. The satisfactory solution to all of these issues is a necessary condition for the development and operation of reusable launch vehicles to be a viable commercial enterprise.

  8. Electron attachment and ion mobility in hydrocarbons and related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bakale, G.

    1988-01-01

    During the last two decades, a firm base for the emerging field of liquid state electronics (LSE) has developed through studies of the transport and reaction properties of excess electrons in a variety of liquid-phase systems. Pulse-conductivity techniques were used in many of these studies to measure the mobilities of electrons and ions in pure liquids as well as the rate constants of electron attachment to a wide variety of electron-accepting solutes. Results obtained through such studies have interdisciplinary implications that are described in the discussion that follows which includes examples of the contributions of LSE to physics, chemistry and biology. 42 refs.

  9. System issues related to satellite communications in a nuclear environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kullstam, P.A.

    1990-05-03

    Nuclear induced signal scintillation effects are of great importance in design and deployment of military satellite systems that must provide survivable and enduring communications service. The induced scintillation will result in Rayleigh signal fading with limited signal decorrelation time and coherent bandwidth of the transmission channel as well as reduced signal power due to terminal antenna scattering loss. In this environment the coherent bandwidth and signal decorrelation time are most important design parameters for modulation subsystem design. The antenna scattering loss is important for link power budgets and satellite network loading.

  10. Spatial Relevancies of Hybrid Systems Relates to Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Widastra, Fatahillah

    2015-05-01

    After S/F hybrid system from Martin Lange, of spatial modulation Superconductor-Electromagnet hybrids superconductor producing studies conclusion, for superconductor at large Hand/or T(i.e close to the phase transitionline), when the superfluid densitiy tends to 0. Further as for He3-B superfluid ``testing ground'', after sought extensometer for every materials testing application from , in K Matsumoto:``Flux pinning Engineering for Application of HTS'', 2013 quote Higgs boson , whereas it plays role as similar phenomena of Meissner effect, both involves magnet levitating. Accompanying Gosowong vein, US 16. 3 Million costed study-report who said the toxic waste also endangering biodiversity[Dini Septanti: ``The BUYAT Case: Straddling between Environmental Securitization & De-securitization'', herewith proposed the ``complexity systems'' comparison comprises also phase transition & ``directed polymer'' notions of JP Bouchaud et al: ``Wealth condensation in a simple model of economy''. Incredibles acknowledgment to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE.Mr.Ir. H. ABURIZAL BAKRIE.

  11. Statistical physics of vehicular traffic and some related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Santen, Ludger; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2000-05-01

    In the so-called “microscopic” models of vehicular traffic, attention is paid explicitly to each individual vehicle each of which is represented by a “particle”; the nature of the “interactions” among these particles is determined by the way the vehicles influence each others’ movement. Therefore, vehicular traffic, modeled as a system of interacting “particles” driven far from equilibrium, offers the possibility to study various fundamental aspects of truly nonequilibrium systems which are of current interest in statistical physics. Analytical as well as numerical techniques of statistical physics are being used to study these models to understand rich variety of physical phenomena exhibited by vehicular traffic. Some of these phenomena, observed in vehicular traffic under different circumstances, include transitions from one dynamical phase to another, criticality and self-organized criticality, metastability and hysteresis, phase-segregation, etc. In this critical review, written from the perspective of statistical physics, we explain the guiding principles behind all the main theoretical approaches. But we present detailed discussions on the results obtained mainly from the so-called “particle-hopping” models, particularly emphasizing those which have been formulated in recent years using the language of cellular automata.

  12. Systemic Hydration: Relating Science to Clinical Practice in Vocal Health

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Naomi A.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Study Design Literature Review Methods Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology and biomechanics. Results The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest amongst multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production, however the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and in some cases offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. Conclusions A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function, however greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. PMID:24880674

  13. Dental time study results in relation to a model for a dental health related patient group system.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Y

    1995-01-01

    Using a time study method, dental care treatment resources were studied concerning different caries groups of children and adolescents 3-19 years of age. The results were applied to a model for a dental health related patient group system as a tool for presenting the dental care situation. Quality assurance aspects of a dental health related patient group system, adapted for use in general dental care, had led to a suggested model system: "Dental Visiting Groups" (DVG). The DVG system takes into consideration the fact that dental care was performed by three dental care-giving personnel groups--dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants--giving dental care in three main areas of dental procedures: diagnostic, prevention and intervention. The DVG system implied a model of Swedish dentistry in change, and presented the relationships among the dental health related patient groups, the three main areas of dental procedures, and the tasks of the dental care-givers. Applied over time, the DVG system illustrated the efficiency of the dental care model used. PMID:7676387

  14. Modular hybrid plasma reactor and related systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Grandy, Jon D.; Detering, Brent A.

    2010-06-22

    A device, method and system for generating a plasma is disclosed wherein an electrical arc is established and the movement of the electrical arc is selectively controlled. In one example, modular units are coupled to one another to collectively define a chamber. Each modular unit may include an electrode and a cathode spaced apart and configured to generate an arc therebetween. A device, such as a magnetic or electromagnetic device, may be used to selectively control the movement of the arc about a longitudinal axis of the chamber. The arcs of individual modules may be individually controlled so as to exhibit similar or dissimilar motions about the longitudinal axis of the chamber. In another embodiment, an inlet structure may be used to selectively define the flow path of matter introduced into the chamber such that it travels in a substantially circular or helical path within the chamber.

  15. Performance categorization of structures, systems & components and related issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Q.A.

    1993-09-30

    Provisions of DOE-STD-1021-93 on performance categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to natural phenomena hazards (NPHs) are summarized. The interrelationship among safety classification of SSCs (per DOE 6430.1A and DOE 5480.30), facility hazard categorization/classification (per DOE 5481.1B and DOE 5480.23), and NPH performance categorization of SSCs (per DOE 5480.28 and DOE-STD-1021-93) is discussed. The compatibility between the safety goals in the Department of Energy Safety Policy, SEN-35-91, and the numerical NPH performance goals of DOE 5480.28, as presented in UCRL-ID-12612 (draft), is examined.

  16. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  17. Chronic complications of diabetes mellitus related to the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Vojtková, Jarmila; Ciljaková, Miriam; Michnová, Zuzana; Turčan, Tomá

    2012-01-01

    The quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus is mainly determined by chronic diabetic complications which may affect all organ tissues including respiratory system. Microangiopathy of pulmonary capillaries, autonomic neuropathy, myopathy of respiratory muscles or changes in collagen belong to supposed pathophysiological pathways. This paper brings brief review about reported functional consequences in subjects with diabetes - decreased vital lung capacity and pulmonary volumes, decreased diffuse lung capacity for carbon monoxide, lower basal bronchial tone, lower cough reflex sensitivity, increased incidence of sleep obstructive apnea, increase in respiratory infections, disorders in respiratory muscles or phrenical nerve. Examination of pulmonary functions may serve for early detection of chronic complications in patients with diabetes. PMID:23146790

  18. China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, M. )

    1994-11-28

    Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees.

  19. Recent Results for Solar-System Tests of General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Lau, E. L.; Turyshev, S.; Williams, J. G.; Nieto, M. M.

    2002-05-01

    We use the current JPL archive of planetary positional data, along with the data-analysis implementation described by Newhall, Standish, and Williams, to solve for all the conventional parameters included in the JPL planetary ephemerides, plus four more parameters specific to tests of General Relativity. Spacecraft ranging data generated by the Deep Space Network (DSN) for NASA missions, and radar ranging measurements to Mercury and Venus are of primary importance. Venus radar ranging has been calibrated for topography by means of altimetry data from the Pioneer 12 Venus orbiter. Martian ranging data consists of orbiter data from Mariner 9 (1971 to 1972) and Mars Global Surveyor (1998 to 2000), as well as lander data from Viking (1976 to 1982) and Pathfinder (1997). In fitting the data, we weight the separate data sets, except for Mars, such that the assumed standard error for each data set is equal to the RMS residual for that particular set after the fit. For Mars, we use a standard error equal to 5 times the RMS residual for each of the four data sets. This is done to compensate for the systematic error from asteroid perturbations. We interpret the resulting parameter errors after the fit as realistic errors, as opposed to formal errors that would result from setting the Mars standard errors equal to their RMS values. The new values of the PPN parameters β and γ , and the solar gravitational quadrupole moment J2, are: β - 1 = -0.0010 +/- 0.0012, γ - 1 = -0.0015 +/- 0.0021, J2 = (2.3 +/- 5.2) x 10-7. The fourth parameter represents a possible time variation ˙ {G} in the gravitational constant. It is unchanged from what we reported last year at the Pasadena meeting. We conclude that the orbits of the inner planets are consistent with the Newtonian inverse-square law of attraction and with General Relativity at the post-Newtonian order O(v2/c2). This work was sponsored by NASA's Space Astrophysics Research and Analysis (SARA) program and was performed at the

  20. Information Retrieval System Design Issues in a Microcomputer-Based Relational DBMS Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Dietmar

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the file structure requirements for a microcomputer-based information retrieval system using FoxPro, a relational database management system (DBMS). Issues relating to the design and implementation of such systems are discussed, and two possible designs are examined in terms of space economy and practicality of implementation. (15…

  1. 12 CFR 269.11 - Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel. 269.11 Section 269.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.11 Federal...

  2. 12 CFR 269.11 - Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal Reserve System Labor Relations Panel. 269.11 Section 269.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS §...

  3. Pregnancy-related issues in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abha G; Chowdhary, Vaidehi R

    2015-02-01

    While fertility is preserved in females with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), it is well established that pregnancy in these patients is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation, as well as neonatal mortality. Mechanisms underlying these adverse outcomes are poorly understood, and better understanding of these would allow development of targeted and personalized treatment strategies. Established risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes include active disease within 6 months prior to conception and during pregnancy, active nephritis, maternal hypertension, antiphospholipid antibodies and hypocomplementemia. While intensive monitoring is recommended, the comparative effectiveness of appropriate management strategies is unclear. While current strategies are able to achieve live births in 85-90% of pregnancies, certain aspects such as prevention of preterm birth, treatment of congenital heart block due to neonatal lupus and recurrent pregnancy loss despite best management, remains challenging. Pregnancy is also associated with an increased risk of flare of lupus, particularly in patients with active disease at time of conception or within 6 months prior to conception. Pregnant patients with SLE should be followed in a high-risk obstetric clinic, and care should be closely coordinated between the obstetrician and rheumatologist. PMID:25545844

  4. [Diseases of the digestive system and a system for patient classification: diagnostic-related groups (DRG)].

    PubMed

    Poves Martínez, E

    1996-10-01

    In the last years different classification systems for hospitalized patients have been developed in the United States, that allow to evaluate different aspects of any Hospital: The quality, the efficacy and the efficiency. The classification of "The Diagnosis Related Groups" (DRG) relates the hospitalized patients with the expenses that they generate, and it is the most used in Europe. In the version DRG-All Patient, all the diagnoses and procedures of the hospitalized patients, using the International Classification of Diseases, are divided in to 25 Major Diagnostic Categories (MDC) where each one excludes all the others. We describe the behavior with respect to the age, sex and stay of all the GDR integrated in the CDM 6 and 7: diseases and disorders of the digestive tract, and diseases and disorders of the hepatobiliary system and the pancreas. The study has been carried out with a national data base of two millions of cases seen from 214 acute-care Hospitals. The MDC number 6 is the most frequent, with an important number of patients in the pediatric age; it is more frequent in males; the average stay is 8.59 days and 19 GDR (36.5%) have a variation coefficient greater than one. The other MDC, number 7 is less frequent, the majority of the patients are between 60-80 years of age, the average stay is 12.2 days with a coefficient of variation greater than one in 4 GDR (17.4%). Clinical Services should know the characteristics and behavior of their patients, as well as the comparison with the national data bases. This may allow a control of the quality and the costs by using a common "language" with the managers. PMID:8983307

  5. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Résumé Les eaux de surface sont parties intégrantes des systèmes aquifères. Les eaux souterraines interagissent avec les eaux de surface dans presque tous les types d'environnements, depuis les petits ruisseaux, les lacs et les zones humides jusqu'aux bassins versants des vallées des grands fleuves et aux lignes de côte. Il est en général admis que les zones topographiquement hautes sont des lieux de recharge des aquifères et les zones basses des lieux de décharge, ce qui est le cas des grands systèmes aquifères régionaux. La superposition de systèmes locaux, associés à des eaux de surface, à l'organisation régionale d'écoulements souterrains résulte d'interactions complexes entre les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface dans tous les environnements, quelle que soit la situation topographique régionale. Les processus

  6. Canaries in the Coal Mine: Perceptions of Threat and Media System Dependency Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loges, William E.

    1994-01-01

    Investigates whether the intensity and scope of media system dependency (MSD) relations are positively related to perceptions of threats in the environment. Finds that higher perceptions of threat are associated with more intense MSD relations; threat perceptions are strong predictors of the intensity of MSD relations when demographic variables…

  7. A discussion of system reliability and the relative importance of pumps and valves to overall system availability

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    An analysis was undertaken to establish preliminary trends for how component aging can effect failure rates for swing check valves, centrifugal pumps and motor operated valves. These failure rate trends were evaluated over time and linear aging rate models established. The failure rate models were then used with classic reliability theories to estimate reliability as a function of operating time. Reliability theory was also used to establish a simple system reliability model. Using the system model, the relative importance of pumps and valves to the overall system reliability were studied. Conclusions were established relative to overall system availability over time and the relative unavailabilities of the various components studied.

  8. Heisenberg-like and Fisher-information-based uncertainty relations for N -electron d -dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toranzo, I. V.; López-Rosa, S.; Esquivel, R. O.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2015-06-01

    Heisenberg-like and Fisher-information-based uncertainty relations which extend and generalize previous similar expressions are obtained for N -fermion d -dimensional systems. The contributions of both spatial and spin degrees of freedom are taken into account. The accuracy of some of these generalized spinned uncertainty-like relations is numerically examined for a large number of atomic and molecular systems.

  9. [Public relations in institutions and establishments of the health administration system].

    PubMed

    Martynenko, A V

    2002-01-01

    The article is dedicated to development of directions and specific functions of the health system bodies/institutions public relations (PR) activities. Priorities are set forth depending on the form of property thereof. A complex use of approaches toward carrying out of PR activities permits optimizing work both within the system itself and relations with the society as a whole. PMID:11944367

  10. Performance assessment of EMR systems based on post-relational database.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Yan; Li, Jing-Song; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Tian, Yu; Suzuki, Muneou; Araki, Kenji

    2012-08-01

    Post-relational databases provide high performance and are currently widely used in American hospitals. As few hospital information systems (HIS) in either China or Japan are based on post-relational databases, here we introduce a new-generation electronic medical records (EMR) system called Hygeia, which was developed with the post-relational database Caché and the latest platform Ensemble. Utilizing the benefits of a post-relational database, Hygeia is equipped with an "integration" feature that allows all the system users to access data-with a fast response time-anywhere and at anytime. Performance tests of databases in EMR systems were implemented in both China and Japan. First, a comparison test was conducted between a post-relational database, Caché, and a relational database, Oracle, embedded in the EMR systems of a medium-sized first-class hospital in China. Second, a user terminal test was done on the EMR system Izanami, which is based on the identical database Caché and operates efficiently at the Miyazaki University Hospital in Japan. The results proved that the post-relational database Caché works faster than the relational database Oracle and showed perfect performance in the real-time EMR system. PMID:21503741

  11. Feature analysis of relational concepts, languages and systems for IDM/sup TM/

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    The IDM (Intelligent Database Machine) is a self-contained system that serves as a dedicated peripheral providing a relational database management system. The IDM provides a high-level host-independent interface to OEM-supplied programs running on the host. Specifications of the system are given including database constituents; functional capabilities; definition, generation and administration facilities; interface and DBMS architecture; operational aspects; and essentially relational solutions for generalized DBMS problems. 1 figure. (RWR)

  12. The relational clinical database: a possible solution to the star wars in registry systems.

    PubMed

    Michels, D K; Zamieroski, M

    1990-12-01

    In summary, having data from other service areas available in a relational clinical database could resolve many of the problems existing in today's registry systems. Uniting sophisticated information systems into a centralized database system could definitely be a corporate asset in managing the bottom line. PMID:10108501

  13. State/federal interaction of LANDSAT system and related technical assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesser, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The history of state involvement in LANDSAT systems planning and related efforts is described. Currently 16 states have visual LANDSAT capabilities and 10 others are planning on developing such capabilities. The federal government's future plans for the LANDSAT system, the impacts of recent budget decisions on the systems, and the FY 82 budget process are examined.

  14. System Thinking and Feeding Relations: Learning with a Live Ecosystem Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie

    2012-01-01

    Considering well-documented difficulties in mastering ecology concepts and system thinking, the aim of the study was to examine 9th graders' understanding of the complex, multilevel, systemic construct of feeding relations, nested within a larger system of a live model. Fifty students interacted with the model and manipulated a variable within it…

  15. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug-disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed fromhttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr The online CD-REST demonstration system is available athttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL:http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr;http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. PMID:27016700

  16. On the General Ericksen-Leslie System: Parodi's Relation, Well-Posedness and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Xu, Xiang; Liu, Chun

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the role of Parodi's relation in the well-posedness and stability of the general Ericksen-Leslie system modeling nematic liquid crystal flows. First, we give a formal physical derivation of the Ericksen-Leslie system through an appropriate energy variational approach under Parodi's relation, in which we can distinguish the conservative/dissipative parts of the induced elastic stress. Next, we prove global well-posedness and long-time behavior of the Ericksen-Leslie system under the assumption that the viscosity μ 4 is sufficiently large. Finally, under Parodi's relation, we show the global well-posedness and Lyapunov stability for the Ericksen-Leslie system near local energy minimizers. The connection between Parodi's relation and linear stability of the Ericksen-Leslie system is also discussed.

  17. Evaluation of Active Mortality Surveillance System Data for Monitoring Hurricane-Related Deaths—Texas, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F.; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S.; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F.; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS’ active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Methods Using CDC’s Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. Results From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Conclusions Texas’s active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health

  18. Generating parity relations for detecting and identifying control system component failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Velder, Wallace E.; Massoumnia, Mohammad-Ali

    1988-01-01

    The monitoring of control system sensors and actuators for failures is presently undertaken by means of an exceptionally simple form of generalized parity relations based on a discrete-time model of the dynamics of linear, time-invariant systems. These generalized parity relations are constructed by recourse to a transfer matrix-description of the system that is additionally useful in the interpretation of their properties. Attention is given to a novel method for constructing the parity relation of minimum length that depends on the output of only a single sensor.

  19. Microcanonical work and fluctuation relations for an open system: An exactly solvable model.

    PubMed

    Subaşı, Y; Jarzynski, C

    2013-10-01

    We calculate the probability distribution of work for an exactly solvable model of a system interacting with its environment. The system of interest is a harmonic oscillator with a time-dependent control parameter, the environment is modeled by N-independent harmonic oscillators with arbitrary frequencies, and the system-environment coupling is bilinear and not necessarily weak. The initial conditions of the combined system and environment are sampled from a microcanonical distribution and the system is driven out of equilibrium by changing the control parameter according to a prescribed protocol. In the limit of infinitely large environment, i.e., N→∞, we recover the nonequilibrium work relation and Crooks's fluctuation relation. Moreover, the microcanonical Crooks relation is verified for finite environments. Finally, we show the equivalence of multitime correlation functions of the system in the infinite environment limit for canonical and microcanonical ensembles. PMID:24229144

  20. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment Draft Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied on For Safety.'' The NRC staff has developed the draft RIS to clarify the NRC's technical position on existing regulatory requirements for the quality and reliability of basic......

  1. Technical Aspects of Interfacing MUMPS to an External SQL Relational Database Management System

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmak, Peter M.; Walters, Richard F.; Penrod, Gail

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an interface connecting InterSystems MUMPS (M/VX) to an external relational DBMS, the SYBASE Database Management System. The interface enables MUMPS to operate in a relational environment and gives the MUMPS language full access to a complete set of SQL commands. MUMPS generates SQL statements as ASCII text and sends them to the RDBMS. The RDBMS executes the statements and returns ASCII results to MUMPS. The interface suggests that the language features of MUMPS make it an attractive tool for use in the relational database environment. The approach described in this paper separates MUMPS from the relational database. Positioning the relational database outside of MUMPS promotes data sharing and permits a number of different options to be used for working with the data. Other languages like C, FORTRAN, and COBOL can access the RDBMS database. Advanced tools provided by the relational database vendor can also be used. SYBASE is an advanced high-performance transaction-oriented relational database management system for the VAX/VMS and UNIX operating systems. SYBASE is designed using a distributed open-systems architecture, and is relatively easy to interface with MUMPS.

  2. Connecting Relational Theory and the Systems Theory Framework: Individuals and Their Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Theory Framework (STF) facilitates the inclusion of relevant aspects of multiple existing theories within an integrated framework, wherein relevance and meaning is decided upon by each individual. Patton and McMahon emphasise that the application of the Systems Theory Framework in integrating theory and practice is located within the…

  3. Nanolipoprotein particles comprising a natural rubber biosynthetic enzyme complex and related products, methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Hoeprich, Paul D.; Whalen, Maureen

    2016-04-05

    Provided herein are nanolipoprotein particles that comprise a biosynthetic enzyme more particularly an enzyme capable of catalyzing rubber or other rubbers polymerization, and related assemblies, devices, methods and systems.

  4. Evolution of System Safety at NASA as Related to Defense-in-Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.

  5. Development of FPGA-based safety-related I and C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Y.; Oda, N.; Miyazaki, T.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.; Igawa, S.

    2006-07-01

    Toshiba has developed Non-rewritable (NRW) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based safety-related Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system [1]. Considering application to safety-related systems, nonvolatile and non-rewritable FPGA which is impossible to be changed after once manufactured has been adopted in Toshiba FPGA-based system. FPGA is a device which consists only of defined digital circuit: hardware, which performs defined processing. FPGA-based system solves issues existing both in the conventional systems operated by analog circuits (analog-based system) and the systems operated by central processing unit (CPU-based system). The advantages of applying FPGA are to keep the long-life supply of products, improving testability (verification), and to reduce the drift which may occur in analog-based system. The system which Toshiba developed this time is Power Range Monitor (PRM). Toshiba is planning to expand application of FPGA-based technology by adopting this development method to the other safety-related systems from now on. (authors)

  6. The use of discontinuities and functional groups to assess relative resilience in complex systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Gunderson, Lance; Johnson, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    It is evident when the resilience of a system has been exceeded and the system qualitatively changed. However, it is not clear how to measure resilience in a system prior to the demonstration that the capacity for resilient response has been exceeded. We argue that self-organizing human and natural systems are structured by a relatively small set of processes operating across scales in time and space. These structuring processes should generate a discontinuous distribution of structures and frequencies, where discontinuities mark the transition from one scale to another. Resilience is not driven by the identity of elements of a system, but rather by the functions those elements provide, and their distribution within and across scales. A self-organizing system that is resilient should maintain patterns of function within and across scales despite the turnover of specific elements (for example, species, cities). However, the loss of functions, or a decrease in functional representation at certain scales will decrease system resilience. It follows that some distributions of function should be more resilient than others. We propose that the determination of discontinuities, and the quantification of function both within and across scales, produce relative measures of resilience in ecological and other systems. We describe a set of methods to assess the relative resilience of a system based upon the determination of discontinuities and the quantification of the distribution of functions in relation to those discontinuities. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  7. Trade-off relations of Bell violations among pairwise qubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hui-Hui; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the nonlocality distributions among multiqubit systems based on the maximal violations of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality of reduced pairwise qubit systems. We present a trade-off relation satisfied by these maximal violations, which gives rise to restrictions on the distribution of nonlocality among the subqubit systems. For a three-qubit system, it is impossible that all pairs of qubits violate the CHSH inequality, and once a pair of qubits violates the CHSH inequality maximally, the other two pairs of qubits must both obey the CHSH inequality. Detailed examples are given to illustrate the trade-off relations, and the trade-off relations are generalized to arbitrary multiqubit systems.

  8. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  9. Public Relations Roles and Systems Theory: Functional and Historicist Causal Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Glen M.

    The effectiveness of an organizations's adaptive behavior depends on the extent to which public relations concerns are considered in goal setting and program planning. The following five open systems propositions, based on a "functional" paradigm, address the complex relationship between public relations and organizational intelligence and do not…

  10. The Nonlinear Relations of the Approximate Number System and Mathematical Language to Early Mathematics Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Logan, Jessica A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Both mathematical language and the approximate number system (ANS) have been identified as strong predictors of early mathematics performance. Yet, these relations may be different depending on a child's developmental level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between these domains across different levels of ability.…

  11. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS. PMID:25839834

  12. Relations between allometric scalings and fluctuations in complex systems: The case of Japanese firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2013-02-01

    To elucidate allometric scaling in complex systems, we investigated the underlying scaling relationships between typical three-scale indicators for approximately 500,000 Japanese firms; namely, annual sales, number of employees, and number of business partners. First, new scaling relations including the distributions of fluctuations were discovered by systematically analyzing conditional statistics. Second, we introduced simple probabilistic models that reproduce all these scaling relations, and we derived relations between scaling exponents and the magnitude of fluctuations.

  13. Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms in welders

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, M; Malo, J; Infante-Rivard, C; Gautrin, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of welding related respiratory symptoms coexisting with welding related systemic symptoms in welders is unknown. Aims: To determine in a sample of welders the prevalence of coexisting welding related systemic symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA), and the strength and significance of any association between these two groups of symptoms. Methods: A respiratory symptoms questionnaire, a systemic symptoms questionnaire, and a questionnaire on occupational history were administered by telephone to 351 of a sample of 441 welders (79.6%) from two cities in Québec, Canada. Results: The co-occurrence of possible MFF (defined as having at least two symptoms of fever, feelings of flu, general malaise, chills, dry cough, metallic taste, and shortness of breath, occurring at the beginning of the working week, 3–10 hours after exposure to welding fumes) together with welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA (defined as having at least two welding related symptoms of cough, wheezing, and chest tightness) was 5.8%. These two groups of symptoms were significantly associated (χ2 = 18.9, p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a strong association between welding related MFF and welding related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. PMID:12937186

  14. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and 41 CFR 101-38.301-1 and the operator's packet furnished with each vehicle. See 41 CFR 101-6.4 for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of interagency...

  15. A Management Study of the MCPS Accounting System and Certain Related Financial Services Functions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young (Arthur) and Co., Washington, DC.

    Several years ago, Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) began a Management Operations Review and Evaluation (MORE) of the entire school system, excluding school-based instruction. This MORE study is an evaluation of MCPS's current accounting system and certain related financial services functions within the Department of Financial Services. In…

  16. Physiological Antioxidative Network of the Bilirubin System in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Young; Park, Sang Chul

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is detrimental to life process and is particularly responsible for aging and age-related diseases. Thus, most organisms are well equipped with a spectrum of biological defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. The major efficient antioxidative mechanism is the glutathione system, operating a redox cycling mechanism for glutathione utilization, which consists of glutathione and its peroxidase and reductase. However, this system is mainly effective for hydrophilic oxidants, while lipophilic oxidants require another scavenging system. Since many age-related pathological conditions are related to lipid peroxidation, especially in association with the aging process, the physiological role of the scavenging system for lipophilic oxidants should be considered. In this regard, the biliverdin to bilirubin conversion pathway, via biliverdin reductase (BVR), is suggested to be another major protective mechanism that scavenges lipophilic oxidants because of the lipophilic nature of bilirubin. The efficiency of this bilirubin system might be potentiated by operation of the intertwined bicyclic systems of the suggested redox metabolic cycle of biliverdin and bilirubin and the interactive control cycle of BVR and heme oxygenase. In order to combat oxidative stress, both antioxidative systems against hydrophilic and lipophilic oxidants are required to work cooperatively. In this regard, the roles of the bilirubin system in aging and age-related diseases are reassessed in this review, and their interacting networks are evaluated. PMID:22457648

  17. ADHD Related Behaviors Are Associated with Brain Activation in the Reward System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, R.; Bauer, E.; Merz, C. J.; Zimmermann, M.; Reuter, M.; Plichta, M. M.; Kirsch, P.; Lesch, K. P.; Fallgatter, A. J.; Vaitl, D.; Herrmann, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest dysfunctional reward processing, with hypo-responsiveness during reward anticipation in the reward system including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In this study, we investigated the association between ADHD related behaviors and the reward system using functional…

  18. Relationships among Teachers' Perspectives, Self-Reported Practices, and Concerns Related to an Alternate Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Gyoung; Angell, Maureen E.; O'Brian, Mary; Strand, Kenneth B.; Fulk, Barbara M.; Watts, Emily H.

    2006-01-01

    A statewide survey was completed by 234 special education teachers with experience in developing assessment portfolios within the Illinois Alternate Assessment (IAA) system. Relationships between these teachers' demographics and their perspectives, concerns, and self-reported practices related to the IAA system was identified and described. These…

  19. Technical Note: Some Issues Related to the Selection of Polymers for Aerospace Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Beeson, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Materials intended for use in aerospace oxygen systems are commonly screened for oxygen compatibility following NASA STD 6001. This standard allows qualification of materials based on results provided by only one test method. Potential issues related to this practice are reviewed and recommendations are proposed that would lead to improved aerospace oxygen systems safety.

  20. Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  1. Photogrammetry System and Method for Determining Relative Motion Between Two Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Samuel A. (Inventor); Severance, Kurt (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A photogrammetry system and method provide for determining the relative position between two objects. The system utilizes one or more imaging devices, such as high speed cameras, that are mounted on a first body, and three or more photogrammetry targets of a known location on a second body. The system and method can be utilized with cameras having fish-eye, hyperbolic, omnidirectional, or other lenses. The system and method do not require overlapping fields-of-view if two or more cameras are utilized. The system and method derive relative orientation by equally weighting information from an arbitrary number of heterogeneous cameras, all with non-overlapping fields-of-view. Furthermore, the system can make the measurements with arbitrary wide-angle lenses on the cameras.

  2. Zipf's Law Leads to Heaps' Law: Analyzing Their Relation in Finite-Size Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Background Zipf's law and Heaps' law are observed in disparate complex systems. Of particular interests, these two laws often appear together. Many theoretical models and analyses are performed to understand their co-occurrence in real systems, but it still lacks a clear picture about their relation. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that the Heaps' law can be considered as a derivative phenomenon if the system obeys the Zipf's law. Furthermore, we refine the known approximate solution of the Heaps' exponent provided the Zipf's exponent. We show that the approximate solution is indeed an asymptotic solution for infinite systems, while in the finite-size system the Heaps' exponent is sensitive to the system size. Extensive empirical analysis on tens of disparate systems demonstrates that our refined results can better capture the relation between the Zipf's and Heaps' exponents. Conclusions/Significance The present analysis provides a clear picture about the relation between the Zipf's law and Heaps' law without the help of any specific stochastic model, namely the Heaps' law is indeed a derivative phenomenon from the Zipf's law. The presented numerical method gives considerably better estimation of the Heaps' exponent given the Zipf's exponent and the system size. Our analysis provides some insights and implications of real complex systems. For example, one can naturally obtained a better explanation of the accelerated growth of scale-free networks. PMID:21152034

  3. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug–disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed from http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr. The online CD-REST demonstration system is available at http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL: http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr; http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html PMID:27016700

  4. Linear relations in microbial reaction systems: a general overview of their origin, form, and use.

    PubMed

    Noorman, H J; Heijnen, J J; Ch A M Luyben, K

    1991-09-01

    In microbial reaction systems, there are a number of linear relations among net conversion rates. These can be very useful in the analysis of experimental data. This article provides a general approach for the formation and application of the linear relations. Two type of system descriptions, one considering the biomass as a black box and the other based on metabolic pathways, are encountered. These are defined in a linear vector and matrix algebra framework. A correct a priori description can be obtained by three useful tests: the independency, consistency, and observability tests. The independency are different. The black box approach provides only conservations relations. They are derived from element, electrical charge, energy, and Gibbs energy balances. The metabolic approach provides, in addition to the conservation relations, metabolic and reaction relations. These result from component, energy, and Gibbs energy balances. Thus it is more attractive to use the metabolic description than the black box approach. A number of different types of linear relations given in the literature are reviewed. They are classified according to the different categories that result from the black box or the metabolic system description. Validation of hypotheses related to metabolic pathways can be supported by experimental validation of the linear metabolic relations. However, definite proof from biochemical evidence remains indispensable. PMID:18604879

  5. Predicting Lexical Relations between Biomedical Terms: towards a Multilingual Morphosemantics-based System.

    PubMed

    Namer, Fiammetta; Baud, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how semantic information can be automatically assigned to compound terms, i.e. both a definition and a set of semantic relations. This issue is particularly crucial when elaborating multilingual databases and when developing cross-language information retrieval systems. The paper shows how morpho-semantics can contribute in the constitution of multilingual lexical networks in biomedical corpora. It presents a system capable of labelling terms with morphologically related words, i.e. providing them with a definition, and grouping them according to synonymy, hyponymy and proximity relations. The approach requires the interaction of three techniques: (1) a la morphosemantic parser, (2) a multilingual table defining basic relations between word roots, and (3) a set of language-independant rules to draw up the list of related terms. This approach has been fully implemented for French, on an about 29,000 terms biomedical lexicon, resulting to more than 3,000 lexical families. PMID:16160355

  6. The Relative Effectiveness of Human Tutoring, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, and Other Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of experiments comparing the effectiveness of human tutoring, computer tutoring, and no tutoring. "No tutoring" refers to instruction that teaches the same content without tutoring. The computer tutoring systems were divided by their granularity of the user interface interaction into answer-based, step-based, and…

  7. Comparison of quantum discord and relative entropy in some bipartite quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, M.; Arjmandi, M. B.

    2016-04-01

    The study of quantum correlations in high-dimensional bipartite systems is crucial for the development of quantum computing. We propose relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations may be measured by means of the distance from the quantum state to the closest classical-classical state. In particular, we establish relations between relative entropy and quantum discord quantifiers obtained by means of orthogonal projection measurements. We show that for symmetrical X-states density matrices the quantum discord is equal to relative entropy. At the end of paper, various examples of X-states such as two-qubit and qubit-qutrit have been demonstrated.

  8. Corticotropin-releasing factor-related peptides, serotonergic systems, and emotional behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James H.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a 41-amino acid neuropeptide that is involved in stress-related physiology and behavior, including control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Members of the CRF family of neuropeptides, including urocortin 1 (UCN 1), UCN 2, and UCN 3, bind to the G protein-coupled receptors, CRF type 1 (CRF1) and CRF2 receptors. In addition, CRF binding protein (CRFBP) binds both CRF and UCN 1 and can modulate their activities. There are multiple mechanisms through which CRF-related peptides may influence emotional behavior, one of which is through altering the activity of brainstem neuromodulatory systems, including serotonergic systems. CRF and CRF-related peptides act within the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), the major source for serotonin (5-HT) in the brain, to alter the neuronal activity of specific subsets of serotonergic neurons and to influence stress-related behavior. CRF-containing axonal fibers innervate the DR in a topographically organized manner, which may contribute to the ability of CRF to alter the activity of specific subsets of serotonergic neurons. CRF and CRF-related peptides can either increase or decrease serotonergic neuronal firing rates and serotonin release, depending on their concentrations and on the specific CRF receptor subtype(s) involved. This review aims to describe the interactions between CRF-related peptides and serotonergic systems, the consequences for stress-related behavior, and implications for vulnerability to anxiety and affective disorders. PMID:24065880

  9. An Inquiry into Testing of Information Retrieval Systems. Comparative Systems Laboratory Final Technical Report, Part III: CSL Related Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zull, Carolyn Gifford, Ed.; And Others

    This third volume of the Comparative Systems Laboratory (CSL) Final Technical Report is a collection of relatively independent studies performed on CSL materials. Covered in this document are studies on: (1) properties of files, including a study of the growth rate of a dictionary of index terms as influenced by number of documents in the file and…

  10. Uncertainty Relation and Quantitative Condition of Inversion Symmetry of Time in Many-particle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, You-Gang Feng

    2005-03-01

    We proved that the uncertainty relation fits in with many-particle system and the equality of the relation corresponds to the thermodynamic equilibrium state, the inequality of the relation corresponds to the thermodynamic nonequilibrium state for any quantum system. The microscopic origin of the second law of thermodynamics is certainly resulted in the wave-particle duality of matter. A quantitative condition of inversion symmetry of time is obtained, which indicates the fluctuation of the system's energy Δ E controls the period of the inversion symmetry of time Δ t. Understanding and grasping of this quantitative condition will help us for genetic engineering projects, medical treatment, life science, food industry, archaeology and preserving of cultural objects and historical monuments, etc.

  11. Hierarchical monogamy relations for the squared entanglement of formation in multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yan-Kui; Xu, Yuan-Fei; Wang, Z. D.

    2014-12-01

    We show exactly that the squared entanglement of formation (SEF) obeys a set of hierarchical monogamy relations for an arbitrary N -qubit mixed state. Based on this set of monogamy relations, we are able to construct the set of hierarchical multipartite entanglement indicators for N -qubit states, which still work well even when the concurrence-based indicators lose efficacy. As a by-product, an intriguing analytical relation between the entanglement of formation (EOF) and squared concurrence (SC) for an arbitrary mixed state of 2 ⊗d systems is derived, making the concurrence calculable via the corresponding EOF. Furthermore, we analyze the multipartite entanglement dynamics in composite cavity-reservoir systems with the present set of hierarchical indicators. Moreover, for multilevel systems, it is illustrated that the SEF can be monogamous even if the SC is polygamous.

  12. Scaling Green-Kubo Relation and Application to Three Aging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechant, A.; Lutz, E.; Kessler, D. A.; Barkai, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Green-Kubo formula relates the spatial diffusion coefficient to the stationary velocity autocorrelation function. We derive a generalization of the Green-Kubo formula that is valid for systems with long-range or nonstationary correlations for which the standard approach is no longer valid. For the systems under consideration, the velocity autocorrelation function ⟨v(t+τ)v(t)⟩ asymptotically exhibits a certain scaling behavior and the diffusion is anomalous, ⟨x2(t)⟩≃2Dνtν. We show how both the anomalous diffusion coefficient Dν and the exponent ν can be extracted from this scaling form. Our scaling Green-Kubo relation thus extends an important relation between transport properties and correlation functions to generic systems with scale-invariant dynamics. This includes stationary systems with slowly decaying power-law correlations, as well as aging systems, systems whose properties depend on the age of the system. Even for systems that are stationary in the long-time limit, we find that the long-time diffusive behavior can strongly depend on the initial preparation of the system. In these cases, the diffusivity Dν is not unique, and we determine its values, respectively, for a stationary or nonstationary initial state. We discuss three applications of the scaling Green-Kubo relation: free diffusion with nonlinear friction corresponding to cold atoms diffusing in optical lattices, the fractional Langevin equation with external noise recently suggested to model active transport in cells, and the Lévy walk with numerous applications, in particular, blinking quantum dots. These examples underline the wide applicability of our approach, which is able to treat very different mechanisms of anomalous diffusion.

  13. Developing a warning system in Ambon city, Indonesia: Rainfall threshold for sediment related disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnawir, H.; Kubota, T.; Sanchez Castillo, L. R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ambon city of Indonesia is extremely vulnerable to climatic hazards and the frequency of sediment related disasters appears to increase. During 2012 to 2013, more than one hundred of sediment related disasters including landslides occurred especially in the settlement area. The damage was particularly severe in the city and at several sites along the transportation network. The sediment related disasters resulted of hundreds houses destroyed, including 43 deaths, numerous injured people and hundreds people evacuated. Rainfall threshold method is an approach for develop a warning system for sediment related disasters occurence. Two types of rainfall thresholds can be established (Aleotti, 2004): (1) empirical thresholds, based on historic analysis of relationship rainfall/landslide (sediment related disaster) occurrence, and (2) physical thresholds, based on numeric models that take into account the relationship between rainfall, pore pressure and slope stability by coupling hydrologic and stability models. Empirical thresholds were used in this study. Empirical threshold has been considered as collecting rainfall data for sediment related disaster events from 2007 to 2013. The results show that the sediment related disasters occurred in short periods (2 hours) with a high average intensity and longer periods (48 hours) with a lower average intensity. We determined new rainfall thresholds for possible sediment related disaster occurrence with the regression value of I = 83.88D-0.80 (I is rainfall intensity, mm/hr and D is duration, hr). It is expected that the new rainfall thresholds could be used for the development of a warning system in Ambon city.

  14. Testing General Relativity in the Solar System: Present Status and Possible Future Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    2010-07-12

    Series of recent experiments have successfully tested Einstein's general theory of relativity to a remarkable precision. Various experimental techniques were used to test relativistic gravity in the solar system namely spacecraft Doppler tracking, planetary ranging, lunar laser ranging, dedicated gravity experiments in space and many ground-based efforts. Here we review the foundations of general relativity, present recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics that are anticipated in the near future.

  15. Aging-related changes in respiratory system mechanics and morphometry in mice.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Mantilla, Carlos B; Pabelick, Christina M; Roden, Anja C; Sieck, Gary C

    2016-07-01

    Previous work investigating respiratory system mechanics in mice has reported an aging-related increase in compliance and mean linear intercept (Lm). However, these changes were assessed using only a young (2-mo-old) and old (20- and 26-mo-old) group yet were interpreted to reflect a linear evolution across the life span. Therefore, to investigate respiratory system mechanics and lung morphometry across a more complete spectrum of ages, we utilized 2 (100% survival, n = 6)-, 6 (100% survival, n = 12)-, 18 (90% survival, n = 12)-, 24 (75% survival, n = 12)-, and 30 (25% survival, n = 12)-mo-old C57BL/6 mice. We found a nonlinear aging-related decrease in respiratory system resistance and increase in dynamic compliance and hysteresis between 2- and 24-mo-old mice. However, in 30-mo-old mice, respiratory system resistance increased, and dynamic compliance and hysteresis decreased relative to 24-mo-old mice. Respiratory system impedance spectra were measured between 1-20.5 Hz at positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) of 1, 3, 5, and 7 cmH2O. Respiratory system resistance and reactance at each level of PEEP were increased and decreased, respectively, only in 2-mo-old animals. No differences in the respiratory system impedance spectra were observed in 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-mo-old mice. Additionally, lungs were fixed following tracheal instillation of 4% paraformaldehyde at 25 cmH2O and processed for Lm and airway collagen deposition. There was an aging-related increase in Lm consistent with emphysematous-like changes and no evidence of increased airway collagen deposition. Accordingly, we demonstrate nonlinear aging-related changes in lung mechanics and morphometry in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:27288490

  16. Control system failure monitoring using generalized parity relations. M.S. Thesis Interim Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanschalkwyk, Christiaan Mauritz

    1991-01-01

    Many applications require that a control system must be tolerant to the failure of its components. This is especially true for large space-based systems that must work unattended and with long periods between maintenance. Fault tolerance can be obtained by detecting the failure of the control system component, determining which component has failed, and reconfiguring the system so that the failed component is isolated from the controller. Component failure detection experiments that were conducted on an experimental space structure, the NASA Langley Mini-Mast are presented. Two methodologies for failure detection and isolation (FDI) exist that do not require the specification of failure modes and are applicable to both actuators and sensors. These methods are known as the Failure Detection Filter and the method of Generalized Parity Relations. The latter method was applied to three different sensor types on the Mini-Mast. Failures were simulated in input-output data that were recorded during operation of the Mini-Mast. Both single and double sensor parity relations were tested and the effect of several design parameters on the performance of these relations is discussed. The detection of actuator failures is also treated. It is shown that in all the cases it is possible to identify the parity relations directly from input-output data. Frequency domain analysis is used to explain the behavior of the parity relations.

  17. BIG DATA-Related Challenges and Opportunities in Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamzai, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the Earth's climate has increased immensely in recent decades, both through observational analysis and modeling. BIG DATA-related challenges emerge in our quest for understanding the variability and predictability of the climate and earth system on a range of time scales, as well as in our endeavor to improve predictive capability using state-of-the-science models. To enable further scientific discovery, bottlenecks in current paradigms need to be addressed. An overview of current NSF activities in Earth System Modeling with a focus on associated data-related challenges and opportunities, will be presented.

  18. Relative Movements of Domains in Large Molecules of the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Wolfgang; Karch, Rudolf; Ribarics, Reiner; Cibena, Michael; Ilieva, Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics was used to simulate large molecules of the immune system (major histocompatibility complex class I, presented epitope, T-cell receptor, and a CD8 coreceptor.) To characterize the relative orientation and movements of domains local coordinate systems (based on principal component analysis) were generated and directional cosines and Euler angles were computed. As a most interesting result, we found that the presence of the coreceptor seems to influence the dynamics within the protein complex, in particular the relative movements of the two α-helices, Gα1 and Gα2. PMID:26798660

  19. Optical system of large relative aperture and wide field using aspheric corrector for detecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Ming; Wang, Jianli; Zhang, Jingxu

    2009-05-01

    The magnitude requirement of space target detecting determines that the image of detecting telescope should have several performances: small spots, small 80% encircled energy diameter and good MTF(Modulation transfer function). So the aperture and field of view of optical system have some demands accordingly. The larger aperture, the more energy that telescope collects and higher magnitude the telescope detects; the wider field of view, the more extensive range which the telescope searches. Now most of ground telescopes whose apertures are from 500mm to 1000mm is on-axis optical system, so wide field of view becomes the most importance problem. To obtain large relative aperture and wide field of view, the paper introduces a catadioptric telescope with small aperture aspheric refractive corrector, whose conic surface will be used to remove the aberrations due to large relative aperture and wide field of view. As to the optical system, there is only one aspheric refractive corrector, and it is relatively easy for manufacturing because of its concave figure and normal material. The paper gives the example, and optimizes this optical system with ZEMAX program. And then the paper provides a specific analysis program for testing the aspheric refractive corrector. The aperture of this optical system is 750mm, and its relative aperture is 0.82, and the field of view is 3.6° diameter(diagonal). Its structure is simple and the image quality is also very good.

  20. The Characteristics of Earth System Thinking of Science Gifted Students in relation to Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Cho, Kyu Seong; Hong, Deok Pyo; Park, Kyeong Jin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perception of earth system thinking of science gifted students in future problem solving (FPS) in relation to climate changes. In order to this study, the research problem associated with climate changes was developed through a literature review. The thirty seven science gifted students participated in lessons. The ideas in problem solving process of science gifted students were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. In the problem solving processes, science gifted students are ''changes of the sunlight by water layer'', ''changes of the Earth''s temperature'', ''changes of the air pressure'', '' change of the wind and weather''were represented in order. On other hand, regard to earth system thinking for climate changes, while science gifted students were used sub components related to atmospheres frequently, they were used sub components related to biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere a little. But, the analytical results of the structural relationship between the sub components related to earth system, they were recognised that biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere used very important in network structures. In conclusion, science gifted students were understood well that components of the earth system are influencing each other. Keywords : Science gifted students, Future problem solving, Climate change, Earth system thinking

  1. [Study on in-orbit Vis/SWIR relative calibration monitoring system with high stability].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Yin, Da-Yi

    2014-04-01

    The present paper studied the in-orbit relative calibration monitoring system with high stability for onboard remote sensing calibration. The realizing principle and the critical technologies are described in detail. The calibration detector assembly with high stability was developed based on both visual (Vis) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) trap structure. Vis and SWIR photodetectors with high sensitivity were chosen to realize the photoelectric conversion. On the one hand, the detectors worked in the zero-bias photovoltaic mode with better linearity and lower dark current. On the other hand, the critical parameters of the analog operational amplifier circuit and data acquisition circuit were designed so that the trap-structure detector assembly could work properly. Thus the relative calibration monitoring system with high stability for measurement of spaceborne calibration radiance source was realized. The experiments were carried out using the laboratory integrating spheres and the standard lamps provided by the national measurement institution. The results showed that the relative standard deviation of the digital numbers that the system acquired reached to 0.030%-0.046% (Vis) and 0.040%-0.059% (SWIR). It was proved that the accuracy and the stability of the monitoring system could meet the in-orbit calibration system requirement and it could serve as a good solution for in-orbit relative calibration of remote sensor in the future. PMID:25007602

  2. Age-Related Degeneration of the Egg-Laying System Promotes Matricidal Hatching in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Christopher L.; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Summary The identification and characterization of age-related degenerative changes is a critical goal because it can elucidate mechanisms of aging biology and contribute to understanding interventions that promote longevity. Here we document a novel, age-related degenerative change in C. elegans hermaphrodites, an important model system for the genetic analysis of longevity. Matricidal hatching—intra-uterine hatching of progeny that causes maternal death—displayed an age-related increase in frequency and affected ∼70% of mated, wild-type hermaphrodites. The timing and incidence of matricidal hatching were largely independent of the levels of early and total progeny production and the duration of male exposure. Thus, matricidal hatching appears to reflect intrinsic age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system rather than use-dependent damage accumulation. Consistent with this model, mutations that extend longevity by causing dietary restriction significantly delayed matricidal hatching, indicating age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system is controlled by nutrient availability. To identify the underlying tissue defect, we analyzed serotonin signaling that triggers vulval muscle contractions. Mated hermaphrodites displayed an age-related decline in the ability to lay eggs in response to exogenous serotonin, indicating that vulval muscles and/or a further downstream function that is necessary for egg-laying degenerate in an age-related manner. By characterizing a new, age-related degenerative event displayed by C. elegans hermaphrodites, these studies contribute to understanding a frequent cause of death in mated hermaphrodites and establish a model of age-related reproductive complications that may be relevant to the birthing process in other animals such as humans. PMID:23551912

  3. Duality relation among the Hamiltonian structures of a parametric coupled Korteweg-de Vries system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restuccia, Alvaro; Sotomayor, Adrián

    2016-03-01

    We obtain the full Hamiltonian structure for a parametric coupled KdV system. The coupled system arises from four different real basic lagrangians. The associated Hamiltonian functionals and the corresponding Poisson structures follow from the geometry of a constrained phase space by using the Dirac approach for constrained systems. The overall algebraic structure for the system is given in terms of two pencils of Poisson structures with associated Hamiltonians depending on the parameter of the Poisson pencils. The algebraic construction we present admits the most general space of observables related to the coupled system. We then construct two master lagrangians for the coupled system whose field equations are the ɛ-parametric Gardner equations obtained from the coupled KdV system through a Gardner transformation. In the weak limit ɛ → 0 the lagrangians reduce to the ones of the coupled KdV system while, after a suitable redefinition of the fields, in the strong limit ɛ → ∞ we obtain the lagrangians of the coupled modified KdV system. The Hamiltonian structures of the coupled KdV system follow from the Hamiltonian structures of the master system by taking the two limits ɛ → 0 and ɛ → ∞.

  4. Experimental reconstruction of work distribution and study of fluctuation relations in a closed quantum system.

    PubMed

    Batalhão, Tiago B; Souza, Alexandre M; Mazzola, Laura; Auccaise, Ruben; Sarthour, Roberto S; Oliveira, Ivan S; Goold, John; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro; Serra, Roberto M

    2014-10-01

    We report the experimental reconstruction of the nonequilibrium work probability distribution in a closed quantum system, and the study of the corresponding quantum fluctuation relations. The experiment uses a liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance platform that offers full control on the preparation and dynamics of the system. Our endeavors enable the characterization of the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a quantum spin from a finite-time thermodynamics viewpoint. PMID:25325627

  5. Growth of complex systems can be related to the properties of their underlying determinants

    PubMed Central

    Savageau, Michael A.

    1979-01-01

    Growth—increase in size, number, or amount—in many cases appears to follow simple empirical laws. Such laws have been noted in a wide variety of fields for many years. Until now these laws have never been related to the underlying determinants of these systems. By starting with fundamental properties of the component mechanisms in such systems, one can derive a basic growth equation for which the well-known laws of growth are special cases. PMID:16592715

  6. The algebra of Grassmann canonical anticommutation relations and its applications to fermionic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keyl, Michael; Schlingemann, Dirk-M.

    2010-02-15

    We present an approach to a noncommutativelike phase space which allows to analyze quasifree states on the algebra of canonical anti-commutation relations (CAR) in analogy to quasifree states on the algebra of canonical commutation relations (CCR). The used mathematical tools are based on a new algebraic structure the 'Grassmann algebra of canonical anticommutation relations' (GAR algebra) which is given by the twisted tensor product of a Grassmann and a CAR algebra. As a new application, the corresponding theory provides an elegant tool for calculating the fidelity of two quasifree fermionic states which is needed for the study of entanglement distillation within fermionic systems.

  7. Long-time Stability in Systems of Conservation Laws, Using Relative Entropy/Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Denis

    2016-02-01

    We study the long-time stability of shock-free solutions of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, under an arbitrarily large initial disturbance in L 2∩ L ∞. We use the relative entropy method, a robust tool which allows us to consider rough and large disturbances. We display practical examples in several space dimensions, for scalar equations as well as isentropic gas dynamics. For full gas dynamics, we use a trick from C hen [1], in which the estimate is made in terms of the relative mechanical energy instead of the relative mathematical entropy.

  8. [Improving system of prevention and rehabilitation for asbestos-related broncho-pulmonary diseases in workers].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    To improve a system of prevention and rehabilitation for broncho-pulmonary diseases among workers engaged into extraction and utilization of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified major criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to asbestos-containing dust, with definition of risk groups for broncho-pulmonary diseases. The authors formulated main concepts of prevention and rehabilitation for asbestos-related pulmonary diseases in workers engaged into asbestos industry. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed to prevention and liquidation of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:21789804

  9. Trust and trust relations from the providers' perspective: the case of the healthcare system in India.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sumit; Calnan, Michael; Radkar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Commentators suggest that there is an erosion of trust in the relations between different actors in the health system in India. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of the situation of providers in an urban setting in western India, the nature of their relations in terms of trust and what influences these relations. The data on relationships of trust were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with key informants, including public and private providers, regulators, managers and societal actors, such as patients/citizens, politicians and the media. PMID:26228048

  10. Input-output relations in biological systems: measurement, information and the Hill equation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems produce outputs in response to variable inputs. Input-output relations tend to follow a few regular patterns. For example, many chemical processes follow the S-shaped Hill equation relation between input concentrations and output concentrations. That Hill equation pattern contradicts the fundamental Michaelis-Menten theory of enzyme kinetics. I use the discrepancy between the expected Michaelis-Menten process of enzyme kinetics and the widely observed Hill equation pattern of biological systems to explore the general properties of biological input-output relations. I start with the various processes that could explain the discrepancy between basic chemistry and biological pattern. I then expand the analysis to consider broader aspects that shape biological input-output relations. Key aspects include the input-output processing by component subsystems and how those components combine to determine the system’s overall input-output relations. That aggregate structure often imposes strong regularity on underlying disorder. Aggregation imposes order by dissipating information as it flows through the components of a system. The dissipation of information may be evaluated by the analysis of measurement and precision, explaining why certain common scaling patterns arise so frequently in input-output relations. I discuss how aggregation, measurement and scale provide a framework for understanding the relations between pattern and process. The regularity imposed by those broader structural aspects sets the contours of variation in biology. Thus, biological design will also tend to follow those contours. Natural selection may act primarily to modulate system properties within those broad constraints. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin, Georg Luebeck and Sergei Maslov. PMID:24308849